Sample records for iodine phos phorus

  1. PhosPhorus, Agriculture &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    fertilizer, biosolids and manure, is over applied. However, the greatest concern today is with the land

  2. Test of an LED Monitoring System for the PHOS Spectrometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blick, A M; Erin, S V; Kharlov, Yu V; Lobanov, M O; Mikhailov, Yu V; Minaev, N G; Petrov, V A; Sadovsky, S A; Samoylenko, V D; Suzdalev, V I; Senko, V A; Tikhonov, V V

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Preprint submitted to Elsevier Print on 26th January 2000A prototype monitoring system for the Photon Spectrometer (PHOS) of the ALICE experiment at LHC is described in detail. The prototype consists of Control and Master modules. The first one is 8x8 matrix of Light Emitting Diodes coupled with stable generators of current pulses. The system provides an individual control for each of the 64 channels of PHOS prototype based on lead-tungstate crystals. A long term stability of order of 10-3 has been achieved in integral beam tests of the monitoring system and PHOS prototypes.

  3. Iodine in Texas Soils.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Fudge, J. F. (Joseph Franklin)

    1939-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , while the quantity of iodine in spinach bore a close relation to the quantity of iodine in the soil. The action. of the added iodine differed with the kind of soil. Hercus and Roberts (12) state that loam has a marked retentive power for soluble... in surface soils by soil types High 1 0 1 p. *. rn. Low p. p. m. .- 1.1 ........ 1.6 2.5 0.8 1.5 ........ ........ 1.1 ........ 2.0 East Texas Timber Country Upland soils with friable subsoils: Bowie fine sandy loam...

  4. Geochemical Cycling of Iodine Species in Soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Q; Moran, J E; Blackwood, V

    2007-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Iodine is an important element in studies of environmental protection and human health, global-scale hydrologic processes and nuclear nonproliferation. Biogeochemical cycling of iodine in soils is complex, because iodine occurs in multiple oxidation states and as inorganic and organic species that may be hydrophilic, atmophilic, and biophilic. In this study, we applied new analytical techniques to study the content and speciation of stable iodine in representative surface soils, and sorption and transport behavior of iodine species (iodide, iodate, and 4-iodoaniline) in sediments collected at numerous nuclear facilities in the United States, where anthropogenic {sup 129}I from prior nuclear fuel processing activities poses an environmental risk. The surface soil samples were chosen for their geographic locations (e.g., near the ocean or nuclear facilities) and for their differing physico-chemical characteristics (organic matter, texture, etc). Extracted solutions were analyzed by IC and ICP-MS methods to determine iodine concentrations and to examine iodine speciation (iodide, iodate, and organic iodine). In natural soils, iodine is mostly (nearly 90% of total iodine) present as organic species, while inorganic iodine becomes important (up to 50%) only in sediments with low organic matter. Results from laboratory column studies, aimed at examining transport of different iodine species, showed much greater retardation of 4-iodoaniline than iodide or iodate. Careful attention must be given to potential interconversion among species when interpreting the biogeochemical behavior of iodine in the environment. In addition to speciation, input concentration and residence time effects will influence the biogeochemical cycling of anthropogenic 129I deposited on surface soils.

  5. MSIV leakage airborne iodine transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cline, J.E. (Cline Associates Inc., Rockville, MD (United States))

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gaseous iodine deposits on surfaces exposed to vapors. Basic chemical and physical principles predict this behavior, and several laboratory and in-plant measurements demonstrate the characteristic. An empirical model was developed that describes the deposition, resuspension, and transformation of airborne radioiodine molecular species as a stream containing these forms moves along its pathway. The model uses a data base of measured values of deposition and resuspension rates in its application and describes the conversion of the more reactive inorganic iodine species I[sub 2] to the less reactive organic species CH[sub 3]I as the iodine deposits and resuspends along the path. It also considers radioactive decay and chemical surface bonding during residence on surfaces. For the 8-day [sup 131]I, decay during the airborne portion of the transport is negligible. Verification of the model included measurement tests of long gaseous-activity sampling lines of different diameters, operated at different flow rates and stream temperatures. The model was applied to the streams at a boiling water reactor nuclear power plant to describe the transport through leaking main steam isolation valves (MSIVs), following a loss-of-coolant accident.

  6. Iodine transport analysis in the ESBWR.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalinich, Donald A.; Gauntt, Randall O.; Young, Michael Francis; Longmire, Pamela

    2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A simplified ESBWR MELCOR model was developed to track the transport of iodine released from damaged reactor fuel in a hypothesized core damage accident. To account for the effects of iodine pool chemistry, radiolysis of air and cable insulation, and surface coatings (i.e., paint) the iodine pool model in MELCOR was activated. Modifications were made to MELCOR to add sodium pentaborate as a buffer in the iodine pool chemistry model. An issue of specific interest was whether iodine vapor removed from the drywell vapor space by the PCCS heat exchangers would be sequestered in water pools or if it would be rereleased as vapor back into the drywell. As iodine vapor is not included in the deposition models for diffusiophoresis or thermophoresis in current version of MELCOR, a parametric study was conducted to evaluate the impact of a range of iodine removal coefficients in the PCCS heat exchangers. The study found that higher removal coefficients resulted in a lower mass of iodine vapor in the drywell vapor space.

  7. Equilibria in aqueous iodine solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burger, Joanne Denise

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    determined at several temperatures and the values of bH, AG, and aS have been calculated. 0 0 0 Ki x 10 was 0, 586 at 0, 5. 04 at 25, 18. 9 at $8 41. 2 at 50 , and 67. 6 at 56 , This equilibrium constant had never before been determined above 25... dependence of K . The enthalpy found in this work was 3. 65 kcal/mole, which agrees with the literature value of 3, 6 kcal/mole, The dissociation constant for iodine I2(aq) + was estimated as 3 HO=HOI +I x 10 . It was not possible to estab- "9 lish...

  8. Natural iodine in a clay formation: Implications for iodine fate in geological disposals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    in the far-field of the storage. Surprisingly, most of the iodine was found not to be associated with organic significant implications for the fate of radio-iodine. In undisturbed far-field conditions, most natural.1016/j.gca.2009.09.030 #12;2 1. INTRODUCTION Underground nuclear waste disposal in clayey formations

  9. Mixed-layered bismuth-oxygen-iodine materials for capture and waste disposal of radioactive iodine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumhansl, James L; Nenoff, Tina M

    2013-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Materials and methods of synthesizing mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine materials, which can be synthesized in the presence of aqueous radioactive iodine species found in caustic solutions (e.g. NaOH or KOH). This technology provides a one-step process for both iodine sequestration and storage from nuclear fuel cycles. It results in materials that will be durable for repository conditions much like those found in Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and estimated for Yucca Mountain (YMP). By controlled reactant concentrations, optimized compositions of these mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine inorganic materials are produced that have both a high iodine weight percentage and a low solubility in groundwater environments.

  10. Iodine chemical forms in LWR severe accidents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beahm, E.C.; Weber, C.F.; Kress, T.S.; Parker, G.W.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Calculated data from seven severe accident sequences in light-water reactor plants were used to assess the chemical forms of iodine in containment. In most of the calculations for the seven sequences, iodine entering containment from the reactor coolant system was almost entirely in the form of CsI with very small contributions of I or HI. The largest fraction of iodine in forms other than CsI was a total of 3.2% as I plus HI. Within the containment, the CsI will deposit onto walls and other surfaces, as well as in water pools, largely in the form of iodide (I{sup {minus}}). The radiation induced conversion of I{sup {minus}} in water pools into I{sub 2} is strongly dependent on pH. In systems where the pH was controlled above 7, little additional elemental iodine would be produced in the containment atmosphere. When the pH falls below 7, it may be assumed that it is not being controlled, and large fractions of iodine as I{sub 2} within the containment atmosphere may be produced. 16 refs.

  11. Redox Transformations and Transport of Cesium and Iodine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    isotopes of cesium (137 Cs) and iodine (131 I and 129 I) are environmental contaminants derived fromRedox Transformations and Transport of Cesium and Iodine (-1, 0, +5) in Oxidizing and Reducing, to study the redox chemistry (I) and transport (Cs, I) of cesium and iodine in a field setting. Injection

  12. The Behaviour ofIodine in the Terrestrial Environment.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Behaviour ofIodine in the Terrestrial Environment. An Investigation of the Possible Roskilde, Denmark Febtuary 1990 #12;1 Risø-M-2851 THE BEHAVIOUR OF IODINE IN THE TERRESTRIAL ENVIRONMENT influence the migration behaviour of iodine in the terrestrial environment. It is stated that the organic

  13. www.sciencemag.org SCIENCE VOL 324 19 JUNE 2009 1519 POLICYFORUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David, Mark B.

    nutrients extracted in crop harvest (7). For example, on the 90 small- holder farms sampled in the Siaya within, as well as across, agricultural systems. Harvested crops remove nitrogen, phos- phorus, and other, including the degradation of downstream water quality and eutrophication of coastal marine ecosys- tems

  14. The influence of phosphorus nutrition and water stress on the osmotic adjustment and growth of loblolly pine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, Alan Byron

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LITERATURE REVIEW Water Stress Osmotic Adjustment Phosphorus MATERIALS AND METHODS Experimental Design Sowing Preparation Sowing and Seedling Cultivation Treatments . . . . . . . ~ Measurements . . . . . . - ~ ~ ~ Statistical Analysis RESULTS... three days. Fertilizer was applied every other time the seedlings received water. Treatments were initiated to provide three levels of phos- phorus nutrition (10, 100, 200 ppm) and three levels of water stress. Water stress was imposed...

  15. Bid Ceil (1996) 87, 143-147 0 Elsevier. Paris

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olins, Ada L.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    stained in a non-Feulgen procedure with osmium annnine-B and imaged at several electron energy the distribution of nucleic acid phos- phorus. osmium ammine-B / energy filtered TEM / RNA / phosphorus mapping- proteins;hnRNP, heterogeneous nuclear RNP. (BR) granules [12, 14, 151. The advantage of employing ES1

  16. Method for gettering organic, inorganic and elemental iodine in aqueous solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beahm, Edward C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Shockley, William E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the removal of iodine from aqueous solutions, particularly the trapping of radioactive iodine to mitigate damage resulting from accidents or spills associated with nuclear reactors, by exposing the solution to well dispersed silver carbonate which reacts with the iodine and iodides, thereby gettering iodine and iodine compounds from solution. The iodine is not only removed from solution but also from the contiguous vapor.

  17. Iodine Sorbent Performance in FY 2012 Deep Bed Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nick Soelberg; Tony Watson

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear fission results in the production of fission products and activation products, some of which tend to be volatile during used fuel reprocessing and evolve in gaseous species into the reprocessing facility off-gas systems. Analyses have shown that I-129, due to its radioactivity, high potential mobility in the environment, and high longevity (half life of 15.7 million years), can require control efficiencies of up to 1,000x or higher to meet regulatory emission limits. Iodine capture is an important aspect of the Separations and Waste Forms Campaign Off-gas Sigma Team (Jubin 2011, Pantano 2011). Deep-bed iodine sorption tests for both silver-functionalized Aerogel and silver zeolite sorbents were performed during Fiscal Year 2012. These tests showed that: • Decontamination factors were achieved that exceed reasonably conservative estimates for DFs needed for used fuel reprocessing facilities in the U.S. to meet regulatory requirements for I-129 capture. • Silver utilizations approached or exceeded 100% for high inlet gas iodine concentrations, but test durations were not long enough to approach 100% silver utilization for lower iodine concentrations. • The depth of the mass transfer zone was determined for both low iodine concentrations (under 10 ppmv) and for higher iodine concentrations (between 10-50 ppmv); the depth increases over time as iodine is sorbed. • These sorbents capture iodine by chemisorption, where the sorbed iodine reacts with the silver to form very non-volatile AgI. Any sorbed iodine that is physisorbed but not chemically reacted with silver to form AgI might not be tightly held by the sorbent. The portion of sorbed iodine that tends to desorb because it is not chemisorbed (reacted to form AgI) is small, under 1%, for the AgZ tests, and even smaller, under 0.01%, for the silver-functionalized Aerogel.

  18. Determination of iodine to compliment mass spectrometric measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hohorst, F.A.

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The dose of iodine-129 to facility personnel and the general public as a result of past, present, and future activities at DOE sites is of continuing interest, WINCO received about 160 samples annually in a variety of natural matrices, including snow, milk, thyroid tissue, and sagebrush, in which iodine-129 is determined in order to evaluate this dose, Currently, total iodine and the isotopic ratio of iodine-127 to iodine-129 are determined by mass spectrometry. These two measurements determine the concentration of iodine-129 in each sample, These measurements require at least 16 h of mass spectrometer operator time for each sample. A variety of methods are available which concentrate and determine small quantities of iodine. Although useful, these approaches would increase both time and cost. The objective of this effort was to determine total iodine by an alternative method in order to decrease the load on mass spectrometry by 25 to 50%. The preparation of each sample for mass spectrometric analysis involves a common step--collection of iodide on an ion exchange bed. This was the focal point of the effort since the results would be applicable to all samples.

  19. Detection of iodine monoxide in the tropical free troposphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    19, 2012) Atmospheric iodine monoxide (IO) is a radical that catalytically destroys heat trapping in the remote tropical marine boundary layer (MBL) (2­4). IO further affects the oxidative capacity iodine species over the remote ocean remain poorly understood (11, 14) but are currently thought

  20. Gain and continuous-wave laser power enhancement with a secondary discharge to predissociate molecular iodine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carroll, David L.

    with this chemical singlet oxygen generator motivated many investi- gations into an electrically driven oxygen molecular iodine in an electric oxygen-iodine laser G. F. Benavides,1 J. W. Zimmerman,2 B. S. Woodard,2 D. L the addition of a secondary discharge to predissociate the molecular iodine in an electric oxygen-iodine laser

  1. Iodine in groundwater of the North China Plain: Spatial patterns and hydrogeochemical processes of enrichment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhan, Hongbin

    Iodine in groundwater of the North China Plain: Spatial patterns and hydrogeochemical processes online xxxx Keywords: Iodine Groundwater Spatial patterns Hydrogeochemistry North China Plain The North/L) and low-iodine (b10 g/L) groundwater regions that frequently result in iodine excess or deficien- cy

  2. Aging and iodine loading of silver-functionalized aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruffey, S.H.; Jubin, R.T.; Anderson, K.K.; Walker, J.F. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, MS-6223, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Engineered silver-functionalized silica aerogels are being investigated for their potential application in off-gas treatment at a used nuclear fuel reprocessing facility. Reprocessing will release several key volatile radionuclides, including iodine-129. To achieve regulatory compliance, iodine-129 must be removed from any off-gas stream prior to environmental discharge. Ag{sup 0}-functionalized aerogels have been demonstrated to have high iodine-capture capacity, high porosity, and potential for conversion into a waste form. Capture materials used in off-gas treatment may be exposed to a heated, high-humidity, acidic gas stream for months. Extended exposure to this stream could affect sorbent performance. It was the aim of this study to evaluate what impacts might be observed when Ag{sup 0}-functionalized aerogels prepared at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory were contacted with a dry air stream for up to 6 months and then used to adsorb iodine from a synthetic off-gas stream. Results demonstrate that there is some loss of iodine-capture capacity caused by aging, but that this loss is not as marked as for aging of more traditional iodine sorbents, such as silver-impregnated mordenite. Specifically, aging silver-functionalized aerogel under a dry air stream for up to 6 months can decrease its iodine capacity from 41 wt% to 32 wt%. (authors)

  3. AGING AND IODINE LOADING OF SILVER-FUNCTIONALIZED AEROGELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruffey, Stephanie H [ORNL; Jubin, Robert Thomas [ORNL; Anderson, Kaara K [ORNL; Walker Jr, Joseph Franklin [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Engineered silver-functionalized silica aerogels are being investigated for their application in off-gas treatment at a used nuclear fuel reprocessing facility. Reprocessing will release several key volatile radionuclides, including iodine-129. To achieve regulatory compliance, iodine-129 must be removed from any off-gas stream prior to environmental discharge. Silver-functionalized aerogels have been demonstrated to have high iodine capture capacity, high porosity and potential for conversion into a waste form. Capture materials used in off-gas treatment may be exposed to a heated, high humidity, acidic gas stream for months. Extended exposure to this stream could affect sorbent performance. It was the aim of this study to evaluate what impacts might be observed when Ag0-functionalized aerogels prepared at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory were contacted with a dry air stream for up to 6 months and then used to adsorb iodine from a synthetic off-gas stream. Results demonstrate that there is some loss of iodine capture capacity caused by aging, but that this loss is not as marked as for aging of more traditional iodine sorbents, such as silver-impregnated mordenite. Specifically, aging silver-functionalized aerogel under a dry air stream for up to 6 months can decrease its iodine capacity from 41wt% to 32wt%.

  4. Iodine-coordinated sulfide leads to an exceptionally stable ceramic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    LPS and LiI. This new formulation takes advantage of the chemical stability of LiI to render an electrolyte with excellent compatability with Li anode. Additionally, the iodine...

  5. Chemistry and mass transport of iodine in containment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beahm, E.C.; Weber, C.F.; Kress, T.S.; Shockley, W.E.; Daish, S.R.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TRENDS is a computer code for modeling behavior of iodine in containment. It tracks both chemical and physical changes and features such as calculation of radiation dose rates in water pools , radiolysis effects, hydrolysis, and deposition/revaporization on aerosols and structural surfaces. Every attempt has been made to account for all significant processes. Reaction rate constants for iodine hydrolysis and radiolysis were obtained by a variable algorithm that gives values closely modeling experimental data. TRENDS output provides the distribution of iodine in containment and release from containment as a function of time during a severe accident sequence. Initial calculations with TRENDS have shown that the amount of volatile iodine released from containment is sensitive to the value of the liquid-gas (evaporation) mass transport coefficient for I/sub 2/. 7 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Origin of electronic transport of lithium phthalocyanine iodine crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koike, Noritake; Oda, Masato; Shinozuka, Yuzo [Department of Materials Science and Chemistry, Wakayama University, 930 Sakaedani, Wakayama (Japan)

    2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The electronic structures of Lithium Phthalocyanine Iodine are investigated using density functional theory. Comparing the band structures of several model crystals, the metallic conductivity of highly doped LiPcI{sub x} can be explained by the band of doped iodine. These results reveal that there is a new mechanism for electronic transport of doped organic semiconductors that the dopant band plays the main role.

  7. Iodine behavior in containment under LWR accident conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wisbey, S.J.; Beahm, E.C.; Shockley, W.E.; Wang, Y.M.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The description of containment iodine behavior in reactor accident sequences requires an understanding of iodine volatility effects, deposition and revaporization/resuspension (from surfaces and aerosols), chemical changes between species, and mass transport. The experimental work in this program has largely centered on the interactions of iodine in or with water pools. The formation of volatile iodine, as I/sub 2/ or organic iodides, is primarily dependent on radiation and solution pH. Lower pH results in increased formation of volatile iodine species; thus, for example, a pH of 3.05 resulted in a conversion of I/sup -/ to I/sub 2/ that was more than two orders of magnitude greater than tests run at pH 6.1 or 6.8. The formation or organic iodides involving water pools has been linked to the presence of iodine as I/sub 2/, the solution/gas contact, and to the type of organic material.

  8. Deep Bed Iodine Sorbent Testing FY 2011 Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nick Soelberg; Tony Watson

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear fission results in the production of fission products (FPs) and activation products that increasingly interfere with the fission process as their concentrations increase. Some of these fission and activation products tend to evolve in gaseous species during used nuclear fuel reprocessing. Analyses have shown that I129, due to its radioactivity, high potential mobility in the environment, and high longevity (half life of 15.7 million years), can require control efficiencies of up to 1,000x or higher to meet regulatory emission limits. Deep-bed iodine sorption testing has been done to evaluate the performance of solid sorbents for capturing iodine in off-gas streams from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. The objectives of the FY 2011 deep bed iodine sorbent testing are: (1) Evaluate sorbents for iodine capture under various conditions of gas compositions and operating temperature (determine sorption efficiencies, capacities, and mass transfer zone depths); and (2) Generate data for dynamic iodine sorption modeling. Three tests performed this fiscal year on silver zeolite light phase (AgZ-LP) sorbent are reported here. Additional tests are still in progress and can be reported in a revision of this report or a future report. Testing was somewhat delayed and limited this year due to initial activities to address some questions of prior testing, and due to a period of maintenance for the on-line GC. Each test consisted of (a) flowing a synthetic blend of gases designed to be similar to an aqueous dissolver off-gas stream over the sorbent contained in three separate bed segments in series, (b) measuring each bed inlet and outlet gas concentrations of iodine and methyl iodide (the two surrogates of iodine gas species considered most representative of iodine species expected in dissolver off-gas), (c) operating for a long enough time to achieve breakthrough of the iodine species from at least one (preferably the first two) bed segments, and (d) post-test purging with pure N2 to drive loosely or physisorbed iodine species off of the sorbent. Post-test calculations determine the control efficiencies for each bed, iodine loadings on the sorbent, and mass transfer zone depths. Portions of the iodine-laden sorbent from the first bed of two of the tests have been shipped to SNL for waste form studies. Over the past three years, we have explored a full range of inlet iodine and methyl iodide concentrations ranging from {approx}100 ppb to {approx}100 ppm levels, and shown adequate control efficiencies within a bed depth as shallow as 2 inches for lower concentrations and 4 inches for higher concentrations, for the AgZ-type sorbents. We are now performing a limited number of tests in the NC-77 sorbent from SNL. Then we plan to continue to (a) fill in data gaps needed for isotherms and dynamic sorbent modeling, and (b) test the performance of additional sorbents under development.

  9. Low sintering temperature glass waste forms for sequestering radioactive iodine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nenoff, Tina M.; Krumhansl, James L.; Garino, Terry J.; Ockwig, Nathan W.

    2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Materials and methods of making low-sintering-temperature glass waste forms that sequester radioactive iodine in a strong and durable structure. First, the iodine is captured by an adsorbant, which forms an iodine-loaded material, e.g., AgI, AgI-zeolite, AgI-mordenite, Ag-silica aerogel, ZnI.sub.2, CuI, or Bi.sub.5O.sub.7I. Next, particles of the iodine-loaded material are mixed with powdered frits of low-sintering-temperature glasses (comprising various oxides of Si, B, Bi, Pb, and Zn), and then sintered at a relatively low temperature, ranging from 425.degree. C. to 550.degree. C. The sintering converts the mixed powders into a solid block of a glassy waste form, having low iodine leaching rates. The vitrified glassy waste form can contain as much as 60 wt % AgI. A preferred glass, having a sintering temperature of 500.degree. C. (below the silver iodide sublimation temperature of 500.degree. C.) was identified that contains oxides of boron, bismuth, and zinc, while containing essentially no lead or silicon.

  10. Summary of FY 2010 Iodine Capture Studies at the INL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daryl R. Haefner; Tony L. Watson; Michael G. Jones

    2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three breakthrough runs using silver mordenite sorbents were conducted and a dynamic sorption capacity estimated based on MeI analysis from a 2" bed. However, it is now believed the data for the first 2 runs is incomplete because the contributions from elemental iodine were not included. Although the only source of iodine was MeI, elemental iodine was generated within the sorbent bed, presumably from a recombination reaction likely catalyzed by silver mordenite. On-line effluent analysis with a GC was only capable of analyzing MeI, not I2. Scrub samples drawn during Run #3, which are specific for I2, show significant levels of I2 being emitted from a partially spent Ag-mordenite bed. By combining MeI and I2 analyses, a well defined total iodine breakthrough curve can be generated for Run #3. At the conclusion of Run #3 (IONEX Ag-900 was the sorbent) the effluent level from Bed 2 was approaching 70% of the feed concentration. The leading bed (Bed 1) had an estimated average loading of 66 mg I/g sorbent, Bed 2's was 52 mg I/g. The corresponding silver utilizations (assuming formation of AgI) were about 59% and 46%, respectively. The spent sorbents are being sent to Sandia National Laboratories for confirmatory analysis of iodine and silver utilization as well as source material for waste form development.

  11. VAPOUR PHASE CHEMICAL TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF THE CADMIUM TELLURIDE-IODINE SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    , it was shown that no iodine chemical transport is possible in closed tubes in the hot-cold direction, but only was explained in terms of a reverse (cold-hot) iodine transport associated with a reduced sublimation tendency155 VAPOUR PHASE CHEMICAL TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF THE CADMIUM TELLURIDE-IODINE SYSTEM C. PAORICI

  12. A study of factors affecting the separation of phosphatides from cottonseed oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popat, Pranjivan Velji

    1952-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -phos- phorus to phosphoric acid . Various workers have recommended the destruc- tion of organic smtter by sulfuric and nitric acids, sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide, nitric acid and nitrates, by alkali fusion mixtures and by dry incineration. For most... is that of Krasnow and co-workers (21) in which nitric acid and sulfuric acid are used in combination with potassium chlorate snd sodium and potassium nitrates in order to insure complete oxidation. King's method, with modifications, has been used by Reiger (31...

  13. Assessing Phosphorous Loss to Protect Surface Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia, Raul

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Minimizing phosphorus pollution of surface water from agricultural fields involves manage- ment practices that control both the source and transportation factors of soil. Influences that affect the source and the amount of phosphorus transported include... the type of phosphorus applied and the content in the soil itself. Transportation factors include rainfall, irrigation, erosion, and runoff. The overall aim of environmentally sound practices is to keep soil fertility levels of phos- phorus to a range...

  14. Evaporation of iodine-containing off-gas scrubber solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Partridge, J.A.; Bosuego, G.P.

    1980-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Mercuric nitrate-nitric acid scrub solutions containing radioiodine may be reduced in volume without excessive loss of volatile iodine. The use of concentrated nitric acid during an evaporation process oxidizes the mercury-iodide complex to a less volatile mercuric iodate precipitate.

  15. Discovery of palladium, antimony, tellurium, iodine, and xenon isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kathawa, J.; Fry, C.; Thoennessen, M., E-mail: thoennessen@nscl.msu.edu

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Currently, thirty-eight palladium, thirty-eight antimony, thirty-nine tellurium, thirty-eight iodine, and forty xenon isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is described here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  16. Does administering iodine in radiological procedures increase patient doses?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Wenjun; Yao, Hai, E-mail: haiyao@clemson.edu [Clemson-MUSC Bioengineering Program, Department of Bioengineering, Clemson University, Charleston, South Carolina 29425 (United States); Huda, Walter; Mah, Eugene [Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC), Charleston, South Carolina 29425 (United States)

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: The authors investigated the changes in the pattern of energy deposition in tissue equivalent phantoms following the introduction of iodinated contrast media. Methods: The phantom consisted of a small “contrast sphere,” filled with water or iodinated contrast, located at the center of a 28 cm diameter water sphere. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using MCNP5 codes, validated by simulating irradiations with analytical solutions. Monoenergetic x-rays ranging from 35 to 150 keV were used to simulate exposures to spheres containing contrast agent with iodine concentrations ranging from 1 to 100 mg/ml. Relative values of energy imparted to the contrast sphere, as well as to the whole phantom, were calculated. Changes in patterns of energy deposition around the contrast sphere were also investigated. Results: Small contrast spheres can increase local absorbed dose by a factor of 13, but the corresponding increase in total energy absorbed was negligible (<1%). The highest localized dose increases were found to occur at incident photon energies of about 60 keV. For a concentration of about 10 mg/ml, typical of clinical practice, localized absorbed doses were generally increased by about a factor of two. At this concentration of 10 mg/ml, the maximum increase in total energy deposition in the phantom was only 6%. These simulations demonstrated that increases in contrast sphere doses were offset by corresponding dose reductions at distal and posterior locations. Conclusions: Adding iodine can result in values of localized absorbed dose increasing by more than an order of magnitude, but the total energy deposition is generally very modest (i.e., <10%). Their data show that adding iodine primarily changes the pattern of energy deposition in the irradiated region, rather than increasing patient doses per se.

  17. Iodine-131 releases from the Hanford Site, 1944--1947

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heeb, C.M.

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Detailed results of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction project (HEDR) iodine-131 release reconstruction are presented in this volume. Included are daily data on B, D, and F Plant, reactor operations from the P-Department Daily Reports (General Electric Company 1947). Tables of B and T Plant material processed from the three principal sources on separations plant operations: The Jaech report (Jaech undated), the 200 Area Report (Acken and Bird 1945; Bird and Donihee 1945), and the Metal History Reports (General Electric Company 1946). A transcription of the Jaech report is also provided because it is computer-generated and is not readily readable in its original format. The iodine-131 release data are from the STRM model. Cut-by-cut release estimates are provided, along with daily, monthly, and yearly summations. These summations are based on the hourly release estimates. The hourly data are contained in a 28 megabyte electronic file. Interested individuals may request a copy.

  18. Investigation of silver electrodeposition on polycrystalline platinum by iodine chemisorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, John Eugene

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Manuel P. Soriaga The surface electrochemical properties of Ag layers electmdeposited on smooth polycrystalline Pt electrodes have been investigated through changes in the redox behavior of I chemisorbed... an intercept which can be identified with the redox potential E I( d for the I( d ) & ? & I (, reaction. Values of -0. 36V and -0. 32V were I(ads) (ads) (aq) obtained for Pt and Ir, respectively. In contrast, the iodine reductive desorption process on Au...

  19. Iodine Loading of NO Aged Silver Exchanged Mordenite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patton, K. K. [ORNL; Bruffey, S. H. [ORNL; Jubin, J. T. [ORNL; Walker, Jr., J. F. [ORNL

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In an off-gas treatment system for used nuclear fuel processing, a solid sorbent will typically be exposed to a gas stream for months at a time. This gas stream may be at elevated temperature and could contain water vapor, gaseous nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), nitric acid vapors, and a variety of other constituents. For this reason, it is important to evaluate the effects of long-term exposure, or aging, on proposed sorbents. Silver exchanged mordenite (AgZ) is being studied at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to determine its iodine sorption capacity after long term exposure to increasingly more complex chemical environments. Studies previously conducted at ORNL investigated the effects of aging reduced silver exchanged mordenite (Ag{sup 0}Z) in dry air, moist air, and NO2. This study investigated the effects of extended exposure to nitric oxide (NO) gas on the iodine capture performance of Ag{sup 0}Z. A deep bed of Ag{sup 0}Z was aged in a 1% nitric oxide (NO) air stream, and portions of the bed were removed at pre-determined intervals. After being removed from the NO stream, each sample was loaded with iodine in a thin bed configuration. These samples were analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA) to quantify the iodine content in the sample. Samples were removed at one week and one month. A 78% decrease in sample capacity was seen after one week of exposure, with no further decrease observed after 1 month of aging. The observed loss in capacity is larger in magnitude than previous studies exposing Ag{sup 0}Z to dry air, moist air, or NO2 gas. The aging study was terminated after one month and repeated; this successfully demonstrated the reproducibility of the results.

  20. A Sensitive Determination of Iodine Species, Including Organoiodine, for Freshwater and Seawater Samples Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography and Spectrophotometric Detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwehr, K. A.; Santschi, P. H.

    In order to more effectively use iodine isotope ratios, 129I/127I, as hydrological and geochemical tracers in aquatic systems, a new HPLC method was developed for the determination of iodine speciation. The dissolved iodine species that dominate...

  1. Transition of Iodine Analysis to Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. L. Adamic; J. E. Olson; D. D. Jenson; J. G. Eisenmenger; M. G. Watrous

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This NA 22 funded research project investigated the transition of iodine isotopic analyses from thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) to an accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) system. Previous work (Fiscal Year 2010) had demonstrated comparable data from TIMS and AMS. With AMS providing comparable data with improved background levels and vastly superior sample throughput, improvement in the sample extraction from environmental sample matrices was needed to bring sample preparation throughput closer to the operation level of the instrument. Previous research used an extraction chemistry that was not optimized for yield or refined for reduced labor to prove the principle. This research was done to find an extraction with better yield using less labor per sample to produce a sample ready for the AMS instrument. An extraction method using tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) was developed for removal of iodine species from high volume air filters. The TMAH with gentle heating was superior to the following three extraction methods: ammonium hydroxide aided by sonication, acidic and basic extraction aided by microwave, and ethanol mixed with sodium hydroxide. Taking the iodine from the extraction solvent to being ready for AMS analysis was accomplished by a direct precipitation, as well as, using silver wool to harvest the iodine from the TMAH. Portions of the same filters processed in FY 2010 were processed again with the improved extraction scheme followed by successful analysis by AMS at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology. The data favorably matched the data obtained in 2010. The time required for analysis has been reduced over the aqueous extraction/AMS approach developed in FY 2010. For a hypothetical batch of 30 samples, the AMS methodology is about 10 times faster than the traditional gas phase chemistry and TIMS analysis. As an additional benefit, background levels for the AMS method are about 1000 times lower than TIMS. This results from the fundamental mechanisms of ionization in the AMS system and which produces a beneficial cleanup of molecular interferences. Continued clean operation of the extraction process was demonstrated through blank analysis included with all sample sets analyzed. INL work showed improvement on the first year’s demonstration of AMS vs. TIMS. An improved extraction of high volume air filters followed by isotopic analysis by AMS, can be used successfully to make iodine measurements with results comparable to those obtained by filter combustion and TIMS analysis. More progress on the conversion from an extract solution to an AMS sample ready for analysis is still needed. Although the preparation scheme through AMS is already at a higher performing thoughput than TIMS, the chemical preparation cannot match the instrument capability for number of samples per day without further development.

  2. Recent Electric Oxygen-Iodine Laser Experiments and Modeling David L. Carrolla

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carroll, David L.

    and modeling have led to a continuing evolution of the Electric Oxygen-Iodine Laser (ElectricOIL) system. A new experiments and modeling of our ElectricOIL system. 2. EXPERIMENTS The ElectricOIL system consists primarilyRecent Electric Oxygen-Iodine Laser Experiments and Modeling David L. Carrolla , Gabriel F

  3. Zeolite Salt Occlusion: A Potential Route for the Immobilisation of Iodine-129? Neil C. Hyatt,1*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheffield, University of

    Zeolite ­ Salt Occlusion: A Potential Route for the Immobilisation of Iodine-129? Neil C. Hyatt,1 examined as possible starting routes to the long term immobilisation of iodine-129. Heating the salts, where the iodide salt migrates into the zeolite pores. Detailed studies of the Na-A / 5AgI complex

  4. Experimental Effects of Atomic Oxygen on the Development of an Electric Discharge Oxygen Iodine Laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carroll, David L.

    state I. Conventionally, a two-phase (gas-liquid) chemistry singlet oxygen generator (SOG) producesExperimental Effects of Atomic Oxygen on the Development of an Electric Discharge Oxygen Iodine of the electric discharge iodine laser continues, the role of oxygen atoms downstream of the discharge region

  5. Soil Iodine Determination in Deccan Syneclise, India: Implications for Near Surface Geochemical Hydrocarbon Prospecting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mani, Devleena, E-mail: devleenatiwari@ngri.res.in [National Geophysical Research Institute (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research) (India); Kumar, T. Satish [Oil India Limited (India); Rasheed, M. A.; Patil, D. J.; Dayal, A. M.; Rao, T. Gnaneshwar; Balaram, V. [National Geophysical Research Institute (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research) (India)

    2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The association of iodine with organic matter in sedimentary basins is well documented. High iodine concentration in soils overlying oil and gas fields and areas with hydrocarbon microseepage has been observed and used as a geochemical exploratory tool for hydrocarbons in a few studies. In this study, we measure iodine concentration in soil samples collected from parts of Deccan Syneclise in the west central India to investigate its potential application as a geochemical indicator for hydrocarbons. The Deccan Syneclise consists of rifted depositional sites with Gondwana-Mesozoic sediments up to 3.5 km concealed under the Deccan Traps and is considered prospective for hydrocarbons. The concentration of iodine in soil samples is determined using ICP-MS and the values range between 1.1 and 19.3 ppm. High iodine values are characteristic of the northern part of the sampled region. The total organic carbon (TOC) content of the soil samples range between 0.1 and 1.3%. The TOC correlates poorly with the soil iodine (r{sup 2} < 1), indicating a lack of association of iodine with the surficial organic matter and the possibility of interaction between the seeping hydrocarbons and soil iodine. Further, the distribution pattern of iodine compares well with two surface geochemical indicators: the adsorbed light gaseous hydrocarbons (methane through butane) and the propane-oxidizing bacterial populations in the soil. The integration of geochemical observations show the occurrence of elevated values in the northern part of the study area, which is also coincident with the presence of exposed dyke swarms that probably serve as conduits for hydrocarbon microseepage. The corroboration of iodine with existing geological, geophysical, and geochemical data suggests its efficacy as one of the potential tool in surface geochemical exploration of hydrocarbons. Our study supports Deccan Syneclise to be promising in terms of its hydrocarbon prospects.

  6. Determination of Iodine-129 in Low Level Radioactive Wastes - 13334

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, K.C.; Ahn, J.H.; Park, Y.J.; Song, K.S. [Nuclear Chemistry Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon, 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)] [Nuclear Chemistry Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon, 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For the radioactivity determination of {sup 129}I in the radioactive wastes, alkali fusion and anion-exchange resin separation methods, which are sample pretreatment methods, have been investigated in this study. To separate and quantify the {sup 129}I radionuclide in an evaporator bottom and spent resin, the radionuclide was chemically leached from the wastes and adsorbed on an anion exchange resin at pH 4, 7, 9. In the case of dry active waste and another solid type, the alkali fusion method was applied. KNO{sub 3} was added as a KOH and oxidizer to the wastes. It was then fused at 450 deg. C for 1 hour. The radioactivity of the separated iodine was measured with a low energy gamma spectrometer after the sample pretreatment. Finally, it was confirmed that the recovery rate of the iodine for the alkali fusion method was 83.6±3.8%, and 86.4±1.6% for the anionic exchange separation method. (authors)

  7. Iodine Solubility in Low-Activity Waste Borosilicate Glass at 1000 °C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, Brian J.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Lukens, Wayne W.; Williams, Benjamin D.; Iovin, Cristian; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Overman, Nicole R.; Bowden, Mark E.; Dixon, Derek R.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Mccloy, John S.; Kruger, Albert A.

    2014-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study was to determine the solubility of iodine in a low-activity waste borosilicate glass when heated inside an evacuated and sealed fused quartz ampoule. The iodine was added to glass frit as KI in quantities of 100–24000 ppm iodine (by mass), each mixture was added to an ampoule, the ampoule was heated at 1000 °C for 2 h and then air quenched. In samples with ?12000 ppm iodine, low viscosity salt phases were observed on the surface of the melts during cooling that solidified into a white coating upon cooling. These salts were identified as mixtures of KI, NaI, and Na2SO4 with X-ray diffraction (XRD). The iodine concentrations in glass specimens were analyzed with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and the overall iodine solubility was determined to be 10000 ppm by mass. Several crystalline inclusions of iodine sodalite, Na8(AlSiO4)6I2, were observed in the 24000 ppm specimen and were verified with micro-XRD and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy.

  8. Iodine Adsorption on Ion-Exchange Resins and Activated Carbons– Batch Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Kent E.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Iodine sorption onto seven resins and six carbon materials was evaluated using water from well 299-W19-36 on the Hanford Site. These materials were tested using a range of solution-to-solid ratios. The test results are as follows: • The efficacy of the resin and granular activated carbon materials was less than predicted based on manufacturers’ performance data. It is hypothesized that this is due to the differences in speciation previously determined for Hanford groundwater. • The sorption of iodine is affected by the iodine species in the source water. Iodine loading on resins using source water ranged from 1.47 to 1.70 µg/g with the corresponding Kd values from 189.9 to 227.0 mL/g. The sorption values when the iodine is converted to iodide ranged from 2.75 to 5.90 µg/g with the corresponding Kd values from 536.3 to 2979.6 mL/g. It is recommended that methods to convert iodine to iodide be investigated in fiscal year (FY) 2015. • The chemicals used to convert iodine to iodate adversely affected the sorption of iodine onto the carbon materials. Using as-received source water, loading and Kd values ranged from 1.47 to 1.70 µg/g and 189.8 to 226.3 mL/g respectively. After treatment, loading and Kd values could not be calculated because there was little change between the initial and final iodine concentration. It is recommended the cause of the decrease in iodine sorption be investigated in FY15. • In direct support of CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has evaluated samples from within the 200W pump and treat bioreactors. As part of this analysis, pictures taken within the bioreactor reveal a precipitate that, based on physical properties and known aqueous chemistry, is hypothesized to be iron pyrite or chalcopyrite, which could affect iodine adsorption. It is recommended these materials be tested at different solution-to-solid ratios in FY15 to determine their effect on iodine sorption.

  9. Resistivity measurements of iodine single crystals by an A.C. technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Intararithi, Thanom

    1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . measure- ment and could be responsible for the disagreement. Another object is to de- termine any frequency dependence of the resistivity of iodine single crystals which might give information concerning the reasons for the increase in acti- vation... the assembly used in the resublimation. TO DIFFUSION FUMP S, ;U I. IQUID NITRO&EN C 33 A O'LASS WOOJ- F EACrE NT-&'RADE IODINE The reagent-grade iodine is initially in tube A. A trap T filled with liquid nitrogen prevents the contamination of the pump...

  10. Systematic study of iodine nuclei in A?125 mass region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, H. P.; Chakraborty, S.; Kumar, A. [Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005 (India); Banerjee, P. [Division of Nuclear Physics, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata-700064 (India); Ganguly, S. [Department of Physics, Chandernagore College, Chandannagar-721136 (India); Muralithar, S.; Singh, R. P. [Inter University Accelerator Center, New Delhi-110067 (India); Kumar, A.; Kaur, N. [Department of Physics, Punjab University, Chandigarh-160014 (India); Kumar, S. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, New Delhi-110067 (India); Chaturvedi, L. [Department of Pure and Applied Physics, Guru Ghasidas Vishwavidyalaya, Bilaspur-495009 (India); Jain, A. K. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee-247667 (India); Laxminarayan, S. [Department of Physics, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530003 (India)

    2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Excited states of {sup 127}I were populated via {sup 124}Sn({sup 7}Li,{sup 4}n?){sup 127}I fusion-evaporation reaction at beam energy of 33 MeV. Multipolarities of several transitions were determined and spins of corresponding states have been confirmed. The band-head spin and parity of an already reported band at 2901.2 keV has been confirmed. Based on the observed characteristic features and by comparing with the systematics of odd mass iodine nuclei, a ?g{sub 7/2}??h{sub 11/2}{sup 2} configuration has been proposed for this band. The experimental B(M1)/B(E2) values for ?g{sub 7/2} band were compared with the theoretical results of semi classical model of Frauendorf and Donau and found in well agreement.

  11. ALTERNATIVE FLOWSHEETS FOR THE SULFUR-IODINE THERMOCHEMICAL HYDROGEN CYCLE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BROWN,LC; LENTSCH,RD; BESENBRUCH,GE; SCHULTZ,KR; FUNK,JE

    2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OAK-B135 A hydrogen economy will need significant new sources of hydrogen. Unless large-scale carbon sequestration can be economically implemented, use of hydrogen reduces greenhouse gases only if the hydrogen is produced with non-fossil energy sources. Nuclear energy is one of the limited options available. One of the promising approaches to produce large quantities of hydrogen from nuclear energy efficiently is the Sulfur-Iodine (S-I) thermochemical water-splitting cycle, driven by high temperature heat from a helium Gas-Cooled Reactor. They have completed a study of nuclear-driven thermochemical water-splitting processes. The final task of this study was the development of a flowsheet for a prototype S-I production plant. An important element of this effort was the evaluation of alternative flowsheets and selection of the reference design.

  12. Sulfur-Iodine Integrated Lab Scale Experiment Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russ, Ben

    2011-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The sulfur-iodine (SI) cycle was deermined to be the best cycle for coupling to a high temperature reactor (HTR) because of its high efficiency and potential for further improvement. The Japanese Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has also selected the SI process for further development and has successfully completed bench-scale demonstrations of the SI process at atmospheric pressure. JEA also plans to proceed with pilot-scale demonstrations of the SI process and eventually plans to couple an SI demonstration plant to its High Temperature Test Reactor (HHTR). As part of an international NERI project, GA, SNL, and the Frech Commissariat L'Energie Atomique performed laboratory-scale demonstrations of the SI process at prototypical temperatures and pressures. This demonstration was performed at GA in San Diego, CA and concluded in April 2009.

  13. Cerebral perfusion imaging with iodine 123-labeled amines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holman, B.L.; Hill, T.C.; Polak, J.F.; Lee, R.G.; Royal, H.D.; O'Leary, D.H.

    1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two amines, N-isopropyl p-iodoamphetamine and N,N,N'-trimethyl-N'-(2-hydroxyl-3-methyl-5-iodobenzyl)-1,3-prop anediamine, have been labeled with iodine 123. The brain uptake of these radioactive tracers is proportional to cerebral blood flow. These tracers are retained in the brain for a sufficiently long time so that imaging can be performed with standard, readily available instrumentation. Transaxial tomography with amines is useful in acute cerebral infarction, in which the x-ray computed tomographic scan may be normal for several days after onset of symptoms while the uptake of radioisotope-labeled amines will be altered immediately after the onset of the stroke. It is also useful in examining patients with cerebral vascular disease and in the preoperative examination of patients with partial epilepsy.

  14. Novel Investigations on Kinetics and Polymerization Mechanism of Oxazolines Initiated by Iodine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -opening polymerization of 2-methyl-2-oxazoline (MOx) using iodine initiating system was reported. Uncolored the polymerization of 2-oxazoline (Ox), 2-methyl-2-oxazoline (MOx) and 2-ethyl-2-oxazoline (EtOx

  15. Contrast-Medium-Enhanced Digital Mammography: Contrast vs. Iodine Concentration Phantom Calibration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosado-Mendez, I.; Brandan, M. E. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 04510 DF (Mexico); Villasenor, Y. [Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia (INCan), Av. San Fernando 22, Tlalpan 14080 DF (Mexico); Benitez-Bribiesca, L. [Centro Medico Nacional Siglo XXI, Av. Cuauhtemoc 330, Col. Doctores 06725 DF (Mexico)

    2008-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This work deals with the application of the contrast-medium-enhanced digital subtraction mammography technique in order to calibrate the contrast level in subtracted phantom images as function of iodine concentration to perform dynamic studies of the contrast-medium uptake in the breast. Previously optimized dual-energy temporal subtraction modalities were used (a) to determine radiological parameters for a dynamic clinical study composed of 1 mask+3 post-contrast images limiting the total mean glandular dose to 2.5 mGy, and (b) to perform a contrast vs iodine concentration calibration using a custom-made phantom. Calculated exposure values were applied using a commercial full-field digital mammography unit. Contrast in subtracted phantom images (one mask and one post-CM) is linear as function of iodine concentration, although the sensitivity (contrast per iodine concentration) decreases beyond 8 mg/mL. This calibration seems to apply only to thin and normal thickness breasts.

  16. Iodine and NO sub x behavior in the dissolver off-gas and IODOX (Iodine Oxidation) systems in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Integrated Equipment Test facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birdwell, J.F.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the most recent in a series of experiments evaluating the behavior of iodine and NO{sub x} in the Integrated Equipment Test (IET) Dissolver Off-Gas (DOG) System. This work was performed as part of a joint collaborative program between the US Department of Energy and the Power and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan. The DOG system consists of two shell-and-tube heat exchangers in which water and nitric acid are removed from the dissolver off-gas by condensation, followed by a packed tower in which NO{sub x} is removed by absorption into a dilute nitric acid solution. The paper also describes the results of the operation of the Iodine Oxidation (IODOX) System. This system serves to remove iodine from the DOG system effluent by absorption into hyperazeotropic nitric acid. 7 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  17. Development of Efficient Flowsheet and Transient Modeling for Nuclear Heat Coupled Sulfur Iodine Cyclefor Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shripad T. Revankar; Nicholas R. Brown; Cheikhou Kane; Seungmin Oh

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The realization of the hydrogen as an energy carrier for future power sources relies on a practical method of producing hydrogen in large scale with no emission of green house gases. Hydrogen is an energy carrier which can be produced by a thermochemical water splitting process. The Sulfur-Iodine (SI) process is an example of a water splitting method using iodine and sulfur as recycling agents.

  18. NO2 Aging and Iodine Loading of Silver-Functionalized Aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patton, K K [ORNL; Bruffey, S H [ORNL; Walker, J F [ORNL; Jubin, R T [ORNL

    2014-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Off-gas treatment systems in used fuel reprocessing which use fixed-bed adsorbers are typically designed to operate for an extended period of time before replacement or regeneration of the adsorbent. During this time, the sorbent material will be exposed to the off-gas stream. Exposure could last for months, depending on the replacement cycle time. The gas stream will be at elevated temperature and will possibly contain a mixture of water vapor, NOx, nitric acid vapors, and a variety of other constituents in addition to the radionuclides of capture interest. A series of studies were undertaken to evaluate the effects of long-term exposure, or aging, on proposed iodine sorbent materials under increasingly harsh off-gas conditions. Previous studies have evaluated the effects of up to 6 months of aging under dry air and under humid air conditions on the iodine loading behavior of Ag0-functionalized aerogels. This study examines the effects of extended exposure (up to 6 months) to NO2 on the iodine loading capacity of Ag0- functionalized aerogels. Material aged for 1 and 2 months appeared to have a similar total loading capacity to fresh material. Over an aging period of 4 months, a loss of approximately 15% of the total iodine capacity was seen. The iodine capacity loss on silver-functionalized aerogels due to NO2 was smaller than the iodine capacity loss due to humid or dry air aging.

  19. Adsorbate-induced corrosion: anodic dissolution of palladium induced by chemisorbed iodine in halide-free acid solutions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schimpf, Janemarie A

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) Diagram of the electrochemical H-Cell apparatus. . . . . . . . . . 11 XPS spectrum for an electrochemically clean palladium foil. . 17 XPS spectrum of an iodine coated palladium electrode. . . . . . . . 18 Current potential curves for the clean (dotted...) and iodine coated 1mm palladium wire electrode. . . . . . . . . . . . 21 2 Current potential curves for the clean (dotted) electrode and four successive scans of iodine coated 1mm 2 palladium wire electrode. 23 Micromoles of Pd measured by ICP-OES vs...

