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1

Investigating the Use of Ion Exchange Resins for Processing Biodiesel Feedstocks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ion exchange resins, commonly used in water treatment, demonstrate promise for the production of biodiesel from biomass feedstocks. The goal of this presented PhD research is to investigate novel uses of ion exchange resins for processing biodiesel...

Jamal, Yousuf 1973-

2012-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

2

Ion-Exchange Membranes in the Chemical Process Industry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Other applications of ion-exchange membranes are still in an early state of their development, such as the redox flow battery. ... (40) More recently, interest in electrodialysis as a flow battery has increased and will be briefly discussed in the following. ... One is based on a reversal of regular electrodialysis and is referred to as “concentration flow battery”,(40) and the other is based on reversal of electrodialysis with bipolar membranes and is referred to as “neutralization flow battery”. ...

Heiner Strathmann; Andrej Grabowski; Gerhart Eigenberger

2013-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

3

Ion exchange technology assessment report  

SciTech Connect

In the execution of its charter, the SRS Ion Exchange Technology Assessment Team has determined that ion exchange (IX) technology has evolved to the point where it should now be considered as a viable alternative to the SRS reference ITP/LW/PH process. The ion exchange media available today offer the ability to design ion exchange processing systems tailored to the unique physical and chemical properties of SRS soluble HLW's. The technical assessment of IX technology and its applicability to the processing of SRS soluble HLW has demonstrated that IX is unquestionably a viable technology. A task team was chartered to evaluate the technology of ion exchange and its potential for replacing the present In-Tank Precipitation and proposed Late Wash processes to remove Cs, Sr, and Pu from soluble salt solutions at the Savannah River Site. This report documents the ion exchange technology assessment and conclusions of the task team.

Duhn, E.F.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Ion exchange technology assessment report  

SciTech Connect

In the execution of its charter, the SRS Ion Exchange Technology Assessment Team has determined that ion exchange (IX) technology has evolved to the point where it should now be considered as a viable alternative to the SRS reference ITP/LW/PH process. The ion exchange media available today offer the ability to design ion exchange processing systems tailored to the unique physical and chemical properties of SRS soluble HLW`s. The technical assessment of IX technology and its applicability to the processing of SRS soluble HLW has demonstrated that IX is unquestionably a viable technology. A task team was chartered to evaluate the technology of ion exchange and its potential for replacing the present In-Tank Precipitation and proposed Late Wash processes to remove Cs, Sr, and Pu from soluble salt solutions at the Savannah River Site. This report documents the ion exchange technology assessment and conclusions of the task team.

Duhn, E.F.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

5

Denitration of Rocky Flats Ion-Exchange Resins: Recommendation of Denitration Processes, October 19, 1995  

SciTech Connect

Resin denitration via anion-exchange is an implementable process that can effectively mitigate the hazards associated with stored resins in which the bulk of the nitrate consists of an "exchangeable nitrate" ionically bound to the cationic sites of the anion-exchange resins. Salicylate has been selected as the exchange anion of choice because of its superior selectivity for the Rocky Flats resins and its unique potential for comprehensive recovery and recycle. This report outlines a single recommended resin denigration procedure that is reasonably independent of the resin composition and the current stored form. This procedure is not optimized but rather seeks to `over-treat' the resins so that a single procedure works for the variety of stored resins. The recommended treatment with sodium salicylate reduces resins by 95-99+% the measured exothermic behavior of the ion-exchange.

Jacob Espinoza; Mary Barr; Wayne Smith

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

LITERATURE REVIEWS TO SUPPORT ION EXCHANGE TECHNOLOGY SELECTION FOR MODULAR SALT PROCESSING  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of literature reviews conducted to support the selection of a cesium removal technology for application in a small column ion exchange (SCIX) unit supported within a high level waste tank. SCIX is being considered as a technology for the treatment of radioactive salt solutions in order to accelerate closure of waste tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as part of the Modular Salt Processing (MSP) technology development program. Two ion exchange materials, spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (RF) and engineered Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST), are being considered for use within the SCIX unit. Both ion exchange materials have been studied extensively and are known to have high affinities for cesium ions in caustic tank waste supernates. RF is an elutable organic resin and CST is a non-elutable inorganic material. Waste treatment processes developed for the two technologies will differ with regard to solutions processed, secondary waste streams generated, optimum column size, and waste throughput. Pertinent references, anticipated processing sequences for utilization in waste treatment, gaps in the available data, and technical comparisons will be provided for the two ion exchange materials to assist in technology selection for SCIX. The engineered, granular form of CST (UOP IE-911) was the baseline ion exchange material used for the initial development and design of the SRS SCIX process (McCabe, 2005). To date, in-tank SCIX has not been implemented for treatment of radioactive waste solutions at SRS. Since initial development and consideration of SCIX for SRS waste treatment an alternative technology has been developed as part of the River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP) Research and Technology program (Thorson, 2006). Spherical RF resin is the baseline media for cesium removal in the RPP-WTP, which was designed for the treatment of radioactive waste supernates and is currently under construction in Hanford, WA. Application of RF for cesium removal in the Hanford WTP does not involve in-riser columns but does utilize the resin in large scale column configurations in a waste treatment facility. The basic conceptual design for SCIX involves the dissolution of saltcake in SRS Tanks 1-3 to give approximately 6 M sodium solutions and the treatment of these solutions for cesium removal using one or two columns supported within a high level waste tank. Prior to ion exchange treatment, the solutions will be filtered for removal of entrained solids. In addition to Tanks 1-3, solutions in two other tanks (37 and 41) will require treatment for cesium removal in the SCIX unit. The previous SCIX design (McCabe, 2005) utilized CST for cesium removal with downflow supernate processing and included a CST grinder following cesium loading. Grinding of CST was necessary to make the cesium-loaded material suitable for vitrification in the SRS Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Because RF resin is elutable (and reusable) and processing requires conversion between sodium and hydrogen forms using caustic and acidic solutions more liquid processing steps are involved. The WTP baseline process involves a series of caustic and acidic solutions (downflow processing) with water washes between pH transitions across neutral. In addition, due to resin swelling during conversion from hydrogen to sodium form an upflow caustic regeneration step is required. Presumably, one of these basic processes (or some variation) will be utilized for MSP for the appropriate ion exchange technology selected. CST processing involves two primary waste products: loaded CST and decontaminated salt solution (DSS). RF processing involves three primary waste products: spent RF resin, DSS, and acidic cesium eluate, although the resin is reusable and typically does not require replacement until completion of multiple treatment cycles. CST processing requires grinding of the ion exchange media, handling of solids with high cesium loading, and handling of liquid wash and conditioning solutions. RF processing requires h

King, W

2007-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

7

Membrane permeation process for dehydration of organic liquid mixtures using sulfonated ion-exchange polyalkene membranes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A membrane permeation process for dehydrating a mixture of organic liquids, such as alcohols or close boiling, heat sensitive mixtures. The process comprises causing a component of the mixture to selectively sorb into one side of sulfonated ion-exchange polyalkene (e.g., polyethylene) membranes and selectively diffuse or flow therethrough, and then desorbing the component into a gas or liquid phase on the other side of the membranes.

Cabasso, Israel (131 Buckingham Ave., Syracuse, NY 13210); Korngold, Emmanuel (P.O. Box 1025, Beer-Sheva 84110, IL)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

MODELING AN ION EXCHANGE PROCESS FOR CESIUM REMOVAL FROM ALKALINE RADIOACTIVE WASTE SOLUTIONS  

SciTech Connect

The performance of spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde ion-exchange resin for the removal of cesium from alkaline radioactive waste solutions has been investigated through computer modeling. Cesium adsorption isotherms were obtained by fitting experimental data using a thermodynamic framework. Results show that ion-exchange is an efficient method for cesium removal from highly alkaline radioactive waste solutions. On average, two 1300 liter columns operating in series are able to treat 690,000 liters of waste with an initial cesium concentration of 0.09 mM in 11 days achieving a decontamination factor of over 50,000. The study also tested the sensitivity of ion-exchange column performance to variations in flow rate, temperature and column dimensions. Modeling results can be used to optimize design of the ion exchange system.

Smith, F; Luther Hamm, L; Sebastian Aleman, S; Johnston Michael, J

2008-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

9

THERMAL ANALYSIS FOR IN-TANK ION-EXCHANGE COLUMN PROCESS  

SciTech Connect

High Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is stored in three forms: sludge, saltcake, and supernate. A small column ion-exchange (SCIX) process is being designed to treat dissolved saltcake waste before feeding it to the saltstone facility to be made into grout. The waste is caustic with high concentrations of various sodium salts and lower concentrations of radionuclides. Two cation exchange media being considered are a granular form of crystalline silicotitanate (CST) and a spherical form of resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resin. CST is an inorganic material highly selective for cesium that is not elutable. Through this process, radioactive cesium from the salt solution is absorbed into ion exchange media (either CST or RF) which is packed within a flow-through column. A packed column loaded with radioactive cesium generates significant heat from radiolytic decay. If engineering designs cannot handle this thermal load, hot spots may develop locally which could degrade the performance of the ion-exchange media. Performance degradation with regard to cesium removal has been observed between 50 and 80 C for CST [1] and at 65 C for RF resin [2]. In addition, the waste supernate solution will boil around 130 C. If the columns boiled dry, the sorbent material could plug the column and lead to replacement of the entire column module. Alternatively, for organic resins such as RF there is risk of fire at elevated temperatures. The objective of the work is to compute temperature distributions across CST- and RF-packed columns immersed in waste supernate under accident scenarios involving loss of salt solution flow through the beds and, in some cases, loss of coolant system flow. For some cases, temperature distributions are determined as a function of time after the initiation of a given accident scenario and in other cases only the final steady-state temperature distributions are calculated. In general, calculations are conducted to ensure conservative and bounding results for the maximum temperatures achievable using the current baseline column design. This information will assist in SCIX design and facility maintenance.

Lee, S; Frank02 Smith, F

2009-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

10

Modeling Ion-Exchange Processing With Spherical Resins For Cesium Removal  

SciTech Connect

The spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde and hypothetical spherical SuperLig(r) 644 ion-exchange resins are evaluated for cesium removal from radioactive waste solutions. Modeling results show that spherical SuperLig(r) 644 reduces column cycling by 50% for high-potassium solutions. Spherical Resorcinol Formaldehyde performs equally well for the lowest-potassium wastes. Less cycling reduces nitric acid usage during resin elution and sodium addition during resin regeneration, therefore, significantly decreasing life-cycle operational costs. A model assessment of the mechanism behind ''cesium bleed'' is also conducted. When a resin bed is eluted, a relatively small amount of cesium remains within resin particles. Cesium can bleed into otherwise decontaminated product in the next loading cycle. The bleed mechanism is shown to be fully isotherm-controlled vs. mass transfer controlled. Knowledge of residual post-elution cesium level and resin isotherm can be utilized to predict rate of cesium bleed in a mostly non-loaded column. Overall, this work demonstrates the versatility of the ion-exchange modeling to study the effects of resin characteristics on processing cycles, rates, and cold chemical consumption. This evaluation justifies further development of a spherical form of the SL644 resin.

Hang, T.; Nash, C. A.; Aleman, S. E.

2012-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

11

Grafted methylenediphosphonate ion exchange resins  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An ion exchange resin is disclosed that is comprised of an insoluble copolymer onto which are grafted pendent groups that provide 1.0 to about 10 mmol/g dry weight phosphorous. The pendent groups have the formula ##STR1## wherein R is hydrogen, a cation or mixtures thereof; and R.sup.1 is hydrogen or an C.sub.1 -C.sub.2 alkyl group. The resin also contains zero to about 5 mmol/g dry weight of pendent aromatic sulfonate groups. Processes for making and using an ion exchange resin are also disclosed.

Trochimcznk, Andrzej W. (Knoxbille, TN); Gatrone, Ralph C. (Plymouth, PA); Alexandratos, Spiro (Knoxville, TN); Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Grafted methylenediphosphonate ion exchange resins  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An ion exchange resin is disclosed that is comprised of an insoluble copolymer onto which are grafted pendent groups that provide 1.0 to about 10 mmol/g dry weight phosphorous. The pendent groups have the formula ##STR1## wherein R is hydrogen, a cation or mixtures thereof; and R.sup.1 is hydrogen or an C.sub.1 -C.sub.2 alkyl group. The resin also contains zero to about 5 mmol/g dry weight of pendent aromatic sulfonate groups. Processes for making and using an ion exchange-resin are also disclosed.

Trochimcznk, Andrzej W. (Knoxville, TN); Gatrone, Ralph C. (Plymouth, PA); Alexandratos, Spiro (Knoxville, TN); Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL)

1998-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

13

Process for carbonaceous material conversion and recovery of alkali metal catalyst constituents held by ion exchange sites in conversion residue  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a coal gasification operation or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein solid particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered for the particles by contacting or washing them with an aqueous solution containing calcium or magnesium ions in an alkali metal recovery zone at a low temperature, preferably below about 249.degree. F. During the washing or leaching process, the calcium or magnesium ions displace alkali metal ions held by ion exchange sites in the particles thereby liberating the ions and producing an aqueous effluent containing alkali metal constituents. The aqueous effluent from the alkali metal recovery zone is then recycled to the conversion process where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst.

Sharp, David W. (Seabrook, TX)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

RHEOLOGY OF SETTLED SOLIDS IN THE SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE PROCESS  

SciTech Connect

The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank as process housing. This method includes the addition of monosodium titanate (MST) to a waste tank containing salt solution and entrained sludge solids, followed by tank mixing and filtration. The filtrate is then processed through in-tank ion exchange columns containing crystalline silicotitanate (CST) media. While the process is operating, it is known that solid particles begin to settle in the tank and temperatures may reach beyond 45 C. Previous testing has shown that sludge-MST slurries that sit for extended periods at elevated temperatures can develop large shear strengths, making them difficult to resuspend and remove from the tank. The authors conducted rheological testing of mixtures containing various concentrations of sludge simulant, MST, and CST (three preparations) that were aged at different times (i.e., 0 to 13 weeks) and isothermally maintained to 30, 45, or 60 C. Two types of grinding methodologies were employed to prepare CST for this testing, herein called Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) ground materials. Unground CST particles were also tested. A small number of samples were irradiated prior to 4 week settling and 60 C temperature treatment, with exposures ranging from 0 to 100 MRad. Additional tests are also being conducted that will allow the solid particles to settle at 45 C for 6, 12, and 24 months. The objectives of this task are to determine the impact of feed composition, settling time, and temperature on the shear strength, yield stress, and consistency of the slurries and to determine the impact of radiation on slurry rheology. The testing will determine the relative impact of these parameters rather than predict the shear strength, yield stress, and consistency as a function of feed and operating conditions. This document describes the rheology of slurries containing MST, CST, and simulated sludge that sat at indicated temperatures for up to 13 weeks. A previous SRNL report described preliminary rheology data of slurries containing MST and sludge. Preliminary results of the irradiation tests are also presented in this report, though additional data are still being collected. Rheology of the long term settling samples (6, 12, and 24 months) and additional irradiation test results will be reported at a later date. Conclusions from this analysis are as follows: (1) Slurries containing MST and unground CST have the largest shear strength. Due to the high shear strengths measured in slurries containing unground CST, evaluations of specific tank contents and mixing capability should be performed prior to any addition of this material into a waste tank. Experimentally determined shear strengths indicate mixing could be problematic in mixtures containing unground CST. (2) Increasing the ground CST fraction in the slurry increases the slurry shear strength, yield stress, and consistency. (3) Increasing the sludge fraction in the slurry decreases the slurry shear strength, yield stress, and consistency. (4) Slurries containing VSL ground CST have larger shear strength, yield stress, and consistency than slurries containing SRNL ground CST. (5) The effects of settling time and temperature on slurry shear strength are slurry dependent. (6) No effects of settling time and temperature on slurry yield stress or consistency were observed. (7) Radiation up to 100 MRad does not appear to affect properties of shear strength, yield stress, or consistency of process feeds.

Ferguson, C.; Prior, M.; Koopman, D.; Edwards, T.

2011-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

15

SCALING SOLID RESUSPENSION AND SORPTION FOR THE SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE PROCESSING TANK  

SciTech Connect

The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing 1.3 million gallon waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to house the process. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is conducting pilot-scale mixing tests to determine the pump requirements for suspending and resuspending Monosodium Titanate (MST), Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST), and simulated sludge. In addition, SRNL will also be conducting pilot-scale tests to determine the mixing requirements for the strontium and actinide sorption. As part of this task, the results from the pilot-scale tests must be scaled up to a full-scale waste tank. This document describes the scaling approach. The pilot-scale tank is a 1/10.85 linear scale model of Tank 41H. The tank diameter, tank liquid level, pump nozzle diameter, pump elevation, and cooling coil diameter are all 1/10.85 of their dimensions in Tank 41H. The pump locations correspond to the proposed locations in Tank 41H by the SCIX Program (Risers B5 and B2 for two pump configurations and Risers B5, B3, and B1 for three pump configurations). MST additions are through Riser E1, the proposed MST addition riser in Tank 41H. To determine the approach to scaling the results from the pilot-scale tank to Tank 41H, the authors took the following approach. They reviewed the technical literature for methods to scale mixing with jets and suspension of solid particles with jets, and the technical literature on mass transfer from a liquid to a solid particle to develop approaches to scaling the test data. SRNL assembled a team of internal experts to review the scaling approach and to identify alternative approaches that should be considered.

Poirier, M.; Qureshi, Z.

2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

16

RHEOLOGY OF SETTLED SOLIDS IN THE SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE PROCESS  

SciTech Connect

The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to house the process. This process adds monosodium titanate (MST) to a waste tank containing salt solution (and entrained sludge solids). While the process is operating, the solid particles will begin to settle at temperatures up to 45 C. Previous testing has shown that sludge-MST slurries that sit for extended periods (i.e., 1-61 days) at elevated temperatures (i.e., 23-80 C) can develop large shear strengths which could make them difficult to resuspend and remove from the tank. The authors are conducting rheological testing of mixtures containing various concentrations of sludge, MST, and crystalline silicotitanate (CST, ground and unground) that have been aged at different times (i.e., 0 to 13 weeks) and isothermally heated to 30, 45, or 60 C. Additional tests are being conducted that will allow the solid particles to settle at 45 C for 6, 12, and 24 months. The objectives of this task are to determine the impact of settling time and temperature on the shear strength, yield stress, and consistency of the slurries and to determine the impact of radiation on slurry rheology. The testing will determine the relative impact of these parameters rather than predict the shear strength, yield stress, and consistency as a function of feed and operating conditions. This document describes the rheology of slurries containing MST and simulated sludge that sat at elevated temperatures (i.e., up to 60 C) for up to 13 weeks. Rheology of CST-containing slurries, as well as results of the long term settling (6, 12, and 24 months) and irradiation tests (10 and 100 MRad), will be reported later. The conclusions from this analysis follow: (1) MST only slurries that sat at elevated temperatures had larger shear strength, yield stress, and consistency than MST plus sludge slurries that settled at elevated temperatures. (2) The addition of sludge to an MST slurry reduces the shear strength, yield stress, and consistency. (3) The impact of settling time and temperature on slurry rheology is inconclusive at this time. The authors are collecting additional data to attempt to determine the impact of settling time and temperature on slurry shear strength, yield stress, and consistency.

Poirier, M.; Ferguson, C.; Koopman, D.

2011-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

17

PILOT SCALE TESTING OF MONOSODIUM TITANATE MIXING FOR THE SRS SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE PROCESS - 11224  

SciTech Connect

The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and select actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to house the process. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is conducting pilot-scale mixing tests to determine the pump requirements for suspending monosodium titanate (MST), crystalline silicotitanate (CST), and simulated sludge. The purpose of this pilot scale testing is to determine the requirements for the pumps to suspend the MST particles so that they can contact the strontium and actinides in the liquid and be removed from the tank. The pilot-scale tank is a 1/10.85 linear scaled model of SRS Tank 41H. The tank diameter, tank liquid level, pump nozzle diameter, pump elevation, and cooling coil diameter are all 1/10.85 of their dimensions in Tank 41H. The pump locations correspond to the proposed locations in Tank 41H by the SCIX program (Risers B5 and B2 for two pump configurations and Risers B5, B3, and B1 for three pump configurations). The conclusions from this work follow: (i) Neither two standard slurry pumps nor two quad volute slurry pumps will provide sufficient power to initially suspend MST in an SRS waste tank. (ii) Two Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs) will provide sufficient power to initially suspend MST in an SRS waste tank. However, the testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is close to the maximum discharge velocity of the pump (within 12%). (iii) Three SMPs will provide sufficient power to initially suspend MST in an SRS waste tank. The testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is 66% of the maximum discharge velocity of the pump. (iv) Three SMPs are needed to resuspend MST that has settled in a waste tank at nominal 45 C for four weeks. The testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is 77% of the maximum discharge velocity of the pump. Two SMPs are not sufficient to resuspend MST that settled under these conditions.

Poirier, M.; Restivo, M.; Williams, M.; Herman, D.; Steeper, T.

2011-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

18

Using Process Knowledge to Manage Disposal Classification of Ion-Exchange Resin - 13566  

SciTech Connect

It has been previously shown by EPRI [1] that Class B and C resins represent a small portion by volume of the overall generation of radioactively contaminated resins. In fact, if all of the resins were taken together the overall classification would meet Class A disposal requirements. Lowering the classification of the ion exchange resins as they are presented for disposal provides a path for minimizing the amount of waste stored. Currently there are commercial options for blending wastes from various generators for Class A disposal in development. The NRC may have by this time introduced changes and clarifications to the Branch Technical Position (BTP) on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation [2] that may ultimately add more flexibility to what can be done at the plant level. The BTP has always maintained that mixtures of resins that are combined for ALARA purposes or operational efficiency can be classified on the basis of the mixture. This is a point often misinterpreted and misapplied. This paper will address options that can be exercised by the generator that can limit B and C waste generation by more rigorous tracking of generation and taking advantage of the normal mix of wastes. This can be achieved through the monitoring of reactor coolant chemistry data and coupled with our knowledge of radionuclide production mechanisms. This knowledge can be used to determine the overall accumulation of activity in ion-exchange resins and provides a 'real-time' waste classification determination of the resin and thereby provide a mechanism to reduce the production of waste that exceeds class A limits. It should be noted that this alternative approach, although rarely used in a nuclear power plant setting, is acknowledged in the original BTP on classification [3] as a viable option for determining radionuclide inventories for classification of waste. Also included is a discussion of an examination performed at the Byron plant to estimate radionuclide content in the final waste stream from upstream sampling of reactor coolant and fuel pool water. (authors)

Bohnsack, Jonathan N.; James, David W. [DW James Consulting, LLC 855 Village Center Drive No. 330 North Oaks, MN 55127 (United States)] [DW James Consulting, LLC 855 Village Center Drive No. 330 North Oaks, MN 55127 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Morphology of Ion Exchange Membranes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......the HjO,- treatment of the ion exchange...and rinsed with water. After drying...Determined in sea water at 25 C by electrodialysis. Fig. 2. Neosepta...with deionized water, treated with...prepared by the treatment of the cation......

Yoshikazu HORI; Toru NAKATANI; Yukio MIZUTANI

1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Extensive separations (CLEAN) processing strategy compared to TRUEX strategy and sludge wash ion exchange  

SciTech Connect

Numerous pretreatment flowsheets have been proposed for processing the radioactive wastes in Hanford`s 177 underground storage tanks. The CLEAN Option is examined along with two other flowsheet alternatives to quantify the trade-off of greater capital equipment and operating costs for aggressive separations with the reduced waste disposal costs and decreased environmental/health risks. The effect on the volume of HLW glass product and radiotoxicity of the LLW glass or grout product is predicted with current assumptions about waste characteristics and separations processes using a mass balance model. The prediction is made on three principal processing options: washing of tank wastes with removal of cesium and technetium from the supernatant, with washed solids routed directly to the glass (referred to as the Sludge Wash C processing strategy); the previous steps plus dissolution of the solids and removal of transuranic (TRU) elements, uranium, and strontium using solvent extraction processes (referred to as the Transuranic Extraction Option C (TRUEX-C) processing strategy); and an aggressive yet feasible processing strategy for separating the waste components to meet several main goals or objectives (referred to as the CLEAN Option processing strategy), such as the LLW is required to meet the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Class A limits; concentrations of technetium, iodine, and uranium are reduced as low as reasonably achievable; and HLW will be contained within 1,000 borosilicate glass canisters that meet current Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant glass specifications.

Knutson, B.J.; Jansen, G.; Zimmerman, B.D.; Seeman, S.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Lauerhass, L.; Hoza, M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

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21

TECHNICAL COMPARISON OF CANDIDATE ION EXCHANGE MEDIA FOR SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE (SCIX) APPLICATIONS IN SUPPORT OF SUPPLEMENTAL LAW PRETREATMENT  

SciTech Connect

At-tank supplemental pretreatment including both filtration and small column ion exchange is currently under evaluation to facilitate salt waste retrieval and processing in the Hanford tank farms. Spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (sRF) resin is the baseline ion exchange resin for use in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). This document provides background and technical rationale to assist in determining whether spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (sRF) is also the appropriate ion exchange resin for supplemental LAW pretreatment processes and compares sRF with crystalline silicotitanate (CST) as potential supplemental pretreatment ion exchange media.

RAMSEY AA; THORSON MR

2010-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

22

STRONTIUM AND ACTINIDE SORPTION BY MST AND MMST UNDER CONDITIONS REVELANT TO THE SMALL COLUMN ION-EXCHANGE PROCESS  

SciTech Connect

A series of tests were performed to examine the kinetics of Sr and actinide removal by monosodium titanate (MST) and modified monosodium titanate (mMST) under mixing conditions similar to what will be provided in the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) Program. Similar removal kinetics were seen for two different mixing energies, indicating that under these conditions bulk solution transport is not the rate limiting step for Sr and actinide removal. Sr removal was found to be rapid for both MST and mMST, reaching steady-state conditions within six hours. In contrast, at least six weeks is necessary to reach steady-state conditions for Pu with MST. For mMST, steady-state conditions for Pu were achieved within two weeks. The actual contact time required for the SCIX process will depend on starting sorbate concentrations as well as the requirements for the decontaminated salt solution. During testing leaks occurred in both the MST and mMST tests and evidence of potential desorption was observed. The desorption likely occurred as a result of the change in solids to liquid phase ratio that occurred due to the loss of solution. Based on these results, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) recommended additional testing to further study the effect of changing phase ratios on desorption. This testing is currently in progress and results will be documented in a separate report.

Taylor-Pashow, K.; Hobbs, D.; Poirier, M.

2011-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

23

Ion exchange purification of scandium  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improvement in purification of scandium through ion exchange chromatography is disclosed in which the oxidation potential of the eluting solution is altered by the addition of potassium chlorate or ammonium chloride so that removal of contaminants is encouraged. The temperature, pH and concentration of the eluent HEDTA are controlled in order to maintain the scandium in the column while minimizing dilution of the scandium band. Recovery of scandium is improved by pumping dilute scandium over the column prior to stripping the scandium and precipitation. This eliminates the HEDTA ion and other monovalent cations contaminating the scandium band. This method maximizes recovery of scandium while maintaining purity. 2 figs.

Herchenroeder, L.A.; Burkholder, H.R.

1990-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

24

Adsorption and Ion Exchange: Basic Principles and Their Application in Food Processing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The second route is governed by gel?sol conversion, a polymerization reaction obtained by mixing a sodium silicate solution with a mineral acid, such as sulfuric or hydrochloric acids. ... A pyrotechnic process is the third option to obtain silicon gels, where silane tetrachloride is continuously passed over into the gas phase at a temperature of around 1000?1200 °C and reacts within an oxyhydrogen flame with water to form fine particles of silicon oxides (eq 3). ... Gelling properties of pectin were not adversely affected. ...

Judith Kammerer; Reinhold Carle; Dietmar R. Kammerer

2010-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

25

Effects of ionizing radiation on modern ion exchange materials  

SciTech Connect

We review published studies of the effects of ionizing radiation on ion exchange materials, emphasizing those published in recent years. A brief overview is followed by a more detailed examination of recent developments. Our review includes styrene/divinylbenzene copolymers with cation-exchange or anion-exchange functional groups, polyvinylpyridine anion exchangers, chelating resins, multifunctional resins, and inorganic exchangers. In general, strong-acid cation exchange resins are more resistant to radiation than are strong-base anion exchange resins, and polyvinylpyridine resins are more resistant than polystyrene resins. Cross-linkage, salt form, moisture content, and the surrounding medium all affect the radiation stability of a specific exchanger. Inorganic exchangers usually, but not always, exhibit high radiation resistance. Liquid ion exchangers, which have been used so extensively in nuclear processing applications, also are included.

Marsh, S.F.; Pillay, K.K.S.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Novel silica-based ion exchange resin  

SciTech Connect

Eichrom`s highly successful Diphonixo resin resembles a conventional ion exchange resin in its use of sulfonic acid ligands on a styrene- divinylbenzene matrix. Diphonix resin exhibits rapid exchange kinetics that allow economical operation of ion exchange systems. Unlike conventional resins, Diphonix resin contains chelating ligands that are diphosphonic acid groups that recognize and remove the targeted metals and reject the more common elements such as sodium, calcium and magnesium. This latter property makes Diphonix ideal for many industrial scale applications, including those involving waste treatment. For treatment of low-level, transuranic (TRU) and high- level radioactive wastes, Diphonix`s polystyrene backbone hinders its application due to radiolytic stability of the carbon-hydrogen bonds and lack of compatibility with expected vitrification schemes. Polystyrene-based Diphonix is approximately 60% carbon- hydrogen. In response to an identified need within the Department of Energy for a resin with the positive attributes of Diphonix that also exhibits greater radiolytic stability and final waste form compatibility, Eichrom has successfully developed a new, silica-based resin version of Diphonix. Target application for this new resin is for use in environmental restoration and waste management situations involving the processing of low-level, transuranic and high-level radioactive wastes. The resin can also be used for processing liquid mixed waste (waste that contains low level radioactivity and hazardous constituents) including mixed wastes contaminated with organic compounds. Silica-based Diphonix is only 10% carbon-hydrogen, with the bulk of the matrix silica.

NONE

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

PAPER STUDY EVALUATIONS OF THE INTRODUCTION OF SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE WASTE STREAMS TO THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this paper study is to provide guidance on the impact of Monosodium Titanate (MST) and Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) streams from the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process on the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) flowsheet and glass waste form. A series of waste processing scenarios was evaluated, including projected compositions of Sludge Batches 8 through 17 (SB8 through SB17), MST additions, CST additions to Tank 40 or to a sludge batch preparation tank (Tank 42 or Tank 51, referred to generically as Tank 51 in this report), streams from the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF), and two canister production rates. A wide array of potential glass frit compositions was used to support this assessment. The sludge and frit combinations were evaluated using the predictive models in the current DWPF Product Composition Control System (PCCS). The results were evaluated based on the number of frit compositions available for a particular sludge composition scenario. A large number of candidate frit compositions (e.g., several dozen to several hundred) is typically a good indicator of a sludge composition for which there is flexibility in forming an acceptable waste glass and meeting canister production rate commitments. The MST and CST streams will significantly increase the concentrations of certain components in glass, such as Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, TiO{sub 2}, and ZrO{sub 2}, to levels much higher than have been previously processed at DWPF. Therefore, several important assumptions, described in detail in the report, had to be made in performing the evaluations. The results of the paper studies, which must be applied carefully given the assumptions made concerning the impact of higher Ti, Zr, and Nb concentrations on model validity, provided several observations: (1) There was difficulty in identifying a reasonable number of candidate frits (and in some cases an inability to identify any candidate frits) when a waste loading of 40% is targeted for Sludge Batches 8, 16, and 17, regardless of the addition of SCIX or SWPF streams. This indicates that the blending strategy for these sludge batches should be reevaluated by Savannah River Remediation (SRR). (2) In general, candidate frits were available to accommodate CST additions to either Tank 40 or Tank 51. A larger number of candidate frits were typically available for the sludge batches when CST is added to Tank 51 rather than Tank 40, meaning that more compositional flexibility would be available for frit selection and DWPF operation. Note however that for SB8 and SB17, no candidate frits were available to accommodate CST going to Tank 40 with and without SWPF streams. The addition of SWPF streams generally improves the number of candidate frits available for processing of a given sludge batch. (3) The change in production rate from 40 Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) batches per year (i.e., the current production rate) to 75 SRAT batches per year, without SWPF streams included, had varied results in terms of the number of candidate frits available for processing of a given sludge batch. Therefore, this variable is not of much concern in terms of incorporating the SCIX streams. Note that the evaluation at 75 SRAT batches per year (approximately equivalent to 325 canisters per year) is more conservative in terms of the impact of SCIX streams as compared to a production rate of 400 canisters per year. Overall, the outcome of this paper study shows no major issues with the ability to identify an acceptable glass processing window when CST from the SCIX process is transferred to either Tank 40 or Tank 51. The assumptions used and the model limitations identified in this report must be addressed through further experimental studies, which are currently being performed. As changes occur to the planned additions of MST and CST, or to the sludge batch preparation strategy, additional evaluations will be performed to determine the potential impacts. As stated above, the issues with Sludge Batches 8, 16, and 17 should be further evaluated by SRR. A

Fox, K.; Edwards, T.; Stone, M.; Koopman, D.

2010-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

28

CdS and CdS/CdSe sensitized ZnO nanorod array solar cells prepared by a solution ions exchange process  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • CdS and CdS/CdSe quantum dots are assembled on ZnO nanorods by ion exchange process. • The CdS/CdSe sensitization of ZnO effectively extends the absorption spectrum. • The performance of ZnO/CdS/CdSe cell is improved by extending absorption spectrum. - Abstract: In this paper, cadmium sulfide (CdS) and cadmium sulfide/cadmium selenide (CdS/CdSe) quantum dots (QDs) are assembled onto ZnO nanorod arrays by a solution ion exchange process for QD-sensitized solar cell application. The morphology, composition and absorption properties of different photoanodes were characterized with scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrum and Raman spectrum in detail. It is shown that conformal and uniform CdS and CdS/CdSe shells can grow on ZnO nanorod cores. Quantum dot sensitized solar cells based on ZnO/CdS and ZnO/CdS/CdSe nanocable arrays were assembled with gold counter electrode and polysulfide electrolyte solution. The CdS/CdSe sensitization of ZnO can effectively extend the absorption spectrum up to 650 nm, which has a remarkable impact on the performance of a photovoltaic device by extending the absorption spectrum. Preliminary results show one fourth improvement in solar cell efficiency.

Chen, Ling; Gong, Haibo; Zheng, Xiaopeng; Zhu, Min; Zhang, Jun [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Functional Materials in Universities of Shandong, School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, Shandong (China); Yang, Shikuan [Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802-6812 (United States); Cao, Bingqiang, E-mail: mse_caobq@ujn.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Functional Materials in Universities of Shandong, School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, Shandong (China)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

29

Water softening by single-bowl ion exchange filter efficiency estimate and improvement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The article presents results of experimental investigations of the water softener in a laboratory installation of uninterruptible countercurrent ion exchange filter, which has a movable layer of ion exchange material. The installation provides for two simultaneous processes: counter ion sorption and regeneration of the sorbent with the processing capability of the sorbent in the regeneration zone by ultrasonic radiation.

Kostygin, V A; Kochetov, G M; Tugay, A M; Vashchenko, V N

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Experimental data and analysis to support the design of an ion-exchange process for the treatment of Hanford tank waste supernatant liquids  

SciTech Connect

Hanford`s 177 underground storage tanks contain a mixture of sludge, salt cake, and alkaline supernatant liquids. Disposal options for these wastes are high-level waste (HLW) glass for disposal in a repository or low-level waste (LLW) glass for onsite disposal. Systems-engineering studies show that economic and environmental considerations preclude disposal of these wastes without further treatment. Difficulties inherent in transportation and disposal of relatively large volumes of HLW make it impossible to vitrify all of the tank waste as HLW. Potential environmental impacts make direct disposal of all of the tank waste as LLW glass unacceptable. Although the pretreatment and disposal requirements are still being defined, most pretreatment scenarios include retrieval of the aqueous liquids, dissolution of the salt cakes, and washing of the sludges to remove soluble components. Most of the cesium is expected to be in the aqueous liquids, which are the focus of this report on cesium removal by ion exchange. The main objectives of the ion-exchange process are removing cesium from the bulk of the tank waste (i.e., decontamination) and concentrating the separated cesium for vitrification. Because exact requirements for removal of {sup 137}Cs have not yet been defined, a range of removal requirements will be considered. This study addresses requirements to achieve {sup 137}Cs levels in LLW glass between (1) the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Class C (10 CFR 61) limit of 4600 Ci/m{sup 3} and (2) 1/10th of the NRC Class A limit of 1 Ci/m{sup 3} i.e., 0.1/m{sup 3}. The required degrees of separation of cesium from other waste components is a complex function involving interactions between the design of the vitrification process, waste form considerations, and other HLW stream components that are to be vitrified.

Kurath, D.E.; Bray, L.A.; Brooks, K.P.; Brown, G.N.; Bryan, S.A.; Carlson, C.D.; Carson, K.J.; DesChane, J.R.; Elovich, R.J.; Kim, A.Y.

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Desalination of brackish waters using ion-exchange media  

SciTech Connect

An environmentally friendly method and materials study for desalinating inland brackish waters (i.e., coal bed methane produced waters) using a set of ion-exchange materials is presented. This desalination process effectively removes anions and cations in separate steps with minimal caustic waste generation. The anion-exchange material, hydrotalcite (HTC), exhibits an ion-exchange capacity (IEC) of around 3 mequiv g{sup -1}. The cation-exchange material, an amorphous aluminosilicate permutite-like material, (Na{sub x}+2yAl{sub x}Si{sub 1}-xO{sub 2+y}), has an IEC of around to 2.5 mequiv g{sup -1}. These ion-exchange materials were studied and optimized because of their specific ion-exchange capacity for the ions of interest and their ability to function in the temperature and pH regions necessary for cost and energy effectiveness. Room temperature, minimum pressure column studies (once-pass through) on simulant brackish water (total dissolved solids (TDS) = 2222 ppm) resulted in water containing TDS = 25 ppm. A second once-pass through column study on actual produced water (TDS = similar to 11 000) with a high carbonate concentration used an additional lime softening step and resulted in a decreased TDS of 600 ppm.

Pless, J.D.; Philips, M.L.F.; Voigt, J.A.; Moore, D.; Axness, M.; Krumhansl, J.L.; Nenoff, T.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

2006-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

32

Desalination of brackish waters using ion exchange media.  

SciTech Connect

An environmentally friendly method and materials study for desalinating inland brackish waters (i.e., coal bed methane produced waters) using a set of ion-exchange materials is presented. This desalination process effectively removes anions and cations in separate steps with minimal caustic waste generation. The anion-exchange material, hydrotalcite (HTC), exhibits an ion-exchange capacity (IEC) of {approx} 3 mequiv g{sup -1}. The cation-exchange material, an amorphous aluminosilicate permutite-like material, (Na{sub x+2y}Al{sub x}Si{sub 1-x}O{sub 2+y}), has an IEC of {approx}2.5 mequiv g{sup -1}. These ion-exchange materials were studied and optimized because of their specific ion-exchange capacity for the ions of interest and their ability to function in the temperature and pH regions necessary for cost and energy effectiveness. Room temperature, minimum pressure column studies (once-pass through) on simulant brackish water (total dissolved solids (TDS) = 2222 ppm) resulted in water containing TDS = 25 ppm. A second once-pass through column study on actual produced water (TDS = {approx}11,000) with a high carbonate concentration used an additional lime softening step and resulted in a decreased TDS of 600 ppm.

Pless, Jason D.; Krumhansl, James Lee; Nenoff, Tina Maria; Voigt, James A.; Phillips, Mark L. F.; Axness, Marlene; Moore, Diana Lynn

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

The many faces of ion-exchange resins  

SciTech Connect

Ion-exchange resins have been used commercially for over 60 years. Softening and demineralization of water for boiler feed and process use were then, and continue to be, the most familiar and widespread applications of ion-exchange resins throughout the chemical process industries (CPI). Several types of membrane-based technologies, such as electrodialysis, reverse osmosis and, more recently, electrodeionization are recognized as alternative methods for water treatment. Yet, modern versions of ion-exchange resins remain a major player in water treatment. In addition, these versatile materials can be found performing a wide range of tasks in both aqueous and nonaqueous environments. Some of these diverse applications include: acid or base catalysis; manufacture of high-purity solvents and reagent chemicals; separation of by-products of fermentation processes; deacidification of organic solvents; high-purity water production for semiconductor manufacture; recovery of valuable waste from dilute process effluents; controlled release of pharmaceutical products; and chromatography, both on the analytical and the industrial scale. The key to understanding the potential of ion-exchange resins is to look beyond their exchange and adsorptive characteristics, and to see their fundamental nature. In other words, it`s necessary to first consider them as spherical, particulate reactive polymers that perform chemical reactions.

McNutty, J.T. [Rohm and Haas Co., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Ion exchange resins. (Latest citations from the US Patent bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning preparation, regeneration, and applications of ion exchange resins. Applications include water and waste treatment; food processing; chemical recovery, separation, purification, and catalysis; desalination; and ore treatment and recovery. Methods are included for the processing of spent ion exchange resins and for protecting ion exchange resins from oxidation and chemical degradation. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Ion exchange performance of commercial crystalline silicotitanates for cesium removal  

SciTech Connect

A new class of inorganic ion exchangers called crystalline silicotitanates (CST), invented by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories and Texas A&M University, has been commercialized in a joint Sandia-UOP effort. The original developmental materials exhibited high selectivity for the ion exchange of cesium, strontium, and several other radionuclides from highly alkaline solutions containing molar concentrations of Na{sup +}. The materials also showed excellent chemical and radiation stability. Together, the high selectivity and stability of the CSTs made them excellent candidates for treatment of solutions such as the Hanford tank supernates and other DOE radwastes. Sandia National Laboratories and UOP have teamed under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to develop CSTs in the powdered form and in an engineered form suitable for column ion exchange use. A continuous-flow, column ion exchange process is expected to be used to remove Cs and other radionuclides from the Hanford supernatant. The powder material invented by the Sandia and Texas A&M team consists of submicron-size particles. It is not designed for column ion exchange but may be used in other applications.

Braun, R.; Dangieri, T.J.; Fennelly, D.J. [and others

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Inorganic ion exchange evaluation and design: Silicotitanate ion exchange waste conversion  

SciTech Connect

Ion exchange materials are being evaluated for removing Cs, SR from tank waste. Thermal conversion of a variety of compositions within the Cs{sub 2}O-TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} phase diagram yielded both glass and crystalline materials, some of which show low leach rates and negligible Cs losses during heat treatment. A new material, CsTiSi{sub 2}0{sub 6}, with a structure isomorphous to pollucite (CsAlSi{sub 2}0{sub 6}) has been identified. This material represents a new class of crystalline zeolite materials which contain large amounts of titanium. Direct conversion of Cs loaded silicotitanate ion exchangers to CsTiSi{sub 2}O{sub 6} is an excellent alternative to dissolving the Cs-loaded or Cs-eluted exchangers in borosilicate glass because: CsTiSi{sub 2}O{sub 6} is formed using a simple, one step heat treatment. The unique crystalline pollucite-like structure of CsTiSi{sub 2}O{sub 6} traps Cs, and exhibits extremely low Cs leach rates. CsTiSi{sub 2}O{sub 6} is converted to solid waste at a low processing temperature of 700 to 800 C (nominal melter operating temperatures are 1150 C). CsTiSi{sub 2}0{sub 6} concentrates the waste, thus generating lower volumes of expensive HLW. Cs losses due to volatilization during processing of CsTiSi{sub 2}O{sub 6} are extremely low.

Balmer, M.L.; Bunker, B.C.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Porous solid ion exchange wafer for immobilizing biomolecules  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A porous solid ion exchange wafer having a combination of a biomolecule capture-resin and an ion-exchange resin forming a charged capture resin within said wafer. Also disclosed is a porous solid ion exchange wafer having a combination of a biomolecule capture-resin and an ion-exchange resin forming a charged capture resin within said wafer containing a biomolecule with a tag. A separate bioreactor is also disclosed incorporating the wafer described above.

Arora, Michelle B. (Woodridge, IL); Hestekin, Jamie A. (Morton Grove, IL); Lin, YuPo J. (Naperville, IL); St. Martin, Edward J. (Libertyville, IL); Snyder, Seth W. (Lincolnwood, IL)

2007-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

38

Office of Waste Processing Technical Exchange  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Event Media Links Event Media Links Session 1: Technical Exchange Opening Topic Speaker PDF Podcast S01-01 Welcome T. Michalske, SRNL N/A Podcast S01-03 Introductions G. Flowers, SRNS N/A Podcast S01-04 Opening Remarks I. Triay, DOE-EM Presentation PDF Podcast S01-05 Status of Waste Processing Technology Development S. Schneider, DOE-EM Presentation PDF Podcast S01-06 Hanford/SRS Tank Waste Path Forward K. Subramanian/ T. Sams, SRR/WRPS Presentation PDF Podcast S01-07 Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer Overview B. Mason, TTT Presentation PDF Podcast S01-08 Next Generation Cesium Solvent B.Moyer/S. Fink/M. Geeting, ORNL/SRNL/SRR Presentation PDF Podcast S01-09 Rotary Microfilter Development/Small Column Ion Exchange D. Herman/ R. Edwards, SRNL/SRR Presentation PDF Podcast Session 2: Increased Waste Loading - Improved Current Processing

39

Negative ion detachment processes  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the following topics: H{sup {minus}} and D{sup {minus}} collisions with atomic hydrogen; collisional decomposition of SF{sub 6}{sup {minus}}; two-electron loss processes in negative ion collisions; associative electron detachment; and negative ion desorption from surfaces.

Champion, R.L.; Doverspike, L.D.

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Tc-99 Ion Exchange Resin Testing  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was contracted by CHPRC to evaluate the release of 99Tc from spent resin used to treat water from well 299-W15-765 and stored for several years. The key questions to be answered are: 1) does 99Tc readily release from the spent ion exchange resin after being in storage for several years; 2) if hot water stripping is used to remove the co-contaminant carbon tetrachloride, will 99Tc that has been sequestered by the resin be released; and 3) can spent resin be encapsulated into a cementitious waste form; if so, how much 99Tc would be released from the weathering of the monolith waste form? The results from the long term stability leach test results confirm that the resin is not releasing a significant amount of the sequestered 99Tc, evident by the less than 0.02% of the total 99Tc loaded being identified in the solution. Furthermore, it is possible that the measured 99Tc concentration is the result of 99Tc contained in the pore spaces of the resin. In addition to these results, analyses conducted to examine the impact of hot water on the release of 99Tc suggest that only a small percentage of the total is being released. This suggest that hot water stripping to remove carbon tetrachloride will not have a significant affect on the resin’s ability to hold-on to sequestered 99Tc. Finally, encapsulation of spent resin in a cementitious material may be a viable disposal option, but additional tests are needed to examine the extent of physical degradation caused by moisture loss and the effect this degradation process can have on the release of 99Tc.

Valenta, Michelle M.; Parker, Kent E.; Pierce, Eric M.

