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1

Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Investigating Extreme Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects Print Wednesday, 28 July 2010 00:00 Since the 1970s, the semiconductor industry has strived to shrink the cost and size of circuit patterns printed onto computer chips in accordance with Moore's law, doubling the number of transistors on a computer's central processing unit (CPU) every two years. The introduction of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, printing chips using 13-nm-wavelength light, opens the way to future generations of smaller, faster, and cheaper semiconductors. EUV lithography relies on specialized lenses made of curved mirrors with reflective coatings called multilayers to print patterns with high resolution. One special flat mirror called a mask is particularly sensitive to even the smallest imperfections. To better detect and characterize mask defects, scientists at Berkeley Lab worked with SEMATECH, an international semiconductor industry consortium, to create a unique Fresnel zone-plate microscope on Advanced Light Source Beamline 11.3.2 called the SEMATECH Berkeley Actinic Inspection Tool (AIT).

2

Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects Print Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects Print Since the 1970s, the semiconductor industry has strived to shrink the cost and size of circuit patterns printed onto computer chips in accordance with Moore's law, doubling the number of transistors on a computer's central processing unit (CPU) every two years. The introduction of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, printing chips using 13-nm-wavelength light, opens the way to future generations of smaller, faster, and cheaper semiconductors. EUV lithography relies on specialized lenses made of curved mirrors with reflective coatings called multilayers to print patterns with high resolution. One special flat mirror called a mask is particularly sensitive to even the smallest imperfections. To better detect and characterize mask defects, scientists at Berkeley Lab worked with SEMATECH, an international semiconductor industry consortium, to create a unique Fresnel zone-plate microscope on Advanced Light Source Beamline 11.3.2 called the SEMATECH Berkeley Actinic Inspection Tool (AIT).

3

Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects Print Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects Print Since the 1970s, the semiconductor industry has strived to shrink the cost and size of circuit patterns printed onto computer chips in accordance with Moore's law, doubling the number of transistors on a computer's central processing unit (CPU) every two years. The introduction of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, printing chips using 13-nm-wavelength light, opens the way to future generations of smaller, faster, and cheaper semiconductors. EUV lithography relies on specialized lenses made of curved mirrors with reflective coatings called multilayers to print patterns with high resolution. One special flat mirror called a mask is particularly sensitive to even the smallest imperfections. To better detect and characterize mask defects, scientists at Berkeley Lab worked with SEMATECH, an international semiconductor industry consortium, to create a unique Fresnel zone-plate microscope on Advanced Light Source Beamline 11.3.2 called the SEMATECH Berkeley Actinic Inspection Tool (AIT).

4

Extreme Ultraviolet Light Chris Cosio  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Prospectus Extreme Ultraviolet Light Chris Cosio #12;The field of extreme ultraviolet light (XUV to the way XUV interacts with object, XUV properties are difficult to observe. Extreme ultraviolet light is absorbed by all objects it comes in contact with. Furthermore, extreme ultraviolet light also has low

Hart, Gus

5

Systematic investigation of self-absorption and conversion efficiency of 6.7 nm extreme ultraviolet sources  

SciTech Connect

We have investigated the dependence of the spectral behavior and conversion efficiencies of rare-earth plasma extreme ultraviolet sources with peak emission at 6.7 nm on laser wavelength and the initial target density. The maximum conversion efficiency was 1.3% at a laser intensity of 1.6x10{sup 12} W/cm{sup 2} at an operating wavelength of 1064 nm, when self-absorption was reduced by use of a low initial density target. Moreover, the lower-density results in a narrower spectrum and therefore improved spectral purity. It is shown to be important to use a low initial density target and/or to produce low electron density plasmas for efficient extreme ultraviolet sources when using high-Z targets.

Otsuka, Takamitsu; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Yugami, Noboru; Yatagai, Toyohiko [Department of Advanced Interdisciplinary Sciences and Center for Optical Research and Education (CORE), Utsunomiya University, Yoto 7-1-2, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321-8585 (Japan); Kilbane, Deirdre; Dunne, Padraig; O'Sullivan, Gerry [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Jiang, Weihua [Department of Electrical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, Kami-tomiokamachi 1603-1, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 Japan (Japan); Endo, Akira [Forschungszentrum Dresden, Bautzner Landstrs. 400, Dresden D-01328 (Germany)

2010-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

6

Extreme ultraviolet lithography: A few more pieces of the puzzle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to the performance of extreme ultraviolet micro?eld expo-calibration of extreme ultraviolet photoresists,” Opticsthree essential components of extreme ultraviolet (EUV)

Anderson, Christopher N.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Extreme ultraviolet interferometry  

SciTech Connect

EUV lithography is a promising and viable candidate for circuit fabrication with 0.1-micron critical dimension and smaller. In order to achieve diffraction-limited performance, all-reflective multilayer-coated lithographic imaging systems operating near 13-nm wavelength and 0.1 NA have system wavefront tolerances of 0.27 nm, or 0.02 waves RMS. Owing to the highly-sensitive resonant reflective properties of multilayer mirrors and extraordinarily tight tolerances set forth for their fabrication, EUV optical systems require at-wavelength EUV interferometry for final alignment and qualification. This dissertation discusses the development and successful implementation of high-accuracy EUV interferometric techniques. Proof-of-principle experiments with a prototype EUV point-diffraction interferometer for the measurement of Fresnel zoneplate lenses first demonstrated sub-wavelength EUV interferometric capability. These experiments spurred the development of the superior phase-shifting point-diffraction interferometer (PS/PDI), which has been implemented for the testing of an all-reflective lithographic-quality EUV optical system. Both systems rely on pinhole diffraction to produce spherical reference wavefronts in a common-path geometry. Extensive experiments demonstrate EUV wavefront-measuring precision beyond 0.02 waves RMS. EUV imaging experiments provide verification of the high-accuracy of the point-diffraction principle, and demonstrate the utility of the measurements in successfully predicting imaging performance. Complementary to the experimental research, several areas of theoretical investigation related to the novel PS/PDI system are presented. First-principles electromagnetic field simulations of pinhole diffraction are conducted to ascertain the upper limits of measurement accuracy and to guide selection of the pinhole diameter. Investigations of the relative merits of different PS/PDI configurations accompany a general study of the most significant sources of systematic measurement errors. To overcome a variety of experimental difficulties, several new methods in interferogram analysis and phase-retrieval were developed: the Fourier-Transform Method of Phase-Shift Determination, which uses Fourier-domain analysis to improve the accuracy of phase-shifting interferometry; the Fourier-Transform Guided Unwrap Method, which was developed to overcome difficulties associated with a high density of mid-spatial-frequency blemishes and which uses a low-spatial-frequency approximation to the measured wavefront to guide the phase unwrapping in the presence of noise; and, finally, an expedient method of Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization which facilitates polynomial basis transformations in wave-front surface fitting procedures.

Goldberg, K.A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Materials Sciences Div.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

History of extreme ultraviolet lithography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) technology was proposed and progressed on both hemispheres in the latter part of the 1980s independently. Although this technology is a design using a catoptric system instead of refraction lens and the accuracy of subnanometer is demanded for all component engineering the research and development of Japan and the United States has led to significant breakthroughs in processing and measurement technology over the past 20 years. EUVL is now the most promising next-generation technology for large scale integration fabrication. This article discusses the beginnings of EUVL what advances are needed and future prospects.

Hiroo Kinoshita

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Solar Dynamics Observatory/ Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solar Dynamics Observatory/ EVE Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment Frequently Asked and model solar extreme ultraviolet irradiance variations due to solar flares, solar rotation, and solar and structure of the Sun. What is solar variability? Solar radiation varies on all time scales ranging from

Mojzsis, Stephen J.

10

Reflective masks for extreme ultraviolet lithography  

SciTech Connect

Extreme ultraviolet lithographic masks are made by patterning multilayer reflective coatings with high normal incidence reflectivity. Masks can be patterned by depositing a patterned absorber layer above the coating or by etching the pattern directly into the coating itself. Electromagnetic simulations showed that absorber-overlayer masks have superior imaging characteristics over etched masks (less sensitive to incident angles and pattern profiles). In an EUVL absorber overlayer mask, defects can occur in the mask substrate, reflective coating, and absorber pattern. Electromagnetic simulations showed that substrate defects cause the most severe image degradation. A printability study of substrate defects for absorber overlayer masks showed that printability of 25 nm high substrate defects are comparable to defects in optical lithography. Simulations also indicated that the manner in which the defects are covered by multilayer reflective coatings can affect printability. Coverage profiles that result in large lateral spreading of defect geometries amplify the printability of the defects by increasing their effective sizes. Coverage profiles of Mo/Si coatings deposited above defects were studied by atomic force microscopy and TEM. Results showed that lateral spread of defect geometry is proportional to height. Undercut at defect also increases the lateral spread. Reductions in defect heights were observed for 0.15 {mu}m wide defect lines. A long-term study of Mo/Si coating reflectivity revealed that Mo/Si coatings with Mo as the top layer suffer significant reductions in reflectivity over time due to oxidation.

Nguyen, Khanh Bao

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Coherence techniques at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths  

SciTech Connect

The renaissance of Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) and soft x-ray (SXR) optics in recent years is mainly driven by the desire of printing and observing ever smaller features, as in lithography and microscopy. This attribute is complemented by the unique opportunity for element specific identification presented by the large number of atomic resonances, essentially for all materials in this range of photon energies. Together, these have driven the need for new short-wavelength radiation sources (e.g. third generation synchrotron radiation facilities), and novel optical components, that in turn permit new research in areas that have not yet been fully explored. This dissertation is directed towards advancing this new field by contributing to the characterization of spatial coherence properties of undulator radiation and, for the first time, introducing Fourier optical elements to this short-wavelength spectral region. The first experiment in this dissertation uses the Thompson-Wolf two-pinhole method to characterize the spatial coherence properties of the undulator radiation at Beamline 12 of the Advanced Light Source. High spatial coherence EUV radiation is demonstrated with appropriate spatial filtering. The effects of small vertical source size and beamline apertures are observed. The difference in the measured horizontal and vertical coherence profile evokes further theoretical studies on coherence propagation of an EUV undulator beamline. A numerical simulation based on the Huygens-Fresnel principle is performed.

Chang, Chang

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

THORIUM-BASED MIRRORS IN THE EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET Nicole Farnsworth  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

THORIUM-BASED MIRRORS IN THE EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET by Nicole Farnsworth Submitted to Brigham Young Ultraviolet and Thorium-based Mirrors . . . 1 1.2 Project Background the Optical Constants of Thorium Oxide 34 3.1 Reflectance and Transmittance Measurements

Hart, Gus

13

Method for generating extreme ultraviolet with mather-type plasma accelerators for use in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device and method for generating extremely short-wave ultraviolet electromagnetic wave uses two intersecting plasma beams generated by two plasma accelerators. The intersection of the two plasma beams emits electromagnetic radiation and in particular radiation in the extreme ultraviolet wavelength. In the preferred orientation two axially aligned counter streaming plasmas collide to produce an intense source of electromagnetic radiation at the 13.5 nm wavelength. The Mather type plasma accelerators can utilize tin, or lithium covered electrodes. Tin, lithium or xenon can be used as the photon emitting gas source.