  20. Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative, Results of the Phase II Testing of Sulfur-Iodine Integrated Lab Scale Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benjamin Russ; G. Naranjo; R. Moore; W. Sweet; M. Hele; N. Pons

    2009-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    International collaborative effort to construct a laboratory-scale Sulfur-Iodine process capable of producing 100-200 L/hr of hydrogen.

  1. Iodine-129 separation and determination by neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bate, L.C.; Stokely, J.R.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for analysis of /sup 129/I in fission product mixtures originating from fuel reprocessing studies and low-level wastes. The method utilizes conventional iodine valence adjustment and solvent extraction techniques to chemically separate /sup 129/I from most fission products. The /sup 129/I is determined by neutron irradiation and measurement of the 12.4 h /sup 130/I produced by the neutron capture reaction. Special techniques were devised for neutron irradiation of /sup 129/I samples in the pneumatic tube irradiation facilities at the High Flux Isotope (HFIR) and Oak Ridge Research (ORR) Reactors. Chemically separated /sup 129/I is adsorbed on an anion exchange resin column made from an irradiation container. The loaded resin is then irradiated in either of the pneumatic facilities to produce /sup 130/I. Sensitivity of the analysis with the HFIR facility (flux: 5 x 10/sup 14/ n/cm/sup 2//sec) and a 100-second irradiation time is approximately 0.03 nanograms. Samples up to 250 ml in volume can be easily processed.

  2. FUNCTIONALIZED SILICA AEROGELS: ADVANCED MATERIALS TO CAPTURE AND IMMOBILIZE RADIOACTIVE IODINE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matyas, Josef; Fryxell, Glen E.; Busche, Brad J.; Wallace, Krys; Fifield, Leonard S.

    2011-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    To support the future expansion of nuclear energy, an effective method is needed to capture and safely store radiological iodine-129 released during reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. Various materials have been investigated to capture and immobilize iodine. In most cases, however, the materials that are effective for capturing iodine cannot subsequently be sintered/densified to create a stable composite that could be a viable waste form. We have developed chemically modified, highly porous, silica aerogels that show sorption capacities higher than 440 mg of I2 per gram at 150 C. An iodine uptake test in dry air containing 4.2 ppm of iodine demonstrated no breakthrough after 3.5 h and indicated a decontamination factor in excess of 310. Preliminary densification tests showed that the I2-loaded aerogels retained more than 92 wt% of I2 after thermal sintering with pressure assistance at 1200 C for 30 min. These high capture and retention efficiencies for I2 can be further improved by optimizing the functionalization process and the chemistry as well as the sintering conditions.

  3. Cutting Performance of a Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Laser William P. Latham, James A. Rothenflue, and Charles A. Helms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carroll, David L.

    cutting and drilling. Chemical Oxygen- Iodine Laser (COIL) technology has received considerable interestCutting Performance of a Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Laser William P. Latham, James A. Rothenflue. Center for Research & Education in Optics & Laser (CREOL) University of Central Florith 4000 Central

  4. Project EARTH-11-RR2: Co-evolution of iodine antioxidant mechanism in marine algae and Earth-surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, Gideon

    Project EARTH-11-RR2: Co-evolution of iodine antioxidant mechanism in marine algae and Earth algae (yet they are lacking in green algae) ­ but the phylogenetic distribution of iodine accumulation haloperoxidases. The first appearance and important divergence of brown algae occurred within the last 200 myr

  5. TRENDS (Transport and Retention of Nuclides in Dominant Sequences): A code for modeling iodine behavior in containment during severe accidents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, C.F.; Beahm, E.C.; Kress, T.S.; Daish, S.R.; Shockley, W.E.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ultimate aim of a description of iodine behavior in severe LWR accidents is a time-dependent accounting of iodine species released into containment and to the environment. Factors involved in the behavior of iodine can be conveniently divided into four general categories: (1) initial release into containment, (2) interaction of iodine species in containment not directly involving water pools, (3) interaction of iodine species in, or with, water pools, and (4) interaction with special systems such as ice condensers or gas treatment systems. To fill the large gaps in knowledge and to provide a means for assaying the iodine source term, this program has proceeded along two paths: (1) Experimental studies of the chemical behavior of iodine under containment conditions. (2) Development of TRENDS (Transport and Retention of Nuclides in Dominant Sequences), a computer code for modeling the behavior of iodine in containment and its release from containment. The main body of this report consists of a description of TRENDS. These two parts to the program are complementary in that models within TRENDS use data that were produced in the experimental program; therefore, these models are supported by experimental evidence that was obtained under conditions expected in severe accidents. 7 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  6. Comparative EPMA and -XRF methods for mapping micro-scale distribution of iodine in biocarbonates of the CallovianOxfordian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Comparative EPMA and -XRF methods for mapping micro-scale distribution of iodine in biocarbonates spectrometry (IR), electron microprobe (EPMA), spatially resolved synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence (-XRF recrystallized into diagenetic calcite and celestite. EPMA and -XRF data show bioaccumulation of iodine

  7. Improving Modeling of Iodine-129 Groundwater Contamination Plumes Using the System Assessment Capability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dirkes, J.; Nichols, W.E.; Wurstner, S.K.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Years of production of radioactive materials at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State has resulted in contamination of surface, subsurface, and surface water environments. Cleanup of the site has been aided by various tools, including computer software used to predict contaminant migration in the future and estimate subsequent impacts. The System Assessment Capability (SAC) is a total systems tool designed to simulate the movement of contaminants from all waste sites at Hanford through the vadose zone, the unconfined aquifer, and the Columbia River. Except for iodine-129, most of the contaminants modeled by SAC have acceptably matched field measurements. The two most likely reasons for the inconsistency between the measured field data and SAC modeled predictions are an underestimated inventory and an overestimated sorption value (Kd). Field data tend to be point measurements taken from near the surface of the unconfined aquifer. Thus, the depth of the iodine-129 contamination plume on the site is not well characterized. Geostatistical analyses of the measured data were conducted to determine the mass of iodine-129 for four assumed plume depths within the unconfined aquifer. Several simulations for two different Kd’s using the initial SAC inventory were run to determine the effect of an overestimated sorption value on SAC modeled predictions. The initial SAC inventory was then increased for the two different Kd’s to determine the influence of an underestimated inventory on SAC modeled predictions. It was found that evidence for both an underestimated inventory and for an overestimated sorption value for iodine-129 exist. These results suggest that the Kd for iodine-129 should be reevaluated and that a more complete inventory must be generated in order to more accurately model iodine-129 groundwater contamination plumes that match available field data.

  8. Effects of soil treatments supplemented with two rates of magnesium sulfate on the availability of soil nutrients and on the yield and chemical composition of coastal Bermuda grass 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evatt, Nathan S

    1951-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    'ZATZ ON THE AVAILABILITY OF SOIL NUTRIENTS AND ON TH YIELD AND CHENICAL COMPOSITICN GF CO. iSTAL BERNUDA GHASS INTRODUCTION It is known that magnesium is one of' the elements essential for plant growth; however much is to be learned concerning its specific functions... within the plant, Host Texas soils are not deficient, in magnesium (23). Magnesium is reported to be a carrier of the phos- phorus used by the plant. It is entirely possible that the failure to obtain crops of higher phosphorus content upon...

  9. Technetium and Iodine Getters to Improve Cast Stone Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qafoku, Nikolla; Neeway, James J.; Lawter, Amanda R.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Westsik, Joseph H.; Snyder, Michelle MV

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To determine the effectiveness of the various getter materials prior to their solidification in Cast Stone, a series of batch sorption experiments was performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. To quantify the effectiveness of the removal of Tc(VII) and I(I) from solution by getters, the distribution coefficient, Kd (mL/g), was calculated. Testing involved placing getter material in contact with spiked waste solutions at a 1:100 solid-to-solution ratio for periods up to 45 days with periodic solution sampling. One Tc getter was also tested at a 1:10 solid-to-solution ratio. Two different solution media, 18.2 M? deionized water (DI H2O) and a 7.8 M Na LAW simulant, were used in the batch sorption tests. Each test was conducted at room temperature in an anoxic chamber containing N2 with a small amount of H2 (0.7%) to maintain anoxic conditions. Each getter-solution combination was run in duplicate. Three Tc- and I-doping concentrations were used separately in aliquots of both the 18.2 M? DI H2O and a 7.8 M Na LAW waste simulant. The 1× concentration was developed based on Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) model runs to support the River Protection Project System Plan Revision 6. The other two concentrations were 5× and 10× of the HTWOS values. The Tc and I tests were run separately (i.e., the solutions did not contain both solutes). Sampling of the solid-solution mixtures occurred nominally after 0.2, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 days and ~35 to 45 days. Seven getter materials were tested for Tc and five materials were tested for I. The seven Tc getters were blast furnace slag 1 (BFS1) (northwest source), BFS2 (southeast source), Sn(II)-treated apatite, Sn(II) chloride, nano tin phosphate, KMS (a potassium-metal-sulfide), and tin hydroxapatite. The five iodine getters were layered bismuth hydroxide (LBH), argentite mineral, synthetic argentite, silver-treated carbon, and silver-treated zeolite. The Tc Kd values measured from experiments conducted using the 7.8 M Na LAW simulant (the simulant selected to represent LAW) for the first 15 days for four Tc getters (BFS1, BFS2, Sn(II)-treated apatite, and Sn(II) chloride) show no, to a very small, capacity to remove Tc from the LAW simulant. For the Tc-getter experiments in the 7.8 M LAW simulant, the majority of the effluent samples show very small drops in Tc concentrations for the 35-day compared to the 15-day samplings. However, the Tc concentration in the simulant blanks also dropped slightly during this period, so the effect of the getter contacting LAW simulant at 35 days compared to 15 days is minimal; except that the BFS1 1:10 test shows a slow but steady decrease in Tc concentration in the LAW simulant supernatant from the beginning to the 35 day contact at which point about 20% of the original Tc has been removed from solution. Lastly, the KMS getter gives the highest Kd value for Tc at 35 days where Kd values have increased to 104 mL/g. When considering the different I getters reacting with the 7.8 M LAW simulant, two getters are much more effective than the others: Ag zeolite and Syn Arg. The other getters have calculated iodide distribution coefficients that show very limited effectiveness in the caustic conditions created by the LAW simulant. These are preliminary results that will need more detailed analyses including both pre- and post-batch sorption getter solid-phase characterization using state-of-the-art instrumentation such as synchrotron X ray absorption spectroscopy, which can delineate the oxidation state of the Tc and likely iodine species as well as some of the getters key major components, sulfur and iron in the BFS, and tin and sulfur in the tin-bearing and sulfur-bearing getters. This report also describes future experimental studies to be performed to better elucidate the mechanisms controlling the Tc and I sequestration processes in the various getters and leach tests of getter-bearing Cast Stone monoliths.

  10. Sorption and transport of iodine species in sediments from the Savannah River and Hanford Sites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Qinhong "Max"

    States b Advanced Analytical Center for Environmental Sciences, Savannah River Ecology LaboratorySorption and transport of iodine species in sediments from the Savannah River and Hanford Sites Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, MS L-231, Livermore, CA 94550, United

  11. Deciphering the measured ratios of Iodine-131 to Cesium-137 at the Fukushima reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matsui, T

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculate the relative abundance of the radioactive isotopes Iodine-131 and Cesium-137 produced by nuclear fission in reactors and compare it with data taken at the troubled Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant. The ratio of radioactivities of these two isotopes can be used to obtain information about when the nuclear reactions terminated.

  12. Singlet oxygen generation using iodinated squaraine and squaraine-rotaxane dyesw

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Bradley D.

    Singlet oxygen generation using iodinated squaraine and squaraine-rotaxane dyesw Easwaran Arunkumar-rotaxanes to generate singlet oxygen for potential application in photodynamic therapy (PDT). Specifically, we compare-to-face orientations in the solid state. Singlet oxygen generation efficiency was measured by trapping with 1

  13. Demonstration of an iodine laser pumped by an air-helium electric discharge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carroll, David L.

    issues with this chemical singlet oxygen generator (SOG) motivated many investigations-He-NO gas mixture. Active oxygen and nitrogen species were observed downstream of the discharge regionW in a supersonic flow cavity. Keywords: electric oxygen iodine laser, electric discharge, singlet oxygen, active

  14. Deciphering the measured ratios of Iodine-131 to Cesium-137 at the Fukushima reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Matsui

    2011-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculate the relative abundance of the radioactive isotopes Iodine-131 and Cesium-137 produced by nuclear fission in reactors and compare it with data taken at the troubled Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant. The ratio of radioactivities of these two isotopes can be used to obtain information about when the nuclear reactions terminated.

  15. Iodine as a tracer of organic material: 129 I results from gas hydrate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fehn, Udo

    Iodine as a tracer of organic material: 129 I results from gas hydrate systems and fore arc fluids of this system, investigations of gas hydrates from the Peru Margin (ODP 201, Site 1230) and of fluids collected for these fluids. The results are in good agreement with earlier investigations of gas hydrate systems at Blake

  16. Features of adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes distribution in iodine air filters AU-1500 at nuclear power plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. M. Neklyudov; A. N. Dovbnya; N. P. Dikiy; O. P. Ledenyov; Yu. V. Lyashko

    2013-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The main aim of research is to investigate the physical features of spatial distribution of the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the granular filtering medium in the iodine air filters of the type of AU1500 in the forced exhaust ventilation systems at the nuclear power plant. The gamma activation analysis method is applied to accurately characterize the distribution of the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the granular filtering medium in the AU1500 iodine air filter after its long term operation at the nuclear power plant. The typical spectrum of the detected chemical elements and their isotopes in the AU1500 iodine air filter, which was exposed to the bremsstrahlung gamma quantum irradiation, produced by the accelerating electrons in the tantalum target, are obtained. The spatial distributions of the detected chemical element 127I and some other chemical elements and their isotopes in the layer of absorber, which was made of the cylindrical coal granules of the type of SKT3, in the AU1500 iodine air filter are also researched. The possible influences by the standing acoustic wave of air pressure in the iodine air filter on the spatial distribution of the chemical elements and their isotopes in the iodine air filter are discussed. The comprehensive analysis of obtained research results on the distribution of the adsorbed chemical elements and their isotopes in the absorber of iodine air filter is performed.

  17. Determination of iodine in organic compounds using low-temperature ammoniacal plasma of high-frequency discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Volodina, M.A.; Kutseva, N.K.

    1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a method for the determination of iodine in organic compounds, based on the use of a low-temperature ammonial plasma of an electrodeless high frequency discharge. The method was tested on a large number of compounds, and is distinguished by simplicity of operation, rapidity, accuracy and applicability for simultaneous determination of iodine and palladium. The results of the simultaneous determination of iodine and palladium in organic compounds are shown. The relative standard deviation does not exceed 0.011. The duration of each determination is 15-20 min.

  18. Impact of Pretreatment and Aging on the Iodine Capture Performance of Silver-Exchanged Mordenite - 12314

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jubin, R.T.; Ramey, D.W.; Spencer, B.B.; Anderson, K.K.; Robinson, S.M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Volatile gas emissions from a nuclear fuel recycle facility in the United States are governed by several key regulations, including 10 CFR 20, 40 CFR 61, and 40 CFR 190. Under 40 CFR 190, the total quantity of iodine that may be released to the environment from the entire fuel cycle is limited to 5 millicuries of I-129 per gigawatt-year of electrical energy produced by the fuel cycle. With a reasonable engineering margin, an iodine decontamination factor (DF) of approximately 1000 will be required for the complete fuel cycle. Off-gas treatment in a fuel reprocessing plant must address several gas streams containing iodine, among a number of volatile radionuclides. Past research and developmental activities identified silver-exchanged mordenite (AgZ) as a very promising sorbent based on its acid resistance, relatively high iodine and methyl iodide capacity, and high achievable DF. Recent studies at ORNL have focused on the impacts of long-term exposure to simulated off-gas streams (aging) and pretreatment on the iodine adsorption performance of hydrogen-reduced silver-exchanged mordenite (Ag{sup 0}Z). Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of long-term exposure to both dry and moist air on the iodine sorption capacity of Ag{sup 0}Z. The data indicates that aging reduces the capacity of Ag{sup 0}Z, which must be accounted for to prevent degradation of DF. Because of its high acid resistance, a AgZ sorbent has been selected specifically for application in treating off-gas streams containing iodine. While extensive tests have been conducted in the United States on a form of this sorbent, the specific material previously tested is no longer commercially available and similar materials are currently being evaluated. As part of this evaluation, tests were conducted to determine the iodine sorption properties of this replacement media and the effects of long-term (up to 6 months) exposure to simulated off-gas streams. The ultimate goal is to develop an understanding of the fundamental phenomena that controls aging for this material and other zeolites that could be considered for use in off-gas treatment in the future. The trends in the study results indicate that the amount of elemental silver observed by XRD increases from 0.3 wt% in vendor-supplied AgZ to approximately 5 wt% by reducing the material with hydrogen. The study also concluded that aging decreases the quantity of elemental silver in the material. After 2 months of aging, the Ag{sup 0} content of an experimental sample was reduced from 5 wt% to about 1.3 wt%. The form into which the elemental silver is converted during aging was not determined. Experimental tests have been initiated to study how aging of Ag{sup 0}Z impacts iodine loading on the zeolite. Loading tests with un-aged Ag{sup 0}Z resulted in an 81% silver utilization. The loading capacity of iodine on Ag{sup 0}Z was reduced with aging in dry air. Material aged for 6 months in dry air had a 40% reduction in iodine loading capacity. Under moist-air aging conditions, a significant decrease in the rate and total loading (?45% of theoretical) of iodine uptake can be observed beginning with the shortest aging period (i.e., after 1 month) when compared with the loading curve using Ag{sup 0}Z with no aging. Increasing exposure time to the humid air used to age the Ag{sup 0}Z beyond 1 month resulted in a slight additional reduction in capacity to about 35% of theoretical at 2 months. Virtually identical capacity was observed with 4 months of aging. Compared to the non-aged material, the 1 month dry-air aged Ag{sup 0}Z shows about a 35% reduction (approximate) in iodine loading capacity and the 6 month dry-air aged Ag{sup 0}Z shows about a 50% reduction. These studies generated several questions that will be addressed in future tests. They include the following: Is there indeed degradation over time (in storage) in the iodine adsorption performance of Ag{sup 0}Z? Once reduced, how should the Ag{sup 0}Z be stored- under a hydrogen atmosphere, an inert atmosphere, a desiccant, or some other method or c

  19. A comprehensive program for countermeasures against potentially hazardous objects (PHOs)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huebner, Walter [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Giguere, P T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bradley, P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Guzik, J A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Plesko, C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wohletz, K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Johnson, L N [SMD; Boice, D C [SWR; Chocron, S [SWRI; Ghosh, A [SWRI; Goldstein, R [SWRI; Mukerherjee, J [SWRI; Patrick, W [SWRI; Walker, J D [SWRI

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At the hundredth anniversary of the Tunguska event in Siberia it is appropriate to discuss measures to avoid such occurrences in the future. Recent discussions about detecting, tracking, cataloguing, and characterizing near-Earth objects (NEOs) center on objects larger than about 140 m in size. However, objects smaller than 100 m are more frequent and can cause significant regional destruction of civil infrastructures and population centers. The cosmic object responsible for the Tunguska event provides a graphic example: although it is thought to have been only about 50 to 60 m in size, it devastated an area of about 2000 km{sup 2}. Ongoing surveys aimed at early detection of a potentially hazardous object (PHO: asteroid or comet nucleus that approaches the Earth's orbit within 0.05 AU) are only a first step toward applying countermeasures to prevent an impact on Earth. Because 'early' may mean only a few weeks or days in the case of a Tunguska-sized object or a long-period comet, deflecting the object by changing its orbit is beyond the means of current technology, and destruction and dispersal of its fragments may be the only reasonable solution. Highly capable countermeasures - always at the ready - are essential to defending against an object with such short warning time, and therefore short reaction time between discovery and impending impact. We present an outline for a comprehensive plan for countermeasures that includes smaller (Tunguska-sized) objects and long-period comets, focuses on short warning times, uses non-nuclear methods (e.g., hyper-velocity impactor devices and conventional explosives) whenever possible, uses nuclear munitions only when needed, and launches from the ground. The plan calls for international collaboration for action against a truly global threat.

  20. The development of autocatalytic structural materials for use in the sulfur-iodine process for the production of hydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miu, Kevin (Kevin K.)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Sulfur-Iodine Cycle for the thermochemical production of hydrogen offers many benefits to traditional methods of hydrogen production. As opposed to steam methane reforming - the most prevalent method of hydrogen ...

  1. Aqueous Dissolution of Silver Iodide and Associated Iodine Release Under Reducing Conditions with Sulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaohiro Inagaki; Toshitaka Imamura; Kazuya Idemitsu; Tatsumi Arima [Kyushu University, Fukuoka, 819-0395 (Japan); Osamu Kato [Kobe Steel Inc., Kobe, 657-0845 (Japan); Hidekazu Asano; Tsutomu Nishimura [RWMC, Tokyo, 105-0001 (Japan)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aqueous dissolution tests of silver iodide (AgI) were performed in Na{sub 2}S solutions in order to evaluate, empirically, dissolution of AgI to release iodine under reducing conditions with sulfide. The results indicated that AgI dissolves to release iodine being controlled by mainly precipitation of Ag{sub 2}S. However, the dissolution of AgI can be depressed to proceed, and the thermodynamic equilibrium cannot be attained easily. Solid phase analysis for the reacted AgI suggested that a thin layer of solid silver forming at AgI surface may evolve to be protective against transportation of reactant species, which can lead to the depression in the dissolution of AgI. (authors)

  2. Expanded Analysis of Hot Isostatic Pressed Iodine-Loaded Silver-Exchanged Mordenite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jubin, R. T. [ORNL; Bruffey, S. H. [ORNL; Patton, K. K. [ORNL

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Reduced silver-exchanged mordenite (Ag0Z) is being evaluated as a potential material to control the release of radioactive iodine that is released during the reprocessing of used nuclear fuel into the plant off-gas streams. The purpose of this study was to determine if hot pressing could directly convert this iodine loaded sorbent into a waste form suitable for long-term disposition. The minimal pretreatment required for production of pressed pellets makes hot pressing a technically and economically desirable process. Initial scoping studies utilized hot uniaxial pressing (HUPing) to prepare samples of non-iodine-loaded reduced silver exchanged mordenite (Ag0Z). The resulting samples were very fragile due to the low pressure (~ 28 MPa) used. It was recommended that hot isostatic pressing (HIPing), performed at higher temperatures and pressures, be investigated. HIPing was carried out in two phases, with a third and final phase currently underway. Phase I evaluated the effects of pressure and temperature conditions on the manufacture of a pressed sample. The base material was an engineered form of silver zeolite. Six samples of Ag0Z and two samples of I-Ag0Z were pressed. It was found that HIPing produced a pressed pellet of high density. Analysis of each pressed pellet by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectrophotometry (SEM-EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) demonstrated that under the conditions used for pressing, the majority of the material transforms into an amorphous structure. The only crystalline phase observed in the pressed Ag0Z material was SiO2. For the samples loaded with iodine (I-Ag0Z) iodine was present as AgI clusters at low temperatures, and transformed into AgIO4 at high temperatures. Surface mapping and EDS demonstrate segregation between silver iodide phases and silicon dioxide phases. Based on the results of the Phase I study, an expanded test matrix was developed to examine the effects of multiple source materials, compositional variations, and an expanded temperature range. Each sample was analyzed with the approach used in Phase I. In all cases, there is nothing in the SEM or XRD analyses that indicates creation of any AgI-containing silicon phase, with the samples being found to be largely amorphous. Phase III of this study has been initiated and is the final phase of scoping tests. It will expand upon the test matrix completed in Phase II and will examine the durability of the pressed pellets through product consistency testing (PCT) studies. Transformation of the component material into a well-characterized iodine-containing mineral phase would be desirable. This would limit the additional experimental testing and modeling required to determine the long-term stability of the pressed pellet, as much of that information has already been learned for several common iodine-containing minerals. However, this is not an absolute requirement, especially if pellets produced by hot isostatic pressing can be demonstrated through initial PCT studies to retain iodine well despite their amorphous composition.

  3. Sulfur Iodine Process Summary for the Hydrogen Technology Down-Selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benjamin Russ

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the sulfur-iodine (SI) thermochemical water splitting process for the purpose of supporting the process for evaluating and recommending a hydrogen production technology to deploy with the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). This package provides the baseline process description as well as a comparison with the process as it was implemented in the Integrated Lab Scale (ILS) experiment conducted at General Atomics from 2006-2009.

  4. Physical features of accumulation and distribution processes of small disperse coal dust precipitations and absorbed radioactive chemical elements in iodine air filter at nuclear power plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ledenyov, Oleg P; Poltinin, P Ya; Fedorova, L I

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The physical features of absorption process of radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the iodine air filters of the type of AU-1500 at the nuclear power plants are researched. It is shown that the non-homogenous spatial distribution of absorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the iodine air filter, probed by the gamma-activation analysis method, is well correlated with the spatial distribution of small disperse coal dust precipitations in the iodine air filter. This circumstance points out to an important role by the small disperse coal dust fractions of absorber in the absorption process of radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the iodine air filter. The physical origins of characteristic interaction between the radioactive chemical elements and the accumulated small disperse coal dust precipitations in an iodine air filter are considered. The analysis of influence by the researched physical processes on the technical characteristics and functionality of iodine ...

  5. Determine Minimum Silver Flake Addition to GCM for Iodine Loaded AgZ

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garino, Terry J.; Nenoff, Tina M.; Rodriguez, Mark A.

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The minimum amount of silver flake required to prevent loss of I{sub 2} during sintering in air for a SNL Glass Composite Material (GCM) Waste Form containing AgI-MOR (ORNL, 8.7 wt%) was determined to be 1.1 wt% Ag. The final GCM composition prior to sintering was 20 wt% AgI-MOR, 1.1 wt% Ag, and 80 wt% Bi-Si oxide glass. The amount of silver flake needed to suppress iodine loss was determined using thermo gravimetric analysis with mass spectroscopic off-gas analysis. These studies found that the ratio of silver to AgI-MOR required is lower in the presence of the glass than without it. Therefore an additional benefit of the GCM is that it serves to inhibit some iodine loss during processing. Alternatively, heating the AgI-MOR in inert atmosphere instead of air allowed for densified GCM formation without I{sub 2} loss, and no necessity for the addition of Ag. The cause of this behavior is found to be related to the oxidation of the metallic Ag to Ag{sup +} when heated to above ~300{degrees}C in air. Heating rate, iodine loading levels and atmosphere are the important variables that determine AgI migration and results suggest that AgI may be completely incorporated into the mordenite structure by the 550{degrees}C sintering temperature.

  6. Effect of iodination on human growth hormone and prolactin: characterized by bioassay, radioimmunoassay, radioreceptor assay, and electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, J.P.; Tanaka, T.; Gout, P.W.; Beer, C.T.; Noble, R.L.; Friesen, H.G.

    1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Human GH (hGH) and PRL (hPRL) were iodinated using lactoperoxidase. The iodinated hormones were characterized by RIA, radioreceptor assay (RRA), and bioassay (BA) using the Nb2 Node lymphoma cell line. The proportion of tracer that could bind to rat liver membranes or rabbit antibodies was determined, and the distribution of iodinated hormones was examined using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Excess antibody was capable of precipitating 87.9% of the radioactivity associated with the hGH tracer and 86.0% of the hPRL tracer. The maximal specific binding to a liver membrane preparation averaged 67.3% of the (/sup 125/I)iodo-hGH radioactivity and 48.8% of the (/sup 125/I)iodo-hPRL radioactivity. The respective BA and RRA activity estimates for (/sup 125/I)iodo-hGH averaged 90% and 114% of the activity measured by the RIA. For (/sup 125/I)iodo-hPRL, the values were 75% by BA and 68% by RRA. The bioactivity profiles of iodinated hGH and hPRL shifted anodally on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in comparison to the bioactivity distribution of the respective uniodinated hormones. Iodine incorporation rather than oxidation appeared to be responsible for the shift. After electrophoresis, all eluates which contained significant radioactivity were active in the BA and RIA. Furthermore, specific activities calculated from the bioactive hormone and radioactivity in each electrophoretic segment agreed well with the average specific activity estimated from the amount of iodine incorporated into the protein peak upon gel filtration. These data suggest that hGH and hPRL to a major degree retain biological integrity after iodination.

  7. Effect of iodination on human growth hormone and prolactin: characterized by bioassay, radioimmunoassay, radioreceptor assay, and electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, J.P. (Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada); Tanaka, T.; Gout, P.W.; Beer, C.T.; Noble, R.L.; Friesen, H.G.

    1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Human GH (hGH) and PRL (hPRL) were iodinated using lactoperoxidase. The iodinated hormones were characterized by RIA, radioreceptor assay (RRA), and bioassay (BA) using the Nb2 Node lymphoma cell line. The proportion of tracer that could bind to rat liver membranes or rabbit antibodies was determined, and the distribution of iodinated hormones was examined using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Excess antibody was capable of precipitating 87.9% of the radioactivity associated with the hGH tracer and 86.0% of the hPRL tracer. The maximal specific binding to a liver membrane preparation averaged 67.3% of the (/sup 125/I)iodo-hGH radioactivity and 48.8% of the (/sup 125/I)iodo-hPRL radioactivity. The respective BA and RRA activity estimates for (/sup 125/)iodo-hGH averaged 90% and 114% of the activity measured by the RIA. For (/sup 125/I)iodo-hPRL, the values were 75% by BA and 68% by RRA. The bioactivity profiles of iodinated hGH and hPRL shifted anodally on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in comparison to the bioactivity distribution of the respective uniodinated hormones. Iodine incorporation rather than oxidation appeared to be responsible for the shift. After electrophoresis, all eluates which contained significant radioactivity were active in the BA and RIA. Furthermore, specific activities calculated from the bioactive hormone and radioactivity in each electrophoretic segment agreed well with the average specific activity estimated from the amount of iodine incorporated into the protein peak upon gel filtration. These data suggest that hGH and hPRL to a major degree retain biological integrity after iodination.

  8. LITERATURE SURVEY FOR GROUNDWATER TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR NITRATE IODINE-129 AND URANIUM 200-ZP-1 OPERABLE UNIT HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BYRNES ME

    2008-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This literature review presents treatment options for nitrate, iodine-129, and uranium, which are present in groundwater at the 200-ZP-I Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) within the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The objective of this review is to determine available methods to treat or sequester these contaminants in place (i.e., in situ) or to pump-and-treat the groundwater aboveground (i.e., ex situ). This review has been conducted with emphasis on commercially available or field-tested technologies, but theoretical studies have, in some cases, been considered when no published field data exist. The initial scope of this literature review included only nitrate and iodine-I 29, but it was later expanded to include uranium. The focus of the literature review was weighted toward researching methods for treatment of nitrate and iodine-129 over uranium because of the relatively greater impact of those compounds identified at the 200-ZP-I OU.

  9. Dynamics of production of iodine atoms by dissociation of iodides in a pulsed self-sustained discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vagin, Nikolai P; Kochetov, Igor' V; Napartovich, A P; Yuryshev, Nikolai N

    2013-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Absorption at the laser transition has been used for the first time to assess the evolution of concentration of iodine atoms in a pulsed self-sustained discharge in mixtures of iodides with a buffer gas such as molecular nitrogen and helium. Dynamics of the iodine atom production is studied by the method of absorption spectroscopy. The dissociation of C{sub n}F{sub 2n+1}I and CnH{sub 2n+1}I (n = 1, 2) iodides is investigated. The energy required to produce atomic iodine is evaluated. The experimental data obtained for CF{sub 3}I are compared with the results of numerical simulations, their reasonable agreement being demonstrated. (active media)

  10. Features of adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes distribution in iodine air filters AU-1500 at nuclear power plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neklyudov, I M; Dikiy, N P; Ledenyov, O P; Lyashko, Yu V

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main aim of research is to investigate the physical features of spatial distribution of the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the granular filtering medium in the iodine air filters of the type of AU1500 in the forced exhaust ventilation systems at the nuclear power plant. The gamma activation analysis method is applied to accurately characterize the distribution of the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the granular filtering medium in the AU1500 iodine air filter after its long term operation at the nuclear power plant. The typical spectrum of the detected chemical elements and their isotopes in the AU1500 iodine air filter, which was exposed to the bremsstrahlung gamma quantum irradiation, produced by the accelerating electrons in the tantalum target, are obtained. The spatial distributions of the detected chemical element 127I and some other chemical elements and their isotopes in the layer of absorber, which was made of the cylindrical coal granule...

  11. Methods of Gas Phase Capture of Iodine from Fuel Reprocessing Off-Gas: A Literature Survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daryl Haefner

    2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A literature survey was conducted to collect information and summarize the methods available to capture iodine from fuel reprocessing off-gases. Techniques were categorized as either wet scrubbing or solid adsorbent methods, and each method was generally described as it might be used under reprocessing conditions. Decontamination factors are quoted only to give a rough indication of the effectiveness of the method. No attempt is made to identify a preferred capture method at this time, although activities are proposed that would provide a consistent baseline that would aid in evaluating technologies.

  12. Sulfur Iodine Process Summary for the Hydrogen Technology Down-Selection: Process Performance Package

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benjamin Russ

    2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes the details of implementing a Sulfur-Iodine (S-I) hydrogen production plant to deploy with the Next General Nuclear Power Plant (NGNP). Technical requirements and specifications are included, and a conceptual plant design is presented. The following areas of interest are outlined in particular as a baseline for the various technology comparisons: (1) Performance Criteria - (a) Quantity of hydrogen produced, (b) Purity of hydrogen produced, (c) Flexibility to serve various applications, (d) Waste management; (2) Economic Considerations - (a) Cost of hydrogen, (b) Development costs; and (3) Risk - (a) Technical maturity of the S-I process, (b) Development risk, (c) Scale up options.

  13. Generation of concentration density maxima of small dispersive coal dust particles in horizontal iodine air filter at air-dust aerosol blow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. M. Neklyudov; O. P. Ledenyov; L. I. Fedorova; P. Ya. Poltinin

    2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The spatial distributions of the small dispersive coal dust particles with the nano and micro sizes in the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal granules in the absorber in the horizontal iodine air filter during its long term operation at the nuclear power plant are researched. It is shown that the concentration density maxima of the small dispersive coal dust particles appear in the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal absorbent granules in the horizontal iodine air filter at an action by the air dust aerosol blow. The comparison of the measured aerodynamic resistances of the horizontal and vertical iodine air filters is conducted. The main conclusion is that the magnitude of the aerodynamic resistance of the horizontal iodine air filters is much smaller in comparison with the magnitude of the aerodynamic resistance of the vertical iodine air filters at the same loads of the air dust aerosol volumes. It is explained that the direction of the air dust aerosol blow and the direction of the gravitation force in the horizontal iodine air filter are orthogonal, hence the effective accumulation of the small dispersive coal dust particles takes place at the bottom of absorber in the horizontal iodine air filter. It is found that the air dust aerosol stream flow in the horizontal iodine air filter is not limited by the appearing structures, made of the precipitated small dispersive coal dust particles, in distinction from the vertical iodine air filter, in the process of long term operation of the iodine air filters at the nuclear power plant.

  14. Anthropogenic iodine-129 in seawater along a transect from the Norwegian coastal current to the North Pole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winsor, Peter

    . The surface waters near the Norwegian coast are found to have 20 times higher 129 I concentration thanAnthropogenic iodine-129 in seawater along a transect from the Norwegian coastal current profiles collected during 2001 along a transect from the Norwegian Coastal Current to the North Pole

  15. Oxygen Discharge and Post-Discharge Kinetics Experiments and Modeling for the Electric Oxygen-Iodine Laser System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carroll, David L.

    Oxygen Discharge and Post-Discharge Kinetics Experiments and Modeling for the Electric Oxygen a low-pressure oxygen/helium/nitric oxide discharge. In the electric discharge oxygen-iodine laser (ElectricOIL) the discharge production of atomic oxygen, ozone, and other excited species adds levels

  16. Measurement of positive gain on the 1315 nm transition of atomic iodine pumped by O2,,a1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carroll, David L.

    state I 2 P3/2 . Conventionally, the O2 1 is produced by a liquid chemistry singlet oxygen generator of gain. © 2004 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.1784519] The classic chemical oxygen the metastable excited singlet oxygen molecule, O2 a1 [de- noted O2 1 hereafter], and the iodine atom ground

  17. Ab initio studies of ultrafast x-ray scattering of the photodissociation of iodine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Debnarova, Andrea; Techert, Simone [Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, 37077 Goettingen, Am Fassberg 11 (Germany); Schmatz, Stefan [Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie, Universitaet Goettingen, 37077 Goettingen, Tammannstr. 6 (Germany)

    2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We computationally examine various aspects of the reaction dynamics of the photodissociation and recombination of molecular iodine. We use our recently proposed formalism to calculate time-dependent x-ray scattering signal changes from first principles. Different aspects of the dynamics of this prototypical reaction are studied, such as coherent and noncoherent processes, features of structural relaxation that are periodic in time versus nonperiodic dissociative processes, as well as small electron density changes caused by electronic excitation, all with respect to x-ray scattering. We can demonstrate that wide-angle x-ray scattering offers a possibility to study the changes in electron densities in nonperiodic systems, which render it a suitable technique for the investigation of chemical reactions from a structural dynamics point of view.

  18. The Sulfur-Iodine Cycle: Process Analysis and Design Using Comprehensive Phase Equilibrium Measurements and Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thies, Mark C.; O'Connell, J. P.; Gorensek, Maximilian B.

    2010-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Of the 100+ thermochemical hydrogen cycles that have been proposed, the Sulfur-Iodine (S-I) Cycle is a primary target of international interest for the centralized production of hydrogen from nuclear power. However, the cycle involves complex and highly nonideal phase behavior at extreme conditions that is only beginning to be understood and modeled for process simulation. The consequence is that current designs and efficiency projections have large uncertainties, as they are based on incomplete data that must be extrapolated from property models. This situation prevents reliable assessment of the potential viability of the system and, even more, a basis for efficient process design. The goal of this NERI award (05-006) was to generate phase-equilibrium data, property models, and comprehensive process simulations so that an accurate evaluation of the S-I Cycle could be made. Our focus was on Section III of the Cycle, where the hydrogen is produced by decomposition of hydroiodic acid (HI) in the presence of water and iodine (I2) in a reactive distillation (RD) column. The results of this project were to be transferred to the nuclear hydrogen community in the form of reliable flowsheet models for the S-I process. Many of the project objectives were achieved. At Clemson University, a unique, tantalum-based, phase-equilibrium apparatus incorporating a view cell was designed and constructed for measuring fluid-phase equilibria for mixtures of iodine, HI, and water (known as HIx) at temperatures to 350 °C and pressures to 100 bar. Such measurements were of particular interest for developing a working understanding of the expected operation of the RD column in Section III. The view cell allowed for the IR observation and discernment of vapor-liquid (VL), liquid-liquid, and liquid-liquid-vapor (LLVE) equilibria for HIx systems. For the I2-H2O system, liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) was discovered to exist at temperatures up to 310-315 °C, in contrast to the models and predictions of earlier workers. For the I2-HI-H2O ternary, LLE and LLVE were all observed for the first time at temperatures of 160 and 200 °C. Three LLE tie-lines were measured at 160 °C, and preliminary indications are that the underlying phase behavior could result in further improvements in the performance of the S-I Cycle. Unfortunately, these new results were obtained too late in the project to be incorporated into the modeling and simulation work described below. At the University of Virginia, a uniquely complete and reliable model was developed for the thermodynamic properties of HIx, covering the range of conditions expected for the separation of product hydrogen and recycled iodine in the RD column located in Section III. The model was validated with all available property spectroscopy data. The results provide major advances over prior understanding of the chemical speciation involved. The model was implemented in process simulation studies of the S-I Cycle, which showed improvement in energy efficiency to 42%, as well as significantly smaller capital requirements due to lower pressure operation and much smaller equipment sizes. The result is that the S-I Cycle may be much more economically feasible than was previously thought. If both the experimental and modeling work described above were to be continued to ultimate process optimization, both the American public and the global community would benefit from this alternative energy source that does not produce carbon emissions.

  19. Diffusion of Iodine and Rhenium in Category 3 Waste Encasement Concrete and Soil Fill Material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Whyatt, Greg A.; Powers, Laura; Parker, Kent E.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e. sorption or precipitation). This understanding will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the waste forms come in contact with groundwater. A set of diffusion experiments using carbonated and non-carbonated concrete-soil half cells was conducted under unsaturated conditions (4% and 7% by wt moisture content). Spiked concrete half-cell specimens were prepared with and without colloidal metallic iron addition and were carbonated using supercritical carbon dioxide. Spikes of I and Re were added to achieve measurable diffusion profile in the soil part of the half-cell. In addition, properties of concrete materials likely to influence radionuclide migration such as carbonation were evaluated in an effort to correlate these properties with the release of iodine and rhenium.

  20. Stable n-CuInSe/sub 2/iodide-iodine photoelectrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cahen, D.; Chen, Y.W.

    1984-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In a photoelectrochemical solar cell, stable output and solar efficiency in excess of 10% are achieved with a photoanode of n-CuInSe/sub 2/ electrode material and an iodine/iodide redox couple used in a liquid electrolyte. The photoanode is prepared by treating the electrode material by chemical etching, for example in Br/sub 2//MeOH; heating the etched electrode material in air or oxygen; depositing a surface film coating of indium on the electrode material after the initial heating; and thereafter again heating the electrode material in air or oxygen to oxidize the indium. The electrolyte is treated by the addition of Cu/sup +/ or Cu/sup 2 +/ salts and in In/sup 3 +/ salts.

  1. Influence by small dispersive coal dust particles of different fractional consistence on characteristics of iodine air filter at nuclear power plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neklyudov, I M; Fedorova, L I; Poltinin, P Ya

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main purpose of research is to determine the influence by the small dispersive coal dust particles of the different fractional consistence on the technical characteristics of the vertical iodine air filter at nuclear power plant. The research on the transport properties of the small dispersive coal dust particles in the granular filtering medium of absorber in the vertical iodine air filter is completed in the case, when the modeled aerodynamic conditions are similar to the real aerodynamic conditions. It is shown that the appearance of the different fractional consistence of small dispersive coal dust particles with the decreasing dimensions down to the micro and nano sizes at the action of the air dust aerosol stream normally results in a significant change of distribution of the small dispersive coal dust particles masses in the granular filtering medium of an absorber in the vertical iodine air filter, changing the vertical iodine air filter aerodynamic characteristics. The precise characterization of...

  2. Influence by small dispersive coal dust particles of different fractional consistence on characteristics of iodine air filter at nuclear power plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. M. Neklyudov; O. P. Ledenyov; L. I. Fedorova; P. Ya. Poltinin

    2013-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The main purpose of research is to determine the influence by the small dispersive coal dust particles of the different fractional consistence on the technical characteristics of the vertical iodine air filter at nuclear power plant. The research on the transport properties of the small dispersive coal dust particles in the granular filtering medium of absorber in the vertical iodine air filter is completed in the case, when the modeled aerodynamic conditions are similar to the real aerodynamic conditions. It is shown that the appearance of the different fractional consistence of small dispersive coal dust particles with the decreasing dimensions down to the micro and nano sizes at the action of the air dust aerosol stream normally results in a significant change of distribution of the small dispersive coal dust particles masses in the granular filtering medium of an absorber in the vertical iodine air filter, changing the vertical iodine air filter aerodynamic characteristics. The precise characterization of the aerodynamic resistance of a model of the vertical iodine air filter is completed. The comparative analysis of the technical characteristics of the vertical and horizontal iodine air filters is also made.

  3. Iodine-131 releases from the Hanford Site, 1944--1947. Volume 1, Text: Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heeb, C.M.

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Releases of fission product iodine-131 from separation plants at the Hanford reservation are calculated for the 1944 through 1947 period. Releases to the atmosphere were from the ventilation stacks of T and B separation plants. A reconstruction of daily separation plant operations forms the basis of the releases. The reconstruction traces the iodine-131 content of each fuel discharge from the B, D, and F Reactors to the dissolving step in the separation plants. Statistical computer modeling techniques are used to estimate hourly release histories based on sampling mathematical distribution functions that express the uncertainties in the source data and timing. The reported daily, monthly, and yearly estimates are averages and uncertainty ranges are based on 100 independent Monte Carlo ``realizations`` of the hourly release histories.

  4. Conversion and correction factors for historical measurements of Iodine-131 in Hanford-area vegetation, 1945--1947: Draft

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mart, E.I.; Denham, D.H.; Thiede, M.E.

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is a result of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project whose goal is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received from emissions since 1944 at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The report describes in detail the reconstructed conversion and correction factors for historical measurements of iodine-131 in Hanford-area vegetation which was collected from the beginning of October 1945 through the end of December 1947.

  5. Continuous-wave laser oscillation on the 1315 nm transition of atomic iodine pumped by O2,,a1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carroll, David L.

    oxygen generator. There are many system issues having to do with weight, safety, and the ability.1063/1.1883317 The classic chemical oxygen-iodine laser COIL system1 operates on the I 2 P1/2 I 2 P3/2 electronic transi transfer between the metastable excited singlet oxygen molecule, O2 a1 de- noted as O2 1 hereafter

  6. Adsorbate-induced corrosion: anodic dissolution of palladium induced by chemisorbed iodine in halide-free acid solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schimpf, Janemarie A

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    investigated. Iodine was oxidatively chemisorbed on polycrystalline palladium electrodes from a 1mM Nal solution. The experimental measurements were based on electrochemical methods, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP- OES), and X... of corrosion. ACKNOWLEDGMENT Funding for this work was provided by the National Science Foundation: Presidential Young Investigator Program, and the Robert A. Welch Foundation. I greatly appreciate the predoctoral research fellowships from the Robert A...

  7. Subwavenumber charge-coupled device spectrometer calibration using molecular iodine laser-induced fluorescence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, Joseph G. [Department of Physics, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Hernandez-Diaz, Carlos; Williamson, J. Charles [Department of Chemistry, Willamette University, Salem, Oregon 97301 (United States)

    2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Spectrometers configured with charge-coupled devices (CCD) or other array-based detectors require calibration to convert from the pixel coordinate to a spectral coordinate. A CCD calibration method well suited for Raman spectroscopy has been developed based on the 514.5 nm Ar{sup +} laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectrum of room-temperature molecular iodine vapor. Over 360 primary and secondary I{sub 2} LIF calibration lines spanning 510-645 nm were identified as calibrant peaks using an instrumental resolution of 1 cm{sup -1}. Two instrument calibration functions were evaluated with these peaks: a second-order polynomial and a function derived from simple optomechanical considerations. The latter function provided better fitting characteristics. Calibration using I{sub 2} LIF was tested with measurements of both laser light scattering and Raman spectra. The I{sub 2} LIF reference spectra and the signal spectra were recorded simultaneously, with no cross talk, by separating the two signals spatially along the vertical axis of the CCD imager. In this way, every CCD image could be independently calibrated. An accuracy and a precision of {+-}0.05 cm{sup -1} were achieved with this calibration technique.

  8. Preoperative irradiation, lymphadenectomy, and 125iodine implantation for patients with localized carcinoma of the prostate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeLaney, T.F.; Shipley, W.U.; O'Leary, M.P.; Biggs, P.J.; Prout, G.R. Jr.

    1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fifty-four patients with clinically and surgically localized prostatic carcinoma were treated with low-dose preoperative irradiation (1050 cGy), pelvic lymphadenectomy, and interstitial /sup 125/Iodine implantation. The follow-up range is 2 to 9 years with a median follow-up of 5 years. Overall local tumor control is 92%. Actuarial 5-year survival is 86% and the actuarial disease-free survival at 5 years is 73%. Patients with poorly differentiated tumors have a significantly worse actuarial survival (62%) at 5 years than patients with well (95%) or moderately well differentiated tumors (93%), p = 0.04. Disease-free survival at 5 years was influenced by grade: well (100%), moderate (60%), and poor (48%), p = 0.03. Multivariate regression analysis indicates that only the degree of differentiation (p = 0.05) significantly impacts on survival. Both degree of differentiation (p = 0.04) and nodal status (p = 0.03) significantly influence disease-free survival. Potency has been maintained in 71% of patients potent at the time of implantation. Late reactions have been acceptable to date: bladder outlet obstruction (13%), mild proctitis (13%), cystourethritis (6%), incontinence (2%), and prostatic calculi (2%).

  9. Detection of Gravitational Redshift on the Solar Disk by Using Iodine-Cell Technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takeda, Yoichi

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With an aim to examine whether the predicted solar gravitational redshift can be observationally confirmed under the influence of the convective Doppler shift due to granular motions, we attempted measuring the absolute spectral line-shifts on a large number of points over the solar disk based on an extensive set of 5188-5212A region spectra taken through an iodine-cell with the Solar Domeless Telescope at Hida Observatory. The resulting heliocentric line shifts at the meridian line (where no rotational shift exists), which were derived by finding the best-fit parameterized model spectrum with the observed spectrum and corrected for the earth's motion, turned out to be weakly position-dependent as ~ +400 m/s near the disk center and increasing toward the limb up to ~ +600 m/s (both with a standard deviation of sigma ~ 100 m/s). Interestingly, this trend tends to disappear when the convectiveshift due to granular motions (~-300 m/s at the disk center and increasing toward the limb; simulated based on the two-c...

  10. Chalcogen-based aerogels as a multifunctional platform for remediation of radioactive iodine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, Brian J.; Chun, Jaehun; Ryan, Joseph V.; Matyas, Josef; Li, Xiaohong S.; Matson, Dean W.; Sundaram, S. K.; Strachan, Denis M.; Vienna, John D.

    2011-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Aerogels employing chalcogen-based (i.e., S, Se, and/or Te) structural units and interlinking metals are termed chalcogels and have many emerging applications. Here, chalcogels are discussed in the context of nuclear fuel reprocessing and radioactive waste remediation. Motivated by previous work on removal of heavy metals in aqueous solution, we explored the application of germanium sulfide chalcogels as a sorbent for gas-phase I2 based on Pearson's Hard/Soft Acid-Base (HSAB) principle. This work was driven by a significant need for high-efficiency sorbents for I-129, a long-lived isotope evolved during irradiated UO2 nuclear fuel reprocessing. These chalcogel compositions are shown to possess an affinity for iodine gas, I2(g), at various concentrations in air and the affinity is attributed to a strong chemical attraction between the chalcogen and I2(g), according to the HSAB principle. The high sorption efficiency is facilitated by the high porosity as well as the exceptionally large surface area of the chalcogels.