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ion exchange process" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Ion exchange polymers for anion separations  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Anion exchange resins including at least two positively charged sites and a well-defined spacing between the positive sites are provided together with a process of removing anions or anionic metal complexes from aqueous solutions by use of such resins. The resins can be substituted poly(vinylpyridine) and substituted polystyrene.

Jarvinen, G.D.; Marsh, S.F.; Bartsch, R.A.

1997-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

42

Ion exchange polymers for anion separations  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Anion exchange resins including at least two positively charged sites and a ell-defined spacing between the positive sites are provided together with a process of removing anions or anionic metal complexes from aqueous solutions by use of such resins. The resins can be substituted poly(vinylpyridine) and substituted polystyrene.

Jarvinen, Gordon D. (Los Alamos, NM); Marsh, S. Fredric (Los Alamos, NM); Bartsch, Richard A. (Lubbock, TX)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Solidification of ion exchange resin wastes  

SciTech Connect

Solidification media investigated included portland type I, portland type III and high alumina cements, a proprietary gypsum-based polymer modified cement, and a vinyl ester-styrene thermosetting plastic. Samples formulated with hydraulic cement were analyzed to investigate the effects of resin type, resin loading, waste-to-cement ratio, and water-to-cement ratio. The solidification of cation resin wastes with portland cement was characterized by excessive swelling and cracking of waste forms, both after curing and during immersion testing. Mixed bed resin waste formulations were limited by their cation component. Additives to improve the mechanical properties of portland cement-ion exchange resin waste forms were evaluated. High alumina cement formulations dislayed a resistance to deterioration of mechanical integrity during immersion testing, thus providing a significant advantage over portland cements for the solidification of resin wastes. Properties of cement-ion exchange resin waste forms were examined. An experiment was conducted to study the leachability of /sup 137/Cs, /sup 85/Sr, and /sup 60/Co from resins modified in portland type III and high alumina cements. The cumulative /sup 137/Cs fraction release was at least an order of magnitude greater than that of either /sup 85/Sr or /sup 60/Co. Release rates of /sup 137/Cs in high alumina cement were greater than those in portland III cement by a factor of two.Compressive strength and leach testing were conducted for resin wastes solidified with polymer-modified gypsum based cement. /sup 137/Cs, /sup 85/Sr, and /sup 60/Co fraction releases were about one, two and three orders of magnitude higher, respectively, than in equivalent portland type III cement formulations. As much as 28.6 wt % dry ion exchange resin was successfully solidified using vinyl ester-styrene compared with a maximum of 25 wt % in both portland and gypsum-based cement.

Not Available

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Organosilicon ion-exchange and complexing adsorbents  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Data on the ion-exchange and complexing organosilicon adsorbents published during the last 10–12 years, including the results of systematic research of the authors, are summarized and analyzed. The following types of substances are considered: silicas with covalently grafted modifiers, silicas and aluminosilicates with non-covalently grafted modifiers and carbofunctional polyorganylsilsesquioxanes prepared by polycondensation of appropriate organosilicon monomers. Adsorbents of these types find extensive practical use, in particular, as analytical reagents for determination of metals in natural and artificial specimens, agents for isolation of valuable elements from industrial wastes and agents for removal of especially hazardous components from wastes and effluents. The bibliography includes 109 references.

N N Vlasova; E N Oborina; O Yu Grigoryeva; Mikhail G Voronkov

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Intermediate-Scale Ion Exchange Removal of Cesium and Technetium from Hanford Tank 241-AN-102  

SciTech Connect

Ion exchange tests have been completed at the Savannah River Technology Center for British Nuclear Fuels Limited, Inc. as part of the Hanford River Protection Project. Radioactive cesium and technetium (pertechnetate form only) were removed by ion exchange from a sample of Envelope C salt solution from Hanford Tank 241-AN-102 (sample volume: approximately 17 L at 4.8 M Na plus). The original sample was diluted and subjected to strontium/transuranics (Sr/TRU) precipitation and filtration processes before ion exchange processing was performed. Batch contact and column tests for the ion exchange removal of cesium and technetium were then completed on the Sr/TRU-decontaminated product. Previous ion exchange tests were conducted on a smaller portion (0.5 L) of the Tank 241-AN-102 supernate sample, which had been similarly pretreated, and the results were reported in a separate document.

King, W.D.

2001-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

46

Intermediate-Scale Ion Exchange Removal of Cesium and Technetium from Hanford Tank 241-AN-102  

SciTech Connect

Ion exchange tests have been completed at the Savannah River Technology Center for British Nuclear Fuels Limited, Inc. as part of the Hanford River Protection Project. Radioactive cesium and technetium (pertechnetate form only) were removed by ion exchange from a sample of Envelope C salt solution from Hanford Tank 241-AN-102 (sample volume: approximately 18 L at 4.8 M Na plus). The original sample was diluted and subjected to strontium/transuranics (Sr/TRU) precipitation and filtration processes before ion exchange processing was performed. Batch contact and column tests for the ion exchange removal of cesium and technetium were then completed on the Sr/TRU-decontaminated product. Previous ion exchange tests were conducted on a smaller portion (0.5 L) of the Tank 241-AN-102 supernate sample, which had been similarly pretreated, and the results were reported in a separate document.

King, W.D.

2001-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

47

Modeling Multi-Metal Ion Exchange in Biosorption  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, may serve as a means for purifying industrial wastewaters that contain toxic heavy metal ions heavy metals often through ion exchange. This biosorption can be used for purification of metalModeling Multi-Metal Ion Exchange in Biosorption S I L K E S C H I E W E R A N D B O H U M I L V O

Volesky, Bohumil

48

Heavy metals removal from oil sludge using ion exchange textiles.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In this research, ion exchange textiles were used for the first time for the removal of heavy metals from oil sludge. The target metals which… (more)

Muslat, Ziyad

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Ion Exchange Media for Reduction of Liquid Radwaste in Commercial Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

Ion exchange resins currently make up as much as one-half of all radioactive waste generated by commercial nuclear power plants. A major challenge is reduction of the quantity of ion exchange media requiring disposal. Although the amount of spent ion exchange resins disposed has decreased year after year, a new urgency has arisen with the pending closure of a major disposal site in 2008. This paper explores whether ion exchange resins also can be used to potentially reduce radioactive liquid waste volumes and / or limit them to Class A wastes only. Source term reduction and minimization of manpower exposure to radioactivity are other important goals. Specialty ion exchange products may help to achieve source term reduction of certain radionuclides. Some established operations, data, and process concepts are presented to address these critical issues encountered in liquid radwaste management. (authors)

Yarnell, P.A. [Graver Technologies, LLC, Glasgow, DE (United Kingdom); Tavares, A. [Graver Technologies, LLC, Newark, NJ (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Small Column Ion Exchange Technology at Savannah River Site | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Small Column Ion Exchange Technology at Savannah River Site Small Column Ion Exchange Technology at Savannah River Site Small Column Ion Exchange Technology at Savannah River Site The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) system being developed for deployment at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is a supplementary salt waste processing technology that, if implemented, will augment the baseline Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) capability. An opportunity exists to shorten the SRS radioactive waste system lifecycle by 6 years, and significantly reduce life cycle costs, by accelerating salt processing to earlier completion, simultaneous with sludge vitrification. As described in the Enhanced Tank Waste Strategy, which is part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) Roadmap - EM Journey to Excellence,

51

Ion Exchange Testing with SRF Resin FY2012  

SciTech Connect

Ion exchange using spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (SRF) resin has been selected by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) for use in the Pretreatment Facility (PTF) of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and for potential application in at-tank deployment. Numerous studies have shown SRF resin to be effective for removing 137Cs from a wide variety of actual and simulated tank waste supernatants (Adamson et al. 2006; Blanchard et al. 2008; Burgeson et al. 2004; Duignan and Nash 2009; Fiskum et al. 2006a; Fiskum et al. 2006b; Fiskum et al. 2006c; Fiskum et al. 2007; Hassan and Adu-Wusu 2003; King et al. 2004; Nash et al. 2006). Prior work at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has focused primarily on the loading behavior for 4 to 6 M Na solutions at 25 to 45°C. Recent proposed changes to the WTP ion exchange process baseline indicate that loading may include a broader range of sodium molarities (0.1 to 8 M) and higher temperatures (50°C) to alleviate post-filtration precipitation issues. This report discusses ion exchange loading kinetics testing activities performed in accordance with Test Plan TP-WTPSP-002, Rev. 3.0 , which was prepared and approved in response to the Test Specification 24590 PTF-TSP-RT-09-002, Rev. 0 (Lehrman 2010) and Test Exception 24590 PTF TEF RT-11-00003, Rev. 0 (Meehan 2011). This testing focused on column tests evaluating the impact of elevated temperature on resin degradation over an extended period of time and batch contacts evaluating the impact on Cs loading over a broad range of sodium concentrations (0.1 to 5 M). These changes may be required to alleviate post-filtration precipitation issues and broaden the data range of SRF resin loading under the conditions expected with the new equipment and process changes.

Russell, Renee L.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Peterson, Reid A.

2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

52

Ion Exchange Testing with SRF Resin FY 2012  

SciTech Connect

Ion exchange using spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (SRF) resin has been selected by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) for use in the Pretreatment Facility (PTF) of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and for potential application in at-tank deployment. Numerous studies have shown SRF resin to be effective for removing 137Cs from a wide variety of actual and simulated tank waste supernatants (Adamson et al. 2006; Blanchard et al. 2008; Burgeson et al. 2004; Duignan and Nash 2009; Fiskum et al. 2006a; Fiskum et al. 2006b; Fiskum et al. 2006c; Fiskum et al. 2007; Hassan and Adu-Wusu 2003; King et al. 2004; Nash et al. 2006). Prior work at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has focused primarily on the loading behavior for 4 to 6 M Na solutions at 25 to 45°C. Recent proposed changes to the WTP ion exchange process baseline indicate that loading may include a broader range of sodium molarities (0.1 to 8 M) and higher temperatures (50°C) to alleviate post-filtration precipitation issues. This report discusses ion exchange loading kinetics testing activities performed in accordance with Test Plan TP-WTPSP-002, Rev. 3.01, which was prepared and approved in response to the Test Specification 24590-PTF-TSP-RT-09-002, Rev. 0 (Lehrman 2010) and Test Exception 24590-PTF-TEF-RT-11-00003, Rev. 0 (Meehan 2011). This testing focused on column tests evaluating the impact of elevated temperature on resin degradation over an extended period of time and batch contacts evaluating the impact on Cs loading over a broad range of sodium concentrations (0.1 to 5 M). These changes may be required to alleviate post-filtration precipitation issues and broaden the data range of SRF resin loading under the conditions expected with the new equipment and process changes.

Russell, Renee L.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Peterson, Reid A.

2014-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

53

E-Print Network 3.0 - acidic ion exchange Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gina M. Canfield,a Summary: and other zeolites tend to exchange hydronium ions from hydro- lyzed water or from acidic hydrated metal... Sodalite ion exchange in polyethylene...

54

Interpenetrating polymer network ion exchange membranes and method for preparing same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Interpenetrating polymer network ion exchange membranes include a microporous polymeric support film interpenetrated by an ion exchange polymer and are produced by absorbing and polymerizing monomers within the support film. The ion exchange polymer provides ion exchange ligands at the surface of and throughout the support film which have sufficient ligand mobility to extract and transport ions across the membrane.

Alexandratos, Spiro D. (Knoxville, TN); Danesi, Pier R. (Vienna, AT); Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Electrodialysis-ion exchange for the separation of dissolved salts  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy generates and stores a significant quantity of low level, high level, and mixed wastes. As some of the DOE facilities are decontaminated and decommissioned, additional and possibly different forms of wastes will be generated. A significant portion of these wastes are aqueous streams containing acids, bases, and salts, or are wet solids containing inorganic salts. Some of these wastes are quite dilute solutions, whereas others contain large quantities of nitrates either in the form of dissolved salts or acids. Many of the wastes are also contaminated with heavy metals, radioactive products, or organics. Some of these wastes are in storage because a satisfactory treatment and disposal processes have not been developed. This report describes the process of electrodialysis-ion exchange (EDIX) for treating aqueous wastes streams consisting of nitrates, sodium, organics, heavy metals, and radioactive species.

Baroch, C.J.; Grant, P.J.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

56

Office of Waste Processing Technical Exchange  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Agenda Hotel Register Contacts Event Media Speaker Information Home Agenda Hotel Register Contacts Event Media Speaker Information Home Environmental Management Waste Processing Technical Exchange 2010 in Atlanta, GA, November 16 - 18. Over the past eight years, personnel from the three sites, Savannah River/Hanford/Idaho along with others receiving funding from the Environmental Management Office of Waste Processing have met to exchange recent results of on-going field operations and technology development. The purpose of this exchange is to provide a forum for discussion of each Site's efforts to accelerate cleanup operations. Keys to success and lessons learned are openly exchanged in a manner to allow for open discussion between operations, engineering and scientists to accelerate transition of technologies from concepts to field implementation.

57

Assessment of commercially available ion exchange materials for cesium removal from highly alkaline wastes  

SciTech Connect

Approximately 61 million gallons of nuclear waste generated in plutonium production, radionuclide removal campaigns, and research and development activities is stored on the Department of Energy`s Hanford Site, near Richland, Washington. Although the pretreatment process and disposal requirements are still being defined, most pretreatment scenarios include removal of cesium from the aqueous streams. In many cases, after cesium is removed, the dissolved salt cakes and supernates can be disposed of as LLW. Ion exchange has been a leading candidate for this separation. Ion exchange systems have the advantage of simplicity of equipment and operation and provide many theoretical stages in a small space. The organic ion exchange material Duolite{trademark} CS-100 has been selected as the baseline exchanger for conceptual design of the Initial Pretreatment Module (IPM). Use of CS-100 was chosen because it is considered a conservative, technologically feasible approach. During FY 96, final resin down-selection will occur for IPM Title 1 design. Alternate ion exchange materials for cesium exchange will be considered at that time. The purpose of this report is to conduct a search for commercially available ion exchange materials which could potentially replace CS-100. This report will provide where possible a comparison of these resin in their ability to remove low concentrations of cesium from highly alkaline solutions. Materials which show promise can be studied further, while less encouraging resins can be eliminated from consideration.

Brooks, K.P.; Kim, A.Y.; Kurath, D.E.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Equilibrium Model for Ion Exchange Between Multivalent Cations and Zeolite-A in a Molten Salt  

SciTech Connect

A two-site equilibrium model that previously only accommodated monovalent cations has been extended to include divalent and trivalent cations for ion exchange between zeolite-A and molten chloride salts, a process being considered for concentrating nuclear fission products into high level waste forms. Equilibrium constants were determined by fitting the model to equilibrium data sets for ion exchange between zeolite-A and Cs ternary salt (CsCl-LiCl-KCl), Rb ternary salt (RbCl-LiCl-KCl), Na ternary salt (NaCl-LiCl-KCl), Sr ternary salt (SrCl2-LiCl-KCl), and U ternary salt (UCl3-LiCl-KCl). The results reveal a good fit between the experimental data sets and the model. The two ion exchange sites, framework sites and occluded sites, demonstrate different relative selectivities for the cations. It was found that Sr2_ is the preferred cation in the ion exchange site, and Cs_ is the preferred cation in the occlusion site. Meanwhile, Li_ has the highest combined selectivity when both ion exchange and occlusion sites are considered. Interestingly, divalent and trivalent species are more preferred in the ion exchange site than the monovalent species with the exception of Li_.

Supathorn Phongikaroon; Michael Simpson

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Ion exchange phase transitions in "doped" water--filled channels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ion transport through narrow water--filled channels is impeded by a high electrostatic barrier. The latter originates from the large ratio of the dielectric constants of the water and a surrounding media. We show that ``doping'', i.e. immobile charges attached to the walls of the channel, substantially reduces the barrier. This explains why most of the biological ion channels are ``doped''. We show that at rather generic conditions the channels may undergo ion exchange phase transitions (typically of the first order). Upon such a transition a finite latent concentration of ions may either enter or leave the channel, or be exchanged between the ions of different valences. We discuss possible implications of these transitions for the Ca-vs.-Na selectivity of biological Ca channels. We also show that transport of divalent Ca ions is assisted by their fractionalization into two separate excitations.

J. Zhang; A. Kamenev; B. I. Shklovskii

2005-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

60

Radiation effects on a zeolite ion exchanger and a pollucite  

SciTech Connect

Cation exchange capacity and selective Cs and Sr ion sorption measurements were found to be too insensitive to detect radiation effects on irradiated Ionsiv-IE-95 zeolite. However, leaching the zeolite while under ..gamma..-irradiation caused a modest increase in the desorption of exchangeable ions. Gamma-irradiation and subsequent leaching of a natural pollucite also slightly enhanced the leachability of this material. The increased desorption of ions from the zeolite and the enhanced leachability of the pollucite are apparently caused by a decrease in pH due to the generation of acidic species during irradiation.

Komarneni, S.; Palau, G.L.; Pillay, K.K.S.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ion exchange process" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

ION EXCHANGE PERFORMANCE OF TITANOSILICATES, GERMANATES AND CARBON NANOTUBES  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a summary of testing the affinity of titanosilicates (TSP), germanium-substituted titanosilicates (Ge-TSP) and multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) for lanthanide ions in dilute nitric acid solution. The K-TSP ion exchanger exhibited the highest affinity for lanthanides in dilute nitric acid solutions. The Ge-TSP ion exchanger shows promise as a material with high affinity, but additional tests are needed to confirm the preliminary results. The MWCNT exhibited much lower affinities than the K-TSP in dilute nitric acid solutions. However, the MWCNT are much more chemically stable to concentrated nitric acid solutions and, therefore, may candidates for ion exchange in more concentrated nitric acid solutions. This technical report serves as the deliverable documenting completion of the FY13 research milestone, M4FT-13SR0303061 – measure actinide and lanthanide distribution values in nitric acid solutions with sodium and potassium titanosilicate materials.

Alsobrook, A.; Hobbs, D.

2013-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

62

Microsoft Word - Nano-sized Ion Exchange Particles.docx  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reducing Ion Exchange Particles to Nano-Size Shows Big Potential Reducing Ion Exchange Particles to Nano-Size Shows Big Potential AIKEN, S.C. (January 30, 2012) - Sometimes bigger isn't better. Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River National Laboratory have successfully shown that they can replace useful little particles of monosodium titanate (MST) with even tinier nano-sized particles, making them even more useful for a variety of applications. MST is an ion exchange material used to decontaminate radioactive and industrial wastewater solutions, and has been shown to be an effective way to deliver metals into living cells for some types of medical treatment. Typically, MST, and a modified form known as mMST developed by SRNL and Sandia National Laboratories, are in the form of fine powders, spherically-shaped particles about 1 to 10 microns in diameter

63

Office of Waste Processing Technical Exchange  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

EM Waste Processing Technical Exchange 2010 Agenda EM Waste Processing Technical Exchange 2010 Agenda (Sponsored by EM Office of Waste Processing) November 16 - 18, 2010; Loews Hotel, Atlanta, GA 11/2/2010 Monday, November 15, 2010 5:00 - 7:00 pm Early Registration and Speaker Check-in *Light Refreshments Tuesday Morning, November 16, 2010 Session 1: Technical Exchange Opening (Chair: W. Wilmarth); Salon D Live Webcast Click the video icon to view Session 1 Live Webcast Submit Question Click the Question icon to submit a question. Time Topic Speaker 7:00 am Registration and Check-in 8:00 am S01-01 Welcome T. Michalske, SRNL 8:05 am S01-02 Opening Comments Y. Collazo, DOE-EM 8:15 am S01-03 Introductions G. Flowers, SRNS 8:20 am S01-04 Opening Remarks I. Triay, DOE-EM 8:45 am S01-05 Status of Waste Processing Technology Development

64

Radiolytic effects on ion exchangers during the storage of radioactive wastes  

SciTech Connect

Radiolytic effects on ion exchangers are being recognized as a significant problem in the processing and storage of high-specific-activity radioactive waste forms. Two major literature surveys and a series of scoping experiments conducted during this investigation indicate that radiation decomposition of ion exchange materials has the potential for a variety of undesirable consequences. These include the ready dispersion of adsorbed radionuclides to the environment, corrosion and pressurization of waste canisters, and generation of flammable and explosive gases, as well as agglomeration of ion exchangers to a rigid monolith with the partitioning of a liquid phase. Some of the highlights of the literature surveys and the major findings of the experimental studies are reported here.

Pillay, K.K.S.; Palau, G.L.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Method and solvent composition for regenerating an ion exchange resin  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and composition for removing perchlorate from a highly selective ion exchange resin is disclosed. The disclosed approach comprises treating the resin in a solution of super critical or liquid carbon dioxide and one or more quaternary ammonium chloride surfactant compounds.

Even, William R. (Livermore, CA); Irvin, David J. (Livermore, CA); Irvin, Jennifer A. (Livermore, CA); Tarver, Edward E. (Livermore, CA); Brown, Gilbert M. (Knoxville, TN); Wang, James C. F. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

CO adsorption on ion-exchanged Ru zeolite catalysts  

SciTech Connect

CO adsorption on ion-exchanged Ru zeolite catalysts, studied by IR spectroscopy, revealed the existence of three types of ruthenium which adsorbed the carbon monoxide into three different states. The ruthenium types were atomically or highly dispersed ruthenium, ruthenium clusters which formed ruthenium carbonyl, and larger (> 1 nm) particles, probably on the outer zeolite surfaces.

Goodwin, J.G. (Univ. of Pittsburgh); Naccache, G.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Copper Removal from A-01 Outfall by Ion Exchange  

SciTech Connect

Chelex100, a commercially available ion exchange resin, has been identified in this study as having a significant affinity for copper and zinc in the A-01 outfall water. Removal of copper and zinc from A-01 outfall water will ensure that the outfall meets the state of South Carolina's limit on these heavy metals.

Oji, L.N.

1999-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

68

Ion Exchange Membrane Cathodes for Scalable Microbial Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ion Exchange Membrane Cathodes for Scalable Microbial Fuel Cells ... The optimum amount of graphite fibers needed for these brush electrodes has not yet been optimized, and the cathode remains the greatest challenge for MFC designs. ... Different catalyst locations (inside versus outside) and loadings, specific surface areas, and solution chemistry (solution conductivity) were examined to optimize performance. ...

Yi Zuo; Shaoan Cheng; Bruce E. Logan

2008-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

69

Small-Scale Ion Exchange Removal of Cesium and Technetium from Hanford Tank 241-AN-103  

SciTech Connect

The pretreatment process for BNFL, Inc.'s Hanford River Protection Project is to provide decontaminated low activity waste and concentrated eluate streams for vitrification into low activity and high level waste glass, respectively. The pretreatment includes sludge washing, filtration, precipitation, and ion exchange processes to remove entrained solids, cesium, transuranics, technetium, and strontium. The ion exchange removal of cesium (Cs) and technetium (Tc) ions is accomplished by using SuperLig 644, and 639 resins from IBC Advanced Technologies, American Fork, Utah. The resins were shown to selectively remove cesium and technetium (as pertechnetate), from alkaline salt solutions. The efficiency of ion exchange column loading and elution is a complex function involving feed compositions, equilibrium and kinetic behavior of ion exchange resins, diffusion, and the ionic strength and pH of the aqueous solution. A previous experimental program completed at the Savannah River Technology Center demonstrated the conceptualized flow sheet parameters with a similar Hanford tank sample (241-AW-101). Those experiments included determination of Cs and Tc batch distribution coefficients by SuperLig 644 and 639 resins and demonstration of small-scale column breakthrough and elution. The experimental findings were used in support of preliminary design bases and pretreatment flow sheet development by BNFL, Inc.

Hassan, N.M.

2000-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

70

Nuclear quantum effects in water exchange around lithium and fluoride ions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We employ classical and ring polymer molecular dynamics simulations to study the effect of nuclear quantum fluctuations on the structure and the water exchange dynamics of aqueous solutions of lithium and fluoride ions. While we obtain reasonably good agreement with experimental data for solutions of lithium by augmenting the Coulombic interactions between the ion and the water molecules with a standard Lennard-Jones ion-oxygen potential, the same is not true for solutions of fluoride, for which we find that a potential with a softer repulsive wall gives much better agreement. A small degree of destabilization of the first hydration shell is found in quantum simulations of both ions when compared with classical simulations, with the shell becoming less sharply defined and the mean residence time of the water molecules in the shell decreasing. In line with these modest differences, we find that the mechanisms of the exchange processes are unaffected by quantization, so a classical description of these reaction...

Wilkins, David M; Dang, Liem X

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization process. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The following investigations were performed: (1) batch mode screening of eleven(11) commercially available resins and selection of three candidate resins for further evaluation in a fixed-bed setup. (2) Process variables study using three candidate resins in the fixed-bed setup and selection of the ``best`` resin for process economics development. (3) Exhaustion efficiency and solution concentration were found to be inversely related necessitating a trade-off between the resin cost versus the cost of evaporation/concentration of ensuing effluents. (4) Higher concentration of the HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} form of active sites over less active CO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}} form of sites in the resin was believed to be the main reason for the observed increase in the equilibrium capacity of the resin at an elevated static CO{sub 2}-pressure. This Increase in capacity was found to level off around 80--120 psig range. The increase in CO{sub 2}-pressure, however, did not appear to affect the overall ion-exchange kinetics. (5) In the fixed-bed mode, the solution concentration was found to affect the equilibrium capacity of candidate resins. Their relationship was well satisfied by the Langmuir type non-linear equilibrium isotherm. Alternatively, the effect of solution concentration on overall ion-exchange kinetics varied from resin to resin. (6) Product inhibition effect on the resin was observed as an initial increase followed by a significant decrease in the resin`s equilibrium capacity for SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} as the HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}/SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} molar ratio in the solution was increased from 0 to 1.0. This ratio, however, did not affect the overall ion-exchange kinetics.

Sheth, A C; Dharmapurikar, R; Strevel, S D

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

THERMAL MODELING OF ION EXCHANGE COLUMNS WITH SPHERICAL RF RESIN  

SciTech Connect

Models have been developed to simulate the thermal performance of RF columns fully loaded with radioactive cesium. Temperature distributions and maximum temperatures across the column were calculated during Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process upset conditions with a focus on implementation at Hanford. A two-dimensional computational modeling approach was taken to include conservative, bounding estimates for key parameters such that the results will provide the maximum centerline temperatures achievable under the design configurations using a feed composition known to promote high cesium loading on RF. The current full-scale design for the SCIX system includes a central cooling tube, and one objective of these calculations was to examine its elimination to simplify the design. Results confirmed that a column design without a central cooling tube is feasible for RF, allowing for the possibility of significant design simplifications if it can be assumed that the columns are always filled with liquid. With active cooling through the four outer tubes, the maximum column diameter expected to maintain the temperature below the assumed media and safety limits is 26 inches, which is comparable to the current design diameter. Additional analysis was conducted to predict the maximum column temperatures for the previously unevaluated accident scenario involving inadvertent drainage of liquid from a cesium-saturated column, with retention of the ion exchange media and cesium in the column. As expected, much higher maximum temperatures are observed in this case due to the poor heat transfer properties of air versus liquid. For this hypothetical accident scenario involving inadvertent and complete drainage of liquid from a cesium-saturated column, the modeling results indicate that the maximum temperature within a 28 inch diameter RF column with external cooling is expected to exceed 250 C within 2 days, while the maximum temperature of a 12 inch column is maintained below 100 C. In addition, the calculation results demonstrate that the cooling tube system external to an air-filled column is not highly effective at reducing the maximum temperature, but the baseline design using a central cooling tube inside the column provides sufficient cooling to maintain the maximum temperature near the assumed safety limit.

Lee, S.; King, W.

2009-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

73

Revised Thermal Analysis of LANL Ion Exchange Column  

SciTech Connect

This document updates a previous calculation of the temperature distributions in a Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) ion exchange column.1 LANL operates two laboratory-scale anion exchange columns, in series, to extract Pu-238 from nitric acid solutions. The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has requested an updated analysis to calculate maximum temperatures for higher resin loading capacities obtained with a new formulation of the Reillex HPQ anion exchange resin. The increased resin loading capacity will not exceed 118 g plutonium per L of resin bed. Calculations were requested for normal operation of the resin bed at the minimum allowable solution feed rate of 30 mL/min and after an interruption of flow at the end of the feed stage, when one of the columns is fully loaded. The object of the analysis is to demonstrate that the decay heat from the Pu-238 will not cause resin bed temperatures to increase to a level where the resin significantly degrades. At low temperatures, resin bed temperatures increase primarily due to decay heat. At {approx}70 C a Low Temperature Exotherm (LTE) resulting from the reaction between 8-12 M HNO{sub 3} and the resin has been observed. The LTE has been attributed to an irreversible oxidation of pendant ethyl benzene groups at the termini of the resin polymer chains by nitric acid. The ethyl benzene groups are converted to benzoic acid moities. The resin can be treated to permanently remove the LTE by heating a resin suspension in 8M HNO{sub 3} for 30-45 minutes. No degradation of the resin performance is observed after the LTE removal treatment. In fact, heating the resin in boiling ({approx}115-120 C) 12 M HNO{sub 3} for 3 hr displays thermal stability analogous to resin that has been treated to remove the LTE. The analysis is based on a previous study of the SRS Frames Waste Recovery (FWR) column, performed in support of the Pu-238 production campaign for NASA's Cassini mission. In that study, temperature transients following an interruption of flow to the column were calculated. The transient calculations were terminated after the maximum resin bed temperature reached the Technical Standard of 60 C, which was set to prevent significant resin degradation. The LANL column differs from the FWR column in that it has a significantly smaller radius, 3.73 cm nominal versus approximately 28 cm. It follows that natural convection removes heat much more effectively from the LANL column, so that the column may reach thermal equilibrium. Consequently, the calculations for a flow interruption were extended until an approach to thermal equilibrium was observed. The LANL ion exchange process also uses a different resin than was used in the FWR column. The LANL column uses Reillex HPQ{trademark} resin, which is more resistant to attack by nitric acid than the Ionac 641{trademark} resin used in the FWR column. Heat generation from the resin oxidation reaction with nitric acid is neglected in this analysis since LANL will be treating the resin to remove the LTE prior to loading the resin in the columns. Calculations were performed using a finite difference computer code, which incorporates models for absorption and elution of plutonium and for forced and natural convection within the resin bed. Calculations for normal column operation during loading were performed using an initial temperature and a feed temperature equal to the ambient air temperature. The model for the normal flow calculations did not include natural convection within the resin bed. The no flow calculations were started with the temperature and concentration profiles at the end of the loading stage, when there would be a maximum amount of plutonium either adsorbed on the resin or in the feed solution in the column.

Laurinat, J

2006-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

74

Metal nanoparticles in catalytic polymer membranes and ion-exchange systems for advanced purification of water from molecular oxygen  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Methods of synthesis of metal nanoparticles and metal/polymer nanocomposites including ion-exchange materials are considered. The effect of the composition and size of nanoparticles on their catalytic activity is analyzed. Attention is focused on the composites used in catalytic processes, namely, catalytic membranes and ion-exchange systems. The problems associated with the removal of dissolved oxygen from water by means of such composites are discussed. The bibliography includes 225 references.

V V Volkov; T A Kravchenko; Vyacheslav I Roldughin

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Small-Scale Ion Exchange Removal of Cesium and Technetium from Hanford Tank 241-AN-102  

SciTech Connect

The pretreatment process for BNFL, Inc.'s Hanford River Protection Project is to provide decontaminated low activity waste and concentrated eluate streams for vitrification into low and high activity waste glass, respectively. The pretreatment includes sludge washing, filtration, precipitation, and ion exchange processes to remove entrained solids, cesium, transuranics, technetium, and strontium. The cesium (Cs-137) and technetium (Tc-99) ion exchange removal is accomplished by using SuperLig 644, and 639 resins from IBC Advanced Technologies, American Fork, Utah. The resins were shown to selectively remove cesium and technetium (as anionic pertechnetate ) from alkaline salt solutions. The efficiency of ion exchange column loading and elution is a complex function involving feed compositions, equilibrium and kinetic behavior of ion exchange resins, diffusion, and the ionic strength and pH of the aqueous solution. A previous experimental program completed at the Savannah River Tech nology Center2 demonstrated the conceptualized flow sheet parameters with an Envelope C sample from Hanford Tank 241-AN-107. Those experiments also included determination of Cs and Tc batch distribution coefficients by SuperLig 644 and 639 resins and demonstration of small-scale column breakthrough and elution. The experimental findings were used in support of preliminary design bases and pretreatment flow sheet development by BNFL, Inc.

Hassan, N.M.

2000-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

76

HIGH ASPECT RATIO ION EXCHANGE RESIN BED - HYDRAULIC RESULTS FOR SPERICAL RESIN BEADS  

SciTech Connect

A principal role of the DOE Savannah River Site is to safely dispose of a large volume of liquid nuclear waste held in many storage tanks. An in-tank ion exchange unit is being considered for cesium removal to accelerate waste processing. This unit is planned to have a relatively high bed height to diameter ratio (10:1). Complicating the design is the need to cool the ion exchange media; therefore, the ion exchange column will have a central cooling core making the flow path annular. To separate cesium from waste the media being considered is made of resorcinol formaldehyde resin deposited on spherical plastic beads and is a substitute for a previously tested resin made of crystalline silicotitanate. This spherical media not only has an advantage of being mechanically robust, but, unlike its predecessor, it is also reusable, that is, loaded cesium can be removed through elution and regeneration. Resin regeneration leads to more efficient operation and less spent resin waste, but its hydraulic performance in the planned ion exchange column was unknown. Moreover, the recycling process of this spherical resorcinol formaldehyde causes its volume to significantly shrink and swell. To determine the spherical media's hydraulic demand a linearly scaled column was designed and tested. The waste simulant used was prototypic of the wastes' viscosity and density. This paper discusses the hydraulic performance of the media that will be used to assist in the design of a full-scale unit.

Duignan, M; Charles Nash, C; Timothy Punch, T

2007-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

77

Electrodeposition of microparticles on polarized ion exchange membranes  

SciTech Connect

The use of ion exchange membranes to extract microparticles from an aqueous solution is considered. The efficiency of removing negatively charged aerosil particles depends substantially on the nature of the membrane located at the anode. It has been established that besides an increase in the electric field intensity the principal factor ensuring an increase in the efficiency of purifying a solution by electrodeposition of microparticles on a membrane surface is a reduction in the flowrate relative to the membrane surface.

Verbich, S.V.; Ponomarev, M.I.; Grebenyuk, V.D.; Dukhin, S.S.

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Nanocomposite reverse electrodialysis (RED) ion-exchange membranes for salinity gradient power generation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Despite the important role of ion-exchange membranes (IEMs) in reverse electrodialysis (RED) systems, the current absence of proper ion-exchange membranes delays the sustainable development of the RED process for salinity gradient power generation. This research presents the preparation of a new type of organic–inorganic nanocomposite cation exchange membrane and its performance characteristics. The combination of functionalized iron (III) oxide ( Fe 2 O 3 - SO 4 2 ? ) as an inorganic filler with the sulfonated poly (2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (sPPO) polymer matrix proved to have great potential for power generation by RED. The results showed that an optimal amount of Fe 2 O 3 - SO 4 2 ? (0.5–0.7 wt%) enhanced the key electrochemical properties of the ion-exchange membranes including a permselectivity up to 87.65% and an area resistance of 0.87 ? cm2. The nanocomposite membrane containing 0.7 wt% ( Fe 2 O 3 - SO 4 2 ? ) achieved a maximum power density (amount of power per unit membrane area) of 1.3 W m?2, which is relatively higher than that of the commercially available CSO (SelemionTM, Japan) membranes. The goal of the present work is to maximize the salinity gradient power generation by developing RED-specific nanocomposite IEMs. The results show the potential of the new design of the nanocomposite \\{IEMs\\} for viable energy generation by RED.

Jin Gi Hong; Yongsheng Chen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Electrically switched cesium ion exchange. FY 1996 annual report  

SciTech Connect

An electrochemical method for metal ion separations, called Electrically Switched Ion Exchange, is described. Direct oxidation and reduction of an electroactive film attached to an electrode surface is used to load and unload the film with alkali metal cations. The electroactive films under investigation are Ni hexacyanoferrates, which are deposited on the surface by applying an anodic potential to a Ni electrode in a solution containing the ferricyanide anion. Reported film preparation procedures were modified to produce films with improved capacity and stability. Electrochemical behavior of the derivatized electrodes were investigated using cyclic voltammetry and chronocoulometry. The films show selectivity for Cs in concentrated sodium solutions. Raman spectroscopy was used to monitor changes in oxidation state of the film and imaging experiments have demonstrated that the redox reactions are spatially homogenous across the film. Requirements for a bench scale unit were identified.

Lilga, M.A.; Orth, R.J.; Sukamto, J.P.H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Schwartz, D.T.; Haight, S.M. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States); Genders, D. [Electrosynthesis Co., Inc., Cheektowaga, NY (United States)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Small-Scale Ion Exchange Removal of Cesium and Technetium from Envelope B Hanford Tank 241-AZ-102  

SciTech Connect

The pretreatment process for the Hanford River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant is to provide decontaminated Low-Activity Waste and concentrated elute streams for vitrification into low- and high-activity waste glass, respectively. The pretreatment includes sludge washing, filtration, precipitation, and ion exchange processes to remove entrained solids, strontium, transuranics, cesium, and technetium.

King, W.D.

2001-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ion exchange process" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Orthogonal ion injection apparatus and process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An orthogonal ion injection apparatus and process are described in which ions are directly injected into an ion guide orthogonal to the ion guide axis through an inlet opening located on a side of the ion guide. The end of the heated capillary is placed inside the ion guide such that the ions are directly injected into DC and RF fields inside the ion guide, which efficiently confines ions inside the ion guide. Liquid droplets created by the ionization source that are carried through the capillary into the ion guide are removed from the ion guide by a strong directional gas flow through an inlet opening on the opposite side of the ion guide. Strong DC and RF fields divert ions into the ion guide. In-guide orthogonal injection yields a noise level that is a factor of 1.5 to 2 lower than conventional inline injection known in the art. Signal intensities for low m/z ions are greater compared to convention inline injection under the same processing conditions.

Kurulugama, Ruwan T; Belov, Mikhail E

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

82

Small Column Ion Exchange at Savannah River Site Technology Readiness Assessment Report  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Small Column Ion Exchange Technology at Small Column Ion Exchange Technology at Savannah River Site U.S. Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management Office of Technology Innovation and Development Technology Readiness Assessment Report November 2011 U.S. DOE-EM Office of Technology Innovation and Development November 11, 2011 Small Column Ion Exchange Program Technology Readiness Assessment Page 2 of 112 This page intentionally left blank November 11, 2011 U.S. DOE-EM Office of Technology Innovation and Development Small Column Ion Exchange Program Technology Readiness Assessment Page 3 of 112 APPROVALS ________________________ _ Harry D. Harmon Date

83

Sodalite ion exchange in polyethylene oxide oligomer solvents Gina M. Canfield,a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sodalite ion exchange in polyethylene oxide oligomer solvents Gina M. Canfield,a Michael Bizimisb and rare earth ions. Ethylene oxide-based oligomers (polyethylene glycol, polyethylene glycol methyl ether

Latturner, Susan

84

Charge Transport through a Novel Zeolite Y Membrane by a Self-Exchange Process Hyunjung Lee and Prabir K. Dutta*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Charge Transport through a Novel Zeolite Y Membrane by a Self-Exchange Process Hyunjung Lee-photoresist-coated membranes were found. Accessibility of the intrazeolitic volume was examined by ion exchange and for optimally illuminated membranes was comparable to uncoated membranes. Charge transport through the membrane

Dutta, Prabir K.

85

Development and properties of crystalline silicotitanate (CST) ion exchangers for radioactive waste applications  

SciTech Connect

Crystalline silicotitanates (CSTs) are a new class of ion exchangers that were jointly invented by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories and Texas A&M University. One particular CST, known as TAM-5, is remarkable for its ability to separate parts-per-million concentrations of cesium from highly alkaline solutions (pH> 14) containing high sodium concentrations (>5M). It is also highly effective for removing cesium from neutral and acidic solutions, and for removing strontium from basic and neutral solutions. Cesium isotopes are fission products that account for a large portion of the radioactivity in waste streams generated during weapons material production. Tests performed at numerous locations with early lab-scale TAM-5 samples established the material as a leading candidate for treating radioactive waste volumes such as those found at the Hanford site in Washington. Thus Sandia developed a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) partnership with UOP, a world leader in developing, commercializing, and supplying adsorbents and associated process technology to commercialize and further develop the material. CSTs are now commercially available from UOP in a powder (UOP IONSIV{reg_sign} IE-910 ion exchanger) and granular form suitable for column ion exchange operations (UOP IONSIV{reg_sign} IE-911 ion exchanger). These materials exhibit a high capacity for cesium in a wide variety of solutions of interest to the Department of Energy, and they are chemically, thermally, and radiation stable. They have performed well in tests at numerous sites with actual radioactive waste solutions, and are being demonstrated in the 100,000 liter Cesium Removal Demonstration taking place at Oak Ridge National Laboratory with Melton Valley Storage Tank waste. It has been estimated that applying CSTs to the Hanford cleanup alone will result in a savings of more than $300 million over baseline technologies.

Miller, J.E.; Brown, N.E.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Heat exchanger for coal gasification process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention provides a heat exchanger, particularly useful for systems requiring cooling of hot particulate solids, such as the separated fines from the product gas of a carbonaceous material gasification system. The invention allows effective cooling of a hot particulate in a particle stream (made up of hot particulate and a gas), using gravity as the motive source of the hot particulate. In a preferred form, the invention substitutes a tube structure for the single wall tube of a heat exchanger. The tube structure comprises a tube with a core disposed within, forming a cavity between the tube and the core, and vanes in the cavity which form a flow path through which the hot particulate falls. The outside of the tube is in contact with the cooling fluid of the heat exchanger.

Blasiole, George A. (Greensburg, PA)

1984-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

87

Development of an spFRET method to measure structure changes in ion exchange proteins  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

transporter, major facilitator superfamily, membrane transport, membrane transporter, OxlT, single molecule, spFRET, transport protein. Tightly coupled ion exchangers, such as the AE anion exchange systems only take place at an appreciable rate if a suitable substrate ion is bound to the transport site

Novotny, Lukas

88

Ion exchange resins. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning preparation, properties, and applications of ion exchange resins. Applications include water and waste treatment, chemical recovery, separation, purification, catalysis, desalination, and ore treatment. Regeneration and disposal of ion exchange resins are also covered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

NONE

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Ion exchange resins. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning preparation, properties, and applications of ion exchange resins. Applications include water and waste treatment, chemical recovery, separation, purification, catalysis, desalination, and ore treatment. Regeneration and disposal of ion exchange resins are also covered. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Ion exchange resins. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning preparation, properties, and applications of ion exchange resins. Applications include water and waste treatment, chemical recovery, separation, purification, catalysis, desalination, and ore treatment. Regeneration and disposal of ion exchange resins are also covered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

In situ ion exchange preparation of Pt/carbon nanotubes electrode: Effect of two-step oxidation of carbon nanotubes  

SciTech Connect

Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) supported Pt electrode is prepared by in-situ ion exchange method. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirms that compared with the only electrochemical oxidation or chemical oxidation treatment, more carboxylic acid groups are produced on the surface of MWNTs treated by dual-oxidation, which involves both electrochemical oxidation and chemical oxidation. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) shows that Pt nanoparticles deposited via in-situ ion exchange are highly dispersed on the MWNTs surface. Electrochemical measurements show that the resultant Pt/MWNTs electrode treated by dual-oxidation exhibits the largest electrochemical surface area and the highest activity for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) among the investigated electrodes. This can be attributed to the fact that dual-oxidation treatment produces more carboxylic acid groups at the electroactive sites on MWNTs surface, which results in loading more Pt nanoparticles in the following ion exchange process.

Zhang, Sheng; Shao, Yuyan; Gao, Yunzhi; Chen, Guangyu; Lin, Yuehe; Yin, Geping

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Diffusion-Welded Microchannel Heat Exchanger for Industrial Processes  

SciTech Connect

The goal of next generation reactors is to increase energy ef?ciency in the production of electricity and provide high-temperature heat for industrial processes. The ef?cient transfer of energy for industrial applications depends on the ability to incorporate effective heat exchangers between the nuclear heat transport system and the industrial process. The need for ef?ciency, compactness, and safety challenge the boundaries of existing heat exchanger technology. Various studies have been performed in attempts to update the secondary heat exchanger that is downstream of the primary heat exchanger, mostly because its performance is strongly tied to the ability to employ more ef?cient industrial processes. Modern compact heat exchangers can provide high compactness, a measure of the ratio of surface area-to-volume of a heat exchange. The microchannel heat exchanger studied here is a plate-type, robust heat exchanger that combines compactness, low pressure drop, high effectiveness, and the ability to operate with a very large pressure differential between hot and cold sides. The plates are etched and thereafter joined by diffusion welding, resulting in extremely strong all-metal heat exchanger cores. After bonding, any number of core blocks can be welded together to provide the required ?ow capacity. This study explores the microchannel heat exchanger and draws conclusions about diffusion welding/bonding for joining heat exchanger plates, with both experimental and computational modeling, along with existing challenges and gaps. Also, presented is a thermal design method for determining overall design speci?cations for a microchannel printed circuit heat exchanger for both supercritical (24 MPa) and subcritical (17 MPa) Rankine power cycles.

Piyush Sabharwall; Denis E. Clark; Michael V. Glazoff; Michael G. McKellar; Ronald E. Mizia

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Ion processing element with composite media  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An ion processing element employing composite media disposed in a porous substrate, for facilitating removal of selected chemical species from a fluid stream. The ion processing element includes a porous fibrous glass substrate impregnated by composite media having one or more active components supported by a matrix material of polyacrylonitrile. The active components are effective in removing, by various mechanisms, one or more constituents from a fluid stream passing through the ion processing element. Due to the porosity and large surface area of both the composite medium and the substrate in which it is disposed, a high degree of contact is achieved between the active component and the fluid stream being processed. Further, the porosity of the matrix material and the substrate facilitates use of the ion processing element in high volume applications where it is desired to effectively process a high volume flows.

Mann, Nick R. (Blackfoot, ID); Tranter, Troy J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Sebesta, Ferdinand (Prague, CZ)

2009-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

94

Determination of Method Detection Limits for Trace 232-Thorium and 238-Uranium in Copper using Ion Exchange and ICPMS  

SciTech Connect

Determination of Method Detection Limits for Trace 232-Thorium and 238-Uranium in Copper using Ion Exchange and ICPMS

Hoppe, Eric W.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; Maiti, Tapas C.; Soin, Aleksandr

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

95

Journal of Membrane Science 239 (2004) 1726 Highly conductive ordered heterogeneous ion-exchange membranes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the matrix required for reasonable ion transport through the membrane is 50­70 wt.% [2Journal of Membrane Science 239 (2004) 17­26 Highly conductive ordered heterogeneous ion-exchange membranes are used in electrodialysis (ED) as ion-selective membranes and in power sources (such as fuel

Freger, Viatcheslav "Slava"

96

Ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials  

SciTech Connect

This report contains research programs discussed at the materials research society symposia on ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials. Major topics include: shallow implantation and solid-phase epitaxy; damage effects; focused ion beams; MeV implantation; high-dose implantation; implantation in III-V materials and multilayers; and implantation in electronic materials. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

Cheung, N.W.; Marwick, A.D.; Roberto, J.B. (eds.) (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA); International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY (USA). Thomas J. Watson Research Center; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Cesium removal from liquid acidic wastes with the primary focus on ammonium molybdophosphate as an ion exchanger: A literature review  

SciTech Connect

Many articles have been written concerning the selective removal of cesium from both acidic and alkaline defense wastes. The majority of the work performed for cesium removal from defense wastes involves alkaline feed solutions. Several different techniques for cesium removal from acidic solutions have been evaluated such as precipitation, solvent extraction, and ion exchange. The purpose of this paper is to briefly review various techniques for cesium removal from acidic solutions. The main focus of the review will be on ion exchange techniques, particularly those involving ammonium molybdophosphate as the exchanger. The pertinent literature sources are condensed into a single document for quick reference. The information contained in this document was used as an aid in determining techniques to evaluate cesium removal from the acidic Idaho Chemical Processing Plant waste matrices. 47 refs., 2 tabs.