Hassanein, Ahmed (Bolingbrook, IL); Konkashbaev, Isak (Bolingbrook, IL)

2006-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

14

The Quiet Sun in the Extreme Ultraviolet  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...research-article The Quiet Sun in the Extreme...Observations of the quiet Sun with the Harvard...examined over the temperature range from 10 to 1.5 10 K, and the distribution of intensities...contributions at higher temperatures or periodic effects...

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Extremely fine-pitch printing with a 10 Schwarzschild optic at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(NA), all reflective systems. Two-mirror, 10Ã?-demagnification Schwarzschild optical systems have beenExtremely fine-pitch printing with a 10Ã? Schwarzschild optic at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths wavelength, 10Ã?-demagnification Schwarzschild optical system to expose high- resolution test patterns

Bokor, Jeffrey

16

Condenser for ring-field deep-ultraviolet and extreme-ultraviolet lithography  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A condenser for use with a ring-field deep ultraviolet or extreme ultraviolet lithography system. A condenser includes a ripple-plate mirror which is illuminated by a collimated beam at grazing incidence. The ripple plate comprises a plate mirror into which is formed a series of channels along an axis of the mirror to produce a series of concave surfaces in an undulating pattern. Light incident along the channels of the mirror is reflected onto a series of cones. The distribution of slopes on the ripple plate leads to a distribution of angles of reflection of the incident beam. This distribution has the form of an arc, with the extremes of the arc given by the greatest slope in the ripple plate. An imaging mirror focuses this distribution to a ring-field arc at the mask plane.

Chapman, Henry N. (Livermore, CA); Nugent, Keith A. (North Fitzroy, AU)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Condenser for ring-field deep ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet lithography  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A condenser for use with a ring-field deep ultraviolet or extreme ultraviolet lithography system. A condenser includes a ripple-plate mirror which is illuminated by a collimated or converging beam at grazing incidence. The ripple plate comprises a flat or curved plate mirror into which is formed a series of channels along an axis of the mirror to produce a series of concave surfaces in an undulating pattern. Light incident along the channels of the mirror is reflected onto a series of cones. The distribution of slopes on the ripple plate leads to a distribution of angles of reflection of the incident beam. This distribution has the form of an arc, with the extremes of the arc given by the greatest slope in the ripple plate. An imaging mirror focuses this distribution to a ring-field arc at the mask plane.

Chapman, Henry N. (Livermore, CA); Nugent, Keith A. (North Fitzroy, AU)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Extreme Ultra-Violet Spectroscopy of the Flaring Solar Chromosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The extreme ultraviolet portion of the solar spectrum contains a wealth of diagnostic tools for probing the lower solar atmosphere in response to an injection of energy, particularly during the impulsive phase of solar flares. These include temperature and density sensitive line ratios, Doppler shifted emission lines and nonthermal broadening, abundance measurements, differential emission measure profiles, and continuum temperatures and energetics, among others. In this paper I shall review some of the advances made in recent years using these techniques, focusing primarily on studies that have utilized data from Hinode/EIS and SDO/EVE, while also providing some historical background and a summary of future spectroscopic instrumentation.

Milligan, Ryan O

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Extreme ultraviolet interferometric measurements of diffraction-limited optics  

SciTech Connect

At-wavelength interferometric measurements of recently fabricated extreme ultraviolet (EUV) microstepper projection optics have revealed the highest performance for prototype EUV lithographic systems observed to date. The phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer is used to measure and align these two-mirror, multilayer-coated Schwarzschild optical systems designed with a numerical aperture of 0.088 and operating at 13.4 nm wavelength. Root-mean-square wave front error magnitudes as small as 0.60 nm have been achieved, actually exceeding the design tolerance set for these objectives. (c) 1999 American Vacuum Society.

Goldberg, Kenneth A. [Center for X-Ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)] [Center for X-Ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Naulleau, Patrick [Center for X-Ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)] [Center for X-Ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Bokor, Jeffrey [Center for X-Ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States) [Center for X-Ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); EECS Department, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Critical illumination condenser for extreme ultraviolet projection lithography  

SciTech Connect

A condenser system couples a radiation source to an imaging system. The authors have designed a critical illumination condenser system which meets the technical challenges of extreme ultraviolet projection lithography based on a ring field imaging system and a laser produced plasma source. The optical system, a three spherical mirror optical design, is capable of illuminating the extent of the mask plane by scanning either the primary mirror or the laser plasma source. This type of condenser optical design is sufficiently versatile to be employed with two distinct systems, one from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and one from AT and T/Sandia.

Cohen, S.J.; Seppala, L.G.

1995-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "investigating extreme ultraviolet" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Graphene defect formation by extreme ultraviolet generated photoelectrons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have studied the effect of photoelectrons on defect formation in graphene during extreme ultraviolet (EUV) irradiation. Assuming the major role of these low energy electrons, we have mimicked the process by using low energy primary electrons. Graphene is irradiated by an electron beam with energy lower than 80 eV. After e-beam irradiation, it is found that the D peak, I(D), appears in the Raman spectrum, indicating defect formation in graphene. The evolution of I(D)/I(G) follows the amorphization trajectory with increasing irradiation dose, indicating that graphene goes through a transformation from microcrystalline to nanocrystalline and then further to amorphous carbon. Further, irradiation of graphene with increased water partial pressure does not significantly change the Raman spectra, which suggests that, in the extremely low energy range, e-beam induced chemical reactions between residual water and graphene is not the dominant mechanism driving defect formation in graphene. Single layer graphene, par...

Gao, A; Bijkerk, F

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

THE EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET EMISSION FROM SUN-GRAZING COMETS  

SciTech Connect

The Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory has observed two Sun-grazing comets as they passed through the solar atmosphere. Both passages resulted in a measurable enhancement of extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) radiance in several of the AIA bandpasses. We explain this EUV emission by considering the evolution of the cometary atmosphere as it interacts with the ambient solar atmosphere. Molecules in the comet rapidly sublimate as it approaches the Sun. They are then photodissociated by the solar radiation field to create atomic species. Subsequent ionization of these atoms produces a higher abundance of ions than normally present in the corona and results in EUV emission in the wavelength ranges of the AIA telescope passbands.

Bryans, P. [ADNET Systems Inc., NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Pesnell, W. D. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

23

Extreme ultraviolet induced defects on few-layer graphene  

SciTech Connect

We use Raman spectroscopy to show that exposing few-layer graphene to extreme ultraviolet (EUV, 13.5 nm) radiation, i.e., relatively low photon energy, results in an increasing density of defects. Furthermore, exposure to EUV radiation in a H{sub 2} background increases the graphene dosage sensitivity, due to reactions caused by the EUV induced hydrogen plasma. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results show that the sp{sup 2} bonded carbon fraction decreases while the sp{sup 3} bonded carbon and oxide fraction increases with exposure dose. Our experimental results confirm that even in reducing environment oxidation is still one of the main source of inducing defects.

Gao, A.; Zoethout, E.; Lee, C. J. [FOM-Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Edisonbaan 14, 3439 MN Nieuwegein (Netherlands)] [FOM-Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Edisonbaan 14, 3439 MN Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Rizo, P. J.; Scaccabarozzi, L.; Banine, V. [ASML, De Run 6501, 5504DR Veldhoven (Netherlands)] [ASML, De Run 6501, 5504DR Veldhoven (Netherlands); Bijkerk, F. [FOM-Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Edisonbaan 14, 3439 MN Nieuwegein (Netherlands) [FOM-Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Edisonbaan 14, 3439 MN Nieuwegein (Netherlands); MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

2013-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

24

Multilayer reflective coatings for extreme-ultraviolet lithography  

SciTech Connect

Multilayer mirror coatings which reflect extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation are a key enabling technology for EUV lithography. Mo/Si multilayers with reflectances of 67.5% at 13.4 nm are now routinely achieved and reflectances of 70 2% at 11.4 nm were obtained with MO/Be multilayers. High reflectance is achieved with careful control of substrate quality, layer thicknesses, multilayer materials, interface quality, and surface termination. Reflectance and film stress were found to be stable relative to the requirements for application to EUV lithography. The run-to-run reproducibility of the reflectance peak position was characterized to be better than 0.2%, providing the required wavelength matching among the seven multilayer-coated mirrors used in the present lithography system design. Uniformity of coating was improved to better than 0.5% across 150 mm diameter substrates. These improvements in EUV multilayer mirror technology will enable us to meet the stringent specifications for coating the large optical substrates for our next-generation EUV lithography system.

Montcalm, C., LLNL

1998-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

25

AN EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET WAVE ASSOCIATED WITH A SURGE  

SciTech Connect

Taking advantage of the high temporal and spatial resolution observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we present an extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) wave associated with a surge on 2010 November 13. Due to the magnetic flux cancelation, some surges formed in the source active region (AR). The strongest surge produced our studied event. The surge was deflected by the nearby loops that connected to another AR, and disrupted the overlying loops that slowly expanded and eventually evolved into a weak coronal mass ejection (CME). The surge was likely associated with the core of the CME. The EUV wave happened after the surge deflected. The wave departed far from the flare center and showed a close location relative to the deflected surge. The wave propagated in a narrow angular extent, mainly in the ejection direction of the surge. The close timing and location relations between the EUV wave and the surge indicate that the wave was closely associated with the CME. The wave had a velocity of 310-350 km s{sup -1}, while the speeds of the surge and the expanding loops were about 130 and 150 km s{sup -1}, respectively. All of the results suggest that the EUV wave was a fast-mode wave and was most likely triggered by the weak CME.

Zheng, Ruisheng; Jiang, Yunchun; Yang, Jiayan; Bi, Yi; Hong, Junchao; Yang, Bo; Yang, Dan, E-mail: zhrsh@ynao.ac.cn [National Astronomical Observatories/Yunnan Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China)] [National Astronomical Observatories/Yunnan Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China)

2013-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

26

Dynamics of laser-produced Sn-based plasmas for a monochromatic 13.5 nm extreme ultraviolet source  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the critical density, a narrower EUV x-ray spectrum and a higher conversion efficiency from laserDynamics of laser-produced Sn-based plasmas for a monochromatic 13.5 nm extreme ultraviolet source-0417 ABSTRACT Dynamics of laser-produced Sn-based plasmas were investigated for a monochromatic EUV lithography

Najmabadi, Farrokh

27

Single shot extreme ultraviolet laser imaging of nanostructures with wavelength resolution  

SciTech Connect

We have demonstrated near-wavelength resolution microscopy in the extreme ultraviolet. Images of 50 nm diameter nanotubes were obtained with a single {approx}1 ns duration pulse from a desk-top size 46.9 nm laser. We measured the modulation transfer function of the microscope for three different numerical aperture zone plate objectives, demonstrating that 54 nm half-period structures can be resolved. The combination of near-wavelength spatial resolution and high temporal resolution opens myriad opportunities in imaging, such as the ability to directly investigate dynamics of nanoscale structures.

Jones, Juanita; Brewer, Courtney A.; Brizuela, Fernando; Wachulak, Przemyslaw; Martz, Dale H.; Chao, Weilun; Anderson, Erik H.; Attwood, David T.; Vinogradov, Alexander V.; Artyukov, Igor A.; Ponomareko, Alexander G.; Kondratenko, Valeriy V.; Marconi, Mario C.; Rocca, Jorge J.; Menoni, Carmen S.