  11. LABORATORY REPORT ON IODINE ({sup 129}I AND {sup 127}I) SPECIATION, TRANSFORMATION AND MOBILITY IN HANFORD GROUNDWATER, SUSPENDED PARTICLES AND SEDIMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaplan, D.; Santschi, P.; Xu, C.; Zhang, S.; Ho, Y.; Li, H.; Schwehr, K.

    2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford Site in eastern Washington produced plutonium for several decades and in the process generated billions of gallons of radioactive waste. Included in this complex mixture of waste was 50 Ci of iodine-129 ({sup 129}I). Iodine-129’s high abundance, due to its high fission yield, and extreme toxicity result in iodine-129 becoming a key risk driver at many Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The mobility of radioiodine in arid environments, such as the Hanford Site, depends largely on its chemical speciation and is also greatly affected by many other environmental factors, especially natural sediment organic matter (SOM). Groundwater radioiodine speciation has not been measured in arid regions with major plumes or large disposed {sup 129}I inventories, including the Hanford Site, Idaho National Laboratory, and Nevada Test Site. In this study, stable iodine-127 and radioiodine-129 speciation, pH, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of groundwater samples collected from seven wells located in the 200-West Area of the Hanford site were investigated. The most striking finding was that iodate (IO{sub 3}{sup -}) was the most abundant species. Unexpectedly, iodide (I{sup -}), which was likely the form of iodine in the source materials and the expected dominant groundwater species based on thermodynamic considerations, only accounted for 1-2% of the total iodine concentration. It is likely that the relatively high pH and the low abundance of sedimentary organic matter (SOM) that is present at the site slowed down or even inhibited the reduction of iodate, as SOM abiotically reduce iodate into iodide. Moreover, a study on the kinetics of iodide and iodate uptake and aqueous speciation transformation by three representative subsurface Hanford sediments was performed over a period of about one month. This study was carried out by using iodide-125 or iodate-125 at the ambient iodine-127concentration found at the site. Iodate K{sub d} values were on average 89% greater than iodide K{sub d} values, and the K{sub d} values for both species tended to increase with the amount of organic carbon (OC) present in the sediment. It is especially noteworthy that this trend existed at the very low OC concentrations that naturally exist in the Hanford sediments. Iodine and OC can form essentially irreversible covalent bonds, thereby providing a yet unstudied {sup 129}I retardation reaction at the Hanford Site. In addition to the transformation of iodine species, the sediment collected from the vadose zone also released stable iodide into the aqueous phase. It was found that the three sediments all took up the ambient iodate from the groundwater and slowly transformed it into iodide under the laboratory conditions, likely dependent on the abundance of reducing agents such as organic matter and Fe{sup 2+}. Therefore two competitive iodine processes were identified, the tendency for the sediment to reduce iodate to iodide, and the groundwater chemistry to maintain the iodine as iodate, presumably it is largely the result of natural pH and dissolved O{sub 2}/Eh levels. Suspended carbonate (and silica) particles collected from Hanford groundwater contained elevated amounts of iodine (142 ± 8 ?g/g iodine), consisting mainly of iodate (>99%). Iodate was likely incorporated into the carbonate structure during calcite precipitation upon degasing of CO{sub 2} as the groundwater samples were removed from the subsurface. This concentration of groundwater iodate in precipitated carbonate has implication to long-term fate and transport of 129I and on active in-situ {sup 129}I groundwater remediation. This study provides some of the first groundwater radioiodine speciation studies conducted in arid environments and provides much needed mechanistic descriptions to permit making informed decisions about low-cost/high intellectual input remediation options, such as monitored natural attenuation, or long-term stewardship of nuclear waste disposal sites.

  12. Generation of concentration density maxima of small dispersive coal dust particles in horizontal iodine air filter at air-dust aerosol blow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neklyudov, I M; Fedorova, L I; Poltinin, P Ya

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The spatial distributions of the small dispersive coal dust particles with the nano and micro sizes in the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal granules in the absorber in the horizontal iodine air filter during its long term operation at the nuclear power plant are researched. It is shown that the concentration density maxima of the small dispersive coal dust particles appear in the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal absorbent granules in the horizontal iodine air filter at an action by the air dust aerosol blow. The comparison of the measured aerodynamic resistances of the horizontal and vertical iodine air filters is conducted. The main conclusion is that the magnitude of the aerodynamic resistance of the horizontal iodine air filters is much smaller in comparison with the magnitude of the aerodynamic resistance of the vertical iodine air filters at the same loads of the air dust aerosol volumes. It is explained that the direction of the air dust aerosol blow and the directi...

  13. High pressure sulfuric acid decomposition experiments for the sulfur-iodine thermochemical cycle.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Velasquez, Carlos E; Reay, Andrew R.; Andazola, James C.; Naranjo, Gerald E.; Gelbard, Fred

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of three pressurized sulfuric acid decomposition tests were performed to (1) obtain data on the fraction of sulfuric acid catalytically converted to sulfur dioxide, oxygen, and water as a function of temperature and pressure, (2) demonstrate real-time measurements of acid conversion for use as process control, (3) obtain multiple measurements of conversion as a function of temperature within a single experiment, and (4) assess rapid quenching to minimize corrosion of metallic components by undecomposed acid. All four of these objectives were successfully accomplished. This report documents the completion of the NHI milestone on high pressure H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} decomposition tests for the Sulfur-Iodine (SI) thermochemical cycle project. All heated sections of the apparatus, (i.e. the boiler, decomposer, and condenser) were fabricated from Hastelloy C276. A ceramic acid injection tube and a ceramic-sheathed thermocouple were used to minimize corrosion of hot liquid acid on the boiler surfaces. Negligible fracturing of the platinum on zirconia catalyst was observed in the high temperature decomposer. Temperature measurements at the exit of the decomposer and at the entry of the condenser indicated that the hot acid vapors were rapidly quenched from about 400 C to less than 20 C within a 14 cm length of the flow path. Real-time gas flow rate measurements of the decomposition products provided a direct measurement of acid conversion. Pressure in the apparatus was preset by a pressure-relief valve that worked well at controlling the system pressure. However, these valves sometimes underwent abrupt transitions that resulted in rapidly varying gas flow rates with concomitant variations in the acid conversion fraction.

  14. Separation, Concentration, and Immobilization of Technetium and Iodine from Alkaline Supernate Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Harvey; Michael Gula

    1998-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Development of remediation technologies for the characterization, retrieval, treatment, concentration, and final disposal of radioactive and chemical tank waste stored within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex represents an enormous scientific and technological challenge. A combined total of over 90 million gallons of high-level waste (HLW) and low-level waste (LLW) are stored in 335 underground storage tanks at four different DOE sites. Roughly 98% of this waste is highly alkaline in nature and contains high concentrations of nitrate and nitrite salts along with lesser concentrations of other salts. The primary waste forms are sludge, saltcake, and liquid supernatant with the bulk of the radioactivity contained in the sludge, making it the largest source of HLW. The saltcake (liquid waste with most of the water removed) and liquid supernatant consist mainly of sodium nitrate and sodium hydroxide salts. The main radioactive constituent in the alkaline supernatant is cesium-137, but strontium-90, technetium-99, and transuranic nuclides are also present in varying concentrations. Reduction of the radioactivity below Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) limits would allow the bulk of the waste to be disposed of as LLW. Because of the long half-life of technetium-99 (2.1 x 10 5 y) and the mobility of the pertechnetate ion (TcO 4 - ) in the environment, it is expected that technetium will have to be removed from the Hanford wastes prior to disposal as LLW. Also, for some of the wastes, some level of technetium removal will be required to meet LLW criteria for radioactive content. Therefore, DOE has identified a need to develop technologies for the separation and concentration of technetium-99 from LLW streams. Eichrom has responded to this DOE-identified need by demonstrating a complete flowsheet for the separation, concentration, and immobilization of technetium (and iodine) from alkaline supernatant waste.

  15. Management of Postoperative Lymphoceles After Lymphadenectomy: Percutaneous Catheter Drainage With and Without Povidone-Iodine Sclerotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alago, William, E-mail: alagow@mskcc.org; Deodhar, Ajita; Michell, Hans; Sofocleous, Constantinos T.; Covey, Anne M.; Solomon, Stephen B.; Getrajdman, George I. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Interventional Radiology Service, Department of Radiology (United States)] [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Interventional Radiology Service, Department of Radiology (United States); Dalbagni, Guido [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Urology Service, Department of Surgery (United States)] [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Urology Service, Department of Surgery (United States); Brown, Karen T. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Interventional Radiology Service, Department of Radiology (United States)] [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Interventional Radiology Service, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    To report our single-center experience in managing symptomatic lymphoceles after lymphadenectomy for genitourinary and gynecologic malignancy and to compare clinical outcomes of percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) alone versus PCD with transcatheter povidone-iodine sclerotherapy (TPIS). The medical records of patients who presented for percutaneous drainage of pelvic lymphoceles from February 1999 to September 2007 were retrospectively reviewed. Catheters with prolonged outputs >50 cc/day were treated with TPIS. Technical success was defined as the ability to achieve complete resolution of the lymphocele. Clinical success was defined as resolution of the patient's symptoms that prompted the intervention. Sixty-four patients with 70 pelvic lymphoceles were treated. Forty-six patients (71.9 %) had PCD, and 18 patients (28.1 %) had multisession TPIS. The mean initial cavity size was 294.9 cc for those treated with TPIS and 228.2 cc for those treated with PCD alone (range 15-1,600) (p = 0.59). Mean duration of catheter drainage was 19 days (29 days with TPIS, 16 days with PCD, p = 0.001). Mean clinical follow-up was 22.6 months. Technical success was 74.3 % with PCD and 100 % with TPIS. Clinical success was 97 % with PCD and 100 % with TPIS. Postprocedural complications included pericatheter fluid leakage (n = 4), catheter dislodgement (n = 3), catheter occlusion (n = 9), and secondary infection of the collection (n = 4). PCD of symptomatic lymphoceles is an effective postoperative management technique. Initial cavity size is not an accurate predictor of the need for TPIS. When indicated, TPIS is safe and effective with catheter outputs >50 cc/day.

  16. Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers `95, eds. V.J. Corcoran and T.A. Goldman, STS Press, McLean VA, 1996, pp. 225-231. OPTIMIZING HIGH PRESSURE CHEMICAL OXYGEN-IODINE LASERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carroll, David L.

    Press, McLean VA, 1996, pp. 225-231. OPTIMIZING HIGH PRESSURE CHEMICAL OXYGEN-IODINE LASERS David L laser model was baselined to existing oxygen-iodine research assessment and device improvement chemical(1) generator. It may be possible to improve high pressure RADICL performance by increasing the number of large

  17. The influence of iodinated casein and high fat diets on the performance and incidence of fatty livers in laying hens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young, Louis Lee

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE INl'LUENCE OF IODINATED CASEIN AND HIGH FAT DIETS ON THE PEBFORMANC' AND INCIDENCE OF FATTY LIVERS IN LAYING H"NS A Thesis Loui" Lee Young Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&II Univer -ity in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January 1967 Major Subject oultry Science THE INPLUENCE OP IODINA'I "D CAS IN AND HIGH FAT DIETS ON THE P, HFOHMAI'JCE AND INCIDENCE OP PATTY LIVENS IN LAYING HENS A Thesis Louis Lee Young Approved...

  18. Biodistribution and in vivo kinetics of iodine-131 lipiodol infused via the hepatic artery of patients with hepatic cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakajo, M.; Kobayashi, H.; Shimabukuro, K.; Shirono, K.; Sakata, H.; Taguchi, M.; Uchiyama, N.; Sonoda, T.; Shinohara, S.

    1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The biodistribution and in vivo kinetics of (/sup 131/I)lipiodol infused into the hepatic artery were studied to estimate the potential of internal radiotherapy of hepatic cancer in five patients. It accumulated only in the vascular tumors and adjacent hepatic tissue (AHT) supplied by the infused artery, and to a lesser extent in the lung throughout 8 days imaging sequence. Iodine-131 lipiodol appeared to lead to oil embolization of the tumor and AHT followed by secondary embolization to the lungs and finally the activity was mainly excreted into urine. Four tumors had rapidly and slowly decreasing components, while the AHT activity decreased exponentially from the beginning. The effective half life in tumors was longer with the slow component (mean +/- s.d.: 5.7 +/- 1.2 days) than the AHT (3.7 +/- 0.6 days). The tumor/AHT concentration ratio in three patients at 2 hr was estimated to be 7.5-21. The activity was lower in the lungs than in the AHT in four patients. Iodine-131 lipiodol thus may be used as an intra-arterial infusion agent to treat certain vascular hepatic cancers.

  19. Gain and continuous-wave laser oscillation on the 1315 nm atomic iodine transition pumped by an air-helium electric discharge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carroll, David L.

    peroxide and Cl2 gas. Logistic issues with this chemical sin- glet oxygen generator motivated many by a radio-frequency-excited electric discharge sustained in a dry air-He­NO gas mixture. Active oxygen American Institute of Physics. DOI: 10.1063/1.2957678 The classical chemical oxygen iodine laser COIL re

  20. Conversion and correction factors for historical measurements of Iodine-131 in Hanford-area vegetation, 1945--1947: Draft. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mart, E.I.; Denham, D.H.; Thiede, M.E.

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is a result of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project whose goal is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received from emissions since 1944 at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The report describes in detail the reconstructed conversion and correction factors for historical measurements of iodine-131 in Hanford-area vegetation which was collected from the beginning of October 1945 through the end of December 1947.

  1. Many-body potentials of an open shell atom: Spectroscopy of spin-orbit transitions of iodine in crystalline Xe and Kr

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apkarian, V. Ara

    Many-body potentials of an open shell atom: Spectroscopy of spin-orbit transitions of iodine: 2E,,2-`1E1,2 and 2EI12+ESj2 transitions. Two pairs of bands are observed each in Xe and Kr. The long-body potentials of open shell species-atoms, radicals or molecules-as encountered in condensed media, cannot

  2. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE ColZoque C9, suppZe'ment au nO1l, Tome 41, novembre 1980, page C9-449 A POTENTIAL ATOMIC IODINE LASER PUMPED BY ELECTRICALLY GENERATED 'A OXYGEN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -449 A POTENTIAL ATOMIC IODINE LASER PUMPED BY ELECTRICALLY GENERATED 'A OXYGEN G. Fournier, J. Bonnet and D ation. This paper shows that an electron generator of 1~ oxygen [21 . A condition beam controlled discharge could be an for lasing is a concentration ratio ['A] / efficient oxygen generator to lase with C3z

  3. Distribution of small dispersive coal dust particles and absorbed radioactive chemical elements in conditions of forced acoustic resonance in iodine air filter at nuclear power plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ledenyov, Oleg P

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The physical features of distribution of the small dispersive coal dust particles and the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the absorber with the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal granules were researched in the case of the intensive air dust aerosol stream flow through the iodine air filter (IAF). It was shown that, at the certain aerodynamic conditions in the IAF, the generation of the acoustic oscillations is possible. It was found that the acoustic oscillations generation results in an appearance of the standing acoustic waves of the air pressure (density) in the IAF. In the case of the intensive blow of the air dust aerosol, it was demonstrated that the standing acoustic waves have some strong influences on both: 1) the dynamics of small dispersive coal dust particles movement and their accumulation in the IAF; 2) the oversaturation of the cylindrical coal granules by the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the regions, where the antin...

  4. Models of the formation of oxide phases in nanostructured materials based on lead chalcogenides subjected to treatment in oxygen and iodine vapors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maraeva, E. V., E-mail: jenvmar@mail.ru; Moshnikov, V. A.; Tairov, Yu. M. [St. Petersburg State Electrotechnical University 'LETI' (Russian Federation)] [St. Petersburg State Electrotechnical University 'LETI' (Russian Federation)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Model concepts concerning control over the formation of oxide layers during the course of oxidation are developed on the basis of experimental results of studies of systematic features of the formation of nanostructured layers after diffusion annealing. Data on a variation in the composition of oxide phases as the extent of deviation from stoichiometry is changed in the initial lead chalcogenide are presented. Model concepts related to the possibility of varying the thickness of the coating oxide phases using annealing in an oxygen-containing medium are developed. It is shown that annealing in an iodine atmosphere ensures the effective penetration of oxygen into the grains, which is necessary for an increase in the photoluminescence efficiency.

  5. Distribution of small dispersive coal dust particles and absorbed radioactive chemical elements in conditions of forced acoustic resonance in iodine air filter at nuclear power plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oleg P. Ledenyov; Ivan M. Neklyudov

    2013-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The physical features of distribution of the small dispersive coal dust particles and the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the absorber with the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal granules were researched in the case of the intensive air dust aerosol stream flow through the iodine air filter (IAF). It was shown that, at the certain aerodynamic conditions in the IAF, the generation of the acoustic oscillations is possible. It was found that the acoustic oscillations generation results in an appearance of the standing acoustic waves of the air pressure (density) in the IAF. In the case of the intensive blow of the air dust aerosol, it was demonstrated that the standing acoustic waves have some strong influences on both: 1) the dynamics of small dispersive coal dust particles movement and their accumulation in the IAF; 2) the oversaturation of the cylindrical coal granules by the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the regions, where the antinodes of the acoustic waves are positioned. Finally, we completed the comparative analysis of the theoretical calculations with the experimental results, obtained for the cases of: 1) the experimental aerodynamic modeling of physical processes of the absorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes distribution in the IAF; and 2) the gamma-activation spectroscopy analysis of the absorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes distribution in the IAF. We made the innovative propositions on the necessary technical modifications with the purpose to improve the IAF technical characteristics and increase its operational time at the nuclear power plant (NPP), going from the completed precise characterization of the IAF parameters at the long term operation.

  6. The Seebeck coefficient of iodine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez-Fernandez, Domingo Miguel

    1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    will be P while 0 across the hot junction will be g + ( 3g/3dT) (dT/dx) (up to 0 first order). This means that 3)/3T will be measured as a thermo- electric potential. The contact potential is determined by the 36 difference between the energy outside... is defined by V Lim AT~ 0 (1. 1) where V is the voltage drop and dT is the difference in temperature of the end points of the sample. Por one type of carriers, the Seebeck coefficient is given by k O. ? ? [z ? p] / kT (1. 2) where e is the electronic...

  7. Photo-effects in iodine single crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rieves, John Michael

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    energy distribution for the nsrcury Ianp is sbo?n in pig. 9(c) . No curve ws available for the tuagsten leaps ho?aver, Cbs gsesral profile of tbe spectral energy output is hnoun to folio?a snooth curve ?hicb increases gradually fron ~ vary lo...

  8. Equilibria in trialkylarsine oxide-iodine solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolar, Frank Lee

    1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    prepared as described by' Zingaro and Meri)anian. A~M 'tn . A Beohnenn DR-1 do ble been reoordtnd spectrophotometer with a thermostatically controlled (+ 0. 1'C. ) cell compartment. B 1 tio ~P'tto . 1 p *te t the **t n ly hygroscopic arsine oxides.... Xamai and B. D. Chernokal'skii, Tr. Xazansk. Khim. Tekhnol. Inst. , 26, 117 (195+9 (k) A. Meri)anlan and R. A. Zingaro, ~Incr . Chem. , 5, 187 (1966) 2. F. Schindler, H. Schmidbaur, and G. Jones, A~n ew. Chem. , 77, 170 (1965). J. Lewis, R. S. Nyholm...

  9. Speciation and transport of anthropogenic 129Iodine and natural 127Iodine in surface and subsurface environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwehr, Kathleen Ann

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    could provide a geochronometer, similar to the way 14C is used, particularly for terrestrial organic matter that is less than 50 years old. A series of laboratory experiments and field investigations were carried out to characterize the dominant chemical...

  10. 1462 VOLUME 33J O U R N A L O F P H Y S I C A L O C E A N O G R A P H Y 2003 American Meteorological Society

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacKinnon, Jennifer

    of ornithine and betaine bearing intact polar lipids could be an indicator of a phos- phate-limited ecosystem

  11. CORRELATION OF FAILURE TIRES FOR IODINE SCC OF ZIRCALOY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shann, S.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    D. Cllbiocciotti, & Jones, "EPRI - NASA Cooperative P:rojon Corrosion Cracking", EPRI NP-717 (1978). Cubiocciotti,R.L. Jones and Zircaloy", EPRI NP-1329 (19SO). C. Syrett, "

  12. acex project iodine: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the magmatic component were mainly derived from marine sediments subducted in the Nankai Trough. These observations suggest that recycling of subducted sediments is an active...

  13. ace iodine project: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Miu, Kevin (Kevin K.) 2006-01-01 210 Ainsi, grace au th eor eme 47, est satisfaisable ssi l'ensemble des abrres a branchement au plus d reconnus par Computer Technologies and...

  14. Measurement of the resistivity versus temperature in iodine single crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Somoano, Robert Bonner

    1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ''vr'xcaT :. . -; '. conduction mec'hanism similar' to. that yropose'd bj'thi band thccxjr, ". '=. : ', . '::'-''-' in solid'state- phjsics -'ibis aiticje stimulated''considbrable / 9nterest 9. n''thc solid state p'rope'rites ox m'olecuinr crystals' ;' '. -'. , ; ? Nost of...'armies' ?' "-:-', ?&. ':: ~ of iodixio w. der . preseux'o ~&ne results of the war'- dona. in the punt few ?"eIxrs indicate t'hat, there is considerable cU, cn~reezent . ' ' . , -'acbO4ti-tIXe: C&n, -, e MMhe=:rSSXS4anba-af itijHne -With, -Prb~ure--XCnd , ?' '-' ji1sy...

  15. Multiple ionization and fragmentation dynamics of molecular iodine studied in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kling, Matthias

    ­probe experiments K. Schnorr,a A. Senftleben,ab G. Schmid,a A. Rudenko,c M. Kurka,a K. Meyer,a L. Foucar,d M. K

  16. Technetium and Iodine Separations in the UREX Process.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroeder, N. C. (Norman C.); Attrep, Moses; Marrero, T. (Thomas)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) program is being developed to determine the feasibility of separatin and transmutating the transactinides (Pu-Cm) and long-lived fission product (99Tc and 'I) from spent light water reactor (LWR) fuel. This approach would help with the disposal of spent commercial fuel. In addition, since the residual waste after ATW treatment will have much lower levels of long-lived species, this process may improve the performance and acceptability of long-term geologic disposal of nuclear waste. A roadmap for the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) was submitted to Congress in 1999.' This document gave an overall view of the ATW concept and program. A subsequent document prepared by the Technical Working Group for ATW Separations Technologies and Waste Forms issued a second roadmap that dealt more specifically with the radionuclide separations and waste disposal needs for the ATW program.' This latter document discusses the UREX (Uranium Extraction) process. The latest iteration of the UREX flowsheet is shown in Figure le3T his flowsheet anticipates the co-extraction of technetium with uranium from dissolved LWR fuel by tributylphosphate (TBP) and their subsequent sequential bwk-extraction from the TBP stream.

  17. Dry deposition of gaseous elemental iodine on water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Michael Dana

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    after they strike the surface. Aerodynamic mechanisms of mass transport have previously been listed; processes by which particles or gases "stick" to a collection medium are vagueIy reported as impaction, adsorption, electrostatic forces, snd... and vapors. The height at which the (4) volumetric concentration is measured should 'be reported in conJunction with an experimental value of V, but, in geners1, except for very close to the surface, the concentration does not change appreciably...

  18. The crystal structure of the triphenylphosphine sulfide - iodine addition complex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schweikert, William Walter

    1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . . 7274 92 ~ 8810 35*3628 33. 6805 16. 7589 25 3752 16 5130 22. 7232 55 ' 4284' 48. 4644 53. 8980 113. 6853 39 0346 ? ? ? -25. 3724 0 0 0 0 0 5 5 5 -5 6 8 8 0 34 2100 17 8600 7 4900 '11 4300 19 5600 36 1436 16 3137 14 ' 1642...

  19. Radioactive Iodine and Krypton Control for Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soelberg, Nicolas R. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Garn, Troy [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Greenhalgh, Mitchell [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Law, Jack [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Jubin, Robert T. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Strachan, Denis M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Thallapally, Praveen K. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear fission results in the production of fission products and activation products, some of which tend to be volatile during used fuel reprocessing. These can evolve in volatile species in the reprocessing facility off-gas streams, depending on the separations and reprocessing technologies that are used. Radionuclides that have been identified as “volatile radionuclides” are noble gases (most notably isotopes of Kr and Xe); 3H; 14C; and 129I. Radionuclides that tend to form volatile species that evolve into reprocessing facility off-gas systems are more challenging to efficiently control compared to radionuclides that tend to stay in solid or liquid phases. Future used fuel reprocessing facilities in the United States can require efficient capture of some volatile radionuclides in their off-gas streams to meet regulatory emission requirements. In aqueous reprocessing, these radionuclides are most commonly expected to evolve into off-gas streams in tritiated water [3H2O (T2O) and 3HHO (THO)], radioactive CO2, noble gases, and gaseous HI, I2, or volatile organic iodides. The fate and speciation of these radionuclides from a non-aqueous fuel reprocessing facility is less well known at this time, but active investigations are in progress. An Off-Gas Sigma Team was formed in late FY 2009 to integrate and coordinate the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) activities directed towards the capture and sequestration of the these volatile radionuclides (Jubin 2012a). The Sigma Team concept was envisioned to bring together multidisciplinary teams from across the DOE complex that would work collaboratively to solve the technical challenges and to develop the scientific basis for the capture and immobilization technologies such that the sum of the efforts was greater than the individual parts. The Laboratories currently participating in this effort are Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). This article focuses on control of volatile radionuclides that evolve during aqueous reprocessing of UNF. In particular, most of the work by the Off-gas Sigma Team has focused on the capture and sequestration of 129I and 85Kr, mainly because, as discussed below, control of 129I can require high efficiencies to meet regulatory requirements, and control of 85Kr using cryogenic processing, which has been the technology demonstrated and used commercially to date, can add considerable cost to a reprocessing facility.

  20. The contribution of oceanic methyl iodide to stratospheric iodine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CH 3 I transport from the surface to the cold point (giventhe vertical transport from the surface to the cold point atCH 3 I transport from the ocean surface to the cold point in

  1. Method for the simultaneous preparation of radon-211, xenon-125, xenon-123, astatine-211, iodine-125 and iodine-123

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mirzadeh, S.; Lambrecht, R.M.

    1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a practical method for commercially producing radiopharmaceutical activities and, more particularly, relates to a method for the preparation of about equal amount of Radon-211 (/sup 211/Rn) and Xenon-125 (/sup 125/Xe) including a one-step chemical procedure following an irradiation procedure in which a selected target of Thorium (/sup 232/Th) or Uranium (/sup 238/U) is irradiated. The disclosed method is also effective for the preparation in a one-step chemical procedure of substantially equal amounts of high purity /sup 123/I and /sup 211/At. In one preferred arrangement of the invention almost equal quantities of /sup 211/Rn and /sup 125/Xe are prepared using a onestep chemical procedure in which a suitably irradiated fertile target material, such as thorium-232 or uranium-238, is treated to extract those radionuclides from it. In the same one-step chemical procedure about equal quantities of /sup 211/At and /sup 123/I are prepared and stored for subsequent use. In a modified arrangement of the method of the invention, it is practiced to separate and store about equal amounts of only /sup 211/Rn and /sup 125/Xe, while preventing the extraction or storage of the radionuclides /sup 211/At and /sup 123/I.

  2. A study of the electrical resistivity of the perylene-iodine complex for various ratios of perylene to iodine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Bruce Melville

    1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    spar c' "c' ' 0 suc 1088 i ' ~ tnc "1 cv OQGJy : ontiol cd one- for . lure 'od'nc i=c 0 i:. Sano is seas. "rc. ". e. . ts Sbo::ed drop i. res- stivity:or polycr js'"-llinc iocine oz jac or of onc t. . Gusand over Q pressure ranee of for ij tnousand...

  3. Start detector T0 for trigger and time-of-flight systems of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -ISTC SAC Seminar 6 HMPID PHOS (3/5) ITS TOF TPC Central Barrel || Magnet Research, Russia ­ Moscow Engineering-Physics Institute, Russia ­ Kurchatov Institute, Russia ­ University

  4. Synthesis and study of ligands for Pd-catalyzed C-O and C-N coupling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Nicole R. (Nicole Rose)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new ligand, AdBrettPhos, was synthesized and its use, along with tBuBrettPhos, in C-O coupling reactions at low temperatures was investigated. Using Pd catalysts containing these ligands, electron-neutral aryl bromides ...

  5. Carrier envelope phase stabilization of a femtosecond laser and iodine spectroscopy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Feng

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The carrier envelope (CE) phase of a femtosecond laser was stabilized. The laser produces an ultra stable comb of frequency spanning the visible region and basically is an optical frequency synthesizer and ready for the frequency domain applications...

  6. Roles of Naturally Occurring Bacteria in Controlling Iodine-129 Mobility in Subsurface Soils 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Hsiu-Ping

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    129I is of major concern because of its biophilic nature, excessive inventory, long half-life (~16 million yrs), and high mobility in the natural environment that depends on its chemical speciation. Iodide (I-) has the ...

  7. An evaluation of radio-iodinated human serum albumin in the dog

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hood, David Martin

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Prinzmetal's indicator-dilution curves much more practicable. This was accomplished by developing methods for the continuous quantitative recording of the arterial time-concentration isotope curves. The technique used by Huff (11) consists... with different isotopes of iodide were used in simultan- eously conducted dilution studies in the dog. The par- ameters of plasma volume and plasma clearance half-times were used for the comparative evaluation of the two radio- pharmaceuticals. Over a six...

  8. Characterizing soil preferential flow using iodine--starch staining experiments and the active region model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng, Feng

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    from soil texture; the residual water contents are 0.07 andcorresponding to the residual water content) in the activecorresponding to the residual water content) of the whole

  9. Hyperfine predissociation in the B state of iodine investigated through lifetime measurements of individual hyperfine sublevels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    . - The dynamics of molecular excited states is an important chapter of present-day molecular physics from the level under investigation following a pulsed excitation of this level. Our laser-excited

  10. Relationship of the serum protein-bound iodine to rates of gain in beef cattle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stokes, David Kershaw

    1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to03 Go ?H -P CO HOI PQ Hto01 oto H O to rH O CD... tOO to02to o o Oi01to ?00101 ?01 to H rH 05 O 01 01 to rH tO rH O ? 00toe'? en 00 01*0001to 001 01 ao 05 01 !>?> tOa> 01lO #oto!> IDtoo 01* 00to rH 01 COo ? ID H oo> 0> 05 c?to GO Hto...

  11. Noise spectrum measurements as a means of studying the resistivity of iodine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barry, Billy Frank

    1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to maintain props~ electrostatic shic. ldinq and grounding r!ith rogorr! to thc: various comp!. oncnts of the circuit. A. block- dfaprem of the noise measurer ent equipment is sbo~vr in 1'iguro 1. All cot!ponente werc connected by sbiolded coaxial cable...

  12. Earth Planets Space, 54, 265273, 2002 Iodine isotope ratios and halide concentrations in fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fehn, Udo

    is best preserved in the high-temperature fumaroles collected in 1998 and has a 129 I/I ratio of 756 ± 47 recent meteoric water from the fumarolic system after 1993. The acid hot springs on the flanks by mixing with old meteoric water and seawater. Fumarolic gases and hot spring waters were also analyzed

  13. Roles of Naturally Occurring Bacteria in Controlling Iodine-129 Mobility in Subsurface Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Hsiu-Ping

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    - to reactive intermediates. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of naturally occurring aerobic bacteria isolated from an 129I contaminated aquifer (F-area of the Savannah River Site, SC) on I- oxidation and OI formation. It was demonstrated...

  14. Characterization of an iodine-based ionic liquid ion source and studies on ion fragmentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fedkiw, Timothy Peter

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrosprays are a well studied source of charged droplets and ions. A specific subclass is the ionic liquid ion source (ILIS), which produce ion beams from the electrostatically stressed meniscus of ionic liquids. ILIS ...

  15. Resistivity of low percentage perylene to iodine complexes and their excess noise spectra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caruthers, Jerald Wayne

    1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that pressed prlycrystalline samples and single crystals should yield the same activation energy. & However others have ~btained activation energies nf 1 to 1 . 5 ev i'nr single crystal s. 9 & 3 L511er reports a rapid droop in activation energy from 0. 7... 0. 60 0. 34 0. 13 0. 35 0. 24 Extrinsic 0, 034 0. 034 0. 056 0, 059 (oZ) 240 250 288 Int. 10 3 10 4 0. 2 50 0. 2 106 10 104 10 Table 1. Information Cbtained from Figures e through P, 16 decreasing the gap between them...

  16. IODINE IN THE ENVIRONMENT REVISITED. AN EVALUATION OF THE CHEMICAL-AND PHYSICO CHEMICAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    107 years) has received considerable attention as a byproduct of nuclear energy production. 129 I released to the environment, e.g. by nuclear accidents may be accumulated in the thyroid gland

  17. AKIE YOSHINO AND YOICHI IITAKA 67 thermal vibrations of the iodine atoms were also ob-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rossmann, Michael G.

    Industries for use of an IBM 7090 computer. References AMIYA, T. (1960). Bull. Chem. Soc. Japan, 33, 1175 PETER MAIN AND MICHAEL G. ROSSMANN Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, Lafayette

  18. Capture of Solar and Higher-Energy Neutrinos by Iodine 127

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Engel; S. Pittel; P. Vogel

    1994-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss and improve a recent treatment of the absorption of solar neutrinos by ${}^{127}$I, in connection with a proposed solar neutrino detector. With standard-solar-model fluxes and an in-medium value of -1.0 for the axial-vector coupling constant $g_A$, we obtain a ${}^8$B-neutrino cross section of 3.3$\\times 10^{-42}$, about 50\\% larger than in our previous work, and a ${}^7$Be cross section that is less certain but nevertheless also larger than before. We then apply the improved techniques to higher incoming energies that obtain at the LAMPF beam dump, where an experiment is underway to finalize a calibration of the ${}^{127}$I with electron neutrinos from muon decay. We find that forbidden operators, which play no role in solar-neutrino absorption, contribute nonnegligibly to the LAMPF cross section, and that the preliminary LAMPF mean value is significantly larger than our prediction.

  19. Performance of a Multistream Injection Chemical OxygenIodine Laser with Starlet Ejectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carroll, David L.

    and has the potential for higher pressure recovery. Pressures in the singlet-oxygen generator were technology development to date has focused on the singlet-oxygen generator (SOG). The liquid SOG technology- oxygen generation and transport efficiency. The idea of the starlet nozzle concept stems originally from

  20. Interfacing the tandem mirror reactor to the sulfur-iodine process for hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galloway, T.R.

    1980-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The blanket is linked to the H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ vaporization units and SO/sub 3/ decomposition reactor with either sodium or helium. The engineering and safety problems associated with these choices are discussed. This H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ step uses about 90% of the TMR heat and is best close-coupled to the nuclear island. The rest of the process we propose to be driven by steam and does not require close-coupling. The sodium loop coupling seems to be preferable at this time. We can operate with a blanket around 1200 K and the SO/sub 3/ decomposer around 1050 K. This configuration offers double-barrier protection between Li-Na and the SO/sub 3/ process gases. Heat pipes offer an attractive alternate to provide an additional barrier, added modularity for increased reliability, and tritium concentration and isolation operations with very little thermal penalty.

  1. The release of actinides, cesium, strontium, technetium, and iodine from spent fuel under unsaturated conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finn, P.A.; Hoh, J.C.; Wolf, S.F. [and others

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Drip tests to measure radionuclide release from spent nuclear fuel are being performed at 90{degrees}C at a drip rate of 0.75 mL/3.5 days; the test conditions are designed to simulate the behavior of spent fuel under the unsaturated and oxidizing conditions expected in the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. This paper presents measurements of the actinide, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 129}I contents in the leachates after 581 days of testing at 90{degrees}C. These values provide an estimate of the source term for the long-lived radionuclide release under these test conditions. Comparisons are made between our results and those of other researchers.

  2. Tritium And Iodine Plumes on the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2,EHSS A-Z SiteManhattan ProjectMay 29, 2014 Online

  3. Tritium And Iodine Plumes on the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2,EHSS A-Z SiteManhattan ProjectMay 29, 2014

  4. Direct vapor/solid synthesis of mercuric iodide using compounds of mercury and iodine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skinner, Nathan L. (Carpinteria, CA)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is disclosed for producing high purity mercuric iodide by passing a gaseous source of a mercuric compound through a particulate bed of a low vapor pressure iodide compound which is maintained at an elevated temperature which is the lower of either: (a) just below the melting or volatilization temperature of the iodide compound (which ever is lower); or (b) just below the volatilization point of the other reaction product formed during the reaction; to cause the mercuric compound to react with the iodide compound to form mercuric iodide which then passes as a vapor out of the bed into a cooler condensation region.

  5. Carrier envelope phase stabilization of a femtosecond laser and iodine spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Feng

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    . In this context, the CW stability of the Ti:sapphire laser is discussed to provide a procedure for the femtosecond laser adjustments. In addition, the pulse trains emitted by the femtosecond laser are described analytically to provide a theoretical basis...

  6. Efforts to Consolidate Chalcogels with Adsorbed Iodine | SciTech Connect

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign:INEAWater Use Goal 4: Efficient Water Use &Efforts to

  7. Iodine solubility in a low-activity waste borosilicate glass at 1000°C

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes | NationalCurriculum IntroductionInvestor andPublicTank

  8. Iodine valence and local environments in borosilicate waste glasses using X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes | NationalCurriculum IntroductionInvestor andPublicTankvalence

  9. Assessment of Methods to Consolidate Iodine-Loaded Silver-Functionalized

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternativeOperational Management »EnergyHubs |B -

  10. Novel 125 I production and recovery system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kar, Adwitiya

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This research suggests ways of reducing contamination of iodine-126 in iodine-125 and lays out a simpler iodine-125 production technique to increase the yield. By using aluminum irradiation vessels the yield of iodine-125 produced by neutron...

  11. J. Sep. Sci. 2005, 28, 155162 www.jss-journal.de i 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim OriginalPaper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lebendiker, Mario

    [bis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)amino]propan-2-olato dizinc(II) complex (Phos-tag), which is linked to a highly cross of pro- teins, such as phosphorylation, glycosylation, methyla- tion, and acetylation, dramatically

  12. Quantitative Analysis of Phosphotyrosine Signaling Networks Triggered by CD3 and CD28 Costimulation in Jurkat Cells1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    two phosphotyrosine sites in the ITAM motif (ITAM; YxxI/L) with the exception of the -chain, which with phos- phorylated ITAM in the -chain and LAT, which interacts with other adaptor molecules such as Vav-1

  13. A novel laboratory scale method for studying heat treatment of cake flour

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chesterton, A. K. S.; Wilson, D. I.; Sadd, P. I.; Moggridge, G. D.

    2014-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    *, ThermPhos International 172 BV, UK) and emulsifier (propylene glycol monostearate and monoglyceride, Advitagel Food 173 8 Ltd., UK) were supplied by Premier Foods (High Wycombe, UK). Caster sugar, whole liquid 174 eggs and salt were purchased...

  14. The effect of 2 mMol glutamine supplementation on HSP70 and TNF-a release by LPS stimulated blood from healthy children

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marino, L.V.; Pathan, N.; Meyer, R.; Wright, V.J.; Habibi, P.

    2014-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    the efficiency of the mitochondrial respiratory chain contributing to the bioenergetics failure of the mitochondria (a feature of critical illness), where engorged mitochondria are not able to meet adenosine tri phos- phate demands of tissues, resulting in cell...

  15. active binuclear palladium: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TangPhos ligand was found Zhang, Xumu 58 Exchange Interaction in Binuclear Complexes with Rare Earth and Copper Ions: A Many-Body Model Study CiteSeer Summary: We have used a...

  16. Iodine-125-labeled lipoprotein lipase as a tool to detect and study spontaneous lipolysis in bovine milk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sundheim, G.; Bengtsson-Olivecrona, G.

    1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The distribution of lipoprotein lipase among cream, casein, and milk serum can be evaluated by addition of a trace amount of /sup 125/I-labeled lipoprotein lipase to milk. Radioactive lipase was distributed in parallel to endogenous lipase under several conditions. In some milk samples, binding of lipase to cream increased when the milk was cooled. Correlation was good between bound labeled lipase and degree of cold-induced lipolysis in corresponding milk samples. Binding of lipase to cream or to casein was not saturable by addition of two-to threefold more lipase than is normally present in milk. In milk with a relatively high fraction of lipase bound to cream, a correspondingly lower fraction was associated with casein, whereas the fraction of lipase in milk serum was similar in all milk samples. Cold-induced binding of lipoprotein lipase to cream was not fully reversed when the milk was warmed again. Heparin released lipase from casein and increased the amount of lipase bound to cream after cooling.

  17. 129 Iodine: A New Hydrologic Tracer for Aquifer Recharge Conditions Influenced by River Flow Rate and Evapotranspiration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwehr, K. A.; Santschi, P. H.; Moran, J. E.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    County using boron isotopes and general geochemistry, In Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory UCRL-ID-133529 (pp. 44). ? Davisson, M.L., Hudson, G.B., Herndon, R., & Woodside, G. (1999b). Report on isotope tracer investigations in the Forebay... of the Orange County Groundwater Basin: Fiscal years 1996 and 1997, In Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory UCRL-ID- 133531 (pp. 44). ? Dissanayake, C.B. & Chandrajith, R. (1999). Medical geochemistry of tropical environments. Earth-Science Reviews 47, 219...

  18. The effect of vitamin B 12 and various levels of iodine in the diet of growing chicks and mature hens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banta, Edward Mack

    1957-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    giaeral miatwre+) Vitaaia NiatareO ) SS, O S0, 0 1 0 (1)maideatified Srewth fetor so~oes ~ed were as followsi (1) Cried hrewers yeast, (S) Cried Ciatillera soluhlee, (S) alfalfa aa4 (4) Cried delaetoeed whey. (S)The siaerals aa4 levels scc...

  19. Absolute frequency measurement of the iodine-stabilized Ar+ at 514.6 nm using a femtosecond optical frequency comb.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Hz higher than the value of 582490603.38(15) MHz, adopted by the CIPM in 2003 [T.J. Quinn, Metrologia 40

  20. Ab initio potential energy curves of the valence, Rydberg, and ion-pair states of iodine monochloride, ICl

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalemos, Apostolos, E-mail: kalemos@chem.uoa.gr [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens 15771 (Greece); Prosmiti, Rita [Instituto de Física Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, (IFF-CSIC), Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We present for the first time a coherent ab initio study of 39 states of valence, Rydberg, and ion-pair character of the diatomic interhalogen ICl species through large scale multireference variational methods including spin-orbit effects coupled with quantitative basis sets. Various avoided crossings are responsible for a non-adiabatic behaviour creating a wonderful vista for its theoretical description. Our molecular constants are compared with all available experimental data with the aim to assist experimentalists especially in the high energy regime of up to ?95?000 cm{sup ?1}.

  1. A study of the reactions related to the catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by the iodate-iodine couple

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simic, Radmilo

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    has 0 been studied from 1G to 50 C, and the temperature coef- ficient was found to be 2. 3 per 10 C, the activation 0 energy being 15. 6 keel/mole. The rate was measured by following oxygen evolution from the mixtures saturated witn respect... - -2. 2x1D was in accord with his 3 previous conclusion. A rate law for Reaction 2 was first proposed by 5 6, 7 Dushman. Abel and co-workers, ' in a revision of Dushman's work, have shown that the rate law is (4) -d [1051f'dt Ftdd 1 Ft ]F" 1 [kdf...

  2. Urinary Metabolomic Analysis to Detect Changes After Intravenous, Non-ionic, Low Osmolar Iodinated Radiocontrast for Computerized Tomographic Imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diercks, Deborah B; Owen, Kelly P; Tolstikov, Vladimir; Sutter, Mark E; Kline, Jeffrey A

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Acad Radiol. after percutaneous coronary intervention and adialysis after percutaneous coronary intervention and theafter percutaneous coronary intervention: development and

  3. Iodine Pathways and Off-Gas Stream Characteristics for Aqueous Reprocessing Plants – A Literature Survey and Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. T. Jubin; D. M. Strachan; N. R. Soelberg

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Used nuclear fuel is currently being reprocessed in only a few countries, notably France, England, Japan, and Russia. The need to control emissions of the gaseous radionuclides to the air during nuclear fuel reprocessing has already been reported for the entire plant. But since the gaseous radionuclides can partition to various different reprocessing off-gas streams, for example, from the head end, dissolver, vessel, cell, and melter, an understanding of each of these streams is critical. These off-gas streams have different flow rates and compositions and could have different gaseous radionuclide control requirements, depending on how the gaseous radionuclides partition. This report reviews the available literature to summarize specific engineering data on the flow rates, forms of the volatile radionuclides in off-gas streams, distributions of these radionuclides in these streams, and temperatures of these streams. This document contains an extensive bibliography of the information contained in the open literature.

  4. The level of serum protein-bound iodine, its repeatability and relationship to rate of gain in immature beef cattle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Green, George G.

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    $dok*'h*df' fw0 Kxkufwokf' tl''x$x lm Wxyfs ow ;fdhof' m*'mo'',xwh lm hux dx\\*odx,xwh mld hux 0x$dxx lm SOtWOA Oa NrLcOMONre n*$*shi >?R? Kf3ld M*H3xkhs nDLKnc DCWALWLOD WrE cE.Ec Oa MEACK NAOWELDGTOCDS LOSLDEi LWM AENEnWnTLcLWe nDS AEcnWLODMrLN WO AnWE Oa... pnLD LD LKKnWCAE TEEa tnWWcE n Sossxdhfholw Tg pEOApE p: pAEED n;;dlJx0 fs hl shg'x fw0 klwhxwh HgP ?tufod,fw lm tl,,ohhxxV ?rxf0 lm Sx;fdh,xwhV n*$*shi >?R? ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Sincere appreciation is expressed to the following: Dr* H, 0 o Kunke...

  5. A study of the reactions related to the catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by the iodate-iodine couple 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simic, Radmilo

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    has 0 been studied from 1G to 50 C, and the temperature coef- ficient was found to be 2. 3 per 10 C, the activation 0 energy being 15. 6 keel/mole. The rate was measured by following oxygen evolution from the mixtures saturated witn respect... - -2. 2x1D was in accord with his 3 previous conclusion. A rate law for Reaction 2 was first proposed by 5 6, 7 Dushman. Abel and co-workers, ' in a revision of Dushman's work, have shown that the rate law is (4) -d [1051f'dt Ftdd 1 Ft ]F" 1 [kdf...

  6. The influence of iodinated casein and high fat diets on the performance and incidence of fatty livers in laying hens 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young, Louis Lee

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    /56) concluded that energy level at a given protein level was more important to feed efficiency than the calorie/protein ratio. Hac- Intyre and Aitken (1)57) upported this conclusion and calculated th &t a reduction in. the caloric value of a feed. by 100... d. epressed but only to 1681 grams. Thi" pattern may be related to the birds' daily caloric intake relative to their daily caloric requirement. The birds fed diet 2 consumed only about fi re more Calories per dav than the birds i'ed the basal...

  7. 1150 IEEE JOURNAL OF QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, VOL. 39, NO. 9, SEPTEMBER 2003 Modeling of the ElectriCOIL System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carroll, David L.

    ) Traditionally, this pumping reaction is fed by a liquid chem- istry singlet oxygen generator (SOG). However discharge oxygen-iodine laser (ElectriCOIL) system. Results of those studies along with more recent Terms--Chemical oxygen-iodine laser, chemical oxygen- iodine laser (COIL), discharge oxygen-iodine laser

  8. Physical features of small disperse coal dust fraction transportation and structurization processes in iodine air filters of absorption type in ventilation systems at nuclear power plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ledenyov, Oleg P; Poltinin, P Ya; Fedorova, L I

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The research on the physical features of transportation and structurization processes by the air-dust aerosol in the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal adsorbent granules in an air filter of the adsorption type in the heating ventilation and cooling (HVAC) system at the nuclear power plant is completed. The physical origins of the coal dust masses distribution along the absorber with the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal granules during the air-dust aerosol intake process in the near the surface layer of absorber are researched. The quantitative technical characteristics of air filtering elements, which have to be considered during the optimization of air filters designs for the application in the ventilation systems at the nuclear power plants, are obtained.