Miller, C.J.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Experimental Findings On Minor Actinide And Lanthanide Separations Using Ion Exchange  

SciTech Connect

This project seeks to determine if inorganic or hybrid inorganic ion-exchange materials can be exploited to provide effective americium and curium separations. Specifically, we seek to understand the fundamental structural and chemical factors responsible for the selectivity of the tested ion-exchange materials for actinide and lanthanide ions. During FY13, experimental work focused in the following areas: (1) investigating methods to oxidize americium in dilute nitric acid with subsequent ion-exchange performance measurements of ion exchangers with the oxidized americium and (2) synthesis, characterization and testing of ion-exchange materials. Ion-exchange materials tested included alkali titanates, alkali titanosilicates, carbon nanotubes and group(IV) metal phosphonates. Americium oxidation testing sought to determine the influence that other redox active components may have on the oxidation of Am(III). Experimental findings indicated that Pu(IV) is oxidized to Pu(VI) by peroxydisulfate, but there are no indications that the presence of plutonium affects the rate or extent of americium oxidation at the concentrations of peroxydisulfate being used. Tests also explored the influence of nitrite on the oxidation of Am(III). Given the formation of Am(V) and Am(VI) in the presence of nitrite, it appears that nitrite is not a strong deterrent to the oxidation of Am(III), but may be limiting Am(VI) by quickly reducing Am(VI) to Am(V). Interestingly, additional absorbance peaks were observed in the UV-Vis spectra at 524 and 544 nm in both nitric acid and perchloric acid solutions when the peroxydisulfate was added as a solution. These peaks have not been previously observed and do not correspond to the expected peak locations for oxidized americium in solution. Additional studies are in progress to identify these unknown peaks. Three titanosilicate ion exchangers were synthesized using a microwave-accelerated reaction system (MARS?) and determined to have high affinities for lanthanide ions in dilute nitric acid. The K-TSP ion exchanger exhibited the highest affinity for lanthanides in dilute nitric acid solutions. The Ge-TSP ion exchanger shows promise as a material with high affinity, but additional tests are needed to confirm the preliminary results. On the other hand, carbon nanotubes and nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes exhibited low, but measureable affinities for lanthanide ions in dilute nitric acid solutions (pH 3 and 6). The MWCNT exhibited much lower affinities than the K-TSP in dilute nitric acid solutions. However, the MWCNT are much more chemically stable in concentrated nitric acid solutions and, therefore, may be candidates for ion exchange in more concentrated nitric acid solutions.

Hobbs, D. T.; Shehee, T. C.; Clearfield, A.

2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

99

Ion exchange kinetics of cesium for various reaction designs using crystalline silicotitanate, UOP IONSIV IE-911  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, the major component of CST, slowly dissolved at hydrogen peroxide concentrations greater than 1 M. A simple and novel experimental apparatus for a single-layer ion exchange column was developed to generate experimental data for estimation...

Kim, Sung Hyun

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

100

Radiochemical analysis of the polar agrochemicals validamycin and the metabolite melamine by ion-exchange chromatography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Suitable analytical methods to determine the radiochemical purity of validamycin and melamine are not described in the literature. High performance ion-exchange chromatography for the detection of underivatize...

A. Fredenhagen

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ion exchange process" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Nanoparticle-crosslinked hydrogels as a class of efficient materials for separation and ion exchange  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

dye from a mixture of cationic and anionic dyes. These ion-exchange properties are driven the gel matrix. A comparison of the nanostructured gel with a typical cation-exchange resin (polystyrene the shrinking property of NIPA gels when heated. Additionally, we demonstrate the disassembly of Laponite

Raghavan, Srinivasa

102

Ion-exchange material and method of storing radioactive wastes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new cation exchanger is a modified tobermorite containing aluminum isomorphously substituted for silicon and containing sodium or potassium. The exchanger is selective for lead, rubidium, cobalt, and cadmium and is selective for cesium over calcium or sodium. The tobermorites are compatible with cement and are useful for the long-term fixation and storage of radioactive nuclear wastes.

Komarneni, S.; Roy, D.M.

1983-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

103

Neptunium Valence Chemistry in Anion Exchange Processing  

SciTech Connect

The current anion resin in use in HB-Line Phase II, Reillex{trademark} HPQ, was tested in the laboratory under expected plant conditions for Np processing and was found to load between 50 and 70 g Np per liter of resin. Losses varied from 0.2 to 15 percent depending on a number of parameters. Hydrazine in the feed at 0.02 to 0.05 M appeared to keep the Np from oxidizing and increasing the losses within four to seven days after the FS addition. Losses of up to three percent were observed five days after FS addition when hydrazine was not used in the feed, compared with 0.3 percent when the feed was loaded immediately after FS addition. Based on these test results the following processing conditions are recommended: (1) Feed conditions: 8 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.02 M hydrazine, 0.05 M excess FS, less than 5 days storage of solution after FS addition. (2) Wash conditions: 100 liters of 8 M HNO{sub 3}, no FS, no hydrazine. (3) Elution conditions: 0.17 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.05 M hydrazine, no FS. (4) Precipitation feed conditions: 0.03 M excess ascorbic acid, no additional hydrazine, no FS, precipitation within three days.

KYSER, EDWARD

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Composite media for ion processing  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Composite media, systems, and devices for substantially removing, or otherwise processing, one or more constituents of a fluid stream. The composite media comprise a plurality of beads, each having a matrix substantially comprising polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and supporting one or more active components which are effective in removing, by various mechanisms, one or more constituents from a fluid stream. Due to the porosity and large surface area of the beads, a high level of contact is achieved between composite media of the present invention and the fluid stream being processed. Further, the homogeneity of the beads facilitates use of the beads in high volume applications where it is desired to effectively process a large volume of flow per unit of time.

Mann, Nick R. (Blackfoot, ID); Wood, Donald J. (Peshastin, WA); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Sebesta, Ferdinand (Prague, CZ)

2009-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

105

Quantifying exchange coupling in f-ion pairs using the diamagnetic substitution method  

SciTech Connect

One of the challenges in the chemistry of actinide and lanthanide (f-ion) is quantifying exchange coupling between f-ions. While qualitative information about exchange coupling may be readily obtained using the diamagnetic substitution approach, obtaining quantitative information is much more difficult. This article describes how exchange coupling may be quantified using the susceptibility of a magnetically isolated analog, as in the diamagnetic substitution approach, along with the anisotropy of the ground state as determined by EPR spectroscopy. Several examples are used to illustrate and test this approach.

Lukens, Wayne W.; Walter, Marc D.

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Ion exchange phase transitions in water-filled channels with charged walls  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ion transport through narrow water-filled channels is impeded by a high electrostatic barrier. The latter originates from the large ratio of the dielectric constants of the water and the surrounding media. We show that “doping,” i.e., immobile charges attached to the walls of the channel, substantially reduces the barrier. This explains why most of the biological ion channels are “doped.” We show that at rather generic conditions the channels may undergo ion exchange phase transitions (typically of the first order). Upon such a transition a finite latent concentration of ions may either enter or leave the channel, or be exchanged between the ions of different valences. We discuss possible implications of these transitions for the Ca-vs-Na selectivity of biological Ca channels. We also show that transport of divalent Ca ions is assisted by their fractionalization into two separate excitations.

J. Zhang; A. Kamenev; B. I. Shklovskii

2006-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

107

THREE-DIMENSIONAL THERMAL MODELING ANALYSIS OF CST MEDIA FOR THE SMALL ION EXCHANGE PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) project is designed to accelerate closure of High Level Waste (HLW) tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The SRS tanks store HLW in three forms: sludge, saltcake, and supernate. An in-tank ion exchange process is being designed to treat supernate and dissolved saltcake waste. Through this process, radioactive cesium from the salt solution is adsorbed into Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) ion exchange media packed within a flow-through column. A packed column loaded with radioactive cesium generates significant heat from radiolytic decay. The waste supernate solution within the ion exchange bed will boil around 120 C. Solution superheating above the boiling point within the column could lead to violent hazardous energy releases. System heating from loaded CST is also of concern in other process modules, such as the waste tank. Due to tank structural integrity concerns, the wall temperature limit for the SRS waste tanks is 100 C. The transfer of cesium-loaded CST to the tank could result in localized hot spots on the tank floor and walls which may exceed this limit. As a result, thermal modeling calculations have been conducted to predict the maximum temperatures achievable both in the column and in the waste tank. As specified in the associated Technical Task Plan, one objective of the present work was to compute temperature distributions within the ion exchange column module under accident scenarios including loss of salt solution flow through the bed and loss of coolant system flow. The column modeling domain and the scope of the calculations in this case were broadened relative to previous two-dimensional calculations to include vertical temperature distributions within the packed bed of ion exchange media as well as the upper column plenum region containing only fluid. The baseline design conditions and in-column modeling domain for the ion-exchange column module are shown in Figure 1. These evaluations assumed the maximum bounding cesium loading considered possible based on current knowledge regarding CST media and the anticipated feed compositions. Since this cesium loading was considerably higher than the nominal loading conditions in SRS waste, cases with lower loading were also evaluated. Modeling parameters were the same as those used previously unless otherwise indicated. The current model does not capture multi-phase cooling mechanisms operative when solution boiling occurs. This feature is conservative in the sense that it does not account for the large cooling effects associated with phase transfer. However, the potential transfer of heat to the plenum region associated with vertical bubble ascension through the column during boiling is also neglected. Thermal modeling calculations were also performed for the entire waste storage tank for the case where loaded and ground CST was transferred to the tank. The modeling domain used for the in-tank calculations is provided in Figure 2. The in-tank domain is based on SRS Tank 41, which is a Type-IIIA tank. Temperature distributions were evaluated for cylindrical, ground CST mounds located on the tank floor. Media grinding is required prior to vitrification processing of the CST in the SRS Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The location of the heat source region on the tank floor due to the accumulation of CST material was assumed to be just under the grinder. The shape of the CST mound was assumed to be cylindrical. This shape is believed to be most representative of the actual mound shape formed in the tank, given that submersible mixing pumps will be available for media dispersion. Alternative configurations involving other geometrical shapes for the CST mound were evaluated in the previous work. Sensitivity analysis for the in-tank region was performed for different amounts of CST media. As was the case for the in-column model, the in-tank model does not include multi-phase cooling mechanisms operative when solution boiling occurs. The in-column and the in-tank evaluations incorporated recently updated maximum cesi

Lee, S.; King, W.

2011-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

108

High Level Waste System Impacts from Small Column Ion Exchange Implementation  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this task is to identify potential waste streams that could be treated with the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) and perform an initial assessment of the impact of doing so on the High-Level Waste (HLW) system. Design of the SCIX system has been performed as a backup technology for decontamination of High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The SCIX consists of three modules which can be placed in risers inside underground HLW storage tanks. The pump and filter module and the ion exchange module are used to filter and decontaminate the aqueous tank wastes for disposition in Saltstone. The ion exchange module contains Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST in its engineered granular form is referred to as IONSIV{reg_sign} IE-911), and is selective for removal of cesium ions. After the IE-911 is loaded with Cs-137, it is removed and the column is refilled with a fresh batch. The grinder module is used to size-reduce the cesium-loaded IE-911 to make it compatible with the sludge vitrification system in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). If installed at the SRS, this SCIX would need to operate within the current constraints of the larger HLW storage, retrieval, treatment, and disposal system. Although the equipment has been physically designed to comply with system requirements, there is also a need to identify which waste streams could be treated, how it could be implemented in the tank farms, and when this system could be incorporated into the HLW flowsheet and planning. This document summarizes a preliminary examination of the tentative HLW retrieval plans, facility schedules, decontamination factor targets, and vitrified waste form compatibility, with recommendations for a more detailed study later. The examination was based upon four batches of salt solution from the currently planned disposition pathway to treatment in the SCIX. Because of differences in capabilities between the SRS baseline and SCIX, these four batches were combined into three batches for a total of about 3.2 million gallons of liquid waste. The chemical and radiological composition of these batches was estimated from the SpaceMan Plus{trademark} model using the same data set and assumptions as the baseline plans.

McCabe, D. J.; Hamm, L. L.; Aleman, S. E.; Peeler, D. K.; Herman, C. C.; Edwards, T. B.

2005-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

109

Process Heat Exchanger Options for Fluoride Salt High Temperature Reactor  

SciTech Connect

The work reported herein is a significant intermediate step in reaching the final goal of commercial-scale deployment and usage of molten salt as the heat transport medium for process heat applications. The primary purpose of this study is to aid in the development and selection of the required heat exchanger for power production and process heat application, which would support large-scale deployment.

Piyush Sabharwall; Eung Soo Kim; Michael McKellar; Nolan Anderson

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Electrodialysis-ion exchange for the separation of dissolved salts. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The program described in this report studies the suitability of electrodialysis-ion exchange (EDIX) to treat aqueous streams containing heavy metals and radioactive cations in a solution containing sodium and nitrates. The goal of the program was to produce a cation stream containing sodium, heavy metals, and radioactive cations; an anion stream of nitric acid free of heavy metals and radioactive cations; and a product stream that meets discharge criteria. The experimental results, described in detail, indicated that EDIX was not a suitable process for treating wastes containing metals that formed insoluble hydroxides in a basic solution; the metals precipitate in the catholyte and feed compartments, and in the cathode membrane. The test program was therefore terminated prior to completion of all planned activities. 2 refs., 22 figs., 8 tabs.

Harrison, J.L.; Baroch, C.J.; Litz, J.

1996-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

111

Injection Solvent Effect on Peak Height in Ion Exchange HPLC  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......2. To further evaluate the effect of the injection volume only...injection volume were varied. Effect of weak injection solvent There...same eluent ion strength. The effect of eluent ion strength. Figure...nitrate in the mobile phase. 418 ship of the peak height of phenylacetate......

Hyunjoo Kim Lee; Norman E. Hoffman

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

A kinetic model for ion exchange between cesium and sodium using silico-titanates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

over this entire range of pH. This unique characteristic makes the TAMS material desirable. Two other available organic ion exchangers (carboxylic acid based resin and resorcinol formaldehyde resin) show some capability for cesium removal; however... et al. (1947) used this method successfully to predict their data with the phenol-formaldehyde resinous exchanger, Amberlite IR-1. Similarly, Nachod and Wood (1944) and Turse and Rieman (1961) found their data fitted quite well on both zeolites...

Nguyen, Luan Thanh

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Simultaneous removal of organic matter and salt ions from saline wastewater in bioelectrochemical systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in physical and chemical separation processes such as ion-exchange, electrodialysis, or reverse osmosis [1

114

Electron assisted neutron exchange process in solid state environment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electron assisted neutron exchange process in solid state environment is investigated. It is shown that if a metal is irradiated with free electrons then the $e+$ $_{Z}^{A_{1}}X+$ $_{Z}^{A_{2}}X\\rightarrow e^{\\prime }+$ $% _{Z}^{A_{1}-1}X+$ $_{Z}^{A_{2}+1}X+\\Delta $ electron assisted neutron exchange process has measurable probability even in the case of slow electrons of energy much less than the reaction energy $\\Delta $. The transition probability per unit time, the cross section of the process and the yield in an irradiated sample are determined in the Weisskopf and long wavelength approximations and in the single particle shell model. Numerical data for the $e+$ $_{28}^{A_{1}}Ni+$ $_{28}^{A_{2}}Ni\\rightarrow e^{\\prime }+ $ $_{28}^{A_{1}+1}Ni+$ $_{28}^{A_{2}-1}Ni+\\Delta $ and the $e+$ $% _{46}^{A_{1}}Pd+$ $_{46}^{A_{2}}Pd\\rightarrow e^{\\prime }+$ $% _{46}^{A_{1}+1}Pd+$ $_{46}^{A_{2}-1}Pd+\\Delta $ electron assisted neutron exchange reactions are also presented.

Péter Kálmán; Tamás Keszthelyi

2013-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

115

RESORCINOL-FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN CHEMISTRY FOR HIGH LEVEL WASTE TREATMENT  

SciTech Connect

A principal goal at the Savannah River Site is to safely dispose of the large volume of liquid nuclear waste held in many storage tanks. In-tank ion exchange technology is being considered for cesium removal using a polymer resin made of resorcinol formaldehyde that has been engineered into microspheres. The waste under study is generally lower in potassium and organic components than Hanford waste; therefore, the resin performance was evaluated with actual dissolved salt waste. The ion exchange performance and resin chemistry results are discussed.

Nash, C.; Duignan, M.

2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

116

Flue gas carbon dioxide sequestration during water softening with ion-exchange fibers  

SciTech Connect

This study examines the use of ion-exchange fibers (IX fibers) to permanently sequester carbon dioxide present in flue gas into an aqueous phase as calcium or magnesium alkalinity while concurrently softening hard water. The only process inputs besides carbon dioxide (or flue gas) are snowmelt (or rainwater); no other chemicals are required for the regeneration of the IX fibers. Importantly, the process is not energy intensive and carbon dioxide does not need to be compressed to excessive pressures (>150 psi) for efficient use. Sources of carbon dioxide do not require concentration and, therefore, the use of raw flue gas (similar to 17% CO{sub 2}) is feasible with the rate of sequestration governed only by the partial pressure of carbon dioxide. While valid for flue gas obtained from any combustion process (e.g., coal, oil, natural gas, etc.), emissions from oil or gas combustion may be more appropriate for use in the described process due to the absence of mercury and particulates. It should also be noted that the presence of sulfur dioxide in flue gas would not adversely affect the process and may even enhance regeneration efficiency. The only product of the proposed process is an environmentally benign regenerant stream containing calcium and/or magnesium alkalinity. The unique property of IX fibers that makes the proposed process both environmentally sustainable and economically feasible is amenability to efficient regeneration with carbon dioxide and harvested snowmelt. Low intraparticle diffusional resistance is the underlying reason why IX fibers are amenable to efficient regeneration using snowmelt sparged with carbon dioxide; 95% calcium recovery was attained at a CO{sub 2} partial pressure of 6.8 atm. The energy balance for a typical electric utility shows that up to 1% of carbon dioxide emitted during combustion would be sequestered in the softening process.

Greenleaf, J.E.; SenGupta, A.K. [Lafayette College, Easton, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

117

Method of uranium reclamation from aqueous systems by reactive ion exchange. [US DOE patent application; anion exchange resin of copolymerized divinyl-benzene and styrene having quarternary ammonium groups and bicarbonate ligands  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A reactive ion exchange method for separation and recovery of values of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, or americium from substantially neutral aqueous systems of said metals comprises contacting said system with an effective amount of a basic anion exchange resin of copolymerized divinyl-benzene and styrene having quarternary ammonium groups and bicarbonate ligands to achieve nearly 100% sorption of said actinyl ion onto said resin and an aqueous system practically free of said actinyl ions. The method is operational over an extensive range of concentrations from about 10/sup -6/ M to 1.0 M actinyl ion and a pH range of about 4 to 7. The method has particulr application to treatment of waste streams from Purex-type nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities and hydrometallurgical processes involving U, Np, P, or Am.

Maya, L.

1981-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

118

Fractionation of NaCl, MgCl2, and CaCl2 brines with a polyfunctional ion exchange resin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

softening, demineralizat1on, or sim1lar processes in which the objective is to remove undesirable 1ons. Ion exchange as a separation technique, that 1s, the recovery of two or more 1ons, has become 1ncreas1ngly important. Mayer and Tompk1ns (12.... Phys. 20, 1657 (1952). 11. McIlhenny, W. F. , M. S. Thesis, Texas A. and M. College (1958). 12 . Mayer, S. W. , Tompkins, E. R. , J. Am. Chem. Soc . 69, 2866 ( 1947) 1$. Nachod, F. C. , Schubert, J. , Ion Exchange Technolo Academic Press, N ew York...

Baker, Albert Byre

1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Evaluation of Selective Ion Exchange Resins for Removal of Mercury from the H-Area Water Treatment Unit  

SciTech Connect

This study investigated the ability of seven ion exchange (IX) resins, some of which were mercury specific, to remove mercury in H-Area WTU waters from three sources (Reverse Osmosis (RO) Feed, RO Permeate from Train A, and a mercury ''hot spot'' extraction well HEX 18). Seven ion exchange resins, including ResinTech CG8 and Dowex 21K (the cation and anion exchange resins currently used at the H-Area WTU) were screened against five alternative ion exchange materials plus an experimental blank. Mercury decontamination factors (DFs), mercury breakthrough, and post-test contaminant concentrations of IX resins were determined for each IX material tested.

Serkiz, S.M.

2000-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

120

Removing Radium-226 Contamination From Ion Exchange Resins Used in Drinking Water Treatment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Removing Radium-226 Contamination From Ion Exchange Resins Used in Drinking Water Treatment P r o b of groundwater containing high levels of radium-226 activity (Objective 1) were regenerated with prescribed brine that the concentration of salt in the brine cleaning solution was the most influential factor in the resin regeneration

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While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Patterned ion exchange membranes for improved power production in microbial reverse-electrodialysis cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Patterned ion exchange membranes for improved power production in microbial reverse-electrodialysis August 2014 Keywords: Microbial reverse electrodialysis cell Patterned membranes Integrated spacer Internal resistance a b s t r a c t Power production in microbial reverse-electrodialysis cells (MRCs) can

122

A new class of non-zeolitic sorbents for air separations: Lithium ion exchanged pillared clays  

SciTech Connect

Zeolites are the only known sorbents that adsorb N{sub 2} selectively over O{sub 2}, and are used for industrial air separation. Pillared clays (PILCs) have a high Broensted acidity (k.e., high proton density). It is found in this study that when the protons are exchanged by alkali metal ions, in particular Li{sup +}, the ion exchanged pillared clays can exhibit a high N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} adsorption selectivity that rivals that of the zeolites. The first result shows a pure-component adsorption ratio of N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} = 3.2 (at 25 C and 1 atm) for Li{sup +}-exchanged PILC. The N{sub 2} capacity, however, is only 20% that of the zeolite, and remains to be improved. A systematic investigation is conducted on the effects of three factors on the N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} selectivity: (1) starting clays (tetrahedral vs octahedral isomorphous substitution and clays with different charge densities), (2) different metal oxides as pillars, and (3) different ion exchange alkali metal cations (Li{sup +}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Rb{sup +}, and Cs{sup +}). The highest N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} selectivities are achieved by using clays with the highest charge densities, metal oxides forming pillars with the narrowest gallery spaces, and ion exchange cations with the smallest ionic radii. Effects by all three factors are qualitatively understood. The high N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} selectivity on the Li{sup +} exchanged PILC is the result of the small ionic radius (and hence high polarizing power) of Li{sup +} and the strong quadrupole moment of the N{sub 2} molecule. Moreover, a technique is developed with which the amount of the exchanged cations can exceed that allowed by the original cation exchange capacity of the clay by using a high pH value in the ion exchange solution.

Cheng, L.S.; Yang, R.T. [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Influence of energy exchange of electrons and ions on the long-wavelength thermal instability in magnetized astrophysical objects  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......research-article Papers Influence of energy exchange of electrons and ions...are different and include the energy exchange in thermal equations...Vazquez-Semadeni Gazol 2002; Audit Hennebelle 2005; Stiele, Lesch...does not take into account an energy exchange between species in......

Anatoly K. Nekrasov

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Modelling Mixed Bed Ion Exchange Kinetics for Removal of Trace Levels of Divalent Cations in Ultrapure Water  

SciTech Connect

Ion exchanger resin fluid film mass transfer coefficients and the ionic diffusivities from which they are derived are often measured by use of ion exchange resin columns. Such tests, usually run dynamically using short resin beds, are often performed using relatively high (ppm) concentrations of ions to accurately measure output concentrations as a function of flow rate. The testing described herein was performed to determine fluid film ionic diffusivities for cationic concentrations typical of ultrapure water ({le}ppb levels) containing ppm levels of ammonia. Effective ionic diffusivities at these low ionic concentrations and high pHs were needed to complete a computer model (SIMIX) to be used in ion exchange simulations. SIMIX is a generalized multicomponent ion exchange model designed to simulate the removal of divalent cations from ultrapure water.

B. Widman

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy of the plasma ion temperature at the T-10 tokamak  

SciTech Connect

Charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) based on a diagnostic neutral beam has been developed at the T-10 tokamak. The diagnostics allows one to measure the ion temperature profile in the cross section of the plasma column. In T-10 experiments, the measurement technique was adjusted and the elements of the CXRS diagnostics for ITER were tested. The used spectroscopic equipment makes it possible to reliably determine the ion temperature from the Doppler broadening of impurity lines (helium, carbon), as well as of the spectral lines of the working gas. The profiles of the plasma ion temperature in deuterium and helium discharges were measured at different plasma currents and densities, including with the use of active Doppler measurements of lines of different elements. The validity and reliability of ion temperature measurements performed by means of the developed CXRS diagnostics are analyzed.

Krupin, V. A., E-mail: vkrupin@nfi.kiae.ru [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Tugarinov, S. N. [Project Center ITER (Russian Federation)] [Project Center ITER (Russian Federation); Barsukov, A. G.; Dnestrovskij, A. Yu.; Klyuchnikov, L. A.; Korobov, K. V.; Krasnyanskii, S. A. [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)] [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Naumenko, N. N. [National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Stepanov Institute of Physics (Belarus)] [National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Stepanov Institute of Physics (Belarus); Nemets, A. R.; Sushkov, A. V.; Tilinin, G. N. [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)] [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

126

Disease-associated changes in the expression of ion channels, ion receptors, ion exchangers and Ca{sup 2+}-handling proteins in heart hypertrophy  

SciTech Connect

The molecular pathology of cardiac hypertrophy is multifactorial with transcript regulation of ion channels, ion exchangers and Ca{sup 2+}-handling proteins being speculative. We therefore investigated disease-associated changes in gene expression of various ion channels and their receptors as well as ion exchangers, cytoskeletal proteins and Ca{sup 2+}-handling proteins in normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats. We also compared experimental findings with results from hypertrophic human hearts, previously published (Borlak, J., and Thum, T., 2003. Hallmarks of ion channel gene expression in end-stage heart failure. FASEB J. 17, 1592-1608). We observed significant (P < 0.05) induction in transcript level of ATP-driven ion exchangers (Atp1A1, NCX-1, SERCA2a), ion channels (L-type Ca{sup 2+}-channel, K{sub ir}3.4, Na{sub v}1.5) and RyR-2 in hypertrophic hearts, while gene expression was repressed in diseased human hearts. Further, the genes coding for calreticulin and calmodulin, PMCA 1 and 4 as well as {alpha}-skeletal actin were significantly (P < 0.05) changed in hypertrophic human heart, but were unchanged in hypertrophic left ventricles of the rat heart. Notably, transcript level of {alpha}- and {beta}-MHC, calsequestrin, K{sub ir}6.1 (in the right ventricle only), phospholamban as well as troponin T were repressed in both diseased human and rat hearts. Our study enabled an identification of disease-associated candidate genes. Their regulation is likely to be the result of an imbalance between pressure load/stretch force and vascular tonus and the observed changes may provide a rational for the rhythm disturbances observed in patients with cardiac hypertrophy.

Zwadlo, Carolin [Fraunhofer Institute of Toxicology and Experimental Medicine, Center for Drug Research and Medical Biotechnology, Hannover (Germany); Borlak, Juergen [Fraunhofer Institute of Toxicology and Experimental Medicine, Center for Drug Research and Medical Biotechnology, Hannover (Germany)]. E-mail: borlak@item.fraunhofer.de

2005-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

127

A photodiode-based neutral particle bolometer for characterizing charge-exchanged fast-ion behavior  

SciTech Connect

A neutral particle bolometer (NPB) has been designed and implemented on Tri Alpha Energy's C-2 device in order to spatially and temporally resolve the charge-exchange losses of fast-ion populations originating from neutral beam injection into field-reversed configuration plasmas. This instrument employs a silicon photodiode as the detection device with an integrated tungsten filter coating to reduce sensitivity to light radiation. Here we discuss the technical aspects and calibration of the NPB, and report typical NPB measurement results of wall recycling effects on fast-ion losses.

Clary, R.; Smirnov, A.; Dettrick, S.; Knapp, K.; Korepanov, S.; Ruskov, E. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States); Heidbrink, W. W.; Zhu, Y. [University of California-Irvine, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

128

Radioactive wastewater treatment using a mixture of TANNIX sorbent and VARION mixed bed ion exchange resin  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A wastewater treatment system has been developed by using a mixture of ammonium-insoluble tannin (TANNIX, this is the trademark of an adsorbent made by Mitsubishi Nuclear Fuel Co. Ltd) and mixed (strong acid cation exchanger and strong base anion exchanger) ion exchange resin (MIX) for the selective separation of transuranium isotopes, including Pu, Am, Cm, and U, as well as fission and radioactive corrosion products from boric acid solution (pH ? 4.1). The equilibrium and fixed bed sorption experiments resulted in Kd values of 104â??105 ml/g, and decontamination factors of 1,000, with a breakthrough point between 1500 BV and 5000 BV of accumulated volume.

G. Patzay; P. Tilky; J. Schunk; T. Pinter; F. Feil; K. Hamaguchi; L. Weiser

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

DOE Office of Waste Processing Technical Exchange - Agenda  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

June 1, 2009 June 1, 2009 Agenda Hotel Information Registration Presentation Guidelines Poster Guidelines Webcast Waiver Contacts Home Waste Processing Technical Exchange Agenda (Version 1.1) Pre-Registration: Monday, May 18, 5:00p - 7:00p Organizer/Session Chair: Blocker (early registration & speaker check-in) Day 1: Tuesday, May 19 Registration - 7:00a - 8:00a Session One - Opening Session Two - Waste Retrieval and Closure 1 Session Three - Waste Form Development Day 2: Wednesday, May 20 Session Four - Pretreatment 1 Session Five - Facility Readiness and Start-up Session Six - Pretreatment 2 Session Seven - Waste Retrieval and Closure 2 Session Eight - Poster Presentations Day 3: Thursday, May 21 Session Nine - Regulatory Activity and Performance Assessment Session Ten - Waste Storage and Tank Farm Operational Improvements

130

Modification of Malonamide Ion-Exchange/Chelating Resins Using the Fields–Kabatschnik Reaction and Their Application to Metal Ion Removal from Aqueous Solutions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A resin containing 2-aminoethyl-substituted amides of malonic acid was modified in the Fields–Kabatschnik reaction using diethyl phosphite. The resultant ion-exchange/chelating resins have aminomethylphosphona...

Andrzej W. Trochimczuk; Julia Jezierska

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Spectroscopic in Situ Imaging of Acid Coextraction Processes in Solvent Polymeric Ion-Selective Electrode and Optode Membranes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Spectroscopic in Situ Imaging of Acid Coextraction Processes in Solvent Polymeric Ion-Selective Electrode and Optode Membranes ... 11 The optical and potentiometric responses can, therefore, be interrelated. ... 10 At high pH, on the other hand, the lower detection limit of the ISE is defined by an ion-exchange process, where H+ from the membrane is replaced by an interfering cation of the sample. ...

Ernö Lindner; Titus Zwickl; Eric Bakker; Bui Thi Thu Lan; Klara Tóth; Ernö Pretsch

1998-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

132

The effects of amine additives and flow rate on the performance of mixed-bed ion exchange at ultralow concentrations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Experimental data were obtained to evaluate the effects of amine additives for pH control of solution and the ... performance of mixed-bed ion exchange for the removal of ionic impurities in solution. The experim...

Byeong Il Noh; Gang Choon Lee; Tae Kyung Yoon

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Final purification of synthetic olive oil mill wastewater treated by chemical oxidation using ion exchange: Study of operating parameters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this research work, ion exchange (IE) is presented as a suitable option for purification of olive oil mill wastewater (OMW) previously treated by means of a secondary treatment (OMWST). This pretreatment consisted in Fenton-like oxidation process, followed by coagulation–flocculation and filtration through olive stones. The parametric requirements for drinking water production or at least for public waterways discharge were achieved using a combination of two IE columns working in series at bench scale. The IE resins used in this study were Dowex Marathon C and Amberlite IRA-67. The effect of contact time, operating temperature and flow rate on simultaneous removal of sodium, total iron, chloride and phenols (the major pollutant species in OMWST) were investigated. Removal percentages of sodium, chloride and total iron increased with incrementing the contact time. Equilibrium was obtained in about 30 min for all ions and ion concentrations values determined were lower than the maximum levels for drinking water standards. On the other hand, adsorption efficiencies of sodium, total iron and chloride ions were found to be not considerably affected by the operating temperature. The highest phenols removal percentage (around 100%) was obtained in the first minutes for 298 K and 10 L/h.

M.D. Víctor-Ortega; J.M. Ochando-Pulido; G. Hodaifa; A. Martinez-Ferez

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Investigation of the ion exchange equilibrium between NA+, Ca++, Mg++, and a sulfonated polystyrene resin at various concentrations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

INVESTIGATiON OF THE ION EXCHANGE EQUILIBRIUM BETWEEN Na , Ca++, Mg++, AND A SULFONATED POLYSTYRENE RESIN AT VARIOUS CONCENTRATIONS A THESIS BY WILLIAM FRANKLIN McILHENNY Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical... College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January 1958 MaJor Subject: Chemical Engineering INVESTIGATION OF THE ION EXCHANGE EQUILIBRIUM BFTWEEN Na+, Ca++ Mg++ AND A SULFONATED POLYSTYRENE RESIN...

McIlhenny, William Franklin

1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

The Phylogenetic Indian Buffet Process: A Non-Exchangeable Nonparametric Prior for Latent Features  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Phylogenetic Indian Buffet Process: A Non-Exchangeable Nonparametric Prior for Latent Features- exchangeable prior for a class of nonparametric latent feature models. Our point of departure is the In- dian. In this stochastic process--the Phylogenetic Indian Buffet Process (pIBP)--the probability that a diner chooses

Jordan, Michael I.

136

Taint-Exchange: a Generic System for Cross-process and Cross-host Taint Tracking  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Taint-Exchange: a Generic System for Cross-process and Cross-host Taint Tracking Angeliki Zavou also utilized to track data across processes and hosts to shed light on the interaction of distributed components, but also for security purposes. This paper presents Taint-Exchange, a generic cross- process

Yang, Junfeng

137

Measurement of charge exchange cross sections for highly charged xenon and thorium ions with molecular hydrogen in a Penning Ion Trap  

SciTech Connect

Highly charged xenon (35+ to 46+) and thorium (72+ to 79+) ions were produced in an Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT). The ions were extracted from EBIT in a short pulse. Ions of one charge state were selected using an electromagnet. The ions were recaptured at low energy in a cryogenic Penning trap (RETRAP). As the ions captured electrons from molecular hydrogen, populations of the various charge states were obtained by measuring the image currents induced by the ions on the electrodes of the trap. Data on the number of ions in each charge state vs. time were compared to theoretical rate equations in order to determine the average charge exchange rates. These rates were compared to charge exchange rates of an ion with a known charge exchange cross section (Ar{sup 11+}) measured in a similar manner in order to determine the average charge exchange cross sections for the highly charged ions. The energy of interaction between the highly charged ions and hydrogen was estimated to be 4 eV in the center of mass frame. The mean charge exchange cross sections were 9 {times} 10{sup {minus}14} cm{sup 2} for Xe{sup 43+} to Xe{sup 46+} and 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}13} cm{sup 2} for Th{sup 73+} to Th{sup 79+}. Double capture was approximately 20--25% of the total for both xenon and thorium. A fit indicated that the cross sections were approximately proportional to q. This is consistent with a linear dependence of cross section on q within the measurement uncertainties.

Weinberg, G.M.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Perchlorate Degradation Using Partially Oxidized Titanium Ions and Ion Exchange Membrane Hybrid System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. To enhance the overall rate of reaction, high concentrations of acid and Ti(III) are needed, but transport of hydrogen ions through the anion permeable membrane was observed and would be greater at higher acid concentrations. The proposed mathematical model...

Park, Sung Hyuk

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

139

Parametric Ion-Exchange Processes (Parametric Pumping and Allied Techniques)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The term “parametric pumping” implies the idea of pumping, that is of transport of material (in our case, ionic species) up along some potential scale (in our case, chemical potential), at the cost of degradat...

D. Tondeur; G. Grevillot

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Summary - Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX)Technology at the SRS  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

ETR ETR R Un Baseline The Sm being The SC operat which Sr, and waste critical the SC deploy Specif exchan [CST]) CST, a (mono and so (RMF) maturi readin design moving The pu techni projec Site: S roject: S E Report Date: F ited States Sma Why DOE e SCIX System Pr mall Column Io developed at S CIX system is tions (ion excha function to rem d actinides) fro and prepare th l technology ele CIX system tha yment and thes fically the critica nge on a selec ) housed in an actinide and Sr osodium titanat olids/liquid sepa ). The objectiv ty of the SCIX ess of the proc n, and to provid g towards deta To view the full E http://www.em.doe. urpose of an Externa ical risk associated w ct decisions. Technic Savannah Rive Small Column Exchange/SCIX Feb. 2011 Departmen ll Colum E-EM Did This rocess Diagram on Exchange (S

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ion exchange process" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Multiphysics modeling of lithium ion battery capacity fading process with solid-electrolyte interphase growth by elementary reaction kinetics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A pseudo two-dimensional mathematical model is developed for a lithium ion battery, integrating the elementary reaction based solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) growth model with multiple transport processes. The model is validated using the experimental data. Simulation results indicate that the operating temperature has great effect on the SEI layer generation and growth. Under different charging–discharging rates, it is found that high charging–discharging rate can intensify the battery capacity fading process. Different cooling conditions are then applied and show that enhanced surface convective cooling condition can effectively slow down the battery capacity fading. After that, the effect of electrolyte salt concentration and exchange current density are studied. It is found that raising the electrolyte salt concentration can improve the diffusion property of lithium ions, and stabilize the battery performance under lithium ion consumption induced resistance rising. It also suggests that improving exchange current density could greatly decrease the lithium ion battery capacity fading.

Yuanyuan Xie; Jianyang Li; Chris Yuan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Ion exchange technology in the remediation of uranium contaminated groundwater at Fernald  

SciTech Connect

Using pump and treat methodology, uranium contaminated groundwater is being removed from the Great Miami Aquifer at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) per the FEMP Record of Decision (ROD) that defines groundwater cleanup. Standard extraction wells pump about 3900 gallons-per-minute (gpm) from the aquifer through five ion exchange treatment systems. The largest treatment system k the Advanced Wastewater Treatment (AWWT) Expansion System with a capacity of 1800 gpm, which consists of three trains of two vessels. The trains operate in parallel treating 600 gpm each, The two vessels in each train operate in series, one in lead and one in lag. Treated groundwater is either reinfected back into the aquifer to speed up the aquifer cleanup processor discharged to the Great Miami River. The uranium regulatory ROD limit for discharge to the river is 20 parts per billion (ppb), and the FEMP uranium administrative action level for reinfection is 10 ppb. Spent (i.e., a resin that no longer adsorbs uranium) ion exchange resins must either be replaced or regenerated. The regeneration of spent ion exchange resins is considerably more cost effective than their replacement. Therefore, a project was undertaken to learn how best to regenerate the resins in the groundwater vessels. At the outset of this project, considerable uncertainty existed as to whether a spent resin could be regenerated successfully enough so that it performed as well as new resin relative to achieving very low uranium concentrations in the effluent. A second major uncertain y was whether the operational lifetime of a regenerated resin would be similar to that of a new resin with respect to uranium loading capacity and effluent concentration behavior. The project was successful in that a method for regenerating resins has been developed that is operationally efficient, that results in regenerated resins yielding uranium concentrations much lower than regulatory limits, and that results in regenerated resins with operational lifetimes comparable to new resins.

Chris Sutton; Cathy Glassmeyer; Steve Bozich

2000-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

143

Secondary ion coincidence in highly charged ion based secondary ion mass spectroscopy for process characterization  

SciTech Connect

Coincidence counting in highly charged ion based secondary ion mass spectroscopy has been applied to the characterization of selective tungsten deposition via disilane reduction of tungsten hexafluoride on a patterned SiO{sub 2}/Si wafer. The high secondary ion yield and the secondary ion emission from a small area produced by highly charged ions make the coincidence technique very powerful.

Hamza, A.V.; Schenkel, T.; Barnes, A.V.; Schneider, D.H. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, California, 94551 (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, California, 94551 (United States)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Composition and process for separating cesium ions from an acidic aqueous solution also containing other ions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A crown ether cesium ion extractant is disclosed as is its synthesis. The crown ether cesium ion extractant is useful for the selective purification of cesium ions from aqueous acidic media, and more particularly useful for the isolation of radioactive cesium-137 from nuclear waste streams. Processes for isolating cesium ions from aqueous acidic media using the crown ether cesium extractant are disclosed as are processes for recycling the crown ether cesium extractant and processes for recovering cesium from a crown ether cesium extractant solution.

Dietz, Mark L. (Elmhurst, IL); Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Bartsch, Richard A. (Lubbock, TX); Barrans, Jr., Richard E. (Downers Grove, IL); Rausch, David (Naperville, IL)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Initial cost analysis of a desalination process utilizing hydrotalcite and permutite for ion sequestration.  

SciTech Connect

An initial cost analysis of a proposed desalination process was performed. The proposed process utilizes tailored inorganic ion exchangers, hydrotalcite and permutite, to sequester anions and cations from a brackish water solution. Three different process scenarios were considered: (1) disposal of the spent exchangers as dry waste (2) conventional chemical regeneration, and (3) acid regeneration of permutite coupled with thermal (550 C) regeneration of hydrotalcite. Disposal of the resin and conventional regeneration are not viable options from an economic standpoint. Applying limited data and optimistic assumptions to the third scenario yielded an estimate of $2.34/kgal of product water. Published values for applying conventional reverse osmosis to similar water streams range from $0.70 to $2.65/kgal. Consistent with these baseline values, the Water Treatment Estimation Routine, WaTER, developed by the United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation produced a cost estimate of $1.16/kgal for brackish water reverse osmosis.

Miller, James Edward; Evans, Lindsey R.

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Literature Review of Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde for Cesium Ion Exchange  

SciTech Connect

The current report summarizes work performed throughout the scientific community and DOE complex as reported in the open literature and DOE-sponsored reports to evaluate the Cs+ ion exchange (CIX) characteristics of SRF resin. King (2007) completed a similar literature review in support of material selection for the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) project. Josephson et al. (2010) and Sams et al. (2009) provided a similar brief review of SRF CIX for the near-tank Cs+ removal (NTCR) project. Thorson (2008a) documented the basis for recommending SRF over SuperLigTM 644 as the primary CIX resin in the WTP. The current review expands on previous work, summarizes additional work completed to date, and provides a broad view of the literature without focusing on a specific column system. Although the focus of the current review is the SRF resin, many cited references include multiple materials such as the non-spherical GGRF and SuperLigTM 644 organic resins and crystalline silicotitanate (CST) IONSIVTM IE-911, a non-elutable inorganic material. This report summarizes relevant information provided in the literature.

Brown, Garrett N.

2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

147

IMPACTS OF SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE STREAMS ON DWPF GLASS FORMULATION KT07-SERIES GLASS COMPOSITIONS  

SciTech Connect

This report is the third in a series of studies of the impacts of the addition of Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) and Monosodium Titanate (MST) from the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process on the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) glass waste form and the applicability of the DWPF process control models. MST from the Salt Waste Processing Facility is also considered in the study. The KT07-series glasses were selected to evaluate any potential impacts of noble metals on their properties and performance. The glasses characterized thus far for the SCIX study have not included noble metals since they are not typically tracked in sludge batch composition projections. However, noble metals can act as nucleation sites in glass melts, leading to enhanced crystallization. This crystallization can potentially influence the properties and performance of the glass, such as chemical durability, viscosity, and liquidus temperature. The noble metals Ag, Pd, Rh, and Ru were added to the KT07-series glasses in concentrations based on recent measurements of Sludge Batch 6, which was considered to contain a high concentration of noble metals. The KT04-series glasses were used as the baseline compositions. After fabrication, the glasses were characterized to determine their homogeneity, chemical composition, durability, and viscosity. Liquidus temperature measurements are also underway but were not complete at the time of this report. The liquidus temperature results for the KT07-series glasses, along with several of the earlier glasses in the SCIX study, will be documented separately. All of the KT07-series glasses, both quenched and slowly cooled, were found to be amorphous by X-ray diffraction. Chemical composition measurements showed that all of the glasses met their targeted compositions. The Product Consistency Test (PCT) results showed that all of the glasses had chemical durabilities that were far better than that of the Environmental Assessment benchmark glass. The measured PCT responses were well predicted by the current DWPF Product Composition Control System (PCCS) durability models. The measured viscosity values for each KT07-series glass were acceptable for DWPF processing and were well predicted by the current PCCS model. Overall, the results show that the inclusion of relatively high concentrations of noble metals (in terms of expected values for a DWPF sludge batch) had no significant impact on the properties and performance of these glass compositions. There were no significant differences in the measured properties when compared to those of the KT04-series glasses, which did not contain noble metals. Liquidus temperature measurements are still underway and there may be an impact of the noble metals on those measurements. However, no adverse effects were noted in terms of crystallization after slow cooling. At the completion of these studies, all of the data generated will be reviewed with regard to the applicability of the DWPF PCCS models and recommendations will be made as to whether the validation ranges of the current models can be extended, or whether some or all of the models need to be refit to allow for the incorporation of the SCIX streams. As changes are made to the projected sludge compositions and the volume of the SCIX material, additional evaluations should be performed.

Fox, K.; Edwards, T.

2011-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

148

Influence of earth gravity on reaction engineering of tubular reactor for high concentration tungsten ion-exchange  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The influence of gravity on the reaction engineering of tubular reactor is studied by analyzing the residence time distribution curves. The results show that upflow-feeding mode is more beneficial compared with downflow-feeding mode, since the flow pattern of the fluid in the reactor is closer to plug flow. The result of dynamic experiment conducted in ion-exchange of tungsten metallurgy is as good as that in reaction engineering of ion-exchange column. Whether downflow-feeding or upflow-feeding mode is adopted, breakthrough time decreases when solution concentration increases. Upflow-feeding mode has longer breakthrough time and greater improvement in adsorption capacity especially with high WO3 concentration in ion-exchange.