2008-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

28

Silicon photodiode with selective Zr/Si coating for extreme ultraviolet spectral range  

SciTech Connect

The procedure of manufacturing silicon photodiodes with an integrated Zr/Si filter for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral range is developed. A setup for measuring the sensitivity profile of detectors with spatial resolution better than 100 {mu}m is fabricated. The optical properties of silicon photodiodes in the EUV and visible spectral ranges are investigated. Some characteristics of SPD-100UV diodes with Zr/Si coating and without it, as well as of AXUV-100 diodes, are compared. In all types of detectors a narrow region beyond the operating aperture is found to be sensitive to the visible light. (photodetectors)

Aruev, P N; Barysheva, Mariya M; Ber, B Ya; Zabrodskaya, N V; Zabrodskii, V V; Lopatin, A Ya; Pestov, Alexey E; Petrenko, M V; Polkovnikov, V N; Salashchenko, Nikolai N; Sukhanov, V L; Chkhalo, Nikolai I

2012-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

29

Extreme ultraviolet interferometric measurements of diffraction-limited optics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

At-wavelength interferometric measurements of recently fabricatedextreme ultraviolet(EUV) microstepper projection optics have revealed the highest performance for prototype EUV lithographic systems observed to date. The phase-shifting point diffractioninterferometer is used to measure and align these two-mirror multilayer-coated Schwarzschild optical systems designed with a numerical aperture of 0.088 and operating at 13.4 nm wavelength. Root-mean-square wave front error magnitudes as small as 0.60 nm have been achieved actually exceeding the design tolerance set for these objectives.

Kenneth A. Goldberg; Patrick Naulleau; Jeffrey Bokor

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Large-solid-angle illuminators for extreme ultraviolet lithography with laser plasmas  

SciTech Connect

Laser Plasma Sources (LPSS) of extreme ultraviolet radiation are an attractive alternative to synchrotron radiation sources for extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) due to their modularity, brightness, and modest size and cost. To fully exploit the extreme ultraviolet power emitted by such sources, it is necessary to capture the largest possible fraction of the source emission half-sphere while simultaneously optimizing the illumination stationarity and uniformity on the object mask. In this LDRD project, laser plasma source illumination systems for EUVL have been designed and then theoretically and experimentally characterized. Ellipsoidal condensers have been found to be simple yet extremely efficient condensers for small-field EUVL imaging systems. The effects of aberrations in such condensers on extreme ultraviolet (EUV) imaging have been studied with physical optics modeling. Lastly, the design of an efficient large-solid-angle condenser has been completed. It collects 50% of the available laser plasma source power at 14 nm and delivers it properly to the object mask in a wide-arc-field camera.

Kubiak, G.D.; Tichenor, D.A. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Sweatt, W.C.; Chow, W.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Carbon contamination and oxidation of Au surfaces under extreme ultraviolet radiation: An x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon contamination and oxidation of Au surfaces under extreme ultraviolet radiation: An x 2012) Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation-induced carbon contamination and oxidation of Au surfaces modification during EUV exposure. XPS analysis showed that total carbon contamination (C 1s peak

Harilal, S. S.

32

Phase effects owing to multilayer coatings in a two-mirror extreme-ultraviolet Schwarzschild objective  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Phase effects owing to multilayer coatings in a two-mirror extreme-ultraviolet Schwarzschild effects in the two-mirror Schwarzschild objective with point diffraction interferometry. The chromatic the interferometry data on the two-mirror optical system are compared with previously reported coating properties

33

Extreme ultraviolet carrier-frequency shearing interferometry of a lithographic four-mirror optical system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Extreme ultraviolet carrier-frequency shearing interferometry of a lithographic four-mirror optical of an EUV Schwarzschild objective.13 Direct comparison of this LSI to the PS/PDI has demon- strated a root-grating, carrier- frequency LSI for testing a lithographic four-mirror EUV optical system. The tests were performed

34

At-wavelength interferometry for extreme ultraviolet lithography Edita Tejnil,a)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

was implemented to characterize the aberrations of a 10 Schwarzschild multilayer-coated reflective optical system with imaging performed with the 10 Schwarzschild optic on an extreme ultraviolet exposure tool. © 1997 American by the figure of mirror surfaces and by multilayer coating properties.1 Common-path techniques, such as point

Bokor, Jeffrey

35

Low-cost method for producing extreme ultraviolet lithography optics  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Spherical and non-spherical optical elements produced by standard optical figuring and polishing techniques are extremely expensive. Such surfaces can be cheaply produced by diamond turning; however, the roughness in the diamond turned surface prevent their use for EUV lithography. These ripples are smoothed with a coating of polyimide before applying a 60 period Mo/Si multilayer to reflect a wavelength of 134 .ANG. and have obtained peak reflectivities close to 63%. The savings in cost are about a factor of 100.

Folta, James A. (Livermore, CA); Montcalm, Claude (Fort Collins, CO); Taylor, John S. (Livermore, CA); Spiller, Eberhard A. (Mt. Kisco, NY)

2003-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

36

Spectral-phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction applied to seeded extreme-ultraviolet free-electron lasers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a setup for complete characterization of femtosecond pulses generated by seeded free-electron lasers (FEL's) in the extreme-ultraviolet spectral region. Two delayed and spectrally shifted replicas are produced and used for spectral phase interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction (SPIDER). We show that it can be achieved by a simple arrangement of the seed laser. Temporal shape and phase obtained in FEL simulations are well retrieved by the SPIDER reconstruction, allowing to foresee the implementation of this diagnostic on existing and future sources. This will be a significant step towards an experimental investigation and control of FEL spectral phase.

Mahieu, Benoît; De Ninno, Giovanni; Dacasa, Hugo; Lozano, Magali; Rousseau, Jean-Philippe; Zeitoun, Philippe; Garzella, David; Merdji, Hamed

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Miniature hybrid plasma focus extreme ultraviolet source driven by 10 kA fast current pulse  

SciTech Connect

A miniature hybrid plasma focus device, operated in xenon gas medium and driven by a 10 kA fast current pulse, has been used to generate extreme ultraviolet radiation in the range of 6-15 nm. At present the radiation characteristics from xenon plasma were mainly assessed qualitatively using standard tools such as visible light framing camera, extreme ultraviolet (EUV) pinhole camera, and EUV photodiode. Strong pinching of xenon plasma is indicative from both visible and EUV imagings. The maximum size of the EUV emitting zone is estimated to be of the order of 0.21x1.55 mm and the estimated value is within the accepted value as benchmarked by industries. The EUV intensity measurement by photodiode showed fairly isotropic radiation at least in a half solid angle. This device can be developed further as a competent source for EUV metrology or lithography applications.

Mohanty, S.R.; Sakamoto, T.; Kobayashi, Y.; Song, I.; Watanabe, M.; Kawamura, T.; Okino, A.; Horioka, K.; Hotta, E. [Department of Energy Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatsuta, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan)

2006-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

38

Damage of multilayer optics with varying capping layers induced by focused extreme ultraviolet beam  

SciTech Connect

Extreme ultraviolet Mo/Si multilayers protected by capping layers of different materials were exposed to 13.5 nm plasma source radiation generated with a table-top laser to study the irradiation damage mechanism. Morphology of single-shot damaged areas has been analyzed by means of atomic force microscopy. Threshold fluences were evaluated for each type of sample in order to determine the capability of the capping layer to protect the structure underneath.

Jody Corso, Alain; Nicolosi, Piergiorgio; Nardello, Marco; Guglielmina Pelizzo, Maria [National Research Council of Italy, Institute for Photonics and Nanotechnology, via Trasea 7, 35131 Padova (Italy) [National Research Council of Italy, Institute for Photonics and Nanotechnology, via Trasea 7, 35131 Padova (Italy); Department of Information Engineering, University of Padova, via Gradenigo 6/B, 35131 Padova (Italy); Zuppella, Paola [National Research Council of Italy, Institute for Photonics and Nanotechnology, via Trasea 7, 35131 Padova (Italy)] [National Research Council of Italy, Institute for Photonics and Nanotechnology, via Trasea 7, 35131 Padova (Italy); Barkusky, Frank [Laser-Laboratorium Goettingen e.V, Goettingen (Germany) [Laser-Laboratorium Goettingen e.V, Goettingen (Germany); KLA-Tencor, 5 Technology Dr., Milpitas, California 95035 (United States); Mann, Klaus; Mueller, Matthias [Laser-Laboratorium Goettingen e.V, Goettingen (Germany)] [Laser-Laboratorium Goettingen e.V, Goettingen (Germany)

2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

39

Broadband extreme ultraviolet multilayer mirror for supercontinuum light at a photon energy of 35-65 eV  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have developed a broadband multilayer mirror for photon energies between 35 and 65 eV. This extreme ultraviolet (EUV) mirror has an almost flat reflectivity profile at normal...

Hatayama, Masatoshi; Takenaka, Hisataka; Gullikson, Eric M; Suda, Akira; Midorikawa, Katsumi

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Passivating overcoat bilayer for multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A passivating overcoat bilayer is used for multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) or soft x-ray applications to prevent oxidation and corrosion of the multilayer coating, thereby improving the EUV optical performance. The overcoat bilayer comprises a layer of silicon or beryllium underneath at least one top layer of an elemental or a compound material that resists oxidation and corrosion. Materials for the top layer include carbon, palladium, carbides, borides, nitrides, and oxides. The thicknesses of the two layers that make up the overcoat bilayer are optimized to produce the highest reflectance at the wavelength range of operation. Protective overcoat systems comprising three or more layers are also possible.

Montcalm, Claude (Livermore, CA); Stearns, Daniel G. (Los Altos, CA); Vernon, Stephen P. (Pleasanton, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "investigating extreme ultraviolet" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Rare-earth plasma extreme ultraviolet sources at 6.5-6.7 nm  

SciTech Connect

We have demonstrated a laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet source operating in the 6.5-6.7 nm region based on rare-earth targets of Gd and Tb coupled with a Mo/B{sub 4}C multilayer mirror. Multiply charged ions produce strong resonance emission lines, which combine to yield an intense unresolved transition array. The spectra of these resonant lines around 6.7 nm (in-band: 6.7 nm {+-}1%) suggest that the in-band emission increases with increased plasma volume by suppressing the plasma hydrodynamic expansion loss at an electron temperature of about 50 eV, resulting in maximized emission.

Otsuka, Takamitsu; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Yugami, Noboru; Yatagai, Toyohiko [Department of Advanced Interdisciplinary Sciences, Center for Optical Research and Education (CORE), Utsunomiya University, Yoto 7-1-2, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321-8585 (Japan); Kilbane, Deirdre; White, John; Dunne, Padraig; O'Sullivan, Gerry [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Jiang, Weihua [Department of Electrical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, Kami-tomiokamachi 1603-1, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Endo, Akira [Forschungszentrum Dresden, Bautzner Landstrs. 400, D-01328 Dresden (Germany)

2010-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

42

Extreme ultraviolet source at 6.7 nm based on a low-density plasma  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate an efficient extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source for operation at {lambda} = 6.7 nm by optimizing the optical thickness of gadolinium (Gd) plasmas. Using low initial density Gd targets and dual laser pulse irradiation, we observed a maximum EUV conversion efficiency (CE) of 0.54% for 0.6% bandwidth (BW) (1.8% for 2% BW), which is 1.6 times larger than the 0.33% (0.6% BW) CE produced from a solid density target. Enhancement of the EUV CE by use of a low-density plasma is attributed to the reduction of self-absorption effects.

Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Yugami, Noboru [Department of Advanced Interdisciplinary Sciences, Center for Optical Research and Education (CORE), and Optical Technology Innovation Center (OpTIC), Utsunomiya University, Yoto 7-1-2, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321-8585 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kanagawa, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Otsuka, Takamitsu [Department of Advanced Interdisciplinary Sciences, Center for Optical Research and Education (CORE), and Optical Technology Innovation Center (OpTIC), Utsunomiya University, Yoto 7-1-2, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321-8585 (Japan); Jiang, Weihua [Department of Electrical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, Kami-tomiokamachi 1603-1, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Endo, Akira [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Okubo 3-4-1, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Li Bowen; Kilbane, Deirdre; Dunne, Padraig; O'Sullivan, Gerry [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

2011-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

43

Extreme ultra-violet movie camera for imaging microsecond time scale magnetic reconnection  

SciTech Connect

An ultra-fast extreme ultra-violet (EUV) movie camera has been developed for imaging magnetic reconnection in the Caltech spheromak/astrophysical jet experiment. The camera consists of a broadband Mo:Si multilayer mirror, a fast decaying YAG:Ce scintillator, a visible light block, and a high-speed visible light CCD camera. The camera can capture EUV images as fast as 3.3 × 10{sup 6} frames per second with 0.5 cm spatial resolution. The spectral range is from 20 eV to 60 eV. EUV images reveal strong, transient, highly localized bursts of EUV radiation when magnetic reconnection occurs.

Chai, Kil-Byoung; Bellan, Paul M. [Applied Physics, Caltech, 1200 E. California Boulevard, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)] [Applied Physics, Caltech, 1200 E. California Boulevard, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

44

Validity of the thin mask approximation in extreme ultraviolet mask roughness simulations  

SciTech Connect

In the case of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, modeling has shown that reflector phase roughness on the lithographic mask is a significant concern due to the image plan speckle it causes and the resulting line-edge roughness on imaged features. Modeling results have recently been used to determine the requirements for future production worthy masks yielding the extremely stringent specification of 50 pm rms roughness. Owing to the scale of the problem in terms of memory requirements, past modeling results have all been based on the thin mask approximation. EUV masks, however, are inherently three dimensional in nature and thus the question arises as to the validity of the thin mask approximation. Here we directly compare image plane speckle calculation results using the fast two dimensional thin mask model to rigorous finite-difference time-domain results and find the two methods to be comparable.

Naulleau, Patrick; George, Simi

2011-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

45

CAN A NANOFLARE MODEL OF EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET IRRADIANCES DESCRIBE THE HEATING OF THE SOLAR CORONA?  

SciTech Connect

Nanoflares, the basic units of impulsive energy release, may produce much of the solar background emission. Extrapolation of the energy frequency distribution of observed microflares, which follows a power law to lower energies, can give an estimation of the importance of nanoflares for heating the solar corona. If the power-law index is greater than 2, then the nanoflare contribution is dominant. We model a time series of extreme-ultraviolet emission radiance as random flares with a power-law exponent of the flare event distribution. The model is based on three key parameters: the flare rate, the flare duration, and the power-law exponent of the flare intensity frequency distribution. We use this model to simulate emission line radiance detected in 171 A, observed by Solar Terrestrial Relation Observatory/Extreme-Ultraviolet Imager and Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly. The observed light curves are matched with simulated light curves using an Artificial Neural Network, and the parameter values are determined across the active region, quiet Sun, and coronal hole. The damping rate of nanoflares is compared with the radiative losses cooling time. The effect of background emission, data cadence, and network sensitivity on the key parameters of the model is studied. Most of the observed light curves have a power-law exponent, {alpha}, greater than the critical value 2. At these sites, nanoflare heating could be significant.

Tajfirouze, E.; Safari, H. [Department of Physics, University of Zanjan, P.O. Box 45195-313, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2012-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

46

Development of compact extreme ultraviolet interferometry for on-line test of lithography cameras  

SciTech Connect

Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) is a candidate technology for the microelectronics industry with design rules for 0.1 {micro}m features and beyond. When characterizing an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithographic optical system, visible light interferometry is limited to measuring wavefront aberration caused by surface figure error while failing to measure wavefront errors induced by the multilayer coatings. This fact has generated interest in developing interferometry at an EUV camera`s operational wavelength (at-wavelength testing), which is typically around 13 nm. While a laser plasma source (LPS) is being developed as a lithography production source, it has generally been considered that only an undulator located at a synchrotron facility can provide the necessary laser-like point source for EUV interferometry. Although an undulator-based approach has been successfully demonstrated, it would be advantageous to test a camera in its operational configuration. The authors are developing the latter approach by utilizing extended source size schemes to provide usable flux throughput. A slit or a grating mounted in front of the source can provide the necessary spatial coherence for Ronchi interferometry. The usable source size is limited only by the well-corrected field of view of the camera under test. The development of this interferometer will be presented.

Ray-Chaudhuri, A.K.; Nissen, R.P.; Krenz, K.D.; Stulen, R.H. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Sweatt, W.C.; Warren, M.E.; Wendt, J.R.; Kravitz, S.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bjorkholm, J.E. [AT and T Bell Labs., Holmdel, NJ (United States)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

47

TWO TYPES OF EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET BRIGHTENINGS IN AR 10926 OBSERVED BY HINODE/EIS  

SciTech Connect

We have investigated seven extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) brightenings in the active region AR 10926 on 2006 December 2 observed by the EUV Imaging Spectrometer on board the Hinode spacecraft. We have determined their Doppler velocities and non-thermal velocities from 15 EUV spectral lines (log T = 4.7 - 6.4) by fitting each line profile to a Gaussian function. The Doppler velocity maps for different temperatures are presented to show the height dependence of the Doppler shifts. It is found that the active region brightenings show two distinct Doppler shift patterns. The type 1 brightening shows a systematic increase of Doppler velocity from -68 km s{sup -1} (strong blueshift) at log T = 4.7 to -2 km s{sup -1} (weak blueshift) at log T = 6.4, while the type 2 brightenings have Doppler velocities in the range from -20 km s{sup -1} to 20 km s{sup -1}. The type 1 brightening point is considered to sit in an upward reconnection outflow whose speed decreases with height. In both types of brightenings, the non-thermal velocity is found to be significantly enhanced at log T = 5.8 compared to the background region. We have also determined electron densities from line ratios and derived temperatures from emission measure loci using the CHIANTI atomic database. The electron densities of all brightenings are comparable to typical values in active regions (log N{sub e} = 9.9-10.4). The emission measure loci plots indicate that these brightenings should be multi-thermal whereas the background is isothermal. The differential emission measure as a function of temperature shows multiple peaks in the EUV brightening regions, while it has only a single peak (log T = 6.0) in the background region. Using Michelson Doppler Imager magnetograms, we have found that the type 1 brightening is associated with a canceling magnetic feature with a flux canceling rate of 2.4 x 10{sup 18} Mx hr{sup -1}. We also found the canceling magnetic feature and chromospheric brightenings in the type 1 brightening from the Hinode SOT and Transition Region and Coronal Explorer data. This observation corroborates our argument that brightening is caused by magnetic reconnection in a low atmosphere.

Lee, K.-S. [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Y.-J.; Choe, G. S. [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sujin; Cho, Kyung-Suk [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Imada, S., E-mail: lksun@khu.ac.kr [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara-shi, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan)

2011-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

48

New technique for aberration diagnostics and alignment of an extreme ultraviolet Schwarzschild objective  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Schwarzschild objectives are widely used in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV)/soft X-ray spectral region both as reduction and magnification optics, e.g. for small-field projection lithography and microscopy, respectively. When using a Schwarzschild objective as a micro-exposure tool (MET) at high spatial resolution (half-pitch?0.1 ?m), in addition to the tight requirements on the design and surface figure for the single optics, also an accurate alignment between the two mirrors is needed to reach the planned spatial imaging detail. Ideally, at-wavelength alignment should be done in order to overcome limitations due to diffractive effects. While this can be easily performed on synchrotron beam lines, it becomes time expensive (and components consuming) on low-power laboratory plasma sources. In this work we propose and test a new technique to align a EUV Schwarzschild objective by means of ultraviolet light. The aligned objective allowed the attainment of lithographic patterning with edge response of 90 nm, as part of the laboratory-scale MET for EUV projection lithography realized at the ENEA Frascati Research Centre.

S. Bollanti; P. Di Lazzaro; F. Flora; L. Mezi; D. Murra; A. Torre

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

High-Resolution Spectroscopy of G191-B2B in the Extreme Ultraviolet  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report a high-resolution (R=3000-4000) spectroscopic observation of the DA white dwarf G191-B2B in the extreme ultraviolet band 220-245 A. A low- density ionised He component is clearly present along the line-of-sight, which if completely interstellar implies a He ionisation fraction considerably higher than is typical of the local interstellar medium. However, some of this material may be associated with circumstellar gas, which has been detected by analysis of the C IV absorption line doublet in an HST STIS spectrum. A stellar atmosphere model assuming a uniform element distribution yields a best fit to the data which includes a significant abundance of photospheric He. The 99-percent confidence contour for the fit parameters excludes solutions in which photospheric He is absent, but this result needs to be tested using models allowing abundance gradients.

R. G. Cruddace; M. P. Kowalski; D. J. Yentis; C. M. Brown; H. Gursky; M. A. Barstow; N. P. Bannister; G. W. Fraser; J. E. Spragg; J. S. Lapington; J. A. Tandy; B. Sanderson; J. L. Culhane; T. W. Barbee; J. F. Kordas; W. Goldstein; G. G. Fritz

2001-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

50

USING HINODE/EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET IMAGING SPECTROMETER TO CONFIRM A SEISMOLOGICALLY INFERRED CORONAL TEMPERATURE  

SciTech Connect

The Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer on board the HINODE satellite is used to examine the loop system described in Marsh et al. by applying spectroscopic diagnostic methods. A simple isothermal mapping algorithm is applied to determine where the assumption of isothermal plasma may be valid, and the emission measure locii technique is used to determine the temperature profile along the base of the loop system. It is found that, along the base, the loop has a uniform temperature profile with a mean temperature of 0.89 +- 0.09 MK which is in agreement with the temperature determined seismologically in Marsh et al., using observations interpreted as the slow magnetoacoustic mode. The results further strengthen the slow mode interpretation, propagation at a uniform sound speed, and the analysis method applied in Marsh et al. It is found that it is not possible to discriminate between the slow mode phase speed and the sound speed within the precision of the present observations.