  9. Bromine and iodine chemistry in a global chemistry-climate model: description and evaluation of very short-lived oceanic sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    B. , Hebestreit, K. , and Platt, U. : Short-lived alkylA. , Winterlik, J. , and Platt, U. : Reactive and organic

  10. Effects of Iodine Content in the Electrolyte on the Charge Transfer and Power Conversion Efficiency of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells under

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells under Low Light Intensities Jo-Lin Lan, Tzu-Chien Wei,*, Shien-Ping Feng of dye-sensitized solar cells under lower light intensities. By analyzing the current-voltage behavior results in an exclusive application for indoor use. 1. INTRODUCTION Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) has

  11. Assaying Phospholipase A2 Activity Christina C. Leslie and Michael H. Gelb

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gelb, Michael

    the hydrolysis of sn-2 fatty acid from membrane phospholipid. Assays are described for measuring the activity measuring the calcium-dependent re- lease of radiolabeled sn-2 arachidonic acid from small unilamellar cal- cium-dependent formation of albumin-bound pyrene fatty acid from the sn-2 position of phos

  12. Effects of Phosphate Rock on Sequential Chemical Extraction of Lead in Contaminated Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    the organic or the residual fraction and water-solubleand the exchangeable-Mn oxide, and organic fractions (collectively the non- residual fraction) to the residual fraction, thus fractions to the residual fraction suggests that phos- phate rock has potential for in-situ immobilization

  13. TL1A induces the expression of TGF-b-inducible gene h3 (big-h3) through PKC, PI3K, and ERK in THP-1 cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Won-Ha

    TL1A induces the expression of TGF-b-inducible gene h3 (big-h3) through PKC, PI3K, and ERK in THP-1 of protein kinase C (PKC), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), phosphoinositide kinase-3 (PI3K blocked the phos- phorylation of AKT without affecting ERK phosphorylation. On the other hand, suppression

  14. 791THE DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY, ETH ZRICH, IN THE NEW HNGGERBERG BUILDINGS CHIMIA 2001, 55, No. 10

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandoghdar, Vahid

    3 and H2S, respectively. In industry, Co- or Ni-promoted MoS2-type phases, supported on -Al2O3 phos- phides are model systems for hydrodeni- trogenation; the removal of nitrogen at- oms from as Hydrodenitrogenation Catalysts The catalytic removal of nitrogen (hydrodenitrogenation) and sulfur (hydro

  15. Mesostructures DOI: 10.1002/anie.201310748

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ihee, Hyotcherl

    functionalized with organic groups that can form tight bonding to inorganic species. Such polymers were able analogues (AlPO4 and other related metal phos- phates with open frameworks), titanium dioxide (TiO2. The incorporation of mesoporosity into these materials has been an important issue for resolving the diffusion

  16. A Lipid-modified Phosphoinositide-specific Phospholipase C (TcPI-PLC) Is Involved in Differentiation of Trypomastigotes to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, Randall

    A Lipid-modified Phosphoinositide-specific Phospholipase C (TcPI-PLC) Is Involved C (PI- PLC) is an important component of the inositol phos- phate/diacylglycerol signaling pathway. A newly discov- ered Trypanosoma cruzi PI-PLC (TcPI-PLC) is lipid modified in its N terminus, targeted

  17. Eos, Vol. 93, No. 41, 9 October 2012 2012. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paytan, Adina

    Phos 2012, a conference dedicated to cutting-edge research on phosphorus, was held in the Centro Stefano was sponsored by Cen- tro Stefano Franscini, Swiss National Foun- dation, the U.S. National Science Founda- tion Tracers for a Better Understanding of the Phosphorus Cycle; Monte Verità, Switzerland, 24­29 June 2012 #12;

  18. REGULAR PAPER Modulation of the fluorescence yield in heliobacterial cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . They are thought to use a light-driven cyclic electron transport pathway to pump protons, and thereby phos brief flashes is inversely correlated to the variable fluorescence. Using pump-probe spectros- copy), or conversion to heat. When photosynthetic systems are operating efficiently, photochemistry dominates

  19. 74Exploring Nuclear Decay and Radiation Dose The devastating earthquake

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and fall to the ground, contaminating the soil. Cesium-137 has a half-life of 30 years, while Iodine-131 in the vented gases are Cesium-137 and Iodine-131. These will become incorporated into atmospheric dust grains

  20. Effect of Water on the Electrochemical Oxidation of Gas-Phase SO2 in a PEM Electrolyzer for H2 Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weidner, John W.

    for Electrochemical Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South solution and concurrent decom- position to iodine is the most difficult processing issue for the iodine

  1. Microchemical systems for singlet oxygen generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Tyrone F. (Tyrone Frank), 1980-

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Lasers (COIL) are a technology of interest for industrial and military audiences. COILs are flowing gas lasers where the gain medium of iodine atoms is collisionally pumped by singlet delta oxygen ...

  2. Apple Maturity Protocol Tests for apple flesh firmness and starch conversion are important tools for monitoring crop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    liter of iodine solution. Store iodine solution in an amber bottle (photographic supply type) or a glass bottle with aluminum foil wrapper. The cap should be non metallic, as the solution will disintegrate

  3. Department of Earth Sciences Syracuse University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Segraves, Kari A.

    in Gas Hydrate Fields: Implications for the Transport of Iodine and Methane in Active Margins" Advisor, Comparison of iodine dates from mud volcanoes and gas hydrate occurrences: relevance for the movement Waters from the Gas Hydrate Occurrence Offshore

  4. MATERIALS AND MOLECULAR RESEARCH DIVISION Annual Report 1977.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    coal structures. Iodine-catalyzed photooxygenation of stilbene derivative 1k gives rise to two novel activated

  5. MAP Estimation with Gaussian Mixture Markov

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ;§Dual energy CT example · 12 clusters. · Display 2 dimensions out of 8 · Water/iodine decomposition GMM

  6. Natural Organic Matter (NOM) in Aquatic Systems: Interactions with Radionuclides (234Th (IV), 129 I) and Biofilms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Saijin

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    in natural waters. At the F-area of the Savannah River Site (SRS), iodine species in the groundwater consisted of 48.8 percent iodide, 27.3 percent iodate and 23.9 percent organo-iodine. Each of these iodine species exhibited vastly different transport...

  7. I/I ratios and halogen concentrations in pore waters of the Hydrate Ridge: Relevance for the origin of gas hydrates in ODP Leg 204

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fehn, Udo

    in fluids associated with hydrocarbons, such as oil field brines (Moran et al., 1995) or coal-bed methane association of iodine with methane allows the identification of the organic source material responsible for iodine and methane in gas hydrates. In all cores, iodine concentrations were found to increase strongly

  8. Proceedings of the XIII International Symposium on Gas Flow and Chemical Lasers and High Power Laser Conference, Florence, Italy 18-22 September 2000, The Int. Soc. for Opt. Eng. Vol. 4184, P.O. Box 10, Bellingham, WA 98227-0010, pp. 40-44.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carroll, David L.

    , electrical singlet oxygen generation, iodine dissociation. 1. INTRODUCTION Several dramatic changes to gain generator technologies are needed to allow chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) systems to achieve their full improvements in generation of excited states of both oxygen and iodine. The development of gas phase O2(1 D

  9. *cuaerospace@cuaerospace.com; phone 217-333-8274; fax 217-244-7757; http://cuaerospace.com; CU Aerospace, 2004 S. Wright St. Ext., Urbana, IL, 61801; **wsolomon@uiuc.edu; phone 217-244-7646; fax 217-244-0720; http://www.aae.uiuc.edu;

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carroll, David L.

    chemistry singlet oxygen generator (SOG). However, the logistic issues of dealing with the liquid SOG Work on the Development of an Electric Discharge Oxygen Iodine Laser D. L. Carroll*a , J. T. Verdeyen discharge oxygen-iodine laser (ElectriCOIL) system in conjunction with injection of pre-dissociated iodine

  10. Proceedings of the Gas and Chemical Lasers and Intense Beam Applications III Conference, San Jose, California 22-24 January 2002, The Int. Soc. for Opt. Eng. Vol. 4631, P.O. Box 10, Bellingham, WA 98227-0010, pp. 154-160.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carroll, David L.

    by a liquid chemistry singlet oxygen generator (SOG). Workers at CUA and UIUC are now addressing. Keywords: chemical oxygen-iodine laser, COIL, ElectriCOIL, RF excitation of oxygen, singlet-delta oxygen 1 oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) [McDermott, 1978] operates on the electronic transition of the iodine atom

  11. Looking before we leap: an ongoing, quantative investigation of asteroid and comet impact hazard mitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plesko, Catherine S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Weaver, Robert P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bradley, Paul A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Huebner, Walter F [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are many outstanding questions about the correct response to an asteroid or comet impact threat on Earth. Nuclear munitions are currently thought to be the most efficient method of delivering an impact-preventing impulse to a potentially hazardous object (PHO). However, there are major uncertainties about the response of PHOs to a nuclear burst, and the most appropriate ways to use nuclear munitions for hazard mitigation.

  12. Lait (1994) 74, 325-332 Elsevier/INRA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    was to study p-casein solubilization from native phos- phocaseinate in the conditions of cold storage.0 and 1.6 g/kg) before pH adjustment (4.0, 4.6 and 5.2) followed by cold storage (O°C). The amount did not have a marked effect. native phosphocaseinate II3-casein 1solubilization 1cold storage Résumé

  13. Some Factors Affecting the Utilization of Phosphoric Acid in Soils by Plants in Pot Experiments.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fudge, J. F. (Joseph Franklin); Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1944-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    briefly as follows: Total phosphoric acid, Pz05: The soil was ignited with magnesium nitrate, the mixture was dissolved in hydrochloric acid, filtered, and phos- phoric acid was then determined by the volumetric method of the Associa- tion of Official...TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER, Director College Station, Texas BULLETIN NO. 647 APRIL, 1944 SOME FACTORS AFFECTING THE UTILIZATION OF PHOSPHORIC ACID IN SOILS BY PLANTS IN POT EXPERIMENTS G. S. FRAPS and J. F. FUDGE...

  14. A Chemical and Microbiological Study of Lufkin Fine Sandy Loam in Relation to Productiveness.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reynolds, E. B. (Elbert Brunner)

    1931-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and significantly correlated with the yields of cotton and corn. The nitrifying capacity of the soil was a better index of the crop-producing power of the soil than the total nitrogen, the total phosphoric acid, or the active phos- phoric acid of the soil.... The addition of nitrogenous materials, cottonseed meal and manure, and of phosphoric acid, as superphosphate and ground rock phosphate, stimulated the nitrifying power of the soil and increased the production of nitrates in field soil. Under conditions...

  15. GSK-3? phosphorylation of functionally distinct tau isoforms has differential, but mild effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Voss, Kellen; Gamblin, Truman Chris

    2009-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    with AD-tau, as determined by mass spectrometry, and phos- phorylation site-specific antibodies [11-14]. In vivo, treat- ment of transgenic mouse models of tau-induced neurodegeneration with lithium chloride, an inhibitor of GSK-3?, reduces both tau... (Perkin-Elmer, Boston, MA). Sam- ples were filtered and washed to remove unincorporated ?-32P, then counted in a liquid scintillation counter (Pack- ard 1600TR) [19]. Assay Kit (Cytoskeleton, Inc., Denver, CO) using the man- ufacturer's protocol. Varying...

  16. Water quality and urban runoff in selected canal communities along the Texas coast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Messenger, Allen Lester

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    at points along the canal. There are data included in this report on monthly canal water quality for the seven study areas. Samples were analyzed for coli- forms, nitrite, nitrate, Kjeldahl nitrogen (organic nitrogen), phos- phates, TOC, BOD , dissolved..., temperature and salinity profiles, and Rhodamine dye dis- placement. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the sources of pollu- tional loading within the study communities . These data along with information from the literature on coastal canals...

  17. Current Biology, Vol. 13, 797806, May 13, 2003, 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. DOI 10.1016/S0960-9822(03)00329-4 TOS Motif-Mediated Raptor Binding Regulates 4E-BP1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sabatini, David M.

    . DOI 10.1016/S0960-9822(03)00329-4 TOS Motif-Mediated Raptor Binding Regulates 4E-BP1 Multisite identified a TOR signaling (TOS) motif in the N Thr46 is thought to prime 4E-BP1 for sequential phos in thedemonstrated that in S6K1, the TOS motif is necessary dissociation of 4E-BP1 from eIF4E [19, 20]. Free eIF4Eto

  18. The Forms of Phosophorus in Cotton Seed Meal.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rather, J. B. (James Burness)

    1912-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    pprophos- phate but soluble in the free ammonia and nitric acid. Rarium ~ chloride gave a precipitate, ammonium molybdate gave a precipitate on heating, and magnesia mixture gave at once a white precipitate. The acetates of lead, mercury, iron... Washing. 6 TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS. Solubility in water, acids, and ammonia. The amount of phos rus soluble in 0.2 per cent hydrochloric acid is much lower than lished results for water soluble phosphorus in cottonseed meal. following...

  19. Organic Phosphoric Acid of the Soil.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1911-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . ................................................ introduction 5 .............................. hmmonia-Soluble Phosphoric Acid 5 ................ Solubility of Phosphates in Ammonia 6 I Fixation of Phosphoric Acid from Ammonia .......... 7 Effect of Ratio of Soil to Solvent in Extraction of Phos- I I... .............. phoric Acid by Acid and Ammonia 7 I ........ Other Soil Constituents Dissolved by Ammonia 8 ................... Solution of Fixed Phosphoric Acid 10 ................ ormation of Ammonia-Solubla Phosphoric Acid 11 ....... hosphoric Acid Dissolved...

  20. A particulate non-specific alkaline phosphatase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitchell, James Kent

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    utant Strain DO4-AP2 24 24 24 30 31 36 39 41 43 43 43 46 46 51 51 TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) Isoelectric Focussing Page 53 IV. Discussion and Conclusions 56 V. References 65 VI, Vita 68 LIST OF TABLES Tables Page 1.... Fluorescent Readings of 4-methylumbelliferone 25 2. Fluorescent Readings of a-naphthol 25 3. Substrate Specificity of Particulate Alkaline Phosohatase 40 Intracellular Localization of Particulate Alkaline Phos- phatase 45 5. Specific Activity of a...

  1. Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers '98, ed. V.J. Corcoran, STS Press, McLean VA, 1999, in press. PERFORMANCE OF A HIGH POWER CHEMICAL OXYGEN-IODINE LASER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carroll, David L.

    -Champaign (UIUC)/STI Optronics team identified the decommissioning and decontamination (D&D) of nuclear facilities and deactivate the large numbers of nuclear reactor power stations now in place world-wide. Figure 1 shows

  2. Further evaluation of dose estimation using the FBX dosimeter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Helfinstine, Suzanne Yvette

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    offset and general discrep- ancy between the expected dose and the one measured by the FBX dosimeter. To determine the origin of these anomalies, the dosimeter was used in intimate mixtures with tritiated water, HTO, iodine crystals, and various dilute... iodine solutions. When mixed with HTO, the doses measured by the FBX solution were in better agree- ment with the doses predicted by MIRD techniques than the measurements with I. In 131 subsequent mixtures with stable iodine crystals, the dosimeter...

  3. June 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Biology And Medicine | OSTI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Christopher; Keasling, Jay (2011) 59 PRODUCTION OF RADIOACTIVE IODINE. SCHLYER,D.J. (2001) 58 Defining the Effectiveness of UV Lamps Installed in Circulating Air Ductwork...

  4. TIMCHAMPION 11055 Painted Tree Road

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bodner, George M.

    coefficientfor the extrac- tion of iodine between CCla and water. Glasstone (3)reports values of 85.1-87.5for

  5. Analytical Data Report of Water Samples Collected For I-129 Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindberg, Michael J.

    2009-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This is an analytical data report for samples received from the central plateau contractor. The samples were analyzed for iodine-129.

  6. Sandia Energy - EC Publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    high sorption capabilities for iodine gas. After the sorption of radionuclides, these materials can be directly converted into nanostructured waste forms. This new generation...

  7. actuales del implante: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Purpose: Permanent prostate brachytherapy (PPB) as a treatment option for prostate cancer requires implantation of 80-150 radioactive iodine-125 (I-125) "seeds" into the...

  8. alejados del implante: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Purpose: Permanent prostate brachytherapy (PPB) as a treatment option for prostate cancer requires implantation of 80-150 radioactive iodine-125 (I-125) "seeds" into the...

  9. Calling on a million minds for community annotation in WikiProteins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mons, Barend; Ashburner, Michael; Chichester, Christine; van Mulligen, Erik; Weeber, Marc; den Dunnen, Johan T; Musen, Marc; Cockerill, Matthew; Hermjakob, Henning; Packer, Abel; Pacheco, Roberto; Lewis, Suzanna; Berkeley, Alfred; Melton, William; Barris, Nickolas; Borner, Katy; Meijssen, Gerard; Moeller, Erik; Roes, Peter Jan; Mons, Albert; van Ommen, Gert; Wales, Jimmy; Bairoch, Amos

    2008-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    search engine be case insensitive and find CLB2 based on the query term Clb2, but in a wider context, case insensitivity leads to aggravation of the ambiguity prob- lem. For example, in PubMed, the query 'Clb2' delivers papers on dental self... '. Furthermore, the authors of this abstract have used several constructs that make text mining difficult as they enter conjugate terms such as 'mitotic cyclin (Clb2)-bound Cdc28 (Cdk1 homolog)', 'Clb2-Cdc28', 'Clb2-Cdc28-phos- phorylated Swe1', 'Cdc28/Cdk1...

  10. The Soils of Eastland, El Paso, Lubbock and San Saba Counties.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1926-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    foods in the soil. example, with the Caddo fine sandy loam of Camp county, the corn possibility for active phosphoric acid is 18, for the active potash 80, and for total nitrogen 23. The soil is probably deficient first in phos- phoric acid..., and vegetables are also produced as well as live stock. Table 4 contains the acreage and percentage of some of the types of soils which occur in Eastland county. Sixteen types were mapped and grouped into seven series. The Windthorst fine sandy loam occupies...

  11. Soils of Grayson, Lee, McLennan, Titus, and Tyler Counties.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1916-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ,,.iocphate to supply the phogphoric acid. Tf truck crops were to be grown on this soil, some potash would probahlp be needed. In the case of the Wilson clay loam, the analysis indicates the need ? phosphoric acid first. With Wilson clap, also of Grapson... of this area are, as a rule, well supplied with total phos- phoric acid, though the samples of Durant fine sand, Houston clay loam, and MTilson clay, are low in this respect. The anklyses indicate that a nnuinber of these soils should, however, respond...

  12. The Chemical Composition of Soils of Cameron, Coleman, Dallas, Erath, Harris, Reeves, Rockwall and Tarrant Counties.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1931-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the relative deficiencies of plant food in the soil. The corn possibility is also a convenient way of comparing amounts of various plant foods in the same soil. For example, with the Lake Charles clay loam of Harris county, the corn possibility for total... nitrogen is 28, for active phos- phoric acid is 12, and for the active potash 50. The soil is probably deficient both in phosphoric acid and in nitrogen. This may he com- pared with the Victoria clay loam of Cameron countv, which has a corn possibility...

  13. Wheat Pasture Poisoning. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crookshank, H. R.; Sims, Frank H.

    1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    serum of normal cows was compared with the serum of cows affected with wheat pasture poisoning, a decrease in inarganic phos- phate, total and diffusible calcium, magnesium and the albumin-globulin ratio was found in the cases. The total serum protein... treatment appears to be the injection of a calcium gluconate solution with or without fortification with magnesium and phosphorus. Recovery seems to be speeded by removing the cow from wheat pasture fox a short time. No recurrence was o~bselrved ii animal...

  14. The effect of fertilizer treatments on several amino acids of Dallis grass grown in the Gulf Coast region of Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polzer, Wilfred Leo

    1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    blook experiment with twelve treatments each replioated four times. It was set up as a pasture fertilizer test with sulfur, sources of phosphorus and lime used as fertilizer for the treatments. Table 1 gives the field randomiza- tion of the twelve... Super and 46 Sulfur Lime and Super 47 Hock Phos. and Sulfur Super Lime and Super and Sulfur Rock Pbos. 1954. The spr1ng and summer had been especially dry at the location of this test; therefore the forage d1d not have good growth...

  15. For permission to copy or to republish, contact the copyright owner named on the first page. For AIAA-held copyright, write to AIAA Permissions Department,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carroll, David L.

    by a liquid chemistry singlet oxygen generator (SOG). * Engineering Director, CU Aerospace, Senior Member AIAA) may be produced in an electrical discharge that may permit lasing of an electric discharge oxygen oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) [McDermott, 1978] operates on the electronic transition of the iodine atom

  16. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE IV Colloque C7, suppldment au Journal de Physique 111,Vol. 1, dkembre 1991

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    SOMEFEATURES OF THE KINETICS OF OXYGEN-IODINELASER WITH PHOTOLYTICAL SINGLETOXYGEN GENERATION M.P. FROLOV, Yu of the kinetics of the pulsed oxygen-iodine laser with photolytic source of singlet oxygen are presented influence of oxygen atoms on molecular iodine dissociation and energy store relaxation is observed

  17. wsolomon@uiuc.edu; phone 1-217-244-7646; fax 1-217-244-0720; http://www.aae.uiuc.edu; Univ. of Illinois, 306 Talbot Lab, 104 S. Wright St., Urbana, IL 61801.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carroll, David L.

    (1 ) is produced by a liquid chemistry singlet oxygen generator (SOG). However, the difficulties of employing oscillation of a chemical oxygen-iodine laser system in conjunction with injection of pre-dissociated iodine. Results of those studies along with recent experimental results indicate that generation of O2(1 ) can

  18. For permission to copy or to republish, contact the copyright owner named on the first page. For AIAA-held copyright, write to AIAA Permissions Department,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carroll, David L.

    oxygen generator (SOG). However, the logistic issues of dealing with the liquid SOG * Engineering oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) [McDermott, 1978] operates on the electronic transition of the iodine atom electric generation scheme to provide the precursor energy donor species O2(1 D) and that an electrically

  19. IEEE JOURNAL OF QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, VOL. 41, NO. 10, OCTOBER 2005 1309 Studies of CW Laser Oscillation on the 1315-nm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carroll, David L.

    is produced by a liquid chemistry singlet oxygen generator (SOG). There are many system issues having to do composed of two 99.995% reflective mirrors. Index Terms--Chemical oxygen­iodine laser (COIL), electric discharge oxygen­iodine laser, electriCOIL, radio frequency (RF) excitation of oxygen, singlet-delta oxygen

  20. wsolomon@uiuc.edu; phone 1-217-244-7646; fax 1-217-244-0720; http://www.aae.uiuc.edu; Univ. of Illinois, 306 Talbot Lab, 104 S. Wright St., Urbana, IL 61801.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carroll, David L.

    oxygen generator (SOG). However, the difficult issues involving liquid SOG systems motivated permit lasing of an electric discharge oxygen-iodine laser (ElectriCOIL) system, possibly in conjunctionCOIL, COIL, chemical oxygen iodine laser, electric discharge modeling 1. INTRODUCTION The classic chemical

  1. JOURNALDE PHYSIQUEIV ColloqueC7, suppl6ment au Journal de Physique 111,Vol. 1, dhmbre 1991

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    system (figure I)consists o f a bubble column singlet oxygen generator, a water vapor cold trap are being conducted on a high power chemical oxygen iodine laser. Optical diagnostics were developed t o power o f at least one kilowatt i s expected. 1 - Introduction The chemical oxygen iodine laser (COIL

  2. Volume 170, number 5,6 CHEMICAL PHYSICS LETTERS 20 July 1990 Nature of the red emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zare, Richard N.

    in the chemical oxygen iodine laser system Ruiping Huang `, Rong Zhang ' and Richard N. Zare Deparfmenfof at 703 nm is observed when a heated metal wire is placed downstream of an O,( `A& generator used in the chemical oxygen iodine laser (COIL) system. The O2(`4) isproduced by bubbling Cl, through an alkaline

  3. AIAA Plasmadynamics and Lasers Conference 5-8 June 2006, San Francisco, California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carroll, David L.

    chemical singlet oxygen generator (SOG) with an electrically excited all gas phase system.3,4 Other to improvements in the hybrid Electric Oxygen-Iodine Laser (ElectricOIL) system that significantly increased system parameters. I. Introduction The classical chemical oxygen iodine laser (COIL) system1 employs

  4. Modeling of a Multi-Stream Injection COIL with Enhanced Mixing Ejectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carroll, David L.

    - oxygen generator (SOG). The liquid SOG technology has developed to a fairly mature state. However, much-pressure chemical oxygen- iodine laser (COIL) have been experimentally tested. To obtain a better understanding The chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) was first demonstrated in 1978 [McDermott, 1978]. Since that initial

  5. Investigation of the Production of O2(a1 ) in Rectangular

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carroll, David L.

    is not simply a flow consisting primarily of O2(a) and O2(X) (as in classic COIL singlet-oxygen generation Oxygen- Iodine Laser (ElectricOIL) system. This continuous wave (cw) laser operating on the 1315 nm-section and multi-circular tube discharges. I. Introduction The electrically driven oxygen-iodine laser (Electric

  6. Transmutation of {sup 129}I Using an Accelerator-Driven System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishihara, Kenji; Takano, Hideki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Japan)

    2002-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A conceptual blanket design for {sup 129}I transmutation is proposed for an accelerator-driven system (ADS) that is designed to transmute minor actinides (MAs). In this ADS, 250 kg/yr of MA and 56 kg/yr of iodine are simultaneously transmuted, and they correspond to the quantities generated from {approx}10 units of existing light water reactors. Furthermore, an introduction scenario and the benefit of iodine transmutation are studied for future introduction of fast breeder reactors. It is shown that the transmutation of iodine benefits the concept of underground disposal.

  7. Laser development for laser fusion applications. Research progress report, October 1978-September 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During this report period, emphasis has been directed toward the advanced development of the HF, KrF, Se(/sup 1/S)-Se(/sup 3/P), and the chemically pumped iodine laser systems.

  8. Assessing beef hide interventions as a means to reduce carcass contamination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baird, Bridget Elaine

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    following a water wash. Treatments (distilled water, isopropyl alcohol, 3% hydrogen peroxide, 2% L-lactic acid, 1% cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), and 10% Povidone-iodine) then were applied to each section and sampled for aerobic plate counts (APCs...

  9. March 2005 Page 1 of 2 CDCResearchInvolvingRadiationReleasesfromtheIdahoNational

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    iodine-129 and -131, cesium-137, strontium-90, and noble gases including krypton-88. The body organs by the INL Environmental Dose Reconstruction document search to determine which contaminants and exposure

  10. The chemistry of OH and HO2 radicals in the boundary layer over the tropical Atlantic Ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    B. , Hebestreit, K. , and Platt, U. : Short-lived alkylR. , Lawrence, M. G. , Platt, U. , and Crutzen, P. J. :Hebestreit, K. , Stutz, J. , and Platt, U. : Iodine oxide in

  11. Alcohol homologation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wegman, Richard W. (South Charleston, WV); Moloy, Kenneth G. (Charleston, WV)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the homologation of an alkanol by reaction with synthesis gas in contact with a system containing rhodium atom, ruthenium atom, iodine atom and a bis(diorganophosphino) alkane to selectivity produce the next higher homologue.

  12. Alcohol homologation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wegman, R.W.; Moloy, K.G.

    1988-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for the homologation of an alkanol by reaction with synthesis gas in contact with a system containing rhodium atom, ruthenium atom, iodine atom and a bis(diorganophosphino) alkane to selectivity produce the next higher homologue.

  13. Hypothetical Reactor Accident Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    POPULATIONS; IODINE 131; MELTDOWN; METEOROLOGY; NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS; P CODES; PWR TYPE REACTORS; RADIATION in a Typical BWR and in a typical PWR. Comparison with WASH-1400 by C F . Højerup 202 APPENDIX 3. Calculation

  14. HYDROLOGY AND EROSION IMPACTS OF MINING DERIVED COASTAL SAND DUNES, C H ~ A R A LBAY, CHILE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    HYDROLOGY AND EROSION IMPACTS OF MINING DERIVED COASTAL SAND DUNES, C H ~ A R A LBAY, CHILE Daniel, nitrates, iodine, and lithium. Some of the gold and silverandallofthemolybdenumareproducedasby- products

  15. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 32 (2007) 463468 www.elsevier.com/locate/ijhydene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weidner, John W.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Center for Electrochemical Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 is produced via a two-step process involving iodine. The distillation of HI from solution and concurrent

  16. OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iodine Thermochemical Process X Forecourt| SMR X X X X X Electrolysis Ethanol Reforming X X X X X X X X with CO2 Capture X X Advanced Nuclear Energy ­ HTGR and High Temperature (Steam) Electrolysis X Advanced

  17. Examination of offsite radiological emergency protective measures for nuclear reactor accidents involving core melt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aldrich, David C.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Evacuation, sheltering followed by population relocation, and iodine prophylaxis are evaluated as offsite public protective measures in response to nuclear reactor accidents involving core-melt. Evaluations were conducted ...

  18. CHEMISTRY 3311, Fall 1998 Professor Walba

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walba, David

    ) Treatment of iodide A with water gives a product B with no iodine atom. Amazingly, it also has no OH groups of heat is produced. If one burns compound B, a different amount of heat is produced. Which compound gives

  19. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 509 (2003) 315320 X-ray imaging with a silicon microstrip detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramello, Luciano

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    applications to dual energy mammography and angiography, is presented. A silicon microstrip detector with 100, such as mammography and angiogra- phy at the iodine K-edge, the dual energy technique makes it possible to isolate

  20. Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program FY 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, Todd

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    be done with both dual-energy and fluorescent tomography atsensitivity of the dual energy tomography technique at themake. However, using the dual energy mode at the iodine edge

  1. Graphical Abstract 1) base prepared from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    _____________________________________________ Synthesis of C,N'-linked bis-heterocycles using a deprotometalation-iodination-N-arylation sequence of benzoxazole (10% less). The crude iodides were involved in the N-arylation of pyrrole, indole, carbazole

  2. Combinatorial design and synthesis of peptidomimics and small molecules for protein-protein interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Chihyo

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    pharmacophores and to adjust the solubilities of the products. The fluorinated template also gave libraries of cyclic peptidomimetics on solid phase in good yields and purities. These libraries have improved water solubility over the iodinated libraries. The 3...

  3. Effect of Contrast Agent Charge on Visualization of Articular Cartilage Using Computed Tomography: Exploiting Electrostatic Interactions for Improved

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Effect of Contrast Agent Charge on Visualization of Articular Cartilage Using Computed Tomography such as those found in cartilage. Here, we report the synthesis of new iodinated cationic computed tomography

  4. Depletion, quantum jumps, and temperature measurements of ??Sr? ions in a linear Paul Trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richerme, Philip J

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis describes the design and construction of two laser systems to probe the 674nm transition of ??Sr? ions in a linear Paul trap. The first laser system made use of a molecular transition in Iodine to stabilize the ...

  5. Initial Assessment of the Consolidation of Chalcogels into a Viable Waste Form

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, Brian J.; Lepry, William C.

    2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides some preliminary data for the consolidation of chalcogen-based aerogels. The chalcogels tested to date at PNNL show great promise as iodine sorbents and preliminary consolidation research shows that they can be melted into a phase-pure glass at moderate temperatures. The preliminary consolidation experiments show that these materials might attack fused quartz so an alternative crucible material will likely need to be used to prevent this. The next steps will be to • Consider melting other chalcogel chemistries, e.g., Sn-Sb-S, Ge-Sn-S chalcogels • Consider melting chalcogels with adsorbed iodine to monitor iodine loss during melting • Optimize the consolidation temperatures to minimize the iodine loss and volatilization

  6. Color in Nature Barb Cutler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Durand, Frédo

    of organic dye) #12;Dyes and Stains · Mosses stained by iron and iodine · Elephants stained by mud · Bodily with water differently · Color permanence · Color availability changes · Synthetic pigments ­ First: Prussian

  7. Comparison of enrichment techniques for the isolation of Salmonella sp. from swine feces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrews, Kimberley Denise

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    seven comparative techniques for isolation. A standard protocol, consisting of xylose lysine tergitol-4 agar (XLT4) paired with a primary enrichment in tetrathionate broth with iodine (TTH) and secondary enrichment in Rappaport-Vassiliadis R10 broth (RV...

  8. Datta. Brauman, Zare / Reaction of IC1 with cis-and trans-1,2-Dibromoethylene 7173 Isotope Enrichment and Stereochemistry of the Products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zare, Richard N.

    Enrichment and Stereochemistry of the Products from the Reaction of Electronically Excited Iodine 24 h each time before being used. This treatment was important since otherwise the enrichments were

  9. A Study of the Reaction Between Antimony (III) Iodide and Organic Amine Hydriodides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blackstock, Joseph Beauford

    1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -isopropylammoniumnonaiododianti- montate(III) Tris-4 -picoliniumnonaiododiantimonate(III) Tris-$-picoliniumnonaiOdodiantimonate(III) Di-isobutylamine-antimony( III) iodide reaction product Triethanolam&ne-antimony(III) iodide reaction product Flelting Point, 'C Decomposed 193... to the starch end point . Antimony was determined on eacn compound in dupli- cate. The results of these analyses are tabulated in Table II. II. Determination of' Iodine in the Reaction Products: Iodine was determined potentiometrically using a silver...

  10. Task-based strategy for optimized contrast enhanced breast imaging: Analysis of six imaging techniques for mammography and tomosynthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ikejimba, Lynda C., E-mail: lci@duke.edu [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Kiarashi, Nooshin [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States)] [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Ghate, Sujata V. [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States)] [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Samei, Ehsan [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States) [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Lo, Joseph Y. [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States) [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States)

    2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: The use of contrast agents in breast imaging has the capability of enhancing nodule detectability and providing physiological information. Accordingly, there has been a growing trend toward using iodine as a contrast medium in digital mammography (DM) and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). Widespread use raises concerns about the best way to use iodine in DM and DBT, and thus a comparison is necessary to evaluate typical iodine-enhanced imaging methods. This study used a task-based observer model to determine the optimal imaging approach by analyzing six imaging paradigms in terms of their ability to resolve iodine at a given dose: unsubtracted mammography and tomosynthesis, temporal subtraction mammography and tomosynthesis, and dual energy subtraction mammography and tomosynthesis. Methods: Imaging performance was characterized using a detectability index d{sup ?}, derived from the system task transfer function (TTF), an imaging task, iodine signal difference, and the noise power spectrum (NPS). The task modeled a 10 mm diameter lesion containing iodine concentrations between 2.1 mg/cc and 8.6 mg/cc. TTF was obtained using an edge phantom, and the NPS was measured over several exposure levels, energies, and target-filter combinations. Using a structured CIRS phantom, d{sup ?} was generated as a function of dose and iodine concentration. Results: For all iodine concentrations and dose, temporal subtraction techniques for mammography and tomosynthesis yielded the highest d{sup ?}, while dual energy techniques for both modalities demonstrated the next best performance. Unsubtracted imaging resulted in the lowest d{sup ?} values for both modalities, with unsubtracted mammography performing the worst out of all six paradigms. Conclusions: At any dose, temporal subtraction imaging provides the greatest detectability, with temporally subtracted DBT performing the highest. The authors attribute the successful performance to excellent cancellation of inplane structures and improved signal difference in the lesion.

  11. Further RAGE modeling of asteroid mitigation: surface and subsurface explosions in porous objects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weaver, Robert P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Plesko, Catherine S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dearholt, William R [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Disruption or mitigation of a potentially hazardous object (PHO) by a high-energy subsurface burst is considered. This is just one possible method of impact-hazard mitigation. We present RAGE hydrocode models of the shock-generated disruption of PHOs by subsurface nuclear bursts using scenario-specific models from realistic RADAR shape models. We will show 2D and 3D models for the disruption by a large energy source at the center of such PHO models ({approx}100 kt-10 Mt) specifically for the shape of the asteroid 25143 Itokawa. We study the effects of non-uniform composition (rubble pile), shallow buried bursts for the optimal depth of burial and porosity.

  12. Quality assurance for the ALICE Monte Carlo procedure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Ajaz; Seforo Mohlalisi; Peter Hristov; Jean Pierre Revol

    2009-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We implement the already existing macro,$ALICE_ROOT/STEER /CheckESD.C that is ran after reconstruction to compute the physics efficiency, as a task that will run on proof framework like CAF. The task was implemented in a C++ class called AliAnalysisTaskCheckESD and it inherits from AliAnalysisTaskSE base class. The function of AliAnalysisTaskCheckESD is to compute the ratio of the number of reconstructed particles to the number of particle generated by the Monte Carlo generator.The class AliAnalysisTaskCheckESD was successfully implemented. It was used during the production for first physics and permitted to discover several problems (missing track in the MUON arm reconstruction, low efficiency in the PHOS detector etc.). The code is committed to the SVN repository and will become standard tool for quality assurance.

  13. Study of the neutral mesons in Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV in the ALICE experiment at LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lucia Leardini; for the ALICE Collaboration

    2014-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The $\\pi^{0}$ and $\\eta$ meson production in Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV is studied with the ALICE experiment at the LHC. The $\\pi^{0}$ invariant yields and nuclear modification factor $R_{\\mbox{AA}}$ are presented here in six centrality classes. The results are a combined measurement using the Photon Conversion Method (PCM) and the PHOS detector, in the transverse momentum range 0.4 $energies, both as a function of transverse momentum. The $\\eta$ meson production is studied using the PCM and the EMCal detector. The combination of the individual results will make possible the measurement of the $\\eta$ differential invariant cross section as a function of transverse momentum from 1 to 22 GeV/$c$ in different centrality classes.

  14. Complete Phase I Tests As Described in the Multi-lab Test Plan for the Evaluation of CH3I Adsorption on AgZ

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruffey, S. H. [ORNL; Jubin, R. T. [ORNL

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Silver-exchanged mordenite (AgZ) has been identified as a potential sorbent for iodine present in the off-gas streams of a used nuclear fuel reprocessing facility. In such a facility, both elemental and organic forms of iodine are released from the dissolver in gaseous form. These species of iodine must be captured with high efficiency for a facility to avoid radioactive iodine release above regulatory limits in the gaseous effluent of the plant. Studies completed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) examined the adsorption of organic iodine in the form of CH3I by AgZ. Upon breakthrough of the feed gas through the sorbent bed, elemental iodine was observed in the effluent stream, despite the fact that the only source of iodine in the system was the CH3I in the feed gas.1 This behavior does not appear to have been reported previously nor has it been independently confirmed. Thus, as a result of these prior studies, multiple knowledge gaps relating to the adsorption of CH3I by AgZ were identified, and a multi-lab test plan, including Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), INL, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and Sandia National Laboratories, was formulated to address each in a systematic way.2 For this report, the scope of work for ORNL was further narrowed to three thin-bed experiments that would characterize CH3I adsorption onto AgZ in the presence of water, NO, and NO2. Completion of these three-thin bed experiments demonstrated that organic iodine in the form of CH3I was adsorbed by reduced silver mordenite (Ag0Z) to a 50% higher loading than that of I2 when adsorbed from a dry air stream. Adsorption curves suggest different adsorption mechanisms for I2 and CH3I. In the presence of NO and NO2 gas, the loading of CH3I onto Ag0Z is suppressed and may be reversible. Further, the presence of NO and NO2 gas appears to oxidize CH3I to I2; this is indicated by an adsorption curve similar to that of I2 on Ag0Z. Finally, the loss of organic iodine loading capacity by Ag0Z in the presence of NOx is unaffected by the addition of water vapor to the gas stream; no marked additional loss in capacity or retention was observed.

  15. Silver-Mordenite for Radiologic Gas Capture from Complex Streams: Dual Catalytic CH3I Decomposition and I Confinement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tina M. Nenoff; Mark Rodriguez; Nick Soelberg; Karena W. Chapman

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effective capture and storage of radiological iodine (129I) remains a strong concern for safe nuclear waste storage and safe nuclear energy. Silver-containing mordenite (MOR) is a longstanding benchmark for iodine capture. In nuclear fuel reprocessing scenarios, complex gas streams will be present and the need for high selectivity of all iodine containing compounds is of the utmost importance for safety and the environment. In particular, a molecular level understanding of the sorption of organic iodine compounds is not well understood. Here we probe the structure and distribution of methyl iodide sorbed by silver-containing MOR using a combination of crystallographic and materials characterization techniques including: infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis with mass spectrometry, Micro-X-ray Fluorescence, powder X-ray diffraction analysis, and pair distribution function analysis. The iodine is captured inside the MOR pore in the form of AgI nanoparticles, that is consistent with the pores sizes of the MOR, indicating that the molecule is both physically and chemically captured in the Ag-MOR. The organic component is surface catalyzed by the zeolite via the formation of Surface Methoxy Species (SMS) that result in downstream organics of dimethyl ether and methanol formation.

  16. Development of low level liquid waste treatment systems: April-September 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, M.K.; Colvin, C.M.; Bond, W.H.

    1982-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The pilot plant reverse osmosis system was demonstrated to be effective in removing large percentages of cobalt-60, iodine-125, and a mixture of cesium-137, cobalt-60, and iodine-125 from two types of aqueous streams. The effectiveness of three membrane porosities, 0, 50, and 97% salt rejection, were explored with each isotope. The 97% salt rejection membrane was the most effective in each experiment. Removals as high as 97.5% of the cobalt, 92.9% of the iodine and 95.1% of the combined isotopes were achieved. The effect of possibly interfering factors on the adsorbence of cobalt-60 and iodine-129 on selected ion exchange resins were investigated. The factors thought to affect cobalt-60 adsorption were (OH/sup -/), (NH/sub 4//sup +/), and (SO/sub 3//sup =/). None of the seven factors investigated had any effect on iodine-129 adsorption. Cesium-137 was removed from a 4600-gal aqueous waste containing a large amount of sodium hydroxide by treatment with sodium tetraphenyl boron. The cesium concentration of the supernatant portion was reduced from 570 to 4 counts/min/ml.

  17. Halogenated sulfidohydroboranes for nuclear medicine and boron neutron capture therapy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miura, Michiko (Hampton Bays, NY); Slatkin, Daniel N. (Southold, NY)

    1997-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for performing boron neutron capture therapy for the treatment of tumors is disclosed. The method includes administering to a patient an iodinated sulfidohydroborane, a boron-10-containing compound. The site of the tumor is localized by visualizing the increased concentration of the iodine labelled compound at the tumor. The targeted tumor is then irradiated with a beam of neutrons having an energy distribution effective for neutron capture. Destruction of the tumor occurs due to high LET particle irradiation of the tissue secondary to the incident neutrons being captured by the boron-10 nuclei. Iodinated sulfidohydroboranes are disclosed which are especially suitable for the method of the invention. In a preferred embodiment, a compound having the formula Na.sub.4 B.sub.12 I.sub.11 SSB.sub.12 I.sub.11, or another pharmaceutically acceptable salt of the compound, may be administered to a cancer patient for boron neutron capture therapy.

  18. Halogenated sulfidohydroboranes for nuclear medicine and boron neutron capture therapy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miura, Michiko (Hampton Bays, NY); Slatkin, Daniel N. (Southold, NY)

    1995-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for performing boron neutron capture therapy for the treatment of tumors is disclosed. The method includes administering to a patient an iodinated sulfidohydroborane, a boron-10-containing compound. The site of the tumor is localized by visualizing the increased concentration of the iodine labelled compound at the tumor. The targeted tumor is then irradiated with a beam of neutrons having an energy distribution effective for neutron capture. Destruction of the tumor occurs due to high LET particle irradiation of the tissue secondary to the incident neutrons being captured by the boron-10 nuclei. Iodinated sulfidohydroboranes are disclosed which are especially suitable for the method of the invention. In a preferred embodiment, a compound having the formula Na.sub.4 B.sub.12 I.sub.11 SSB.sub.12 I.sub.11, or another pharmaceutically acceptable salt of the compound, may be administered to a cancer patient for boron neutron capture therapy.

  19. Halogenated sulfidohydroboranes for nuclear medicine and boron neutron capture therapy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miura, Michiko (Hampton Bays, NY); Slatkin, Daniel N. (Southold, NY)

    1997-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for performing boron neutron capture therapy for the treatment of tumors is disclosed. The method includes administering to a patient an iodinated sulfidohydroborane, a boron-10-containing compound. The site of the tumor is localized. by visualizing the increased concentration of the iodine labelled compound at the tumor. The targeted tumor is then irradiated with a beam of neutrons having an energy distribution effective for neutron capture. Destruction of the tumor occurs due to high LET particle irradiation of the tissue secondary to the incident neutrons being captured by the boron-10 nuclei. Iodinated sulfidohydroboranes are disclosed which are especially suitable for the method of the invention. In a preferred embodiment, a compound having the formula Na.sub.4 B.sub.12 I.sub.11 SSB.sub.12 I.sub.11, or another pharmaceutically acceptable salt of the compound, may be administered to a cancer patient for boron neutron capture therapy.

  20. Molten Hydroxide Trapping Process for Radioiodine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trowbridge, L.D.

    2003-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A molten hydroxide trapping process has been considered for removing radioiodine species from off-gas streams whereby iodine is reacted directly with molten hydroxides such as NaOH or KOH. The resulting product is the corresponding iodide, which can be separated by simple cooling of the molten mixture to grow the iodide primary phase once the mixture reaches 70-80 mol% in the iodide component. Thermodynamic analysis indicates that such a chemical process is highly favorable. Experimental testing of the trapping process using molecular iodine showed trapping of up to 96% of the volatile iodine. The trapping efficiency was dependent on operational parameters such as temperature and gas-melt contact efficiency, and higher efficiencies are expected as the process is further developed. While an iodide phase could be effectively isolated by slow cooling of a molten iodide-hydroxide mixture, the persistent appearance of hydroxide indicated that an appreciable solubility of hydroxide occurred in the iodide phase.

  1. Halogenated sulfidohydroboranes for nuclear medicine and boron neutron capture therapy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miura, M.; Slatkin, D.N.

    1997-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for performing boron neutron capture therapy for the treatment of tumors is disclosed. The method includes administering to a patient an iodinated sulfidohydroborane, a boron-10-containing compound. The site of the tumor is localized by visualizing the increased concentration of the iodine labelled compound at the tumor. The targeted tumor is then irradiated with a beam of neutrons having an energy distribution effective for neutron capture. Destruction of the tumor occurs due to high LET particle irradiation of the tissue secondary to the incident neutrons being captured by the boron-10 nuclei. Iodinated sulfidohydroboranes are disclosed which are especially suitable for the method of the invention. In a preferred embodiment, a compound having the formula Na{sub 4}B{sub 12}I{sub 11}SSB{sub 12}I{sub 11}, or another pharmaceutically acceptable salt of the compound, may be administered to a cancer patient for boron neutron capture therapy. 1 fig.

  2. Halogenated sulfidohydroboranes for nuclear medicine and boron neutron capture therapy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miura, M.; Slatkin, D.N.

    1997-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for performing boron neutron capture therapy for the treatment of tumors is disclosed. The method includes administering to a patient an iodinated sulfidohydroborane, a boron-10-containing compound. The site of the tumor is localized by visualizing the increased concentration of the iodine labelled compound at the tumor. The targeted tumor is then irradiated with a beam of neutrons having an energy distribution effective for neutron capture. Destruction of the tumor occurs due to high LET particle irradiation of the tissue secondary to the incident neutrons being captured by the boron-10 nuclei. Iodinated sulfidohydroboranes are disclosed which are especially suitable for the method of the invention. In a preferred embodiment, a compound having the formula Na{sub 4}B{sub 12}I{sub 11}SSB{sub 12}I{sub 11}, or another pharmaceutically acceptable salt of the compound, may be administered to a cancer patient for boron neutron capture therapy. 1 fig.

  3. Halogenated sulfidohydroboranes for nuclear medicine and boron neutron capture therapy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miura, M.; Slatkin, D.N.

    1995-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for performing boron neutron capture therapy for the treatment of tumors is disclosed. The method includes administering to a patient an iodinated sulfidohydroborane, a boron-10-containing compound. The site of the tumor is localized by visualizing the increased concentration of the iodine labelled compound at the tumor. The targeted tumor is then irradiated with a beam of neutrons having an energy distribution effective for neutron capture. Destruction of the tumor occurs due to high LET particle irradiation of the tissue secondary to the incident neutrons being captured by the boron-10 nuclei. Iodinated sulfidohydroboranes are disclosed which are especially suitable for the method of the invention. In a preferred embodiment, a compound having the formula Na{sub 4}B{sub 12}I{sub 11}SSB{sub 12}I{sub 11}, or another pharmaceutically acceptable salt of the compound, may be administered to a cancer patient for boron neutron capture therapy. 1 fig.

  4. Determining and modeling near site dispersion of gaseous releases to the environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flynn, Charles Rene

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    mm Hg at 0. 9 C. There 21 are 7. 48 x 10 iodine atoms per milliter of ethyl iodide and the thermal neutron activation cross-section is 6. 1 barns for iodine-127 which is 100 percent atom abundance (HOLDEN and WALKER, 1972). 16 Following a neutron... extension of the technique to atmospheric dispersion studies. 2 Assuming 10 ml of ethyl iodide is released and sampled at 3 -5 I m /sec at the location of the 10 dilution factor with a 90% collection efficiency (ACKLEY, ADAMS, and BROWNING, 1967; CRAIG...

  5. Cyclotron Radiopharmaceuticals Production at the V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solin, L.M.; Kudelin, B.K.; Jakovlev, V.A.; Potapova, T.S.; Gromova, E.A. [V.G.Khlopin Radium Institute, 2nd Murinsky pr., 28, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2003-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    For more than 10 years Radium Institute is producing radiopharmaceuticals for St. Petersburg (Russia) hospitals. We have developed technologies for sodium iodide, sodium iodohippurate, MIBG and BMIPP, labeled by iodine-123, and gallium-67 citrate. Radionuclidic purity of 99,98% is reached for radiopharmaceuticals labeled by iodine-123. Radionuclidic purity is over 99.9% for gallium-67 citrate on the date of delivery. Radiochemical purity of 95% and more is reached through the application of appropriate technologies for each RPH. It takes no longer than 4 hours for all technologies. Over 150,000 patients were investigated.

  6. A theoretical analysis of proportional counter response versus LET

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, George Gerald

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    crimlurator settin A computer program rvas devcloned to couple t'ie energy disLribution and IDT equation;. of Lhe five b, rta emitter, : argon-41& krypton-85, iodine-333, xenon-133 and cesium-137, for clcLccror chamber sizes oF 50 cm. v 10 crn. x I c. m.... Fwergy spectrum of the 8 rays from A-gon-41. 18 F'IG. B. Fnezgy spectrum of the 8 rays from Krypton-85. . . FIG. 9. Energ~ spectrum of the 8 rays from Iodine-131. . . 20 FIG. 10. FIG. 11. Energy spectrum of the 8 rays from Xenon-133. . . Energy...

  7. Developing the Sandia National Laboratories transportation infrastructure for isotope products and wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trennel, A.J.

    1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) plans to establish a medical isotope project that would ensure a reliable domestic supply of molybdenum-99 ({sup 99}Mo) and related medical isotopes (Iodine-125, Iodine-131, and Xenon-133). The Department`s plan for production will modify the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) and associated hot cell facility at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL)/New Mexico and the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Transportation activities associated with such production is discussed.

  8. The near-infra-red spectra of ferric acetylacetonate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Owen, James Travis

    1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    high, smooth output in the near-infra-red region. This source, Model IG-1(A), is a coiled Tungsten filament in a Quartz jacket, Its high output is maintained throughout its life by a small amount of iodine vapor, which effectively "cleaned..." the Quartz jacket of its layer of sputtered tungsten which would be expected to lower the Lumens-per-Hatt output of a normal tungsten source, No iodine spectrum was noted, but the output of the lamp does fall off a few hours before failure, A Quartz...