Zhong-wei ZHAO; Lu-ping XIAO; Chi-hao GUO; Xing-yu CHEN; Ai-liang CHEN; Guang-sheng HUO; Hong-gui LI

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Ion-pairing dynamics of Li{sup +} and SCN{sup -} in dimethylformamide solution: Chemical exchange two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Ultrafast two-dimensional infrared (2DIR) spectroscopy has been proven to be an exceptionally useful method to study chemical exchange processes between different vibrational chromophores under thermal equilibria. Here, we present experimental results on the thermal equilibrium ion pairing dynamics of Li{sup +} and SCN{sup -} ions in N,N-dimethylformamide. Li{sup +} and SCN{sup -} ions can form a contact ion pair (CIP). Varying the relative concentration of Li{sup +} in solution, we could control the equilibrium CIP and free SCN{sup -} concentrations. Since the CN stretch frequency of Li-SCN CIP is blue-shifted by about 16 cm{sup -1} from that of free SCN{sup -} ion, the CN stretch IR spectrum is a doublet. The temperature-dependent IR absorption spectra reveal that the CIP formation is an endothermic (0.57 kJ/mol) process and the CIP state has larger entropy by 3.12 J/(K mol) than the free ion states. Since the two ionic configurations are spectrally distinguishable, this salt solution is ideally suited for nonlinear IR spectroscopic investigations to study ion pair association and dissociation dynamics. Using polarization-controlled IR pump-probe methods, we first measured the lifetimes and orientational relaxation times of these two forms of ionic configurations. The vibrational population relaxation times of both the free ion and CIP are about 32 ps. However, the orientational relaxation time of the CIP, which is {approx}47 ps, is significantly longer than that of the free SCN{sup -}, which is {approx}7.7 ps. This clearly indicates that the effective moment of inertia of the CIP is much larger than that of the free SCN{sup -}. Then, using chemical exchange 2DIR spectroscopy and analyzing the diagonal peak and cross-peak amplitude changes with increasing the waiting time, we determined the contact ion pair association and dissociation time constants that are found to be 165 and 190 ps, respectively. The results presented and discussed in this paper are believed to be important, not only because the ion-pairing dynamics is one of the most fundamental physical chemistry problems but also because such molecular ion-ion interactions are of critical importance in understanding Hofmeister effects on protein stability.

Lee, Kyung-Koo; Park, Kwang-Hee; Kwon, Donghyun; Choi, Jun-Ho; Son, Hyewon [Department of Chemistry, Research Institute for Natural Sciences, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sungnam; Cho, Minhaeng [Department of Chemistry, Research Institute for Natural Sciences, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Multidimensional Spectroscopy Laboratory, Korea Basic Science Institute, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

150

Photoionization of strontium for trapped-ion quantum information processing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report a demonstration of simple and effective loading of strontium ions into a linear radio frequency Paul trap using photoionization. The ionization pathway is 5s2 1S0 -- 5s5p 1P1 -- 5p2 1D2, and the 5p2 1D2 final state is auto-ionizing. Both transitions are driven using diode lasers: a grating-stabilized 922 nm diode doubled in a single pass through potassium niobate to 461 nm and a bare diode at 405 nm. Using this technique, we have reduced the background pressure during the ion loading process by a factor of 2 compared to the conventional technique of electron bombardment. Initial ion temperatures are low enough that the ions immediately form crystals. It is also possible to observe the trapping region with a CCD camera during ion creation, allowing specific ion number loading with high probability.

K. Vant; J. Chiaverini; W. Lybarger; D. J. Berkeland

2006-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

151

Explosive shock processing of Pr2Fe14B/ Fe exchange-coupled nanocomposite bulk magnets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Explosive shock processing of Pr2Fe14B/ ­Fe exchange-coupled nanocomposite bulk magnets Z.Q. Jin between neigh- boring magnetic phases.1,2 The prerequisite for effective exchange coupling is a small are usually used to produce single-phase microcrystalline permanent magnets, are not favored in making bulk

Liu, J. Ping

152

Preliminary Ion Exchange Modeling for Removal of Cesium from Hanford Waste Using SuperLig 644 Resin  

SciTech Connect

A proposed facility is being designed for the immobilization of Hanford high-level radioactive waste. One unit process in the facility is designed to remove radioactive cesium by ion-exchange from the strongly alkaline aqueous phase. A resin specifically designed with high selectivity of cesium under alkaline conditions is being investigated. The resin also is elutable under more acidic conditions. The proposed design of the facility consists of two sets of two packed columns placed in series (i.e., a lead column followed by a lag (guard) column configuration). During operation, upon reaching a specified cesium concentration criterion at the exit of the lag column, operation is switched to the second set of lead and lag columns. The cesium-loaded lead column is processed (i.e., washed and eluted) and switched to the lag position. the previous lag column is then placed in the lead position (without eluting) and the system is ready for use in the next cycle. For a well designed process, the loading and elution processes result in significant volume reductions in aqueous high-level waste.

Hamm, L.L.

2000-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

153

REMOVAL OF CESIUM FROM SAVANNAH RIVER SITE WASTE WITH SPHERICAL RESORCINOL FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN EXPERIMENTAL TESTS  

SciTech Connect

A principal goal at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is to safely dispose of the large volume of liquid nuclear waste held in many storage tanks. In-tank ion exchange (IX) columns are being considered for cesium removal. The spherical form of resorcinol formaldehyde ion exchange resin (sRF) is being evaluated for decontamination of dissolved saltcake waste at SRS, which is generally lower in potassium and organic components than Hanford waste. The sRF performance with SRS waste was evaluated in two phases: resin batch contacts and IX column testing with both simulated and actual dissolved salt waste. The tests, equipment, and results are discussed.

Duignan, M.; Nash, C.

2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

154

IMPACT OF SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE STREAMS ON DWPF GLASS FORMULATION MELT RATE STUDIES  

SciTech Connect

This study was undertaken to evaluate the potential impacts of the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) streams - particularly the addition of Monosodium Titanate (MST) and Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) - on the melt rate of simulated feed for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Additional MST was added to account for contributions from the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Melt Rate Furnace (MRF) was used to evaluate four melter feed compositions: two with simulated SCIX and SWPF material and two without. The Slurry-fed Melt Rate Furnace (SMRF) was then used to compare two different feeds: one with and one without bounding concentrations of simulated SCIX and SWPF material. Analyses of the melter feed materials confirmed that they met their targeted compositions. Four feeds were tested in triplicate in the MRF. The linear melt rates were determined by using X-ray computed tomography to measure the height of the glass formed along the bottom of the beakers. The addition of the SCIX and SWPF material reduced the average measured melt rate by about 10% in MRF testing, although there was significant scatter in the data. Two feeds were tested in the SMRF. It was noted that the ground CST alone (ground CST with liquid in a bucket) was extremely difficult to resuspend during preparation of the feed with material from SCIX and SWPF. This feed was also more difficult to pump than the material without MST and CST due to settling occurring in the melter feed line, although the yield stress of both feeds was high relative to the DWPF design basis. Steady state feeding conditions were maintained for about five hours for each feed. There was a reduction in the feed and pour rates of approximately 15% when CST and MST were added to the feed, although there was significant scatter in the data. Analysis of samples collected from the SMRF pour stream showed that the composition of the glass changed as expected when MST and CST were added to the feed. These reductions in melt rate are consistent with previous studies that showed a negative impact of increased TiO{sub 2} concentrations on the rate of melting. The impact of agitating the melt pool via bubbling was not studied as part of this work, but may be of interest for further testing. It is recommended that additional melt rate testing be performed should a potential reduction in melt rate of 10-15% be considered an issue of concern, or should the anticipated composition of the glass with the addition of material from salt waste processing be modified significantly from the current projections, either due to changes in sludge batch preparation or changes in the composition or volume of SCIX and SWPF material.

Fox, K.; Miller, D.; Koopman, D.

2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

155

Nucleon exchange mechanism in heavy-ion collisions at near-barrier energies  

SciTech Connect

Nucleon drift and diffusion mechanisms in central collisions of asymmetric heavy ions at near-barrier energies are investigated in the framework of a stochastic mean-field approach. Expressions for diffusion and drift coefficients for nucleon transfer deduced from the stochastic mean-field approach in the semiclassical approximation have similar forms familiar from the phenomenological nucleon exchange model. The variance of fragment mass distribution agrees with the empirical formula {sigma}{sub AA}{sup 2}(t)=N{sub exc}(t). The comparison with the time-dependent Hartree-Fock calculations shows that below barrier energies, the drift coefficient in the semiclassical approximation underestimates the mean number of nucleon transfer obtained in the quantal framework. Motion of the window in the dinuclear system has a significant effect on the nucleon transfer in asymmetric collisions.

Yilmaz, B. [Physics Department, Ankara University, Tandogan 06100, Ankara (Turkey); Ayik, S. [Physics Department, Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, Tennessee 38505 (United States); Lacroix, D. [Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds (GANIL), CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Washiyama, K. [PNTPM, CP 229, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

156

Synthesis and Characterization of the Microporosity of Ion-Exchanged Al2O3-Pillared Clays  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Although most PILC studies have focused on their use for catalytic application, there has also been other work in which PILCs have been studied as potential sorbents for gas separation applications. ... We have chosen Al2O3-pillared clay for this study because of the small pore size and interlayer spacing of this material compared with other types of pillared clays (e.g., TiO2-PILC, SiO2-PILC).1 ... The samples and analytical results are identified by the following convention:? the sample Li+?PILC represents Al2O3-pillared clay which has undergone postsynthesis ion exchange with the Li+ cation (in a solution of LiCl as described earlier). ...

Nick D. Hutson; Donald J. Gualdoni; Ralph T. Yang

1998-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

157

Standard practice for The separation of americium from plutonium by ion exchange  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1.1 This practice describes the use of an ion exchange technique to separate plutonium from solutions containing low concentrations of americium prior to measurement of the 241Am by gamma counting. 1.2 This practice covers the removal of plutonium, but not all the other radioactive isotopes that may interfere in the determination of 241Am. 1.3 This practice can be used when 241Am is to be determined in samples in which the plutonium is in the form of metal, oxide, or other solid provided that the solid is appropriately sampled and dissolved (See Test Methods C758, C759, and C1168). 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Energy Exchange Process in Two-Longitudinal-Mode Optically Pumped Submillimeter Wave Laser  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Based on the semi-classical density matrix equations and numerical iteration calculation, the gain coefficient of nine-energy-level NH3 molecular system was figured out. Energy exchange process in two-longitudina...

Xizhang Luo; Ping Zhang; Miaohua Lin

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Cement waste-form development for ion-exchange resins at the Rocky Flats Plant  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the development of a cement waste form to stabilize ion-exchange resins at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). These resins have an elevated potential for ignition due to inadequate wetness and contact with nitrates. The work focused on the preparation and performance evaluation of several Portland cement/resin formulations. The performance standards were chosen to address Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and Environmental Protection Agency Resource Conservation and Recovery Act requirements, compatibility with Rocky Flats equipment, and throughput efficiency. The work was performed with surrogate gel-type Dowex cation- and anion-exchange resins chosen to be representative of the resin inventory at RFETS. Work was initiated with nonactinide resins to establish formulation ranges that would meet performance standards. Results were then verified and refined with actinide-containing resins. The final recommended formulation that passed all performance standards was determined to be a cement/water/resin (C/W/R) wt % ratio of 63/27/10 at a pH of 9 to 12. The recommendations include the acceptable compositional ranges for each component of the C/W/R ratio. Also included in this report are a recommended procedure, an equipment list, and observations/suggestions for implementation at RFETS. In addition, information is included that explains why denitration of the resin is unnecessary for stabilizing its ignitability potential.

Veazey, G.W. [Los Alamos National Labs., NM (United States); Ames, R.L. [Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Golden, CO (United States)

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Modelling Zn (II) sorption onto clayey sediments using a multi-site ion-exchange model Tertre E.1,2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Modelling Zn (II) sorption onto clayey sediments using a multi-site ion-exchange model Tertre E.1.tertre@univ-poitiers.fr Keywords: ion exchange theory, zinc, clayey sediments, geochemical modelling, sorption and desorption the behaviour of these contaminants and, in particular, the sorption reactions on mineral surfaces. In this way

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

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161

DEVELOPMENT OF PROTOTYPE TITANATE ION EXCHANGE LOADED MEMBRANES FOR STRONTIUM, CESIUM AND ACTINIDE DECONTAMINATION FROM AQUEOUS MEDIA  

SciTech Connect

We have successfully incorporated high surface area particles of titanate ion exchange materials (monosodium titanate and crystalline silicotitanate) with acceptable particle size distribution into porous and inert support membrane fibrils consisting of polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon{reg_sign}), polyethylene and cellulose materials. The resulting membrane sheets, under laboratory conditions, were used to evaluate the removal of surrogate radioactive materials for cesium-137 and strontium-90 from high caustic nuclear waste simulants. These membrane supports met the nominal requirement for nonchemical interaction with the embedded ion exchange materials and were porous enough to allow sufficient liquid flow. Some of this 47-mm size stamped out prototype titanium impregnated ion exchange membrane discs was found to remove more than 96% of dissolved cesium-133 and strontium-88 from a caustic nuclear waste salt simulants. Since in traditional ion exchange based column technology monosodium titanate (MST) is known to have great affinity for the sorbing of other actinides like plutonium, neptunium and even uranium, we expect that the MST-based membranes developed here, although not directly evaluated for uptake of these three actinides because of costs associated with working with actinides which do not have 'true' experimental surrogates, would also show significant affinity for these actinides in aqueous media. It was also observed that crystalline silicotitanate impregnated polytetrafluoroethylene or polyethylene membranes became less selective and sorbed both cesium and strontium from the caustic aqueous salt simulants.

Oji, L; Keisha Martin, K; David Hobbs, D

2008-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

162

DOI: 10.1002/chem.201002135 High Gas Sorption and Metal-Ion Exchange of Microporous MetalOrganic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DOI: 10.1002/chem.201002135 High Gas Sorption and Metal-Ion Exchange of Microporous Metal nanoparticles in the MOF.[1,2f,3] Gas sorption properties also depend on pore volume and ligand structures] but sorption properties for other gases have been less well explored.[6] In addition, the tetracarboxylate

Paik Suh, Myunghyun

163

Permeation of ethylene and ethane through sulfonated polysulfones and sulfonated poly(phenylene oxide) ion exchange membranes  

SciTech Connect

Permeation of ethylene and ethane is sulfonated poly(phenylene oxide), sulfonated bisphenol A polyarylethersulfone and sulfonated hexafluorobisphenol A polyarylethersulfone (6F-SPS) exchanged with Ag{sup +} ions were measured as a function of degree of sulfonation, temperature and trans membrane differential pressure. The data were compared with the permeation results for these membranes in acid form and alkaline metal salt form. Membranes exchanged with Ag{sup +} ions displayed enhanced etylene permeability and ethylene-ethane separation factors. The enhancement in transport of ethylene in ion exchange membranes is apparently related to an increase in ethylene solubility affected by complexation of ethylene with immobilized Ag{sup +} ions. A substantial increase in ethylene permeation rate and separation factor was observed when the feed gas was saturated with water vapors. Enhanced permeation/separation were attributed to an increase in the mobility of silver ions in water plasticized membranes. Membranes plasticized with glycerol exhibited high ethylene permeation rate and ethylene/ethane separation factors in dry feed gas streams that were comparable with permeation rates in water plasticized membranes.

Yurkovetsky, A.; Watterson, A. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Lowell, MA (United States); Bikson, B. [Innovative Membrane Systems, Inc., Norwood, MA (United States); Kharas, G.B. [DePaul Univ., Chicago, IL (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

164

Ion exchange separation of plutonium and gallium (1) resource and inventory requirements, (2) waste, emissions, and effluent, and (3) facility size  

SciTech Connect

The following report summarizes an effort intended to estimate within an order-of-magnitude the (1) resource and inventory requirements, (2) waste, emissions, and effluent amounts, and (3) facility size, for ion exchange (IX) separation of plutonium and gallium. This analysis is based upon processing 3.5 MT-Pu/yr. The technical basis for this summary is detailed in a separate document, {open_quotes}Preconceptual Design for Separation of Plutonium and Gallium by Ion Exchange{close_quotes}. The material balances of this separate document are based strictly on stoichiometric amounts rather than details of actual operating experience, in order to avoid classification as Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information. This approximation neglets the thermodynamics and kinetics which can significantly impact the amount of reagents required. Consequently, the material resource requirements and waste amounts presented here would normally be considered minimums for processing 3.5 MT-Pu/yr; however, the author has compared the inventory estimates presented with that of an actual operating facility and found them similar. Additionally, the facility floor space presented here is based upon actual plutonium processing systems and can be considered a nominal estimate.

DeMuth, S.

1997-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

165

Optimization of Cesium Removal from Hanford Envelope A Simulant with SuperLig 639 Ion Exchange Resin  

SciTech Connect

Hanford RadioactiveWaste materials have been categorized into four envelopes labeled A through D as specified in the Tank Waste Remediation Contract between BNFL and DOE. 1 Envelopes A, B and C contain only solubilized species and are specified as Low-Activity Waste (LAW). Each envelope is defined based on compositional maximums of chemical and radioactive constituents. Envelopes A and B contain low concentrations of organic species and the primary form of technetium is pertechnetate (TcO4-). Envelope C contains higher levels of organic species and technetium which is primarily in the nonpertechnetate form (presumably complexed TcO2). Envelope D is sludge which has been separated from the supernate and is referred to as High Activity Waste. The current plant design utilizes SuperLig ion exchange resins to remove cesium and technetium (the primary radioactive constituents) from the Hanford LAW. The process is designed to produce a decontaminated waste stream and a concentrated eluate waste stream for vitrification into low and high activity glasses, respectively.

King, W.D.

2000-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

166

Evaluation Methodology for Advance Heat Exchanger Concepts Using Analytical Hierarchy Process  

SciTech Connect

The primary purpose of this study is to aid in the development and selection of the secondary/process heat exchanger (SHX) for power production and process heat application for a Next Generation Nuclear Reactors (NGNR). The potential options for use as an SHX are explored such as shell and tube, printed circuit heat exchanger. A shell and tube (helical coiled) heat exchanger is a recommended for a demonstration reactor because of its reliability while the reactor design is being further developed. The basic setup for the selection of the SHX has been established with evaluation goals, alternatives, and criteria. This study describes how these criteria and the alternatives are evaluated using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP).

Piyush Sabharwall; Eung Soo Kim

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Electron-exchange effects on the charge capture process in degenerate quantum plasmas  

SciTech Connect

The electron-exchange effects on the charge capture process are investigated in degenerate quantum plasmas. The Bohr-Lindhard formalism with the effective interaction potential is employed to obtain the charge capture radius, capture probability, and capture cross section as functions of the impact parameter, projectile energy, electron-exchange parameter, Fermi energy, and plasmon energy. The result shows that the electron-exchange effect enhances the charge capture radius and the charge capture cross section in semiconductor quantum plasmas. It is also found that the charge capture radius and charge capture cross section increases with an increase of the Fermi energy and, however, decreases with increasing plasmon energy. Additionally, it is found that the peak position of the charge capture cross section is receded from the collision center with an increase of the electron-exchange parameter.

Jung, Young-Dae, E-mail: ydjung@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, New York 12180-3590 (United States) [Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, New York 12180-3590 (United States); Department of Applied Physics and Department of Bionanotechnology, Hanyang University, Ansan, Kyunggi-Do 426-791 (Korea, Republic of); Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M. [Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Physics, 51745-406 Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of) [Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Physics, 51745-406 Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); International Centre for Advanced Studies in Physical Sciences and Institute for Theoretical Physics, Ruhr University Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

168

E-Print Network 3.0 - adjustment ion exchange Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

- Institut fr Experimentalphysik, Universitt Innsbruck Collection: Physics 14 ION CYCLOTRON HEATING IN A TOROIDAL OC TUPOLE J. D. Barter and J. C. Sprott Summary: ion...

169

New ion exchangers and solvent extractants for pre-analysis separation of actinides. Annual report, June 1982-May 1983  

SciTech Connect

Prior to radiochemical determination of actinide elements such as uranium, neptunium and plutonium, an ion exchange or solvent extraction method is often employed to separate these from themselves and other interfering elements. In order to improve the separation efficiency and reduce time, cost, and liquid waste of analytical separation methods, new and better ion exchangers and solvent extractants are under evaluation. New microreticular and macroreticular anion exchange resins and bifunctional organophosphorus solvent extractants have been evaluated for uranium, neptunium and plutonium separations. Previous work comparing numerous anion exchange resins has shown the macroreticular Amberlite IRA-938 resin as having the highest actinide capacity and best elution kinetics. Recent studies have confirmed the resin has advantages over others for Pu-U separations. Work at Rocky Flats on bifunctional organophosphorus solvent extractants for the recovery and purification of actinides has led to the identification of several new separation systems applicable for radiochemical analysis. Dihexyl-N,N-diethylcarbamoylmethylphosphonate (DHDECMP), its dibutyl analog DBDECMP, and DHDECMP-tributylphosphate (TBP) using liquid-liquid or extraction chromatography techniques are applicable for plutonium-americium and plutonium separations. Both DHDECMP and DBDECMP extract actinides strongly, extract lanthanides, iron, gallium, molybdenum, titanium, vanadium, zirconium partially, and do not extract most other elements from 5 to 7M nitric acid. With the DHDECMP-TBP and DBDECMP-TBP systems, synergistic effects have been observed for both plutonium and americium. The chemistry and application for pre-analysis separations of these solvent extraction systems are described. 11 references, 9 figures, 7 tables.

Navratil, J.D.

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Process for modifying the metal ion sorption capacity of a medium  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for modifying a medium is disclosed that includes treating a medium having a metal ion sorption capacity with a solution that includes: A) an agent capable of forming a complex with metal ions; and B) ions selected from the group consisting of sodium ions, potassium ions, magnesium ions, and combinations thereof, to create a medium having an increased capacity to sorb metal ions relative to the untreated medium.

Lundquist, Susan H. (White Bear Township, MN)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

REAL WASTE TESTING OF SPHERICAL RESORCINOL-FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN  

SciTech Connect

This report presents data on batch contact and column testing tasks for spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (sRF) resin. The testing used a non-radioactive simulant of SRS Tank 2F dissolved salt, as well as an actual radioactive waste sample of similar composition, which are both notably high in sodium (6 M). The resin was Microbeads batch 5E-370/641 which had been made on the hundred gallon scale. Equilibrium batch contact work focused on cesium at a temperature of 25 C due to the lack of such data to better benchmark existing isotherm models. Two campaigns were performed with small-scale ion exchange columns, first with Tank 2F simulant, then with actual dissolved salt in the Shielded Cells. An extrapolation of the batch contact results with radioactive waste over-predicted the cesium loaded onto the IX sRF resin bed by approximately 11%. This difference is not unexpected considering uncertainties from measurement and extrapolation and because the ion exchange that occurs when waste flows through a resin bed probably cannot reach the same level of equilibrium as when waste and resin are joined in a long term batch contact. Resin was also characterized to better understand basic chemistry issues such as holdup of trace transition metals present in the waste feed streams. The column tests involved using two beds of sRF resin in series, with the first bed referred to as the Lead column and the second bed as the Lag column. The test matrix included two complete IX cycles for both the simulant and actual waste phases. A cycle involves cesium adsorption, until the resin in the Lead column reaches saturation, and then regenerating the sRF resin, which includes eluting the cesium. Both the simulated and the actual wastes were treated with two cycles of operation, and the resin beds that were used in the Lead and Lag columns of simulant test phase were regenerated and reused in the actual waste test phase. This task is the first to demonstrate the treatment of SRS waste with sRF resin and the tests clearly demonstrated cesium decontamination for actual waste. The results of the column tests were similar for both the simulated and the actual waste and demonstrated Cs removal with sRF from both wastes. For a flowrate of 1.4 bed volumes (BV)/hour at 25 C those results with sRF resin were: (1) Simulant and actual waste results are equivalent; (2) Cs breakthrough began between 200 and 250 BV; (3) Cs breakthrough reached 100% at around 400 BV; (4) Cs breakthrough curve from 5% to 100% is approximately linear; (5) Cs elution with 0.5 M HNO3 starts at 2 BV and ends at 6BV; (6) Most, if not all, of Cs adsorbed during treatment is released during elution; (7) At 100% breakthrough of Cs the resin bed adsorbs approximately 85% of full capacity before detection in the effluent; the remaining 15% is adsorbed at saturation; (8) Approximately 90% of resin bed changes (color and volume) are complete by 6 BV; and (9) During elution the resin shrinks to about 80% of its fully working (sodium form) BV.

Nash, C.; Duignan, M.

2009-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

172

The synthesis and characterization of Zirconium p-Phenylbis(phosphonate) Phosphate and other Zirconium Arylbis(phosphonates) for the application of ion exchange  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. These materials showed promise for many uses, of greatest interest were of catalysis and ion exchange. Zirconium p-Phenylbis(phosphonate) Phosphate was synthesized by several routes to investigate the inherent structural characteristics as they applied...

Bellinghausen, Paul Christian

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

173

Exchange-bias instability in a bilayer with an ion-beam imprinted stripe pattern of ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic interfaces  

SciTech Connect

We have investigated the magnetization arrangement in an in-plane stripe pattern with alternating exchange-bias domains. The stripe pattern was produced by ion bombardment induced magnetic patterning, which changed locally the exchange-bias direction at the ferromagnet/antiferromagnet interface, but not the magnetic or antiferromagnetic properties of the Co{sub 70}Fe{sub 30} and Mn{sub 83}Ir{sub 17} layers, respectively. For the analysis of the magnetic domain structure evolution along the hysteresis loop we used a combination of experimental techniques: magneto-optical Kerr effect, Kerr microscopy, polarized neutron reflectometry, and off-specular scattering of polarized neutrons with polarization analysis. Instead of a perfect antiparallel alignment we found that the magnetization in neighboring stripes is periodically canted with respect to the stripe axis so that the net magnetization of the ferromagnetic film turns almost perpendicular to the stripes. At the same time the projection of the magnetization vector onto the stripe axis has a periodically alternating sign. The experimental observations are explained and quantitatively described within the frame of a phenomenological model, taking into account interfacial exchange bias, intralayer exchange energy, and uniaxial anisotropy. The model defines conditions which can be used for tailoring nano- and micro-patterned exchange-bias systems with different types of magnetic order.

Theis-Broehl, Katharina; Wolff, Maximilian; Westphalen, Andreas; Zabel, Hartmut; McCord, Jeffrey; Hoeink, Volker; Schmalhorst, Jan; Reiss, Guenther; Weis, Tanja; Engel, Dieter; Ehresmann, Arno; Ruecker, Ulrich; Toperverg, Boris P. [Department of Physics, Ruhr-University Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research Dresden, Institute for Metallic Materials, Helmholtzstrasse 20, D-01169 Dresden (Germany); Department of Physics, University Bielefeld, Universitaetsstrasse 25, D-33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Institute of Physics and Centre for Interdisciplinary Nanostructure Science and Technology (CINSaT), University of Kassel, Heinrich-Plett-Strasse 40, D-34132 Kassel (Germany); Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Department of Physics, Ruhr-University Bochum, D-44780 Bochum, Germany, Institut Laue Langevin, Boite Postale 156, Grenoble 38000, France, and Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, 188300 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Time-dependence ion charge state distributions of vacuum arcs: An interpretation involving atoms and charge exchange collisions  

SciTech Connect

Experimentally observed charge state distributions are known to be higher at the beginning of each arc discharge. Up to know, this has been attributed to cathode surface effects in terms of changes of temperature, chemical composition and spot mode. Here it is shown that the initial decay of charge states of cathodic arc plasmas may at least in part due to charge exchange collisions of ions with neutrals that gradually fill the discharge volume. Sources of neutrals may include evaporated atoms from macroparticles and still-hot craters of previously active arc spots. More importantly, atoms are also produced by energetic condensation of the cathodic arc plasma. Self-sputtering is significant when ions impact with near-normal angle of incidence, and ions have low sticking probability when impacting at oblique angle of incidence. Estimates show that the characteristic time for filling the near-cathode discharge volume agrees well with the charge state decay time, and the likelihood of charge exchange is reasonably large to be taken into account.

Anders, Andre

2004-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

175

Variations in K{sup +}-Na{sup +} ion exchange depth in commercial and experimental float glass compositions  

SciTech Connect

The authors report the results of ion-exchange experiments conducted on 17 commercial soda-lime-silicate (SLS) float glass and 8 experimental SLS glass compositions. A significant variation in the depth of K{sup +} penetration with relatively small changes in composition was observed. The data were fit to a multiple regression model in which the major oxides are the independent variables and depth of K{sup +} is the dependent variable. The model indicates that increased depth of exchange (increased interdiffusion coefficient) correlates predominantly with increased K{sub 2}O and/or Na{sub 2}O content of the glass, with a decreased total alkaline earth content and with the ratio of CaO/MgO.

Sinton, C.W.; LaCourse, W.C.; O'Connell, M.J.

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Continuous alpha-amylase production using Bacillus amyloliquefaciens adsorbed on an ion exchange resin  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A method for the continuous production of extracellular alpha amylase by surface immobilized cells of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens...NRC 2147 has been developed. A large-pore, macroreticular anionic exchange resin ...

Carl A. Groom; Andrew J. Daugulis…

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

PILOT-SCALE HYDRAULIC TESTING OF RESORCINOL FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN  

SciTech Connect

Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed pilot-scale hydraulic/chemical testing of spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (RF) ion exchange (IX) resin for the River Protection Project Hanford Tank Waste Treatment & Immobilization Plant (WTP) Project. The RF resin cycle testing was conducted in two pilot-scale IX columns, 1/4 and 1/2 scale. A total of twenty-three hydraulic/chemical cycles were successfully completed on the spherical RF resin. Seven of the cycles were completed in the 12-inch IX Column and sixteen cycles were completed in the 24-inch IX Column. Hydraulic testing showed that the permeability of the RF resin remained essentially constant, with no observed trend in the reduction of the permeability as the number of cycles increased. The permeability during the pilot-scale testing was 2 1/2 times better than the design requirements of the WTP full-scale system. The permeability of the resin bed was uniform with respect to changes in bed depth. Upflow Regeneration and Simulant Introduction in the IX columns revealed another RF resin benefit; negligible radial pressures to the column walls from the swelling of resin beads. In downflow of the Regeneration and Simulant Introduction steps, the resin bed particles pack tightly together and produce higher hydraulic pressures than that found in upflow. Also, upflow Simulant Introduction produced an ideal level bed for the twenty cycles completed using upflow Simulant Introduction. Conversely, the three cycles conducted using downflow Simulant Introduction produced an uneven bed surface with erosion around the thermowells. The RF resin bed in both columns showed no tendency to form fissures or pack more densely as the number of cycles increased. Particle size measurements of the RF resin showed no indication of particle size change (for a given chemical) with cycles and essentially no fines formation. Micrographs comparing representative bead samples before and after testing indicated no change in bead morphology. The skeletal density of the RF resin in the 24-inch IX Column increased slightly with cycling (in both hydrogen and sodium form). The chemical solutions used in the pilot-scale testing remained clear throughout testing, indicating very little chemical breakdown of the RF resin beads. The RF resin particles did not break down and produce fines, which would have resulted in higher pressure drops across the resin bed. Three cesium (Cs) loading tests were conducted on the RF resin in pilot-scale IX columns. Laboratory analyses concluded the Cs in the effluent never exceeded the detection limit. Therefore, there was no measurable degradation in cesium removal performance. Using the pilot-scale systems to add the RF resin to the columns and removing the resin from the columns was found to work well. The resin was added and removed from the columns three times with no operational concerns. Whether the resin was in sodium or hydrogen form, the resin flowed well and resulted in an ideal resin bed formation during each Resin Addition. During Resin Removal, 99+ % of the resin was easily sluiced out of the IX column. The hydraulic performance of the spherical RF resin during cycle testing was found to be superior to all other tested IX resins, and SRNL testing indicates that the resin should hold up to many cycles in actual radioactive Cs separation. The RF resin was found to be durable in the long term cycle testing and should result in a cost saving in actual operations when compared to other IX resins.

Adamson, D

2007-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

178

PILOT-SCALE HYDRAULIC TESTING OF RESORCINOL FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN  

SciTech Connect

Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed pilot-scale hydraulic/chemical testing of spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (RF) ion exchange (IX) resin for the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment & Immobilization Plant (WTP) Project. The RF resin cycle testing was conducted in two pilot-scale IX columns, 1/4 and 1/2 scale. A total of twenty-three hydraulic/chemical cycles were successfully completed on the spherical RF resin. Seven of the cycles were completed in the 12 inch IX Column and sixteen cycles were completed in the 24 inch IX Column. Hydraulic testing showed that the permeability of the RF resin remained essentially constant, with no observed trend in the reduction of the permeability as the number of cycles increased. The permeability during the pilot-scale testing was 2 1/2 times better than the design requirements of the WTP full-scale system. The permeability of the resin bed was uniform with respect to changes in bed depth. Upflow Regeneration and Simulant Introduction in the IX columns revealed another RF resin benefit; negligible radial pressures to the column walls from the swelling of resin beads. In downflow of the Regeneration and Simulant Introduction steps, the resin bed particles pack tightly together and produce higher hydraulic pressures than that found in upflow. Also, upflow Simulant Introduction produced an ideal level bed for the twenty cycles completed using upflow Simulant Introduction. Conversely, the three cycles conducted using downflow Simulant Introduction produced an uneven bed surface with erosion around the thermowells. The RF resin bed in both columns showed no tendency to form fissures or pack more densely as the number of cycles increased. Particle size measurements of the RF resin showed no indication of particle size change (for a given chemical) with cycles and essentially no fines formation. Micrographs comparing representative bead samples before and after testing indicated no change in bead morphology. The skeletal density of the RF resin in the 24 inch IX Column increased slightly with cycling (in both hydrogen and sodium form). The chemical solutions used in the pilot-scale testing remained clear throughout testing, indicating very little chemical breakdown of the RF resin beads. The RF resin particles did not break down and produce fines, which would have resulted in higher pressure drops across the resin bed. Three cesium (Cs) loading tests were conducted on the RF resin in pilot-scale IX columns. Laboratory analyses concluded the Cs in the effluent never exceeded the detection limit. Therefore, there was no measurable degradation in cesium removal performance. Using the pilot-scale systems to add the RF resin to the columns and removing the resin from the columns was found to work well. The resin was added and removed from the columns three times with no operational concerns. Whether the resin was in sodium or hydrogen form, the resin flowed well and resulted in an ideal resin bed formation during each Resin Addition. During Resin Removal, 99+ % of the resin was easily sluiced out of the IX column. The hydraulic performance of the spherical RF resin during cycle testing was found to be superior to all other tested IX resins, and SRNL testing indicates that the resin should hold up to many cycles in actual radioactive Cs separation. The RF resin was found to be durable in the long term cycle testing and should result in a cost saving in actual operations when compared to other IX resins.

Adamson, D

2006-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

179

Salt-Zeolite Ion Exchange Equilibrium Studies for Complete Set of Fission Products in Molten LiCl-KCl  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents results on LiCl-KCl based molten salts/zeolite-A contact experiments and the associated equilibrium ion exchange model. Experiments examine the contact behaviors of various ternary salts (LiCl-KCl-YCl3, LiCl-KCl-LaCl3, and LiCl-KCl-PrCl3) and quaternary salts (LiCl-KCl-CsCl-NdCl3 and LiCl-KCl-CsCl-SrCl2) with the zeolite-A. The developed equilibrium model assumes that there are ion exchange and occlusion sites, both of which are in equilibrium with the molten salt phase. A systematic approach in estimating total occlusion capacity of the zeolite-A is developed. The parameters of the model, including the total occlusion capacity of the zeolite-A, were determined from fitting experimental data collected via multiple independent studies including the ones reported in this paper. Experiments involving ternary salts were used for estimating the parameters of the model, while those involving quaternary salts were used to validate the model.

Tae-Sic Yoo; Steven M. Frank; Michael F. Simpson; Paula A. Hahn; Terry J. Battisti; Supathorn Phongikaroon

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Sequential separation of actinide elements from highly radioactive Hanford waste by ion exchange methods  

SciTech Connect

A simple, rapid method has been developed for the sequential separation of actinide elements from samples with high salt content such as these resulting from efforts to characterize Hanford storage tank waste. Actinide elements in 9M HC1 solution are introduced into an anion exchange column. U(VI), Np(IV) and Pu(IV) are retained on the column while Am(III) passes through. Plutonium is eluted first, reductively; after which neptunium and then uranium are eluted with mixtures of HC1 and HF. The Am(III) is purified by cation exchange in a nitric acid system. 14 refs., 2 tabs.

Maiti, T.C.; Kaye, J.H.; Kozelisky, A.E.

1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ion exchange process" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

3D Patterning of Micro and Nanostructures by Ion Controlled Etching (ICE) process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Process with commercial standard equipment Y Process designed for deployment in large volume production Y3D Patterning of Micro and Nanostructures by Ion Controlled Etching (ICE) process Technology offer: heinz.goedl@tuwien.ac.at Contact Ion implantation controlled process for high resolution patterning of 3

Szmolyan, Peter

182

Eco-friendly preparation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural from sucrose using ion-exchange resins  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract An efficient preparation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural from sucrose, a renewable resource, is reported herein, following a sequence of four steps catalyzed by reusable cation- and anion-exchange resins: hydrolysis, dehydration, glucose/fructose isomerisation and dehydration. The title compound, a key building block in current industrial chemistry, was isolated in its pure form without chromatographic purification in an overall yield of 50%.

Javier Pérez-Maqueda; Irene Arenas-Ligioiz; Óscar López; José G. Fernández-Bolaños

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Plasma processing of spent nuclear fuel by two-frequency ion cyclotron resonance heating  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A previously developed method for analyzing the plasma processing of spent nuclear fuel is generalized to a plasma containing multicharged fuel ions. In such a plasma, ion cyclotron resonance heating of nuclear a...

A. V. Timofeev

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Cluster ion formation during sputtering processes: a complementary investigation by ToF-SIMS and plasma ion mass spectrometry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Plasma ion mass spectrometry using a plasma process monitor (PPM) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) have been complementarily employed to investigate the sputtering and ion formation processes of Al-doped zinc oxide. By comparing the mass spectra, insights on ion formation and relative cross-sections have been obtained: positive ions as measured during magnetron sputtering by PPM are originating from the plasma while those in SIMS start at the surface leading to large differences in the mass spectra. In contrast, negative ions originating at the surface will be accelerated through the plasma sheath. They arrive at the PPM after traversing the plasma nearly collisionless as seen from the rather similar spectra. Hence, it is possible to combine the high mass resolution of ToF-SIMS to obtain insight for separating cluster ions, e.g. Znx and ZnOy, and the energy resolution of PPM to find fragmentation patterns for negative ions. While the ion formation processes during both experiments can be assumed to be similar, differences may arise due to the lower volume probed by SIMS. In the latter case, there is a chance of small target inhomogeneities being able to be enhanced and lower surface temperatures leading to less outgassing and, thus, retention of volatile compounds.

T Welzel; S Mändl; K Ellmer

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Ultra-fast charge exchange spectroscopy for turbulent ion temperature fluctuation measurements on the DIII-D tokamak (invited)  

SciTech Connect

A novel two-channel, high throughput, high efficiency spectrometer system has been developed to measure impurity ion temperature and toroidal velocity fluctuations associated with long-wavelength turbulence and other plasma instabilities. The spectrometer observes the emission of the n= 8-7 hydrogenic transition of C{sup +5} ions ({lambda}{sub air}= 529.06 nm) resulting from charge exchange reactions between deuterium heating beams and intrinsic carbon. Novel features include a large, prism-coupled high-dispersion, volume-phase-holographic transmission grating and high-quantum efficiency, high-gain, low-noise avalanche photodiode detectors that sample emission at 1 MHz. This new diagnostic offers an order-of-magnitude increase in sensitivity compared to earlier ion thermal turbulence measurements. Increased sensitivity is crucial for obtaining enough photon statistics from plasmas with much less impurity content. The irreducible noise floor set by photon statistics sets the ultimate sensitivity to plasma fluctuations. Based on the measured photon flux levels for the entire spectral line, photon noise levels for T(tilde sign){sub i}/T{sub i} and V(tilde sign){sub i}/V{sub i} of {approx}1% are expected, while statistical averaging over long data records enables reduction in the detectable plasma fluctuation levels to values less than that. Broadband ion temperature fluctuations are observed to near 200 kHz in an L-mode discharge. Cross-correlation with the local beam emission spectroscopy measurements demonstrates a strong coupling of the density and temperature fields, and enables the cross-phase measurements between density and ion temperature fluctuations.

Uzun-Kaymak, I. U.; Fonck, R. J.; McKee, G. R. [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

186

Plasma processing of spent nuclear fuel by two-frequency ion cyclotron resonance heating  

SciTech Connect

A previously developed method for analyzing the plasma processing of spent nuclear fuel is generalized to a plasma containing multicharged fuel ions. In such a plasma, ion cyclotron resonance heating of nuclear ash ions should be carried out in two monochromatic RF fields of different frequencies, provided that the fraction of {xi} multicharged ions is small, {xi} {<=} 0.1, a condition that substantially restricts the productivity of systems for processing spent nuclear fuel. Ways of overcoming this difficulty are discussed.

Timofeev, A. V. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute, Nuclear Fusion Institute (Russian Federation)

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

187

Investigation of the effect of intra-molecular interactions on the gas-phase conformation of peptides as probed by ion mobility-mass spectrometry, gas-phase hydrogen/deuterium exchange, and molecular mechanics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-phase H/D ion molecule reactions that alkali adducted species exchange slower and to a lesser extent than protonated species in the tyrosine- and arginine-containing peptides. Experimental and computational results are discussed in terms of peptide ion...

Sawyer, Holly Ann

2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

188

Compact design improves efficiency and CAPEX -- combining plate heat exchangers and gas-liquid separators for gas processing savings  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the unique combination of two well proven technologies: a compact large scale welded plate heat exchanger with a gas-liquid separator within the same pressure vessel. Explained are the benefits for raw gas processing on production sites where cost, weight and efficiency are of particular importance. Application of this Combined Heat Exchanger-Separator is presented for various gas processing schemes: Turbo Expander, Mechanical Refrigeration and Joule-Thompson.

Waintraub, L.; Sourp, T. [Proser (France)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

189

Chemical Models for Aqueous Biodynamical Processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The proton inventory method was applied to the study of three processes: the viscous flow of water, the neutral hydrolysis of esters, and the exchange reaction between aqueous sodium ion and the carboxylic exchanger Amberlite ...

Mata-Segreda, Julio F.

1975-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

The dehydration of fructose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural efficiently catalyzed by acidic ion-exchange resin in ionic liquid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The efficient dehydration of fructose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was developed in ionic liquids (ILs) with acidic ion-exchange resins as catalyst. By screening different resins and \\{ILs\\} respectively, it was found that the structure of resins and \\{ILs\\} had a prominent effect on the dehydration of fructose. In 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim]Cl), D001-cc resin showed a high activity. And then the effects of reaction temperatures, dosages of D001-cc, and different initial fructose loadings on the dehydration of fructose were studied in detail. The system of D001-cc resin and [Bmim]Cl exhibited a constant activity at 75 °C for 20 min and a 86.2% yield of HMF was obtained after seven recycles. At 75 °C for 20 min, a 93.0% yield of HMF from the dehydration of fructose was obtained.

Yuan Li; Hui Liu; Changhua Song; Xiaomin Gu; Huaming Li; Wenshuai Zhu; Sheng Yin; Changri Han

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Exchange interaction in binuclear complexes with rare-earth and copper ions: A many-body model study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have used a many-body model Hamiltonian to study the nature of the magnetic ground state of heterobinuclear complexes involving rare-earth and copper ions. We have taken into account all diagonal repulsions involving the rare-earth 4f and 5d orbitals and the copper 3d orbital. In addition, we have included direct exchange interaction, crystal field splitting of the rare-earth atomic levels and spin-orbit interaction in the 4f orbitals. We have identified the interorbital 4f repulsion Uff and crystal field parameter ?f as the key parameters involved in controlling the type of exchange interaction between the rare earth 4f and copper 3d spins. We have explored the nature of the ground state in the parameter space of Uff, ?f, spin-orbit interaction strength ?, and the 4f filling nf. We find that these systems show low-spin or high-spin ground state depending on the filling of the 4f levels of the rare-earth ion and ground state spin is critically dependent on Uff and ?f. In case of half filling [Gd(III)] we find a reentrant low-spin state as Uff is increased, for small values of ?f, which explains the recently reported apparent anomalous antiferromagnetic behavior of Gd(III)-radical complexes. By varying Uff we also observe a switch over in the ground state spin for other fillings. We have introduced a spin-orbit coupling scheme which goes beyond the L-S or j-j coupling scheme and we find that spin-orbit coupling does not significantly alter the basic picture.

Indranil Rudra; C. Raghu; S. Ramasesha

2002-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

192

Coupling of porous filtration and ion-exchange membranes in an electrodialysis stack and impact on cation selectivity: A novel approach for sea water demineralization and the production of physiological water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Conventional electrodialysis (ED) and electrodialysis with ultrafiltration (EDUF) or nanofiltration (EDNF) membrane treatments were carried-out for partial desalination of sea water and to evaluate their potential for the production of physiological water. A demineralization rate of 10.6% was obtained with the EDNF and of 40.25% with EDUF and conventional ED processes. The nanofiltration membrane, due to its high electrical resistance, slowed down the migrations of ions. Moreover, the use of an ultrafiltration membrane had no significant effect on the demineralization rate of sea water and the electrodialytic parameters in comparison with the use of conventional ED membranes. A demineralization rate between 20.5 and 30.1% was obtained for each cation analyzed following EDNF treatments and between 43.3 and 64.4% when conventional ED or EDUF was used. Moreover, the decrease in the concentration of monovalent ions was slightly larger than for divalent ions in the case of ED and EDUF while for EDNF, the higher decrease was observed for calcium ion. This means that the replacement of a cation-exchange membrane by an ultrafiltration membrane would not change the selectivity of the process for ion separation but with a nanofiltration membrane a cation-selectivity appears.

Laurent Bazinet; Marianne Moalic

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Proceedings of the Efficient Separations and Processing Cross-Cutting Program Annual Technical Exchange Meeting  

SciTech Connect

This document contains summaries of technology development presented at the 1995 Efficient Separations and Processing Cross-Cutting Program (ESP) Annual Technical Exchange Meeting. The ESP is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management (EM), Office of Technology Development. The meeting is held annually to promote a free exchange of ideas among technology developers, potential users (for example, EM focus areas), and other interested parties within EM. During this meeting, developers of ESP-funded technologies describe the problems and needs addressed by their technologies; the technical approach, accomplishments, and resolution of issues; the strategy and schedule for commercialization; and evolving potential applications. Presenters are asked to address the following areas: Target waste management problem, waste stream, or data need; scientific background and technical approach; technical accomplishments and resolution of technical issues; schedule and strategy for commercializing and implementing the technology or acquiring needed data; potential alternate applications of the technology or data, including outside of DOE/EM. The meeting is not a program review of the individual tasks or subtasks; but instead focuses on the technical aspects and implementation of ESP-sponsored technology or data. The meeting is also attended by members of the ESP Technical Review Team, who have the opportunity at that time to review the ESP as a whole.

NONE

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Demonstration of a Scalable, Multiplexed Ion Trap for Quantum Information Processing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A scalable, multiplexed ion trap for quantum information processing is fabricated and tested. The trap design and fabrication process are optimized for scalability to small trap size and large numbers of interconnected ...

Leibrandt, David R.