Marsh, M. S.; Walsh, R. W., E-mail: mike.s.marsh@gmail.co [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, PR1 2HE (United Kingdom)

2009-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

51

Enhanced Nonlinear Double Excitation of He in Intense Extreme Ultraviolet Laser Fields  

SciTech Connect

Nonlinear, three-photon double excitation of He in intense extreme ultraviolet free-electron laser fields ({approx}24.1 eV, {approx}5 TW/cm{sup 2}) is presented. Resonances to the doubly excited states converging to the He{sup +} N=3 level are revealed by the shot-by-shot photoelectron spectroscopy and identified by theoretical calculations based on the time-dependent Schroedinger equation for the two-electron atom under a laser field. It is shown that the three-photon double excitation is enhanced by intermediate Rydberg states below the first ionization threshold, giving a greater contribution to the photoionization yields than the two-photon process by more than 1 order of magnitude.

Hishikawa, A.; Matsuda, A. [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan); Institute for Molecular Science, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Okazaki, Aichi 444-8585 (Japan); RIKEN/SPring-8, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Fushitani, M. [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan); RIKEN/SPring-8, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Hikosaka, Y. [RIKEN/SPring-8, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Department of Environmental Science, Niigata University, Niigata, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Liu, C.-N. [Department of Physics, Fu-Jen Catholic University, Taipei 24205, Taiwan (China); Morishita, T. [Department of Engineering Science, University of Electro-Communications, Chofu, Tokyo 182-8585 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Shigemasa, E. [Institute for Molecular Science, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Okazaki, Aichi 444-8585 (Japan); RIKEN/SPring-8, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Nagasono, M.; Ishikawa, T. [RIKEN/SPring-8, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Tono, K.; Togashi, T.; Senba, Y. [JASRI/SPring-8, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Ohashi, H.; Kimura, H.; Yabashi, M. [RIKEN/SPring-8, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); JASRI/SPring-8, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

2011-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

52

Phase effects owing to multilayer coatings in a two-mirror extreme-ultraviolet Schwarzschild objective  

SciTech Connect

The aberrations of a multilayer-coated reflective Schwarzchild objective, which are influenced both by mirror surface profiles and by multilayer coatings, are evaluated with a phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer operating in the extreme ultraviolet. Using wave-front measurements at multiple wavelengths near 13.4 nm, we observed chromatic aberrations and wavelength-dependent transmission changes that were due to molybdenum{endash}silicon multilayer coatings. The effects of chromatic vignetting due to limited multilayer reflection passbands on the imaging performance of the Schwarzchild optic are considered. The coating characteristics extracted from the interferometry data on the two-mirror optical system are compared with previously reported coating properties measured on individual mirror substrates. {copyright} 1998 Optical Society of America

Tejnil, E.; Goldberg, K.A.; Bokor, J. [Center for X-Ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Dissociative multiple ionization of diatomic molecules by extreme-ultraviolet free-electron-laser pulses  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear dynamics in dissociative multiple ionization processes of diatomic molecules exposed to extreme-ultraviolet free-electron-laser pulses is studied theoretically using the Monte Carlo wave packet approach. By simulated detection of the emitted electrons, the model reduces a full propagation of the system to propagations of the nuclear wave packet in one specific electronic charge state at a time. Suggested ionization channels can be examined, and kinetic energy release spectra for the nuclei can be calculated and compared with experiments. Double ionization of O{sub 2} is studied as an example, and good agreement with published experimental data is obtained by simulating the dynamics on ten different electronic Born-Oppenheimer curves.

Leth, Henriette Astrup; Madsen, Lars Bojer [Lundbeck Foundation Theoretical Center for Quantum System Research, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

54

Response of a SiC Photodiode to Extreme Ultraviolet through Visible Radiation  

SciTech Connect

The responsivity of a type 6H-SiC photodiode in the 1.5-400 nm wavelength range was measured using synchrotron radiation. The responsivity was 0.20 A/W at 270 nm and was less than 0.10 A/W in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) region. The responsivity was calculated using a proven optical model that accounted for the reflection and absorption of the incident radiation and the variation of the charge collection efficiency (CCE) with depth into the device. The CCE was determined from the responsivity measured in the 200-400 nm wavelength range. By use of this CCE and the effective pair creation energy (7.2 eV) determined from x-ray absorption measurements, the EUV responsivity was accurately modeled with no free parameters. The measured visible-light sensitivity, although low compared with that of a silicon photodiode, was surprisingly high for this wide bandgap semiconductor.

Seely,J.; Kjornrattanawanich, B.; Holland, G.; Korde, R.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Cluster beam targets for laser plasma extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray sources  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method and apparatus for producing extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft x-ray radiation from an ultra-low debris plasma source are disclosed. Targets are produced by the free jet expansion of various gases through a temperature controlled nozzle to form molecular clusters. These target clusters are subsequently irradiated with commercially available lasers of moderate intensity (10{sup 11}--10{sup 12} watts/cm{sup 2}) to produce a plasma radiating in the region of 0.5 to 100 nanometers. By appropriate adjustment of the experimental conditions the laser focus can be moved 10--30 mm from the nozzle thereby eliminating debris produced by plasma erosion of the nozzle. 5 figs.

Kublak, G.D.; Richardson, M.C.

1996-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

56

Extreme ultraviolet diagnosis of a neutral-beam-heated mirror machine  

SciTech Connect

Extreme ultraviolet emissions from the LLL 2XIIB fusion research experiment have been studied. (2XIIB was a magnetic-mirror-plasma-confinement device; beams of high-energy (20 keV) neutral deuterium created a high-density, high-temperature plasma.) A normal-incidence concave-grating monochromator, equipped with a windowless photomultiplier tube, was used to measure emissions in the spectral region from 400 Angstrom to 1600 A. Emissions of oxygen, titanium, carbon, nitrogen, and deuterium were identified; the oxygen brightnesses at times exceeded 10/sup 18/ ph-s/sup -1/-cm/sup -2/-sr/sup -1/. A survey of the emission characteristics found the oxygen concentration was 3%, the other impurities had concentrations near 0.4%. The radiated power loss was about 5% of the deposited neutral beam power.

Drake, R.P.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Effect of high-energy neutral particles on extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy in large helical device  

SciTech Connect

Spectra measured by an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer frequently suffer large spike noise when Large Helical Device is operated in low-density range ({<=}3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3}) with neutral beam injection (NBI). The spike noise completely disappears in electron cyclotron heating discharges. In order to examine the effect of NBI, a carbon filter with thickness of 150 nm was installed in the EUV spectrometer. As a result, the spike noise was reduced by an order of magnitude. It is experimentally verified that the spike noise is caused by escaping high-energy neutral particles resulting from the circulating high-energy hydrogen ions borne from NBI.

Dong Chunfeng; Sakaue, Hiroyuki [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292, Gifu (Japan); Morita, Shigeru; Tokitani, Masayuki; Goto, Motoshi [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292, Gifu (Japan); Department of Fusion Science, Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Toki 509-5292, Gifu (Japan); Wang, Erhui [Department of Fusion Science, Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Toki 509-5292, Gifu (Japan); Zushi, Hideki [RIAM, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580, Fukuoka (Japan)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

58

Optimization of extreme ultraviolet photons emission and collection in mass-limited laser produced plasmas for lithography application  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimization of extreme ultraviolet photons emission and collection in mass-limited laser produced in DPP or with pre-pulsing in LPP provide wide area for optimization in regards to conversion efficiency and collection as well as calculating photons source location and size. We optimized several parameters of dual

Harilal, S. S.

59

TEMPERATURE AND EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET INTENSITY IN A CORONAL PROMINENCE CAVITY AND STREAMER  

SciTech Connect

We analyze the temperature and EUV line emission of a coronal cavity and surrounding streamer in terms of a morphological forward model. We use a series of iron line ratios observed with the Hinode Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (EIS) on 2007 August 9 to constrain temperature as a function of altitude in a morphological forward model of the streamer and cavity. We also compare model predictions to the EIS EUV line intensities and polarized brightness (pB) data from the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO) Mark 4 K-coronameter. This work builds on earlier analysis using the same model to determine geometry of and density in the same cavity and streamer. The fit to the data with altitude-dependent temperature profiles indicates that both the streamer and cavity have temperatures in the range 1.4-1.7 MK. However, the cavity exhibits substantial substructure such that the altitude-dependent temperature profile is not sufficient to completely model conditions in the cavity. Coronal prominence cavities are structured by magnetism so clues to this structure are to be found in their plasma properties. These temperature substructures are likely related to structures in the cavity magnetic field. Furthermore, we find that the model overestimates the EUV line intensities by a factor of 4-10, without overestimating pB. We discuss this difference in terms of filling factors and uncertainties in density diagnostics and elemental abundances.

Kucera, T. A. [NASA/GSFC, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Gibson, S. E.; Schmit, D. J. [HAO/NCAR, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States); Landi, E. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Science, Space Research Building, University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2143 (United States); Tripathi, D. [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Post Bag-4, Ganeshkhind, Pune University Campus, Pune 411 007 (India)

2012-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

60

Characterization of an expanded-field Schwarzschild objective for extreme ultraviolet lithography  

SciTech Connect

The performance of a new 10x-reduction Schwarzschild system for projection imaging at 13.4 nm wavelength is reported. The optical design is optimized to achieve 0.1 {mu}m resolution over a 0.4 mm image field of view, an increase in area of a factor of 100 over previous designs. An off-set aperture, located on the convex primary, defines an unobscured 0.08 numerical aperture. The system is illuminated using extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation emitted from a laser plasma source and collected by an ellipsoidal condenser. A 450 turning mirror is used to relay the collected EUV radiation onto a near-normal reflecting mask. Multiple sets of primary and secondary elements were fabricated, matched and clocked to minimize the effects of small figure errors on imaging performance. Optical metrology indicates that the wave-front error within the subaperture used is within a factor of two of the design value. Images recorded in PMMA and ZEP 520 resists reveal good imaging fidelity over much of the 0.4 mm field with equal line/space gratings being resolved to 0.1 {mu}m.

Kubiak, G.D.; Tichenor, D.A.; Ray-Chaudhuri, A.K. [and others

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "investigating extreme ultraviolet" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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61

At-wavelength characterization of the extreme ultraviolet Engineering Test Stand Set-2 optic  

SciTech Connect

At-wavelength interferometric characterization of a new 4x-reduction lithographic-quality extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optical system is described. This state-of-the-art projection optic was fabricated for installation in the EUV lithography Engineering Test Stand (ETS) and is referred to as the ETS Set-2 optic. EUV characterization of the Set-2 optic is performed using the EUV phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer (PS/PDI) installed on an undulator beamline at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's Advanced Light Source. This is the same interferometer previously used for the at-wavelength characterization and alignment of the ETS Set-1 optic. In addition to the PS/PDI-based full-field wavefront characterization, we also present wavefront measurements performed with lateral shearing interferometry, the chromatic dependence of the wavefront error, and the system-level pupil-dependent spectral-bandpass characteristics of the optic; the latter two properties are only measurable using at-wavelength interferometry.