  9. Fission product source terms for the LWR loss-of-coolant accident

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lorenz, R.A.; Collins, J.L.; Malinauskas, A.P.

    1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Models for cesium and iodine release from light-water reactor (LWR) fuel rods failed in steam were formulated based on experimental fission product release data from several types of failed LWR fuel rods. The models were applied to a pressurized water reactor (PWR) undergoing a hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) temperature transient. Calculated total iodine and cesium releases from the fuel rods were 0.053 and 0.025% of the total reactor inventories of these elements, respectively, with most of the release occurring at the time of rupture. These values are approximately two orders of magnitude less than releases used in WASH-1400, the Reactor Safety Study.

  10. Site specific incorporation of heavy atom-containing unnatural amino acids into proteins for structure determination

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xie, Jianming (San Diego, CA); Wang, Lei (San Diego, CA); Wu, Ning (Boston, MA); Schultz, Peter G. (La Jolla, CA)

    2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Translation systems and other compositions including orthogonal aminoacyl tRNA-synthetases that preferentially charge an orthogonal tRNA with an iodinated or brominated amino acid are provided. Nucleic acids encoding such synthetases are also described, as are methods and kits for producing proteins including heavy atom-containing amino acids, e.g., brominated or iodinated amino acids. Methods of determining the structure of a protein, e.g., a protein into which a heavy atom has been site-specifically incorporated through use of an orthogonal tRNA/aminoacyl tRNA-synthetase pair, are also described.

  11. Failure of the Shockley-Haynes Mobility Experiment with organic semiconducting materials 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boehme, Hollis Clyde

    1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the teflon cylinder was 0. 20$ cm + 0. 00$ cm whioh was slight- ly smaller than the graphite rods used, This arrapgement provided an airtight seal to prevent the sublimation of iodine from the samples after pressing Small holes were drilled through...-iodine was lower than that reported, The upper limit of 3000 lb/i. n for the pressure used to 2 oompress the samples was dictated by the graphite rods used and the wall thickness of the teflon oylinders. Pressures above $000 lb/in oaused either the ends...

  12. An evaluation of a test for serum thyroxine level to determine clinical hypothyroidism in beagles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chester, David Kenneth

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    value for Group II, I Treated. 24 131 4 T4 thyroxine average value for Group III, I Treated 25 131 5 T4 thyroxine average value for Group IV, I Treated, 25 131 6 Distribution of T4 thyroxine values for control and test samples... acceptance due partly to the technical difficulties forming the test accurately. The test measures iodine ir therefore anything which alters the iodine level either i in vitro will alter the test results. This difficulty h; in the reporting of a wide...

  13. Improved method for preparing rare earth sesquichalcogenides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Takeshita, T.; Beaudry, B.J.; Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.

    1982-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved method for the preparation of high purity rare earth sesquichalcogenides is described. The rare earth, as one or more pieces of the metal, is sealed under a vacuum with a stoichiometric amount of sulfur or selenium and a small amount of iodine into a quartz reaction vessel. The sealed vessel is then heated to above the vaporization temperature of the chalcogen and below the melting temperature of the rare earth metal and maintained until the product has been formed. The iodine is then vaporized off leaving a pure product. The rare earth sulfides and selenides thus formed are useful as semiconductors and as thermoelectric generators. 3 tables.

  14. Exploding conducting film laser pumping apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ware, Kenneth D. (San Diego, CA); Jones, Claude R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Exploding conducting film laser optical pumping apparatus. The 342-nm molecular iodine and the 1.315-.mu.m atomic iodine lasers have been optically pumped by intense light from exploding-metal-film discharges. Brightness temperatures for the exploding-film discharges were approximately 25,000 K. Although lower output energies were achieved for such discharges when compared to exploding-wire techniques, the larger surface area and smaller inductance inherent in the exploding-film should lead to improved efficiency for optically-pumped gas lasers.

  15. Phase 1 Methyl Iodide Deep-Bed Adsorption Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nick Soelberg; Tony Watson

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear fission results in the production of fission products (FPs) and activation products including iodine-129, which could evolve into used fuel reprocessing facility off-gas systems, and could require off-gas control to limit air emissions to levels within acceptable emission limits. Research, demonstrations, and some reprocessing plant experience have indicated that diatomic iodine can be captured with efficiencies high enough to meet regulatory requirements. Research on the capture of organic iodides has also been performed, but to a lesser extent [Jubin 2012b]. Several questions remain open regarding the capture of iodine bound in organic compounds. Deep-bed methyl iodide adsorption testing has progressed according to a multi-laboratory methyl iodide adsorption test plan. This report summarizes the first phase of methyl iodide adsorption work performed according to this test plan using the deep-bed iodine adsorption test system at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), performed during Fiscal Year (FY) 2013 and early FY-2014. Testing has been performed to address questions posed in the test plan, and followed the testing outline in the test plan. Tests established detection limits, developed procedures for sample analysis with minimal analytical interferences, and confirmed earlier results that show that the methyl iodide reacts when in contact with the AgZ sorbent, and not significantly in the gas flow upstream of the sorbent. The reaction(s) enable separation of the iodine from the organic moiety, so that the iodine can chemisorb onto the sorbent. The organic moiety can form other compounds, some of which are organic compounds that are detected and can be tentatively identified using GC-FID and GCMS. Test results also show that other gas constituents (NOx and/or H2O) can affect the methyl iodide reactions. With NOx and H2O present in the gas stream, the majority of uncaptured iodine exiting iodine-laden sorbent beds is in the form of I2 or HI, species that are soluble in NaOH scrubbing solution for iodine analysis. But when NOx and H2O are not present, then the majority of the uncaptured iodine exiting iodine-laden sorbent is in the form of methyl iodide. Methyl iodide adsorption efficiencies have been high enough so that initial DFs exceed 1,000 to 10,000. The methyl iodide mass transfer zone depths are estimated at 4-8 inches, possibly deeper than mass transfer zone depths estimated for I2 adsorption on AgZ. Additional deep-bed testing and analyses are recommended to (a) expand the data base for methyl iodide adsorption under various conditions specified in the methyl iodide test plan, and (b) provide more data for evaluating organic iodide reactions and reaction byproducts for different potential adsorption conditions.

  16. RADIOIODINE GEOCHEMISTRY IN THE SRS SUBSURFACE ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaplan, D.; Emerson, H.; Powell, B.; Roberts, K.; Zhang, S.; Xu, C.; Schwer, K.; Li, H.; Ho, Y.; Denham, M.; Yeager, C.; Santschi, P.

    2013-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Iodine-129 is one of the key risk drivers for several Savannah River Site (SRS) performance assessments (PA), including that for the Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility in E-Area. In an effort to reduce the uncertainty associated with the conceptual model and the input values used in PA, several studies have recently been conducted dealing with radioiodine geochemistry at the SRS. The objective of this report was to review these recent studies and evaluate their implications on SRS PA calculations. For the first time, these studies measured iodine speciation in SRS groundwater and provided technical justification for assuming the presence of more strongly sorbing species (iodate and organo-iodine), and measured greater iodine sediment sorption when experiments included these newly identified species; specifically they measured greater sorption coefficients (K{sub d} values: the concentration ratio of iodine on the solid phase divided by the concentration in the aqueous phase). Based on these recent studies, new best estimates were proposed for future PA calculations. The new K{sub d} values are greater than previous recommended values. These proposed K{sub d} values reflect a better understanding of iodine geochemistry in the SRS subsurface environment, which permits reducing the associated conservatism included in the original estimates to account for uncertainty. Among the key contributing discoveries supporting the contention that the K{sub d} values should be increased are that: 1) not only iodide (I{sup -}), but also the more strongly sorbing iodate (IO{sub 3}{sup -}) species exists in SRS groundwater (average total iodine = 15% iodide, 42% iodate, and 43% organoiodine), 2) when iodine was added as iodate, the measured K{sub d} values were 2 to 6 times greater than when the iodine was added as iodide, and perhaps most importantly, 3) higher desorption (10 to 20 mL/g) than (ad)sorption (all previous studies) K{sub d} values were measured. The implications of this latter point is that the iodine desorption process would be appreciably slower than the (ad)sorption process, and as such would control the rate (and the PA K{sub d} value) that iodine sorbed to and therefore migrated through the subsurface sediment. High desorption K{sub d} values would result in the “effective K{sub d}” for a reactive transport model being closer to the desorption K{sub d} value (the rate limiting value) than the (ad)sorption K{sub d} value. In summary, our understanding of {sup 129}I geochemistry has greatly improved, reducing the uncertainty associated with the PA’s conceptual model, thereby permitting us to reduce the conservatism presently incorporated in PA input values to describe {sup 129}I fate and transport in the SRS subsurface environment.

  17. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C3, supplement au nD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    AND CHARACTERIZATION OF HIGHLY CONDUCTING, ENVIRONMENTALLY STABLE, IODINE COMPLEXES OF A SOLUBLE POLY N-METHYL 3 , 3 for the computer industry and ultralightweight storage batteries. A practical goal in the near future is to develop are necessary for significant commercial application to bulk devices such as EF1I shielding, wire, battery

  18. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C6, supplement au n 12, Tome 37, Decembre 1976, page C6-223 MOSSBAUER SPECTRA OF I129

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C6, supplement au n° 12, Tome 37, Decembre 1976, page C6-223 MOSSBAUER 139 and cysteine 27 in tobacco mosaic virus were iodinated and the Mossbauer spectra of the samples of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft. direct environment of the reporter. For example, Mossbauer spectroscopy

  19. Crystals 2012, 2, 327-337; doi:10.3390/cryst2020327 ISSN 2073-4352

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ; tetrathiafulvalene; crystal structure; iodine; magnetism 1. Introduction In the search for novel molecular materials association of radical molecules [1], in the hope to favor novel supramolecular arrangements. These efforts amenable to such supramolecular strategies. Most examples rely on TTF derivatives functionalized

  20. Features of coal dust dynamics at action of differently oriented forces in granular filtering medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. M. Neklyudov; L. I. Fedorova; P. Ya. Poltinin; O. P. Ledenyov

    2013-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The process of the coal dust particles transportation and structurization in the experimental horizontal model of air filter with the cylindrical coal adsorbent granules as in the iodine air filter at the nuclear power plant is researched. In the investigated case the vector of carrying away force of air flow and the vector of gravitation force are mutually perpendicular, and the scattering of the dust particles on the granules occurs in the normal directions. It is found that the phenomenon of non controlled spontaneous sharp increase of aerodynamic resistance in the iodine air filter under the big integral volumes of filtered air and the big masses of introduced coal dust particles is not observed at the described experimental conditions in distinction from the case of the parallel orientation of this forces as in the vertical iodine air filters at the nuclear power plant. The quantitative measurements of the main parameters of the process of the dust masses transportation and structurization are made on a developed experimental model of the iodine air filter with the cylindrical coal adsorbent granules.

  1. Aerosol Releases from the ICPP July 2005 FINAL REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aerosol Releases from the ICPP July 2005 FINAL REPORT AEROSOL RELEASES FROM THE IDAHO CHEMICAL, Inc. July 2005 #12;Aerosol Releases from the ICPP July 2005 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 Introduction ......................................... 5-1 5.1 Beta-minus Iodine Aerosol Formation Mechanism

  2. ORIGINAL PAPER Tree rings reveal extent of exposure to ionizing radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mousseau, Timothy A.

    years. Finally, the negative effects of radio- active contaminants were particularly pronounced or decayed within hours, days or weeks [e.g., iodine-131 (131 I)], cesium-137 (137 Cs) still persists today, 29 and 24,000 years half-life for Cs-137, Sr-90 and Pu-239, respectively, these contaminants

  3. 6.0 REFERENCES Alberty, R. A. 1987. Physical Chemistry. Seventh Edition, John Wiley and Sons, New York,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . " Sorption of Uranium and Cesium by Hanford Basalts and Associated Secondary Smectite." Chemical Geology, 35 of Testing and Materials). 1987. "24-hour Batch-Type Measurement of Contaminant Sorption by Soils, A., and A. K. Nickerson. 1988. "Diffusion and Sorption of Cesium, Strontium, and Iodine in Water

  4. A scoping study of fission product transport from failed fuel during N Reactor postulated accidents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hagrman, D.L.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents a scoping study of cesium, iodine, and tellurium behavior during a cold leg manifold break in the N Reactor. More detail about fission product behavior than has previously been available is provided and key parameters that control this behavior are identified. The LACE LA1 test and evidence from the Power Burst Facility Severe Fuel Damage tests are used to test the key model applied to determine aerosol behavior. Recommendations for future analysis are also provided. The primary result is that most of the cesium, iodine, and tellurium remains in the molten uranium fuel. Only 0.0035 of the total inventory is calculated to be released. Condensation of the most of the species of cesium and iodine that are released is calculated, with 0.998 of the released cesium and iodine condensing in the spacers and upstream end of the connector tubes. Most of the tellurium that is released condenses, but the chemical reaction of tellurium vapor with surfaces is also a major factor in the behavior of this element.

  5. Ris-R-1462(EN) Airborne contamination in the indoor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risø-R-1462(EN) Airborne contamination in the indoor environment and its implications for dose K. Byskov, X.L. Hou, H. Prip, S.K. Olsen, T. Roed Title: Airborne contamination in the indoor environment of contaminant aerosol were examined, and since the previous measurements had indicated that elemental iodine

  6. Laser-produced plasma-wall interaction O. RENNER,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liska, Richard

    Laser-produced plasma-wall interaction O. RENNER,1 R. LISKA,2 AND F.B. ROSMEJ3,4 1 Institute, France (RECEIVED 30 August 2009; ACCEPTED 21 September 2009) Abstract Jets of laser­generated plasma surfaces (walls). The pilot experiments carried out on the iodine laser system (5­200 J, 0.44 mm, 0

  7. ORIGINAL RESEARCH Open Access Acquisition setting optimization and quantitative

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    studies with the Inveon microPET-CT system Nadège Anizan1* , Thomas Carlier1 , Cecilia Hindorf1 was the Inveon PET/CT system dedicated to small animal imaging. Methods: The noise equivalent count rate [NECR. Keywords: small animal imaging, PET/CT, iodine-124, quantitative imaging Background Small animal imaging

  8. Measurement of the Low Energy Nuclear Response in NaI(Tl) Crystals for Use in Dark Matter Direct Detection Experiments 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stiegler, Tyana Michele

    2013-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    ............................................................................................. 38 2.2 WIMP Signals ................................................................................................ 39 2.2.1 Total and Differential Event Rates ................................................... 41 2.2.2 Nuclear Form Factor... ...................... 52 22 CDMS II experimental upper limits (90% C.L.) for the WIMP-nucleon spin-independent cross section as a function of mass ..................................... 53 23 The theoretical curves for the quenching factor of sodium and iodine...

  9. Halogenation of cobalt dicarbollide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hurlburt, Paul K. (Los Alamos, NM); Abney, Kent D. (Los Alamos, NM); Kinkead, Scott A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for selectively adding chlorine, bromine, or iodine to cobalt dicarbollide anions by means of electrophilic substitution reactions. Halogens are added only to the B10 and B10' positions of the anion. The process involves use of hypohalous acid or N-halosuccinimide or gaseous chlorine in the presence of iron.

  10. JOURNALDE PHYSIQUE IV ColloqueC7,supplt5ment au Journalde Physique111,Vol, 1,dkembre 1991

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    IODINELASER UTILIZED HIGH-PRESSURE PULSED SINGLET OXYGEN GENERATOR M. ENDO,K. SHIROKIand T. UCHIYAMA. The energy deposition on I(2P3/2) was made by a high pressure pulsed 02(alAg) generator. Although this scheme(alAg) generators can only work under fairly low pressures (lower than a few Torr) and the iodine pressure isn

  11. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C3, supplement au n6, Tome 44, juin 1983 page C3-687

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and Renewables Division, Building 701, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, U.S.A. Résumé - Nous or iodine vapor at Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy, Contract No. DE-AC02, U.S.A. Article published online by EDP Sciences and available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/jphyscol

  12. RQI Symposium Abstract Hirakawa Lab Ryan VanGundy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mellor-Crummey, John

    properties of organic molecules for advanced solar energy devices · Chemical sensing for harmful biological by which gold is electroplated using the iodine tincture method. The long-term applications of a well" nanotechnology could open up, bringing high-tech development to the casual garage- based technologist or hobbyist

  13. CHEMISTRY 3311, Fall 1998 Professor Walba

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walba, David

    of heat is produced. If one burns compound B, a different amount of heat is produced. Which compound gives means. E Starting Material Alkene Products A #12;Name: -7- 4) (15 pts) a) Treatment of iodide A with water gives a product B with no iodine atom. Amazingly, it also has no OH groups! Propose a structure

  14. HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY ENE-47.153 Halogens, dioxins/Halogens, dioxins/furansfurans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    .153 Halogens in fossil fuels (mg/kg)Halogens in fossil fuels (mg/kg) (listed as F, Cl, Br) Coal*, lignite 20 OrimulsionTM ~700 Petroleum coke, "petcoke" ~ 300 Natural gas - * Iodine 0.5 - 1.5 mg/kg #12;HELSINKI-related corrosion #3 Corrosion rateCorrosion rate versusversus chlorine in coalchlorine in coal #12;HELSINKI

  15. COMMENTARY/COMMENTAIRE The radiological consequences of the Chernobyl

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shlyakhter, Ilya

    COMMENTARY/COMMENTAIRE The radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident The First­22 March 1996 Eric Voice Abstract: The human health consequences of the Chernobyl accident in 1986 have are discussed with particular focus on thyroid cancers and exposures to iodine-131. Key words: Chernobyl

  16. Ris-R-665(EN) Predicted Effects of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on a hypotheti- cal core-melt accident in a unit of the Ringhab nuclear power station followed by a release Hideaki Yamamoto*, Sven P. Nielsen and Flemming Nielsen *Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute Risø with iodine-131, cæsium-134 and cacsium-137 after a release of radioactive materials from the Ringhals nuclear

  17. Mercuric iodate precipitation from radioiodine-containing off-gas scrubber solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Partridge, Jerry A. (Richland, WA); Bosuego, Gail P. (Richland, WA)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mercuric nitrate-nitric acid scrub solutions containing radioiodine may be reduced in volume without excessive loss of volatile iodine. The use of concentrated nitric acid during an evaporation process oxidizes the mercury-iodide complex to a less volatile mercuric iodate precipitate.

  18. Validation of GATE 6.1 for targeted radiotherapy of metastic melanoma I-labeled benzamide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Validation of GATE 6.1 for targeted radiotherapy of metastic melanoma using 131 I for the treatment of malignant melanoma after injection of a new specific radiopharmaceutical labeled with iodine, named ICF01012, selected to treat35 the malignant melanoma [Chezal et al 2008]. 131 I-labeled ICF01012

  19. Radioiodinated branched carbohydrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goodman, Mark M. (Knoxville, TN); Knapp, Jr., Furn F. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A radioiodinated branched carbohydrate for tissue imaging. Iodine-123 is stabilized in the compound by attaching it to a vinyl functional group that is on the carbohydrate. The compound exhibits good uptake and retention and is promising in the development of radiopharmaceuticals for brain, heart and tumor imaging.

  20. Radioiodinated glucose analogues for use as imaging agents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goodman, Mark M. (Knoxville, TN); Knapp, Jr., Furn F. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A radioiodinated branched carbohydrate for tissue imaging. Iodine-123 is stabilized in the compound by attaching it to a vinyl functional group that is on the carbohydrate. The compound exhibits good uptake and retention and is promising in the development of radiopharmaceuticals for brain, heart and tumor imaging.

  1. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 514 (2003) 206214 A silicon strip detector coupled to the RX64 ASIC for X-ray

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramello, Luciano

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , such as mammography and angiography at the iodine K-edge, the dual energy technique [3] makes it possible to isolate. The system is capable of single photon counting in digital X-ray imaging, with possible applications to dual energy mammography and angiography. The main features of the detecting system are low noise, good spatial

  2. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 823829, 2009 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/9/823/2009/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    ) into the marine boundary layer is rec- ognized to be of fundamental importance for (subsequent) ozone depletion signa- ture. The new data indicate that algal control of I2 release in the form of an oscillatory time). Hence the Correspondence to: A. A. Ruth (a.ruth@ucc.ie) overall iodine budget in the marine boundary

  3. BIOCHEMISTRY OF SNAKE VENOM NEUROTOXINS AND THEIR APPLICATION TO THE STUDY OF THE SYNAPSE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanley, M.R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bgt s-Bgt BSA CD Q.1 OviF Ddt D! viS d- TC DTT GABA HNB 3H-Labeling of a-Bgt and Ddt. Iodinated derivatives of the twodendra- toxin ([125r]-ddt) was the only product isolated (

  4. Microbe Identification Activity The purpose of this activity is to differentiate (tell the difference) between various bacterial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, Michael R.

    Microbe Identification Activity Purpose The purpose of this activity is to differentiate (tell between gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria - Tell the difference between catalase positive species Materials Microscope slide Crystal Violet Gram's Iodine Ethanol (de-stain) Safranin Malachite

  5. Byrd Polar Research Center, The Ohio State University Image of the Location

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howat, Ian M.

    with Can of Fuel I ­ Ice Ax J - Shovel K ­ Map of the Area L ­ Metal Can with Sealable Lid M ­ Bottle 1 Bottle of Sunscreen 1 Shovel 1 Packet of Iodine Tablets 1 Tent and Poles Large Enough for Five glass, but since it is snowing, the glass will soon be covered. If you were on Nevado Sajama

  6. Oscillations in alpha Cen A observed with UCLES at the AAT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. R. Bedding; R. P. Butler; C. McCarthy; H. Kjeldsen; G. W. Marcy; S. J. O'Toole; C. G. Tinney; J. Wright

    2002-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We report Doppler measurements of alpha Cen A from time-series spectroscopy made with UCLES at the 3.9-m AAT. Wavelength calibration using an iodine absorption cell produced high-precision velocity measurements, whose power spectrum shows the clear signature of solar-like oscillations, confirming the detection reported by Bouchy and Carrier (2001).

  7. Oscillations in alpha Cen A observed with UCLES at the AAT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bedding, T R; McCarthy, C; Kjeldsen, H; Marcy, G W; O'Toole, S J; Tinney, C G; Wright, J

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report Doppler measurements of alpha Cen A from time-series spectroscopy made with UCLES at the 3.9-m AAT. Wavelength calibration using an iodine absorption cell produced high-precision velocity measurements, whose power spectrum shows the clear signature of solar-like oscillations, confirming the detection reported by Bouchy and Carrier (2001).

  8. Halogenation of cobalt dicarbollide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hurlburt, P.K.; Abney, K.D.; Kinkead, S.A.

    1997-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for selectively adding chlorine, bromine, or iodine to cobalt dicarbollide anions by means of electrophilic substitution reactions. Halogens are added only to the B10 and B10{prime} positions of the anion. The process involves use of hypohalous acid or N-halosuccinimide or gaseous chlorine in the presence of iron. 1 fig.

  9. AIAA Plasmadynamics and Lasers Conference 6-9 June 2005, Toronto, Ontario Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carroll, David L.

    . Conventionally, a two phase (gas-liquid) chemistry singlet oxygen generator (SOG) produces the O2(a In an electric discharge Oxygen-Iodine laser (ElectricOIL), laser action at 1315 nm on the I(2 P1/2) I(2 P3 using a low-pressure electric discharge. The discharge production of atomic oxygen, ozone, and other

  10. carroll@cuaerospace.com; phone 1-217-333-8274; fax 1-217-244-7757; http://cuaerospace.com; CU Aerospace, 60 Hazelwood Dr., Champaign, IL 61820.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carroll, David L.

    reaction has been fed by a liquid chemistry singlet oxygen generator (SOG). Over the past several years. Atomic oxygen titration experiments are presented along with gain as a function of power input to the system. Keywords: DOIL, EOIL, chemical oxygen-iodine laser, COIL, ElectriCOIL, RF excitation of oxygen

  11. For Immediate release: 04/12/12 Contact: Ingrid Wright

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ward, Karen

    ", will be conducted over three years. The research aims to develop novel compositions for generation of oxygen, hydrogen, and iodine-containing gas species. Oxygen generators can produce more oxygen, show higher been awarded a $620,000 grant from the U.S. Department of Defense to conduct research on gas generators

  12. AIAA Plasmadynamics and Lasers Conference 6-9 June 2005, Toronto, Ontario Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carroll, David L.

    , the O2(a) is produced by a liquid chemistry singlet oxygen generator (SOG). There are many system issues The classic chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) system1 operates on the I(2 P1/2) I(2 P3/2) [hereafter inversion is produced by the near resonant energy transfer between the metastable excited singlet oxygen

  13. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE N ColloqueC7,suppl6mentau Journalde Physique 111,Vol. 1,dkembre 1991

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    .The use of solid compounds for the singlet oxygen (SO) generator was investigated. By the means of the SO generator is minimal. Today the power of Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Laser (COIL) and it efficiency is determined mainly by the operational characteristics of the Singlet Oxygen Generator (SOG)[1,2]. The known

  14. Performance of a Multi-Stream Injection COIL with Starlet Darren M. King1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carroll, David L.

    . Pressures in the singlet oxygen generator (SOG) were relatively constant with ejector flow rate suggesting generator performance for pressure recovery potential. I. Introduction The chemical oxygen-iodine laser]. Much of the COIL technology development to date has focused on the singlet- oxygen generator (SOG

  15. ElectricOIL discharge and post-discharge kinetics experiments and modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carroll, David L.

    oxygen, ozone, and other excited species adds levels of complexity to the singlet oxygen generator (SOG has been obtained by a near resonant energy transfer from O2(a1 ) produced using a low­pressure oxygen/helium/nitric-oxide discharge. In the electric discharge oxygen-iodine laser (ElectricOIL) the discharge production of atomic

  16. IOP PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF PHYSICS D: APPLIED PHYSICS J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43 (2010) 025208 (10pp) doi:10.1088/0022-3727/43/2/025208

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carroll, David L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Logistic issues with this chemical singlet oxygen generator (SOG) motivated many investigations­He­NO gas mixture. Active oxygen and nitrogen species were observed downstream of the discharge regionW in a supersonic flow cavity. 1. Introduction The classical chemical oxygen­iodine laser (COIL) reported by Mc

  17. Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers 2000, eds. V.J. Corcoran and T.A. Corcoran, STS Press, McLean VA, 2001, pp. 265-272.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carroll, David L.

    oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) singlet oxygen generator (SOG) based on discharge excitation of molecular/2). Historically, this pumping reaction has been fed by a liquid chemistry singlet oxygen generator (SOG, STS Press, McLean VA, 2001, pp. 265-272. 265 ElectriCOIL: Preliminary Experiments of Excited Oxygen

  18. Factors influencing carbohydrate utilization in steers fed processed sorghum grain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNeill, John W

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    reacted with iodine (Baker et al. , 1950) . Th& fermentation of dietary carbol!ydrates in the rumen results in tl. e production of volatile fatty acids (Annlson nd Be&&is& 1959). These acids constitute tI&e major source cf energy for th& ruminant...

  19. Carbon Allocation in Underground Storage Organs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon Allocation in Underground Storage Organs Studies on Accumulation of Starch, Sugars and Oil Cover: Starch granules in cells of fresh potato tuber visualised by iodine staining. #12;Carbon By increasing knowledge of carbon allocation in underground storage organs and using the knowledge to improve

  20. Dynamics of the radiation situation on the territory of the Republic of Belarus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matveyenko, I.I.; Zhukova, O.M. [Republic Centre of Radiation and Environment Monitoring, Minsk (Belarus). Belarus State Dept. for Hydrometerology

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper examines the environmental contamination in Belarus before the Chernobyl accident and after it. The soil concentration was determined for iodine-131 in 1986, cerium-144 in 1986, and cesium-137 in 1993. Surface water contamination was determined for cesium-137 from 1987-1991. The vertical migration of cesium 137 was determined in soil.

  1. Tracer Studies at Los Alamos 266 Los Alamos Science Number 23 1995

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massey, Thomas N.

    from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. One said, "We've got to stop. We're going to hurt somebody was a problem for children in particular. You see, the radioactive iodine produced by nuclear weapons falls," while the other said, "We can't afford to stop. We need to test if we are going to survive militarily

  2. Heat-pipe liquid-pool-blanket concept for the Tandem Mirror Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, M.A.; Werner, R.W.; Johnson, G.L.

    1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The blanket concept for the tandem mirror reactor described in this paper was developed to produce the medium temperature heat (approx. 850 to 950 K) for the General Atomic sulfur-iodine thermochemical process for producing hydrogen. This medium temperature heat from the blanket constitutes about 81% of the total power output of the fusion reactor.

  3. The Relation of the Phosphoric Acid of the Soil to Pot Experiments.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1920-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    .6 62.4 56.1 67.2 50.0 Phosphoric Ac~d per Million of soil 3.9 6.0 9.9 17.6 12.5 KN Total gm. 16.9 28.8 33.1 57.2 45.4 Phos horic ~ciBper crop gm. .0178 .0323 .0384 .OX01 .0539 KN per crop gm. 8.5 14.4 16.6 28.6 22....87 17.36 15.38 11.92 18.97 31.01 31.75 22.12 Crop No. 2-Sorghum KN.. ............................. 7.71 9.99 11.17 11.86 11.25 8.23 14.14 26.21 18.98 20.18 Crop No. 3-Corn KN. ................................. 9.39 6.60 12.60 11.01 10.59 5.03 10...

  4. Analytical optimization of digital subtraction mammography with contrast medium using a commercial unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosado-Mendez, I.; Palma, B. A.; Brandan, M. E. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 04510 Mexico City (Mexico)

    2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Contrast-medium-enhanced digital mammography (CEDM) is an image subtraction technique which might help unmasking lesions embedded in very dense breasts. Previous works have stated the feasibility of CEDM and the imperative need of radiological optimization. This work presents an extension of a former analytical formalism to predict contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in subtracted mammograms. The goal is to optimize radiological parameters available in a clinical mammographic unit (x-ray tube anode/filter combination, voltage, and loading) by maximizing CNR and minimizing total mean glandular dose (D{sub gT}), simulating the experimental application of an iodine-based contrast medium and the image subtraction under dual-energy nontemporal, and single- or dual-energy temporal modalities. Total breast-entrance air kerma is limited to a fixed 8.76 mGy (1 R, similar to screening studies). Mathematical expressions obtained from the formalism are evaluated using computed mammographic x-ray spectra attenuated by an adipose/glandular breast containing an elongated structure filled with an iodinated solution in various concentrations. A systematic study of contrast, its associated variance, and CNR for different spectral combinations is performed, concluding in the proposal of optimum x-ray spectra. The linearity between contrast in subtracted images and iodine mass thickness is proven, including the determination of iodine visualization limits based on Rose's detection criterion. Finally, total breast-entrance air kerma is distributed between both images in various proportions in order to maximize the figure of merit CNR{sup 2}/D{sub gT}. Predicted results indicate the advantage of temporal subtraction (either single- or dual-energy modalities) with optimum parameters corresponding to high-voltage, strongly hardened Rh/Rh spectra. For temporal techniques, CNR was found to depend mostly on the energy of the iodinated image, and thus reduction in D{sub gT} could be achieved if the spectral energy of the noniodinated image is decreased and the breast-entrance air kerma is evenly distributed between both acquisitions. Predicted limits, in terms of iodine concentration, are found to guarantee the visualization of common clinical angiogenic concentrations in the breast.

  5. Purification and deposition of silicon by an iodide disproportionation reaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Tihu (Littleton, CO); Ciszek, Theodore F. (Evergreen, CO)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Method and apparatus for producing purified bulk silicon from highly impure metallurgical-grade silicon source material at atmospheric pressure. Method involves: (1) initially reacting iodine and metallurgical-grade silicon to create silicon tetraiodide and impurity iodide byproducts in a cold-wall reactor chamber; (2) isolating silicon tetraiodide from the impurity iodide byproducts and purifying it by distillation in a distillation chamber; and (3) transferring the purified silicon tetraiodide back to the cold-wall reactor chamber, reacting it with additional iodine and metallurgical-grade silicon to produce silicon diiodide and depositing the silicon diiodide onto a substrate within the cold-wall reactor chamber. The two chambers are at atmospheric pressure and the system is open to allow the introduction of additional source material and to remove and replace finished substrates.

  6. Purified silicon production system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Tihu; Ciszek, Theodore F.

    2004-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Method and apparatus for producing purified bulk silicon from highly impure metallurgical-grade silicon source material at atmospheric pressure. Method involves: (1) initially reacting iodine and metallurgical-grade silicon to create silicon tetraiodide and impurity iodide byproducts in a cold-wall reactor chamber; (2) isolating silicon tetraiodide from the impurity iodide byproducts and purifying it by distillation in a distillation chamber; and (3) transferring the purified silicon tetraiodide back to the cold-wall reactor chamber, reacting it with additional iodine and metallurgical-grade silicon to produce silicon diiodide and depositing the silicon diiodide onto a substrate within the cold-wall reactor chamber. The two chambers are at atmospheric pressure and the system is open to allow the introduction of additional source material and to remove and replace finished substrates.

  7. Distribution of Radioactive Materials in the Absheron Peninsula, Azerbaijan - 13567

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vandergraaf, Tjalle T. [Consultant, Pinawa, MB, R0E 1L0 (Canada)] [Consultant, Pinawa, MB, R0E 1L0 (Canada); Mamedov, Gudrat G.; Ramazanov, Mahammadali A.; Badalov, Vatan H. [Baku State University, Baku (Azerbaijan)] [Baku State University, Baku (Azerbaijan); Naghiyev, Jalal A. [Institute of Radiation Problems of ANAS, Baku (Azerbaijan)] [Institute of Radiation Problems of ANAS, Baku (Azerbaijan); Mehdiyeva, Afat A. [National Aerospace Agency of Ministry of Defense Industry, Baku (Azerbaijan)] [National Aerospace Agency of Ministry of Defense Industry, Baku (Azerbaijan)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Absheron Peninsula forms the extreme Eastern part of Azerbaijan and juts into the Caspian Sea. The region has a long history of oil and gas exploration, transport, and processing and includes a number of abandoned chemical plants that were used in the separation of iodine from formation waters. As a result of lax environmental standards during the Soviet era, the industrial activity has led to serious contamination from oils residues, heavy metals and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). Radiometric surveys performed over a wide range of the Absheron Peninsula showed generally low NORM concentrations. However, radiation levels two to three orders of magnitude above background levels were detected at two abandoned iodine separation plants near the capital city, Baku. These elevated radiation levels are mainly due to Ra-226 and U-238 with lower contributions from Ra-228 and U-235. (authors)

  8. The Halogenation of Oils with Special Attention to the Method of Wijs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rhodes, Edmund Oliver

    1913-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    the separation of iodine when various substances were treated with Wijs1 solution and offered the following suggestions as to the causes: !• The addition of chlorine by the substance, and liberation of free iodine, but this does not explain the formation... of experiments in which varying time was used, 44 Eh c CO o a •H Eh «.H O +> O

  9. Workshop on development of radionuclide getters for the Yucca Mountain waste repository: proceedings.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, Robert Charles; Lukens, Wayne W. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory)

    2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The proposed Yucca Mountain repository, located in southern Nevada, is to be the first facility for permanent disposal of spent reactor fuel and high-level radioactive waste in the United States. Total Systems Performance Assessment (TSPA) analysis has indicated that among the major radionuclides contributing to dose are technetium, iodine, and neptunium, all of which are highly mobile in the environment. Containment of these radionuclides within the repository is a priority for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). These proceedings review current research and technology efforts for sequestration of the radionuclides with a focus on technetium, iodine, and neptunium. This workshop also covered issues concerning the Yucca Mountain environment and getter characteristics required for potential placement into the repository.

  10. Antimocrobial Polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDonald, William F. (Utica, OH); Huang, Zhi-Heng (Walnut Creek, CA); Wright, Stacy C. (Columbus, GA)

    2005-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A polymeric composition having antimicrobial properties and a process for rendering the surface of a substrate antimicrobial are disclosed. The composition comprises a crosslinked chemical combination of (i) a polymer having amino group-containing side chains along a backbone forming the polymer, (ii) an antimicrobial agent selected from quaternary ammonium compounds, gentian violet compounds, substituted or unsubstituted phenols, biguanide compounds, iodine compounds, and mixtures thereof, and (iii) a crosslinking agent containing functional groups capable of reacting with the amino groups. In one embodiment, the polymer is a polyamide formed from a maleic anhydride or maleic acid ester monomer and alkylamines thereby producing a polyamide having amino substituted alkyl chains on one side of the polyamide backbone; the crosslinking agent is a phosphine having the general formula (A)3P wherein A is hydroxyalkyl; and the antimicrobial agent is chlorhexidine, dimethylchlorophenol, cetyl pyridinium chloride, gentian violet, triclosan, thymol, iodine, and mixtures thereof.

  11. Nuclear waste management. Quarterly progress report, January-March 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Platt, A.M.; Powell, J.A. (comps.)

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reported are: high-level waste immobilization, alternative waste forms, nuclear waste materials characterization, TRU waste immobilization, TRU waste decontamination, krypton solidification, thermal outgassing, iodine-129 fixation, unsaturated zone transport, well-logging instrumentation development, mobile organic complexes of fission products, waste management system and safety studies, assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems, waste/rock interactions, engineered barriers, criteria for defining waste isolation, and spent fuel and pool component integrity. (DLC)

  12. Diffusion of vaporous guests into a seemingly non-porous organic crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herbert, Simon A.; Janiak, Agnieszka; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Atwood, Jerry L.; Barbour, Leonard J.

    2014-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The tetragonal apohost phase of p-tert-butyltetramethoxythiacalix[4]arene absorbs hydrochloric acid and iodine. These guest molecules occupy different sites in the solid-state structure -- either within the small intrinsic voids of the macrocycle or within the interstitial spaces between the host molecules. This study illustrates the dynamic deformation of the host, providing strong mechanistic insight into the diffusion of guests into this seemingly non-porous material.

  13. A comparison of diagnostic techniques for detecting salmonella spp in equine fecal samples using culture methods, gel-based pcr, and real-time pcr assays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Shelle Ann

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    (TTH) [BD Diagnostics, Franklin Lakes, NJ, prepared by the Department of Veterinary Pathobiology (VTPB) 10 media kitchen] with 5 drops of iodine solution added. The MacConkey Agar plates, XLT4 plates, and inoculated Tetrathionate broth were..., prepared by the Department of Veterinary Pathobiology (VTPB) media kitchen] was then inoculated with solution from the Tetrathionate broth mixture using a sterile swab. The MAC plates, XLT4 plates, and inoculated RV broth were then incubated for 24 hrs...

  14. Summary Report for the Development of Materials for Volatile Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strachan, Denis M.; Chun, Jaehun; Henager, Charles H.; Matyas, Josef; Riley, Brian J.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Thallapally, Praveen K.

    2010-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The materials development summarized here is in support of the Waste Forms campaign, Volatile Radionuclide task. Specifically, materials are being developed for the removal and immobilization of iodine and krypton, specifically 129I and 85Kr. During FY 2010, aerogel materials were investigated for removal and immobilization of 129I. Two aerogel formulations were investigated, one based on silica aerogels and the second on chalcogenides. For 85Kr, metal organic framework (MOF) structures were investigated.

  15. Published: November 01, 2011 r 2011 American Chemical Society 1957 dx.doi.org/10.1021/cr2001756 |Chem. Rev. 2012, 112, 19572011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Expansion Approaches 1964 2.2.2. Diffusion Chamber 1964 2.2.3. Laminar Flow Chamber 1965 2.2.4. Turbulent Mixing Chamber 1965 2.2.5. Continuous Generation of Nucleating Vapors from Chemical Reaction sources 1965.2.3. Nucleation of H2SO4ÀH2O Assisted by Organic Acids 1977 3.2.4. Nucleation of Iodine Oxides 1979 3.2.5. Ion

  16. Identification and differentiation of individual beta emitters in waste mixtures by liquid scintillation spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siskel, Robin Lynn

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    carbon-14, tritium, and iodine-125 liquid scintillation wastes, provided that the activity and isotopes present can be documented. This legislation has generated a significant interest in developing a quick, cost efficient method of identificatior... to reference data was the most practical method of unknown identification, and fully complies with regulatory requirements for relatively unquenched sample mixtures of two isotopes. Accurate isotopic identification and differentiation was found...

  17. Appendix F: Radiation Appendix F: Radiation F-3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    and water; and uranium, thorium, and radium in the earth's crust are all sources of radiation. The following.13E+5 years Cobalt-60 60 Co 5.271 years Thorium-228 228 Th 1.9132 years Curium-242 242 Cm 163.2 days Thorium-230 230 Th 7.54E+4 years Curium-244 244 Cm 18.11 years Thorium-232 232 Th 1.405E+10 years Iodine

  18. Appendix F: Radiation Appendix F: Radiation F-3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    in air; potassium in food and water; and uranium, thorium, and radium in the earth's crust are all.13E+5 years Cobalt-60 60 Co 5.271 years Thorium-228 228 Th 1.9132 years Curium-242 242 Cm 163.2 days Thorium-230 230 Th 7.54E+4 years Curium-244 244 Cm 18.11 years Thorium-232 232 Th 1.405E+10 years Iodine

  19. Insights on the binding of thioflavin derivative markers to amyloid fibril models and A?{sub 1-40} fibrils from computational approaches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alí-Torres, Jorge; Rimola, Albert; Sodupe, Mariona [Departament de Química, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra 08193 (Spain); Rodriguez-Rodríguez, Cristina [Medicinal Inorganic Chemistry Group, Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, 2036 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

    2014-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The present contribution analyzes the binding of ThT and neutral ThT derivatives to a ?-sheet model by means of quantum chemical calculations. In addition, we study the properties of four molecules: (2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)benzoxazole (HBX), 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)benzothiazole (HBT) and their respective iodinated compounds, HBXI and HBTI, in binding to amyloid fibril models and A?{sub 1-40}fibrils by using a combination of docking, molecular dynamics and quantum mechanics calculations.

  20. Selective low-temperature mass transport in InGaAsP/InP lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasson, A.; Chiu, L.C.; Chen, T.R.; Koren, U.; Rav-Noy, Z.; Yu, K.L.; Margalit, S.; Yariv, A.

    1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A low-temperature mass transport process in InP was investigated. Mass transport of InP was achieved at 570--600 /sup 0/C in a closed ampoule using iodine or InI as a catalytic transporting agent. Accomplishing the mass transport process at lower temperature has eliminated the problem of thermal etching and resulted in lasers with higher T/sub 0/.

  1. I-123 HIPDM brain imaging with a rotating gamma camera and slant-hole collimator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polak, J.F.; Holman, B.L.; Moretti, J.L.; Eisner, R.L.; Lister-James, J.; English, R.J.

    1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance of a slant-hole collimator was compared with that of a standard straight-bore, low-energy collimator for tomographic imaging of I-123-iodinated amine brain agent. Improved in-slice resolution was due to the greater proximity between collimator and the subjects' heads. It was concluded that high quality tomographic images of the brain can be obtained from rotating cameras equipped with slant-hole collimators.

  2. A theoretical comparison of x-ray angiographic image quality using energy-dependent and conventional subtraction methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanguay, Jesse; Kim, Ho Kyung; Cunningham, Ian A. [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, 100 Perth Drive, London, Ontario N6A 5K8 (Canada) and Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5C1 (Canada); School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, 100 Perth Drive, London, Ontario N6A 5K8 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5C1 (Canada); Lawson Health Research Institute, London, Ontario N6A 4V2 (Canada) and London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5A5 (Canada)

    2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: X-ray digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is widely used for vascular imaging. However, the need to subtract a mask image can result in motion artifacts and compromised image quality. The current interest in energy-resolving photon-counting (EPC) detectors offers the promise of eliminating motion artifacts and other advanced applications using a single exposure. The authors describe a method of assessing the iodine signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) that may be achieved with energy-resolved angiography (ERA) to enable a direct comparison with other approaches including DSA and dual-energy angiography for the same patient exposure. Methods: A linearized noise-propagation approach, combined with linear expressions of dual-energy and energy-resolved imaging, is used to describe the iodine SNR. The results were validated by a Monte Carlo calculation for all three approaches and compared visually for dual-energy and DSA imaging using a simple angiographic phantom with a CsI-based flat-panel detector. Results: The linearized SNR calculations show excellent agreement with Monte Carlo results. While dual-energy methods require an increased tube heat load of 2x to 4x compared to DSA, and photon-counting detectors are not yet ready for angiographic imaging, the available iodine SNR for both methods as tested is within 10% of that of conventional DSA for the same patient exposure over a wide range of patient thicknesses and iodine concentrations. Conclusions: While the energy-based methods are not necessarily optimized and further improvements are likely, the linearized noise-propagation analysis provides the theoretical framework of a level playing field for optimization studies and comparison with conventional DSA. It is concluded that both dual-energy and photon-counting approaches have the potential to provide similar angiographic image quality to DSA.

  3. Evidence for a receptor for ceruloplasmin on chick aortic and heart cell membranes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevens, Michael Duane

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Preparation of Asialoglycoprotein RESULTS. 7 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Membrane Preparation. Purification of Chick Ceruloplasmin Iodination of Ceruloplasmin Binding Studies Characterization of the Receptor. DISCUSSION REFERENCES VITA 13 13 22 22... asialo-orosomucoid have shown that the receptor-protein complex is internalized and migrates to the golgi-lysosome region where the asialoglycoproteins are degraded (24). The receptor is recycled back to the membrane. It is possible a similar...

  4. Diosmacycloalkanes as models for the formation of hydrocarbons from surface methylenes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norton, J.R.

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report is divided into: vibrational models for surface ethylidenes (on catalyst surfaces); alpha vs beta hydrogen elimination in formation of propene from an osmacyclobutane; mechanism of formation and fragmentation of diosmacyclobutanes; reaction of dienes and allenes with diosmacyclobutanes; structure of Os(CO)[sub 4](C[sub 2]H[sub 4]), an osmacyclopropane; and reaction of [mu]-oxobis [(trifluoromethanesulfanato) (phenyl)iodine(III)] with Group 14 propargyl derivatives and a propargyl ether. 16 refs, figs.

  5. Diosmacycloalkanes as models for the formation of hydrocarbons from surface methylenes. Progress report, November 1, 1992--October 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norton, J.R.

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report is divided into: vibrational models for surface ethylidenes (on catalyst surfaces); alpha vs beta hydrogen elimination in formation of propene from an osmacyclobutane; mechanism of formation and fragmentation of diosmacyclobutanes; reaction of dienes and allenes with diosmacyclobutanes; structure of Os(CO){sub 4}(C{sub 2}H{sub 4}), an osmacyclopropane; and reaction of {mu}-oxobis [(trifluoromethanesulfanato) (phenyl)iodine(III)] with Group 14 propargyl derivatives and a propargyl ether. 16 refs, figs.

  6. Preparation of uranium compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kiplinger, Jaqueline L; Montreal, Marisa J; Thomson, Robert K; Cantat, Thibault; Travia, Nicholas E

    2013-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    UI.sub.3(1,4-dioxane).sub.1.5 and UI.sub.4(1,4-dioxane).sub.2, were synthesized in high yield by reacting turnings of elemental uranium with iodine dissolved in 1,4-dioxane under mild conditions. These molecular compounds of uranium are thermally stable and excellent precursor materials for synthesizing other molecular compounds of uranium including alkoxide, amide, organometallic, and halide compounds.

  7. INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING SEMICONDUCTOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20 (2005) L40L42 doi:10.1088/0268-1242/20/8/L04

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perera, A. G. Unil

    noise on the functioning of the dye-sensitized solar cell, notably the effect of adsorbed iodine of the dye-sensitized solar cells are discussed. TiO2 nanocrystalline films used for noise measurements were (2005) L40­L42 doi:10.1088/0268-1242/20/8/L04 LETTER TO THE EDITOR 1/f noise and dye-sensitized solar

  8. New Approaches for Passivation of Crystalline and Amorphous Silicon: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-09-351

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sopori, B.

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New approaches of passivating crystalline, multicrystalline, and amorphous silicon will be explored. These will include the use of aqueous solution of KCN and a proprietary composition formulated by Mallinckrodt Baker, Inc. The surface passivation will be compared with that provided by an iodine-ethanol solution, and bulk passivation will be compared with that of H-passivation obtained by silicon nitride, in a fire-through process.

  9. Synthesis of N-formyl-3,4-di-t-butoxycarbonyloxy-6-(trimethylstannyl)-L-phenylalanine ethyl ester and its regioselective radiofluorodestannylation to 6- .sup.18 F!fluoro-1-dopa

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar (Los Angeles, CA); Barrio, Jorge R. (Agoura Hills, CA); Bishop, Allyson J. (Wahnemuhle, DE); Namavari, Mohammad (Los Angeles, CA); Bida, Gerald T. (Shreveport, LA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for forming a 6-fluoro derivative of compounds in the L-Dopa family comprising the steps of protecting the groups attached to the benzene ring in the compound followed by serially reacting the protected compound with (a) iodine and silver trifluoroacetic acid; (b) Bb.sub.3 ; (c) dit-butyldicarbonate; (d) hexamethyltin; (e) a fluoro compound; (f) hydrobromic acid; and (g) raising the pH to .ltoreq.7.

  10. Synthesis of N-formyl-3,4-di-t-butoxycarbonyloxy-6(trimethylstannyl)-L-phenylalanine ethyl ester and its regioselective radiofluorodestannylation to 6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-1-dopa

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Satyamurthy, N.; Barrio, J.R.; Bishop, A.J.; Namavari, M.; Bida, G.T.

    1996-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is revealed for forming a 6-fluoro derivative of compounds in the L-Dopa family comprising the steps of protecting the groups attached to the benzene ring in the compound followed by serially reacting the protected compound with (a) iodine and silver trifluoroacetic acid; (b) Bb{sub 3}; (c) dit-butyldicarbonate; (d) hexamethyltin; (e) a fluoro compound; (f) hydrobromic acid; and (g) raising the pH to {<=}7. 1 fig.