195

Small Column Ion Exchange Testing of Superlig 644 for Removal of 137Cs from Hanford Tank Waste Envelope C (Tank 241-AN-107)  

SciTech Connect

The current BNFL Inc. flowsheet for the pretreatment of the Hanford high-level tank wastes includes the use of Superlig{reg_sign} materials for removing {sup 137}Cs from the aqueous fraction of the waste. The Superlig materials applicable to cesium removal include the cesium-selective Superlig 632and Superlig 644. These materials have been developed and supplied by IBC Advanced Technologies, Inc., American Fork, Utah. This report describes the testing of the Superlig 644 ion exchange material in a small dual-column system. The bed volume of the lead column was 18.6 mL (L/D = 7), and the bed volume of the lag column was 15.9 mL (L/D = 6) during the loading phase. The sample processed was approximately 1.6 L of diluted waste ([Na{sup +}] = 4.84 M) from Tank 241-AN-107 (Envelope C). This sample had been previously treated for removal of Sr/transuranic (TRU) values and clarified in a single tube cross-flow filtration unit. All ion exchange process steps were tested, including resin-bed preparation, loading, feed displacement, water rinse, elution, eluant rinse, and resin regeneration. A summary of performance measures for both columns is shown in Table S1. The Cs {lambda} values represent a measure of the effective capacity of the SL-644 resin. The Cs {lambda} of 20 for the lead column is much lower than the estimated 150 obtained by the Savannah River Technology Center during Phase 1A testing. Equilibrium data obtained with batch contacts using the AN-107 Cs IX feed predicts a Cs {lambda} of 183. A Cs {lambda} for the lag column could not be determined due to insufficient breakthrough, but it appeared to work well and removed nearly all of the cesium not removed by the lead column. The low value for the lead column indicates that it did not perform as expected. This may have been due to air or gas in the bed that caused fluid channeling or blinding of the resin. The maximum decontamination factor (DF) for {sup 137}Cs listed in Table S1 is based on {sup 137}Cs concentration in the first samples collected from each column and the {sup 137}Cs concentration in the feed. The composite DF for {sup 137}Cs was 1,760, which provided an effluent with a {sup 137}Cs concentration of 8.7E-02 Ci/m{sup 3}. The {sup 137}Cs concentration is below the basis of design limit and is 7.2% of the contract limit for {sup 137}Cs.

DE Kurath; DL Blanchard; JR Bontha

2000-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

196

Combining reverse osmosis and ion-exchange allows beet distillery condensates to be recycled as fermentable dilution water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Combinations of physical purification processes, i.e. anion-exchange, adsorption, and reverse osmosis were evaluated and compared with single ones for their ability to remove target inhibitory compounds from distillery condensates with the purpose of reusing condensates as fermentation water. Performances of the treatments were evaluated through analyses of residual target compounds and batch and continuous fermentation experiments. Reverse osmosis on BW30 membrane (Dow Chemical) at 25 bar transmembrane pressure and volume reduction ratio (VRR) = 8 followed by anion-exchange (weak Amberlite FPA 51 resin, Dow) was the most efficient process to decrease all inhibitory target compounds (formic, acetic, propanoic, butanoic acids and 2-phenethyl alcohol) present in a distillery condensate below their detection or quantification limit. Water recovery was 87.5%. Such treated condensate proved convenient for reuse as fermentation water. Fermentation tests run in a multistage device exhibited yeast viability and ethanol production performances (concentration and global productivity) equivalent to the blank for a final ethanol concentration of 80 g L? 1 close to practical value encountered in distilleries.

Marie-Laure Lameloise; Marjorie Gavach; Marielle Bouix; Claire Fargues

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Selective Conversion of D-Fructose to 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural by Ion-Exchange Resin in Acetone/Dimethyl sulfoxide Solvent Mixtures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Selective Conversion of D-Fructose to 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural by Ion-Exchange Resin in Acetone/Dimethyl sulfoxide Solvent Mixtures ... Catalytic dehydration of D-fructose to 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) in acetone/dimethyl sulfoxide solvent mixtures was studied in the presence of a strong acidic cation-exchange resin catalyst (DOWEX 50WX8?100) by microwave heating. ... For example, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), which is used in plastics, pharmaceuticals, and fine chemicals, is presently derived from petrochemicals but could be substituted by its biomass-derived counterpart. ...

Xinhua Qi; Masaru Watanabe; Taku M. Aida; Richard Lee Smith, Jr.

2008-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

198

Optical pumping of ions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Radiofrequency spectroscopy has been extended to positive ions with S ground states by means of optical pumping. The ions are stored in buffer gases or ion traps and are polarized directly by optical pumping or indirectly by spin exchange, change exchange, or Penning ionization with optically pumped atoms. The applied methods are described. The experiments can be divided into two categories: Collisional interactions of the polarized ions are investigated, like the exchange processes mentioned above, spin exchange with free electrons, spin depolarization and hyperfine density shifts in rare gases. For the two latter effects drastic differences are observed between atomic and ionic 2S12 states the explanations of which reveal the influence of the ionic charge on the interactions. The comparison of equivalent processes involving isoelectronic 2S or 2P configurations of atoms and ions provides a test of current collision theories. Precision rf spectroscopy of ionic ground states yields the 2S12 hyperfine structure splittings of 3He+ and group II ions with relative accuracies of up to 10?9, with further improvement possible. Direct and indirect optical pumping of 1S0 ions is used to determine nuclear magnetic moments, diamagnetic shielding coefficients, and chemical shifts. Applications and further developments of the present methods are discussed.

E.W. Weber

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Analysis of spent ion exchange media: Superlig 639 and Superlig 644  

SciTech Connect

The current BNFL Inc. flowsheet for the pretreatment of the Hanford High-Level tank wastes includes the use of Superlig{reg_sign} materials for the removal of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 99}Tc from the aqueous fraction of the waste. The cesium-selective Superlig{reg_sign} 644 (SL-644) and the technetium-selective Superlig{reg_sign} 639 (SL-639) have been evaluated in tests with actual waste samples. These materials have a finite processing lifetime in the plant and will need to be disposed of. The composition and level of residual radionuclide contamination is important for assessing various disposal pathways for the Superlig{reg_sign} materials. This report contains the results of analyses of subsamples of the SL-639 and SL 644 materials that have been used in small column testing of actual waste samples at the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory. The wastes that have been tested include samples from Tanks 241-AW-101 and 241-AN-107. The analyses of the spent resins include inductively coupled plasma/atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) for metals, cold vapor atomic absorption (CVAA) spectroscopy for mercury, gamma energy analysis (GEA) for radionuclides and inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for selected metals and radionuclides. While these results provide an indication of the analyte concentrations that may be left on the spent resin, they do not fully represent the concentrations that may be found after extended plant processing with additional load/elute cycles and different waste compositions. BNFL estimates that the SL-644 may last for 100 load/elute cycles with Envelope A and C wastes and 20 cycles with Envelope B wastes. The number of useable load/elute cycles for the SL-639 is not well defined, but is likely on the order of hundreds.

DE Kurath; JJ Wagner

2000-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

200

Removal and recovery of metal ions from process and waste streams using polymer filtration  

SciTech Connect

Polymer Filtration (PF) is an innovative, selective metal removal technology. Chelating, water-soluble polymers are used to selectively bind the desired metal ions and ultrafiltration is used to concentrate the polymer-metal complex producing a permeate with low levels of the targeted metal ion. When applied to the treatment of industrial metal-bearing aqueous process streams, the permeate water can often be reused within the process and the metal ions reclaimed. This technology is applicable to many types of industrial aqueous streams with widely varying chemistries. Application of PF to aqueous streams from nuclear materials processing and electroplating operations will be described.

Jarvinen, G.D.; Smith, B.F.; Robison, T.W.; Kraus, K.M.; Thompson, J.A.

1999-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ion exchange process" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Efficiencies and Optimization of Weak Base Anion Ion-Exchange Resin for Groundwater Hexavalent Chromium Removal at Hanford  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) contractor, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, has successfully converted a series of groundwater treatment facilities to use a new treatment resin that is delivering more than $3 million in annual cost savings and efficiency in treating groundwater contamination at the DOE Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. During the production era, the nuclear reactors at the Hanford Site required a continuous supply of high-quality cooling water during operations. Cooling water consumption ranged from about 151,417 to 378,541 L/min (40,000 to 100,000 gal/min) per reactor, depending on specific operating conditions. Water from the Columbia River was filtered and treated chemically prior to use as cooling water, including the addition of sodium dichromate as a corrosion inhibitor. Hexavalent chromium was the primary component of the sodium dichromate and was introduced into the groundwater at the Hanford Site as a result of planned and unplanned discharges from the reactors starting in 1944. Groundwater contamination by hexavalent chromium and other contaminants related to nuclear reactor operations resulted in the need for groundwater remedial actions within the Hanford Site reactor areas. Beginning in 1995, groundwater treatment methods were evaluated, leading to the use of pump-and-treat facilities with ion exchange using Dowex™ 21K, a regenerable, strong-base anion exchange resin. This required regeneration of the resin, which was performed offsite. In 2008, DOE recognized that regulatory agreements would require significant expansion for the groundwater chromium treatment capacity. As a result, CH2M HILL performed testing at the Hanford Site in 2009 and 2010 to demonstrate resin performance in the specific groundwater chemistry at different waste sites. The testing demonstrated that a weak-base anion, single-use resin, specifically ResinTech SIR-700 ®, was effective at removing chromium, had a significantly higher capacity, could be disposed of efficiently onsite, and would eliminate the complexities and programmatic risks from sampling, packaging, transportation, and return of resin for regeneration.

Nesham, Dean O. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Ivarson, Kristine A. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Hanson, James P. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Miller, Charles W. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Meyers, P. [USDOE, Richland Operations Office, WA (United States); Jaschke, Naomi M. [USDOE, Richland Operations Office, WA (United States)

2014-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

202

Amorphization Processes in Au Ion Irradiated GaN at 150 - 300...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and small crystalline zones that are randomly oriented. Citation: Jiang W, WJ Weber, LM Wang, and K Sun.2004."Amorphization Processes in Au Ion Irradiated GaN at 150 - 300...

203

Development and implementation of a FT-ICR mass spectrometer for the investigation of ion conformations of peptide sequence isomers containing basic amino acid residues by gas-phase hydrogen/deuterium exchange  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The gas-phase hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange of protonated di- and tripeptides containing a basic amino acid residue has been studied with a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer. Bimolecular reactions...

Marini, Joseph Thomas

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

204

Applications of Highly Cross Linked Mixed Bed Ion Exchange Resins in Biodiesel Processing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to reach 11% of the domestic market by 2010 [13]. In order to increase future demand while also increasing the amount of diesel vehicles, the US market is currently attempting to double its biodiesel production. Today in the US there are 148 biodiesel... the Business, Analytical Methodologies, second ed., Biodiesel Basics, United States, 2006. [3]A. Srivastava, R. Prasad, Triglycerides-based diesel fuels, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 4 (2000) 111-133. [4]Y. Zhang, M.A. Dub?, D. D. McLean, M...

Jamal, Yousuf

2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

205

Engineered Treatment of As-laden Regeneration Brine from Ion Exchange Processes .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Arsenic (As) contamination of drinking water sources has been one of the most challenging global environmental issues. In the United States, the newly revised maximum… (more)

STEINWINDER, THOMAS

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Microsoft PowerPoint - EM Waste 10-03 Processing Technical Exchange Antifoam 11-17-2010.ppt  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

664, Rev A 664, Rev A Improved Antifoam Agents for SRS Dan Lambert Fellow Engineer, SRNL Dr Darsh T. Wasan, Dr. Alex D. Nikolov, Illinois Institute of Technology EM Waste Processing Technical Exchange Session 10: Advanced Unit Operations and Scaling Print Close 2 SRNL-STI-2010-00698, Rev A Outline Needs/Benefits Background Scope Experimental/Method Results Future work Process Technology Programs Print Close 3 SRNL-STI-2010-00698, Rev A Needs/Benefits Needs: Increase waste processing (melter) throughput Benefits: Maximize Boilup Rate during waste processing at boiling, resulting in an increase in a reduction in overall processing time. Minimize carryover of insoluble solids, resulting in less facility downtime due to foamover into condensate. Process Technology Programs Print Close

207

Polyx multicrystalline silicon solar cells processed by PF+5 unanalysed ion implantation and rapid thermal annealing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of terrestrial solar cells as compared to classical furnace or pulsed laser annealing. Unfortunately, drawbacks695 Polyx multicrystalline silicon solar cells processed by PF+5 unanalysed ion implantation with classical furnace annealing or with classical diffusion process. Revue Phys. Appl. 22 (1987) 695-700 JUILLET

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

208

SELECTIVE REMOVAL OF STRONTIUM AND CESIUM FROM SIMULATED WASTE SOLUTION WITH TITANATE ION EXCHANGERS IN A FILTER CARTRIDGE CONFIGURATION  

SciTech Connect

This report describes experimental results for the selective removal of strontium and cesium from simulated waste solutions using monosodium titanate (MST) and crystalline silicotitanate (CST)-laden filter cartridges. Four types of ion exchange cartridge media (CST and MST designed by both 3M and POROX{reg_sign}) were evaluated. In these proof-of-principle tests effective uptake of both Sr-85 and Cs-137 was observed. However, the experiments were not performed long enough to determine the saturation levels or breakthrough curve for each filter cartridge. POREX{reg_sign} MST cartridges, which by design were based on co-sintering of the active titanates with polyethylene particles, seem to perform as well as the 3M-designed MST cartridges (impregnated filter membrane design) in the uptake of strontium. At low salt simulant conditions (0.29 M Na{sup +}), the instantaneous decontamination factor (D{sub F}) for Sr-85 with the 3M-design MST cartridge measured 26, representing the removal of 96% of the Sr-85. On the other hand, the Sr-85 instantaneous D{sub F} with the POREX{reg_sign} design MST cartridge measured 40 or 98% removal of the Sr-85. Strontium removal with the 3M-design MST and CST cartridges placed in series filter arrangement produced an instantaneous decontamination factor of 41 or 97.6% removal compared to an instantaneous decontamination factor of 368 or 99.7% removal of the strontium with the POREX{reg_sign} MST and CST cartridge design placed in series. At high salt simulant conditions (5.6 M Na{sup +}), strontium removal with 3M-designed MST cartridge only and with 3M-designed MST and CST cartridges operated in a series configuration were identical. The instantaneous decontamination factor and the strontium removal efficiency, under the above configuration, averaged 8.6 and 88%, respectively. There were no POREX{reg_sign} cartridge experiments using the higher ionic strength simulant solution. At low salt simulant conditions, the uptake of Cs-137 with POREX{reg_sign} CST cartridge out performed the 3M-designed CST cartridges. The POREX{reg_sign} CST cartridge, with a Cs-137 instantaneous decontamination factor of 55 and a Cs-137 removal efficiency of 98% does meet the Cs-137 decontamination goals in the low salt simulant liquor. The Cs-137 removal with 3M-designed CST cartridge produced a decontamination factor of 2 or 49% removal efficiency. The Cs-137 performance graph for the 3M-designed CST cartridge showed an early cessation in the uptake of cesium-137. This behavior was not observed with the POREX{reg_sign} CST cartridges. No Cs-137 uptake tests were performed with the POREX{reg_sign} CST cartridges at high salt simulant conditions. The 3M-designed CST cartridges, with an instantaneous Cs-137 decontamination factor of less than 3 and a Cs-137 removal efficiency of less than 50% failed to meet the Cs-137 decontamination goals in both the low and high salt simulant liquors. This poor performance in the uptake of Cs-137 by the 3M CST cartridges may be attributed to fabrication flaws for the 3M-designed CST cartridges. The reduced number of CST membrane wraps per cartridge during the cartridge design phase, from 3-whole wraps to about 1.5, may have contributed to Cs-137 laden simulant channeling/by-pass which led to the poor performance in terms of Cs-137 sorption characteristics for the 3M designed CST cartridges. The grinding of CST ion exchange materials, to reduce the particle size distribution and thus enhance their easy incorporation into the filter membranes and the co-sintering of MST with polyethylene particles, did not adversely affect the sorption kinetics of both CST and MST in the uptake of Cs-137 and Sr-85, respectively. In general, the POREX{reg_sign} based cartridges showed more resistance to simulant flow through the filter cartridges as evidenced by higher pressure differences across the cartridges. Based on these findings they conclude that incorporating MST and CST sorbents into filter membranes represent a promising method for the semi-continuous removal of radioisotopes of strontium a

Oji, L.; Martin, K.; Hobbs, D.

2011-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

209

Exotic Exchange for Inclusive Reactions and for Quasi—Two-Body Processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The reaction K++p??- + anything with the ?- fast and forward is analyzed with a peripheral representation that allows one to extract the two-body exotic-exchange amplitude with high statistics that are otherwise hard to come by. By representing the inclusive spectrum in a Reggeized scaled form, we then predict the energy dependence of the two-body reactions ?-+p?K++?- and ?-+p?K++Y*-(1385) in good agreement with the experimentally measured data.

Winston Ko, Richard L. Lander, and Clifford Risk

1971-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

210

Compound Effect of Alfv\\'en Waves and Ion-cyclotron Waves on Heating/Acceleration of Minor Ions via the Pickup Process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A scenario is proposed to explain the preferential heating of minor ions and differential streaming velocity between minor ions and protons observed in the solar corona and in the solar wind. It is demonstrated by test particle simulations that minor ions can be nearly fully picked up by intrinsic Alfv\\'en-cyclotron waves observed in the solar wind based on the observed wave energy density. Both high frequency ion-cyclotron waves and low frequency Alfv\\'en waves play crucial roles in the pickup process. A minor ion can first gain a high magnetic moment through the resonant wave-particle interaction with ion-cyclotron waves, and then this ion with a large magnetic moment can be trapped by magnetic mirror-like field structures in the presence of the lower-frequency Alfv\\'en waves. As a result, the ion is picked up by these Alfv\\'en-cyclotron waves. However, minor ions can only be partially picked up in the corona due to low wave energy density and low plasma beta. During the pickup process, minor ions are stoch...

Wang, C B; Lee, L C

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Energy exchange between two orthogonally polarized waves by cascading of two quasi-phase-matched quadratic processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We demonstrate energy exchange between two orthogonally polarized optical waves as a consequence of a two-color multistep parametric interaction. The energy exchange results from...

Johnston, Benjamin F; Dekker, Peter; Saltiel, Solomon M; Kivshar, Yuri S; Withford, Michael J

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Calcite dissolution and Ca/Na ion-exchange reactions in columns with different flow rates through high ESR soil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The leaching of a Na?-affected calcareous soil with water results in two concurrent recesses: (i) CaCO? dissolution, and (ii) replacement of Na? on the cation-exchange complex by Ca²?. In the current study, Woodward soil (coarse-silty, mixed...

Navarre, Audrey

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

213

New Insights into Proton Surface Mobility Processes in PEMFC Catalysts Using Isotopic Exchange Methods  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

These results are presented as a case study for developing tailor-made surface-modified supports for PEMFC catalysts of improved performance. ... A newly developed method is presented which allows the characterization of the electrocatalytic properties of highly dispersed electrocatalysts in a true rotating disk electrode (RDE) configuration by attaching the catalyst powder on a glassy carbon electrode via a thin Nafion film. ... Different types of C samples, which are used as C support for proton exchange membrane fuel cells electrocatalysts as well as for gas diffusion layers, are treated by various methods in order to improve the adhesion of Pt metal to the C as well as to reduce the ionomer loading in the electrocatalyst layers. ...

Paloma Ferreira-Aparicio

2009-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

214

Ion Exchange Studies for Removal of Sulfate from Hanford Tank Waste Envelope C (241-AN-107) Using SuperLig 655 Resin  

SciTech Connect

BNFL Inc. is evaluating various pretreatment technologies to mitigate the impacts of sulfate on the LAW vitrification system. One pretreatment technology for separating sulfate from LAW solutions involves the use of SuperLig{reg_sign} 655 (SL-655), a proprietary ion exchange material developed and supplied by IBC Advanced Technologies, Inc., American Fork, UT. This report describes testing of SL-655 with diluted ([Na] {approximately} 5 M) waste from Hanford Tank 241-AN-107 at Battelle, Pacific Northwest Division. Batch contact studies were conducted from 4 to 96 hours to determine the sulfate distribution coefficient and reaction kinetics. A small-scale ion exchange column test was conducted to evaluate sulfate removal, loading, breakthrough, and elution from the SL-655. In all of these tests, an archived 241-AN-107 tank waste sample (pretreated to remove Cs, Sr, and transuranics elements) was used. The experimental details and results are described in this report. Under the test conditions, SL-655 was found to have no significant ion exchange affinity for sulfate in this matrix. The batch contact study resulted in no measurable difference in the aqueous sulfate concentration following resin contact (K{sub d} {approximately} 0). The column test also demonstrated SL-655 had no practical affinity for sulfate in the tested matrix. Within experimental error, the sulfate concentration in the column effluent was equal to the concentration in the feed after passing 3 bed volumes of sample through the columns. Furthermore, some, if not all, of the decreased sulfate concentration in these first three column volumes of effluent can be ascribed to mixing and dilution of the 241-AN-107 feed with the interstitial liquid present in the column at the start of the loading cycle. Finally, ICP-AES measurements on the eluate solutions showed the presence of barium as soon as contact with the feed solution is completed. Barium is a metal not detected in the feed solution. Should the loss of barium be correlated with the resin's ability to selectively complex sulfate, then maintaining even the current limited resin characteristics for sulfate complexation over multiple cycles becomes questionable.

DE Kurath; JR Bontha; DL Blanchard; SK Fiskum; BM Rapko

2000-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

215

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmosphere-surface exchange processes Sample...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

atmospheric surface layer during CBLAST, in 16th Symposium on Boundary Layers... on heat, gas, and momentum transport, infrared remote sensing, upper-ocean processes,...

216

Modeling Sorption and Exchange Processes in Column Experiments and Large Scale Field Studies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper demonstrates the possibilities of reactive transport modeling in predicting contaminant transport processes of laboratory and field scales. Basic approaches of reactive transport modeling are discu...

Olaf Nitzsche; Harry Vereecken

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Selective metal ion extraction for multiple ion liquid-liquid exchange reactions. Progress report, DE-AS02-79ER 10406. A001  

SciTech Connect

The first phase of selecting a model binary system to study was completed. The system selected is Cu(II), Fe(III) acid sulfate solutions extracted by ..beta..-alkenyl 8-hydroxy quinoline (Kelex 100) in xylene. Maximum copper extraction occurs in less than 5 minutes at 30 to 50/sup 0/C. Thermodynamic chemical equilibrium studies with the Fe(III) ion indicate that the ionic charge of the extracted ion is +3 over a limited pH and concentration range. A simplified equilibrium model did not fit the experimental data. A chemical equilibrium model for the aqueous phase was developed. Kinetic studies on the liquid jet recycle reactor are underway. The model proposed to analyze simultaneous extraction of Cu(II) and Fe(III) in a stirred tank extractor was reduced to a set of two nonlinear algebraic equations for idealized kinetic expressions.

Tavlarides, L.L.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Study by in situ FTIR of the SCR of NO by propene on Cu2+ ion-exchanged Ti-PILC  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Adsorption on Cu ion-exchanged titanium pillared clay (Cu-Ti-PILC) was investigated by in situ infrared spectroscopy to provide insight into the reaction intermediates present in the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO by propene in the presence of oxygen. The NO/O2 adsorption produced different nitrate species due to the presence of terminal and bridged Cu2+–OH groups. These nitrates evolved into N2 and N2O in small amounts once the NO catalytic cycle was finished. It can be concluded that the Cu2+–OH groups reacted with the nitro group, thus forming nitrates. C3H6 adsorption was higher and stronger than NO adsorption on the active sites of the catalyst. C3H6 reacted in the active site producing hydrocarbon intermediates (an organic nitro compound and acetate), which were responsible for the NO reduction.

J.L. Valverde; A. de Lucas; F. Dorado; A. Romero; P.B. García

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Nonlinear ion concentration polarization : fundamentals and applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ion exchange membrane (IEM) is a functional material that has a permselectivity of ions. Two types of IEMs - anion exchange membrane (AEM) and cation exchange membrane (CEM) - are used in a variety of electrochemical ...

Kwak, Rhokyun

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Engineering properties of superhard films with ion energy and post-deposition processing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2002 Engineering Properties of Superhard Films with IonOgletree. Engineering Properties of Superhard Films with Ion

Monteiro, Othon R.; Delplancke-Ogletree, Marie-Paule

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ion exchange process" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Crystallization phase transition in the precursors of CIGS films by Ar-ion plasma etching process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Mixed alloy Cu–In–Ga precursors were deposited from Cu–Ga alloy and Indium targets by the DC magnetron co-sputtering method. There were four crystallization phases, In, CuIn2, Cu11In9 and Cu3Ga, identified in the precursor after deposition. A large grain-size CIGS film was achieved by controlling the annealing period for selenization and utilizing a two-stage selenization process for secondary crystallization during rapid thermal annealing process. As the annealing temperature increased, the phase transitions moved toward the Cu-rich inter-metallic phases. In addition, the phase transition, stoichiometric ratio and surface-morphology were modified by Ar-ion plasma etching process of the precursors. The results show that after the ion etching process, the precursors can be transferred into a single Cu11In9 crystallization phase and the number of crevices increased due to the soft texture of indium on the surface of the precursors. Finally, CIGS films with good crystalline properties were achieved after a suitable selenization process of only 1-stage.

Wei-Ting Lin; Sheng-Hui Chen; Shih-Hao Chan; Sung-Cheng Hu; Wan-Xuan Peng; Yung-Tien Lu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Atomic site sensitive processes in low energy ion-dimer collisions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electron capture processes for low energy Ar9+ ions colliding on Ar2 dimer targets are investigated, focusing attention on charge sharing as a function of molecule orientation and impact parameter. A preference in charge-asymmetric dissociation channels is observed, with a strong correlation between the projectile scattering angle and the molecular ion orientation. The measurements provide here clear evidences that projectiles distinguish each atom in the target and, that electron capture from near-site atom is favored. Monte Carlo calculations based on the classical over-the-barrier model, with dimer targets represented as two independent atoms, are compared to the data. They give a new insight into the dynamics of the collision by providing, for the di erent electron capture channels, the two-dimensional probability maps p(~b), where ~b is the impact parameter vector in the molecular frame.

W. Iskandar; J. Matsumoto; A. Leredde; X. Fléchard; B. Gervais; S. Guillous; D. Hennecart; A. Méry; J. Rangama; C. L. Zhou; H. Shiromaru; A. Cassimi

2014-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

223

Engineering Analysis of Intermediate Loop and Process Heat Exchanger Requirements to Include Configuration Analysis and Materials Needs  

SciTech Connect

The need to locate advanced hydrogen production facilities a finite distance away from a nuclear power source necessitates the need for an intermediate heat transport loop (IHTL). This IHTL must not only efficiently transport energy over distances up to 500 meters but must also be capable of operating at high temperatures (>850oC) for many years. High temperature, long term operation raises concerns of material strength, creep resistance and general material stability (corrosion resistance). IHTL design is currently in the initial stages. Many questions remain to be answered before intelligent design can begin. The report begins to look at some of the issues surrounding the main components of an IHTL. Specifically, a stress analysis of a compact heat exchanger design under expected operating conditions is reported. Also the results of a thermal analysis performed on two ITHL pipe configurations for different heat transport fluids are presented. The configurations consist of separate hot supply and cold return legs as well as annular design in which the hot fluid is carried in an inner pipe and the cold return fluids travels in the opposite direction in the annular space around the hot pipe. The effects of insulation configurations on pipe configuration performance are also reported. Finally, a simple analysis of two different process heat exchanger designs, one a tube in shell type and the other a compact or microchannel reactor are evaluated in light of catalyst requirements. Important insights into the critical areas of research and development are gained from these analyses, guiding the direction of future areas of research.

T.M. Lillo; R.L. Williamson; T.R. Reed; C.B. Davis; D.M. Ginosar

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

A conceptual design of a Reactive Ion Etch back end system for the direct reuse of process gases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The use of Plasma Etching, specifically Reactive Ion Etching (RIE), is a vital tool in manufacturing semiconductor devices. Most gases used in RIE processes were initially chosen because of their relatively low toxicity and reactivity. However, many...

Tiner, Paul Alan

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

225

Intermediate-Scale Ion Exchange Removal of Technetium from Savannah River Site Tank 44 F Supernate Solution  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Hanford River Protection Project waste Treatment facility design contracted to BNFL, Inc., a sample of Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 4 F waste solution was treated for the removal of technetium (as pertechnetate ion). Interest in treating the SRS sample for Tc removal resulted from the similarity between the Tank 44 F supernate composition and Hanford Envelope A supernate solutions. The Tank 44 F sample was available as a by-product of tests already conducted at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) as part of the Alternative Salt Disposition Program for treatment of SRS wastes. Testing of the SRS sample resulted in considerable cost-savings since it was not necessary to ship a sample of Hanford supernate to SRS.

King, W.D.

2000-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

226

Ion exchange characteristics of enhanced oil recovery systems (miscibility studies). Sesquiannual report, April 1, 1979-September 30, 1980  

SciTech Connect

In the period of this report, studies of the hydrotropic properties of organic alkylbenzenesulfonates and particularly of alkylbenzenecarboxylates were extended; the effects of several different alcohols on miscibility between aqueous protosurfactant solutions and aliphatic and aromatic alkanes were investigated; hydrotropic properties of an alicylic carboxylate were determined; the equivalent weight of the organic salts studied was extended into the surfactant range; solubilities of protosurfactants and surfactants in salt solution were measured; and investigations of the adsorption of protosurfactants on minerals as a function of salinity were started. Pseudo three-component representations of hydrocarbon/alcohol/aqueous protosurfactant solutions (constant ratio of organic salt to water) have now been studied extensively, particularly in the case of toluene/1-butanol/aqueous sodium 2,5-diisopropylbenzenesulfonate. Measurements include establishment of the phase behavior in the limiting three-component systems, the effect of protosurfactant concentration in the four-component systems, and determination of the compositions in a limited number of cases of the coexisting phases. In extension of the equivalent weight of organic salts into the recognized surfactant regime, some were found to give miscibiity patterns which appeared to be reasonable extrapolations of the protosurfactants systems and some were quite different. Solubilities of surfactants restrict investigation to compositions having asymmetric boundaries. In these, it appears that protosurfactants are more effective in promoting miscibility than surfactants. Solubilities of organic salts in NaCl solutions, both of protosurfactants and surfactants, decline much more sharply with NaCl concentration than a constant product of the sodium ion concentration times the organic ion concentration would predict.

Ho, P.C.; Kraus, K.A.; Bender, T.M.; Ogden, S.B.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Dipolar degrees of freedom and Isospin equilibration processes in Heavy Ion collisions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Background: In heavy ion collision at the Fermi energies Isospin equilibration processes occur- ring when nuclei with different charge/mass asymmetries interacts have been investigated to get information on the nucleon-nucleon Iso-vectorial effective interaction. Purpose: In this paper, for the system 48Ca +27 Al at 40 MeV/nucleon, we investigate on this process by means of an observable tightly linked to isospin equilibration processes and sensitive in exclusive way to the dynamical stage of the collision. From the comparison with dynamical model calculations we want also to obtain information on the Iso-vectorial effective microscopic interaction. Method: The average time derivative of the total dipole associated to the relative motion of all emitted charged particles and fragments has been determined from the measured charges and velocities by using the 4? multi-detector CHIMERA. The average has been determined for semi- peripheral collisions and for different charges Zb of the biggest produced fragment. E...

Papa, M; Acosta, L; Amorini, F; Agodi, C; Anzalone, A; Auditore, L; Cardella, G; Cavallaro, S; Chatterjee, M B; De Filippo, E; Francalanza, L; Geraci, E; Grassi, L; Gnoffo, B; Han, J; La Guidara, E; Lanzalone, G; Lombardo, I; Pagano, C Maiolino T Minniti A; Pagano, E V; Pirrone, S; Politi, G; Porto, F; Quattrocchi, L; Rizzo, F; Rosato, E; Russotto, P; Trifirò, A; Trimarchi, M; Verde, G; Vigilante, and M

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

IMPACTS OF SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE STREAMS ON DWPF GLASS FORMULATION: KT08, KT09, AND KT10-SERIES GLASS COMPOSITIONS  

SciTech Connect

This report is the fourth in a series of studies of the impacts of the addition of Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) and Monosodium Titanate (MST) from the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process on the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) glass waste form and the applicability of the DWPF process control models. MST from the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) is also considered in the study. The KT08-series of glasses was designed to evaluate any impacts of the inclusion of uranium and thorium in glasses containing the SCIX components. The KT09-series of glasses was designed to study the effect of increasing Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and K{sub 2}O concentrations on the propensity for crystallization of titanium containing phases in high TiO{sub 2} concentration glasses. Earlier work on the KT05-series glasses recommended that the impact of these two components be studied further. Increased Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations have been shown to improve the properties and performance of high waste loading glasses, and K{sub 2}O has been reported to improve the retention of TiO{sub 2} in silicate glasses. The KT10-series of compositions was designed to evaluate any impacts of the SCIX components at concentrations 50% higher than currently projected.a The glasses were fabricated in the laboratory and characterized to identify crystallization, to verify chemical compositions, to measure viscosity, and to measure durability. Liquidus temperature measurements for the KT10-series glasses are underway and will be reported separately. All but one of the KT08-series glasses were found to be amorphous by X-ray diffraction (XRD). One of the slowly cooled glasses contained a small amount of trevorite, which had no practical impact on the durability of the glass and is typically found in DWPF-type glasses. The measured Product Consistency Test (PCT) responses for the KT08-series glasses are well predicted by the DWPF models. The viscosities of the KT08-series glasses were generally well predicted by the DWPF model. No unexpected issues were encountered when uranium and thorium were added to the glasses with SCIX components. Increased Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations were not successful in preventing the formation of iron titanate crystals in the KT09-series glasses. Increased K{sub 2}O concentrations were successful in hindering the formation of iron titanates in some of the glasses after the canister centerline cooled (CCC) heat treatment. However, this result did not apply to all of the CCC versions of the glasses, indicating a compositional dependence of this effect. In addition, high concentrations of K{sub 2}O have been shown to hinder the ability of the DWPF durability and viscosity models to predict the performance of these glasses. The usefulness of increased K{sub 2}O concentrations in preventing the formation of iron titanates may therefore be limited. Further characterization was not performed for the KT09-series glasses since the type of crystallization formed was the characteristic of interest for these compositions. All of the KT10-series glasses were XRD amorphous, regardless of heat treatment. Chemical composition measurements showed that the glasses met the targeted concentrations for each oxide. In general, the measured PCT responses of the KT10-series glasses were well predicted by the DWPF models. The measured, normalized release values for silicon for some of the glasses fell above the 95% confidence interval for the predicted values; however, the PCT responses for these glasses remain considerably lower than that of the benchmark Environmental Assessment (EA) glass. The viscosities of the KT10-series glasses were generally well predicted by the DWPF model. The next step in this study will be to compile all of the data developed and further compare the measured properties and performance with those predicted by the current DWPF Product Composition Control System (PCCS) models. Recommendations will then be made as to which models, if any, may need to be modified in order to accommodate the material from SCIX into DWPF

Fox, K.; Edwards, T.

2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

229

Low pressure electrospray ionization system and process for effective transmission of ions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Systems and methods that provide up to complete transmission of ions between coupled stages with low effective ion losses. An "interfaceless" electrospray ionization system is further described that operates an electrospray at a reduced pressure such that standard electrospray sample solutions can be directly sprayed into an electrodynamic ion funnel which provides ion focusing and transmission of ions into a mass analyzer. Furthermore, chambers maintained at different pressures can allow for more optimal operating conditions for an electrospray emitter and an ion guide.

Tang, Keqi (Richland, WA); Page, Jason S (Kennewick, WA); Kelly, Ryan T (West Richland, WA); Smith, Richard D (Richland, WA)

2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

230

Mechanism of Cation Exchange Process for Epitaxy of Superconducting HgBa2CaCu2O6 Films and Passive Microwave Devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cations into, the lattice of epitaxial Tl2Ba2CaCu2O8 (Tl-2212) or TlBa2CaCu2O7 (Tl-1212) precursor films. Aiming at the remained issues in understanding the mechanism of the cation exchange (CE) process, this thesis work has studied the reversibility of CE...

Zhao, Hua

2007-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

231

Extraction of Tetra-Oxo Anions into a Hydrophobic, Ionic Liquid-Based Solvent without Concomitant Ion Exchange  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

I.A.S. thanks M. Jensen, R. Chiarizia, L. Soderholm, M. Goldberg, T. Marin, J. Muntean, W. Ebert, J. Fortner, J. Cunnane, and A. Guelis for technical expertise and review. ... Poineau, F.; Du Mazaubrun, J.; Ford, D.; Fortner, J.; Kropf, J.; Silva, G. W. C.; Smith, N.; Long, K.; Jarvinen, G.; Czerwinski, K. Uranium/Technetium Separation for the UREX Process - Synthesis and Characterization of Solid Reprocessing Forms Radiochim. ...

Dominique C. Stepinski; George F. Vandegrift; Ilya A. Shkrob; James F. Wishart; Kijana Kerr; Mark L. Dietz; Diab T. D. Qadah; Sarah L. Garvey

2010-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

232

Process for removing mercury from aqueous solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for removing mercury from water to a level not greater than two parts per billion wherein an anion exchange material that is insoluble in water is contacted first with a sulfide containing compound and second with a compound containing a bivalent metal ion forming an insoluble metal sulfide. To this treated exchange material is contacted water containing mercury. The water containing not more than two parts per billion of mercury is separated from the exchange material.

Googin, John M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Napier, John M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Makarewicz, Mark A. (Knoxville, TN); Meredith, Paul F. (Knoxville, TN)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Process for removing mercury from aqueous solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for removing mercury from water to a level not greater than two parts per billion wherein an anion exchange material that is insoluble in water is contacted first with a sulfide containing compound and second with a compound containing a bivalent metal ion forming an insoluble metal sulfide. To this treated exchange material is contacted water containing mercury. The water containing not more than two parts per billion of mercury is separated from the exchange material.

Googin, J.M.; Napier, J.M.; Makarewicz, M.A.; Meredith, P.F.

1985-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

234

Low pressure electrospray ionization system and process for effective transmission of ions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system and method are disclosed that provide up to complete transmission of ions between coupled stages with low effective ion losses. A novel "interfaceless" electrospray ionization system is further described that operates the electrospray at a reduced pressure such that standard electrospray sample solutions can be directly sprayed into an electrodynamic ion funnel which provides ion focusing and transmission of ions into a mass analyzer.

Tang, Keqi (Richland, WA); Page, Jason S. (Kennewick, WA); Kelly, Ryan T. (Wet Richland, WA); Smith, Richard D. (Richland, WA)

2010-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

235

Enhancement of exchange bias and training effect in ion-beam sputtered Fe{sub 46}Mn{sub 54}/Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19} bilayers  

SciTech Connect

We present a remarkable enhancement by 300% of the exchange-bias field at room temperature, without affecting the coercivity value, via optimum magnetic annealing (250?°C/3 kOe) in ion-beam sputtered FeMn(30?nm)/NiFe(10?nm) bilayers. This specific behavior has been attributed to a higher degree of ?-FeMn(111) orientation that offers more interfacial FeMn moments to get pinned with the moments of the adjacent NiFe layer. Unlike the absence of training effect at room temperature, a pronounced training effect and an accompanying magnetization reversal asymmetry are evidenced upon field cooling below 50?K due to the presence of biaxial exchange induced anisotropy across the interdiffused FeMn/NiFe interface. The present findings not only have technological significance but also are of relevance to the understanding of interfacial spin disorder and frustration in these exchange-biased systems.

Fulara, Himanshu; Chaudhary, Sujeet, E-mail: sujeetc@physics.iitd.ac.in; Kashyap, Subhash C. [Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India); Granville, Simon [Callaghan Innovation, PO Box 31310, Lower Hutt 5040 (New Zealand); The MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Lower Hutt (New Zealand)

2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

236

Pulsed ion beam methods for in situ characterization of diamond film deposition processes  

SciTech Connect

Diamond and diamond-like carbon (DLC) have properties which in principle make them ideally suited to a wide variety of thin-film applications. Their widespread use as thin films, however, has been limited for a number of reasons related largely to the lack of understanding and control of the nucleation and growth processes. Real-time, in situ studies of the surface of the growing diamond film are experimentally difficult because these films are normally grown under a relatively high pressure of hydrogen, and conventional surface analytical methods require an ultrahigh vacuum environment. It is believed, however, that the presence of hydrogen during growth is necessary to stabilize the corrugated diamond surface structure and thereby prevent the formation of the graphitic phase. Pulsed ion beam-based analytical methods with differentially pumped ion sources and particle detectors are able to characterize the uppermost atomic layer of a film during, growth at ambient pressures 5-7 orders of magnitude higher than other surface-specific analytical methods. We describe here a system which has been developed for the purpose of determining the hydrogen concentration and bonding sites on diamond surfaces as a function of sample temperature and ambient hydrogen pressure under hot filament CVD growth conditions. It is demonstrated that as the hydrogen partial pressure increases, the saturation hydrogen coverage of the surface of a CVD diamond film increases, but that the saturation level depends on the atomic hydrogen concentration and substrate temperature.

Krauss, A.R.; Smentkowski, V.S.; Zuiker, C.D.; Gruen, D.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Im, J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Schultz, J.A.; Waters, K. [Ionwerks Corp., Houston, TX (United States); Chang, R.P.H. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Anion exchange membrane  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An anion exchange membrane and fuel cell incorporating the anion exchange membrane are detailed in which proazaphosphatrane and azaphosphatrane cations are covalently bonded to a sulfonated fluoropolymer support along with anionic counterions. A positive charge is dispersed in the aforementioned cations which are buried in the support to reduce the cation-anion interactions and increase the mobility of hydroxide ions, for example, across the membrane. The anion exchange membrane has the ability to operate at high temperatures and in highly alkaline environments with high conductivity and low resistance.

Verkade, John G; Wadhwa, Kuldeep; Kong, Xueqian; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

2013-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

238

Processes for making dense, spherical active materials for lithium-ion cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Processes are provided for making dense, spherical mixed-metal carbonate or phosphate precursors that are particularly well suited for the production of active materials for electrochemical devices such as lithium ion secondary batteries. Exemplified methods include precipitating dense, spherical particles of metal carbonates or metal phosphates from a combined aqueous solution using a precipitating agent such as ammonium hydrogen carbonate, sodium hydrogen carbonate, or a mixture that includes sodium hydrogen carbonate. Other exemplified methods include precipitating dense, spherical particles of metal phosphates using a precipitating agent such as ammonium hydrogen phosphate, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, sodium phosphate, sodium hydrogen phosphate, sodium dihydrogen phosphate, or a mixture of any two or more thereof. Further provided are compositions of and methods of making dense, spherical metal oxides and metal phosphates using the dense, spherical metal precursors. Still further provided are electrodes and batteries using the same.

Kang, Sun-Ho (Naperville, IL); Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL)

2011-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

239

Characterization of penetration induced thermal runaway propagation process within a large format lithium ion battery module  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper investigates the mechanisms of penetration induced thermal runaway (TR) propagation process within a large format lithium ion battery pack. A 6-battery module is built with 47 thermocouples installed at critical positions to record the temperature profiles. The first battery of the module is penetrated to trigger a TR propagation process. The temperature responses, the voltage responses and the heat transfer through different paths are analyzed and discussed to characterize the underlying physical behavior. The temperature responses show that: 1) Compared with the results of TR tests using accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC) with uniform heating, a lower onset temperature and a shorter TR triggering time are observed in a penetration induced TR propagation test due to side heating. 2) The maximum temperature difference within a battery can be as high as 791.8 °C in a penetration induced TR propagation test. The voltage responses have a 5-stage feature, indicating that the TR happens in sequence for the two pouch cells packed inside a battery. The heat transfer analysis shows that: 1) 12% of the total heat released in TR of a battery is enough to trigger the adjacent battery to TR. 2) The heat transferred through the pole connector is only about 1/10 of that through the battery shell. 3) The fire has little influence on the TR propagation, but may cause significant damage on the accessories located above the battery. The results can enhance our understandings of the mechanisms of TR propagation, and provide important guidelines in pack design for large format lithium ion battery.

Xuning Feng; Jing Sun; Minggao Ouyang; Fang Wang; Xiangming He; Languang Lu; Huei Peng

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Charge-Exchange Collisions Between Hydrogen Ions and Cesium Vapor in the Energy Range 0.5-20 keV  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Charge-exchange collisions have been studied when H+ ions and ground state H0 atoms are incident on Cs vapor. Measurements of the positive, neutral, and negative beam components after passage through the target were made as a function of the Cs target thickness at several energies between 0.5 and 20 keV. All three beam components were found to approach charge equilibrium monotonically. The maximum H- equilibrium yield is (21 ± 4)%, which occurs at an H+ energy of 0.75 keV. The H- yield decreases with increasing energy, and is 0.4% at 20 keV. At energies below 4 keV the H+ equilibrium yield is very small compared with the yield of H0 and H-. For energies greater than 10 kev the H- equilibrium yield is very small compared with the yield of H0 and H+. The cross sections ?+0, ?+-, ?0+, and ?0- were measured. The subscripts + and - refer to the H+ and H- ions, 0 as an initial subscript refers to a ground-state H0 atom, and 0 as a final subscript refers to an H0 atom in the particular states produced. The cross section ?+0 decreases with increasing energy, and ranges from (9.4 ± 2.0) × 10-15 cm2 at 1 keV to (7.5 ± 1.1) × 10-16 cm2 at 15 keV. The cross section ?+- decreases with increasing energy in the range 2-15 keV, and has the value (2.1 ± 0.6) × 10-17 cm2 at 5 keV. The cross section ?0+ increases with increasing energy, having the value (1.2 ± 0.2) × 10-17 cm2 at 2 keV, and (1.74 ± 0.26) × 10-16 cm2 at 15 keV. The cross section ?0- decreases with increasing energy, having the value (1.5 ± 0.3) × 10-16 cm2 at 2 keV and (1.4 ± 0.2) × 10-17 cm2 at 15 keV.

A. S. Schlachter; P. J. Bjorkholm; D. H. Loyd; L. W. Anderson; W. Haeberli

1969-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ion exchange process" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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241

SELECTIVE REMOVAL OF STRONTIUM AND CESIUM FROM SIMULATED WASTE SOLUTION WITH TITANATE ION-EXCHANGERS IN A FILTER CARTRIDGE CONFIGURATIONS-12092  

SciTech Connect

Experimental results for the selective removal of strontium and cesium from simulated waste solutions with monosodium titanate and crystalline silicotitanate laden filter cartridges are presented. In these proof-of-principle tests, effective uptake of both strontium-85 and cesium-137 were observed using ion-exchangers in this filter cartridge configuration. At low salt simulant conditions, the instantaneous decontamination factor for strontium-85 with monosodium titanate impregnated filter membrane cartridges measured 26, representing 96% strontium-85 removal efficiency. On the other hand, the strontium-85 instantaneous decontamination factor with co-sintered active monosodium titanate cartridges measured 40 or 98% Sr-85 removal efficiency. Strontium-85 removal with the monosodium titanate impregnated membrane cartridges and crystalline silicotitanate impregnated membrane cartridges, placed in series arrangement, produced an instantaneous decontamination factor of 41 compared to an instantaneous decontamination factor of 368 for strontium-85 with co-sintered active monosodium titanate cartridges and co-sintered active crystalline silicotitanate cartridges placed in series. Overall, polyethylene co-sintered active titanates cartridges performed as well as titanate impregnated filter membrane cartridges in the uptake of strontium. At low ionic strength conditions, there was a significant uptake of cesium-137 with co-sintered crystalline silicotitanate cartridges. Tests results with crystalline silicotitanate impregnated membrane cartridges for cesium-137 decontamination are currently being re-evaluated. Based on these preliminary findings we conclude that incorporating monosodium titanate and crystalline silicotitanate sorbents into membranes represent a promising method for the semicontinuous removal of radioisotopes of strontium and cesium from nuclear waste solutions.