Naulleau, Patrick; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Anderson, Erik H.; Batson, Phillip; Denham, Paul E.; Jackson, Keith H.; Gullikson, Eric M.; Rekawa, Senajith; Bokor, Jeffrey

2001-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

62

Energy transport in short-pulse-laser-heated targets measured using extreme ultraviolet laser backlighting  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The accurate characterization of thermal electron transport and the determination of heating by suprathermal electrons in laser driven solid targets are both issues of great importance to the current experiments being performed at the National Ignition Facility, which aims to achieve thermonuclear fusion ignition using lasers. Ionization, induced by electronic heat conduction, can cause the opacity of a material to drop significantly once bound-free photoionization is no longer energetically possible. We show that this drop in opacity enables measurements of the transmission of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) laser pulses at 13.9 nm to act as a signature of the heating of thin (50 nm) iron layers with a 50-nm thick parylene-N (CH) overlay irradiated by 35-fs pulses at irradiance 3×1016 Wcm?2. Comparing EUV transmission measurements at different times after irradiation to fluid code simulations shows that the target is instantaneously heated by hot electrons (with approximately 10% of the laser energy), followed by thermal conduction with a flux limiter of ?0.05.

L. A. Wilson; G. J. Tallents; J. Pasley; D. S. Whittaker; S. J. Rose; O. Guilbaud; K. Cassou; S. Kazamias; S. Daboussi; M. Pittman; O. Delmas; J. Demailly; O. Neveu; D. Ros

2012-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

63

Wafer and reticle positioning system for the Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Engineering Test Stand  

SciTech Connect

This paper is an overview of the wafer and reticle positioning system of the Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) Engineering Test Stand (ETS). EUVL represents one of the most promising technologies for supporting the integrated circuit (IC) industry's lithography needs for critical features below 100nm. EUVL research and development includes development of capabilities for demonstrating key EUV technologies. The ETS is under development at the EUV Virtual National Laboratory, to demonstrate EUV full-field imaging and provide data that supports production-tool development. The stages and their associated metrology operated in a vacuum environment and must meet stringent outgassing specifications. A tight tolerance is placed on the stage tracking performance to minimize image distortion and provide high position repeatability. The wafer must track the reticle with less than {+-}3nm of position error and jitter must not exceed 10nm rms. To meet these performance requirements, magnetically levitated positioning stages utilizing a system of sophisticated control electronics will be used. System modeling and experimentation have contributed to the development of the positioning system and results indicate that desired ETS performance is achievable.

WRONOSKY,JOHN B.; SMITH,TONY G.; CRAIG,MARCUS J.; STURGIS,BEVERLY R.; DARNOLD,JOEL R.; WERLING,DAVID K.; KINCY,MARK A.; TICHENOR,DANIEL A.; WILLIAMS,MARK E.; BISCHOFF,PAUL

2000-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

64

Study of impurities in the Tandem Mirror Experiment using extreme-ultraviolet spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Impurities in the Tandem Mirror Experiment (TMX) have been studied using extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy. Three time-resolving absolutely-calibrated normal-incidence monochromators, one on each section of TMX, were used to study the impurity emissions in the wavelength range of 300 A to 1600 A. The instruments on the east end cell and central cell were each capable of obtaining spatially-resolved profiles from 22 chords of the plasma simultaneously while the instrument on the west end cell monitored the central chord. The impurities identified in TMX were carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and titanium. Emphasis was placed upon determining the impurity densities and radiated power losses of the central cell; results indicate that the impurity concentrations were low - less than 0.4% for each species - and that less than 10% of the total net trapped neutral beam power was lost to radiation. The use of titanium gettering on the central cell walls was observed to decrease the brightnesses of singly- and doubly-ionized carbon and oxygen in the central cell plasma. In the end cells, oxygen was the main impurity with a concentration of about 1.5% and was injected by the neutral beams; the other impurities had concentrations of about 0.5%. Radiation losses from the end cells were negligible.

Strand, O.T.

1982-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

65

HOMOLOGOUS EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET WAVES IN THE EMERGING FLUX REGION OBSERVED BY THE SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY  

SciTech Connect

Taking advantage of the high temporal and spatial resolution of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) observations, we present four homologous extreme ultraviolet (EUV) waves within 3 hr on 2010 November 11. All EUV waves emanated from the same emerging flux region (EFR), propagated in the same direction, and were accompanied by surges, weak flares, and faint coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The waves had the basically same appearance in all EUV wavebands of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on SDO. The waves propagated at constant velocities in the range of 280-500 km s{sup -1}, with little angular dependence, which indicated that the homologous waves could be likely interpreted as fast-mode waves. The waves are supposed to likely involve more than one driving mechanism, and it was most probable that the waves were driven by the surges, due to their close timing and location relations. We also propose that the homologous waves were intimately associated with the continuous emergence and cancellation of magnetic flux in the EFR, which could supply sufficient energy and trigger the onsets of the waves.

Zheng Ruisheng; Jiang Yunchun; Yang Jiayan; Bi Yi; Hong Junchao; Yang, B.; Yang Dan, E-mail: zhrsh@ynao.ac.cn [National Astronomical Observatories/Yunnan Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China)

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

On the Nature of the Extreme-Ultraviolet Late Phase of Solar Flares  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) late phase of solar flares is a second peak of warm coronal emissions (e.g., Fe XVI) for many minutes to a few hours after the GOES soft X-ray peak. It was first observed by the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). The late phase emission originates from a second set of longer loops (late phase loops) that are higher than the main flaring loops. It is suggested as being caused by either additional heating or long-lasting cooling. In this paper, we study the role of long-lasting cooling and additional heating in producing the EUV late phase using the "enthalpy-based thermal evolution of loops" (EBTEL) model. We find that a long cooling process in late phase loops can well explain the presence of the EUV late phase emission, but we cannot exclude the possibility of additional heating in the decay phase. Moreover, we provide two preliminary methods based on the UV and EUV emissions from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board SDO to...

Li, Y; Guo, Y; Dai, Y

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Characterization of an expanded?field Schwarzschild objective for extreme ultraviolet lithography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The performance of a new 10×?reduction Schwarzschild system for projection imaging at 13.4 nm wavelength is reported. The optical design is optimized to achieve 0.1 ?m resolution over a 0.4 mm image field of view an increase in area of a factor of 100 over previous designs. An offset aperture located on the convex primary defines an unobscured 0.08 numerical aperture. The system is illuminated using extreme ultraviolet(EUV)radiation emitted from a laser plasma source and collected by an ellipsoidal condenser. A 45° turning mirror is used to relay the collected EUVradiation onto a near?normal reflecting mask. Multiple sets of primary and secondary elements were fabricated matched and clocked to minimize the effects of small figure errors on imaging performance. Optical metrology indicates that the wave?front error within the subaperture used is within a factor of 2 of the design value. Images recorded in poly(methyl methacrylate) and ZEP 520 (Nippon Zeon) resists reveal good imaging fidelity over much of the 0.4 mm field with equal line/space gratings being resolved to 0.1 ?m.

G. D. Kubiak; D. A. Tichenor; A. K. Ray?Chaudhuri; M. E. Malinowski; R. H. Stulen; S. J. Haney; K. W. Berger; R. P. Nissen; G. A. Wilkerson; P. H. Paul; J. E. Bjorkholm; L. A. Fetter; R. R. Freeman; M. D. Himel; A. A. MacDowell; D. M. Tennant; O. R. Wood II; W. K. Waskiewicz; D. L. White; D. L. Windt; T. E. Jewell

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Soft x ray/extreme ultraviolet images of the solar atmosphere with normal incidence multilayer optics  

SciTech Connect

The first high resolution Soft X-Ray/Extreme Ultraviolet (XUV) images of the Sun with normal incidence multilayer optics were obtained by the Standford/MSFC Rocket X-Ray Spectroheliograph on 23 Oct. 1987. Numerous images at selected wavelengths from 8 to 256 A were obtained simultaneously by the diverse array of telescopes flown on-board the experiment. These telescopes included single reflection normal incidence multilayer systems (Herschelian), double reflection multilayer systems (Cassegrain), a grazing incidence mirror system (Wolter-Schwarzschild), and hybrid systems using normal incidence multilayer optics in conjunction with the grazing incidence primary (Wolter-Cassegrain). Filters comprised of approximately 1700{Angstrom} thick aluminum supported on a nickel mesh were used to transmit the soft x ray/EUV radiation while preventing the intense visible light emission of the Sun from fogging the sensitive experimental T-grain photographic emulsions. These systems yielded high resolution soft x ray/EUV images of the solar corona and transition region, which reveal magnetically confined loops of hot solar plasma, coronal plumes, polar coronal holes, supergranulation, and features associated with overlying cool prominences. The development, testing, and operation of the experiments, and the results from the flight are described. The development of a second generation experiment, the Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array, which is scheduled to fly in the summer of 1990, and a recently approved Space Station experiment, the Ultra-High Resolution XUV Spectroheliograph, which is scheduled to fly in 1996 are also described.

Lindblom, J.F.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Characterization of an expanded-field Schwarzschild objective for extreme ultraviolet lithography  

SciTech Connect

The performance of a new 10[times]-reduction Schwarzschild system for projection imaging at 13.4 nm wavelength is reported. The optical design is optimized to achieve 0.1 [mu]m resolution over a 0.4 mm image field of view, an increase in area of a factor of 100 over previous designs. An offset aperture, located on the convex primary, defines an unobscured 0.08 numerical aperture. The system is illuminated using extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation emitted from a laser plasma source and collected by an ellipsoidal condenser. A 45[degree] turning mirror is used to relay the collected EUV radiation onto a near-normal reflecting mask. Multiple sets of primary and secondary elements were fabricated, matched, and clocked to minimize the effects of small figure errors on imaging performance. Optical metrology indicates that the wave-front error within the subaperture used is within a factor of 2 of the design value. Images recorded in poly(methyl methacrylate) and ZEP 520 (Nippon Zeon) resists reveal good imaging fidelity over much of the 0.4 mm field with equal line/space gratings being resolved to 0.1 [mu]m.

Kubiak, G.D.; Tichenor, D.A.; Ray-Chaudhuri, A.K.; Malinowski, M.E.; Stulen, R.H.; Haney, S.J.; Berger, K.W.; Nissen, R.P.; Wilkerson, G.A.; Paul, P.H. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California 94551-0969 (United States)); Bjorkholm, J.E.; Fetter, L.A.; Freeman, R.R.; Himel, M.D.; MacDowell, A.A.; Tennant, D.M.; Wood, O.R. II (AT T Bell Laboratories, Holmdel, New Jersey 07733-3030 (United States)); Waskiewicz, W.K.; White, D.L.; Windt, D.L. (AT T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, New Jersey 07974-2070 (United States)); Jewell, T.E. (Optical Engineering Consultant, Boulder, Colorado 80304 (United States))

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

ACTIVE REGION MOSS: DOPPLER SHIFTS FROM HINODE/EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET IMAGING SPECTROMETER OBSERVATIONS  

SciTech Connect

Studying the Doppler shifts and the temperature dependence of Doppler shifts in moss regions can help us understand the heating processes in the core of the active regions. In this paper, we have used an active region observation recorded by the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on board Hinode on 2007 December 12 to measure the Doppler shifts in the moss regions. We have distinguished the moss regions from the rest of the active region by defining a low-density cutoff as derived by Tripathi et al. in 2010. We have carried out a very careful analysis of the EIS wavelength calibration based on the method described by Young et al. in 2012. For spectral lines having maximum sensitivity between log T = 5.85 and log T = 6.25 K, we find that the velocity distribution peaks at around 0 km s{sup -1} with an estimated error of 4-5 km s{sup -1}. The width of the distribution decreases with temperature. The mean of the distribution shows a blueshift which increases with increasing temperature and the distribution also shows asymmetries toward blueshift. Comparing these results with observables predicted from different coronal heating models, we find that these results are consistent with both steady and impulsive heating scenarios. However, the fact that there are a significant number of pixels showing velocity amplitudes that exceed the uncertainty of 5 km s{sup -1} is suggestive of impulsive heating. Clearly, further observational constraints are needed to distinguish between these two heating scenarios.