  11. Features of coal dust dynamics at action of differently oriented forces in granular filtering medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neklyudov, I M; Poltinin, P Ya; Ledenyov, O P

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The process of the coal dust particles transportation and structurization in the experimental horizontal model of air filter with the cylindrical coal adsorbent granules as in the iodine air filter at the nuclear power plant is researched. In the investigated case the vector of carrying away force of air flow and the vector of gravitation force are mutually perpendicular, and the scattering of the dust particles on the granules occurs in the normal directions. It is found that the phenomenon of non controlled spontaneous sharp increase of aerodynamic resistance in the iodine air filter under the big integral volumes of filtered air and the big masses of introduced coal dust particles is not observed at the described experimental conditions in distinction from the case of the parallel orientation of this forces as in the vertical iodine air filters at the nuclear power plant. The quantitative measurements of the main parameters of the process of the dust masses transportation and structurization are made on a ...

  12. Amino acid analogs for tumor imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goodman, M.M.; Shoup, T.

    1998-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides novel amino acid compounds of use in detecting and evaluating brain and body tumors. These compounds combine the advantageous properties of 1-amino-cycloalkyl-1-carboxylic acids, namely, their rapid uptake and prolonged retention in tumors with the properties of halogen substituents, including certain useful halogen isotopes including fluorine-18, iodine-123, iodine-125, iodine-131, bromine-75, bromine-76, bromine-77 and bromine-82. In one aspect, the invention features amino acid compounds that have a high specificity for target sites when administered to a subject in vivo. Preferred amino acid compounds show a target to non-target ratio of at least 5:1, are stable in vivo and substantially localized to target within 1 hour after administration. An especially preferred amino acid compound is [{sup 18}F]-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC). In another aspect, the invention features pharmaceutical compositions comprised of an {alpha}-amino acid moiety attached to either a four, five, or a six member carbon-chain ring. In addition, the invention features analogs of {alpha}-aminoisobutyric acid.

  13. Amino acid analogs for tumor imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goodman, M.M.; Shoup, T.

    1998-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides novel amino acid compounds of use in detecting and evaluating brain and body tumors. These compounds combine the advantageous properties of 1-amino-cycloalkyl-1-carboxylic acids, namely, their rapid uptake and prolonged retention in tumors with the properties of halogen substituents, including certain useful halogen isotopes including fluorine-18, iodine-123, iodine-125, iodine-131, bromine-75, bromine-76, bromine-77 and bromine-82. In one aspect, the invention features amino acid compounds that have a high specificity for target sites when administered to a subject in vivo. Preferred amino acid compounds show a target to non-target ratio of at least 5:1, are stable in vivo and substantially localized to target within 1 hour after administration. An especially preferred amino acid compound is [{sup 18}F]-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC). In another aspect, the invention features pharmaceutical compositions comprised of an {alpha}-amino acid moiety attached to either a four, five, or a six member carbon-chain ring. In addition, the invention features analogs of {alpha}-aminoisobutyric acid.

  14. Amino acid analogs for tumor imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goodman, Mark M. (Atlanta, GA); Shoup, Timothy (Decatur, GA)

    1998-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides novel amino acid compounds of use in detecting and evaluating brain and body tumors. These compounds combine the advantageous properties of 1-amino-cycloalkyl-1-carboxylic acids, namely, their rapid uptake and prolonged retention in tumors with the properties of halogen substituents, including certain useful halogen isotopes including fluorine-18, iodine-123, iodine-125, iodine-131, bromine-75, bromine-76, bromine-77 and bromine-82. In one aspect, the invention features amino acid compounds that have a high specificity for target sites when administered to a subject in vivo. Preferred amino acid compounds show a target to non-target ratio of at least 5:1, are stable in vivo and substantially localized to target within 1 hour after administration. An especially preferred amino acid compound is ›.sup.18 F!-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC). In another aspect, the invention features pharmaceutical compositions comprised of an .alpha.-amino acid moiety attached to either a four, five, or a six member carbon-chain ring. In addition, the invention features analogs of .alpha.-aminoisobutyric acid.

  15. Amino acid analogs for tumor imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goodman, Mark M. (Atlanta, GA); Shoup, Timothy (Decatur, GA)

    1998-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides novel amino acid compounds of use in detecting and evaluating brain and body tumors. These compounds combine the advantageous properties of 1-amino-cycloalkyl-1-carboxylic acids, namely, their rapid uptake and prolonged retention in tumors with the properties of halogen substituents, including certain useful halogen isotopes including fluorine-18, iodine-123, iodine-125, iodine-131, bromine-75, bromine-76, bromine-77 and bromine-82. In one aspect, the invention features amino acid compounds that have a high specificity for target sites when administered to a subject in vivo. Preferred amino acid compounds show a target to non-target ratio of at least 5:1, are stable in vivo and substantially localized to target within 1 hour after administration. An especially preferred amino acid compound is ›.sup.18 F!-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC). In another aspect, the invention features pharmaceutical compositions comprised of an .alpha.-amino acid moiety attached to either a four, five, or a six member carbon-chain ring. In addition, the invention features analogs of .alpha.-aminoisobutyric acid.

  16. Quality Characteristics of Luffa aegyptiaca seed oil. * 2 1 1 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. M Abayeh; I. H Garba; H. M Adamu; O. J Abayeh

    The oil content and quality characteristics of Luffa aegyptiaca seed oil are described. The straight vegetable oil (SVO) was extracted from the seed using hexane. On a dry matter basis, the oil content was 19-25 % of ground seeds. The quality characteristics of the seed oil were: saponification value (SV), 168mg KOH/g of oil, iodine value (IV), 130g iodine/100g of oil, peroxide value (PV), 280 meq peroxide/kg of oil, free fatty acid (FFA) 10.36 % of oil and acid value (AV) 20.62%. The density of the oil was 0.91g/cm 3 and the specific gravity was 0.92g/ml oil and kinematic viscosity 13.98mm 2 /s at 30 0 C. The saponin content and the unsaponifiable matter of the oil were also determined. The oil quality parameters suggest that the oil may find use as feedstock for biodiesel production. Owing to its iodine value, the oil may also be used in surface coating applications.

  17. Fission product release from highly irradiated LWR fuel heated to 1300 to 1600/sup 0/C in steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lorenz, R.A.; Collins, J.L.; Malinauskas, A.P. Osborne, M.F.; Towns, R.L.

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Four tests were performed with high-burnup light water reactor (LWR) fuel to explore the amount and characteristics of fission product release at short heating times (0.4 to 10 min) in steam atmosphere in the temperature range 1300 to 1600/sup 0/C. The test fuel rod segments were cut from full-length fuel rods irradiated at low heat rating to 30,000 MWd/MT in the H.B. Robinson-2 reactor. The releases of cesium and iodine increased tenfold (approx.0.3 to >4%) with temperature from 1350 to 1400/sup 0/C from fuel with defects that simulate ruptured cladding. Krypton release rose from approx.2 to approx.11% of total inventory in this temperature range. This sudden increase in release of krypton, cesium, and iodine is believed to result from prior accumulations of these species at or very near the grain boundaries. At 1600/sup 0/C, the releases of krypton, cesium, and iodine were in the range 17 to 25% of total fuel inventory.

  18. Deep Bed Adsorption Testing using Silver-Functionalized Aerogel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nick Soelberg; Tony Watson

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear fission results in the production of fission products and activation products, some of which tend to be volatile during used fuel reprocessing and evolve in gaseous species into the reprocessing facility off-gas systems. Analyses have shown that I129, due to its radioactivity, high potential mobility in the environment, and high longevity (half life of 15.7 million years), can require control efficiencies of up to 1,000x or higher to meet regulatory emission limits. Two Aerogel sorption tests that have been performed this fiscal year. The maximum iodine decontamination factor (DF) was measured to be over 10,000, above the 1,000-10,000 target DF range. The mass transfer zone may be as short as 0.5 inches under the sorption conditions of the first test. Only a small fraction of the iodine sorbed on Bed 1 was desorbed during the purge periods. The silver-functionalized Aerogel appears to have potential to be a very effective and efficient iodine sorbent.

  19. Chalcogen-Based Aerogels as Sorbents for Radionuclide Remediation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, Brian J.; Chun, Jaehun; Um, Wooyong; Lepry, William C.; Matyas, Josef; Olszta, Matthew J.; Li, Xiaohong; Polychronopoulou, Kyriaki; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2013-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The efficient capture of radionuclides having long half-lives such as technetium-99 (99Tc), uranium-238 (238U), and iodine-129 (129I) is pivotal to prevent their transport into groundwater and/or release into the atmosphere. While different sorbents have been considered for capturing each of them, in the current work, a new nanostructured chalcogen-based aerogel, called a chalcogel, is shown to be very effective to capture ionic forms of 99Tc and 238U, as well as nonradioactive gaseous iodine (i.e., a surrogate for 129I), irrespective of the sorbent polarity. Some of the chalcogels performed better than others but the PtGeS sorbent performed the best with capture efficiencies of 98% and 99.4% for 99Tc and 238U, respectively. All sorbents showed >99% capture efficiency for iodine over the test duration. This unified sorbent would be an attractive option in environmental remediation for various radionuclides associated with legacy wastes from nuclear weapons production, wastes from nuclear power production, or potential future nuclear fuel reprocessing.

  20. Air pathway report: Phase I of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Phase 1 of the air-pathway portion of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project sought to determine whether dose estimates could be calculated for populations in the 10 counties nearest the Hanford Site from atmospheric releases of iodine-131 from the site from 1944--1947. Phase 1 demonstrated the following: HEDR-calculated source-term estimates of iodine-131 releases to the atmosphere were within 20% of previously published estimates; calculated vegetation concentrations of iodine-131 agree well with previously published measurements; the highest of the Phase 1 preliminary dose estimates to the thyroid are consistent with independent, previously published estimates of doses to maximally exposed individuals; and, relatively crude, previously published measurements of thyroid burdens for Hanford workers are in the range of average burdens that the HEDR model estimated for similar reference individuals'' for the period 1944--1947. Preliminary median dose estimates summed over the year 1945--1947 for the primary pathway, air-pasture-cow-milk-thyroid, ranged from low median values of 0.006 rad for upwind adults who obtained milk from backyard cows not on pasture to high median values of 68.0 rad for downwind infants who drank milk from pasture-fed cows. Extremes of the estimated range are a low of essentially zero to upwind adults and a high of almost 3000 rem to downwind infants. 37 refs., 37 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Draft Air Pathway Report: Phase 1 of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the air pathway portion of the first phase of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, conducted by Battelle staff at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the direction of an independent Technical Steering Panel. The HEDR Project is estimating historical radiation doses that could have been received by populations near the Department of Energy's Hanford Site, in southeastern Washington State. Phase 1 of the air-pathway dose reconstruction sought to determine whether dose estimates could be calculated for populations in the 10 counties nearest the Hanford Site from atmospheric releases of iodine-131 from the site from 1944--1947. Phase 1 demonstrated the following: HEDR-calculated source-term estimates of iodine-131 releases to the atmosphere were within 20% of previously published estimates; calculated vegetation concentrations of iodine-131 agree well with previously published measurements; the highest of the Phase 1 preliminary dose estimates to the thyroid are consistent with independent, previously published estimates of doses to maximally exposed individuals; and relatively crude, previously published measurements of thyroid burdens for Hanford workers are in the range of average burdens that the HEDR model estimated for similar reference individuals'' for the period 1944--1947. 4 refs., 10 figs., 9 tabs.

  2. Incorporation of radiohalogens via versatile organometallic reactions: applications in radiopharmaceutical chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srivastava, P.C.; Goodman, M.M.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Factors that must be considered for the design of radiohalogenated radio-pharmaceuticals include the stability and availability of the substrate, the physical half-life of the radiohalogen and the in vivo stability of the radiolabel. Vinyl and phenyl radiohalogen bonds show more in vivo stability than the alkyl radiohalogen bonds. Consequently, a variety of methods suitable for the synthesis of tissue specific radiopharmaceuticals bearing a vinyl or phenyl radiohalogen have been developed involving the synthesis and halogenation of metallovinyl and phenyl intermediates. The halogens and metallation reactions include iodine and bromine and alanation, boronation, mercuration, stannylation, and thallation, respectively. 19 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  3. Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to fallout radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conard, R.A.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Particularly important has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities.

  4. Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to fallout radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conard, R.A.

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Particularly important has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities.

  5. Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidently exposed to fallout radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conard, R.A.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical Team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Noteworthy has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities.

  6. Recent MELCOR and VICTORIA Fission Product Research at the NRC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bixler, N.E.; Cole, R.K.; Gauntt, R.O.; Schaperow, J.H.; Young, M.F.

    1999-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The MELCOR and VICTORIA severe accident analysis codes, which were developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, are designed to estimate fission product releases during nuclear reactor accidents in light water reactors. MELCOR is an integrated plant-assessment code that models the key phenomena in adequate detail for risk-assessment purposes. VICTORIA is a more specialized fission- product code that provides detailed modeling of chemical reactions and aerosol processes under the high-temperature conditions encountered in the reactor coolant system during a severe reactor accident. This paper focuses on recent enhancements and assessments of the two codes in the area of fission product chemistry modeling. Recently, a model for iodine chemistry in aqueous pools in the containment building was incorporated into the MELCOR code. The model calculates dissolution of iodine into the pool and releases of organic and inorganic iodine vapors from the pool into the containment atmosphere. The main purpose of this model is to evaluate the effect of long-term revolatilization of dissolved iodine. Inputs to the model include dose rate in the pool, the amount of chloride-containing polymer, such as Hypalon, and the amount of buffering agents in the containment. Model predictions are compared against the Radioiodine Test Facility (RTF) experiments conduced by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), specifically International Standard Problem 41. Improvements to VICTORIA's chemical reactions models were implemented as a result of recommendations from a peer review of VICTORIA that was completed last year. Specifically, an option is now included to model aerosols and deposited fission products as three condensed phases in addition to the original option of a single condensed phase. The three-condensed-phase model results in somewhat higher predicted fission product volatilities than does the single-condensed-phase model. Modeling of U02 thermochemistry was also improved, and results in better prediction of vaporization of uranium from fuel, which can react with released fission products to affect their volatility. This model also improves the prediction of fission product release rates from fuel. Finally, recent comparisons of MELCOR and VICTORIA with International Standard Problem 40 (STORM) data are presented. These comparisons focus on predicted therrnophoretic deposition, which is the dominant deposition mechanism. Sensitivity studies were performed with the codes to examine experimental and modeling uncertainties.

  7. Radioiodine Biogeochemistry and Prevalence in Groundwater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaplan, Daniel I.; Denham, Miles E.; Zhang, Saijin; Yeager, Chris; Xu, Chen; Schwehr, Kathy; Li, Hsiu-Ping; Ho, Yi-Fang; Wellman, Dawn M.; Santschi, Peter H.

    2014-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    129I is commonly either the top or among the top risk drivers, along with 99Tc, at radiological waste disposal sites and contaminated groundwater sites where nuclear material fabrication or reprocessing has occurred. The risk stems largely from 129I having a high toxicity, a high bioaccumulation factor (90% of all the body’s iodine concentrates in the thyroid), a high inventory at source terms (due to its high fission yield), an extremely long half-life (16M yr), and rapid mobility in the subsurface environment. Another important reason that 129I is a key risk driver is that there is the uncertainty regarding its biogeochemical fate and transport in the environment. We typically can define 129I mass balance and flux at sites, but cannot predict accurately its response to changes in the environment. As a consequence of some of these characteristics, 129I has a very low Drinking Water Standard, DWS, which is set at 1 pCi/L, the lowest of all radionuclides in the Federal Register. Recently, significant advancements have been made in detecting iodine species at ambient groundwater concentrations, defining the nature of the organic matter and iodine bond, and quantifying the role of naturally occurring sediment microbes to promote iodine oxidation and reduction. These recent studies have led to a more mechanistic understanding of radioiodine biogeochemistry. The objective of this review is to describe these advances and to provide a state of the science of radioiodine biogeochemistry relevant to its fate and transport in the terrestrial environment and provide information useful for making decisions regarding the stewardship and remediation of 129I contaminated sites. As part of this review, knowledge gaps were identified that would significantly advance the goals of basic and applied research programs for accelerating 129I environmental remediation and reducing uncertainty associated with disposal of 129I waste. Together the information gained from addressing these knowledge gaps will not alter the observation that 129I is primarily mobile, but it will likely permit demonstration that the entire 129I pool in the source term is not moving at the same rate and some may be tightly bound to the sediment, thereby “smearing” the modeled 129I peak and reducing maximum calculated risk.

  8. Method for the recovery of silver from silver zeolite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reimann, G.A.

    1985-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    High purity silver is recovered from silver exchanged zeolite used to capture radioactive iodine from nuclear reactor and nuclear fuel reprocessing environments. The silver exchanged zeolite is heated with slag formers to melt and fluidize the zeolite and release the silver, the radioactivity removing with the slag. The silver containing metallic impurities is remelted and treated with oxygen and a flux to remove the metal impurities. About 98% of the silver in the silver exchanged zeolite having a purity of 99% or better is recoverable by the method.

  9. Electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, L.I.; Vissers, D.R.; Prakash, J.

    1994-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrochemical cell is described having an alkali metal negative electrode such as sodium and a positive electrode including Ni or transition metals, separated by a [beta] alumina electrolyte and NaAlCl[sub 4] or other compatible material. Various concentrations of a bromine, iodine and/or sulfur containing additive and pore formers are disclosed, which enhance cell capacity and power. The pore formers may be the ammonium salts of carbonic acid or a weak organic acid or oxamide or methylcellulose. 6 figs.

  10. The characterization and reactivity of dinuclear gold complexes containing phosphonium or tertiary phosphine bridging ligands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diebold, Julia Shain

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (dppc(cH ))], were believed to have 3 2 3 2' been formed and were characterized by P NMR. Based on H NMR 31 1 evidence it was postulated that 3 may have also undergone an oxidative addition reaction with methyl iodide to form the gold(II) adduct 3-(cH )(I... characterized crystallographically. In this complex one iodine atom bridges the two metal centers, The product initially formed in this reaction was shown by H NMR to be [Au(dppCH(CH ))] . Methyl analogues of 2, 3 2 [Au(dppc(cH ) )] , and 3, [Au...

  11. Laser studies of chemical reaction and collision processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flynn, G. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work has concentrated on several interrelated projects in the area of laser photochemistry and photophysics which impinge on a variety of questions in combustion chemistry and general chemical kinetics. Infrared diode laser probes of the quenching of molecules with {open_quotes}chemically significant{close_quotes} amounts of energy in which the energy transferred to the quencher has, for the first time, been separated into its vibrational, rotational, and translational components. Probes of quantum state distributions and velocity profiles for atomic fragments produced in photodissociation reactions have been explored for iodine chloride.

  12. Characterization of illuminated semiconductor/solid-electrolyte junctions. photoelectrochemical investigation of a poly(ethylene oxide) cell. Interim technical report 1 Mar-30 Apr 83

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sammells, A.F.; Ang, P.G.P.

    1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photoelectrochemical effects have been observed with solid-state cells using a poly(ethylene oxide) .NaSCN solid polymer electrolyte containing a Na2S/S redox couple. Photoeffects were observed at the interface of this electrolyte with p-InP, n-GaAs, and in a two-photoelectrode cell of configuration p-InP/PEO-NaSCN, Na2S,S/n-CdS. In this latter cell, photopotentials of 540 mV were generated using 100 mW/cm2 quartz iodine illumination.

  13. Elastomeric organic material for switching application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiju, K., E-mail: shijuvenus@gmail.com, E-mail: pravymon@gmail.com, E-mail: ppredeep@gmail.com; Praveen, T., E-mail: shijuvenus@gmail.com, E-mail: pravymon@gmail.com, E-mail: ppredeep@gmail.com; Preedep, P., E-mail: shijuvenus@gmail.com, E-mail: pravymon@gmail.com, E-mail: ppredeep@gmail.com [Laboratory for Molecular Photonics and Electronics (LAMP), Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Calicut, Kerala, 673601 (India)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic Electronic devices like OLED, Organic Solar Cells etc are promising as, cost effective alternatives to their inorganic counterparts due to various reasons. However the organic semiconductors currently available are not attractive with respect to their high cost and intricate synthesis protocols. Here we demonstrate that Natural Rubber has the potential to become a cost effective solution to this. Here an attempt has been made to fabricate iodine doped poly isoprene based switching device. In this work Poly methyl methacrylate is used as dielectric layer and Aluminium are employed as electrodes.

  14. Chemically modified graphite for electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greinke, R.A.; Lewis, I.C.

    1998-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to chemically modified graphite particles: (a) that are useful in alkali metal-containing electrode of a electrochemical cell comprising: (1) the electrode, (2) a non-aqueous electrolytic solution comprising an organic aprotic solvent which solvent tends to decompose when the electrochemical cell is in use, and an electrically conductive salt of an alkali metal, and (3) a counter electrode; and (b) that are chemically modified with fluorine, chlorine, iodine or phosphorus to reduce such decomposition. This invention also relates to electrodes comprising such chemically modified graphite and a binder and to electrochemical cells containing such electrodes. 3 figs.

  15. Assessment of Neptunium, Americium, and Curium in the Savannah River Site Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlton, W.H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of documents has been published in which the impact of various radionuclides released to the environment by Savannah River Site (SRS) operations has been assessed. The quantity released, the disposition of the radionuclides in the environment, and the dose to offsite individuals has been presented for activation products, carbon cesium, iodine, plutonium, selected fission products, strontium, technetium, tritium, uranium, and the noble gases. An assessment of the impact of nonradioactive mercury also has been published.This document assesses the impact of radioactive transuranics released from SRS facilities since the first reactor became operational late in 1953. The isotopes reported here are 239Np, 241Am, and 244Cm.

  16. Technical basis for internal dosimetry at Hanford

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sula, M.J.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Bihl, D.E.

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program, administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, provides routine bioassay monitoring for employees who are potentially exposed to radionuclides in the workplace. This report presents the technical basis for routine bioassay monitoring and the assessment of internal dose at Hanford. The radionuclides of concern include tritium, corrosion products ({sup 58}Co, {sup 60}Co, {sup 54}Mn, and {sup 59}Fe), strontium, cesium, iodine, europium, uranium, plutonium, and americium,. Sections on each of these radionuclides discuss the sources and characteristics; dosimetry; bioassay measurements and monitoring; dose measurement, assessment, and mitigation and bioassay follow-up treatment. 78 refs., 35 figs., 115 tabs.

  17. Temporal and spectral imaging with micro-CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnston, Samuel M.; Johnson, G. Allan; Badea, Cristian T. [Center for In Vivo Microscopy, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States)

    2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Micro-CT is widely used for small animal imaging in preclinical studies of cardiopulmonary disease, but further development is needed to improve spatial resolution, temporal resolution, and material contrast. We present a technique for visualizing the changing distribution of iodine in the cardiac cycle with dual source micro-CT. Methods: The approach entails a retrospectively gated dual energy scan with optimized filters and voltages, and a series of computational operations to reconstruct the data. Projection interpolation and five-dimensional bilateral filtration (three spatial dimensions + time + energy) are used to reduce noise and artifacts associated with retrospective gating. We reconstruct separate volumes corresponding to different cardiac phases and apply a linear transformation to decompose these volumes into components representing concentrations of water and iodine. Since the resulting material images are still compromised by noise, we improve their quality in an iterative process that minimizes the discrepancy between the original acquired projections and the projections predicted by the reconstructed volumes. The values in the voxels of each of the reconstructed volumes represent the coefficients of linear combinations of basis functions over time and energy. We have implemented the reconstruction algorithm on a graphics processing unit (GPU) with CUDA. We tested the utility of the technique in simulations and applied the technique in an in vivo scan of a C57BL/6 mouse injected with blood pool contrast agent at a dose of 0.01 ml/g body weight. Postreconstruction, at each cardiac phase in the iodine images, we segmented the left ventricle and computed its volume. Using the maximum and minimum volumes in the left ventricle, we calculated the stroke volume, the ejection fraction, and the cardiac output. Results: Our proposed method produces five-dimensional volumetric images that distinguish different materials at different points in time, and can be used to segment regions containing iodinated blood and compute measures of cardiac function. Conclusions: We believe this combined spectral and temporal imaging technique will be useful for future studies of cardiopulmonary disease in small animals.

  18. Radioiodine in the Savannah River Site environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kantelo, M.V.; Bauer, L.R.; Marter, W.L.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Zeigler, C.C.

    1993-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Radioiodine, which is the collective term for all radioactive isotopes of the element iodine, is formed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) principally as a by-product of nuclear reactor operations. Part of the radioiodine is released to the environment during reactor and reprocessing operations at the site. The purpose of this report is to provide an introduction to radioiodine production and disposition, its status in the environment, and the radiation dose and health risks as a consequence of its release to the environment around the Savannah River Plant. A rigorous dose reconstruction study is to be completed by thee Center for Disease Control during the 1990s.

  19. Engineering Design Elements of a Two-Phase Thermosyphon to Trannsfer NGNP Nuclear Thermal Energy to a Hydrogen Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piyush Sabharwal

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two hydrogen production processes, both powered by a Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), are currently under investigation at Idaho National Laboratory. The first is high-temperature steam electrolysis, which uses both heat and electricity; the second is thermo-chemical production through the sulfur iodine process primarily using heat. Both processes require a high temperature (>850°C) for enhanced efficiency; temperatures indicative of the NGNP. Safety and licensing mandates prudently dictate that the NGNP and the hydrogen production facility be physically isolated, perhaps requiring separation of over 100 m.

  20. Synthesis of arginine, tyrosine, and phenylalanine by Lactobacillus arabinosus 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ory, Robert Louis

    1954-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the ar sonic acid began, and excess hla As03 was oxidized to Na AsO with chlorine, the precipitated iodine was f i Itered, fla3As0& was separated as magnesiumammonium arsenate from the cold solution, and finally the magnesium salt of the arsonic acid... after drying over sodium wire and redistiliation. (2) Magnesium metal tur nircs were purchased from J. T. Baker Chemical Co. (3) Arsenic trichloride, practical grade, was pur- chased from iaatheson, Coleman and Bell and was usec witnout further...

  1. The synthesis of phosphonyl dichlorides 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Yun-Ger

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    quantity oi' alumina, dried over night at 200 & was used to treat 660 ml, tetx'ahydrofuran, The magnesium turnings were shaved from an ingot of Dow's highest purity magnesium& The alkyl snd aryl halides were the purest gxades available) they were... be divided into the following four stepsc 1 ~ Preparation of the Orignard Beagsnt One and one tenth mole of magnesium turnings was placed in a 2 1 ~ reaction flask, A crystal of iodine& 20 to 30 ml, of solvent (ether or tetrahydrofuran) taken from...

  2. A study of the reaction between lead (II) iodide and organic amine hydriodides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simpson, Frank Martin

    1962-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    alcohol were bis-isopropylammoniumtetraiodoplumbate(II), bis-iso- butylammoniumtetraiodoplumbate(II), bis-n-butylammon- iumtetraiodoplumbate(II), and di-n-butylammoniumhepia- 1odotriplumbate(II). Bis-isopropylammoniumtetraiodo- plumbate(II), and tris... determination was made, using fresh ohloroform. These results substantiated the original determinations. ~Coo oooo TABLE I Theoretical Found Iodine in Gom lex Theoretical ld CZH liH3Pbl 2o (CH3)ZEH2PbI3 3 ~ (CZH5 ZEHZPb13 4. (iso-0 H ) NH PbI (CH3...

  3. Los Alamos Air Monitoring Data Related to the Fukushima Daiichi Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNaughton, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In response to the disasters in Japan on March 11, 2011, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is collecting air data and analyzing the data for fission products. At present, we report preliminary data from three high-volume air samplers and one stack sampler. Iodine-131 (I-131) is not optimally measured by our standard polypropylene filters. In addition to the filter data, we have one measurement obtained from a charcoal cartridge. These data, together with measurements of other radionuclides are adequate for a preliminary assessment and assure us that radionuclides from Fukushima Daiichi do not present a threat to human health at or near Los Alamos.

  4. Measurement of Fukushima Aerosol Debris in Sequim and Richland, WA and Ketchikan, AK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miley, Harry S.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Engelmann, Mark D.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Friese, Judah I.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Haas, Derek A.; Hayes, James C.; Keillor, Martin E.; Kiddy, Robert A.; Kirkham, Randy R.; Landen, Jonathan W.; Lepel, Elwood A.; Lidey, Lance S.; Litke, Kevin E.; Morris, Scott J.; Olsen, Khris B.; Thompson, Robert C.; Valenzuela, Blandina R.; Woods, Vincent T.; Biegalski, Steven R.

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aerosol collections were initiated at several locations by PNNL shortly after the Great East Japan Earthquake of May 2011. Aerosol samples were transferred to laboratory high-resolution gamma spectrometers for analysis. Similar to treaty monitoring stations operating across the Northern hemisphere, iodine and other isotopes which could be volatilized at high temperature were detected. Though these locations are not far apart, they have significant variations with respect to water, mountain-range placement, and local topography. Variation in computed source terms will be shown to bound the variability of this approach to source estimation.

  5. Environmental radiation data report 80, October-December 1994. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Environmental Radiation Data (ERD) contains data from the Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System (ERAMS). Sampling locations are selected to provide optimal population coverage while functioning to monitor fallout from nuclear devices and other forms of radioactive contamination of the environment. The radiation analyses performed on these samples include gross alpha and gross beta levels, gamma analyses for fission products, and specific analyses for uranium, plutonium, stronthium, iodine, radium, and tritium. This monitoring effort also provides ancillary information on natural background levels and on routine and accidental releases into the environment from stationary sources.

  6. Environmental radiation data report 73, January-March 1993. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Environmental Radiation Data (ERD) contains data from the Environmental Radiation Ambients Monitoring System (ERAMS). The ERAMS is comprised of nationwide sampling stations that provide air, surface and drinking water and milk samples from which environmental radiation levels are derived. Sampling locations are selected to provide optimal population coverage while functioning to monitor fallout from nuclear devices and other forms of radioactive contamination of the environment. The radiation analyses performed on these samples include gross alpha and gross beta levels, gamma analyses for fission products, and specific analyses for uranium, plutonium, strontium, iodine, radium, krypton, and tritium.

  7. Environmental radiation data report 79, July-September 1994. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Environmental Radiation Data (ERD) contains data from the Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System (ERAMS). Sampling locations are selected to provide optimal population coverage while functioning to monitor fallout from nuclear devices and other forms of radioactive contamination of the environment. The radiation analyses performed on these samples include gross alpha and gross beta levels, gamma analyses for fission products, and specific analyses for uranium, plutonium, stronthium, iodine, radium, and tritium. This monitoring effort also provides ancillary information on natural background levels and on routine and accidental releases into the environment from stationary sources.

  8. Environmental radiation data report 81, January-March 1995. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Environmental Radiation Data (ERD) contains data from the Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System (ERAMS). Sampling locations are selected to provide optimal population coverage while functioning to monitor fallout from nuclear devices and other forms of radioactive contamination of the environment. The radiation analyses performed on these samples include gross alpha and gross beta levels, gamma analyses for fission products, and specific analyses for uranium, plutonium, stronthium, iodine, radium, and tritium. This monitoring effort also provides ancillary information on natural background levels and on routine and accidental releases into the environment from stationary sources.

  9. Environmental radiation data report 82, April-June 1995. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Environmental Radiation Data (ERD) contains data from the Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System (ERAMS). Sampling locations are selected to provide optimal population coverage while functioning to monitor fallout from nuclear devices and other forms of radioactive contamination of the environment. The radiation analyses performed on these samples include gross alpha and gross beta levels, gamma analyses for fission products, and specific analyses for uranium, plutonium, stronthium, iodine, radium, and tritium. This monitoring effort also provides ancillary information on natural background levels and on routine and accidental releases into the environment from stationary sources.

  10. Quarterly report for Oak Ridge Enrichment Technical Support (ETS), October--December 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higgins, R.L.

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reported topics include: a model to compute CFC-114 inventory in the cooling systems at the GDP`s, an analysis of Paducah recycle cooler performance test data operating with C{sub 4}F{sub 10}, estimation of Portsmouth in-process test cell coolant system performance, cascade equipment reliability, separation measurements in the single stage separation system, SOLGAS user`s manual, conversion of waste gases, recycling of HF, replacement coolants containing iodine, various aspects of UF{sub 6} coolant mixtures.

  11. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Laing

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. This report covers Task 1.4, Industrial Trial of candidate materials developed by refractory producers and in the laboratory based on the results of Task 1.1, 1.2 and 1.3. Refractories provided by in-kind sponsors to industrial installations tested by cup testing, density/porosity determinations, chemical analysis and microscopy. None of the materials produced in this program have been tried in high temperature gasifiers, but the mortar developed Morcocoat SP-P is outperforming other mortars tested at ORNL. MORCO PhosGun M-90-O has shown in laboratory testing to be an acceptable candidate for hot and cold repairs of existing high temperature gasifiers. It may prove to be an acceptable lining material.

  12. MERCURY CONTAMINATED MATERIAL DECONTAMINATION METHODS: INVESTIGATION AND ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the years mercury has been recognized as having serious impacts on human health and the environment. This recognition has led to numerous studies that deal with the properties of various mercury forms, the development of methods to quantify and speciate the forms, fate and transport, toxicology studies, and the development of site remediation and decontamination technologies. This report reviews several critical areas that will be used in developing technologies for cleaning mercury from mercury-contaminated surfaces of metals and porous materials found in many DOE facilities. The technologies used for decontamination of water and mixed wastes (solid) are specifically discussed. Many technologies that have recently appeared in the literature are included in the report. Current surface decontamination processes have been reviewed, and the limitations of these technologies for mercury decontamination are discussed. Based on the currently available technologies and the processes published recently in the literature, several processes, including strippable coatings, chemical cleaning with iodine/iodide lixiviant, chemisorbing surface wipes with forager sponge and grafted cotton, and surface/pore fixation through amalgamation or stabilization, have been identified as potential techniques for decontamination of mercury-contaminated metal and porous surfaces. Their potential merits and applicability are discussed. Finally, two processes, strippable coatings and chemical cleaning with iodine/iodide lixiviant, were experimentally investigated in Phase II of this project.

  13. Milk cow feed intake and milk production and distribution estimates for Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beck, D.M.; Darwin, R.F.; Erickson, A.R.; Eckert, R.L.

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides initial information on milk production and distribution in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project Phase I study area. The Phase I study area consists of eight countries in central Washington and two countries in northern Oregon. The primary objective of the HEDR Project is to develop estimates of the radiation doses populations could have received from Hanford operations. The objective of Phase I of the project was to determine the feasibility of reconstructing data, models, and development of preliminary dose estimates received by people living in the ten countries surrounding Hanford from 1944 to 1947. One of the most important contributors to radiation doses from Hanford during the period of interest was radioactive iodine. Consumption of milk from cows that ate vegetation contaminated with iodine is likely the dominant pathway of human exposure. To estimate the doses people could have received from this pathway, it is necessary to estimate the amount of milk that the people living in the Phase I area consumed, the source of the milk, and the type of feed that the milk cows ate. The objective of the milk model subtask is to identify the sources of milk supplied to residents of each community in the study area as well as the sources of feeds that were fed to the milk cows. In this report, we focus on Grade A cow's milk (fresh milk used for human consumption).

  14. Thermochemical water-splitting cycle, bench-scale investigations and process engineering. Annual report, October 1, 1978-September 30, 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caprioglio, G.; McCorkle, K.H.; Besenbruch, G.E.; Rode, J.S.

    1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A program to investigate thermochemical water splitting has been under way at General Atomic Company (GA) since October 1972. This document is an annual progress report of Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored process development work on the GA sulfur-iodine thermochemical water splitting cycle. The work consisted of laboratory bench-scale investigations, demonstration of the process in a closed-loop cycle demonstrator, and process engineering design studies. A bench-scale system, consisting of three subunits, has been designed to study the cycle under continuous flow conditions. The designs of subunit I, which models the main solution reaction and product separation, and subunit II, which models the concentration and decomposition of sulfuric acid, were presented in an earlier annual report. The design of subunit III, which models the purification and decomposition of hydrogen iodide, is given in this report. Progress on the installation and operation of subunits I and II is described. A closed-loop cycle demonstrator was installed and operated based on a DOE request. Operation of the GA sulfur-iodine cycle was demonstrated in this system under recycle conditions. The process engineering addresses the flowsheet design of a large-scale production process consisting of four chemical sections (I through IV) and one helium heat supply section (V). The completed designs for sections I through V are presented. The thermal efficiency of the process calculated from the present flowsheet is 47%.

  15. Which Elements Should be Recycled for a Comprehensive Fuel Cycle?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Piet; Trond Bjornard; Brent Dixon; Dirk Gombert; Robert Hill; Chris Laws; Gretchen Matthern; David Shropshire; Roald Wigeland

    2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Uranium recovery can reduce the mass of waste and possibly the number of waste packages that require geologic disposal. Separated uranium can be managed with the same method (near-surface burial) as used for the larger quantities of depleted uranium or recycled into new fuel. Recycle of all transuranics reduces long-term environmental burden, reduces heat load to repositories, extracts more energy from the original uranium ore, and may have significant proliferation resistance and physical security advantages. Recovery of short-lived fission products cesium and strontium can allow them to decay to low-level waste in facilities tailored to that need, rather than geologic disposal. This could also reduce the number and cost of waste packages requiring geologic disposal. These savings are offset by costs for separation, recycle, and storage systems. Recovery of technetium-99 and iodine-129 can allow them to be sent to geologic disposal in improved waste forms. Such separation avoids contamination of the other products (uranium) and waste (cesium-strontium) streams with long-lived radioisotopes so the material might be disposed as low-level waste. Transmutation of technetium and iodine is a possible future alternative.

  16. Methods For Calculating Thyroid Doses to The Residents Of Ozersk Due to 131I Releases From The Stacks of The Mayak Production Association

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rovny, Sergey I.; Mokrov, Y.; Stukalov, Pavel M.; Beregich, D. A.; Teplyakov, I. I.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2009-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The Mayak Production Association (MPA) was established in the late 1940s in accordance with a special Decree of the USSR Government for the production of nuclear weapons. In early years of MPA operation, due to the lack of experience and absence of effective methods of RW management, the enterprise had extensive routine (designed) and non-routine (accidental) releases of gaseous radioactive wastes to the atmosphere. These practices resulted in additional technogenic radiation exposure of residents inhabiting populated areas near the MPA. The primary objective of ongoing studies under JCCRER Project 1.4 is to estimate doses to the residents of Ozersk due to releases of radioactive substances from the stacks of MPA. Preliminary scoping studies have demonstrated that releases of radioactive iodine (131I) from the stacks of the Mayak Radiochemical Plant represented the major contribution to the dose to residents of Ozersk and of other nearby populated areas. The behavior of 131I in the environment and of 131I migration through biological food chains (vegetation-cows-milk-humans) indicated a need for use of special mathematical models to perform the estimation of radiation doses to the population. The goal of this work is to select an appropriate model of the iodine migration in biological food chains and to justify numerical values of the model parameters.

  17. Driving photochemistry by clustering: The ICl-Xe case

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glodic, Pavle [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas, Vassilika Vouton, 71110 Heraklion (Greece); Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O. Box 522, Belgrade 11001 (Serbia); Kartakoullis, Andreas; Kitsopoulos, Theofanis N. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas, Vassilika Vouton, 71110 Heraklion (Greece); Department of Chemistry, University of Crete, Voutes, 71110 Heraklion (Greece); Farnik, Michal [J. Heyrovsky Institute of Physical Chemistry v.v.i., Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Dolejskova 3, 18223 Prague (Czech Republic); Samartzis, Peter C. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas, Vassilika Vouton, 71110 Heraklion (Greece)

    2012-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We present slice imaging data demonstrating the influence of clustering on the photodissociation dynamics of a diatomic molecule: iodine monochloride (ICl) was dissociated at 235 nm in He and Xe seed gasses, probing both Cl and I photofragment energy and angular distributions. We observe that the kinetic energy releases of both Cl and I fragments change from He to Xe seeding. For Cl fragments, the seeding in Xe increases the kinetic energy release of some Cl fragments with a narrow kinetic energy distribution, and leads to some fragments with rather broad statistical distribution falling off exponentially from near-zero energies up to about 2.5 eV. Iodine fragment distribution changes even more dramatically from He to Xe seeding: sharp features essentially disappear and a broad distribution arises reaching to about 2.5 eV. Both these observations are rationalized by a simple qualitative cluster model assuming ICl dissociation inside larger xenon clusters and 'on surface' of smaller Xe species.

  18. The Transport Number of Silver Fluoride Using a Pulsating Current

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parkhurst, I. P.

    1914-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    SgOg = £ lc.c. NagSgC>3 - C AxB = D 107.9C = E NH4SCN a £ AgN03 = G lc.c. AgNOg = H FxG = I E-H - j ie,e, NH4SCN = K IxJ = 126. 9K. L 107.9 = M AgF sol.-D = N M-L+D - 0 Original AgF sol. = P NxO ft K-P 107.9C 34.68 c.c. .00003815 Equiv. Iodine....-D = 42.81 N M-L+D = 42.80 M H20 0 AgP sol. = .001506 M Ag/gm HgO**** P NxO = .06446 M Ag Q K-P s .05611 M Ag excess. _ Q = .4444 Transport Number. 41 i r a * fi Table 3. **K Table 1. ***I Table 1. ****& Table 4. -17- Table 6. Transport Number...

  19. MERCURY REMOVAL FROM DOE SOLID MIXED WASTE USING THE GEMEP(sm) TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under the sponsorship of the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), Metcalf and Eddy (M and E), in association with General Electric Corporate Research and Development Center (GE-CRD), Colorado Minerals Research Institute (CMRI), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), conducted laboratory-scale and bench-scale tests of the General Electric Mercury Extraction Process technology on two mercury-contaminated mixed solid wastes from U. S. Department of Energy sites: sediment from the East Fork of Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge (samples supplied by Oak Ridge National Laboratory), and drummed soils from Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory (INEEL). Fluorescent lamps provided by GE-CRD were also studied. The GEMEP technology, invented and patented by the General Electric Company, uses an extraction solution composed of aqueous potassium iodide plus iodine to remove mercury from soils and other wastes. The extraction solution is regenerated by chemical oxidation and reused, after the solubilized mercury is removed from solution by reducing it to the metallic state. The results of the laboratory- and bench-scale testing conducted for this project included: (1) GEMEP extraction tests to optimize extraction conditions and determine the extent of co-extraction of radionuclides; (2) pre-screening (pre-segregation) tests to determine if initial separation steps could be used effectively to reduce the volume of material needing GEMEP extraction; and (3) demonstration of the complete extraction, mercury recovery, and iodine recovery and regeneration process (known as locked-cycle testing).

  20. In situ monitoring of electrochemically induced roughening with the crystal truncation rod technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bommarito, G.M.; Acevedo, D.; Abruna, H.D. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1992-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We have employed the crystal truncation rod technique to monitor (in situ) the electrochemically induced roughening of a Pt(111) electrode pretreated with a chemisorbed layer of iodine. We find that for the electrode as prepared (both in air and in contact with an electrolyte solution at the rest potential) the surface is best described by one that has an rms roughness of 3.30 {plus_minus} 0.3 {angstrom} and where the atoms that are displaced from a perfectly truncated lattice still occupy lattice positions. Reductive desorption of the iodine adlayer at {minus}0.90 V does not alter the interfacial roughness. However, the application of a potential of +1.0 V for 15 min results on a significantly rougher interface. In this case the roughness due to displaced atoms occupying lattice positions is 3.35 {plus_minus} 0.34 {angstrom}, and there is also a second contribution to the roughness that can be described in terms of a Debye-Walker factor and which contributes an additional roughness of 2.05 {plus_minus} 0.25 {angstrom}. 19 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Line bisectors and radial velocity jitter from SARG spectra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. F. Martinez Fiorenzano; R. G. Gratton; S. Desidera; R. Cosentino; M. Endl

    2005-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an analysis of spectral line bisector variations for a few stars observed in the SARG high precision radial velocity planet survey, and discuss their relationship with differential radial velocities. The spectra we consider are the same used for determining radial velocities. The iodine cell lines employed in the measurement of radial velocities were removed before bisector analysis. The line bisectors were then computed from average absorption profiles obtained by cross correlation of the stellar spectra with a mask made from suitable lines of a solar catalog. Bisector velocity spans were then determined: errors in these quantities compare well with theoretical expectations based on resolution, S/N and line shape. The plot of bisector velocity span against radial velocity was studied to search for correlations between line asymmetries and radial velocity variations. A correlation was seen for HD 166435 due to stellar activity, and for HD 8071B due to spectral contamination by the companion. No correlation was seen for 51 Peg and rho CrB, stars hosting planets. We conclude that this technique may be useful to separate radial velocity variations due to barycenter motion from spurious signals in spectra acquired with the iodine cell.

  2. Measuring Stellar Radial Velocities with a Dispersed Fixed-Delay Interferometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahadevan, Suvrath; Ge, Jian; DeWitt, Curtis; Fleming, Scott W; Cohen, Roger; Crepp, Justin; Heuvel, Andrew Vanden

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate the ability to measure precise stellar barycentric radial velocities with the dispersed fixed-delay interferometer technique using the Exoplanet Tracker (ET), an instrument primarily designed for precision differential Doppler velocity measurements using this technique. Our barycentric radial velocities, derived from observations taken at the KPNO 2.1 meter telescope, differ from those of Nidever et al. by 0.047 km/s (rms) when simultaneous iodine calibration is used, and by 0.120 km/s (rms) without simultaneous iodine calibration. Our results effectively show that a Michelson interferometer coupled to a spectrograph allows precise measurements of barycentric radial velocities even at a modest spectral resolution of R ~ 5100. A multi-object version of the ET instrument capable of observing ~500 stars per night is being used at the Sloan 2.5 m telescope at Apache Point Observatory for the Multi-object APO Radial Velocity Exoplanet Large-area Survey (MARVELS), a wide-field radial velocity survey ...

  3. Measuring Stellar Radial Velocities with a Dispersed Fixed-Delay Interferometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suvrath Mahadevan; Julian van Eyken; Jian Ge; Curtis DeWitt; Scott W. Fleming; Roger Cohen; Justin Crepp; Andrew Vanden Heuvel

    2008-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate the ability to measure precise stellar barycentric radial velocities with the dispersed fixed-delay interferometer technique using the Exoplanet Tracker (ET), an instrument primarily designed for precision differential Doppler velocity measurements using this technique. Our barycentric radial velocities, derived from observations taken at the KPNO 2.1 meter telescope, differ from those of Nidever et al. by 0.047 km/s (rms) when simultaneous iodine calibration is used, and by 0.120 km/s (rms) without simultaneous iodine calibration. Our results effectively show that a Michelson interferometer coupled to a spectrograph allows precise measurements of barycentric radial velocities even at a modest spectral resolution of R ~ 5100. A multi-object version of the ET instrument capable of observing ~500 stars per night is being used at the Sloan 2.5 m telescope at Apache Point Observatory for the Multi-object APO Radial Velocity Exoplanet Large-area Survey (MARVELS), a wide-field radial velocity survey for extrasolar planets around TYCHO-2 stars in the magnitude range 7.6velocities, this survey will also yield precise barycentric radial velocities for many thousands of stars using the data analysis techniques reported here. Such a large kinematic survey at high velocity precision will be useful in identifying the signature of accretion events in the Milky Way and understanding local stellar kinematics in addition to discovering exoplanets, brown dwarfs and spectroscopic binaries.

  4. Life cycle assessment of hydrogen production from S-I thermochemical process coupled to a high temperature gas reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giraldi, M. R.; Francois, J. L.; Castro-Uriegas, D. [Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Paseo Cuauhnahuac No. 8532, Col. Progreso, C.P. 62550, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this paper is to quantify the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated to the hydrogen produced by the sulfur-iodine thermochemical process, coupled to a high temperature nuclear reactor, and to compare the results with other life cycle analysis (LCA) studies on hydrogen production technologies, both conventional and emerging. The LCA tool was used to quantify the impacts associated with climate change. The product system was defined by the following steps: (i) extraction and manufacturing of raw materials (upstream flows), (U) external energy supplied to the system, (iii) nuclear power plant, and (iv) hydrogen production plant. Particular attention was focused to those processes where there was limited information from literature about inventory data, as the TRISO fuel manufacture, and the production of iodine. The results show that the electric power, supplied to the hydrogen plant, is a sensitive parameter for GHG emissions. When the nuclear power plant supplied the electrical power, low GHG emissions were obtained. These results improve those reported by conventional hydrogen production methods, such as steam reforming. (authors)

  5. Decay dynamics of nascent acetonitrile and nitromethane dipole-bound anions produced by intracluster charge-transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yandell, Margaret A.; King, Sarah B. [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Neumark, Daniel M., E-mail: dneumark@berkeley.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2014-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Decay dynamics of nascent dipole bound states of acetonitrile and nitromethane are examined using time-resolved photoelectron imaging of iodide-acetonitrile (I{sup ?}·CH{sub 3}CN) and iodide-nitromethane (I{sup ?}·CH{sub 3}NO{sub 2}) complexes. Dipole-bound anions are created by UV-initiated electron transfer to the molecule of interest from the associated iodide ion at energies just below the vertical detachment energy of the halide-molecule complex. The acetonitrile anion is observed to decay biexponentially with time constants in the range of 4–900 ps. In contrast, the dipole bound state of nitromethane decays rapidly over 400 fs to form the valence bound anion. The nitromethane valence anion species then decays biexponentially with time constants of 2 ps and 1200 ps. The biexponential decay dynamics in acetonitrile are interpreted as iodine atom loss and autodetachment from the excited dipole-bound anion, followed by slower autodetachment of the relaxed metastable ion, while the dynamics of the nitromethane system suggest that a dipole-bound anion to valence anion transition proceeds via intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution to nitro group modes in the vicinity of the iodine atom.