Oji, L.; Martin, K.; Hobbs, D.

2012-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

242

SELECTIVE REMOVAL OF STRONTIUM AND CESIUM FROM SIMULATED WASTE SOLUTION WITH TITANATE ION-EXCHANGERS IN A FILTER CARTRIDGE CONFIGURATIONS-12092  

SciTech Connect

Experimental results for the selective removal of strontium and cesium from simulated waste solutions with monosodium titanate (MST) and crystalline silicotitanate (CST) laden filter cartridges are presented. In these proof-of-principle tests, effective uptake of both Sr-85 and Cs-137 were observed using ion-exchangers in this filter cartridge configuration. At low salt simulant conditions, the instantaneous decontamination factor (D{sub F}) for Sr-85 with MST impregnated filter membrane cartridges measured 26, representing 96% Sr-85 removal efficiency. On the other hand, the Sr-85 instantaneous D{sub F} with co-sintered active MST cartridges measured 40 or 98% Sr-85 removal efficiency. Strontium-85 removal with the MST impregnated membrane cartridges and CST impregnated membrane cartridges, placed in series arrangement, produced an instantaneous decontamination factor of 41 compared to an instantaneous decontamination factor of 368 for strontium-85 with co-sintered active MST cartridges and co-sintered active CST cartridges placed in series. Overall, polyethylene co-sintered active titanates cartridges performed as well as titanate impregnated filter membrane cartridges in the uptake of strontium. At low ionic strength conditions, there was a significant uptake of Cs-137 with co-sintered CST cartridges. Tests results with CST impregnated membrane cartridges for Cs-137 decontamination are currently being re-evaluated. Based on these preliminary findings we conclude that incorporating MST and CST sorbents into membranes represent a promising method for the semi-continuous removal of radioisotopes of strontium and cesium from nuclear waste solutions.

Oji, L.; Martin, K.; Hobbs, D.

2011-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

243

Photoinduced Water Oxidation by a Tetraruthenium Polyoxometalate Catalyst: Ion-pairing and Primary Processes with Ru(bpy)32+ Photosensitizer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Photoinduced Water Oxidation by a Tetraruthenium Polyoxometalate Catalyst: Ion-pairing and Primary Processes with Ru(bpy)32+ Photosensitizer ... Two interrelated issues relevant to this behavior have been examined in detail: (i) the effects of ion pairing between the polyanionic catalyst and the cationic Ru(bpy)32+ sensitizer, and (ii) the kinetics of hole transfer from the oxidized sensitizer to the catalyst. ... This process competes appreciably with the primary photoreaction of the excited sensitizer with the sacrificial oxidant, even in high ionic strength media. ...

Mirco Natali; Michele Orlandi; Serena Berardi; Sebastiano Campagna; Marcella Bonchio; Andrea Sartorel; Franco Scandola

2012-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

244

DIVALENT ION EXCHANGE WITH ALKALI  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Enhanced Oil and Gas Recovery and Improved Drilling Hethods,on Enhanced Oil and Gas Recovery and Im- proved Drilling

Bunge, A.L.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

492 J. Opt. Soc. Am. B/Vol. 5,No. 2/February 1988 Nonlinear-optical effects in ion-exchanged  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

nonlinearity together with a fast response time.'-7 SDG consists of nano- crystallites of CdS-exchanged semiconductor-doped glass waveguides C. N. Ironside, T. J.Cullen, B.S. Bhumbra, and J.Bell Department-exchanged channel waveguides fabricated in semiconductor- doped glass. The nonlinearity is manifested as optically

246

Separation of toxic metal ions, hydrophilic hydrocarbons, hydrophobic fuel and halogenated hydrocarbons and recovery of ethanol from a process stream  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention provides a process to tremendously reduce the bulk volume of contaminants obtained from an effluent stream produced subsurface remediation. The chemicals used for the subsurface remediation are reclaimed for recycling to the remediation process. Additional reductions in contaminant bulk volume are achieved by the ultra-violet light destruction of halogenated hydrocarbons, and the complete oxidation of hydrophobic fuel hydrocarbons and hydrophilic hydrocarbons. The contaminated bulk volume will arise primarily from the disposal of the toxic metal ions. The entire process is modular, so if there are any technological breakthroughs in one or more of the component process modules, such modules can be readily replaced.

Kansa, Edward J. (Livermore, CA); Anderson, Brian L. (Lodi, CA); Wijesinghe, Ananda M. (Tracy, CA); Viani, Brian E. (Oakland, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

The Economic and Environmental Aspects of Heat Exchanger Cleaning -- How FP&L Has Used the Newly Patented MCC Process to Clean Turbine Lube Oil Coolers to Maximize Efficiency and Minimize Waste  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of efficient and timely cleaning of heat exchangers. There are great differences in the cleaning processes that are used to clean exchanger bundles in industry today. The cleaning of turbine lube oil coolers is a specialized case in point. A newly patented...

Wood, H. A. T.

248

Silane discharge ion chemistry  

SciTech Connect

Silane dc, rf, and dc proximity discharges have been studied using mass spectroscopic measurements of the positive ions as a detailed diagnostic for the type of discharge used to produce hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar photovoltaic cells. The properties and quality of these films depends in a very complex way upon the interactions of the many reactive neutral and ion species in the discharge. Qualitative models of the ion chemical processes in these discharges have been developed from experimental measurements. Knowledge of the ion-molecule and electron-molecule collision cross sections is important to any attempt at understanding silane discharge chemistry. Consequently, the electron impact ionization cross sections for silane and disilane have been measured and for comparison purposes also for methane and ethane. In addition, the rate coefficients for charge exchange reactions of He , Ne , and Ar with silane, disilane, methane, and ethane have been measured as these are important to understanding discharges in inert gas-silane mixtures. A detailed quantitative model of the cathode sheath region of a silane dc discharge has been developed by extending the best recent calculation of the electron motion in the sheath to a self-consistent form which includes the ion motion. This model is used with comparison of silane dc discharge data to diagnose the ion chemistry occurring in the sheath region of silane dc discharge. The understanding of the discharge ion chemical processes that have been gained in this study represent an important step toward understanding the chemical and physical processes leading to film growth.

Chatham, R.H. III

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

The use of synthetic hydrocalcite as a chloride-ion getter for a barrier aluminum anodization process  

SciTech Connect

Chloride ion contamination at parts per billion concentrations plaques electrochemists studying barrier anodic aluminum oxide film growth and anodic aluminum oxide capacitor manufacturers. Chloride ion contamination slows film growth and reduces film quality. We have demonstrated that synthetic hydrocalcite substantially reduces the detrimental effects of chloride ion contamination in an aqueous electrolyte commonly used to grow barrier anodic aluminum oxide. We have determined that problems arise if precautions are not taken when using synthetic hydrocalcite as a chloride-ion getter in an aqueous electrolyte. Synthetic hydrocalcite is somewhat hydrophobic. If this powder is added directly to an aqueous electrolyte, some powder disperses; some floats to the top of the bath and forms scum that locally impedes anodic film formation. Commercially available powder contains a wide range of particle sizes including submicrometer-sized particles that can escape through filters into the electrolyte and cause processing problems. These problems can be over come if (1) the getter is placed in filter bags, (2) a piece of filter paper is used to skim trace amounts of getter floating on the top of the bath, (3) dummy runs are performed to scavenge chloride-ion loaded getter micelles dispersed in the bath, and (4) substrates are rinsed with a strong stream of deionized water to remove trace amounts of powder after anodization.

Panitz, J.K.G.; Sharp, D.J.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

E-Print Network 3.0 - anion-exchange resin technique Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

at Urbana-Champaign Collection: Chemistry 39 9 Treatment of Metal-Bearing Effluents: Removal and Summary: anions are called anion exchangers. The ion exchange function of a...

251

Ammonium Bicarbonate Transport in Anion Exchange Membranes for Salinity Gradient Energy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ammonium Bicarbonate Transport in Anion Exchange Membranes for Salinity Gradient Energy ... Current status of ion exchange membranes for power generation from salinity gradients ...

Geoffrey M. Geise; Michael A. Hickner; Bruce E. Logan

2013-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

252

Influence of the electron-exchange and quantum shielding on the bremsstrahlung spectrum in degenerate quantum plasmas  

SciTech Connect

The influence of the electron-exchange and quantum shielding on the bremsstrahlung spectrum is investigated in degenerate quantum plasmas. The impact-parameter analysis with the Shukla-Eliasson potential is applied to obtain the electron-ion bremsstrahlung radiation cross section as a function of the impact parameter, photon energy, projectile energy, electron-exchange parameter, Fermi energy, and plasmon energy. The result shows that the electron-exchange effect strongly enhances the bremsstrahlung radiation spectrum in degenerate quantum plasmas. It is also shown that the influence of the electron-exchange broadens the photon emission range in the electron-ion bremsstrahlung process. It is found that the electron-exchange effect focuses the bremsstrahlung photon energy in the soft photon domain. In addition, it is found that the bremsstrahlung radiation cross section increases with an increase of the Fermi energy and, however, decreases with increasing plasmon energy.

Jung, Young-Dae [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, MC 0407, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093-0407, USA and Department of Applied Physics, Hanyang University, Ansan, Kyunggi-Do 426-791 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, MC 0407, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093-0407, USA and Department of Applied Physics, Hanyang University, Ansan, Kyunggi-Do 426-791 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

253

Ion-Molecular Reactions in Plasma Containment Devices  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We investigate ion-molecule charge exchange followed by dissociative electron recombination with molecular ions due to the presence of common impurities in a plasma-containment device. For a He+ plasma with N2 impurity, the ionic constituency of plasmas is changed from He+ to nitrogen ions with a time constant ?* given by ?*P(N2)?24 msec ? Torr. However, those ion-molecular recombination processes are not responsible for the enhanced plasma loss in the Princeton spherator at the best vacuum condition.

B. H. Ripin; M. Okabayashi; J. Schmidt; V. Voitsenja; V. Yoshikawa

1972-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

254

REMOVAL OF TECHNETIUM 99 FROM THE EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY (ETF) BASIN 44 USING PUROLITE A-530E & REILLEX HPQ & SYBRON IONAC SR-7 ION EXCHANGE RESINS  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the laboratory testing and analyses as directed under the test plan, RPP-20407. The overall goal of this task was to evaluate and compare candidate anion exchange resins for their capacity to remove Technetium-99 from Basin 44 Reverse Osmosis reject stream. The candidate resins evaluated were Purolite A-530E, Reillex HPQ, and Sybron IONAC SR-7.

DUNCAN JB

2004-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

255

Exclusive processes in electron-ion collisions in the dipole formalism  

SciTech Connect

We compare the predictions of two saturation models for production of vector mesons and of photons in electron-ion collisions. The models considered are the b-CGC and the rcBK. The calculations were made in the kinematical range of the LHeC and of the future eRHIC.

Cazaroto, E. R.; Navarra, F. S. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, C.P. 66318, 05314-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Carvalho, F. [Departamento de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Campus Diadema, Rua Prof. Artur Riedel, 275, Jd. Eldorado, 09972-270 Diadema, SP (Brazil); Goncalves, V. P. [Instituto de Fisica e Matematica, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Caixa Postal 354, 96010-900 Pelotas, RS (Brazil)

2013-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

256

Integrated chips and optical cavities for trapped ion quantum information processing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Quantum information processing is a new and exciting field which uses quantum mechanical systems to perform information processing. At the heart of the excitement are quantum computation - which promises efficient algorithms ...

Leibrandt, David R

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Ion-exchanged pillared clays: A new class of catalysts for selective catalytic reduction of NO by hydrocarbons and by ammonia  

SciTech Connect

Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO by NH{sub 3} is presently performed with vanadia-based catalysts for flue gas applications. Hydrocarbons would be the preferred reducing agents over NH{sub 3} because of the practical problems associated with the use of NH{sub 3} (i.e., handling and slippage through the reactor). SCR of NO by hydrocarbons can also find important applications for lean-burn (i.e., O{sub 2}-rich) gasoline and diesel engines where the noble-metal three-way catalysts are not effective in the presence of excess oxygen. Pillared interlayered clays (PILCs) have been studied extensively for a number of catalyzed reactions. We have found high activities of PILCs for SCR of NO by NH{sub 3} (26.28). Pillared clays have considerable Bronsted acidity (27, 28), and the protons can be exchanged with metal cations. The Bronsted acidity of TiO{sub 2}-PILC, in particular, remains high after heat treatment at temperatures as high as 400{degrees}C (27-29). In this note, we report first results on the activities of cation-exchanged pillared clays for SCR of NO by both hydrocarbon and NH{sub 3}. 37 refs., 3 figs.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Process for oil shale retorting using gravity-driven solids flow and solid-solid heat exchange  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cascading bed retorting process and apparatus in which cold raw crushed shale enters at the middle of a retort column into a mixer stage where it is rapidly mixed with hot recycled shale and thereby heated to pyrolysis temperature. The heated mixture then passes through a pyrolyzer stage where it resides for a sufficient time for complete pyrolysis to occur. The spent shale from the pyrolyzer is recirculated through a burner stage where the residual char is burned to heat the shale which then enters the mixer stage.

Lewis, Arthur E. (Los Altos, CA); Braun, Robert L. (Livermore, CA); Mallon, Richard G. (Livermore, CA); Walton, Otis R. (Livermore, CA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Process for oil shale retorting using gravity-driven solids flow and solid-solid heat exchange  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cascading bed retorting process and apparatus are disclosed in which cold raw crushed shale enters at the middle of a retort column into a mixer stage where it is rapidly mixed with hot recycled shale and thereby heated to pyrolysis temperature. The heated mixture then passes through a pyrolyzer stage where it resides for a sufficient time for complete pyrolysis to occur. The spent shale from the pyrolyzer is recirculated through a burner stage where the residual char is burned to heat the shale which then enters the mixer stage.

Lewis, A.E.; Braun, R.L.; Mallon, R.G.; Walton, O.R.

1983-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

260

r- and p-space electron densities and related kinetic and exchange energies in terms of s states alone for the leading term in the 1/Z expansion for nonrelativistic closed-shell atomic ions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

As a step towards constructing nonlocal energy density functionals, the leading term in the so-called 1/Z expansion for closed-shell atomic ions is the focus here. This term is characterized by the properties of the bare Coulomb potential (-Ze2/r), and for an arbitrary number of closed shells it is known that ??(r)/?r=-(2Z/a0)?s(r), where ?(r) is the ground-state electron density while ?s(r) is the s-state (l=0) contribution to ?(r). Here, the kinetic-energy density t(r) is also derived as a double integral in terms of ?s(r) and Z. Although the exchange energy density ?x(r) is more complex than t(r), a proof is given that, in the Coulomb limit system, ?x is indeed also determined by s-state properties alone. The same is shown to be true for the momentum density n(p), which here is obtained explicitly for an arbitrary number of closed shells. Finally, numerical results are presented that include (a) ten-electron atomic ions (K+L shells), (b) the limit as the number of closed shells tends to infinity, where an appeal is made to the analytical r-space study of Heilmann and Lieb [Phys. Rev. A 52, 3628 (1995)], and (c) momentum density and Compton line shape for an arbitrary number of closed shells.

I. A. Howard; N. H. March; V. E. Van Doren

2001-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ion exchange process" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Method for measuring and controlling beam current in ion beam processing  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for producing film thickness control of ion beam sputter deposition films. Great improvements in film thickness control is accomplished by keeping the total current supplied to both the beam and suppressor grids of a radio frequency (RF) in beam source constant, rather than just the current supplied to the beam grid. By controlling both currents, using this method, deposition rates are more stable, and this allows the deposition of layers with extremely well controlled thicknesses to about 0.1%. The method is carried out by calculating deposition rates based on the total of the suppressor and beam currents and maintaining the total current constant by adjusting RF power which gives more consistent values.

Kearney, Patrick A. (Livermore, CA); Burkhart, Scott C. (Livermore, CA)

2003-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

262

Discovery and Early Development of Non-Suppressed Ion Chromatography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......contained resins that were...significantly lower exchange capacity than the older ion exchangers...tional resins of that time...needed. In addition, the extent...was a vivid demonstration of the value...Although the XAD resins were neutral...derivatized to form ion exchangers...of varying exchange capacity......

James S. Fritz; Douglas T. Gjerde

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Joining of Ion Transport Membranes Using a Novel Transient Liquid Phase Process  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of a novel transient liquid phase (TLP) joining method has been demonstrated in joining La{sub 0.9}Ca{sub 0.1}FeO{sub 3} materials. Metal oxide powders were processed to form the TLP compositions which were used in the joining process. The method has been successful in producing joint interfaces that effectively disappear, as they are the same material and have the same properties as the joined parts. The feasibility of the method has been demonstrated for a single system, but many systems where the method can potentially be applied have been identified.

Darryl P. Butt

2006-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

264

Advanced precoat filtration and competitive processes for water purification. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

An advanced precoat filtration process system is introduced. Also presented and discussed are major competitive processes for water purification, such as conventional precoat filtration, conventional physical-chemical process, lime softening, carbon adsorption, ion exchange, activated alumina, reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration, microfiltration, electrodialysis, and packed aeration column.

Wang, L.K.; Wang, M.H.S.

1989-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

265

Synthesis, characterization, and ion exchange properties of a sodium nonatitanate, Na4Ti9O20.xH2O  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

During the Cold War, the Hanford Weapons Site in Richland, Washington, produced weapons grade plutonium which first needed to be separated from the other products using the PUREX process (plutonium and uranium extraction). As a by product...

Graziano, Gina Marie

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Process for recovering chaotropic anions from an aqueous solution also containing other ions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid/liquid process for the separation and recovery of chaotropic anions from an aqueous solution is disclosed. The solid support comprises separation particles having surface-bonded poly(ethylene glycol) groups, whereas the aqueous solution from which the chaotropic anions are separated contains a poly(ethylene glycol) liquid/liquid biphase-forming amount of a dissolved salt (lyotrope). A solid/liquid phase admixture of separation particles containing bound chaotropic anions in such an aqueous solution is also contemplated, as is a chromatography apparatus containing that solid/liquid phase admixture. 19 figs.

Rogers, R.; Horwitz, E.P.; Bond, A.H.

1999-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

267

Separation scheme for selective and quantitative isolation of cobalt from neutron-irradiated biological materials by ion exchange and extraction chromatography  

SciTech Connect

Highly reliable radiochemical separation scheme for selective and quantitative isolation of trace amounts of cobalt from neutron-irradiated biological materials was elaborated. The method consists in wet-ashing of the sample with HNO{sub 3} + HClO{sub 4} (1:1) mixture plus vanadium salt (oxidation catalyst), removal of silica by evaporation with HF and separation of cobalt from accompanying ions successively on 3 columns with Dowex 1-X8[Cl{sup -}] from 0.5 M HCl, Dowex 1-X8[Cl{sup -}] from 8 M HCl + 2 M MgCl{sub 2} and tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) supported on styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer, from 7 M HCl solution, respectively. Cobalt of very high radiochemical purity is finally recovered in 1.2 M HCl solution with practically 100% yield. The separation scheme is universally applicable, to biological samples of both animal and plant origin and was devised to become an integral part of the very accurate ({open_quotes}definitive{close_quotes}) method of cobalt determination by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Preliminary results on Co determination by NAA in some certified reference materials confirmed high reliability of the devised separation scheme.

Dybczynski, R.; Danko, B.; Maleszewska, H. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

64 BioProcess International May 2010 ptimized upstream  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

exchangers (1). Harinarayan et al. demonstrated the existence of an exclusion mechanism on ion exchangers the number of column chromatography steps and decrease purification cost). Ion-exchange (IEX) chromatography is one of the most broadly used techniques for protein purification. Protein binding during ion exchange

Lebendiker, Mario

269

Heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat exchanger comparising a shell attached at its open end to one side of a tube sheet and a detachable head connected to the other side of said tube sheet. The head is divided into a first and second chamber in fluid communication with a nozzle inlet and nozzle outlet, respectively, formed in said tube sheet. A tube bundle is mounted within said shell and is provided with inlets and outlets formed in said tube sheet in communication with said first and second chambers, respectively.

Brackenbury, Phillip J. (Richland, WA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat exchanger comparising a shell attached at its open end to one side of a tube sheet and a detachable head connected to the other side of said tube sheet. The head is divided into a first and second chamber in fluid communication with a nozzle inlet and nozzle outlet, respectively, formed in said tube sheet. A tube bundle is mounted within said shell and is provided with inlets and outlets formed in said tube sheet in communication with said first and second chambers, respectively.

Brackenbury, P.J.

1983-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

271

AZ 300 MIF Developer Process The CEPSR Clean Room stores one gallon bottles of AZ 300 MIF (metal ion free) developer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AZ 300 MIF Developer Process The CEPSR Clean Room stores one gallon bottles of AZ 300 MIF (metal of this developer are 2.38% weight of tetra methyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) and 0.261N metal ion free developer with nitrogen gun. 4) Place bottle of AZ 300 MIF back under the hood with other solvents. 5) Any used AZ 300 MIF

Kim, Philip

272

Segmented heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.

Baldwin, Darryl Dean (Lafayette, IN); Willi, Martin Leo (Dunlap, IL); Fiveland, Scott Byron (Metamara, IL); Timmons, Kristine Ann (Chillicothe, IL)

2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

273

Radioactive ion detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus for detecting the presence, in aqueous media, of substances which emit alpha and/or beta radiation and determining the oxidation state of these radioactive substances, that is, whether they are in cationic or anionic form. In one embodiment, a sensor assembly has two elements, one comprised of an ion-exchange material which binds cations and the other comprised of an ion-exchange material which binds anions. Each ion-exchange element is further comprised of a scintillation plastic and a photocurrent generator. When a radioactive substance to which the sensor is exposed binds to either element and emits alpha or beta particles, photons produced in the scintillation plastic illuminate the photocurrent generator of that element. Sensing apparatus senses generator output and thereby indicates whether cationic species or anionic species or both are present and also provides an indication of species quantity. 2 figs.

Bower, K.E.; Weeks, D.R.

1997-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

274

Radioactive ion detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus for detecting the presence, in aqueous media, of substances which emit alpha and/or beta radiation and determining the oxidation state of these radioactive substances, that is, whether they are in cationic or anionic form. In one embodiment, a sensor assembly has two elements, one comprised of an ion-exchange material which binds cations and the other comprised of an ion-exchange material which binds anions. Each ion-exchange element is further comprised of a scintillation plastic and a photocurrent generator. When a radioactive substance to which the sensor is exposed binds to either element and emits alpha or beta particles, photons produced in the scintillation plastic illuminate the photocurrent generator of that element. Sensing apparatus senses generator output and thereby indicates whether cationic species or anionic species or both are present and also provides an indication of species quantity.

Bower, Kenneth E. (Los Alamos, NM); Weeks, Donald R. (Saratoga, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

INDEX of SCIENCE HIGHLIGHTS August 17, 2011 First proof of hydronium ion's role in an enzymatic process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the potential to allow conversion of sugars in woody biomass into alcohol, a potential alternative fuel, because). The hydronium ion facilitating the binding of a metal ion cofactor crucial to the conversion of the sugar in treatment of peptic ulcers or acid reflux disease, or enable more efficient conversion of woody waste

276

Interface and process for enhanced transmission of non-circular ion beams between stages at unequal pressure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention discloses a new interface with non-circular conductance limit aperture(s) useful for effective transmission of non-circular ion beams between stages with different gas pressure. In particular, the invention provides an improved coupling of field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) analyzers of planar or side-to-side geometry to downstream stages such as mass spectrometry or ion mobility spectrometry. In this case, the non-circular aperture is rectangular; other geometries may be optimum in other applications. In the preferred embodiment, the non-circular aperture interface is followed by an electrodynamic ion funnel that may focus wide ion beams of any shape into tight circular beams with virtually no losses. The jet disrupter element of the funnel may also have a non-circular geometry, matching the shape of arriving ion beam. The improved sensitivity of planar FAIMS/MS has been demonstrated in experiments using a non-contiguous elongated aperture but other embodiments (e.g., with a contiguous slit aperture) may be preferable, especially in conjunction with an ion funnel operated at high pressures.

Tang, Keqi (Richland, WA); Shvartsburg, Alexandre A. (Richland, WA); Smith, Richard D. (Richland, WA)

2008-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

277

Temporal Development of Ion Beam Mean Charge State in PulsedVacuum Arc Ion Sources  

SciTech Connect

Vacuum arc ion sources, commonly also known as "Mevva" ionsources, are used to generate intense pulsed metal ion beams. It is knownthat the mean charge state of the ion beam lies between 1 and 4,depending on cathode material, arc current, arc pulse duration, presenceor absence of magnetic field at the cathode, as well background gaspressure. A characteristic of the vacuum arc ion beam is a significantdecrease in ion charge state throughout the pulse. This decrease can beobserved up to a few milliseconds, until a "noisy" steady-state value isestablished. Since the extraction voltage is constant, a decrease in theion charge state has a proportional impact on the average ion beamenergy. This paper presents results of detailed investigations of theinfluence of arc parameters on the temporal development of the ion beammean charge state for a wide range of cathode materials. It is shown thatfor fixed pulse duration, the charge state decrease can be reduced bylower arc current, higher pulse repetition rate, and reduction of thedistance between cathode and extraction region. The latter effect may beassociated with charge exchange processes in the dischargeplasma.

Oks, Efim M.; Yushkov, Georgy Yu.; Anders, Andre

2007-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

278

Salt Waste Processing Initiatives  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Patricia Suggs Patricia Suggs Salt Processing Team Lead Assistant Manager for Waste Disposition Project Office of Environmental Management Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Initiatives 2 Overview * Current SRS Liquid Waste System status * Opportunity to accelerate salt processing - transformational technologies - Rotary Microfiltration (RMF) and Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) - Actinide Removal Process/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (ARP/MCU) extension with next generation extractant - Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) performance enhancement - Saltstone enhancements * Life-cycle impacts and benefits 3 SRS Liquid Waste Total Volume >37 Million Gallons (Mgal) Total Curies 183 MCi (51% ) 175 MCi (49% ) >358 Million Curies (MCi) Sludge 34.3 Mgal (92% ) 3.0 Mgal (8%)

279

Physical processes of the interaction of ion and plasma streams with a target surface in a dense plasma focus device  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Dynamics of the interaction of powerful streams of high-temperature plasma and fast ions generated in a device of the “Dense Plasma Focus” (DPF) type has been studied for...Z...axis of the DPF chamber on its cath...

V. A. Gribkov; A. S. Demin; E. V. Demina; A. V. Dubrovsky…

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Ionization, charge exchange, and excitation in F + Ar and F + Kr collisions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have measured projectile and target x-ray cross sections for F + Ar and F + Kr collisions using fluorine beams of charge states 7 +, 8 +, and 9+ with energies from 20 to 76 MeV. Pronounced enhancements for the Ar K and Kr L vacancy cross sections using F9+ ions compared to those for the 7+ projectile can be explained by charge exchange as described by an empirically scaled Brinkman-Kramers theory. The Ar L, Kr K and Kr M cross sections are found to exhibit features expected for Coulomb ionization. The projectile K x-ray production for the 9+ ion is accounted for by charge exchange processes. Predictions of the first Born approximation for direct single-step excitation to bound states by the target nucleus overestimate the observed cross sections for F7+ and F8+.

Forrest Hopkins; Rudiger Brenn; Anthony R. Whittemore; Nelson Cue; Vince Dutkiewicz; R. P. Chaturvedi

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ion exchange process" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

REMOVING RADIUM-226 ION EXCHANGE RESINS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. M. R. Collins Department of Civil Engineering - University of New Hampshire Funded by: United States for Radionuclides · 1962 US Public Health Services DWS ­ 3 pCi/L Radium 226 · 1977 USEPA National Interim Prim. DWS Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) New England Water Treatment Technology Assistance Center (WTTAC

282

Ion Exchange Kinetics Testing with SRF Resin  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site contains more than 53 million gallons of legacy waste generated as a byproduct of plutonium production and reprocessing operations. The wastes are a complex mixture composed mostly of NaNO3, NaNO2, NaOH, NaAlO2, Na3PO4, and Na2SO4, with a number of minor and trace metals, organics, and radionuclides stored in underground waste tanks. The DOE Office of River Protection (ORP) has contracted Bechtel National Incorporated (BNI) to build a pretreatment facility, the River Protection Project-Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP), that will separate long-lived transuranics (TRU) and highly radioactive components (specifically 137Cs and, in selected cases, 90Sr) from the bulk (non-radioactive) constituents and immobilize the wastes by vitrification. The plant is designed to produce two waste streams: a high-volume low-activity waste (LAW) and a low-volume high-activity waste (HLW).

Russell, Renee L.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Brown, Garrett N.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Peterson, Reid A.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Ion exchange as a tertiary treatment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that these treatment methods are capable of removing an appreciable amount of objection? able dissolved organic and inorganic materi aJ s from the final effluent. Color and turbidity were greatly reduced and an appreciable amount of the suspended solids were... Demand Re Resin A General Anion mg. /1. MLVSS psi gpm Milligrams per I. iter Mixed Liquor Volatile Suspended Solids Pounds per Square Inch Gallons per Minute. mm Mi llimeters kgr meq ml Kilogram Milliequilavent Millimeter S. S. BV...

Westervelt, Ronald David

1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Psychology on Exchange InternationalExchangeProgram  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Psychology on Exchange InternationalExchangeProgram Psychology majors are welcome to apply Honours, you need to take into account the advice from the Department of Psychology (http://sydney.edu.au/ current_students/student_exchange/forms_downloads.shtml). Timing To meet Australian Psychology

Viglas, Anastasios

285

Two?dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance studies on a single crystal of l?alanine. Separation of the local dipolar fields; and 2D exchange spectroscopy of the 1 4N relaxation processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Two types of 2DNMR techniques namely separated local field 2DNMR (SLF 2DNMR) and 2D exchange NMR spectroscopy were applied to a single crystal of l?alanine at room temperature. In the SLF 2DNMR experiments we found that the 1 3C–1H dipolar field at the C?carbon nucleus could be separated not only from the chemical shift interaction but also from the 1 3C?–1 4N dipolar field. The angular variation of the 1 3C?–1H dipolar splitting was measured when the static magnetic field was rotated about three orthogonal axes (a b and c axes). The 1 3C??1H dipolar coupling tensor was determined and the C?–H bond length was evaluated to be 1.073 Å. In the 2D exchange NMR experiment for C?carbon nucleus the off?diagonal cross peaks due to the single quantum and the double quantum transitions for the spin?lattice relaxation processes of the adjacent 1 4N nucleus were observed. The single quantum transition rate constant was evaluated to be 0.8 s? 1 and the double quantum transition rate constant was estimated to be much smaller. Inspection of the experimental results of the 2D exchange NMR together with the theory indicates that (1) the double quantum cross peaks which appeared when a long mixing time (? m =1.0 s) was used is brought about by two consecutive single quantum processes and (2) the main spin?lattice relaxation process of the NH+ 3 nitrogen nucleus is the fluctuation of 1 4N–1H dipolar interaction rather than the fluctuation of 1 4N quadrupole interaction.

A. Naito; P. B. Barker; C. A. McDowell

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

A New Hybrid Proton-Exchange-Membrane Fuel Cells-Battery Power System with Efficiencies Considered  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hybrid systems, based on lead-acid or lithium-ion batteries and proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), give the possibility of ... results show that the combination of lead-acid batteries or lithium-ion batteries

Chung-Hsing Chao; Jenn-Jong Shieh

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Woven heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a heat exchanger for waste heat recovery from high temperature industrial exhaust streams. In a woven ceramic heat exchanger using the basic tube-in-shell design, each heat exchanger consisting of tube sheets and tube, is woven separately. Individual heat exchangers are assembled in cross-flow configuration. Each heat exchanger is woven from high temperature ceramic fiber, the warp is continuous from tube to tube sheet providing a smooth transition and unitized construction.

Piscitella, R.R.

1984-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

288

Optimized Anion Exchange Membranes for Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

vanadium redox flow battery; anion exchange membrane; ion exchange capacity; cycling performance; power density ... All electrochemical measurements were conducted using a fully automated redox flow battery testing system (Scribner 857 Redox Flow Cell System). ... Characteristics of a new all-vanadium redox flow battery ...

Dongyang Chen; Michael A. Hickner; Ertan Agar; E. Caglan Kumbur

2013-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

289

Process for removing metals from water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for removing metals from water including the steps of prefiltering solids from the water, adjusting the pH to between about 2 and 3, reducing the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water, increasing the pH to between about 6 and 8, adding water-soluble sulfide to precipitate insoluble sulfide- and hydroxide-forming metals, adding a containing floc, and postfiltering the resultant solution. The postfiltered solution may optionally be eluted through an ion exchange resin to remove residual metal ions. 2 tabs.

Napier, J.M.; Hancher, C.M.; Hackett, G.D.

1987-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

290

Process for thin film deposition of cadmium sulfide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention teaches a process for depositing layers of cadmium sulfide. The process includes depositing a layer of cadmium oxide by spray pyrolysis of a cadmium salt in an aqueous or organic solvent. The oxide film is then converted into cadmium sulfide by thermal ion exchange of the O.sup.-2 for S.sup.-2 by annealing the oxide layer in gaseous sulfur at elevated temperatures.

Muruska, H. Paul (East Windsor, NJ); Sansregret, Joseph L. (Scotch Plains, NJ); Young, Archie R. (Montclair, NJ)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Crystal-field effects of Sm3+ ions in Sm2Fe17Nx  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Using only two crystalline electric-field parameters A20 and A40 and the Sm-Fe exchange field Hex, the magnetic-anisotropy behavior of the Sm ion in Sm2Fe17Nx is described. It is shown that a field-induced noncollinear coupling between the spin and orbital moments of the Sm ion takes place during the magnetization process when the external field is applied along the hard axis. This noncollinear coupling causes a very different magnetization process of the Sm moment at T=0 and 300 K.

T. S. Zhao, X. C. Kou, R. Grössinger, and H. R. Kirchmayr

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Seawater desalination by gas hydrate process and removal characteristics of dissolved ions (Na+, K+, Mg2 +, Ca2 +, B3 +, Cl?, SO42 ?)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In order to evaluate hydrate-based desalination (HBD), experiments with seawater samples were carried out at various conditions (i.e. hydraulic pressure, washing step, and hydrate-forming gas). Before and after the hydrate process, cations (Na+, K+, Mg2 +, Ca2 +, and B3 +) and anions (Cl? and SO42 ?) were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and ion chromatography (IC). In a single stage of CO2 hydrate process without any pretreatment, 71%–94% of each cation was removed in the following order: K+ > Na+ ? Mg2 + ? Ca2 + > B3 + and 73%–83% of each anion was removed. When the brines on the surface of hydrate pellets were removed, the ion removal efficiency increased above 4%. It was also found that the desalting efficiency depended on the hydrate-forming gas (CO2 > CH4) and the hydraulic pressure (6–10 MPa) to produce hydrate pellets. In this study, the removal efficiency of cations and anions in a real seawater sample using HBD processes were reported for the first time.

Kyung Chan Kang; Praveen Linga; Kyeong-nam Park; Sang-June Choi; Ju Dong Lee

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Intracellular Sequestration of Sodium by a Novel Na /H Exchanger in Yeast Is Enhanced by Mutations in the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

membrane Na /K -ATPase, a P-type ion pump, that drives Na ions out of the cell in exchange for K ions (1). The resultant Na gradient serves as the primary energy source for the transport of other ions and metabolites threat to agricultural production worldwide (4, 5). Because of a basic similarity in ion transport

Rao, Rajini

294

Cesium and Strontium Specific Exchangers for Nuclear Waste Effluent Remediation  

SciTech Connect

During the past 50 years, nuclear defense activities have produced large quantities of nuclear waste that now require safe and permanent disposal. The general procedure to be implemented involves the removal of cesium and strontium from the waste solutions for disposal in permanently vitrified media. This requires highly selective sorbents or ion exchangers. Further, at the high radiation doses present in the solution, organic exchangers or sequestrants are likely to decompose over time. Inorganic ion exchangers are resistant to radiation damage and can exhibit remarkably high selectivities. We have synthesized three families of tunnel-type ion exchangers. The crystal structures of these compounds as well as their protonated phases, coupled with ion exchange titrations, were determined and this information was used to develop an understanding of their ion exchange behavior. The ion exchange selectivities of these phases could be regulated by isomorphous replacement of the framework metals by larger or smaller radius metals. In the realm of layered compounds, we prepared alumina, silica, and zirconia pillared clays and sodium micas. The pillared clays yielded very high Kd values for Cs+ and were very effective in removing Cs+ from groundwaters. The sodium micas also had a high affinity for Cs+ but an even greater attraction for S42+. They also possess the property of trapping these ions permanently as the layers slowly decrease their interlayer distance as loading occurs. Sodium nonatitanate exhibited extremely high Kd values for Sr2+ in alkaline tank wastes and should be considered for removal of Sr2+ in such cases. For tank wastes containing complexing agents, we have found that adding Ca2+ to the solution releases the complexed Sr2+ which may then be removed with the CST exchanger.

A. Clearfield; A. I. Bortun; L. A. Bortun; E. A. Bhlume; P. Sylvester; G. M. Graziano

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Potassium-Calcium Exchange in a Multireactive Soil System: II. Thermodynamics1 P. M. JARDINE ANDD. L. SPARKS2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ions and sup- ports the hypothesis of the multireactive natureof the soil. Although K was selectively energy of ex- change, enthalpy of exchange, entropy of exchange. Jardine, P.M., and D.L. Sparks. 1984

Sparks, Donald L.

296

Adiabatic description of dissipative processes in heavy-ion reactions and fission. I. Microscopic theory: Statistics of matrix elements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The statistical properties of matrix elements which couple the collective (or shape) degrees of nuclear motion with the intrinsic degrees of freedom, are evaluated in the adiabatic representation. The results will be used in a future paper for the calculation of transport coefficients which describe the irreversible (dissipative) transfer of energy from the collective degrees of freedom to the intrinsic ones. As input we use a random-matrix model for the residual interaction, and salient properties of single-particle levels in nonspherical potentials.[NUCLEAR REACTIONS Random-matrix model applied to heavy-ion reaction and fission.

M. C. Nemes and Hans. A. Weidenmüller

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Process for the recovery of curium-244 from nuclear waste  

SciTech Connect

A process has been designed for the recovery of curium from purex waste. Curium and americium are separated from the lanthanides by a TALSPEAK extraction process using differential extraction. Equations were derived for the estimation of the economically optimum conditions for the extraction using laboratory batch extraction data. The preparation of feed for the extraction involves the removal of nitric acid from the Purex waste by vaporization under reduced pressure, the leaching of soluble nitrates from the resulting cake, and the oxalate precipitation of a pure lanthanide-actinide fraction. Final separation of the curium from americium is done by ion-exchange. The steps of the process, except ion-exchange, were tested on a laboratory scale and workable conditions were determined.

Posey, J.C.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Process for strontium-82 separation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for selective separation of strontium-82 and strontium-85 from proton irradiated molybdenum targets comprises dissolving the molybdenum target in a hydrogen peroxide solution to form a first solution containing ions selected from a group consisting of molybdenum, niobium, technetium, selenium, vanadium, arsenic, germanium, zirconium, rubidium, zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium, strontium, and yttrium; passing the solution through a first cationic resin whereby ions selected from a group consisting of zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium, strontium, yttrium a portion of zirconium and a portion of rubidium are selectively absorbed by the first resin; contacting the first resin with an acid solution to strip and remove the absorbed ions from the first cationic exchange resin to form a second solution; evaporating the second solution for a time sufficient to remove substantially all of the acid and water from the solution whereby a residue remains; dissolving the residue in a dilute acid to form a third solution; passing the third solution through a second cationic resin whereby the ions are absorbed by the second resin; contacting the second resin with a dilute sulfuric acid solution whereby the absorbed ions selected from the group consisting of rubidium, zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium and zirconium are selectively removed from the second resin; and contacting the second resin with a dilute acid solution whereby the absorbed strontium ions are selectively removed. 1 fig.

Heaton, R.C.; Jamriska, D.J. Sr.; Taylor, W.A.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Nonperturbative treatment of multielectron processes in ion-molecule scattering: Application to He{sup 2+}-H{sub 2} collisions  

SciTech Connect

We present a nonperturbative theory to describe multielectronic processes occurring in the course of collisions between an ion and a molecule. The approach is based on the expansion of the electronic scattering wave function onto asymptotic mono- or multicenter states with proper translational conditions and includes both static and dynamical electronic correlations. Therefore, it has a wide application range around intermediate impact velocities v{approx_equal}v{sub e}, where v{sub e} is the averaged electron velocity in the initial state. As a first application, we report results on single- and double-electron capture processes in He{sup 2+}-H{sub 2} collisions for impact energies ranging from 0.01 to 25 keV/u. Special emphasis on the prediction of cross sections for double-electron capture into doubly excited states of helium is addressed.

Sisourat, Nicolas; Dubois, Alain [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique - Matiere et Rayonnement, UMR 7614, UPMC Universite Paris 6, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); LCPMR, UMR 7614, CNRS, F-75005 Paris (France); Pilskog, Ingjald [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique - Matiere et Rayonnement, UMR 7614, UPMC Universite Paris 6, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, N-5007 Bergen (Norway)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

300

FOCUS: HYDROGEN EXCHANGE AND COVALENT MODIFICATION ACCOUNT AND PERSPECTIVE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

hydrogen exchange behavior, understand the underlying chemistry and structural physics of hydrogen exchange-protected by their H-bonding interactions, they engage in continual ex- change with the hydrogens of solvent water of the underlying chemistry and structural phys- ics of protein HX processes. The study of protein hydrogen exchange

Englander, S. Walter

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ion exchange process" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Advanced process control and novel test methods for PVD silicon and elastomeric silicone coatings utilized on ion implant disks, heatsinks and selected platens  

SciTech Connect

Coatings play multiple key roles in the proper functioning of mature and current ion implanters. Batch and serial implanters require strategic control of elemental and particulate contamination which often includes scrutiny of the silicon surface coatings encountering direct beam contact. Elastomeric Silicone Coatings must accommodate wafer loading and unloading as well as direct backside contact during implant plus must maintain rigid elemental and particulate specifications. The semiconductor industry has had a significant and continuous effort to obtain ultra-pure silicon coatings with sustained process performance and long life. Low particles and reduced elemental levels for silicon coatings are a major requirement for process engineers, OEM manufacturers, and second source suppliers. Relevant data will be presented. Some emphasis and detail will be placed on the structure and characteristics of a relatively new PVD Silicon Coating process that is very dense and homogeneous. Wear rate under typical ion beam test conditions will be discussed. The PVD Silicon Coating that will be presented here is used on disk shields, wafer handling fingers/fences, exclusion zones of heat sinks, beam dumps and other beamline components. Older, legacy implanters can now provide extended process capability using this new generation PVD silicon - even on implanter systems that were shipped long before the advent of silicon coating for contamination control. Low particles and reduced elemental levels are critical performance criteria for the silicone elastomers used on disk heatsinks and serial implanter platens. Novel evaluation techniques and custom engineered tools are used to investigate the surface interaction characteristics of multiple Elastomeric Silicone Coatings currently in use by the industry - specifically, friction and perpendicular stiction. These parameters are presented as methods to investigate the critical wafer load and unload function. Unique tools and test methods have been developed that deliver accurate and repeatable data, which will be described.

Springer, J.; Allen, B.; Wriggins, W.; Kuzbyt, R.; Sinclair, R. [Core Systems, 1050 Kifer Road Sunnyvale, CA 94086 (United States); FI Silicon, 1050 Kifer Road Sunnyvale, CA 94086 (United States); Core Systems, 1050 Kifer Road Sunnyvale, CA 94086 (United States)

2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

302

Development Of Ion Chromatography Methods To Support Testing Of The Glycolic Acid Reductant Flowsheet In The Defense Waste Processing Facility  

SciTech Connect

Ion Chromatography (IC) is the principal analytical method used to support studies of Sludge Reciept and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) chemistry at DWPF. A series of prior analytical ''Round Robin'' (RR) studies included both supernate and sludge samples from SRAT simulant, previously reported as memos, are tabulated in this report.2,3 From these studies it was determined to standardize IC column size to 4 mm diameter, eliminating the capillary column from use. As a follow on test, the DWPF laboratory, the PSAL laboratory, and the AD laboratory participated in the current analytical RR to determine a suite of anions in SRAT simulant by IC, results also are tabulated in this report. The particular goal was to confirm the laboratories ability to measure and quantitate glycolate ion. The target was + or - 20% inter-lab agreement of the analyte averages for the RR. Each of the three laboratories analyzed a batch of 12 samples. For each laboratory, the percent relative standard deviation (%RSD) of the averages on nitrate, glycolate, and oxalate, was 10% or less. The three laboratories all met the goal of 20% relative agreement for nitrate and glycolate. For oxalate, the PSAL laboratory reported an average value that was 20% higher than the average values reported by the DWPF laboratory and the AD laboratory. Because of this wider window of agreement, it was concluded to continue the practice of an additional acid digestion for total oxalate measurement. It should also be noted that large amounts of glycolate in the SRAT samples will have an impact on detection limits of near eluting peaks, namely Fluoride and Formate. A suite of scoping experiments are presented in the report to identify and isolate other potential interlaboratory disceprancies. Specific ion chromatography inter-laboratory method conditions and differences are tabulated. Most differences were minor but there are some temperature control equipment differences that are significant leading to a recommendation of a heated jacket for analytical columns that are remoted for use in radiohoods. A suggested method improvement would be to implement column temperture control at a temperature slightly above ambient to avoid peak shifting due to temperature fluctuations. Temperature control in this manner would improve short and longer term peak retention time stability. An unknown peak was observed during the analysis of glycolic acid and SRAT simulant. The unknown peak was determined to best match diglycolic acid. The development of a method for acetate is summaraized, and no significant amount of acetate was observed in the SRAT products tested. In addition, an alternative Gas Chromatograph (GC) method for glycolate is summarized.

Wiedenman, B. J.; White, T. L.; Mahannah, R. N.; Best, D. R.; Stone, M. E.; Click, D. R.; Lambert, D. P.; Coleman, C. J.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

VOLUME 76, NUMBER 1 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 1 JANUARY 1996 First Study of Heavy-Ion Mirror Charge Exchange  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are nuclear reaction studies with mirror nuclear pairs, since only one member of a mirror pair can be stable accessible excitation energy range. Charge-exchange p, n reactions at energies above 100 MeV have long been, since they involve the detection of rather low-energy neutrons. Furthermore, experiments in the b1

Bertulani, Carlos A. - Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A&M University

304

Ion sources for ion implantation technology (invited)  

SciTech Connect

Ion sources for ion implantation are introduced. The technique is applied not only to large scale integration (LSI) devices but also to flat panel display. For LSI fabrication, ion source scheduled maintenance cycle is most important. For CMOS image sensor devices, metal contamination at implanted wafer is most important. On the other hand, to fabricate miniaturized devices, cluster ion implantation has been proposed to make shallow PN junction. While for power devices such as silicon carbide, aluminum ion is required. For doping processes of LCD fabrication, a large ion source is required. The extraction area is about 150 cm × 10 cm, and the beam uniformity is important as well as the total target beam current.