Tripathi, Durgesh [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune University Campus, Pune 411007 (India); Mason, Helen E. [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Klimchuk, James A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Polarization study of the extreme-ultraviolet emission from helium following electron impact  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Experimental results are presented on the degree of linear polarization of the extreme-ultraviolet emission of neutral and ionized helium following electron-impact excitation and ionization excitation of helium. The polarization of the photon emission from the decay of He (1snp) 1Po states with wavelengths of 517 to 584 Å has been extended to electron-impact energies of 1500 eV, and compared with theory for electron-impact excitation of neutral helium. In addition, the polarization of a number of the He+ decays with wavelengths between 256 and 1640 Å have been measured. Particular attention has been paid to the (2p) 2Po?(1s) 2S and (3p) 2Po?(1s) 2S decays with wavelengths of 304 and 256 Å, respectively. These have been measured from threshold (66 and 73 eV, respectively) to 1500 eV using a characterized molybdenum/silicon multilayer mirror polarimeter whose reflection and polarization characteristics have been optimized at 304 Å He+(2p) 2Po results are compared with a recent threshold alignment measurement and distorted-wave Born-approximation calculation for the (e-,2e-) reaction of ionization excitation. Very good agreement with the threshold theoretical predictions is obtained. These results indicate that near threshold, partial waves with L>0 contribute substantially to the two-electron wave function of the escaping electrons. Measurements on the unresolved multiplets at 1215 and 1640 Å, made using a more conventional reflection-type polarization analyzer, indicate that relative fine-structure cross sections are quite different than predicted by some theories.

H. Merabet, M. Bailey, R. Bruch, D. V. Fursa, I. Bray, J. W. McConkey, and P. Hammond

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

THE FIRST STRAY LIGHT CORRECTED EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET IMAGES OF SOLAR CORONAL HOLES  

SciTech Connect

Coronal holes are the source regions of the fast solar wind, which fills most of the solar system volume near the cycle minimum. Removing stray light from extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) images of the Sun's corona is of high astrophysical importance, as it is required to make meaningful determinations of temperatures and densities of coronal holes. EUV images tend to be dominated by the component of the stray light due to the long-range scatter caused by the microroughness of telescope mirror surfaces, and this component has proven very difficult to measure in pre-flight characterization. In-flight characterization heretofore has proven elusive due to the fact that the detected image is simultaneously nonlinear in two unknown functions: the stray light pattern and the true image that would be seen by an ideal telescope. Using a constrained blind deconvolution technique that takes advantage of known zeros in the true image provided by a fortuitous lunar transit, we have removed the stray light from solar images seen by the EUVI instrument on STEREO-B in all four filter bands (171, 195, 284, and 304 A). Uncertainty measures of the stray light corrected images, which include the systematic error due to misestimation of the scatter, are provided. It is shown that in EUVI, stray light contributes up to 70% of the emission in coronal holes seen on the solar disk, which has dramatic consequences for diagnostics of temperature and density and therefore estimates of key plasma parameters such as the plasma {beta} and ion-electron collision rates.

Shearer, Paul; Gilbert, Anna C. [Department of Mathematics, 2074 East Hall, University of Michigan, 530 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1043 (United States); Frazin, Richard A. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Science, Space Research Building, University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2143 (United States); Hero III, Alfred O., E-mail: shearerp@umich.edu, E-mail: annacg@umich.edu, E-mail: rfrazin@umich.edu, E-mail: hero@umich.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, The College of Engineering, University of Michigan, 1301 Beal Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2122 (United States)

2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

73

Hinode/Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer Observations of the Temperature Structure of the Quiet Corona  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present a differential emission measure (DEM) analysis of the quiet solar corona on disk using data obtained by the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on Hinode. We show that the expected quiet-Sun DEM distribution can be recovered from judiciously selected lines, and that their average intensities can be reproduced to within 30%. We present a subset of these selected lines spanning the temperature range log T = 5.6-6.4 K that can be used to derive the DEM distribution reliably, including a subset of iron lines that can be used to derive the DEM distribution free of the possibility of uncertainties in the elemental abundances. The subset can be used without the need for extensive measurements, and the observed intensities can be reproduced to within the estimated uncertainty in the pre-launch calibration of EIS. Furthermore, using this subset, we also demonstrate that the quiet coronal DEM distribution can be recovered on size scales down to the spatial resolution of the instrument (1'' pixels). The subset will therefore be useful for studies of small-scale spatial inhomogeneities in the coronal temperature structure, for example, in addition to studies requiring multiple DEM derivations in space or time. We apply the subset to 45 quiet-Sun data sets taken in the period 2007 January to April, and show that although the absolute magnitude of the coronal DEM may scale with the amount of released energy, the shape of the distribution is very similar up to at least log T ~ 6.2 K in all cases. This result is consistent with the view that the shape of the quiet-Sun DEM is mainly a function of the radiating and conducting properties of the plasma and is fairly insensitive to the location and rate of energy deposition. This universal DEM may be sensitive to other factors such as loop geometry, flows, and the heating mechanism, but if so they cannot vary significantly from quiet-Sun region to region.

David H. Brooks; Harry P. Warren; David R. Williams; Tetsuya Watanabe

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

HINODE/EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET IMAGING SPECTROMETER OBSERVATIONS OF THE TEMPERATURE STRUCTURE OF THE QUIET CORONA  

SciTech Connect

We present a differential emission measure (DEM) analysis of the quiet solar corona on disk using data obtained by the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on Hinode. We show that the expected quiet-Sun DEM distribution can be recovered from judiciously selected lines, and that their average intensities can be reproduced to within 30%. We present a subset of these selected lines spanning the temperature range log T = 5.6-6.4 K that can be used to derive the DEM distribution reliably, including a subset of iron lines that can be used to derive the DEM distribution free of the possibility of uncertainties in the elemental abundances. The subset can be used without the need for extensive measurements, and the observed intensities can be reproduced to within the estimated uncertainty in the pre-launch calibration of EIS. Furthermore, using this subset, we also demonstrate that the quiet coronal DEM distribution can be recovered on size scales down to the spatial resolution of the instrument (1'' pixels). The subset will therefore be useful for studies of small-scale spatial inhomogeneities in the coronal temperature structure, for example, in addition to studies requiring multiple DEM derivations in space or time. We apply the subset to 45 quiet-Sun data sets taken in the period 2007 January to April, and show that although the absolute magnitude of the coronal DEM may scale with the amount of released energy, the shape of the distribution is very similar up to at least log T approx 6.2 K in all cases. This result is consistent with the view that the shape of the quiet-Sun DEM is mainly a function of the radiating and conducting properties of the plasma and is fairly insensitive to the location and rate of energy deposition. This universal DEM may be sensitive to other factors such as loop geometry, flows, and the heating mechanism, but if so they cannot vary significantly from quiet-Sun region to region.

Brooks, David H.; Warren, Harry P. [Space Science Division, Code 7673, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Williams, David R. [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); Watanabe, Tetsuya, E-mail: dhbrooks@ssd5.nrl.navy.mi [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

2009-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

75

Time-delay compensated monochromator for the spectral selection of extreme-ultraviolet high-order laser harmonics  

SciTech Connect

The design and the characterization of a monochromator for the spectral selection of ultrashort high-order laser harmonics in the extreme ultraviolet are presented. The instrument adopts the double-grating configuration to preserve the length of the optical paths of different diffracted rays, without altering the extremely short duration of the pulse. The gratings are used in the off-plane mount to have high efficiency. The performances of the monochromator have been characterized in terms of spectral response, efficiency, photon flux, imaging properties, and temporal response. In particular, the temporal characterization of the harmonic pulses has been obtained using a cross-correlation method: Pulses as short as 8 fs have been measured at the output of the monochromators, confirming the effectiveness of the time-delay compensated configuration.

Poletto, Luca; Villoresi, Paolo; Frassetto, Fabio [Laboratory for UV and X-Ray Optical Research, CNR-INFM and Department of Information Engineering, University of Padova, Padova 35131 (Italy); Calegari, Francesca; Ferrari, Federico; Lucchini, Matteo; Sansone, Giuseppe; Nisoli, Mauro [National Laboratory for Ultrafast and Ultraintense Optical Science, CNR-INFM and Department of Physics, Politecnico di Milano, Milano 20133 (Italy)

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

76

Multiphoton Double Ionization of Ar in Intense Extreme Ultraviolet Laser Fields Studied by Shot-by-Shot Photoelectron Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Photoelectron spectroscopy has been performed to study the multiphoton double ionization of Ar in an intense extreme ultraviolet laser field (h{nu}{approx}21 eV, {approx}5 TW/cm{sup 2}), by using a free electron laser (FEL). Three distinct peaks identified in the observed photoelectron spectra clearly show that the double ionization proceeds sequentially via the formation of Ar{sup +}: Ar+h{nu}{yields}Ar{sup +}+e{sup -} and Ar{sup +}+2h{nu}{yields}Ar{sup 2+}+e{sup -}. Shot-by-shot recording of the photoelectron spectra allows simultaneous monitoring of FEL spectrum and the multiphoton process for each FEL pulse, revealing that the two-photon ionization from Ar{sup +} is significantly enhanced by intermediate resonances in Ar{sup +}.

Hikosaka, Y. [Department of Environmental Science, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Institute for Molecular Science, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); RIKEN, XFEL Project Head Office, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Fushitani, M.; Hishikawa, A. [Institute for Molecular Science, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); RIKEN, XFEL Project Head Office, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Matsuda, A. [Institute for Molecular Science, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); RIKEN, XFEL Project Head Office, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Tseng, C.-M. [Institute for Molecular Science, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); RIKEN, XFEL Project Head Office, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Shigemasa, E. [Institute for Molecular Science, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); RIKEN, XFEL Project Head Office, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Nagasono, M.; Tono, K.; Yabashi, M.; Ishikawa, T. [RIKEN, XFEL Project Head Office, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Togashi, T.; Ohashi, H.; Kimura, H. [RIKEN, XFEL Project Head Office, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Senba, Y. [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

2010-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

77

Experimental investigation of ultraviolet laser induced plasma density and temperature evolution in air  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and collisional cascade processes for pressures ranging from 40 Torr to 5 atm. A laser shadowgraphy diagnosticExperimental investigation of ultraviolet laser induced plasma density and temperature evolution July 2008 We present measurements and analysis of laser induced plasma neutral densities

Scharer, John E.