  6. JV Task 90 - Activated Carbon Production from North Dakota Lignite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Benson; Charlene Crocker; Rokan Zaman; Mark Musich; Edwin Olson

    2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has pursued a research program for producing activated carbon from North Dakota lignite that can be competitive with commercial-grade activated carbon. As part of this effort, small-scale production of activated carbon was produced from Fort Union lignite. A conceptual design of a commercial activated carbon production plant was drawn, and a market assessment was performed to determine likely revenue streams for the produced carbon. Activated carbon was produced from lignite coal in both laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactors and in a small pilot-scale rotary kiln. The EERC was successfully able to upgrade the laboratory-scale activated carbon production system to a pilot-scale rotary kiln system. The activated carbon produced from North Dakota lignite was superior to commercial grade DARCO{reg_sign} FGD and Rheinbraun's HOK activated coke product with respect to iodine number. The iodine number of North Dakota lignite-derived activated carbon was between 600 and 800 mg I{sub 2}/g, whereas the iodine number of DARCO FGD was between 500 and 600 mg I{sub 2}/g, and the iodine number of Rheinbraun's HOK activated coke product was around 275 mg I{sub 2}/g. The EERC performed both bench-scale and pilot-scale mercury capture tests using the activated carbon made under various optimization process conditions. For comparison, the mercury capture capability of commercial DARCO FGD was also tested. The lab-scale apparatus is a thin fixed-bed mercury-screening system, which has been used by the EERC for many mercury capture screen tests. The pilot-scale systems included two combustion units, both equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Activated carbons were also tested in a slipstream baghouse at a Texas power plant. The results indicated that the activated carbon produced from North Dakota lignite coal is capable of removing mercury from flue gas. The tests showed that activated carbon with the greatest iodine number was superior to commercial DARCO FGD for mercury capture. The results of the activated carbon market assessment indicate an existing market for water treatment and an emerging application for mercury control. That market will involve both existing and new coal-fired plants. It is expected that 20% of the existing coal-fired plants will implement activated carbon injection by 2015, representing about 200,000 tons of annual demand. The potential annual demand by new plants is even greater. In the mercury control market, two characteristics are going to dominate the customer's buying habit-performance and price. As continued demonstration testing of activated carbon injection at the various coal-fired power plants progresses, the importance of fuel type and plant configuration on the type of activated carbon best suited is being identified.

  7. CAUSE OF A MULTI-SPECIES RADIOIODINE PLUME THAT IS INCREASING IN CONCENTRATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaplan, D.

    2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Field and laboratory studies were carried out to understand the cause for steady increases in {sup 129}I concentrations emanating from radiological seepage basins located on the Savannah River Site. The basins were closed in 1988 by adding limestone and blast furnace slag and then capping with a RCRA low permeability engineered cover. Groundwater {sup 129}I concentrations in a well near the seepage basin in 1993 were 200 pCi L{sup -1} and are presently between 400 and 1000 pCi L{sup -1}. Iodine speciation in the plume was not uniform. Near the source, the iodine was comprised of 86% iodide, 2% iodate, and 12% organo-iodine (total activity = 178 pCi L{sup -1}). Whereas, groundwater iodine speciation 365 m down stream (25 m up stream from a wetland) was 0% iodide, 93% iodate, and 7% organo iodine. Batch desorption studies demonstrated that high concentrations of {sup 129}I could be incrementally desorbed from an archived seepage basin sediment sample by raising the pH. Batch sorption studies showed that iodate, IO{sub 3}{sup -}, sorbed more strongly than iodide, I{sup -}, to a subsurface clayey sediment, but equally well as iodide to a subsurface sandy sediment and a wetland sediment. Placing an organic-rich wetland sediment, but not nearby mineral sediments, under reducing (or microaerobic) conditions resulted in a large decrease in iodide K{sub d} values (from 73 to 10 mL g{sup -1}) and iodate K{sub d} values (from 80 to 7 mL g{sup -1}). Between pH and reduction-oxidation potential, it appears that pH seems to have a stronger influence on iodide and iodate sorption to mineral sediment. This may not be true for sediments containing higher concentrations of organic matter, such as the 7.6% organic matter sediment used in this study. First order calculations based on desorption studies with seepage basin sediments indicate that the modest increase of 0.7 pH units detected in the study site groundwater over the last 17 years since closure of the seepage basin may be sufficient to produce the observed increased groundwater {sup 129}I concentrations. Groundwater monitoring of the plume at the F-Area seepage basin has shown that the migration of many of the high risk radionuclides originally present at this complex site has been attenuated. However, {sup 129}I continues to leave the source at a rate that may have been exacerbated by the initial remediation efforts. This study underscores the important of identifying the appropriate in situ stabilization technologies for all contaminants present at a source term, especially if their geochemical behaviors differ.

  8. Radionuclide Migration through Sediment and Concrete: 16 Years of Investigations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Snyder, Michelle MV; Powers, Laura; Whyatt, Greg A.; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2014-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The Waste Management Project provides safe, compliant, and cost-effective waste management services for the Hanford Site and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Part of these services includes safe disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste at the Hanford Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds in accordance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. To partially satisfy these requirements, performance assessment analyses were completed and approved. DOE Order 435.1 also requires continuing data collection to increase confidence in the critical assumptions used in these analyses to characterize the operational features of the disposal facility that are relied on to satisfy the performance objectives identified in the order. Cement-based solidification and stabilization is considered for hazardous waste disposal because it is easily done and cost-efficient. One critical assumption is that concrete will be used as a waste form or container material at the Hanford Site to control and minimize the release of radionuclide constituents in waste into the surrounding environment. Concrete encasement would contain and isolate the waste packages from the hydrologic environment and act as an intrusion barrier. Any failure of concrete encasement may result in water intrusion and consequent mobilization of radionuclides from the waste packages. The radionuclides iodine-129, selenium-75, technetium-99, and uranium-238 have been identified as long-term dose contributors (Mann et al. 2001; Wood et al. 1995). Because of their anionic nature in aqueous solutions, these constituents of potential concern may be released from the encased concrete by mass flow and/or diffusion and migrate into the surrounding subsurface environment (Serne et al. 1989; 1992; 1993a, b; 1995). Therefore, it is necessary to assess the performance of the concrete encasement structure and the ability of the surrounding soil to retard radionuclide migration. Each of the test methods performed throughout the lifetime of the project has focused on different aspects of the concrete waste form weathering process. Diffusion of different analytes [technetium-99 (Tc-99), iodine-125 (I-125), stable iodine (I), uranium (U), and rhenium (Re)] has been quantified from experiments under both saturated and unsaturated conditions. The water-saturated conditions provide a conservative estimate of the concrete’s performance in situ, and the unsaturated conditions provide a more accurate estimate of the diffusion of contaminants from the concrete.

  9. Comparison of Fission Product Yields and Their Impact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Harrison

    2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This memorandum describes the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) Space Nuclear Power Program (SNPP) interest in determining the expected fission product yields from a Prometheus-type reactor and assessing the impact of these species on materials found in the fuel element and balance of plant. Theoretical yield calculations using ORIGEN-S and RACER computer models are included in graphical and tabular form in Attachment, with focus on the desired fast neutron spectrum data. The known fission product interaction concerns are the corrosive attack of iron- and nickel-based alloys by volatile fission products, such as cesium, tellurium, and iodine, and the radiological transmutation of krypton-85 in the coolant to rubidium-85, a potentially corrosive agent to the coolant system metal piping.

  10. Origin of carrier generation in photovoltaic perovskite variant Cs2SnI6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiao, Zewen; Kamiya, Toshio

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cs2SnI6 is an air-stable & non-toxic variant of perovskite-type photovoltaic materials. In this letter, stability of intrinsic defects in Cs2SnI6 was examined by density functional theory calculations. We found that iodine vacancy and tin interstitial are the dominant defects, mainly responsible for the intrinsic n-type conductivity in Cs2SnI6. However, the transition levels of the dominant defects are deep, which makes it difficult to achieve high-density n-type doping. Tin vacancy is expected for p-type doping, but it has a very high formation energy > 3.6 eV because of the strong Sn-I covalent bonds and can hardly be generated. Instead, cesium vacancy is formed at an extremely Cs-poor condition and explains already-reported p-type conductivity by SnI2 doping.

  11. Converting Homogeneous to Heterogeneous in Electrophilic Catalysis using Monodisperse Metal Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witham, Cole A.; Huang, Wenyu; Tsung, Chia-Kuang; Kuhn, John N.; Somorjai, Gabor A.; Toste, F. Dean

    2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A continuing goal in catalysis is the transformation of processes from homogeneous to heterogeneous. To this end, nanoparticles represent a new frontier in heterogeneous catalysis, where this conversion is supplemented by the ability to obtain new or divergent reactivity and selectivity. We report a novel method for applying heterogeneous catalysts to known homogeneous catalytic reactions through the design and synthesis of electrophilic platinum nanoparticles. These nanoparticles are selectively oxidized by the hypervalent iodine species PhICl{sub 2}, and catalyze a range of {pi}-bond activation reactions previously only homogeneously catalyzed. Multiple experimental methods are utilized to unambiguously verify the heterogeneity of the catalytic process. The discovery of treatments for nanoparticles that induce the desired homogeneous catalytic activity should lead to the further development of reactions previously inaccessible in heterogeneous catalysis. Furthermore, our size and capping agent study revealed that Pt PAMAM dendrimer-capped nanoparticles demonstrate superior activity and recyclability compared to larger, polymer-capped analogues.

  12. Determination of radionuclides and pathways contributing to dose in 1945

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Napier, B.A.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of scoping calculations has been undertaken to evaluate the absolute and relative contributions of different radionuclides and exposure pathways to doses that may have been received by individuals living in the vicinity of the Hanford Site. This scoping calculation (Calculation 003) examined the contributions of numerous radionuclides to dose via environmental exposures and accumulation in foods. This study builds on the work initiated in the first scoping study of iodine in cow's milk (calculation 001). Addressed in this calculation were the contributions to organ and effective dose of infants and adults from (1) air submersion and groundshine external dose, (2) inhalation, (3) ingestion of soil by humans, (4) ingestion of leafy vegetables, (5) ingestion of other vegetables and fruits, (6) ingestion of meat, (7) ingestion of eggs, and (8) ingestion of cows' milk from Feeding Regime 1, as described in Calculation 001.

  13. Determination of radionuclides and pathways contributing to dose in 1945. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project: Dose code recovery activities, Calculation 003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Napier, B.A.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of scoping calculations has been undertaken to evaluate the absolute and relative contributions of different radionuclides and exposure pathways to doses that may have been received by individuals living in the vicinity of the Hanford Site. This scoping calculation (Calculation 003) examined the contributions of numerous radionuclides to dose via environmental exposures and accumulation in foods. This study builds on the work initiated in the first scoping study of iodine in cow`s milk (calculation 001). Addressed in this calculation were the contributions to organ and effective dose of infants and adults from (1) air submersion and groundshine external dose, (2) inhalation, (3) ingestion of soil by humans, (4) ingestion of leafy vegetables, (5) ingestion of other vegetables and fruits, (6) ingestion of meat, (7) ingestion of eggs, and (8) ingestion of cows` milk from Feeding Regime 1, as described in Calculation 001.

  14. Mid-Infrared Fiber-Coupled QCl-QEPAS Sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spagnolo, V.; Patimisco, P.; Borri, Simone; Scamarcio, G.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Kriesel, J.M.

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An innovative spectroscopic system based on an external cavity quantum cascade laser (EC-QCL) coupled with a mid-infrared (mid-IR) fiber and quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) is described. SF6 has been selected as a target gas in demonstration of the system for trace gas sensing. Single mode laser delivery through the prongs of the quartz tuning fork has been obtained employing a hollow waveguide fiber with inner silver–silver iodine (Ag–AgI) coatings and internal core diameter of 300 lm. A detailed design and realization of the QCL fiber coupling and output collimator system allowed almost practically all (99.4 %) of the laser beam to be transmitted through the spectrophone module. The achieved sensitivity of the system is 50 parts per trillion in 1 s, corresponding to a record for QEPAS normalized noise-equivalent absorption 2.7 9 10-10 W cm-1 Hz-1/2.

  15. Final Project Report: Release of aged contaminants from weathered sediments: Effects of sorbate speciation on scaling of reactive transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jon Chorover, University of Arizona; Peggy O' €  ™ Day, University of California, Merced; Karl Mueller, Penn State University; Wooyong Um, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Carl Steefel, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hanford sediments impacted by hyperalkaline high level radioactive waste have undergone incongruent silicate mineral weathering concurrent with contaminant uptake. In this project, we studied the impact of background pore water (BPW) on strontium, cesium and iodine desorption and transport in Hanford sediments that were experimentally weathered by contact with simulated hyperalkaline tank waste leachate (STWL) solutions. Using those lab-weathered Hanford sediments (HS) and model precipitates formed during nucleation from homogeneous STWL solutions (HN), we (i) provided detailed characterization of reaction products over a matrix of field-relevant gradients in contaminant concentration, PCO2, and reaction time; (ii) improved molecular-scale understanding of how sorbate speciation controls contaminant desorption from weathered sediments upon removal of caustic sources; and (iii) developed a mechanistic, predictive model of meso- to field-scale contaminant reactive transport under these conditions.

  16. Waste Acceptance Testing of Secondary Waste Forms: Cast Stone, Ceramicrete and DuraLith

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Chung, Chul-Woo; Lindberg, Michael J.; Parker, Kent E.

    2011-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    To support the selection of a waste form for the liquid secondary wastes from WTP, Washington River Protection Solutions has initiated secondary-waste-form testing work at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). In anticipation of a down-selection process for a waste form for the Solidification Treatment Unit to be added to the ETF, PNNL is conducting tests on four candidate waste forms to evaluate their ability to meet potential waste acceptance criteria for immobilized secondary wastes that would be placed in the IDF. All three waste forms demonstrated compressive strengths above the minimum 3.45 MPa (500 psi) set as a target for cement-based waste forms. Further, none of the waste forms showed any significant degradation in compressive strength after undergoing thermal cycling (30 cycles in a 10 day period) between -40 C and 60 C or water immersion for 90 days. The three leach test methods are intended to measure the diffusion rates of contaminants from the waste forms. Results are reported in terms of diffusion coefficients and a leachability index (LI) calculated based on the diffusion coefficients. A smaller diffusion coefficient and a larger LI are desired. The NRC, in its Waste Form Technical Position (NRC 1991), provides recommendations and guidance regarding methods to demonstrate waste stability for land disposal of radioactive waste. Included is a recommendation to conduct leach tests using the ANS 16.1 method. The resulting leachability index (LI) should be greater than 6.0. For Hanford secondary wastes, the LI > 6.0 criterion applies to sodium leached from the waste form. For technetium and iodine, higher targets of LI > 9 for Tc and LI > 11 for iodine have been set based on early waste-disposal risk and performance assessment analyses. The results of these three leach tests conducted for a total time between 11days (ASTM C1308) to 90 days (ANS 16.1) showed: (1) Technetium diffusivity: ANSI/ANS 16.1, ASTM C1308, and EPA 1315 tests indicated that all the waste forms had leachability indices better than the target LI > 9 for technetium; (2) Rhenium diffusivity: Cast Stone 2M specimens, when tested using EPA 1315 protocol, had leachability indices better than the target LI > 9 for technetium based on rhenium as a surrogate for technetium. All other waste forms tested by ANSI/ANS 16.1, ASTM C1308, and EPA 1315 test methods had leachability indices that were below the target LI > 9 for Tc based on rhenium release. These studies indicated that use of Re(VII) as a surrogate for 99Tc(VII) in low temperature secondary waste forms containing reductants will provide overestimated diffusivity values for 99Tc. Therefore, it is not appropriate to use Re as a surrogate 99Tc in future low temperature waste form studies. (3) Iodine diffusivity: ANSI/ANS 16.1, ASTM C1308, and EPA 1315 tests indicated that the three waste forms had leachability indices that were below the target LI > 11 for iodine. Therefore, it may be necessary to use a more effective sequestering material than silver zeolite used in two of the waste forms (Ceramicrete and DuraLith); (4) Sodium diffusivity: All the waste form specimens tested by the three leach methods (ANSI/ANS 16.1, ASTM C1308, and EPA 1315) exceeded the target LI value of 6; (5) All three leach methods (ANS 16.1, ASTM C1308 and EPA 1315) provided similar 99Tc diffusivity values for both short-time transient diffusivity effects as well as long-term ({approx}90 days) steady diffusivity from each of the three tested waste forms (Cast Stone 2M, Ceramicrete and DuraLith). Therefore, any one of the three methods can be used to determine the contaminant diffusivities from a selected waste form.

  17. Molecular modelling and simulation of the surface tension of real quadrupolar fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephan Werth; Katrin Stöbener; Peter Klein; Karl-Heinz Küfer; Martin Horsch; Hans Hasse

    2014-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Molecular modelling and simulation of the surface tension of fluids with force fields is discussed. 29 real fluids are studied, including nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, ethane, ethylene, acetylene, propyne, propylene, propadiene, carbon disulfide, sulfur hexafluoride, and many refrigerants. The fluids are represented by two-centre Lennard-Jones plus point quadrupole models from the literature. These models were adjusted only to experimental data of the vapour pressure and saturated liquid density so that the results for the surface tension are predictions. The deviations between the predictions and experimental data for the surface tension are of the order of 20 percent. The surface tension is usually overestimated by the models. For further improvements, data on the surface tension can be included in the model development. A suitable strategy for this is multi-criteria optimization based on Pareto sets. This is demonstrated using the model for carbon dioxide as an example.

  18. Nuclear waste management. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chikalla, T.D.; Powell, J.A.

    1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reports and summaries are presented for the following: high-level waste process development; alternative waste forms; TMI zeolite vitrification demonstration program; nuclear waste materials characterization center; TRU waste immobilization; TRU waste decontamination; krypton implantation; thermal outgassing; iodine-129 fixation; NWVP off-gas analysis; monitoring and physical characterization of unsaturated zone transport; well-logging instrumentation development; verification instrument development; mobility of organic complexes of radionuclides in soils; handbook of methods to decrease the generation of low-level waste; waste management system studies; waste management safety studies; assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems; waste/rock interactions technology program; high-level waste form preparation; development of backfill materials; development of structural engineered barriers; disposal charge analysis; and analysis of spent fuel policy implementation.

  19. Treatment of gaseous effluents at nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goossen, W.R.A. [Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie, Mol (Belgium). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [ed.; Eichholz, G.G.; Tedder, D.W. [eds.] [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Airborne effluents from nuclear facilities represent the major environmental impact from such plants both under routine conditions or after plant accidents. Effective control of such emissions, therefore, constitutes a major aspect of plant design for nuclear power plants and other facilities in the nuclear fuel cycle. This volume brings together a number of review articles by experts in the various areas of concern and describes some of the removal systems that have been designed for power plants and, particularly, for reprocessing plants. Besides controlling the release of radionuclides, other potentially hazardous effluents, such as nitrous oxides, must be minimized, and these are included in some of the systems described. The various chapters deal with historic developments and current technology in reducing emission of fission products, noble gases, iodine, and tritium, and consider design requirements for practical installations.

  20. Incompatibility of Contrast Medium and Trisodium Citrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delcour, Christian, E-mail: christian.delcour@chu-charleroi.be; Bruninx, Guy [CHU de Charleroi, Department of Radiology (Belgium)] [CHU de Charleroi, Department of Radiology (Belgium)

    2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    To test the compatibility of trisodium citrate, a catheter lock solution, with iodinated contrast medium. Iohexol, iobitridol, iodixanol, ioxaglate, ioxithalamate, iomeprol, and iopromide were tested. In all tests, 2 ml of contrast medium were mixed with 2 ml of trisodium citrate solution. Iodixanol and ioxaglate provoked a highly viscous gluelike precipitation when mixed with trisodium citrate. A brief transient precipitate was observed with iohexol, iomeprol, and ioxithalamate. Permanent precipitation occurred with iobitridol and iopromide. One must be aware of the potential for precipitation when contrast medium is mixed with trisodium citrate solution. Before trisodium citrate solution is injected, the catheter should be thoroughly flushed with saline if a contrast medium has previously been injected through it.

  1. Stress influenced trapping processes in Si based multi-quantum well structures and heavy ions implanted Si

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ciurea, Magdalena Lidia, E-mail: ciurea@infim.ro; Lazanu, Sorina, E-mail: ciurea@infim.ro [National Institute for Materials Physics, 105bis Atomistilor Street, 077125 Magurele (Romania)

    2014-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Multi-quantum well structures and Si wafers implanted with heavy iodine and bismuth ions are studied in order to evaluate the influence of stress on the parameters of trapping centers. The experimental method of thermostimullatedcurrents without applied bias is used, and the trapping centers are filled by illumination. By modeling the discharge curves, we found in multilayered structures the parameters of both 'normal' traps and 'stress-induced' ones, the last having a Gaussian-shaped temperature dependence of the cross section. The stress field due to the presence of stopped heavy ions implanted into Si was modeled by a permanent electric field. The increase of the strain from the neighborhood of I ions to the neighborhood of Bi ions produces the broadening of some energy levels and also a temperature dependence of the cross sections for all levels.

  2. Configuring the thermochemical hydrogen sulfuric acid process step for the Tandem Mirror Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galloway, T.R.

    1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper identifies the sulfuric acid step as the critical part of the thermochemical cycle in dictating the thermal demands and temperature requirements of the heat source. The General Atomic Sulfur-Iodine Cycle is coupled to a Tandem Mirror. The sulfuric acid decomposition process step is focused on specifically since this step can use the high efficiency electrical power of the direct converter together with the other thermal-produced electricity to Joule-heat a non-catalytic SO/sub 3/ decomposer to approximately 1250/sup 0/K. This approach uses concepts originally suggested by Dick Werner and Oscar Krikorian. The blanket temperature can be lowered to about 900/sup 0/K, greatly alleviating materials problems, the level of technology required, safety problems, and costs. A moderate degree of heat has been integrated to keep the cycle efficiency around 48%, but the number of heat exchangers has been limited in order to keep hydrogen production costs within reasonable bounds.

  3. High Efficiency Hydrogen Production from Nuclear Energy: Laboratory Demonstration of S-I Water-Splitting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buckingham, R.; Russ, B.; Brown, L.; Besenbruch, G.E.; Gelbard, F.; Pickard F.S.; Leybros, J.; Le Duigou, A.; Borgard, J.M.

    2004-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the French CEA, US-DOE INERI project is to perform a lab scale demonstration of the sulfur iodine (S-I) water splitting cycle, and assess the potential of this cycle for application to nuclear hydrogen production. The project will design, construct and test the three major component reaction sections that make up the S-I cycle. The CEA will design and test the prime (Bunsen) reaction section. General Atomics will develop and test the HI decomposition section, and SNL will develop and test the H2SO4 decomposition section. Activities for this period included initial program coordination and information exchange, the development of models and analyses that will support the design of the component sections, and preliminary designs for the component reaction sections. The sections are being designed to facilitate integration into a closed loop demonstration in a later stage of the program.

  4. Interaction of water with epoxy.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powers, Dana Auburn

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The chemistries of reactants, plasticizers, solvents and additives in an epoxy paint are discussed. Polyamide additives may play an important role in the absorption of molecular iodine by epoxy paints. It is recommended that the unsaturation of the polyamide additive in the epoxy cure be determined. Experimental studies of water absorption by epoxy resins are discussed. These studies show that absorption can disrupt hydrogen bonds among segments of the polymers and cause swelling of the polymer. The water absorption increases the diffusion coefficient of water within the polymer. Permanent damage to the polymer can result if water causes hydrolysis of ether linkages. Water desorption studies are recommended to ascertain how water absorption affects epoxy paint.

  5. Direct Measurement of the Bubble Nucleation Energy Threshold in a CF3I Bubble Chamber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Behnke, E; Brice, S J; Broemmelsiek, D; Collar, J I; Cooper, P S; Crisler, M; Dahl, C E; Fustin, D; Hall, J; Harnish, C; Levine, I; Lippincott, W H; Moan, T; Nania, T; Neilson, R; Ramberg, E; Robinson, A E; Sonnenschein, A; Vázquez-Jáuregui, E; Rivera, R A; Uplegger, L

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have directly measured the energy threshold and efficiency for bubble nucleation from iodine recoils in a CF3I bubble chamber in the energy range of interest for a dark matter search. These interactions cannot be probed by standard neutron calibration methods, so we develop a new technique by observing the elastic scattering of 12 GeV/c negative pions. The pions are tracked with a silicon pixel telescope and the reconstructed scattering angle provides a measure of the nuclear recoil kinetic energy. The bubble chamber was operated with a nominal threshold of (13.6+-0.6) keV. Interpretation of the results depends on the response to fluorine and carbon recoils, but in general we find agreement with the predictions of the classical bubble nucleation theory. This measurement confirms the applicability of CF3I as a target for spin-independent dark matter interactions and represents a novel technique for calibration of superheated fluid detectors.

  6. Method of increments for the halogen molecular crystals: Cl, Br, and I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steenbergen, Krista G. [Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Freie Universität Berlin, Takustr. 3, 14195 Berlin (Germany); MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Victoria University of Wellington, P.O. Box 600, Wellington 6012 (New Zealand); Gaston, Nicola [MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Victoria University of Wellington, P.O. Box 600, Wellington 6012 (New Zealand); Müller, Carsten; Paulus, Beate [Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Freie Universität Berlin, Takustr. 3, 14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Method of increments (MI) calculations reveal the n-body correlation contributions to binding in solid chlorine, bromine, and iodine. Secondary binding contributions as well as d-correlation energies are estimated and compared between each solid halogen. We illustrate that binding is entirely determined by two-body correlation effects, which account for >80% of the total correlation energy. One-body, three-body, and exchange contributions are repulsive. Using density-fitting (DF) local coupled-cluster singles, doubles, and perturbative triples for incremental calculations, we obtain excellent agreement with the experimental cohesive energies. MI results from DF local second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation (LMP2) yield considerably over-bound cohesive energies. Comparative calculations with density functional theory and periodic LMP2 method are also shown to be less accurate for the solid halogens.

  7. Nuclear waste management. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Platt, A.M.; Powell, J.A. (comps.)

    1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The status of the following programs is reported: high-level waste immobilization; alternative waste forms; Nuclear Waste Materials Characterization Center; TRU waste immobilization; TRU waste decontamination; krypton solidification; thermal outgassing; iodine-129 fixation; monitoring and physical characterization of unsaturated zone transport; well-logging instrumentation development; mobility of organic complexes of fission products in soils; waste management system studies; waste management safety studies; assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems; waste/rock interactions technology; systems study on engineered barriers; criteria for defining waste isolation; spent fuel and fuel pool component integrity program; analysis of spent fuel policy implementation; asphalt emulsion sealing of uranium tailings; application of long-term chemical biobarriers for uranium tailings; and development of backfill material.

  8. Extraordinarily Efficient Conduction in a Redox-Active Ionic Liquid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verner K. Thorsmølle; Guido Rothenberger; Daniel Topgaard; Jan C. Brauer; Dai-Bin Kuang; Shaik M. Zakeeruddin; Björn Lindman; Michael Grätzel; Jacques-E. Moser

    2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Iodine added to iodide-based ionic liquids leads to extraordinarily efficient charge transport, vastly exceeding that expected for such viscous systems. Using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy, in conjunction with dc conductivity, diffusivity and viscosity measurements we unravel the conductivity pathways in 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide melts. This study presents evidence of the Grotthuss mechanism as a significant contributor to the conductivity, and provides new insights into ion pairing processes as well as the formation of polyiodides. The terahertz and transport results are reunited in a model providing a quantitative description of the conduction by physical diffusion and the Grotthuss bond-exchange process. These novel results are important for the fundamental understanding of conduction in molten salts and for applications where ionic liquids are used as charge-transporting media such as in batteries and dye-sensitized solar cells.

  9. Method oil shale pollutant sorption/NO.sub.x reburning multi-pollutant control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boardman, Richard D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Carrington, Robert A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2008-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of decreasing pollutants produced in a combustion process. The method comprises combusting coal in a combustion chamber to produce at least one pollutant selected from the group consisting of a nitrogen-containing pollutant, sulfuric acid, sulfur trioxide, carbonyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, chlorine, hydroiodic acid, iodine, hydrofluoric acid, fluorine, hydrobromic acid, bromine, phosphoric acid, phosphorous pentaoxide, elemental mercury, and mercuric chloride. Oil shale particles are introduced into the combustion chamber and are combusted to produce sorbent particulates and a reductant. The at least one pollutant is contacted with at least one of the sorbent particulates and the reductant to decrease an amount of the at least one pollutant in the combustion chamber. The reductant may chemically reduce the at least one pollutant to a benign species. The sorbent particulates may adsorb or absorb the at least one pollutant. A combustion chamber that produces decreased pollutants in a combustion process is also disclosed.

  10. The Modular Helium Reactor for Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. Harvego; M. Richards; A. Shenoy; K. Schultz; L. Brown; M. Fukuie

    2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For electricity and hydrogen production, an advanced reactor technology receiving considerable international interest is a modular, passively-safe version of the high-temperature, gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), known in the U.S. as the Modular Helium Reactor (MHR), which operates at a power level of 600 MW(t). For hydrogen production, the concept is referred to as the H2-MHR. Two concepts that make direct use of the MHR high-temperature process heat are being investigated in order to improve the efficiency and economics of hydrogen production. The first concept involves coupling the MHR to the Sulfur-Iodine (SI) thermochemical water splitting process and is referred to as the SI-Based H2-MHR. The second concept involves coupling the MHR to high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) and is referred to as the HTE-Based H2-MHR.

  11. CT of the liver and spleen with EOE-13: review of 225 examinations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, D.L.; Vermess, M.; Doppman, J.L.; Simon, R.M.; Sugarbaker, P.H.; O'Leary, T.J.; Grimes, G.; Chatterji, D.G.; Willis, M.

    1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EOE-13 is an experimental liver-spleen-specific computed tomographic (CT) contrast agent developed at the National Institutes of Health. Experience with this agent in 225 clinical examinations is described. On average, use of EOE-13 increases the attenuation of normal liver by 32.5 H and that of normal spleen by 52.3 H. Tumors in these organs increase only 2.6 H, making them more easily detectable. Most of the iodine in EOE-13 appears to clear from the liver and spleen by 24 hr after injection. No deaths or permanent morbidity have been observed. The complication rate is 3.6%. EOE-13 is valuable for the detection of hepatic and splenic tumors.

  12. GROUNDWATER RADIOIODINE: PREVALENCE, BIOGEOCHEMISTRY, AND POTENTIAL REMEDIAL APPROACHES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denham, M.; Kaplan, D.; Yeager, C.

    2009-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Iodine-129 ({sup 129}I) has not received as much attention in basic and applied research as other contaminants associated with DOE plumes. These other contaminants, such as uranium, plutonium, strontium, and technetium are more widespread and exist at more DOE facilities. Yet, at the Hanford Site and the Savannah River Site {sup 129}I occurs in groundwater at concentrations significantly above the primary drinking water standard and there is no accepted method for treating it, other than pump-and-treat systems. With the potential arrival of a 'Nuclear Renaissance', new nuclear power facilities will be creating additional {sup 129}I waste at a rate of 1 Ci/gigawatts energy produced. If all 22 proposed nuclear power facilities in the U.S. get approved, they will produce more {sup 129}I waste in seven years than presently exists at the two facilities containing the largest {sup 129}I inventories, ({approx}146 Ci {sup 129}I at the Hanford Site and the Savannah River Site). Hence, there is an important need to fully understand {sup 129}I behavior in the environment to clean up existing plumes and to support the expected future expansion of nuclear power production. {sup 129}I is among the key risk drivers at all DOE nuclear disposal facilities where {sup 129}I is buried, because of its long half-life (16 million years), high toxicity (90% of the body's iodine accumulates in the thyroid), high inventory, and perceived high mobility in the subsurface environment. Another important reason that {sup 129}I is a key risk driver is that there is the uncertainty regarding its biogeochemical fate and transport in the environment. We typically can define {sup 129}I mass balance and flux at sites, but can not accurately predict its response to changes in the environment. This uncertainty is in part responsible for the low drinking water standard, 1 pCi/L {sup 129}I, and the low permissible inventory limits (Ci) at the Savannah River Site, Hanford Site, and the former Yucca Mountain disposal facilities. The objectives of this report are to: (1) compile the background information necessary to understand behavior of {sup 129}I in the environment, (2) discuss sustainable remediation approaches to {sup 129}I contaminated groundwater, and (3) identify areas of research that will facilitate remediation of {sup 129}I contaminated areas on DOE sites. Lines of scientific inquiry that would significantly advance the goals of basic and applied research programs for accelerating {sup 129}I environmental remediation and reducing uncertainty associated with disposal of {sup 129}I waste are: (1) Evaluation of amendments or other treatment systems that can sequester subsurface groundwater {sup 129}I. (2) Develop analytical techniques for measurement of total {sup 129}I that eliminate the necessity of collecting and shipping large samples of groundwater. (3) Develop and evaluate ways to manipulate areas with organic-rich soil, such as wetlands, to maximize {sup 129}I sorption, minimizing releases during anoxic conditions. (4) Develop analytical techniques that can identify the various {sup 129}I species in the subsurface aqueous and solid phases at ambient concentrations and under ambient conditions. (5) Identify the mechanisms and factors controlling iodine-natural organic matter interactions at appropriate environmental concentrations. (6) Understand the biological processes that transform iodine species throughout different compartments of subsurface waste sites and the role that these processes have on {sup 129}I flux.

  13. Nuclear waste management. Quarterly progress report, October through December 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chikalla, T.D.; Powell, J.A. (comps.)

    1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress reports and summaries are presented under the following headings: high-level waste process development; alternative waste forms; nuclear waste materials characterization center; TRU waste immobilization; TRU waste decontamination; krypton solidification; thermal outgassing; iodine-129 fixation; monitoring and physical characterization of unsaturated zone transport; well-logging instrumentation development; mobility of organic complexes of radionuclides in soils; waste management system studies; waste management safety studies; assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems; waste/rock interactions technology; high level waste form preparation; development of backfill material; development of structural engineered barriers; ONWI disposal charge analysis; spent fuel and fuel component integrity program; analysis of spent fuel policy implementation; analysis of postulated criticality events in a storage array of spent LWR fuel; asphalt emulsion sealing of uranium tailings; liner evaluation for uranium mill tailings; multilayer barriers for sealing of uranium tailings; application of long-term chemical biobarriers for uranium tailings; revegetation of inactive uranium tailing sites; verification instrument development.

  14. Pyrochemical separations technologies envisioned for the U. S. accelerator transmutation of waste system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laidler, J. J.

    2000-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A program has been initiated for the purpose of developing the chemical separations technologies necessary to support a large Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) system capable of dealing with the projected inventory of spent fuel from the commercial nuclear power stations in the United States. The baseline process selected combines aqueous and pyrochemical processes to enable the efficient separation of uranium, technetium, iodine, and the transuranic elements from LWR spent fuel. The diversity of processing methods was chosen for both technical and economic factors. A six-year technology evaluation and development program is foreseen, by the end of which an informed decision can be made on proceeding with demonstration of the ATW system.

  15. High Temperature Heat Exchanger Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anthony E. Hechanova, Ph.D.

    2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The UNLV Research Foundation assembled a research consortium for high temperature heat exchanger design and materials compatibility and performance comprised of university and private industry partners under the auspices of the US DOE-NE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative in October 2003. The objectives of the consortium were to conduct investigations of candidate materials for high temperature heat exchanger componets in hydrogen production processes and design and perform prototypical testing of heat exchangers. The initial research of the consortium focused on the intermediate heat exchanger (located between the nuclear reactor and hydrogen production plan) and the components for the hydrogen iodine decomposition process and sulfuric acid decomposition process. These heat exchanger components were deemed the most challenging from a materials performance and compatibility perspective

  16. Modeling Fission Product Sorption in Graphite Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szlufarska, Izabela [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Morgan, Dane [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Allen, Todd [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2013-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project is to determine changes in adsorption and desorption of fission products to/from nuclear-grade graphite in response to a changing chemical environment. First, the project team will employ principle calculations and thermodynamic analysis to predict stability of fission products on graphite in the presence of structural defects commonly observed in very high- temperature reactor (VHTR) graphites. Desorption rates will be determined as a function of partial pressure of oxygen and iodine, relative humidity, and temperature. They will then carry out experimental characterization to determine the statistical distribution of structural features. This structural information will yield distributions of binding sites to be used as an input for a sorption model. Sorption isotherms calculated under this project will contribute to understanding of the physical bases of the source terms that are used in higher-level codes that model fission product transport and retention in graphite. The project will include the following tasks: Perform structural characterization of the VHTR graphite to determine crystallographic phases, defect structures and their distribution, volume fraction of coke, and amount of sp2 versus sp3 bonding. This information will be used as guidance for ab initio modeling and as input for sorptivity models; Perform ab initio calculations of binding energies to determine stability of fission products on the different sorption sites present in nuclear graphite microstructures. The project will use density functional theory (DFT) methods to calculate binding energies in vacuum and in oxidizing environments. The team will also calculate stability of iodine complexes with fission products on graphite sorption sites; Model graphite sorption isotherms to quantify concentration of fission products in graphite. The binding energies will be combined with a Langmuir isotherm statistical model to predict the sorbed concentration of fission products on each type of graphite site. The model will include multiple simultaneous adsorbing species, which will allow for competitive adsorption effects between different fission product species and O and OH (for modeling accident conditions).

  17. Micro Ion Source Program NA22 Plutonium Detection Portfolio Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James E. Delmore

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the micro ion source program was to enhance the performance of thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) for various actinides and fission products. The proposal hypothesized that when ions are created at the ion optic center of the mass spectrometer, ion transmission is significantly increased and the resulting ion beam is more sharply focused. Computer modeling demonstrated this logic. In order to prove this hypothesis it was first necessary to understand the chemistry and physics governing the particular ion production process that concentrates the emission of ions into a small area. This has been achieved for uranium and technetium, as was shown in the original proposal and the improvement of both the beam transmission and sharpness of focus were proven. Significantly improved analytical methods have been developed for these two elements based upon this research. The iodine portion of the proposal turned out to be impractical due to volatility of iodine and its compounds. We knew this was a possibility prior to research and we proceeded anyway but did not succeed. Plutonium is a potential option, but is not quite up to the performance level of resin beads. Now, we more clearly understand the chemical and physical issues for plutonium, but have not yet translated this knowledge into improved analytical processes. The problems are that plutonium is considerably more difficult to convert to the required intermediate species, plutonium carbide, and the chemical method we developed that works with uranium functions only moderately well with plutonium. We are of the opinion that, with this knowledge, similar progress can be made with plutonium.

  18. Selective Gaseous Extraction: Research, Development and Training for Isotope Production, Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertch, Timothy C, [General Atomics

    2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    General Atomics and the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) completed research and development of selective gaseous extraction of fission products from irradiated fuel, which included training and education of MURR students. The process used porous fuel and after irradiation flowed product gases through the fuel to selectively removed desired fission products with the primary goal of demonstrating the removal of rhodium 105. High removal rates for the ruthenium/rhodium (Ru/Rh), tellurium/iodine (Te/I) and molybdenum/technetium (Mo/Tc) series were demonstrated. The success of this research provides for the reuse of the target for further production, significantly reducing the production of actinide wastes relative to processes that dissolve the target. This effort was conducted under DOE funding (DE-SC0007772). General Atomics objective of the project was to conduct R&D on alternative methods to produce a number of radioactive isotopes currently needed for medical and industry applications to include rhodium-105 and other useful isotopes. Selective gaseous extraction was shown to be effective at removing radioisotopes of the ruthenium/rhodium, tellurium/iodine and molybdenum/technetium decay chains while having trace to no quantities of other fission products or actinides. This adds a new, credible method to the area of certain commercial isotope production beyond current techniques, while providing significant potential reduction of process wastes. Waste reduction, along with reduced processing time/cost provides for superior economic feasibility which may allow domestic production under full cost recovery practices. This provides the potential for improved access to domestically produced isotopes for medical diagnostics and treatment at reduced cost, providing for the public good.

  19. Fission product behavior during the PBF (Power Burst Facility) Severe Fuel Damage Test 1-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartwell, J K; Petti, D A; Hagrman, D L; Jensen, S M; Cronenberg, A W

    1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In response to the accident at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2), the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) initiated a series of Severe Fuel Damage tests that were performed in the Power Burst Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to obtain data necessary to understand (a) fission product release, transport, and deposition; (b) hydrogen generation; and (c) fuel/cladding material behavior during degraded core accidents. Data are presented about fission product behavior noted during the second experiment of this series, the Severe Fuel Damage Test 1-1, with an in-depth analysis of the fission product release, transport, and deposition phenomena that were observed. Real-time release and transport data of certain fission products were obtained from on-line gamma spectroscopy measurements. Liquid and gas effluent grab samples were collected at selected periods during the test transient. Additional information was obtained from steamline deposition analysis. From these and other data, fission product release rates and total release fractions are estimated and compared with predicted release behavior using current models. Fission product distributions and a mass balance are also summarized, and certain probable chemical forms are predicted for iodine, cesium, and tellurium. An in-depth evaluation of phenomena affecting the behavior of the high-volatility fission products - xenon, krypton, iodine, cesium, and tellurium - is presented. Analysis indicates that volatile release from fuel is strongly influenced by parameters other than fuel temperature. Fission product behavior during transport through the Power Burst Facility effluent line to the fission product monitoring system is assessed. Tellurium release behavior is also examined relatve to the extent of Zircaloy cladding oxidation. 81 fig., 53 tabs.

  20. Dosimetric perturbations due to an implanted cardiac pacemaker in MammoSite{sup Registered-Sign} treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sung, Wonmo; Kim, Siyong; Kim, Jung-in; Lee, Jae-gi; Shin, Young-Joo; Jung, Jae-Yong; Ye, Sung-Joon [Interdisciplinary Program in Radiation Applied Life Science, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799, South Korea and Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida 32224 (United States); Interdisciplinary Program in Radiation Applied Life Science, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799, South Korea and Department of Radiation Oncology, Kangbuk Samsung Medical Center, Seoul 110-746 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul 110-744, South Korea and Department of Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University, Seoul 139-707 (Korea, Republic of); Interdisciplinary Program in Radiation Applied Life Science, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of) and Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 443-270 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To investigate dose perturbations for pacemaker-implanted patients in partial breast irradiation using high dose rate (HDR) balloon brachytherapy. Methods: Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were performed to calculate dose distributions involving a pacemaker in Ir-192 HDR balloon brachytherapy. Dose perturbations by varying balloon-to-pacemaker distances (BPD = 50 or 100 mm) and concentrations of iodine contrast medium (2.5%, 5.0%, 7.5%, and 10.0% by volume) in the balloon were investigated for separate parts of the pacemaker (i.e., battery and substrate). Relative measurements using an ion-chamber were also performed to confirm MC results. Results: The MC and measured results in homogeneous media without a pacemaker agreed with published data within 2% from the balloon surface to 100 mm BPD. Further their dose distributions with a pacemaker were in a comparable agreement. The MC results showed that doses over the battery were increased by a factor of 3, compared to doses without a pacemaker. However, there was no significant dose perturbation in the middle of substrate but up to 70% dose increase in the substrate interface with the titanium capsule. The attenuation by iodine contrast medium lessened doses delivered to the pacemaker by up to 9%. Conclusions: Due to inhomogeneity of pacemaker and contrast medium as well as low-energy photons in Ir-192 HDR balloon brachytherapy, the actual dose received in a pacemaker is different from the homogeneous medium-based dose and the external beam-based dose. Therefore, the dose perturbations should be considered for pacemaker-implanted patients when evaluating a safe clinical distance between the balloon and pacemaker.

  1. Effects of welding fumes on nuclear air cleaning system carbon adsorber banks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberson, P.W. [Duke Power Company, Huntersville, NC (United States)

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Standard Technical Specifications for nuclear air cleaning systems include requirements for surveillance tests following fire, painting, or chemical release in areas communicating with the affected system. To conservatively implement this requirement, many plants categorize welding as a chemical release process, and institute controls to ensure that welding fumes do not interact with carbon adsorbers in a filter system. After reviewing research data that indicated welding had a minimal impact on adsorber iodine removal efficiency, further testing was performed with the goal of establishing a welding threshold. It was anticipated that some quantity of weld electrodes could be determined that had a corresponding detrimental impact on iodine removal efficiency for the exposed adsorber. This value could be used to determine a conservative sampling schedule that would allow the station to perform laboratory testing to ensure system degradation did not occur without a full battery of surveillance tests. A series of tests was designed to demonstrate carbon efficiency versus cumulative welding fume exposure. Three series of tests were performed, one for each of three different types of commonly used weld electrodes. Carbon sampling was performed at baseline conditions, and every five pounds of electrode thereafter. Two different laboratory tests were performed for each sample; one in accordance with ASTM 3803/1989 at 95% relative humidity and 30 degrees C, and another using the less rigorous conditions of 70% relative humidity and 80 degrees C. Review of the test data for all three types of electrodes failed to show a significant correlation between carbon efficiency degradation and welding fume exposure. Accordingly, welding is no longer categorized as a `chemical release process` at McGuire Nuclear Station, and limits on welding fume interaction with ventilation systems have been eliminated. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Dissolver Off-gas Hot Operations Authorization (AFCI CETE Milestone Report)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jubin, Robert Thomas [ORNL

    2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The head-end processing of the Coupled-End-to-End (CETE) Demonstration includes fuel receipt, fuel disassembly, exposure of fuel (e.g., by segmenting the fuel pins), voloxidation of the fuel to separate tritium, and fuel dissolution. All of these processing steps with the exception of the dissolution step will be accomplished in the Irradiated Fuels Examination Laboratory (IFEL) (Building 3525). The final headend step will be performed in the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (Building 7920). The primary purpose of the fuel dissolution step is to prepare the solid fuel for subsequent liquid separations steps. This is accomplished by dissolving the fuel solids using nitric acid. During the dissolution process gases are evolved. Oxides of nitrogen are the primary off-gas components generated by the reactions of nitric acid and the fuel oxides however, during the dissolution and sparging of the resulting solution, iodine, C-14 as carbon dioxide, xenon, and krypton gasses are also released to the off-gas stream. The Dissolver Off-gas treatment rack provides a means of trapping these volatile fission products and other gases via various trapping media. Specifically the rack will recover iodine on a solid sorbent bed, scrub NOx in a water/acid column, scrub CO{sub 2} in a caustic scrubber column, remove moisture with solid sorbent drier beds and recover Xe and Kr using solid absorbent beds. The primary purpose of this experimental rack and the off-gas rack associated with the voloxidation equipment located at IFEL is to close the material balances around the volatile gases and to provide an understanding of the impacts of specific processing conditions on the fractions of the volatile components released from the various head-end processing steps.

  3. Lung Radiofrequency Ablation: In Vivo Experimental Study with Low-Perfusion-Rate Multitined Electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crocetti, Laura, E-mail: l.crocetti@med.unipi.it; Lencioni, Riccardo; Bozzi, Elena [University of Pisa, Division of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Department of Oncology, Transplant and Advanced Technologies in Medicine (Italy); Sbrana, Alberto [University of Pisa (Italy); Bartolozzi, Carlo [University of Pisa, Division of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Department of Oncology, Transplant and Advanced Technologies in Medicine (Italy)

    2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility and safety of lung radiofrequency (RF) ablation by using low-perfusion-rate, expandable, multitined electrodes in an in vivo animal model. Ten New Zealand White rabbits underwent RF ablation using low-perfusion-rate, expandable, multitined electrodes (Starburst Talon; RITA Medical Systems, Mountain View, CA) and a 200-W RF generator. The electrode was positioned under fluoroscopy guidance and a single percutaneous RF ablation was performed. Saline perfusate was doped with nonionic iodinated contrast agent to render it visible on computed tomography (CT). The pump infused the saline doped with contrast agent into the lateral tines at a rate of 0.1ml/min. The planned ablation was of 3 min, with the hooks deployed to 2 cm at a target temperature of 105{sup o}C. An immediate posttreatment CT scan documented the distribution of the doped saline and the presence of immediate complications. The animals were monitored for delayed complications and sacrificed within 72 h (n = 4), 2 weeks (n = 3), or 4 weeks (n = 3). Assessment of ablation zone and adjacent structures was done at autopsy. Major complications consisted of pneumothorax requiring drainage (n = 2) and skin burn (n = 1). Immediately after the procedure the area of ablation was depicted at CT as a round, well-demarcated area, homogeneously opacified by iodinated contrast medium (mean size, 2.3 {+-} 0.8 cm). The presence of a sharply demarcated area of coagulation necrosis (mean size, 2.1 {+-} 0.4 cm) without severe damage to adjacent structures was confirmed at autopsy. In one case, euthanized at 4 weeks, in whom pneumothorax and pleural effusion were depicted, pleural fibrinous adhesions were demonstrated at autopsy. In conclusion, lung RF ablation performed in an in vivo animal model using low-perfusion-rate, expandable, multitined electrodes is feasible and safe. No severe damage to adjacent structures was demonstrated.

  4. Assessment of radionuclide vapor-phase transport in unsaturated tuff

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, D.M.; Updegraff, C.D.; Bonano, E.J.; Randall, J.D.

    1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes bounding calculations performed to investigate the possibility of radionuclide migration in a vapor phase associated with the emplacement of high-level waste canister in unsaturated tuff formations. Two potential radionuclide transport mechanisms in the vapor phase were examined: aerosol migration and convection/diffusion of volatile species. The former may have significant impact on the release of radionuclides to the accessible environment as the concentration in the aerosols will be equal to that in the ground water. A conservative analysis of air diffusion in a stagnant liquid film indicated that for all expected repository conditions, aerosol formation is not possible. The migration of volatile species was examined both in the vicinity of a waste canister and outside the thermally disturbed zone. Two-dimensional (radial) and three-dimensional (radial-vertical) coupled heat transfer-gas flow-liquid flow simulations were performed using the TOUGH computer code. The gas flow rate relative to the liquid flow rate predicted from the simulations allowed calculations of mobility ratios due to convection which led to the conclusion that, except for the immediate region near the canister, transport in the liquid phase will be dominant for radionuclides heavier than radon. Near the waste canister, iodine transport may also be important in the vapor phase. Bounding calculations for vertical mobility ratios were carried out as a function of saturation. These calculations are conservative and agree well with the two-dimensional simulations. Based on this analysis, it is clear that vapor-phase transport will not be important for radionuclides such as cesium and heavier species. Vapor transport for iodine may play a role in the overall release scenario depending on the particular repository conditions.