Sakai, Shigeki, E-mail: sakai-shigeki@nissin.co.jp; Hamamoto, Nariaki; Inouchi, Yutaka; Umisedo, Sei; Miyamoto, Naoki [Nissin Ion Equipment co., ltd, 575 Kuze-Tonoshiro-cho Minami-ku, Kyoto 601-8205 (Japan)] [Nissin Ion Equipment co., ltd, 575 Kuze-Tonoshiro-cho Minami-ku, Kyoto 601-8205 (Japan)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

305

Role of two-electron processes in the excitation-ionization of lithium atoms by fast ion impact  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study excitation and ionization in the 1.5 MeV/amu O$^{8+}$-Li collision system, which was the subject of a recent reaction-microscope-type experiment [Fischer \\textit{et al.}, Phys. Rev. Lett. \\textbf{109}, 113202 (2012)]. Starting from an independent-electron model based on determinantal wave functions and using single-electron basis generator method and continuum distorted-wave with eikonal initial-state calculations we show that pure single ionization of a lithium $K$-shell electron is too weak a process to explain the measured single differential cross section. Rather, our analysis suggests that two-electron excitation-ionization processes occur and have to be taken into account when comparing with the data. Good agreement is obtained only if we replace the independent-electron calculation by an independent-event model for one of the excitation-ionization processes and also take a shake-off process into account.

Kirchner, T; Gulyás, L

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Highly Polarized Ion Sources for Electron Ion Colliders (EIC)  

SciTech Connect

The operation of the RHIC facility at BNL and the Electron Ion Colliders (EIC) under development at Jefferson Laboratory and BNL need high brightness ion beams with the highest polarization. Charge exchange injection into a storage ring or synchrotron and Siberian snakes have the potential to handle the needed polarized beam currents, but first the ion sources must create beams with the highest possible polarization to maximize collider productivity, which is proportional to a high power of the polarization. We are developing one universal H-/D- ion source design which will synthesize the most advanced developments in the field of polarized ion sources to provide high current, high brightness, ion beams with greater than 90% polarization, good lifetime, high reliability, and good power efficiency. The new source will be an advanced version of an atomic beam polarized ion source (ABPIS) with resonant charge exchange ionization by negative ions. An integrated ABPIS design will be prepared based on new materials and an optimized magnetic focusing system. Polarized atomic and ion beam formation, extraction, and transport for the new source will be computer simulated.

V.G. Dudnikov, R.P. Johnson, Y.S. Derbenev, Y. Zhang

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Cryogenic Ion Chemistry and Spectroscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cryogenic Ion Chemistry and Spectroscopy ... His research focuses on developing and applying cryogenic ion processing for the characterization of hydrogen bonding motifs in macromolecules and activated organometallic catalysts. ... In this Account, we discuss how cryogenic cooling, mass selection, and reactive processing together provide a powerful way to characterize ion structures as well as rationally synthesize labile reaction intermediates. ...

Arron B. Wolk; Christopher M. Leavitt; Etienne Garand; Mark A. Johnson

2013-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

308

Discovery and Early Development of Non-Suppressed Ion Chromatography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......charge on cation-exchange materials caused a mixture of the resins...Then the chloromethylated materials were converted into ion exchangers...few months later that year, Bill Rich, the Vice President of...stress corrosion cracking of turbine blades. Ion chromatography......

James S. Fritz; Douglas T. Gjerde

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Ion source  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A magnetic filter for an ion source reduces the production of undesired ion species and improves the ion beam quality. High-energy ionizing electrons are confined by the magnetic filter to an ion source region, where the high-energy electrons ionize gas molecules. One embodiment of the magnetic filter uses permanent magnets oriented to establish a magnetic field transverse to the direction of travel of ions from the ion source region to the ion extraction region. In another embodiment, low energy 16 eV electrons are injected into the ion source to dissociate gas molecules and undesired ion species into desired ion species.

Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA); Ehlers, Kenneth W. (Alamo, CA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

High-resolution studies of charge exchange in supernova remnants with Magellan, XMM-Newton, and Micro-X  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Charge exchange, the semi-resonant transfer of an electron from a neutral atom to an excited state in an energetic ion, can occur in plasmas where energetic ions are incident on a cold, at least partially neutral gas. ...

Heine, Sarah Nicole Trowbridge

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Physical limits for high ion charge states in pulsed discharges in vacuum  

SciTech Connect

Short-pulse, high-current discharges in vacuum were investigated with the goal to maximize the ion charge state number. In a direct extension of previous work [Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 041502 (2008)], the role of pulse length, rate of current rise, and current amplitude was studied. For all experimental conditions, the usable (extractable) mean ion charge state could not be pushed beyond 7+. Instead, a maximum of the mean ion charge state (about 6+ to 7+ for most cathode materials) was found for a power of 2-3 MW dissipated in the discharge gap. The maximum is the result of two opposing processes that occur when the power is increased: (i) the formation of higher ion charge states, and (ii) a greater production of neutrals (both metal and non-metal), which reduces the charge state via charge exchange collisions.

Yushkov, Georgy; Anders, Andre

2008-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

312

Collision cross sections and equilibrium fractions of ions and atoms in metal vapor targets. Project progress report, June 1, 1979-May 31, 1980  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this program is to measure atomic collision cross sections and equilibrium fractions of ions and atoms in metal vapor targets. The goal is to obtain experimental information on atomic collision processes relevant to the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program. In particular, in connection with the development of double charge exchange D/sup -/ ion sources, we are measuring D/sup -/ formation cross sections in alkaline-earth metal vapor targets. During the period covered in this report we have measured electron transfer cross sections for 3-40 keV D/sup +/ ions and D/sup 0/ atoms in collision with calcium vapor.

Morgan, T J

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Application of heat exchangers in BWR nuclear power stations  

SciTech Connect

Applications of heat exchangers, in typical BWR Nuclear Power Plant fluid systems, are described from a process standpoint. System schematics and lists of heat exchanger parameters are presented to aid in understanding the influence of the process on specific applications. These exchangers are constructed to meet special code, seismic, and quality assurance criteria. They have a variety of configurations, including both vertical and horizontal, and are of ''U'' tube or once-through design.

Hess, F.L.; Patti, F.J.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Architecture on Exchange InternationalExchangeProgram  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Previous students have attended: · McMaster University, Canada · Malmö University, Sweden · University of Leeds, United Kingdom · Northeastern University, USA · Purdue University, USA · University of California on page 2 5 International Office Study Abroad and Exchange Program Level 4, Jane Foss Russell Building (G

Viglas, Anastasios

315

Agriculture on Exchange InternationalExchangeProgram  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-wide exchange destinations for Agriculture majors include: Canada....................McGill University, Faculty of Arts (AgEc only) (www.umanitoba.ca) United Kingdom.....University of Leeds, School of Earth and Environment (www.leeds.ac.uk) .................................University of Nottingham, School of Biosciences

Viglas, Anastasios

316

Model based methodology development for energy recovery in flash heat exchange systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Model based methodology development for energy recovery in flash heat exchange systems Problem of energy efficiency in process operations. Where heat exchange is required between two streams and where with a condensing heat exchanger can be used when heat exchange is required between two streams and where at least

McCarthy, John E.

317

Uniform insulation applied-B ion diode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An applied-B field extraction ion diode has uniform insulation over an anode surface for increased efficiency. When the uniform insulation is accomplished with anode coils, and a charge-exchange foil is properly placed, the ions may be focused at a point on the z axis.

Seidel, David B. (Albuquerque, NM); Slutz, Stephen A. (Albuquerque, NM)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

The ultra-high lime with aluminum process for removing chloride from recirculating cooling water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, reverse osmosis, ion exchange, and electrodialysis (Matson and Harris 1979). With the exception of the high lime softening process, these technologies 3 are very expensive and have many operating problems. The unit price of water treatment... with reverse osmosis is about three times the price of lime softening (You et al. 1999). The conventional lime soda process is used in cooling water systems to minimize or eliminate scale formation by removing calcium and magnesium hardness...

Abdel-wahab, Ahmed Ibraheem Ali

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

319

Conceptual Design for the Pilot-Scale Plutonium Oxide Processing Unit in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a conceptual design for a pilot-scale capability to produce plutonium oxide for use as exercise and reference materials, and for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production. This capability is referred to as the Pilot-scale Plutonium oxide Processing Unit (P3U), and it will be located in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The key unit operations are described, including plutonium dioxide (PuO2) dissolution, purification of the Pu by ion exchange, precipitation, and conversion to oxide by calcination.

Lumetta, Gregg J.; Meier, David E.; Tingey, Joel M.; Casella, Amanda J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Jones, Susan A.; Rapko, Brian M.

2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

320

Charge exchange recombination spectroscopy on fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

For fusion, obtaining reliable measurements of basic plasma parameters like ion and electron densities and temperatures is a primary goal. For theory, measurements are needed as a function of time and space to understand plasma transport and confinement with the ultimate goal of achieving economic nuclear fusion power. Electron profile measurements and plasma spectroscopy for the plasma ions are introduced. With the advent of Neutral Beam auxiliary plasma heating, Charge Exchange Recombination Spectroscopy provides accurate and time resolved measurements of the ions in large volume fusion devices. In acknowledgement of Nicol Peacock's role in the development of these techniques, still at the forefront of plasma fusion research, this paper describes the evolution of this diagnostic method.

Duval, B. P. [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland)

2012-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ion exchange process" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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321

Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processes. January 1980-January 1992 (Citations from the NTIS Data Base). Rept. for Jan 80-Jan 92  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of membranes and reverse osmosis to treat wastes. Ion exchange, electrodialysis, and ultrafiltration processes are described. Removal of metals, sodium compounds, nitrates, fluorides, dyes, and radioactive waste using membranes is examined. Wastewater treatment for chemical, pulp, textile, and steel mills using this technology is included. (Contains 63 citations with title list and subject index.)

Not Available

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Wound tube heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

What is disclosed is a wound tube heat exchanger in which a plurality of tubes having flattened areas are held contiguous adjacent flattened areas of tubes by a plurality of windings to give a double walled heat exchanger. The plurality of windings serve as a plurality of effective force vectors holding the conduits contiguous heat conducting walls of another conduit and result in highly efficient heat transfer. The resulting heat exchange bundle is economical and can be coiled into the desired shape. Also disclosed are specific embodiments such as the one in which the tubes are expanded against their windings after being coiled to insure highly efficient heat transfer.

Ecker, Amir L. (Duncanville, TX)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Green Exchange | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Exchange Place: New York, New York Zip: NY 10282 Product: String representation "The Green Excha ... es marketplace." is too long. References: Green Exchange1 This article is a...

324

E-Print Network 3.0 - aluminium ions Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Otty, Mass and heat transfer in ion-exchange membranes (1996) 7. Belinda Flem, Peltier... heats in cryolite melts with alumina (1996) 8. Ellen Marie Hansen, Modelling of...

325

Hydrogen ion microlithography  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a hydrogen ion microlithography process for use in microelectronic fabrication and semiconductor device processing. The process comprises the steps of providing a single layer of either an amorphous silicon or hydrogenated amorphous silicon material. A pattern is recorded in a selected layer of amorphous silicon or hydrogenated amorphous silicon materials by preferentially implanting hydrogen ions therein so as to permit the selected layer to serve as a mask-resist wafer suitable for subsequent development and device fabrication. The layer is developed to provide a surface pattern therein adaptable for subsequent use in microelectronic fabrication and semiconductor device processing. 6 figs.

Tsuo, Y.S.; Deb, S.K.

1990-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

326

Active microchannel heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is an active microchannel heat exchanger with an active heat source and with microchannel architecture. The microchannel heat exchanger has (a) an exothermic reaction chamber; (b) an exhaust chamber; and (c) a heat exchanger chamber in thermal contact with the exhaust chamber, wherein (d) heat from the exothermic reaction chamber is convected by an exothermic reaction exhaust through the exhaust chamber and by conduction through a containment wall to the working fluid in the heat exchanger chamber thereby raising a temperature of the working fluid. The invention is particularly useful as a liquid fuel vaporizer and/or a steam generator for fuel cell power systems, and as a heat source for sustaining endothermic chemical reactions and initiating exothermic reactions.

Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y. (Pasco, WA) [Pasco, WA; Roberts, Gary L. (West Richland, WA) [West Richland, WA; Call, Charles J. (Pasco, WA) [Pasco, WA; Wegeng, Robert S. (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA; Wang, Yong (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Technology Performance Exchange  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Technology Performance Exchange Technology Performance Exchange TDM - Jason Koman (BTO) TDM - Dave Catarious (FEMP) William Livingood National Renewable Energy Laboratory William.Livingood@nrel.gov 303-384-7490 April 2, 2013 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives Problem: Perceived fiscal risk associated with the installation of unfamiliar technologies impedes adoption rates for cost-effective, energy-saving products. Impact of Project: Enable end users to quickly and

328

On a cryogenic noble gas ion catcher  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In-situ purification of the gas used as stopping medium in a noble gas ion catcher by operating the device at low temperatures of 60 to 150 K was investigated. Alpha-decay recoil ions from a 223Ra source served as energetic probes. The combined ion survival and transport efficiencies for 219Rn ions saturated below about 90 K, reaching 28.7(17) % in helium, 22.1(13) % in neon, and 17.0(10) % in argon. These values may well reflect the charge exchange and stripping cross sections during the slowing down of the ions, and thus represent a fundamental upper limit for the efficiency of noble gas ion catcher devices. We suggest the cryogenic noble gas ion catcher as a technically simpler alternative to the ultra-high purity noble gas ion catcher operating at room temperature.

P. Dendooven; S. Purushothaman; K. Gloos

2005-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

329

Ion collection by a conducting sphere in a magnetized or drifting collisional plasma  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ion collection by dust grains and probes in plasmas with a neutral background is of interest in the study of both space and terrestrial plasmas, where charge-exchange collisions can play an important role in ion collection. ...

Haakonsen, Christian Bernt, 1985-

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

The Energy Impact of Industrial Recycling and Waste Exchange  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

THE ENERGY IMPACT OF INDUSTRIAL RECYCLING AND WASTE EXCHANGE W. CURTIS PHILLIPS, SYSTEMS ENGINEER/INDUSTRIAL PROJECT MANAGER, N.C. ENERGY DIVISION, RALEIGH, NC ABSTRACT Recycling and waste exchange, particularly in the industrial sector, has a... products from virgin materials. Process energy reduction possible by recycling is estimated to be as high is 95% for aluminum and 88% for plastics. Industrial waste exchange is facilit~ted by having an independent agency to publicize and coordinate...

Phillips, W. C.

331

Material properties of cation exchange membranes for chloralkali electrolysis, water electrolysis and fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Owing to the development of perfluorinated ion-exchange membranes, the application of the membranes in electrochemical cells has advanced greatly, especially in chloralkali electrolysis. Material properties of pe...

T. Asawa

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Chloride anion exchange coprocessing for recovery of plutonium from pyrochemical residues and Cs sub 2 PuCl sub 6 filtrate  

SciTech Connect

Continuing studies of plutonium recovery from direct oxide reduction (DOR) and electrorefining (ER) pyrochemical process residues show that chloride anion exchange coprocessing is useful and effective. Coprocessing utilizes DOR residue salt as a reagent to supply the bulk of chloride ion needed for the chloride anion exchange process and to improve ER residue salt solubility. ER residue salt and ER scrapeout can be successfully treated, either alone or together, using coprocessing. In addition, chloride anion exchange at 2.0M acidity results in improved process performance by greatly reducing disproportionation of plutonium(IV), eliminating restrictions on oxidation time compared to operation at 1.0M acidity. Laboratory-scale experiments show that below-discard effluent plutonium losses are obtained. Resin capacity was 30 g Pu/{ell} or greater. Furthermore, it is feasible to perform chloride anion exchange recovery of plutonium from filtrate resulting from precipitation of dicesium hexachloroplutonate (Cs{sub 2}PuCl{sub 6}, an oxidant salt to be used in the molten salt extraction process) and integration of its preparation with recovery of DOR salts. 10 refs., 9 figs., 10 tabs.

Muscatello, A.C.; Killion, M.E.

1990-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

333

Ionic Processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Processes based on the properties of ions, encountered in brackish and seawater, are described and discussed in this chapter. Whereas in distillation the amount and kind of salts contained in the raw feed wate...

Anthony A. Delyannis; Eurydike A. Delyannis

1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Lithium Ion Accomplishments  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lithium ion Battery Commercialization Lithium ion Battery Commercialization Johnson Controls-Saft Advanced Power Solutions, of Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Johnson Controls-Saft (JCS) will supply lithium-ion batteries to Mercedes for their S Class Hybrid to be introduced in October 2009. Technology developed with DOE support (the VL6P cell) will be used in the S Class battery. In May 2006, the Johnson Controls-Saft Joint Venture was awarded a 24 month $14.4 million contract by the DOE/USABC to develop a 40kW Li ion HEV battery system offering improved safety, low temperature performance, and cost. JCS has reported a 40% cost reduction of the 40kW system being developed in their DOE/USABC contract while maintaining performance. Lithium Ion Battery Material Commercialization Argonne National Laboratory has licensed cathode materials and associated processing

335

Deep-Sea Research I 53 (2006) 684688 Experimental evaluation of the isotopic exchange equilibrium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on the ion-exchange separation of boron isotopes. Bulletin of Chemical Society of Japan 50, 158­163]. Since strengths. r 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Boron isotopes; Boron isotopic exchange. Introduction The boron isotopic composition of marine carbonates constitutes a promising tracer of the paleo

Kaufman, Alan Jay

336

Oligoacetic Acid Characterization by Isocratic and Linear Salt Gradient Anion-Exchange Chromatography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......ion-exchange Gibbs free energy (Gexchange) was calcu...constant increment in the energy of exchange for the addition...as the increment per car- boxylic acid group...oligomers provided an alternative and convenient method...calculation of the Gibbs free energy of adsorption for biomolecules......

Hong Li; Costas S. Patrickios

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Charge-exchange collisions in interpenetrating laser-produced magnesium plasmas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Charge-exchange collisions in interpenetrating laser-produced magnesium plasmas S.S. HARILAL,1 C charge-exchange collisions between highly charged Mg ions in colliding laser-produced magnesium plasmas magnesium plasmas. 1. INTRODUCTION Several applications of laser-produced plasmas involve an experimental

Harilal, S. S.

338

The Path Exchange Method for Hybrid LCA  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Path Exchange Method for Hybrid LCA ... A new Hybrid LCA method based on Structural Path Analysis is developed, which is less labor- and data-intensive than previous approaches. ... Hybrid techniques for Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) provide a way of combining the accuracy of process analysis and the completeness of input?output analysis. ...

Manfred Lenzen; Robert Crawford

2009-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

339

Research in environmental microbiology concerns microbial processes in the environment and their applications in society. There are numerous microbial reactions taking place in nature, and by learning and understanding these  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Misganaw, Seyoum Leta and Gunnel Dalhammar (2006). Evaluation of nitrogen removal in a small- scale system processes developed during phase 1 and 2 of the programme will be tested in pilot and full scale in Uganda, and Dalhammar G (2006). Single-step ion exchange purification of the coagulant protein from Moringa oleifera

Lagergren, Jens

340

Ion Colliders  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High-energy ion colliders are large research tools in nuclear physics to study the Quark-Gluon-Plasma (QGP). The range of collision energy and high luminosity are important design and operational considerations. The experiments also expect flexibility with frequent changes in the collision energy, detector fields, and ion species. Ion species range from protons, including polarized protons in RHIC, to heavy nuclei like gold, lead and uranium. Asymmetric collision combinations (e.g. protons against heavy ions) are also essential. For the creation, acceleration, and storage of bright intense ion beams, limits are set by space charge, charge change, and intrabeam scattering effects, as well as beam losses due to a variety of other phenomena. Currently, there are two operating ion colliders, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at BNL, and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN.

Fischer, W

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ion exchange process" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Crater formation by single ions, cluster ions and ion "showers"  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The various craters formed by giant objects, macroscopic collisions and nanoscale impacts exhibit an intriguing resemblance in shapes. At the same time, the arc plasma built up in the presence of sufficiently high electric fields at close look causes very similar damage on the surfaces. Although the plasma–wall interaction is far from a single heavy ion impact over dense metal surfaces or the one of a cluster ion, the craters seen on metal surfaces after a plasma discharge make it possible to link this event to the known mechanisms of the crater formations. During the plasma discharge in a high electric field the surface is subject to high fluxes (~1025 cm-2s-1) of ions with roughly equal energies typically of the order of a few keV. To simulate such a process it is possible to use a cloud of ions of the same energy. In the present work we follow the effect of such a flux of ions impinging the surface in the ‘‘shower’’ manner, to find the transition between the different mechanisms of crater formati...

Djurabekova, Flyura; Timko, Helga; Nordlund, Kai; Calatroni, Sergio; Taborelli, Mauro; Wuensch, Walter

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Chemical exchange program analysis.  

SciTech Connect

As part of its EMS, Sandia performs an annual environmental aspects/impacts analysis. The purpose of this analysis is to identify the environmental aspects associated with Sandia's activities, products, and services and the potential environmental impacts associated with those aspects. Division and environmental programs established objectives and targets based on the environmental aspects associated with their operations. In 2007 the most significant aspect identified was Hazardous Materials (Use and Storage). The objective for Hazardous Materials (Use and Storage) was to improve chemical handling, storage, and on-site movement of hazardous materials. One of the targets supporting this objective was to develop an effective chemical exchange program, making a business case for it in FY07, and fully implementing a comprehensive chemical exchange program in FY08. A Chemical Exchange Program (CEP) team was formed to implement this target. The team consists of representatives from the Chemical Information System (CIS), Pollution Prevention (P2), the HWMF, Procurement and the Environmental Management System (EMS). The CEP Team performed benchmarking and conducted a life-cycle analysis of the current management of chemicals at SNL/NM and compared it to Chemical Exchange alternatives. Those alternatives are as follows: (1) Revive the 'Virtual' Chemical Exchange Program; (2) Re-implement a 'Physical' Chemical Exchange Program using a Chemical Information System; and (3) Transition to a Chemical Management Services System. The analysis and benchmarking study shows that the present management of chemicals at SNL/NM is significantly disjointed and a life-cycle or 'Cradle-to-Grave' approach to chemical management is needed. This approach must consider the purchasing and maintenance costs as well as the cost of ultimate disposal of the chemicals and materials. A chemical exchange is needed as a mechanism to re-apply chemicals on site. This will not only reduce the quantity of unneeded chemicals and the amount spent on new purchases, but will also avoid disposal costs. If SNL/NM were to realize a 5 percent reduction in chemical inventory and a 10 percent reduction in disposal of unused chemicals the total savings would be $189, 200 per year.

Waffelaert, Pascale

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Definition: Heat exchanger | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Definition Definition Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Definition: Heat exchanger Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Heat exchanger A device for transferring thermal energy (heat) from one fluid (liquid or gas) to another, when the two fluids are physically separated; such as a radiator.[1][2] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition A heat exchanger is a piece of equipment built for efficient heat transfer from one medium to another. The media may be separated by a solid wall to prevent mixing or they may be in direct contact. They are widely used in space heating, refrigeration, air conditioning, power plants, chemical plants, petrochemical plants, petroleum refineries [bp, shell, sasol], natural gas processing, and sewage treatment. The classic example

344

Separation and Detection of Sulfur-Containing Anions Using Single-Column Ion Chromatography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......derivatized. With the resin-based column...states or complex ions. Sulfide is...Systems with resin-based anion exchange (RBAX) columns...for which ion-exchange H...detectors. In addition to electrical...since its early demonstration. It has been......

Richard E. Poulson; Harry M. Borg

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Cryogenic Fluid Flow Heat Transfer in a Porous Heat Exchanger  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The recent utilization of porous heat exchangers in various key industries has aroused considerable interest in the heat transfer and fluid dynamics processes in channel flows involving suction...1], suction with...

L. L. Vasiliev; G. I. Bobrova; S. K. Vinokurov…

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Cation and Anion Exchange Properties of Pillared Clays  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cation and anion pH dependent exchange processes on an Aluminium Pillared Clay (Al-PILC) and Zirconium Pillared Clay (Zr-PILC) were studied by titrating the PILCS with...

A. Dyer; T. Gallardo

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Water uptake, ionic conductivity and swelling properties of anion-exchange membrane  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

occurs with negative excess volume of mixing. Percolative nature of the ion transport has been is reduced at the cathode to produce OHÃ? , which transports through the anion-exchange membrane (AEM membrane, AEM can conduct ions only in the presence of water. In addition, water is one of the reactants

348

Perturbative Analysis of Two-Temperature Radiative Shocks with Multiple Cooling Processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The structure of the hot downstream region below a radiative accretion shock, such as that of an accreting compact object, may oscillate due to a global thermal instability. The oscillatory behaviour depends on the functional forms of the cooling processes, the energy exchanges of electrons and ions in the shock-heated matter, and the boundary conditions. We analyse the stability of a shock with unequal electron and ion temperatures, where the cooling consists of thermal bremsstrahlung radiation which promotes instability, plus a competing process which tends to stabilize the shock. The effect of transverse perturbations is considered also. As an illustration, we study the special case in which the stabilizing cooling process is of order 3/20 in density and 5/2 in temperature, which is an approximation for the effects of cyclotron cooling in magnetic cataclysmic variables. We vary the efficiency of the second cooling process, the strength of the electron-ion exchange and the ratio of electron and ion pressures at the shock, to examine particular effects on the stability properties and frequencies of oscillation modes.

Curtis J. Saxton; Kinwah Wu

1999-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

349

Building Energy Data Exchange Specification Scoping Report |...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Building Energy Data Exchange Specification Scoping Report Building Energy Data Exchange Specification Scoping Report The Building Energy Data Exchange Specification (BEDES),...

350

Structure of the Alkali-metal-atom-Strontium molecular ions: towards photoassociation and formation of cold molecular ions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The potential energy curves, permanent and transition dipole moments, and the static dipolar polarizability, of molecular ions composed of one alkali-metal atom and a Strontium ion are determined with a quantum chemistry approach. The molecular ions are treated as effective two-electron systems and are treated using effective core potentials including core polarization, large gaussian basis sets, and full configuration interaction. In the perspective of upcoming experiments aiming at merging cold atom and cold ion traps, possible paths for radiative charge exchange, photoassociation of a cold Lithium or Rubidium atom and a Strontium ion are discussed, as well as the formation of stable molecular ions.

Mireille Aymar; Romain Guérout; Olivier Dulieu

2011-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

351

Structure of the alkali-metal-atom + strontium molecular ions: Towards photoassociation and formation of cold molecular ions  

SciTech Connect

The potential energy curves, permanent and transition dipole moments, and the static dipolar polarizability, of molecular ions composed of one alkali-metal atom and a strontium ion are determined with a quantum chemistry approach. The molecular ions are treated as effective two-electron systems and are treated using effective core potentials including core polarization, large gaussian basis sets, and full configuration interaction. In the perspective of upcoming experiments aiming at merging cold atom and cold ion traps, possible paths for radiative charge exchange, photoassociation of a cold lithium or rubidium atom and a strontium ion are discussed, as well as the formation of stable molecular ions.

Aymar, M.; Dulieu, O. [Laboratoire Aime Cotton, CNRS, UPR3321, Ba circumflex t. 505, Univ Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Guerout, R. [Laboratoire Kastler-Brossel, CNRS, ENS, Univ Pierre et Marie Curie case 74, Campus Jussieu, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

2011-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

352

Structure of the Alkali-metal-atom-Strontium molecular ions: towards photoassociation and formation of cold molecular ions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The potential energy curves, permanent and transition dipole moments, and the static dipolar polarizability, of molecular ions composed of one alkali-metal atom and a Strontium ion are determined with a quantum chemistry approach. The molecular ions are treated as effective two-electron systems and are treated using effective core potentials including core polarization, large gaussian basis sets, and full configuration interaction. In the perspective of upcoming experiments aiming at merging cold atom and cold ion traps, possible paths for radiative charge exchange, photoassociation of a cold Lithium or Rubidium atom and a Strontium ion are discussed, as well as the formation of stable molecular ions.

Aymar, Mireille; Dulieu, Olivier

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Automatic Tube Cleaning Systems for Condensers & Heat Exchangers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

than 36 in. in diameter. Thus, mos of the ball systems are in fossil fuel, nuclear) cogeneration, and geothermal power plants. The temperature (maximum 220 0 F) and process limitations of the rubber ball material restrict the use of ball systems... of Heat Exchangers," Hydrocarbon Processing, pp. 25-27 (Jan. 1983) 7. Grande. M?? and K. SCIEah. "Automatic On-Line Mechanical Cleaning System for Condensers and Heat Exchangers," in EPRI Geothermal Conference and Yorkshop, Seminar Yorkbook (June 23...

Someah, K.

354

Heat exchanger for fuel cell power plant reformer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat exchanger uses the heat from processed fuel gas from a reformer for a fuel cell to superheat steam, to preheat raw fuel prior to entering the reformer and to heat a water-steam coolant mixture from the fuel cells. The processed fuel gas temperature is thus lowered to a level useful in the fuel cell reaction. The four temperature adjustments are accomplished in a single heat exchanger with only three heat transfer cores. The heat exchanger is preheated by circulating coolant and purge steam from the power section during startup of the latter.

Misage, Robert (Manchester, CT); Scheffler, Glenn W. (Tolland, CT); Setzer, Herbert J. (Ellington, CT); Margiott, Paul R. (Manchester, CT); Parenti, Jr., Edmund K. (Manchester, CT)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Quality Assurance Exchange August 2012  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

With the help of dedicated quality With the help of dedicated quality professionals across the complex and beyond, I am pleased to announce that this issue of the Quality Assurance Exchange (QAE) newsletter focuses on hard hitting issues, as well as opportunities to explore abatement methods in regards to our quality assurance (QA) challenges. Within, you will find a brief discussion on the Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Quality Council and its Calendar Year 2011 accomplishments; an exploration of Safety Software QA activities including an overview of the annual meeting; an update on the Safety Software Communication Forum; and activities surrounding new and upcoming guides and systems. Also, you will get an inside look on the Differing Professional Opinions Process; read an exclusive interview

356

Thermoelectric heat exchange element  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermoelectric heat exchange module includes a first substrate including a heat receptive side and a heat donative side and a series of undulatory pleats. The module may also include a thermoelectric material layer having a ZT value of 1.0 or more disposed on at least one of the heat receptive side and the heat donative side, and an electrical contact may be in electrical communication with the thermoelectric material layer.

Callas, James J. (Peoria, IL); Taher, Mahmoud A. (Peoria, IL)

2007-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

357

Combined Utilization of Cation Exchanger and Neutral Receptor to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts  

SciTech Connect

In this report, novel approaches to the selective liquid-liquid extraction separation of sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from high-level alkaline tank waste will be discussed. Sodium hydroxide can be successfully separated from alkaline tank-waste supernatants by weakly acidic lipophilic hydroxy compounds via a cation-exchange mechanism referred to as pseudo hydroxide extraction. In a multi-cycle process, as sodium hydroxide in the aqueous phase becomes depleted, it is helpful to have a neutral sodium receptor in the extraction system to exploit the high nitrate concentration in the waste solution to promote sodium removal by an ion-pair extraction process. Simultaneous utilization of an ionizable organic hydroxy compound and a neutral extractant (crown ether) in an organic phase results in the synergistic enhancement of ion exchange and improved separation selectivity due to the receptor's strong and selective sodium binding. Moreover, combination of the hydroxy compound and the crown ether provides for mutually increased solubility, even in a non-polar organic solvent. Accordingly, application of Isopar{reg_sign} L, a kerosene-like alkane solvent, becomes feasible. This investigation involves examination of such dual-mechanism extraction phases for sodium extraction from simulated and actual salt cake waste solutions. Sodium salts can be regenerated upon the contact of the loaded extraction phases with water. Finally, conditions of potential extraction/strip cycling will be discussed.

Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Moyer, Bruce A.

2004-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

358

Membrane resistance: The effect of salinity gradients over a cation exchange membrane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Ion exchange membranes (IEMs) are used for selective transport of ions between two solutions. These solutions are often different in concentration or composition. The membrane resistance (RM) is an important parameter affecting power consumption or power production in electrodialytic processes. In contrast to real applications, often RM is determined while using a standard 0.5 M NaCl external solution. It is known that RM increases with decreasing concentration. However, the detailed effect of a salinity gradient present over an IEM on RM was not known, and is studied here using alternating and direct current. NaCl solution concentrations varied from 0.01 to 1.1 M. The results show that RM is mainly determined by the lowest external concentration. RM can be considered as two resistors in series i.e. a gel phase (concentration independent) and an ionic solution phase (concentration dependent). The membrane conductivity is limited by the conductivity of the ionic solution when the external concentration, cext<0.3 M. The membrane conductivity is limited by the conductivity of the gel phase when cext?0.3 M, then differences of RM are small. A good approximation of experimentally determined RM can be obtained. The internal ion concentration profile is a key factor in modeling RM.

A.H. Galama; D.A. Vermaas; J. Veerman; M. Saakes; H.H.M. Rijnaarts; J.W. Post; K. Nijmeijer

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Secondary heat exchanger design and comparison for advanced high temperature reactor  

SciTech Connect

Next generation nuclear reactors such as the advanced high temperature reactor (AHTR) are designed to increase energy efficiency in the production of electricity and provide high temperature heat for industrial processes. The efficient transfer of energy for industrial applications depends on the ability to incorporate effective heat exchangers between the nuclear heat transport system and the industrial process heat transport system. This study considers two different types of heat exchangers - helical coiled heat exchanger and printed circuit heat exchanger - as possible options for the AHTR secondary heat exchangers with distributed load analysis and comparison. Comparison is provided for all different cases along with challenges and recommendations. (authors)

Sabharwall, P. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-3860 (United States); Kim, E. S. [Seoul National Univ., P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-3860 (United States); Siahpush, A.; McKellar, M.; Patterson, M. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-3860 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Particle diagnostics of ion cyclotron resonance plasma heating in the Globus-M tokamak  

SciTech Connect

Basic experimental results on cyclotron heating of the ion plasma component in the Globus-M spherical tokamak obtained by means of the ACORD-12 charge-exchange ion analyzer are presented. A procedure for determining the maximum energy of fast ions confined in the plasma is described. The procedure was applied to estimate the limiting energy of hydrogen minority ions accelerated during ion cyclotron heating in the Globus-M tokamak. The experimental evaluation of the maximum hydrogen ion energy is confirmed by simulations of ion orbits. Recommendations for optimizing experiments on ion cyclotron heating in the Globus-M tokamak are formulated.

Chernyshev, F. V.; Ayushin, B. B.; Gusev, V. K.; D'yachenko, V. V.; Minaev, V. B.; Mironov, M. I.; Petrov, M. P.; Petrov, Yu. V.; Sakharov, N. V.; Khitrov, S. A.; Shcherbinin, O. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute (Russian Federation)

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ion exchange process" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Molecular Ion Beam Transportation for Low Energy Ion Implantation  

SciTech Connect

A joint research and development of steady state intense boron ion sources for 100's of electron-volt ion implanters has been in progress for the past five years. Current density limitation associated with extracting and transporting low energy ion beams result in lower beam currents that in turn adversely affects the process throughput. The transport channel with electrostatic lenses for decaborane (B{sub 10}H{sub 14}) and carborane (C{sub 2}B{sub 10}H{sub 12}) ion beams transportation was developed and investigated. The significant increase of ion beam intensity at the beam transport channel output is demonstrated. The transport channel simulation, construction and experimental results of ion beam transportation are presented.

Kulevoy, T. V.; Kropachev, G. N.; Seleznev, D. N.; Yakushin, P. E.; Kuibeda, R. P.; Kozlov, A. V.; Koshelev, V. A. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow, 117218 (Russian Federation); Hershcovitch, A.; Johnson, B. M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Gushenets, V. I.; Oks, E. M. [High Current Electronics Institute Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); Polozov, S. M. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Kashirskoe sh. 31, Moscow, 115409 (Russian Federation); Poole, H. J. [PVI, Oxnard, California 93031-5023 (United States)

2011-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

362

Sources of polarized ions and atoms  

SciTech Connect

In this presentation we discuss methods of producing large quantities of polarized atoms and ions (Stern-Gerlach separation, optical pumping, and spin-exchange) as well as experimental methods of measuring the degree of polarization of atomic systems. The usefulness of polarized atoms in probing the microscopic magnetic surface properties of materials will also be discussed. 39 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Cornelius, W.D.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

BEE 4640. Bioseparation Processes Fall Semester 2008  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

: Bioseparation is the science and engineering of fractionating and purifying biological materials: DNA, proteins, ion exchange, chromatography, electrophoresis) will be supplemented with student presentations. Intended for seniors and graduate students in engineering, chemistry, biol- ogy, and food science. Required

Walter, M.Todd

364

Ion temperatures in Ormak from Doppler broadening  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Rapid-scanning spectrometric techniques have permitted the determination of ion temperatures in ORMAK as a function of time during the discharge pulse for ORMAK plasma currents up to 180 kA. Emission spectra of hydrogen atoms are Doppler-broadened in the line wings, characteristic of the initial proton motions prior to charge exchange, and give ion "temperatures" generally less than kT+ ~ 300 eV. Impurity spectra of C III and O V, as well as the spectra of He II in helium discharges, lead to somewhat higher ion temperatures ranging up to a maximum of kT+ ~ 700 eV.

J. Rand McNally Jr.; R.V. Neidigh

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Mini ion trap mass spectrometer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An ion trap is described which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10{sup 9} and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10{sup 4} ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products. 10 figs.

Dietrich, D.D.; Keville, R.F.

1995-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

366

Mini ion trap mass spectrometer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An ion trap which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10.sup.9 and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10.sup.4 ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products.

Dietrich, Daniel D. (Livermore, CA); Keville, Robert F. (Valley Springs, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Heat exchanger-accumulator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

What is disclosed is a heat exchanger-accumulator for vaporizing a refrigerant or the like, characterized by an upright pressure vessel having a top, bottom and side walls; an inlet conduit eccentrically and sealingly penetrating through the top; a tubular overflow chamber disposed within the vessel and sealingly connected with the bottom so as to define an annular outer volumetric chamber for receiving refrigerant; a heat transfer coil disposed in the outer volumetric chamber for vaporizing the liquid refrigerant that accumulates there; the heat transfer coil defining a passageway for circulating an externally supplied heat exchange fluid; transferring heat efficiently from the fluid; and freely allowing vaporized refrigerant to escape upwardly from the liquid refrigerant; and a refrigerant discharge conduit penetrating sealingly through the top and traversing substantially the length of the pressurized vessel downwardly and upwardly such that its inlet is near the top of the pressurized vessel so as to provide a means for transporting refrigerant vapor from the vessel. The refrigerant discharge conduit has metering orifices, or passageways, penetrating laterally through its walls near the bottom, communicating respectively interiorly and exteriorly of the overflow chamber for controllably carrying small amounts of liquid refrigerant and oil to the effluent stream of refrigerant gas.

Ecker, Amir L. (Dallas, TX)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Applications of focused ion beam SIMS in materials science  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Focused ion beam instruments (FIB) can be used both for materials processing and materials analysis, since the ion beam used in the FIB milling process generates several potentially useful analytical signals such...

David S. McPhail; Richard J. Chater; Libing Li

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Ion Cyclotron-Resonance Heating in a Toroidal Octupole  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

rf power near the ion cyclotron-resonance frequency has been used to produce a hundredfold increase (from ? 1 to ? 100 eV) in the ion temperature in a toroidal octupole device. The heating produces no noticeable instabilities or other deleterious effects except for a high reflux of neutrals from the walls. The heating rate is consistent with theory and the limiting ion temperature is determined by charge-exchange losses.

J. D. Barter and J. C. Sprott

1975-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

370

Modeling Uranium-Proton Ion Exchange in Biosorption  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

threatening heavy metals because of its high toxicity and some radioactivity. Excessive amounts of uranium seaweed biomass was used to remove the heavy metal uranium from the aqueous solution. Uranium biosorption the heavy metal uptake performance of different biosorbents.LangmuirandFreundlichmodelsoftengenerally fit

Volesky, Bohumil

371

Non-aqueous liquid compositions comprising ion exchange polymers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Compositions, and methods of making thereof, comprising from about 1% to about 5% of a perfluorinated sulfonic acid ionomer or a hydrocarbon-based ionomer; and from about 95% to about 99% of a solvent, said solvent consisting essentially of a polyol; wherein said composition is substantially free of water and wherein said ionomer is uniformly dispersed in said solvent.

Kim, Yu Seung (Los Alamos, NM); Lee, Kwan-Soo (Blacksburg, VA); Rockward, Tommy Q. T. (Rio Rancho, NM)

2011-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

372

Ion Exchange for the Recycling of Wastewater Constituents  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Recycling or the constituents of wastewater requires efficient and cheap separation methods. Pollutants ... removed in a concentrated form to facilitate their recycling. Similarly, the raw water must be ... has a...

Brian Bolto; Lucjan Pawlowski

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Sorption of heavy metals by modified chelating ion exchangers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Satisfactory sorption capacity towards heavy metals of several physically modified chelating resins at low pH is reported. It was found that the linear sorption isotherms are the most appropriate for describing the sorption of Ni and Pb. The data obtained revealed that the chelating resins studied are able to remove selectively copper from a complex synthetic solution containing Fe, Mn and Pb. The regeneration of Lewatit TP 208 by 10% H2SO4 in batch conditions proved to be effective through three consecutive runs of loading-regeneration.

Valentin Nenov; Bogdan Bonev

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

The Dynamics of Platinum Precipitation in an Ion Exchange Membrane  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Microscopy of polymer electrolyte membranes that have undergone operation under fuel cell conditions, have revealed a well defined band of platinum in the membrane. Here, we propose a physics based model that captures the mechanism of platinum precipitation in the polymer electrolyte membrane. While platinum is observed throughout the membrane, the preferential growth of platinum at the band of platinum is dependent on the electrochemical potential distribution in the membrane. In this paper, the location of the platinum band is calculated as a function of the gas concentration at the cathode and anode, gas diffusion coefficients and solubility constants of the gases in the membrane, which are functions of relative humidity. Under H2/N2 conditions the platinum band is located near the cathode-membrane interface, as the oxygen concentration in the cathode gas stream increases and/or the hydrogen concentration in the anode gas stream decreases, the band moves towards the anode. The model developed in this paper...

Burlatsky, S F; Atrazhev, V V; Dmitriev, D V; Kuzminyh, N Y; Erikhman, N S

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

basic exchange telecommunications radio service  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A service that extends telecommunications service to rural, outlying, and remote...Common abbreviation BETRS. Note: In the basic exchange telecommunications radio service (BETRS), the (a)....

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Process for removal of ammonia and acid gases from contaminated waters  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Contaminating basic gases, i.e., ammonia and acid gases, e.g., carbon dioxide, are removed from process waters or waste waters in a combined extraction and stripping process. Ammonia in the form of ammonium ion is extracted by an immiscible organic phase comprising a liquid cation exchange component, especially an organic phosphoric acid derivative, and preferably di-2-ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid, dissolved in an alkyl hydrocarbon, aryl hydrocarbon, higher alcohol, oxygenated hydrocarbon, halogenated hydrocarbon, and mixtures thereof. Concurrently, the acidic gaseous contaminants are stripped from the process or waste waters by stripping with stream, air, nitrogen, or the like. The liquid cation exchange component has the ammonia stripped therefrom by heating, and the component may be recycled to extract additional amounts of ammonia.

King, C.J.; Mackenzie, P.D.

1982-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

377

Process for removal of ammonia and acid gases from contaminated waters  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Contaminating basic gases, i.e., ammonia, and acid gases, e.g., carbon dioxide, are removed from process waters or waste waters in a combined extraction and stripping process. Ammonia in the form of ammonium ion is extracted by an immiscible organic phase comprising a liquid cation exchange component, especially an organic phosphoric acid derivative, and preferably di-2-ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid, dissolved in an alkyl hydrocarbon, aryl hydrocarbon, higher alcohol, oxygenated hydrocarbon, halogenated hydrocarbon, and mixtures thereof. Concurrently, the acidic gaseous contaminants are stripped from the process or waste waters by stripping with steam, air, nitrogen, or the like. The liquid cation exchange component has the ammonia stripped therefrom by heating, and the component may be recycled to extract additional amounts of ammonia.

King, C. Judson (Kensington, CA); MacKenzie, Patricia D. (Berkeley, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Na K -pump ligands modulate gating of palytoxin-induced ion channels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

proteins that mediate transport of ions across cell membranes, they traditionally have been viewed as very to the extracellular surface. The 3Na 2K -exchange transport cycle is completed when two extracellular K ions bind ensure the vectorial nature of net transport. The occluded-ion conformations, with binding sites

Gadsby, David

379

RESEARCH PAPER The face value of ion fluxes: the challenge of determining  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is the membrane-transport parameter of greatest interest to most researchers in the field of plant ion transport physiology. Key words: Barley, cellular ion exchange, efflux, high-affinity transport, influx, low-affinity transport, potassium. Introduction The unidirectional influx of nutrient ions into the plant cell

Britto, Dev T.

380

ION CYCLOTRON HEATING IN A TOROIDAL OC TUPOLE J. D. Barter and J. C. Sprott  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ION CYCLOTRON HEATING IN A TOROIDAL OC TUPOLE J. D. Barter and J. C. Sprott February 1975;ION CYCLOTRON HEAT ING IN A TOROIDAL OCTUPOLE J. ,D. Barter and J. C. Sprott University of Wisconsin ion temperature is determined by charge exchange losses. #12;· 19n cyclotron resonance heating has

Sprott, Julien Clinton

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ion exchange process" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Heat Exchanger Network Targeting, Design and Analysis: The MIDAS Package  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HEAT EXCHANGER NETWORK TARGETING, DESIGN AND ANALYSIS: THE MIDAS PACKAGE I. BARTON, D.H. JONES AND G.J. SMITH TENSA Services, Houston, Texas ICI PLC, Wilton England ABSTRACT Recent work to consolidate pinch-based procedures for targeting... was reduced to industrial practice by the U.K. major, ICI PLC. A wide range of pinch-based procedures have been developed for process energy efficiency applications. These incl~de heat exchanger network (HEN) design [2,3], distillation system...

Barton, I.; Jones, D. H.; Smith, G. J.

382

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Modular Process Equipment for Low Cost Manufacturing of High Capacity Prismatic Li-Ion Cell Alloy Anodes  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presentation given by Applied Materials at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about modular process equipment...

383

Phase transition process and luminescent properties of undoped and Dy3+ ion doped orthorhombic PbF2 prepared by a hydrothermal method  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Orthorhombic (?) \\{SSPbF2\\} microcrystal was synthesized by a normal hydrothermal method. The influence of F/Pb ratio and hydrothermal reaction time on the crystal phase of the acquired PbF2 samples were discussed, and a ? to ? phase transition was found according to the XRD results. The undoped ?-PbF2 powder showed a broad but weak emission band around 450–570 nm, which was due to (Pb2)3+ nearest neighbor pair centers. Dy3+ ion doped ?-PbF2 samples showed main emission bands at 480 nm and 574 nm, which were assigned to the transitions from 4F9/2 to 6H15/2 and 6H13/2 of Dy3+, respectively. Furthermore, the morphology and crystalline properties of the undoped and Dy3+ doped ?-PbF2 microcrystal powder were also discussed carefully. The decay time results combined with the X-ray excitation results suggested that Dy3+ ion doped ?-PbF2 is a useful scintillating material for high energy physics applications, such as X-ray scintillating panel, etc.

Guanghui Liu; Zhenzhen Zhou; Fan Fei; Qinhua Wei; Hua Yang; Qian Liu

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Enhanced life ion source for germanium and carbon ion implantation  

SciTech Connect

Germanium and carbon ions represent a significant portion of total ion implantation steps in the process flow. Very often ion source materials that used to produce ions are chemically aggressive, especially at higher temperatures, and result in fast ion source performance degradation and a very limited lifetime [B.S. Freer, et. al., 2002 14th Intl. Conf. on Ion Implantation Technology Proc, IEEE Conf. Proc., p. 420 (2003)]. GeF{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} are commonly used to generate germanium and carbon beams. In the case of GeF{sub 4} controlling the tungsten deposition due to the de-composition of WF{sub 6} (halogen cycle) is critical to ion source life. With CO{sub 2}, the materials oxidation and carbon deposition must be controlled as both will affect cathode thermionic emission and anti-cathode (repeller) efficiencies due to the formation of volatile metal oxides. The improved ion source design Extended Life Source 3 (Eterna ELS3) together with its proprietary co-gas material implementation has demonstrated >300 hours of stable continuous operation when using carbon and germanium ion beams. Optimizing cogas chemistries retard the cathode erosion rate for germanium and carbon minimizes the adverse effects of oxygen when reducing gas is introduced for carbon. The proprietary combination of hardware and co-gas has improved source stability and the results of the hardware and co-gas development are discussed.

Hsieh, Tseh-Jen; Colvin, Neil; Kondratenko, Serguei [Axcelis Technologies, Inc. 108 Cherry Hill Drive, Beverly, MA 01915 (United States)

2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

385

Heavy Ions - Cyclotron  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Heavy Ions Heavy Ions Heavy ions used at the BASE Facility are accelerated in the form of "cocktails," named because of the fact that several heavy ions with the same mass-to-charge ratio are sent into the Cyclotron, which accelerates the ions while acting as a precision mass separator. The Control Room Operator then uses Cyclotron frequency to select only the desired ion, a process that takes about 2 minutes. We provide four standard cocktails: 4.5, 10, 16, and 30 MeV/nucleon. Depending on the cocktail, LETs from 1 to 100 MeV/(mg/cm^2) and flux levels of up to 1E7 ions/cm2-sec are available. Parts are tested in our vacuum chamber, and can be remotely positioned horizontally, vertically, or rotationally (y and z axes) with the motion table. An alignment laser is available to ensure the part is in the center of the beam. Mounting hardware is readily available. 12xBNC (F-F), 2x25-pin D (F-M or M-F), 4x40-pin flat ribbon (M-M), 4x50-pin flat ribbon (M-M), 12xSMA (F-F), and 2xEthernet vacuum feedthroughs are mounted upon request. (The 4x40-pin and 4x50-pin flat ribbon connectors are wired straight across, so you will need a F-F adapter to correct the pin numbers to normal.) Holes are provided through the cave shielding blocks for connecting additional test equipment, with a distance of approximately 10 feet from vacuum feedthrough to the top of the shielding block.

386

Multi-period design of heat exchanger networks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Heat exchanger networks are an integral part of chemical processes as they recover available heat and reduce utility consumption, thereby improving the overall economics of an industrial plant. This paper focuses on heat exchanger network design for multi-period operation wherein the operating conditions of a process may vary with time. A typical example is the hydrotreating process in petroleum refineries where the operators increase reactor temperature to compensate for catalyst deactivation. Superstructure based multi-period models for heat exchanger network design have been proposed previously employing deterministic optimisation algorithms, e.g. (Aaltola, 2002; Verheyen and Zhang, 2006). Stochastic optimisation algorithms have also been applied for the design of flexible heat exchanger networks recently (Ma et al., 2007, 2008). The present work develops an optimisation approach using simulated annealing for design of heat exchanger networks for multi-period operation. A comparison of the new optimisation approach with previous deterministic optimisation based design approaches is presented to illustrate the utilisation of simulated annealing in design of optimal heat exchanger network configurations for multi-period operation.

Muhammad Imran Ahmad; Nan Zhang; Megan Jobson; Lu Chen

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

z-pinch plasma lens focusing of a heavy-ion beam  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For the first time a heavy-ion beam was focused using a z-pinch plasma lens. The diameter of an incident, parallel, 460-MeV argon-ion beam was reduced from ?8 mm (FWHM) to ?2 mm within 230 mm downstream of the plasma. Inside a cylindrically symmetric plasma column a high-gradient, azimuthal magnetic field is produced during a z-pinch discharge. For axially moving, high-energy charged particles this field configuration provides strong, first-order focusing simultaneously in both transversal planes. The measured spot size agrees with numerical calculations taking into account the finite beam emittance, and charge exchange as well as energy-loss processes contributing to aberrations.

E. Boggasch; J. Jacoby; H. Wahl; K.-G. Dietrich; D. H. H. Hoffmann; W. Laux; M. Elfers; C. R. Haas; V. P. Dubenkov; A. A. Golubev

1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Neutron-Proton Exchange Demonstrated  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Neutron-Proton Exchange Demonstrated ... EVIDENCE of the exchange of charge between protons and neutrons has recently been obtained from studies in the high power cyclotron, according to Ernest O. Lawrence, professor of physics at the University of California a* Berkeley. ...

1947-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

389

Technology Performance Exchange (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet, 'The Technology Performance Exchange' will be presented at the ET Summit, held at the Pasadena Convention Center on October 15-17, 2012. The Technology Performance Exchange will be a centralized, Web-based portal for finding and sharing energy performance data for commercial building technologies.

Not Available

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Gas Exchange, Partial Pressure Gradients,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gas Exchange, Partial Pressure Gradients, and the Oxygen Window Johnny E. Brian, Jr., M of circulatory and gas transport physiology, and the best place to start is with normobaric physiology. LIFE affect the precise gas exchange occurring in individual areas of the lungs and body tissues. To make

Riba Sagarra, Jaume

391

Oxygen-ion-beam-driven electrostatic ion cyclotron instability of hydrogen plasma  

SciTech Connect

The electrostatic ion cyclotron instability of hydrogen plasma driven by an oxygen ion beam and resulting turbulent heating of both ion species is investigated. The instability growth rate exceeds the oxygen ion gyrofrequency, so that the oxygen ions may be considered as unmagnetized during the process of waves growth. As a result the instability is developed due to inverse Landau damping of the ion cyclotron waves caused by thermal motion of oxygen ions across the magnetic field. The quasilinear analysis of the turbulent heating of both ion species resulted from their interactions with ion cyclotron turbulence indicates that this instability may be responsible for the observed anisotropic heating of auroral outflowing oxygen O{sup +} ions in the ionosphere.

Chibisov, D. V.; Mikhailenko, V. S.; Stepanov, K. N. [Kharkov National University, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

392

Diffusional exchange of isotopes in a metal hydride sphere.  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the Spherical Particle Exchange Model (SPEM), which simulates exchange of one hydrogen isotope by another hydrogen isotope in a spherical metal hydride particle. This is one of the fundamental physical processes during isotope exchange in a bed of spherical metal particles and is thus one of the key components in any comprehensive physics-based model of exchange. There are two important physical processes in the model. One is the entropy of mixing between the two isotopes; the entropy of mixing is increased by having both isotopes randomly placed at interstitial sites on the lattice and thus impedes the exchange process. The other physical process is the elastic interaction between isotope atoms on the lattice. The elastic interaction is the cause for {beta}-phase formation and is independent of the isotope species. In this report the coupled diffusion equations for two isotopes in the {beta}-phase hydride are solved. A key concept is that the diffusion of one isotope depends not only on its concentration gradient, but also on the concentration gradient of the other isotope. Diffusion rate constants and the chemical potentials for deuterium and hydrogen in the {beta}-phase hydride are reviewed because these quantities are essential for an accurate model of the diffusion process. Finally, a summary of some of the predictions from the SPEM model are provided.

Wolfer, Wilhelm G.; Hamilton, John C.; James, Scott Carlton

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Measurement of low-energy Na^+ -- Na total collision rate in an ion--neutral hybrid trap  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present measurements of the total elastic and resonant charge-exchange ion-atom collision rate coefficient $k_\\mathrm{ia}$ of cold sodium (\\ce{Na}) with optically-dark low energy \\ce{Na+} ions in a hybrid ion-neutral trap. To determine $k_\\mathrm{ia}$, we measured the trap loading and loss from both a \\ce{Na} magneto-optical trap (MOT) and a linear radio frequency quadrupole Paul trap. We found the total rate coefficient to be $7.4 \\pm 1.9 \\times 10^{-8}$ cm$^3$/s for the type I \\ce{Na} MOT immersed within an $\\approx 140$ K ion cloud and $1.10 \\pm 0.25 \\times 10^{-7}$ cm$^3$/s for the type II \\ce{Na} MOT within an $\\approx 1070$ K ion cloud. Our measurements show excellent agreement with previously reported theoretical fully quantal \\textit{ab initio} calculations. In the process of determining the total rate coefficient, we demonstrate that a MOT can be used to probe an optically dark ion cloud's spatial distribution within a hybrid trap.

Goodman, D S; Kwolek, J M; Blümel, R; Narducci, F A; Smith, W W

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Measuring the internal state of a single atom without energy exchange  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Real quantum measurements almost always cause a much stronger back action than required by the laws of quantum mechanics. In particular, free-space optical detection methods for single atoms and ions such as the shelving technique, though being among the most sensitive detection methods in quantum physics, inevitably require spontaneous scattering, even in the dispersive regime. This causes heating, a limitation for atom-based quantum information processing where it obviates straightforward reuse of the qubit. No such energy exchange is required by quantum mechanics. Here we experimentally demonstrate optical detection of an atomic qubit with significantly less than one spontaneous scattering event. We measure transmission and reflection of an optical cavity containing the atom. In addition to the qubit detection itself, we quantitatively measure how much spontaneous scattering has occurred. This allows us to relate the information gained to the amount of spontaneous emission, and we obtain a detection error below 10% while scattering less than 0.2 photons on average. Furthermore, we perform a quantum Zeno type experiment to quantify the measurement back action and find that every incident photon leads to an almost complete state collapse. Together, these results constitute a full experimental characterization of a quantum measurement in the "energy exchange-free" regime below a single spontaneous emission event. Besides its fundamental interest, this means significant simplification for proposed neutral-atom quantum computation schemes and may enable sensitive detection of molecules and atoms lacking closed transitions.

Jürgen Volz; Roger Gehr; Guilhem Dubois; Jérôme Estève; Jakob Reichel

2011-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

395

Secondary Heat Exchanger Design and Comparison for Advanced High Temperature Reactor  

SciTech Connect

The goals of next generation nuclear reactors, such as the high temperature gas-cooled reactor and advance high temperature reactor (AHTR), are to increase energy efficiency in the production of electricity and provide high temperature heat for industrial processes. The efficient transfer of energy for industrial applications depends on the ability to incorporate effective heat exchangers between the nuclear heat transport system and the industrial process heat transport system. The need for efficiency, compactness, and safety challenge the boundaries of existing heat exchanger technology, giving rise to the following study. Various studies have been performed in attempts to update the secondary heat exchanger that is downstream of the primary heat exchanger, mostly because its performance is strongly tied to the ability to employ more efficient conversion cycles, such as the Rankine super critical and subcritical cycles. This study considers two different types of heat exchangers—helical coiled heat exchanger and printed circuit heat exchanger—as possible options for the AHTR secondary heat exchangers with the following three different options: (1) A single heat exchanger transfers all the heat (3,400 MW(t)) from the intermediate heat transfer loop to the power conversion system or process plants; (2) Two heat exchangers share heat to transfer total heat of 3,400 MW(t) from the intermediate heat transfer loop to the power conversion system or process plants, each exchanger transfers 1,700 MW(t) with a parallel configuration; and (3) Three heat exchangers share heat to transfer total heat of 3,400 MW(t) from the intermediate heat transfer loop to the power conversion system or process plants. Each heat exchanger transfers 1,130 MW(t) with a parallel configuration. A preliminary cost comparison will be provided for all different cases along with challenges and recommendations.

Piyush Sabharwall; Ali Siahpush; Michael McKellar; Michael Patterson; Eung Soo Kim

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

FAST ION STUDIES OF ION CYCLOTRON HEATING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

FAST ION STUDIES OF ION CYCLOTRON HEATING IN THE PLT TOKAMAK Gregory Wayne Hammett;@1986 Gregory Wayne Hammett ALL RIGHTS RESERVED #12;Abstract Fast Ion Studies of Ion Cyclotron Heating about the physics of wave heating. Previous experiments have demonstrated that ion cyclotron heating

Hammett, Greg

397

Modular heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A shell and tube heat exchanger having a plurality of individually removable tube bundle modules. A lattice of structural steel forming rectangular openings therein is placed at each end of a cylindrical shell. Longitudinal structural members are placed in the shell between corners of the rectangular openings situated on opposite ends of the shell. Intermediate support members interconnect the longitudinal supports so as to increase the longitudinal supports rigidity. Rectangular parallelpiped tube bundle moldules occupy the space defined by the longitudinal supports and end supports and each include a rectangular tube sheet situated on each end of a plurality of tubes extending therethrough, a plurality of rectangular tube supports located between the tube sheets, and a tube bundle module stiffening structure disposed about the bundle's periphery and being attached to the tube sheets and tube supports. The corners of each tube bundle module have longitudinal framework members which are mateable with and supported by the longitudinal support members. Intermediate support members constitute several lattice, each of which is situate d in a plane between the end support members. The intermediate support members constituting the several lattice extend horizontally and vertically between longitudinal supports of adjacent tube module voids. An alternative embodiment for intermediate support members constitute a series of structural plates situated at the corners of the module voids and having recesses therein for receiving the respective longitudinal support members adjacent thereto, protrusions separating the recesses, and a plurality of struts situated between protrusions of adjacent structural plates.

Giardina, Angelo R. [Marple Township, Delaware County, PA

1981-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

398

Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processes: Industrial. November 1976-October 1989 (Citations from the COMPENDEX data base). Report for November 1976-October 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the use of membranes to treat industrial waste water. Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, electrodialysis, and ultrafiltration processes are described. Removal of metals, sodium compounds, nitrates, flourides, dyes, and radioactive waste using membranes is examined. Waste-water treatment for chemical, pulp, textile, and steel mills using this technology is included. (This updated bibliography contains 294 citations, 13 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processes: industrial. January 1976-June 1989 (Citations from the COMPENDEX data base). Report for January 1976-June 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the use of membranes to treat industrial waste water. Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, electrodialysis, and ultrafiltration processes are described. Removal of metals, sodium compounds, nitrates, flourides, dyes, and radioactive waste using membranes is examined. Waste-water treatment for chemical, pulp, textile, and steel mills using this technology is included. (This updated bibliography contains 281 citations, 35 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processes: industrial. January 1976-June 1988 (citations from the Engineering Index data base). Report for January 1976-June 1988  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the use of membranes to treat industrial waste water. Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, electrodialysis, and ultrafiltration processes are described. Removal of metals, sodium compounds, nitrates, flourides, dyes, and radioactive waste using membranes is examined. Wastewater treatment for chemical, pulp, textile, and steel mills using this technology is included. (This updated bibliography contains 246 citations, 26 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ion exchange process" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

secondary ion detection | EMSL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ion detection secondary ion detection Leads No leads are available at this time. Magnesium behavior and structural defects in Mg+ ion implanted silicon carbide. Abstract: As a...

402

Thermal Performance of Microencapsulated Phase Material (MPCM) Slurry in a Coaxial Heat Exchanger  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Microencapsulated phase change material (MPCM) slurries and coil heat exchangers had been recently studied separately as enhancers of convective heat transfer processes. Due to the larger apparent heat related to the phase change process...

Yu, Kun

2014-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

403

Soft photons from relativistic heavy ion collisions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Production of soft photons in relativistic heavy ion collisions due to bremsstrahlung processes in quark matter and hadronic matter is studied. The contribution of pion-driven processes is found to dominate the yield. © 1996 The American Physical Society.

Pradip Kumar Roy, Dipali Pal, Sourav Sarkar, Dinesh Kumar Srivastava, and Bikash Sinha

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Worldwide 'Power exchanges' | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Indian government is attempting to set-up power exchang, where one can buysell electrical power (just like stock exchange). Please let me know: If power exchange exists in...

405

Measurement of a Large Chemical Reaction Rate between Ultracold Closed-Shell Ca40 Atoms and Open-Shell Yb+174 Ions Held in a Hybrid Atom-Ion Trap  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ultracold Yb+174 ions and Ca40 atoms are confined in a hybrid trap. The charge exchange chemical reaction rate constant between these two species is measured and found to be 4 orders of magnitude larger than recent measurements in other heteronuclear systems. The structure of the CaYb+ molecule is determined and used in a calculation that explains the fast chemical reaction as a consequence of strong radiative charge transfer. A possible explanation is offered for the apparent contradiction between typical theoretical predictions and measurements of the radiative association process in this and other recent experiments.

Wade G. Rellergert; Scott T. Sullivan; Svetlana Kotochigova; Alexander Petrov; Kuang Chen; Steven J. Schowalter; Eric R. Hudson

2011-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

406

Heat exchanger with ceramic elements  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An annular heat exchanger assembly includes a plurality of low thermal growth ceramic heat exchange members with inlet and exit flow ports on distinct faces. A mounting member locates each ceramic member in a near-annular array and seals the flow ports on the distinct faces into the separate flow paths of the heat exchanger. The mounting member adjusts for the temperature gradient in the assembly and the different coefficients of thermal expansion of the members of the assembly during all operating temperatures.

Corey, John A. (North Troy, NY)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Role of Cation-Water Disorder during Cation Exchange in Small-Pore Zeolite  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Role of Cation-Water Disorder during Cation Exchange in Small-Pore Zeolite Role of Cation-Water Disorder during Cation Exchange in Small-Pore Zeolite Sodium Natrolite Thursday, October 31, 2013 Structural changes leading to disordering of the cation-water arrangement within the pores of zeolite natrolite while exchanging sodium (Na+) with potassium (K+) have been investigated using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and oxygen K-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). cation in zeolite sodium natrolite fig1 Figure 1) Artistic representation of the natrolite channel, which opens progressively as a function of the exchanging cation's size. The small golf ball represents ordered sodium cations in a closed elliptical channel, whereas the large baseball represents a disordered cesium cation in an open circular channel. The most fundamental chemical property of zeolites is ion exchange. A

408

Energy Efficiency Exchange 2015 | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Efficiency Exchange 2015 Energy Efficiency Exchange 2015 As the nation's largest energy consumer, the federal government has a tremendous opportunity and clear...

409

Materials - Micro heat exchangers ... | ornl.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials - Micro heat exchangers ... Heat exchanger components fabricated with 3-D printing and analyzed with neutron imaging create a world of opportunities for electronic...

410

Integrated Module Heat Exchanger | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Module Heat Exchanger Integrated Module Heat Exchanger 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting...

411

Better Buildings Residential Network Orientation Peer Exchange...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Better Buildings Residential Network Orientation Peer Exchange Webinar Better Buildings Residential Network Orientation Peer Exchange Webinar September 11, 2014 7:00PM to 8:3...

412

Copper(II)-mediated thermolysis of alginates: a model kinetic study on the influence of metal ions in the thermochemical processing of macroalgae  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...than terrestrial plants) and not competing with forestry and agriculture for land and fresh water [18,19]. Phaeophyceae (brown...biofuels production: development of a computing software for an LCA study. Fuel Process. Technol. 85, 1679-1693. 10.1016...

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Quality Assurance Exchange March 2011, Volume 7 Issue 1 | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Quality Assurance Exchange March 2011, Volume 7 Issue 1 Quality Assurance Exchange March 2011, Volume 7 Issue 1 Quality Assurance Exchange March 2011, Volume 7 Issue 1 Quality Software Development and Success Through Project Management and Six Sigma Background The following article discusses the Idaho National Laboratory's Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) process improvements in facility availability and cost avoidance through an improved software management process. This information is very positive and highlights a Department of Energy (DOE) project that simultaneously improved quality, reduced project costs, and regained schedule. Quality Assurance Exchange March 2011 More Documents & Publications Quality Assurance Exchange August 2011, Volume 7 Issue 2 QUALITY ASSURANCE EXCHANGE December 2005 Volume 1 Issue 3

414

Solar wind energy transfer regions inside the dayside magnetopause: Accelerated heavy ions as tracers for MHD-processes in the dayside boundary layer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Plasma and magnetic field data from PROGNOZ-7 have revealed that solar wind (magnetosheath) plasma elements may penetrate the dayside magnetopause surface and form high density regions with enhanced cross-field flow in the boundary layer. The injected magnetosheath plasma is observed to have an excess drift velocity as compared to the local boundary layer plasma, comprising both “cold” plasma of terrestrial origin and a hot ring current component. A differential drift between two plasma components can be understood in terms of a momentum transfer process driven by an injected magnetosheath plasma population. The braking action of the injected plasma may be described as a dynamo process where particle kinetic energy is transferred into electromagnetic energy (electric field). The generated electric field will force the local plasma to ?×B-drift, and the dynamo region therefore also constitutes an accelerator region for the local plasma. Whenever energy is dissipated from the energy transfer process (a net current is flowing through a load), there will also be a difference between the induced electric field and the v×B term of the generator plasma. Thus, the local plasma will drift more slowly than the injected generator plasma. We will present observations showing that a relation between the momentum transferred, the injected plasma and the momentum taken up by the local plasma exists. For instance, if the local plasma density is sufficiently high, the differential drift velocity of the injected and local plasma will be small. A large fraction of the excess momentum is then transferred to the local plasma. Conversely, a low local plasma density results in a high velocity difference and a low fraction of local momentum transfer. In our study cases the “cold” plasma component was frequently found to dominate the local magnetospheric plasma density in the boundary layer. Accordingly, this component may have the largest influence on the local momentum transfer process. We will demonstrate that this also seems to be the case. Moreover we show that the accelerated “cold” plasma component may be used as a tracer element reflecting both the momentum and energy transfer and the penetration process in the dayside boundary layer. The high He+ percentage of the accelerated “cold” plasma indicates a plasmaspheric origin. Considering the quite high densities of energetic He+ found in the boundary layer, the overall low abundance of He+ (as compared to e.g. O+) found in the plasma sheet and outer ring current evidently reduces the importance of the dayside boundary layer as a plasma source in the large scale magnetospheric circulation system.

R. Lundin; E.M. Dubinin

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Electron Exchange and Conduction in Nontronite from First-Principles  

SciTech Connect

Fe-bearing clay minerals serve as an important source and sink for electrons in redox reactions in various subsurface geochemical environments, and electron transfer (ET) properties of the Fe2+/Fe3+ redox couple play a decisive role in a variety of physicochemical processes involving clays. Here, we apply first-principles calculations using both periodic GGA+U planewave and Hartree-Fock molecular-cluster frameworks in conjuction with small polaron hopping approach and Marcus electron transfer theory to examine electron exchange mobilities in an Fe-rich smectite, taking nontronite as a case study. GGA+U calculations of the activation barrier for small-polaron migration provide rates of electron hopping that agree very well with values deduced from variable temperature Mössbauer data (M. V. Schaefer, et. al., Environ. Sci. Technol. 45, 540, (2011)), indicating a surprisingly fast electron mobility at room temperature. Based on molecular cluster calculations, we show that the state with tetrahedral Fe2+ ion in the nontronite lattice is about 0.9 eV higher than the one with octahedral Fe2+. Also, evaluation of the ET rates for the Fe2+/Fe3+ electron hopping in tetrahedral (TS) and octahedral sheets (OS), as well as across the sheets (TS–OS) shows that the dominant contribution to the bulk electronic conductivity should come from the ET within the OS. Deprotonation of structural OH groups mediating ET between the Fe ions in the OS is found to decrease the internal reorganization energy and to increase the magnitude of the electronic coupling matrix element, whereas protonation (to OH2 groups) has the opposite effect. Overall, our calculations suggest that the major factors affecting ET rates are the nature and structure of the nearest-neighbor local environment and the degree of covalency of the bonds between Fe and ligands mediating electron hops. The generally higher reorganization energy and weaker electronic coupling found in Fe-bearing clay minerals leads to electron mobilities much lower than in iron oxides.

Alexandrov, Vitali Y.; Neumann, Anke; Scherer, Michelle; Rosso, Kevin M.

2013-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

416

High-throughput Process Development  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.2 Screening experiments in PreDictor plates vs small-scale columns....................................5 1 Chromatography Principles and Methods 18-1022-29 Antibody Purification Handbook 18-1037-46 Ion Exchange Protein Purification Handbook Principles and Methods 18-1142-75 Protein Purification Handbook 18

Lebendiker, Mario

417

InstructIons  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

InstructIons InstructIons for AccessIng fedconnect PostIngs The registration process requires multiple steps prior to submission, so please plan in advance as late applications will not be accepted. Note that for some applications, a Letter of Intent must be filed prior to the final deadline. To access the complete postings, follow the below steps: 1. Go to https://www.FedConnect.net/ 2. Click on "Search Public Opportunities" 3. Select "Reference Number" in the Search Criteria drop down box and then enter the Reference Number of the funding opportunity you are interested in (DE-FOA-XXXXXXX), followed by clicking the "Search" button 4. Click on the appropriate link after search results are displayed

418

Hybrid approaches to quantum information using ions, atoms and photons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis presents two hybrid systems for quantum information processing - one joining cold ions and cold atoms and another coupling linear chains of atomic ions with photons via an optical resonator. The first experimental ...

Cetina, Marko, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Exchange-Spring Magnets: Nanocomposite Exchange-Spring Magnets for Motor and Generator Applications  

SciTech Connect

REACT Project: ANL will develop a cost-effective exchange-spring magnet to use in the electric motors of wind generators and EVs that uses no rare earth materials. This ANL exchange-spring magnet combines a hard magnetic outer shell with a soft magnetic inner core—coupling these together increases the performance (energy density and operating temperature). The hard and soft magnet composite particles would be created at the molecular level, followed by consolidation in a magnetic field. This process allows the particles to be oriented to maximize the magnetic properties of low-cost and abundant metals, eliminating the need for expensive imported rare earths. The ultimate goal of this project is to demonstrate this new type of magnet in a prototype electric motor.

None

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Ion Channel Engineering: Perspectives and Strategies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Ion channels facilitate the passive movement of ions down an electrochemical gradient and across lipid bilayers in cells. This phenomenon is essential for life and underlies many critical homeostatic processes in cells. Ion channels are diverse and differ with respect to how they open and close (gating) and to their ionic conductance/selectivity (permeation). Fundamental understanding of ion channel structure–function mechanisms, their physiological roles, how their dysfunction leads to disease, their utility as biosensors, and development of novel molecules to modulate their activity are important and active research frontiers. In this review, we focus on ion channel engineering approaches that have been applied to investigate these aspects of ion channel function, with a major emphasis on voltage-gated ion channels.

Prakash Subramanyam; Henry M. Colecraft

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ion exchange process" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Vacancy association energy in scandium doped ceria: 45Sc MAS NMR and 2D exchange spectroscopy study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Oxygen vacancy exchange between Sc ions in 0.5% Sc-doped ceria Sc0.005Ce0.995O0.9975 is investigated by means of 2D exchange spectroscopy (EXSY). 45Sc NMR spectrum of Sc-doped ceria contains two peaks—one corresponding to Sc ions coupled with an oxygen vacancy (Sc-7), and the other corresponding to Sc ions in a regular lattice site surrounded by eight oxygen ions (Sc-8). The vacancy exchange between these two Sc sites generates the cross-peaks in the EXSY spectrum. Relative amplitudes of the cross-peaks provide direct values of the exchange frequency at a given temperature. Arrhenius analysis of the exchange frequency gives the activation energy Ea = 1.18 eV for the vacancy hopping between Sc sites. Most of this energy barrier is due to association energy which binds the vacancy to Sc3 +. Large dopant–vacancy association energy in Sc doped ceria is demonstrated by 45Sc NMR spectrum of La/Sc doubly doped sample, ScxLaxCe1 ? 2xO2 ? x, x = 0.005, where the only line of Sc-7 site shows that all vacancies are bound by Sc3 + ions.

Reio Põder; Juhan Subbi; Helgi Kooskora; Ivo Heinmaa

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Caustic Recycle from Hanford Tank Waste Using NaSICON Ceramic Membrane Salt Splitting Process  

SciTech Connect

A family of inorganic ceramic materials, called sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON), has been studied at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to investigate their ability to separate sodium from radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions for treating U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) tank wastes. Ceramatec Inc. developed and fabricated a membrane containing a proprietary NAS-GY material formulation that was electrochemically tested in a bench-scale apparatus with both a simulant and a radioactive tank-waste solution to determine the membrane performance when removing sodium from DOE tank wastes. Implementing this sodium separation process can result in significant cost savings by reducing the disposal volume of low-activity wastes and by producing a NaOH feedstock product for recycle into waste treatment processes such as sludge leaching, regenerating ion exchange resins, inhibiting corrosion in carbon-steel tanks, or retrieving tank wastes.

Fountain, Matthew S.; Kurath, Dean E.; Sevigny, Gary J.; Poloski, Adam P.; Pendleton, J.; Balagopal, S.; Quist, M.; Clay, D.

2009-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

423

Microsystem process networks  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Various aspects and applications of microsystem process networks are described. The design of many types of microsystems can be improved by ortho-cascading mass, heat, or other unit process operations. Microsystems having exergetically efficient microchannel heat exchangers are also described. Detailed descriptions of numerous design features in microcomponent systems are also provided.

Wegeng, Robert S. (Richland, WA); TeGrotenhuis, Ward E. (Kennewick, WA); Whyatt, Greg A. (West Richland, WA)

2006-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

424

Microsystem process networks  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Various aspects and applications or microsystem process networks are described. The design of many types of microsystems can be improved by ortho-cascading mass, heat, or other unit process operations. Microsystems having energetically efficient microchannel heat exchangers are also described. Detailed descriptions of numerous design features in microcomponent systems are also provided.

Wegeng, Robert S [Richland, WA; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E [Kennewick, WA; Whyatt, Greg A [West Richland, WA

2010-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

425

Microsystem process networks  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Various aspects and applications of microsystem process networks are described. The design of many types of Microsystems can be improved by ortho-cascading mass, heat, or other unit process operations. Microsystems having energetically efficient microchannel heat exchangers are also described. Detailed descriptions of numerous design features in microcomponent systems are also provided.

Wegeng, Robert S. (Richland, WA); TeGrotenhuis, Ward E. (Kennewick, WA); Whyatt, Greg A. (West Richland, WA)

2007-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

426

Multi-block sulfonated poly(phenylene) copolymer proton exchange membranes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Improved multi-block sulfonated poly(phenylene) copolymer compositions, methods of making the same, and their use as proton exchange membranes (PEM) in hydrogen fuel cells, direct methanol fuel cells, in electrode casting solutions and electrodes. The multi-block architecture has defined, controllable hydrophobic and hydrophilic segments. These improved membranes have better ion transport (proton conductivity) and water swelling properties.

Fujimoto, Cy H. (Albuquerque, NM); Hibbs, Michael (Albuquerque, NM); Ambrosini, Andrea (Albuquerque, NM)

2012-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

427

Waste treatment process for removal of contaminants from aqueous, mixed-waste solutions using sequential chemical treatment and crossflow microfiltration, followed by dewatering  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In processes of this invention aqueous waste solutions containing a variety of mixed waste contaminants are treated to remove the contaminants by a sequential addition of chemicals and adsorption/ion exchange powdered materials to remove the contaminants including lead, cadmium, uranium, cesium-137, strontium-85/90, trichloroethylene and benzene, and impurities including iron and calcium. Staged conditioning of the waste solution produces a polydisperse system of size enlarged complexes of the contaminants in three distinct configurations: water-soluble metal complexes, insoluble metal precipitation complexes, and contaminant-bearing particles of ion exchange and adsorbent materials. The volume of the waste is reduced by separation of the polydisperse system by cross-flow microfiltration, followed by low-temperature evaporation and/or filter pressing. The water produced as filtrate is discharged if it meets a specified target water quality, or else the filtrate is recycled until the target is achieved. 1 fig.

Vijayan, S.; Wong, C.F.; Buckley, L.P.

1994-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

428

Waste treatment process for removal of contaminants from aqueous, mixed-waste solutions using sequential chemical treatment and crossflow microfiltration, followed by dewatering  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In processes of this invention aqueous waste solutions containing a variety of mixed waste contaminants are treated to remove the contaminants by a sequential addition of chemicals and adsorption/ion exchange powdered materials to remove the contaminants including lead, cadmium, uranium, cesium-137, strontium-85/90, trichloroethylene and benzene, and impurities including iron and calcium. Staged conditioning of the waste solution produces a polydisperse system of size enlarged complexes of the contaminants in three distinct configurations: water-soluble metal complexes, insoluble metal precipitation complexes, and contaminant-bearing particles of ion exchange and adsorbent materials. The volume of the waste is reduced by separation of the polydisperse system by cross-flow microfiltration, followed by low-temperature evaporation and/or filter pressing. The water produced as filtrate is discharged if it meets a specified target water quality, or else the filtrate is recycled until the target is achieved.

Vijayan, Sivaraman (Deep River, CA); Wong, Chi F. (Pembroke, CA); Buckley, Leo P. (Deep River, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Metal-Ion-Mediated Reactions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Metal-Ion-Mediated Reactions Metal-Ion-Mediated Reactions Metal-Ion-Mediated Reactions Print Monday, 19 December 2011 18:29 While mononuclear, polynuclear, and polymeric metal complexes are most often synthesized by the reaction of a metal precursor and a presynthesized organic ligand, it is also possible to generate the ligand in situ from an easily available organic compound. This approach allows the reactivity of the metal ion to activate a proligand, transforming it through an in situ reaction, sometimes providing coordination compounds with ligands not accessible by conventional organic synthesis. The intense interest in the reactivity of coordinated ligands is mainly due to the necessity of interpreting the mechanisms of homogeneous metal-catalyzed processes, in which a substrate is activated upon its coordination to one or more metal sites. A coordinated oxime group contains three active sites (C, N, O) for reactivity.

430

Synthesis, Structural Characterization, and Catalytic Properties of Tungsten-Exchanged Weiping Ding, George D. Meitzner, David O. Marler,| and Enrique Iglesia*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

exchanged W/H-ZSM5. 1. Introduction Transition metal ions (e.g., Mo, W, V, Fe, Cr) loaded onto several between oxides or carbides of Mo and W. The synthesis of exchanged WOx precursors and their subsequent. They detected carbidic carbon on Mo/H-ZSM5 and showed that MoOx species reduce almost to Mo0 during reaction.10

Iglesia, Enrique

431

Fast time resolution charge-exchange measurements during the fishbone instability in the poloidal divertor experiment  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of fast ion losses due to the fishbone instability during high ..beta../sub T/q neutral beam heated discharges in the Poloidal Divertor Experiment have been made using two new vertical-viewing charge-exchange analyzers. The measurements show that the instability has an n=1 toroidal mode number, and that it ejects beam ions in a toroidally rotating beacon directed outward along a major radius. Observations of ejected ions with energies up to twice the beam injection energy at R approx. = R/sub 0/ + a indicate the presence of a non-..mu..-conserving acceleration mechanism.

Beiersdorfer, P.; Kaita, R.; Goldston, R.J.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Reversible photodeposition and dissolution of metal ions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cyclic photocatalytic process for treating waste water containing metal and organic contaminants. In one embodiment of the method, metal ions are photoreduced onto the photocatalyst and the metal concentrated by resolubilization in a smaller volume. In another embodiment of the method, contaminant organics are first oxidized, then metal ions removed by photoreductive deposition. The present invention allows the photocatalyst to be recycled until nearly complete removal of metal ions and organic contaminants is achieved.

Foster, Nancy S. (Boulder, CO); Koval, Carl A. (Golden, CO); Noble, Richard D. (Boulder, CO)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

NAO influence on net sea ice production and exchanges in the Arctic region: a numerical study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ice cover suppresses the development of thermal insulation during the ice formation processNAO influence on net sea ice production and exchanges in the Arctic region: a numerical study Aixue The variability of net sea ice production and sea ice exchange between the Arctic and its adjacent seas

Hu, Aixue

434

NAO influence on net sea ice production and exchanges in the Arctic region  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

suppresses the development of thermal insulation during the ice formation process. The North AtlanticNAO influence on net sea ice production and exchanges in the Arctic region Aixue Hu National Center of the net sea ice production and the sea ice exchanges between the Arctic and its adjacent seas are studied

Hu, Aixue

435

Oxygen isotopic exchange: A useful tool for characterizing oxygen conducting oxides  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oxygen isotopic exchange: A useful tool for characterizing oxygen conducting oxides Bassat J we obtain in both cases data concerning the oxygen diffusion in the bulk and the oxygen exchange with regards to the oxygen reduction reaction. Detailed experimental and analytical processes are given

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

436

A Simple Control Scheme for Near-optimal Operation of Parallel Heat Exchanger Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. In the chemical and process industries, large amounts of energy can be saved by using heat recovery in heat exchanger networks, which transfer energy in form of heat Corresponding author: email: skoge@ntnu.no, phone exchanger networks for saving energy and costs has led to a large body of research, and most

Skogestad, Sigurd

437

Modeling bronchial circulation with application to soluble gas exchange: description and sensitivity analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Modeling bronchial circulation with application to soluble gas exchange: description into an existing model that describes the simul- taneous exchange of heat, water, and a soluble gas in the airways and represents an avenue to understanding the ex- change process. The soluble gas used in the model simulations

George, Steven C.

438

Effect of fuel rate and annealing process of LiFePO{sub 4} cathode material for Li-ion batteries synthesized by flame spray pyrolysis method  

SciTech Connect

In this study the effect of fuel rate and annealing on particle formation of LiFePO{sub 4} as battery cathode using flame spray pyrolysis method was investigated numerically and experimentally. Numerical study was done using ANSYS FLUENT program. In experimentally, LiFePO{sub 4} was synthesized from inorganic aqueous solution followed by annealing. LPG was used as fuel and air was used as oxidizer and carrier gas. Annealing process attempted in inert atmosphere at 700°C for 240 min. Numerical result showed that the increase of fuel rate caused the increase of flame temperature. Microscopic observation using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) revealed that all particles have sphere and polydisperse. Increasing fuel rate caused decreasing particle size and increasing particles crystallinity. This phenomenon attributed to the flame temperature. However, all produced particles still have more amorphous phase. Therefore, annealing needed to increase particles crystallinity. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis showed that all particles have PO4 function group. Increasing fuel rate led to the increase of infrared spectrum absorption corresponding to the increase of particles crystallinity. This result indicated that phosphate group vibrated easily in crystalline phase. From Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) analysis, annealing can cause the increase of Li{sup +} diffusivity. The diffusivity coefficient of without and with annealing particles were 6.84399×10{sup ?10} and 8.59888×10{sup ?10} cm{sup 2} s{sup ?1}, respectively.

Halim, Abdul; Setyawan, Heru; Machmudah, Siti; Nurtono, Tantular; Winardi, Sugeng [Chemical Engineering, Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology, Kampus Sukolilo Surabaya Indonesia 60111 (Indonesia)

2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

439

C60 Secondary Ion Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

C60 Secondary Ion Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry. C60 Secondary Ion Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry. Abstract: Secondary...

440

Softhard exchange-coupled layered structures with modulated exchange coupling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35487-0209 Received 8 April 2003; accepted 28 June 2003 Magnetically soft/hard exchange-coupled for high performance permanent magnets in the past decades and much progress has been made in improving permanent mag- netic properties. A figure of merit of permanent magnetic materials is the maximum magnetic

Garmestani, Hamid

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ion exchange process" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Heat Pump Cycle with Solution Circuit and Internal Heat Exchange  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-stage cycle, the heat transfer area required on the refrigerant side will increase by 10~ compared to the ammonia cycl e. CONCLUSIONS The hea t p1llllp cycl e employ ing one sol ut ion circuit and absorber/de sorber heat exchange has a more sophisticated... when a two-stage version fed into the same compressor. While ammonia of this cycl e is used. In this paper. another evaporate s out of an ammonia-water sol ution on C version of such cycles will be discussed which the composition. X. of this solution...

Radermacher, R.

442

Method and apparatus for removing ions from soil  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus are presented for selectively removing species of ions from an area of soil. Permeable membranes 14 and 18 impregnated with an ion exchange resin that is specific to one or more species of chemical ions are inserted into ground 12 in close proximity to, and on opposing sides of, a soil area of interest 22. An electric potential is applied across electrodes 26 and 28 to cause the migration of ions out of soil area 22 toward the membranes 14 and 18. Preferably, the resin exchanges ions of sodium or hydrogen for ions of mercury that it captures from soil area 22. Once membranes 14 and 18 become substantially saturated with mercury ions, the potential applied across electrodes 26 and 28 is discontinued and membranes 14 and 18 are preferably removed from soil 12 for storage or recovery of the ions. The membranes are also preferably impregnated with a buffer to inhibit the effect of the hydrolysis of water by current from the electrodes.

Bibler, J.P.

1993-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

443

Method and apparatus for removing ions from soil  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for selectively removing species of ions from an area of soil. Permeable membranes 14 and 18 impregnated with an ion exchange resin that is specific to one or more species of chemical ions are inserted into ground 12 in close proximity to, and on opposing sides of, a soil area of interest 22. An electric potential is applied across electrodes 26 and 28 to cause the migration of ions out of soil area 22 toward the membranes 14 and 18. Preferably, the resin exchanges ions of sodium or hydrogen for ions of mercury that it captures from soil area 22. Once membranes 14 and 18 become substantially saturated with mercury ions, the potential applied across electrodes 26 and 28 is discontinued and membranes 14 and 18 are preferably removed from soil 12 for storage or recovery of the ions. The membranes are also preferably impregnated with a buffer to inhibit the effect of the hydrolysis of water by current from the electrodes.

Bibler, Jane P. (813 E. Rollingwood Rd., Aiken, SC 29801)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Ion Monitoring  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The apparatus and method provide a technique for significantly reducing capacitance effects in detector electrodes arising due to movement of the instrument relative to the item/location being monitored in ion detection based techniques. The capacitance variations are rendered less significant by placing an electrically conducting element between the detector electrodes and the monitored location/item. Improved sensitivity and reduced noise signals arise as a result. The technique also provides apparatus and method suitable for monitoring elongate items which are unsuited to complete enclosure in one go within a chamber. The items are monitored part by part as the pass through the instrument, so increasing the range of items or locations which can be successfully monitored.

Orr, Christopher Henry (Calderbridge, GB); Luff, Craig Janson (Calderbridge, GB); Dockray, Thomas (Calderbridge, GB); Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore (Los Alamos, NM)

2003-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

445

Microfluidic Systems with Ion-Selective Membranes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

treatment processes such as electrodialysis and elec- trodeionization (1). These membranes are natural gradients, internal/external ion enrichment, extended polarized layers, surface electroconvection, water effects. More than 70 years ago, ion-selective mem- branes started to be used in industrial water

Chang, Hsueh-Chia

446

Primer on nuclear exchange models  

SciTech Connect

Basic physics is applied to nuclear force exchange models between two nations. Ultimately, this scenario approach can be used to try and answer the age old question of 'how much is enough?' This work is based on Chapter 2 of Physics of Societal Issues: Calculations on National Security, Environment and Energy (Springer, 2007 and 2014)

Hafemeister, David [Physics Department, Cal Poly University, San Luis Obispo, California (United States)

2014-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

447

CRADA Final Report for NFE-08-01826: Development and application of processing and processcontrol for nano-composite materials for lithium ion batteries  

SciTech Connect

Oak Ridge National Laboratory and A123 Systems, Inc. collaborated on this project to develop a better understanding, quality control procedures, and safety testing for A123 System’s nanocomposite separator (NCS) technology which is a cell based patented technology and separator. NCS demonstrated excellent performance. x3450 prismatic cells were shown to survive >8000 cycles (1C/2C rate) at room temperature with greater than 80% capacity retention with only NCS present as an alternative to conventional polyolefin. However, for a successful commercialization, the coating conditions required to provide consistent and reliable product had not been optimized and QC techniques for being able to remove defective material before incorporation into a cell had not been developed. The work outlined in this report addresses these latter two points. First, experiments were conducted to understand temperature profiles during the different drying stages of the NCS coating when applied to both anode and cathode. One of the more interesting discoveries of this study was the observation of the large temperature decrease experienced by the wet coating between the end of the infrared (IR) drying stage and the beginning of the exposure to the convection drying oven. This is not a desirable situation as the temperature gradient could have a deleterious effect on coating quality. Based on this and other experimental data a radiative transfer model was developed for IR heating that also included a mass transfer module for drying. This will prove invaluable for battery coating optimization especially where IR drying is being employed. A stress model was also developed that predicts that under certain drying conditions tensile stresses are formed in the coating which could lead to cracking that is sometimes observed after drying is complete. Prediction of under what conditions these stresses form is vital to improving coating quality. In addition to understanding the drying process other parameters such as slurry quality and equipment optimization were examined. Removal of particles and gels by filtering, control of viscosity by %solids and mixing adjustments, removal of trapped gas in the slurry and modification of coater speed and slot die gap were all found to be important for producing uniform and flaw-free coatings. Second, an in-line Hi-Pot testing method has been developed specifically for NCS that will enable detection of coating flaws that could lead to soft or hard electrical shorts within the cell. In this way flawed material can be rejected before incorporation into the cell thus greatly reducing the amount of scrap that is generated. Improved battery safety is an extremely important benefit of NCS. Evaluation of battery safety is usually accomplished by conducting a variety of tests including nail penetration, hot box, over charge, etc. For these tests entire batteries must be built but the resultant temperature and voltage responses reveal little about the breakdown mechanism. In this report is described a pinch test which is used to evaluate NCS quality at various stages including coated anode and cathode as well as assembled cell. Coupled with post-microscopic examination of the damaged ‘pinch point’ test data can assist in the coating optimization from an improved end-use standpoint. As a result of this work two invention disclosures, one for optimizing drying methodology and the other for an in-line system for flaw detection, have been filed. In addition, 2 papers are being written for submission to peer-reviewed journals.

Daniel, C.; Armstrong, B.; Maxey, C.; Sabau, A.; Wang, H.; Hagans, P. (A123 Systems, Inc.); and Babinec, S. (A123 Systems, Inc.)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

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Fusion and Heavy Ion Reactions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......February 2004 research-article Articles Fusion and Heavy Ion Reactions David M. Brink...useful for understanding of sub-barrier fusion processes. The Christensen-Winther...potentials like the CW interaction give good fusion cross-sections near and for a few MeV......

David M. Brink

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z