  5. Photodissociation dynamics of C{sub 3}H{sub 5}I in the near-ultraviolet region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sumida, Masataka; Hanada, Takuya; Yamasaki, Katsuyoshi; Kohguchi, Hiroshi, E-mail: kohguchi@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama 1-3-1, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan)

    2014-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The ultraviolet photodissociation dynamics of allyl iodide (C{sub 3}H{sub 5}I) have been studied by ion-imaging at 266 nm and 213 nm. These photolysis wavelengths are located in the two lowest absorption bands in the near-ultraviolet region. The atomic iodine products were detected by [2+1] resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization spectroscopy. The spectra showed that the branching fraction for the spin-orbit excited ({sup 2}P{sub 1/2}) state was larger than that for the ground ({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) state at both photolysis wavelengths. The state-resolved scattering images of iodine showed two maxima in the velocity distributions in the {sup 2}P{sub 3/2} state and a single peak in the {sup 2}P{sub 1/2} state. The spin-orbit specificity indicates that the C?I bond cleavage at both absorption bands is governed by the dissociative n{sub I}?{sup *}{sub C?I} potential energy surfaces. The nascent internal energy distribution of the allyl radical (C{sub 3}H{sub 5}) counter product, which was obtained by the analysis of the state-resolved scattering distributions, showed a marked difference between the photolysis at 266 nm and 213 nm. The generation of the colder C{sub 3}H{sub 5} with the higher translational energy at 266 nm implied the direct photoexcitation to the n{sub I}?{sup *}{sub C?I} repulsive surfaces, whereas the internally hot C{sub 3}H{sub 5} at 213 nm was ascribed to the local ?{sub CC}?{sup *}{sub CC} photoinitiation in the allyl framework followed by predissociation to the n{sub I}?{sup *}{sub C?I} states.

  6. Final Report, "Molecular Design of Hydrocarbon Oxidation Catalytic Processes"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Professor Francisco Zaera

    2007-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The main goal of this project had been to use model systems to correlate selectivities in partial oxidation catalysis with the presence of specific sites on the surface of the catalyst. Extensive work was performed this year on characterizing oxygen-treated nickel surfaces by chemical means. Specifically, the surface chemistry of ammonia coadsorbed with atomic oxygen on Ni(110) single-crystal surfaces was studied by temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was determined that at intermediate oxygen coverages direct ammonia adsorption on nickel sites is suppressed, but a new high-temperature reaction regime is generated at 400 K where NHx surface fragments are rehydrogenated concurrently with the production of water and molecular hydrogen. The extensive isotope scrambling and hydrogen transfer seen from nitrogen- to oxygen-containing surface intermediates, and the optimum yields seen for this 400 K state at intermediate oxygen coverages, strongly suggest the direct interaction of the adsorbed ammonia with oxygen atoms at the end of the –Ni–O- rows that form upon reconstruction of the surface. Hydrogen transfer between ammonia and oxygen appears to take place directly via hydrogen bonding, and to be reversible but biased towards water formation. An equilibrium is reached between the produced water and the reacting surface oxygen and hydrogen. The strong influence of the OH surface groups on the thermal chemistry of the adsorbed ammonia was interpreted in terms of the adsorbing geometry of the OH groups on the surface, and of hydrogen bonding between adsorbed OH and NH3 species. In terms of alcohol reactivity, the adsorption of 2-iodoethanol, a precursor for the preparation of 2-hydroxyethyl and oxametallacycle surface species, was found to lead to two configurations involving either just the iodine atom or both iodine and hydroxyl ends of the molecule. A complex chemical behavior starts around 140 K with the production of small amounts of ethylene and water, most likely via the concerted decomposition or disproportionation of the adsorbed molecular species. The bulk of the 2-iodoethanol decomposes at about 150 K via an initial carbon-iodine scission to form –O(H)CH2CH2– (~80%) and 2-hydroxyethyl (~20%) intermediates. Two competing reactions are involved with the subsequent conversion of the 2-hydroxyethyl species around 160 K, a reductive elimination with surface hydrogen to yield ethanol, and a ?-H elimination to surface vinyl alcohol. The –O(H)CH2CH2–, on the other hand, dehydrogenates to a –OCH2CH2– oxametallacycle species about the same temperature. Both 2-hydroxyethyl and oxametallacycle species tautomerize to acetaldehyde, around 210 K and above 250 K, respectively, and some of that acetaldehyde desorbs while the rest decomposes to hydrogen and carbon monoxide. We contend that a better understanding of the surface chemistry of oxygen-containing surfaces can lead to better selectivities in catalysis. This is arguably the most important issue in the field of catalysis in the near future, and one that impacts several technologies of interest to DOE such as the manufacturing of speciality chemicals and the control and removal of pollutants. Additional work was performed on the characterization of the chemistry of methyl and methylene adsorbed species on oxygen-treated nickel surfaces. Complex chemistry was observed involving not only hydrogenation and dehydrogenation steps, but also C-C couplings and methylene insertions to produce heavier hydrocarbons, and oxygen insertion reactions that yield oxygenates. Finally, a dual titration technique employing xenon and a chemically sensitive probe was developed to identify minority catalytic sites on oxide surfaces. In the case of oxygen-treated Ni(110) single crystals, it was found that both hydrogen transfer with adsorbed water or ammonia and certain hydrocarbon hydrogenation reactions take place at the end of the –Ni–O rows that form in this system. Carbon and nitrogen oxides, on the other hand, display no pre

  7. Anatomical noise in contrast-enhanced digital mammography. Part II. Dual-energy imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, Melissa L.; Yaffe, Martin J. [Sunnybrook Research Institute, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, Canada and Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)] [Sunnybrook Research Institute, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, Canada and Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Mainprize, James G. [Sunnybrook Research Institute, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)] [Sunnybrook Research Institute, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Carton, Ann-Katherine; Saab-Puong, Sylvie; Iordache, R?zvan; Muller, Serge [GE Healthcare, 283 rue de la Minière, Buc 78530 (France)] [GE Healthcare, 283 rue de la Minière, Buc 78530 (France); Jong, Roberta A. [Breast Imaging, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)] [Breast Imaging, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Dromain, Clarisse [Department of Radiology, Institut Gustave Roussy, 39 rue Camille Desmoulin, Villejuif 94805 (France)] [Department of Radiology, Institut Gustave Roussy, 39 rue Camille Desmoulin, Villejuif 94805 (France)

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Dual-energy (DE) contrast-enhanced digital mammography (CEDM) uses an iodinated contrast agent in combination with digital mammography (DM) to evaluate lesions on the basis of tumor angiogenesis. In DE imaging, low-energy (LE) and high-energy (HE) images are acquired after contrast administration and their logarithms are subtracted to cancel the appearance of normal breast tissue. Often there is incomplete signal cancellation in the subtracted images, creating a background “clutter” that can impair lesion detection. This is the second component of a two-part report on anatomical noise in CEDM. In Part I the authors characterized the anatomical noise for single-energy (SE) temporal subtraction CEDM by a power law, with model parameters ? and ?. In this work the authors quantify the anatomical noise in DE CEDM clinical images and compare this with the noise in SE CEDM. The influence on the anatomical noise of the presence of iodine in the breast, the timing of imaging postcontrast administration, and the x-ray energy used for acquisition are each evaluated.Methods: The power law parameters, ? and ?, were measured from unprocessed LE and HE images and from DE subtracted images to quantify the anatomical noise. A total of 98 DE CEDM cases acquired in a previous clinical pilot study were assessed. Conventional DM images from 75 of the women were evaluated for comparison with DE CEDM. The influence of the imaging technique on anatomical noise was determined from an analysis of differences between the power law parameters as measured in DM, LE, HE, and DE subtracted images for each subject.Results: In DE CEDM, weighted image subtraction lowers ? to about 1.1 from 3.2 and 3.1 in LE and HE unprocessed images, respectively. The presence of iodine has a small but significant effect in LE images, reducing ? by about 0.07 compared to DM, with ? unchanged. Increasing the x-ray energy, from that typical in DM to a HE beam, significantly decreases ? by about 2 × 10{sup ?5} mm{sup 2}, and lowers ? by about 0.14 compared to LE images. A comparison of SE and DE CEDM at 4 min postcontrast shows equivalent power law parameters in unprocessed images, and lower ? and ? by about 3 × 10{sup ?5} mm{sup 2} and 0.50, respectively, in DE versus SE subtracted images.Conclusions: Image subtraction in both SE and DE CEDM reduces ? by over a factor of 2, while maintaining ? below that in DM. Given the equivalent ? between SE and DE unprocessed CEDM images, and the smaller anatomical noise in the DE subtracted images, the DE approach may have an advantage over SE CEDM. It will be necessary to test this potential advantage in future lesion detectability experiments, which account for realistic lesion signals. The authors' results suggest that LE images could be used in place of DM images in CEDM exam interpretation.

  8. The effects of gantry tilt on breast dose and image noise in cardiac CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoppe, Michael E.; Gandhi, Diksha; Schmidt, Taly Gilat [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53233 (United States)] [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53233 (United States); Stevens, Grant M. [GE Healthcare, Waukesha, Wisconsin 53188 (United States)] [GE Healthcare, Waukesha, Wisconsin 53188 (United States); Foley, W. Dennis [Department of Radiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Froedtert Memorial Lutheran Hospital, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226 (United States)] [Department of Radiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Froedtert Memorial Lutheran Hospital, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226 (United States)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: This study investigated the effects of tilted-gantry acquisition on image noise and glandular breast dose in females during cardiac computed tomography (CT) scans. Reducing the dose to glandular breast tissue is important due to its high radiosensitivity and limited diagnostic significance in cardiac CT scans.Methods: Tilted-gantry acquisition was investigated through computer simulations and experimental measurements. Upon IRB approval, eight voxelized phantoms were constructed from previously acquired cardiac CT datasets. Monte Carlo simulations quantified the dose deposited in glandular breast tissue over a range of tilt angles. The effects of tilted-gantry acquisition on breast dose were measured on a clinical CT scanner (CT750HD, GE Healthcare) using an anthropomorphic phantom with MOSFET dosimeters in the breast regions. In both simulations and experiments, scans were performed at gantry tilt angles of 0°–30°, in 5° increments. The percent change in breast dose was calculated relative to the nontilted scan for all tilt angles. The percent change in noise standard deviation due to gantry tilt was calculated in all reconstructed simulated and experimental images.Results: Tilting the gantry reduced the breast dose in all simulated and experimental phantoms, with generally greater dose reduction at increased gantry tilts. For example, at 30° gantry tilt, the dosimeters located in the superior, middle, and inferior breast regions measured dose reductions of 74%, 61%, and 9%, respectively. The simulations estimated 0%–30% total breast dose reduction across the eight phantoms and range of tilt angles. However, tilted-gantry acquisition also increased the noise standard deviation in the simulated phantoms by 2%–50% due to increased pathlength through the iodine-filled heart. The experimental phantom, which did not contain iodine in the blood, demonstrated decreased breast dose and decreased noise at all gantry tilt angles.Conclusions: Tilting the gantry reduced the dose to the breast, while also increasing noise standard deviation. Overall, the noise increase outweighed the dose reduction for the eight voxelized phantoms, suggesting that tilted gantry acquisition may not be beneficial for reducing breast dose while maintaining image quality.

  9. Reservoir environment of the Onuma geothermal power plant, northeast Japan, estimated by forward analysis of long-term artificial-tracer concentration change, using single-box-model simulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shigeno, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Masaaki; Tetsuro, Noda

    1993-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A single-box-model numerical simulator for personal computer analysis was developed in order to estimate macroscopic parameter values for exploited geothermal reservoirs and essential fluids coming from the depth. The simulator was designed to compute history data concerning total production and reinjection fluids at geothermal power plants from the assumed parameter values, based on conservation laws for water mass, heat energy and masses of conservative chemical constituents of geothermal fluids. Using two kinds of forward analysis techniques, i.e. the cast-net and pursuit methods, programs containing the simulator can semiautomatically select the optimum combination of the unknown parameter values by minimizing the differences between the simulated and measured history data for specific enthalpy and chemical compositions of the production fluids. The forward analysis programs were applied to the history data from the Onuma geothermal power plant (production capacity, 10MWe) where waste hot water reinjection, chemical monitoring and artificial tracer tests have been conducted since 1970, almost the beginning of the geothermal exploitation. Using the history data, enthalpy and iodine concentrations of the total production fluids with the amounts of KI tracer injected as spikes, the macroscopic parameter values for the exploited reservoir and the essential hot water from the depth were uniquely determined as follows: mass of the hot water convecting in the exploited reservoir (M0), 3.23x109kg; recycling fraction of the reinjected waste hot water to the reservoir (R), 0.74; specific enthalpy of the essential water from the depth (H1), 385kcalkg; iodine concentration of the water (I1), 0.086mg/kg with chlorine concentration (C1), 259mg/kg. These results support the conceptual model that the exploited Onuma reservoir mainly in the Tertiary volcanics is supplied with the neutral Na-Cl type hot water of abnormally high B/CI mole ratio of around 1.0 by a large essential reservoir distributed at depth in the Paleozoic to Mesozoic detrital marine sedimentary rocks.

  10. Carbon Dioxide in the Aortic Arch: Coronary Effects and Implications in a Swine Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Culp, William C. [University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 W.Markham Street, Slot 556, Little Rock, AR 72205-7199, Department of Radiology (United States)], E-mail: culpwilliamc@uams.edu; Porter, Thomas R. [University of Nebraska Medical Center, 600South 42nd Street, Omaha, NE 68198-1045, Department ofCardiology (United States); Culp, William C. [UTMB, 301 University Boulevard, Galveston, TX 77555-0591, Department of Anesthesia (United States); Vonk, Brian N. [University of Nebraska Medical Center, 600 South42nd Street, Omaha, NE 68198-1045, Department ofRadiology (United States)

    2003-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: CO{sub 2} angiography is considered dangerous in the aortic arch where bubbles may cause critical cerebral and cardiac ischemia. We investigated CO{sub 2}distribution, physiologic effects in the heart, methods of detection and treatments. Methods: Eight pigs had CO{sub 2}and iodinated contrast arch angiograms in supine and both lateral decubitus positions. An electrocardiogram, physiologic data and cardiac ultrasound were obtained. Therapies included precordial thumps and rolls to lateral decubitus positions. Results: Supine high descending aorta CO{sub 2} injections floated retrograde up the arch during diastole and preferentially filled the right coronary artery (RCA): mean score 3.5 (of 4), in nominate artery 2.4, left coronary artery 1.2; n = 17; p = 0.0001. Aortic root injections preferentially filled the RCA when the animal was supine, left coronary in the right decubitus position, and showed a diffuse pattern in the left decubitus position. Right decubitus rolls filled both coronaries causing several lethal arrhythmias. Precordialthumps successfully cleared CO{sub 2}. Ultrasound is a sensitive detector of myocardial CO{sub 2}. Conclusion: Arch distribution of CO{sub 2} primarily involves the RCA. Diagnostic ultrasound detects cardiac CO{sub 2} well. Precordial thumps are an effective treatment.

  11. Enhanced Jahn-Teller response induced by low-dose 10?MeV I{sup +} irradiation of La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3??} films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, V. G., E-mail: v.harris@neu.edu; Chen, Y. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Byers, J. M.; Stroud, R. M.; Osofsky, M. S.; Knies, D.; Grabowski, K. S. [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Code 6360, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Browning, V. M.; Fuller-Mora, W. W. [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Code 6340, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Kim, J. [Neocera, LLC, 10000 Virginia Manor Road, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 (United States)

    2014-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The structural response of pulsed laser deposited La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}Mn0{sub 3??} films to low-level 10?MeV I{sup +} irradiation is correlated with magnetic and electronic properties. A series of annealed pulsed laser deposited films were subjected to ion irradiation at doses of 0.5–2.0 × 10{sup 13} 10?MeV iodine ions/cm{sup 2}. X-ray diffraction measurements show no measurable increase in the full width at half maximum values of major reflections before and after irradiation. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure analyses (EXAFS), employing both a model independent fitting using expanded cumulants as well as a nonlinear least squares multiple scattering model based on FEFF generated theoretical EXAFS data, were employed to measure local properties relative to the Mn ions. Increasing irradiation doses lead to an unambiguous evolution of MnO{sub 6} octahedra from highly symmetric (i.e., undistorted) to a clear bimodal structure in which the MnO{sub 6} octahedra are measured to undergo a c-axis stretching bearing resemblance to a Jahn-Teller distortion. Concomitantly, the metal to insulator transition temperature decreases more than 270?K and the magnetoresistance increases from 10{sup 2}% to 10{sup 6}%.

  12. Future Supply of Medical Radioisotopes for the UK Report 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neilly, Brian; Ballinger, Jim; Buscombe, John; Clarke, Rob; Ellis, Beverley; Flux, Glenn; Fraser, Louise; Hall, Adrian; Owen, Hywel; Paterson, Audrey; Perkins, Alan; Scarsbrook, Andrew

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The UK has no research nuclear reactors and relies on the importation of 99Mo and other medical radioisotopes (e.g. Iodine-131) from overseas (excluding PET radioisotopes). The UK is therefore vulnerable not only to global shortages, but to problems with shipping and importation of the products. In this context Professor Erika Denton UK national Clinical Director for Diagnostics requested that the British Nuclear Medicine Society lead a working group with stakeholders including representatives from the Science & Technology Facilities Council (STFC) to prepare a report. The group had a first meeting on 10 April 2013 followed by a working group meeting with presentations on 9th September 2013 where the scope of the work required to produce a report was agreed. The objectives of the report are: to describe the status of the use of medical radioisotopes in the UK; to anticipate the potential impact of shortages for the UK; to assess potential alternative avenues of medical radioisotope production for the UK m...

  13. Nuclear-waste-management. Quarterly progress report, July-September 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chikalla, T.D.; Powell, J.A. (comps.)

    1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress reports and summaries are presented for the following: high-level waste process development, alternate waste forms; TMI zeolite vitrification demonstration program; nuclear waste materials characterization center; TRU waste immobilization; TRU waste decontamination; krypton implantation; thermal outgassing; iodine-129 fixation; NWVP off-gas analysis; monitoring and physical characterization of unsaturated zone transport; well-logging instrumentation development; verification instrument development; mobility of organic complexes of radionuclides in soils; handbook of methods to decrease the generation of low-level waste; waste management system studies; waste management safety studies; assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems; waste/rock interactions technology program; high-level waste form preparation; development of backfill materials; development of structural engineered barriers; disposal charge analysis; analysis of spent fuel policy implementation; spent fuel and fuel pool component integrity program; analysis of postulated criticality events in a storage array of spent LWR fuel; asphalt emulsion sealing of uranium mill tailings; liner evaluation for uranium mill tailings; multilayer barriers for sealing uranium tailings; application of long-term chemical biobarriers for uranium tailings; and revegetation of inactive uranium tailings sites.

  14. Process for oxidation of hydrogen halides to elemental halogens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lyke, Stephen E. (Middleton, WI)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved process for generating an elemental halogen selected from chlorine, bromine or iodine, from a corresponding hydrogen halide by absorbing a molten salt mixture, which includes sulfur, alkali metals and oxygen with a sulfur to metal molar ratio between 0.9 and 1.1 and includes a dissolved oxygen compound capable of reacting with hydrogen halide to produce elemental halogen, into a porous, relatively inert substrate to produce a substrate-supported salt mixture. Thereafter, the substrate-supported salt mixture is contacted (stage 1) with a hydrogen halide while maintaining the substrate-supported salt mixture during the contacting at an elevated temperature sufficient to sustain a reaction between the oxygen compound and the hydrogen halide to produce a gaseous elemental halogen product. This is followed by purging the substrate-supported salt mixture with steam (stage 2) thereby recovering any unreacted hydrogen halide and additional elemental halogen for recycle to stage 1. The dissolved oxygen compound is regenerated in a high temperature (stage 3) and an optical intermediate temperature stage (stage 4) by contacting the substrate-supported salt mixture with a gas containing oxygen whereby the dissolved oxygen compound in the substrate-supported salt mixture is regenerated by being oxidized to a higher valence state.

  15. The Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) furnace system for high temperature performance testing of VHTR fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul A. Demkowicz; David V. Laug; Dawn M. Scates; Edward L. Reber; Lyle G. Roybal; John B. Walter; Jason M. Harp; Robert N. Morris

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The AGR-1 irradiation of TRISO-coated particle fuel specimens was recently completed and represents the most successful such irradiation in US history, reaching peak burnups of greater than 19% FIMA with zero failures out of 300,000 particles. An extensive post-irradiation examination (PIE) campaign will be conducted on the AGR-1 fuel in order to characterize the irradiated fuel properties, assess the in-pile fuel performance in terms of coating integrity and fission metals release, and determine the fission product retention behavior during high temperature safety testing. A new furnace system has been designed, built, and tested to perform high temperature accident tests. The Fuel Accident Condition Simulator furnace system is designed to heat fuel specimens at temperatures up to 2000 degrees C in helium while monitoring the release of volatile fission metals (e.g. Cs, Ag, Sr, and Eu), iodine, and fission gases (Kr, Xe). Fission gases released from the fuel to the sweep gas are monitored in real time using dual cryogenic traps fitted with high purity germanium detectors. Condensable fission products are collected on a plate attached to a water-cooled cold finger that can be exchanged periodically without interrupting the test. Analysis of fission products on the condensation plates involves dry gamma counting followed by chemical analysis of selected isotopes. This paper will describe design and operational details of the Fuel Accident Condition Simulator furnace system and the associated fission gas monitoring system, as well as preliminary system calibration results.

  16. Labelled biomolecules with sup 1 sup 5 sup 3 Sm, sup 1 sup 8 sup 8 Re, and sup 9 sup 0 Y for targeted radiotherapy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mushtaq, A; Perverz, S

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A somatostatin analogue Lanreotide was labelled with sup 1 sup 8 sup 8 Re, sup 9 sup 9 Tc sup m and sup 1 sup 3 sup 1 I. Labelling was accomplished by reduction of cysteine bridge, which provided sulfhydryl groups for chelation with sup 1 sup 8 sup 8 Re/ sup 9 sup 9 Tc sup m. Stannous chloride was used as reducing agent, while tartrate acted as transchelating agent. The lower redox potential of ReO sub 4 sup - than TcO sub 4 sup - required the addition of excess SnCl sub 2 and medium-chelating agent for stabilizing the excess of SnCl sub 2 in solution. ITLC and HPLC techniques employed for monitoring the labelling yield revealed >95% labelling efficiency. Radioiodination of lanreotide was carried out by Chloramine-T and iodogen methods. The radiolabelling yield varied between 40-80%. Chloramine-T method was found more suitable than Iodogen method, because approx 25% of the initial iodine activity was adsorbed on Iodogen coating. Avidin-biotin system is widely used in medical research, especially in pretargete...

  17. Savannah River Site radioiodine atmospheric releases and offsite maximum doses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marter, W.L.

    1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radioisotopes of iodine have been released to the atmosphere from the Savannah River Site since 1955. The releases, mostly from the 200-F and 200-H Chemical Separations areas, consist of the isotopes, I-129 and 1-131. Small amounts of 1-131 and 1-133 have also been released from reactor facilities and the Savannah River Laboratory. This reference memorandum was issued to summarize our current knowledge of releases of radioiodines and resultant maximum offsite doses. This memorandum supplements the reference memorandum by providing more detailed supporting technical information. Doses reported in this memorandum from consumption of the milk containing the highest I-131 concentration following the 1961 1-131 release incident are about 1% higher than reported in the reference memorandum. This is the result of using unrounded 1-131 concentrations of I-131 in milk in this memo. It is emphasized here that this technical report does not constitute a dose reconstruction in the same sense as the dose reconstruction effort currently underway at Hanford. This report uses existing published data for radioiodine releases and existing transport and dosimetry models.

  18. Magnesium transport extraction of transuranium elements from LWR fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL); Battles, James E. (Oak Forest, IL); Johnson, Terry R. (Wheaton, IL); Miller, William E. (Naperville, IL); Pierce, R. Dean (Naperville, IL)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of separating transuranium actinide values from uranium values present in spent nuclear oxide fuels which contain rare earth and noble metal fission products. The oxide fuel is reduced with Ca metal in the presence of CaCl.sub.2 and a U-Fe alloy containing not less than about 84% by weight uranium at a temperature in the range of from about 800.degree. C. to about 850.degree. C. to produce additional uranium metal which dissolves in the U-Fe alloy raising the uranium concentration and having transuranium actinide metals and rare earth fission product metals and the noble metal fission products dissolved therein. The CaCl.sub.2 having CaO and fission products of alkali metals and the alkali earth metals and iodine dissolved therein is separated and electrolytically treated with a carbon electrode to reduce the CaO to Ca metal while converting the carbon electrode to CO and CO.sub.2. The Ca metal and CaCl.sub.2 is recycled to reduce additional oxide fuel. The U-Fe alloy having transuranium actinide metals and rare earth fission product metals and the noble metal fission products dissolved therein is contacted with Mg metal which takes up the actinide and rare earth fission product metals. The U-Fe alloy retains the noble metal fission products and is stored while the Mg is distilled and recycled leaving the transuranium actinide and rare earth fission products isolated.

  19. Method for treating a nuclear process off-gas stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pence, Dallas T. (San Diego, CA); Chou, Chun-Chao (San Diego, CA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a method for selectively removing and recovering the noble gas and other gaseous components typically emitted during nuclear process operations. The method is adaptable and useful for treating dissolver off-gas effluents released during reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels whereby to permit radioactive contaminant recovery prior to releasing the remaining off-gases to the atmosphere. Briefly, the method sequentially comprises treating the off-gas stream to preliminarily remove NO.sub.x, hydrogen and carbon-containing organic compounds, and semivolatile fission product metal oxide components therefrom; adsorbing iodine components on silver-exchanged mordenite; removing water vapor carried by said stream by means of a molecular sieve; selectively removing the carbon dioxide components of said off-gas stream by means of a molecular sieve; selectively removing xenon in gas phase by passing said stream through a molecular sieve comprising silver-exchanged mordenite; selectively separating krypton from oxygen by means of a molecular sieve comprising silver-exchanged mordenite; selectively separating krypton from the bulk nitrogen stream using a molecular sieve comprising silver-exchanged mordenite cooled to about -140.degree. to -160.degree. C.; concentrating the desorbed krypton upon a molecular sieve comprising silver-exchange mordenite cooled to about -140.degree. to -160.degree. C.; and further cryogenically concentrating, and the recovering for storage, the desorbed krypton.

  20. Uranium chloride extraction of transuranium elements from LWR fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, William E. (Naperville, IL); Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL); Battles, James E. (Oak Forest, IL); Johnson, Terry R. (Wheaton, IL); Pierce, R. Dean (Naperville, IL)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of separating transuranium actinide values from uranium values present in spent nuclear oxide fuels containing rare earth and noble metal fission products as well as other fission products is disclosed. The oxide fuel is reduced with Ca metal in the presence of Ca chloride and a U-Fe alloy which is liquid at about 800.degree. C. to dissolve uranium metal and the noble metal fission product metals and transuranium actinide metals and rare earth fission product metals leaving Ca chloride having CaO and fission products of alkali metals and the alkali earth metals and iodine dissolved therein. The Ca chloride and CaO and the fission products contained therein are separated from the U-Fe alloy and the metal values dissolved therein. The U-Fe alloy having dissolved therein reduced metals from the spent nuclear fuel is contacted with a mixture of one or more alkali metal or alkaline earth metal halides selected from the class consisting of alkali metal or alkaline earth metal and Fe or U halide or a combination thereof to transfer transuranium actinide metals and rare earth metals to the halide salt leaving the uranium and some noble metal fission products in the U-Fe alloy and thereafter separating the halide salt and the transuranium metals dissolved therein from the U-Fe alloy and the metals dissolved therein.

  1. [Purification of Cu-67 and Macrocyclic chelates for targeted therapy]. DOE annual report, 1993--94

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeNardo, S.J.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    {sup 67}Cu produced at the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP) is purified from zinc target material and coproduced radioisotopes of cobalt, chromium, nickel, and gallium by a multi-step extraction process. This procedure introduces applicable amounts of cold copper into the sample, lowering the specific activity of the {sup 67}Cu. Because of this, the {sup 67}Cu produced at BLIP is not of high enough activity for use in radioimmunotherapy procedures. It is their goal to develop a procedure with which to purify {sup 67}Cu from the other radioisotopes produced, while at the same time minimize the amount of cold copper introduced into the system. There are two different approaches that they devised for the purification of {sup 67}Cu. They are an extraction method similar to what is used at Brookhaven already, and a copper affinity column. Bifunctional macrocyclic chelates have been developed to conjugate metals to antibodies, and metal chelated antibodies have been shown to have slower clearance from the tumor than iodinated antibodies. This provides a mechanism for increasing tumor radiation dose and the therapeutic index. Conditions for {sup 67}Cu radiolabeling of TETA immunoconjugates have been optimized, leading to rapid, quantitative complexation of metal binding sites, further contributing to high radioactive yield and to the routine production of {sup 67}Cu radiolabed immunoconjugates of therapeutic quality.

  2. Thermochemical water-splitting cycle, bench-scale investigations, and process engineering. Final report, February 1977-December 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norman, J.H.; Besenbruch, G.E.; Brown, L.C.; O'Keefe, D.R.; Allen, C.L.

    1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The sulfur-iodine water-splitting cycle is characterized by the following three reactions: 2H/sub 2/O + SO/sub 2/ + I/sub 2/ ..-->.. H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ + 2HI; H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ ..-->.. H/sub 2/O + SO/sub 2/ + 1/2 O/sub 2/; and 2HI ..-->.. H/sub 2/ + I/sub 2/. This cycle was developed at General Atomic after several critical features in the above reactions were discovered. These involved phase separations, catalytic reactions, etc. Estimates of the energy efficiency of this economically reasonable advanced state-of-the-art processing unit produced sufficiently high values (to approx.47%) to warrant cycle development effort. The DOE contract was largely directed toward the engineering development of this cycle, including a small demonstration unit (CLCD), a bench-scale unit, engineering design, and costing. The work has resulted in a design that is projected to produce H/sub 2/ at prices not yet generally competitive with fossil-fuel-produced H/sub 2/ but are projected to be favorably competitive with respect to H/sub 2/ from fossil fuels in the future.

  3. The Hybrid Sulfur Cycle for Nuclear Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Summers, William A.; Gorensek, Maximilian B.; Buckner, Melvin R.

    2005-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Two Sulfur-based cycles--the Sulfur-Iodine (SI) and the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS)--have emerged as the leading thermochemical water-splitting processes for producing hydrogen utilizing the heat from advanced nuclear reactors. Numerous international efforts have been underway for several years to develop the SI Cycle, but development of the HyS Cycle has lagged. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the background, current status, recent development results, and the future potential for this thermochemical process. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy, Science, and Technology since 2004 to evaluate and to conduct research and development for the HyS Cycle. Process design studies and flowsheet optimization have shown that an overall plant efficiency (based on nuclear heat converted to hydrogen product, higher heating value basis) of over 50% is possible with this cycle. Economic studies indicate that a nuclear hydrogen plant based on this process can be economically competitive, assuming that the key component, the sulfur dioxide-depolarized electrolyzer, can be successfully developed. SRNL has recently demonstrated the use of a proton-exchange-membrane electrochemical cell to perform this function, thus holding promise for economical and efficient hydrogen production.

  4. Nuclear waste management. Quarterly progress report, January-March, 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chikalla, T.D.; Powell, J.A. (comp.)

    1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reports and summaries are provided for the following programs: high-level waste process development; alternative waste forms; nuclear waste materials characterization center; TRU waste immobilization; TRU waste decontamination; krypton solidification; thermal outgassing; iodine-129 fixation; NWVP off-gas analysis; monitoring and physical characterization of unsaturated zone transport; well-logging instrumentation development; verification instrument development; mobility of organic complexes of radionuclide in soils; low-level waste generation reduction handbook; waste management system studies; assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems; waste/rock interactions technology program; high-level waste form preparation; development of backfill materials; development of structural engineered barriers; disposal charge analysis; analysis of spent fuel policy implementation; spent fuel and pool component integrity program; analysis of postulated criticality events in a storage array of spent LWR fuel; asphalt emulsion sealing of uranium mill tailings; liner evaluation for uranium mill tailings; multilayer barriers for sealing of uranium tailings; application of long-term chemical biobarriers for uranium tailings; and revegetation of inactive uranium tailings sites.

  5. Release of aged contaminants from weathered sediments: Effects of sorbate speciation on scaling of reactive transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chorover, Jon; Perdrial, Nico; Mueller, Karl; Strepka, Caleb; Oà ƒ  ¢Ã ‚  € à ‚  ™ Day, Peggy; Rivera, Nelson; Um, Wooyong; Chang, Hyun-Shik; Steefel, Carl; Thompson, Aaron

    2012-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Hanford sediments impacted by hyperalkaline high level radioactive waste have undergone incongruent silicate mineral weathering concurrent with contaminant uptake. In this project, we studied the impact of background pore water (BPW) on strontium, cesium and iodine desorption and transport in Hanford sediments that were experimentally weathered by contact with simulated hyperalkaline tank waste leachate (STWL) solutions. Using those lab-weathered Hanford sediments (HS) and model precipitates formed during nucleation from homogeneous STWL solutions (HN), we (i) provided thorough characterization of reaction products over a matrix of field-relevant gradients in contaminant concentration, partial pressure of carbon dioxide, and reaction time; (ii) improved molecular-scale understanding of how sorbate speciation controls contaminant desorption from weathered sediments upon removal of caustic sources; and (iii) developed a mechanistic, predictive model of meso- to field-scale contaminant reactive transport under these conditions. In this final report, we provide detailed descriptions of our results from this three-year study, completed in 2012 following a one-year no cost extension.

  6. Summary Report on the Volatile Radionuclide and Immobilization Research for FY2011 at PNNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strachan, Denis M.; Chun, Jaehun; Matyas, Josef; Lepry, William C.; Riley, Brian J.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Thallapally, Praveen K.

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The materials development summarized here is in support of the Waste Forms campaign, Volatile Radionuclide task. Specifically, materials are being developed for the removal and immobilization of iodine and krypton, specifically 129I and 85Kr. During FY 2011, aerogel materials were investigated for removal and immobilization of 129I. Two aerogel formulations were investigated, one based on silica aerogels and the second on chalcogen-based aerogels (i.e., chalcogels). A silica aerogel was tested at ORNL for total I2 sorption capacity. It was determined to have 48 mass% capacity while having little physisorbed I2 (I2 not taken up in the aerogel pores). For 85Kr, metal organic framework (MOF) structures were investigated and a new MOF with about 8 mass% capacity for Xe and Kr. The selectivity can be changed from Xe > Kr to Xe < Kr simply by lowering the temperature below 0 C. A patent disclosure has been filed. Lastly, silicon carbide (SiC) was loaded with Kr. The diffusion of Kr in SiC was found to be less than detectable at 500 C.

  7. IMPROVED MODELING OF THE ROSSITER-McLAUGHLIN EFFECT FOR TRANSITING EXOPLANETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirano, Teruyuki; Winn, Joshua N.; Albrecht, Simon [Department of Physics, and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Suto, Yasushi; Taruya, Atsushi [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Narita, Norio [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Sato, Bun'ei, E-mail: hirano@utap.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

    2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an improved formula for the anomalous radial velocity of the star during planetary transits due to the Rossiter-McLaughlin (RM) effect. The improvement comes from a more realistic description of the stellar absorption line profiles, taking into account stellar rotation, macroturbulence, thermal broadening, pressure broadening, and instrumental broadening. Although the formula is derived for the case in which radial velocities are measured by cross-correlation, we show through numerical simulations that the formula accurately describes the cases where the radial velocities are measured with the iodine absorption-cell technique. The formula relies on prior knowledge of the parameters describing macroturbulence, instrumental broadening, and other broadening mechanisms, but even 30% errors in those parameters do not significantly change the results in typical circumstances. We show that the new analytic formula agrees with previous ones that had been computed on a case-by-case basis via numerical simulations. Finally, as one application of the new formula, we reassess the impact of the differential rotation on the RM velocity anomaly. We show that differential rotation of a rapidly rotating star may have a significant impact on future RM observations.

  8. Sensor apparatus using an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thakur, Mrinal

    2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for sensing mechanical quantities such as force, stress, strain, pressure and acceleration is disclosed. This technology is based on a change in the electrochemically generated voltage (electromotive force) with application of force, stress, strain, pressure or acceleration. The change in the voltage is due to a change in the internal resistance of the electrochemical cell with a change in the relative position or orientation of the electrodes (anode and cathode) in the cell. The signal to be detected (e.g. force, stress, strain, pressure or acceleration) is applied to one of the electrodes to cause a change in the relative position or orientation between the electrodes. Various materials, solid, semisolid, gel, paste or liquid can be utilized as the electrolyte. The electrolyte must be an ion conductor. The examples of solid electrolytes include specific polymer conductors, polymer composites, ion conducting glasses and ceramics. The electrodes are made of conductors such as metals with dissimilar electro negativities. Significantly enhanced sensitivities, up to three orders of magnitude higher than that of comparable commercial sensors, are obtained. The materials are substantially less expensive than commercially used materials for mechanical sensors. An apparatus for sensing such mechanical quantities using materials such as doped 1,4 cis-polyisopropene and nafion. The 1,4 cis-polyisopropene may be doped with lithium perchlorate or iodine. The output voltage signal increases with an increase of the sensing area for a given stress. The device can be used as an intruder alarm, among other applications.

  9. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms - FY13

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, Michelle MV; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Lapierre, Robert; Dage, Denomy C.; Parker, Kent E.; Cordova, Elsa A.

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

  10. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.

    2012-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of LLW and MLLW, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

  11. Hydridomethyl iridium complex

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergman, Robert G. (P.O. Box 7141, San Francisco, CA 94120-7141); Buchanan, J. Michael (P.O. Box 7141, San Francisco, CA 94120-7141); Stryker, Jeffrey M. (P.O. Box 7141, San Francisco, CA 94120-7141); Wax, Michael J. (P.O. Box 7141, San Francisco, CA 94120-7141)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for functionalizing methane comprising: (a) reacting methane with a hydridoalkyl metal complex of the formula: CpIr[P(R.sub.1).sub.3 ]H(R.sub.2) wherein Cp represents a cyclopentadienyl or alkylcyclopentadienyl radical having from 1 to 5 carbon atoms; Ir represents an iridium atom; P represents a phosphorus atom; R.sub.1 represents an alkyl group; R.sub.2 represents an alkyl group having at least two carbon atoms; and H represents a hydrogen atom, in the presence of a liquid alkane R.sub.3 H having at least three carbon atoms to form a hydridomethyl complex of the formula: CpIr[P(R.sub.1).sub.3 ]HMe where Me represents a methyl radical. (b) reacting said hydridomethyl complex with an organic halogenating agent such as a tetrahalomethane or a haloform of the formulas: CX'X"X'"X"" or CHX'X"X'"; wherein X', X", X"', and X"" represent halogens selected from bromine, iodine and chlorine, to halomethyl complex of step (a) having the formula: CpIr[P(R.sub.1).sub.3 ]MeX: (c) reacting said halomethyl complex with a mercuric halide of the formula HgX.sub.2 to form a methyl mercuric halide of the formula HgMeX; and (d) reacting said methyl mercuric halide with a molecular halogen of the formula X.sub.2 to form methyl halide.

  12. Process for functionalizing alkanes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergman, Robert G. (Kensington, CA); Janowicz, Andrew H. (Wilmington, DE); Periana, Roy A. (Berkeley, CA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Process for functionalizing saturated hydrocarbons comprising: (a) reacting said saturated hydrocarbons of the formula: R.sub.1 H wherein H represents a hydrogen atom; and R.sub.1 represents a saturated hydrocarbon radical, with a metal complex of the formula: CpRh[P(R.sub.2).sub.3 ]H.sub.2 wherein Cp represents a cyclopentadienyl or alkylcyclopentadienyl radical; Rh represents a rhodium atom; P represents a phosphorus atom; R.sub.2 represents a hydrocarbon radical; H represents a hydrogen atom, in the presence of ultraviolet radiation to form a hydridoalkyl complex of the formula: CpRh[P(R.sub.2).sub.3 ](R.sub.1)H (b) reacting said hydridoalkyl complex with an organic halogenating agent such as a tetrahalomethane or a haloform of the formulas: CX'X''X'''X'''' or CHX'X''X''' wherein X', X'', X'", X"" represent halogens selected from bromine, iodine or chlorine atom, at a temperature in the range of about -60.degree. to -17.degree. C. to form the corresponding haloalkyl complex of step (a) having the formula: CpRhPMe.sub.3 RX; and, (c) reacting said haloalkyl complex formed in (b) with halogen (X.sub.2) at a temperature in the range of about -60.degree. to 25.degree. C. (i.e., ambient) to form a functional haloalkyl compound.

  13. Searching for solar-like oscillations in the delta Scuti star rho Puppis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antoci, V; Grundahl, F; Carrier, F; Brugamyer, E J; Robertson, P; Kjeldsen, H; Kok, Y; Ireland, M; Matthews, J M

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Despite the shallow convective envelopes of delta Scuti pulsators, solar-like oscillations are theoretically predicted to be excited in those stars as well. To search for such stochastic oscillations we organised a spectroscopic multi-site campaign for the bright, metal-rich delta Sct star rho Puppis. We obtained a total of 2763 high-resolution spectra using four telescopes. We discuss the reduction and analysis with the iodine cell technique, developed for searching for low-amplitude radial velocity variations, in the presence of high-amplitude variability. Furthermore, we have determined the angular diameter of rho Puppis to be 1.68 \\pm 0.03 mas, translating into a radius of 3.52 \\pm 0.07Rsun. Using this value, the frequency of maximum power of possible solar-like oscillations, is expected at ~43 \\pm 2 c/d (498 \\pm 23 muHz). The dominant delta Scuti-type pulsation mode of rho Puppis is known to be the radial fundamental mode which allows us to determine the mean density of the star, and therefore an expecte...

  14. TRUMP-BD: A computer code for the analysis of nuclear fuel assemblies under severe accident conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lombardo, N.J.; Marseille, T.J.; White, M.D.; Lowery, P.S.

    1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TRUMP-BD (Boil Down) is an extension of the TRUMP (Edwards 1972) computer program for the analysis of nuclear fuel assemblies under severe accident conditions. This extension allows prediction of the heat transfer rates, metal-water oxidation rates, fission product release rates, steam generation and consumption rates, and temperature distributions for nuclear fuel assemblies under core uncovery conditions. The heat transfer processes include conduction in solid structures, convection across fluid-solid boundaries, and radiation between interacting surfaces. Metal-water reaction kinetics are modeled with empirical relationships to predict the oxidation rates of steam-exposed Zircaloy and uranium metal. The metal-water oxidation models are parabolic in form with an Arrhenius temperature dependence. Uranium oxidation begins when fuel cladding failure occurs; Zircaloy oxidation occurs continuously at temperatures above 13000{degree}F when metal and steam are available. From the metal-water reactions, the hydrogen generation rate, total hydrogen release, and temporal and spatial distribution of oxide formations are computed. Consumption of steam from the oxidation reactions and the effect of hydrogen on the coolant properties is modeled for independent coolant flow channels. Fission product release from exposed uranium metal Zircaloy-clad fuel is modeled using empirical time and temperature relationships that consider the release to be subject to oxidation and volitization/diffusion ( bake-out'') release mechanisms. Release of the volatile species of iodine (I), tellurium (Te), cesium (Ce), ruthenium (Ru), strontium (Sr), zirconium (Zr), cerium (Cr), and barium (Ba) from uranium metal fuel may be modeled.

  15. DISSOLVED CONCENTRATION LIMITS OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NA

    2004-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of elements with radioactive isotopes under probable repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, field measurements, and laboratory experiments. The scope of this modeling activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for 14 elements with radioactive isotopes (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium) important to calculated dose. Model outputs for uranium, plutonium, neptunium, thorium, americium, and protactinium are in the form of tabulated functions with pH and log (line integral) CO{sub 2} as independent variables, plus one or more uncertainty terms. The solubility limits for the remaining elements are either in the form of distributions or single values. The output data from this report are fundamental inputs for Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) to determine the estimated release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Consistent modeling approaches and environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models for all of the actinides. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so that they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, and activity coefficients have been quantified or otherwise addressed.

  16. Tritium management in fusion synfuel designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galloway, T.R.

    1980-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Two blanket types are being studied: a lithium-sodium pool boiler and a lithium-oxide- or lithium-sodium pool boiler and a lithium-oxide- or aluminate-microsphere moving bed. For each, a wide variety of current technology was considered in handling the tritium. Here, we show the pool boiler with the sulfur-iodine thermochemical cycle first developed and now being piloted by the General Atomic Company. The tritium (T/sub 2/) will be generated in the lithium-sodium mixture where the concentration is approx. 10 ppM and held constant by a scavenging system consisting mainly of permeators. An intermediate sodium loop carries the blanket heat to the thermochemical cycle, and the T/sub 2/ in this loop is held to 1 ppM by a similar scavenging system. With this design, we have maintained blanket inventory at 1 kg of tritium, kept thermochemical cycle losses to 5 Ci/d and environmental loss to 10 Ci/d, and held total plant risk inventory at 7 kg tritium.

  17. Advanced sodium fast reactor accident source terms : research needs.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powers, Dana Auburn; Clement, Bernard [IRSN/DPAM.SEMIC Bt 702, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, France; Denning, Richard [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH; Ohno, Shuji [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki, Japan; Zeyen, Roland [Institute for Energy Petten, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, France

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An expert opinion elicitation has been used to evaluate phenomena that could affect releases of radionuclides during accidents at sodium-cooled fast reactors. The intent was to identify research needed to develop a mechanistic model of radionuclide release for licensing and risk assessment purposes. Experts from the USA, France, the European Union, and Japan identified phenomena that could affect the release of radionuclides under hypothesized accident conditions. They qualitatively evaluated the importance of these phenomena and the need for additional experimental research. The experts identified seven phenomena that are of high importance and have a high need for additional experimental research: High temperature release of radionuclides from fuel during an energetic eventEnergetic interactions between molten reactor fuel and sodium coolant and associated transfer of radionuclides from the fuel to the coolantEntrainment of fuel and sodium bond material during the depressurization of a fuel rod with breached claddingRates of radionuclide leaching from fuel by liquid sodiumSurface enrichment of sodium pools by dissolved and suspended radionuclidesThermal decomposition of sodium iodide in the containment atmosphereReactions of iodine species in the containment to form volatile organic iodides. Other issues of high importance were identified that might merit further research as development of the mechanistic model of radionuclide release progressed.

  18. Thermopower, electrical and Hall conductivity of undoped and doped iron disilicide single crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heinrich, A.; Behr, G.; Griessmann, H.; Teichert, S.; Lange, H.

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The electrical transport properties of {beta}-FeSi{sub 2} single crystals have been investigated in dependence on the purity of the source material and on doping with 3d transition metals. The transport properties included are electrical conductivity, Hall conductivity and thermopower mainly in the temperature range from 4K to 300K. The single crystals have been prepared by chemical transport reaction in a closed system with iodine as transport agent. In undoped single crystals prepared with 5N Fe both electrical conductivity and thermopower depend on the composition within the homogeneity range of {beta}-FeSi{sub 2} which is explained by different intrinsic defects at the Si-rich and Fe-rich phase boundaries. In both undoped and doped single crystals impurity band conduction is observed at low temperatures but above 100K extrinsic behavior determined by shallow impurity states. The thermopower shows between 100K and 200K a significant phonon drag contribution which depends on intrinsic defects and additional doping. The Hall resistivity is considered mainly with respect to an anomalous contribution found in p-type and n-type single crystals and thin films. In addition doped single crystals show at temperatures below about 130K an hysteresis of the Hall voltage. These results make former mobility data uncertain. Comparison will be made between the transport properties of single crystals and polycrystalline material.

  19. Final Technical Report for the Period September 2002 through September 2005; H2-MHR Pre-Conceptual Design Report: SI-Based Plant; H2-MHR Pre-Conceptual Design Report: HTE-Based Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Richards; A. Shenoy; L. Brown; R. Buckingham; E. Harvego; K. Peddicord; M. Reza; J. Coupey

    2006-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    For electricity and hydrogen production, an advanced reactor technology receiving considerable international interest is a modular, passively-safe version of the high-temperature, gas-cooled reactor, known in the U.S. as the Modular Helium Reactor (MHR), which operates at a power level of 600 MW(t). For electricity production, the MHR operates with an outlet helium temperature of 850 C to drive a direct, Brayton-cycle power-conversion system with a thermal-to-electrical conversion efficiency of 48 percent. This concept is referred to as the Gas Turbine MHR (GT-MHR). For hydrogen production, both electricity and process heat from the MHR are used to produce hydrogen. This concept is referred to as the H2-MHR. This report provides pre-conceptual design descriptions of full-scale, nth-of-a-kind H2 MHR plants based on thermochemical water splitting using the Sulfur-Iodine process and High-Temperature Electrolysis.

  20. [Transition metal mediated transformations of small molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sen, A.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Work on organotransition metal chemistry, homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis is summarized. Several cationic palladium(II) complexes with bulky phosphine or pyridine ligands were discovered that are highly selective catalysts for linear dimerization of vinyl monomers and linear polymerization of p-divinylbenzene, the reactions proceeding through a carbocationic mechanism. Our studies were continued on alternating olefin-carbon monoxide copolymers. The copolymerization reaction and reactivity of copolymers were examined. New catalytic systems for alternating copolymerization of [alpha]-olefins with CO were discovered. In the case of styrene derivatives, tactic copolymers were obtained. Poly(ethylenepyrrolediyl) derivatives were synthesized from alternating ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymer and become electronic conductors when doped with iodine. A catalytic system for direct synthesis of polyureas and polyoxamides from and diamines was also discovered. Pt metal catalyzed the oxidation of ethers, esters, and amines to carboxylic acids and the oxidation of olefins to 1,2-diols. Anaerobic and aerobic decomposition of molybdenum(VI)-oxoalkyl compounds were studied for heterogeneous oxidation of alkanes and olefins on Mo(VI)-oxide surfaces. Synthesis of polymer-trapped metal, metal oxide, and metal sulfide nanoclusters (size <1--10 nm) was studied.