78

Cluster beam targets for laser plasma extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray sources  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method and apparatus for producing extreme ultra violet (EUV) and soft x-ray radiation from an ultra-low debris plasma source are disclosed. Targets are produced by the free jet expansion of various gases through a temperature controlled nozzle to form molecular clusters. These target clusters are subsequently irradiated with commercially available lasers of moderate intensity (10.sup.11 -10.sup.12 watts/cm.sup.2) to produce a plasma radiating in the region of 0.5 to 100 nanometers. By appropriate adjustment of the experimental conditions the laser focus can be moved 10-30 mm from the nozzle thereby eliminating debris produced by plasma erosion of the nozzle.

Kublak, Glenn D. (124 Turquoise Way, Livermore, Alameda County, CA 94550); Richardson, Martin C. (CREOL

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

An upper limit on the ratio between the Extreme Ultraviolet and the bolometric luminosities of stars hosting habitable planets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A large number of terrestrial planets in the classical habitable zone of stars of different spectral types has already been discovered and many are expected to be discovered in near future. However, owing to the lack of knowledge on the atmospheric properties, the ambient environment of such planets are unknown. It is known that sufficient amount of Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) radiation from the star can drive hydrodynamic outflow of hydrogen that may drag heavier species from the atmosphere of the planet. If the rate of mass loss is sufficiently high then substantial amount of volatiles would escape causing the planet to become uninhabitable. Considering energy-limited hydrodynamical mass loss with an escape rate that causes oxygen to escape along with hydrogen, I present an upper limit for the ratio between the EUV and the bolometric luminosities of stars which constrains the habitability of planets around them. Application of the limit to planet-hosting stars with known EUV luminosities implies that many M-t...

Sengupta, Sujan

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Chemical Effect of Dry and Wet Cleaning of the Ru Protective Layer of the Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography Reflector  

SciTech Connect

The authors report the chemical influence of cleaning of the Ru capping layer on the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) reflector surface. The cleaning of EUV reflector to remove the contamination particles has two requirements: to prevent corrosion and etching of the reflector surface and to maintain the reflectivity functionality of the reflector after the corrosive cleaning processes. Two main approaches for EUV reflector cleaning, wet chemical treatments [sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide mixture (SPM), ozonated water, and ozonated hydrogen peroxide] and dry cleaning (oxygen plasma and UV/ozone treatment), were tested. The changes in surface morphology and roughness were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, while the surface etching and change of oxidation states were probed with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Significant surface oxidation of the Ru capping layer was observed after oxygen plasma and UV/ozone treatment, while the oxidation is unnoticeable after SPM treatment. Based on these surface studies, the authors found that SPM treatment exhibits the minimal corrosive interactions with Ru capping layer. They address the molecular mechanism of corrosive gas and liquid-phase chemical interaction with the surface of Ru capping layer on the EUV reflector.

Belau, Leonid; Park, Jeong Y.; Liang, Ted; Seo, Hyungtak; Somorjai, Gabor A.

2009-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

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81

DIFFRACTION, REFRACTION, AND REFLECTION OF AN EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET WAVE OBSERVED DURING ITS INTERACTIONS WITH REMOTE ACTIVE REGIONS  

SciTech Connect

We present observations of the diffraction, refraction, and reflection of a global extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) wave propagating in the solar corona. These intriguing phenomena are observed when the wave interacts with two remote active regions, and together they exhibit properties of an EUV wave. When the wave approached AR11465, it became weaker and finally disappeared in the active region, but a few minutes later a new wavefront appeared behind the active region, and it was not concentric with the incoming wave. In addition, a reflected wave was also simultaneously observed on the wave incoming side. When the wave approached AR11459, it transmitted through the active region directly and without reflection. The formation of the new wavefront and the transmission could be explained with diffraction and refraction effects, respectively. We propose that the different behaviors observed during the interactions may be caused by different speed gradients at the boundaries of the two active regions. We find that the EUV wave formed ahead of a group of expanding loops a few minutes after the start of the loops' expansion, which represents the initiation of the associated coronal mass ejection (CME). Based on these results, we conclude that the EUV wave should be a nonlinear magnetosonic wave or shock driven by the associated CME, which propagated faster than the ambient fast mode speed and gradually slowed down to an ordinary linear wave. Our observations support the hybrid model that includes both fast wave and slow non-wave components.

Shen Yuandeng; Liu Yu; Zhao Ruijuan; Tian Zhanjun [Yunnan Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China); Su Jiangtao [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Li Hui [Key Laboratory of Dark Matter and Space Astronomy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Ichimoto, Kiyoshi; Shibata, Kazunari, E-mail: ydshen@ynao.ac.cn [Kwasan and Hida Observatories, Kyoto University, Kyoto 6078471 (Japan)

2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

82

Tuning extreme ultraviolet emission for optimum coupling with multilayer mirrors for future lithography through control of ionic charge states  

SciTech Connect

We report on the identification of the optimum plasma conditions for a laser-produced plasma source for efficient coupling with multilayer mirrors at 6.x nm for beyond extreme ultraviolet lithography. A small shift to lower energies of the peak emission for Nd:YAG laser-produced gadolinium plasmas was observed with increasing laser power density. Charge-defined emission spectra were observed in electron beam ion trap (EBIT) studies and the charge states responsible identified by use of the flexible atomic code (FAC). The EBIT spectra displayed a larger systematic shift of the peak wavelength of intense emission at 6.x nm to longer wavelengths with increasing ionic charge. This combination of spectra enabled the key ion stage to be confirmed as Gd{sup 18+}, over a range of laser power densities, with contributions from Gd{sup 17+} and Gd{sup 19+} responsible for the slight shift to longer wavelengths in the laser-plasma spectra. The FAC calculation also identified the origin of observed out-of-band emission and the charge states responsible.

Ohashi, Hayato, E-mail: ohashi@cc.utsunomiya-u.ac.jp; Higashiguchi, Takeshi, E-mail: higashi@cc.utsunomiya-u.ac.jp; Suzuki, Yuhei; Kawasaki, Masato [Department of Advanced Interdisciplinary Sciences, Center for Optical Research and Education (CORE), Utsunomiya University, Yoto 7-1-2, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321-8585 (Japan); Li, Bowen; Dunne, Padraig; O'Sullivan, Gerry [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Kanehara, Tatsuhiko; Aida, Yuya; Nakamura, Nobuyuki [Institute for Laser Science, The University of Electro-Communications, Chofu, Tokyo 182-8585 (Japan); Torii, Shuichi; Makimura, Tetsuya [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Jiang, Weihua [Department of Electrical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, Kami-tomiokamachi 1603-1, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan)

2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

83

Extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy and modeling of Cu on the SSPX Spheromak and laser plasma “Sparky”a)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Impurities play a critical role in magnetic fusion research. In large quantities impurities can cool and dilute plasma creating problems for achieving ignition and burn; however in smaller amounts the impurities could provide valuable information about several plasma parameters through the use of spectroscopy. Many impurity ions radiate within the extreme ultraviolet(EUV) range. Here we report on spectra from the silver flat field spectrometer which was implemented at the Sustained Spheromak Physics experiment (SSPX) to monitor ion impurity emissions. The chamber within the SSPX was made of Cu which makes M-shell Cu a prominent impurity signature. The Spect3D spectral analysis code was utilized to identify spectral features in the range of 115–315 Å and to more fully understand the plasma conditions. A second set of experiments was carried out on the compact laser-plasma x-ray/EUV facility “Sparky” at UNR with Cu flat targets used. The EUVspectra were recorded between 40–300 Å and compared with results from SSPX.

M. E. Weller; A. S. Safronova; J. Clementson; V. L. Kantsyrev; U. I. Safronova; P. Beiersdorfer; E. E. Petkov; P. G. Wilcox; G. C. Osborne

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Extremism  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

i i LEFT-WING EXTREMISM: The Current Threat Prepared for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Safeguards and Security Washington, DC Prepared by Karl A. Seger, Ph.D. Center for Human Reliability Studies Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education Oak Ridge, TN April 2001 ORISE 01-0439 i TABLE OF CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .............................................................................................ii I. LEFTIST EXTREMISM IS ALIVE AND WELL....................................................... 1 TERROR NETWORK U.S.A. ..................................................................................... 1 EXTREMISM ON THE LEFT AND RIGHT .............................................................. 3 THE THREAT.............................................................................................................

85

Formation and direct writing of color centers in LiF using a laser-induced extreme ultraviolet plasma in combination with a Schwarzschild objective  

SciTech Connect

In order to generate high-energy densities of 13.5 nm radiation, an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) Schwarzschild mirror objective with a numerical aperture of 0.44 and a demagnification of 10 was developed and adapted to a compact laser-based EUV source. The annular spherical mirror substrates were coated with Mo/Si multilayer systems. With a single mirror reflectance of more than 65% the total transmittance of the Schwarzschild objective exceeds 40% at 13.5 nm. From the properties of the EUV source (pulse energy 3 mJ at 13.5 nm and plasma diameter approximately 300 {mu}m), energy densities of 73 mJ/cm{sup 2} at a pulse length of 6 ns can be estimated in the image plane of the objective. As a first application, the formation of color centers in lithium fluoride crystals by EUV radiation was investigated. F{sub 2}, F{sub 3}, and F{sub 3}{sup +} color centers could be identified by absorption spectroscopy. The formation dynamics was studied as a function of the EUV dose. By imaging of a pinhole positioned behind the plasma, an EUV spot of 5 {mu}m diameter was generated, which accomplishes direct writing of color centers with micrometer resolution.

Barkusky, Frank; Peth, Christian; Mann, Klaus; Feigl, Torsten; Kaiser, Norbert [Laser-Laboratorium Goettingen e.V., Hans-Adolf-Krebs-Weg 1, D-37077 Goettingen (Germany); Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Angewandte Optik und Feinmechanik, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 7, D-07745 Jena (Germany)

2005-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

86

Direct photo-etching of poly(methyl methacrylate) using focused extreme ultraviolet radiation from a table-top laser-induced plasma source  

SciTech Connect

In order to perform material interaction studies with intense extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation, a Schwarzschild mirror objective coated with Mo/Si multilayers was adapted to a compact laser-based EUV plasma source (pulse energy 3 mJ at {lambda}=13.5 nm, plasma diameter {approx}300 {mu}m). By 10x demagnified imaging of the plasma a pulse energy density of {approx}75 mJ/cm{sup 2} at a pulse length of 6 ns can be achieved in the image plane of the objective. As demonstrated for poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), photoetching of polymer surfaces is possible at this EUV fluence level. This paper presents first results, including a systematic determination of PMMA etching rates under EUV irradiation. Furthermore, the contribution of out-of-band radiation to the surface etching of PMMA was investigated by conducting a diffraction experiment for spectral discrimination from higher wavelength radiation. Imaging of a pinhole positioned behind the plasma accomplished the generation of an EUV spot of 1 {mu}m diameter, which was employed for direct writing of surface structures in PMMA.

Barkusky, Frank; Peth, Christian; Bayer, Armin; Mann, Klaus [Laser-Laboratorium-Goettingen e.V., Hans-Adolf-Krebs-Weg 1, D-37077 Goettingen (Germany)

2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

87

Formation and direct writing of color centers in LiF using a laser-induced extreme ultraviolet plasma in combination with a Schwarzschild objective  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In order to generate high-energy densities of 13.5 nm radiation an extreme ultraviolet(EUV) Schwarzschild mirror objective with a numerical aperture of 0.44 and a demagnification of 10 was developed and adapted to a compact laser-based EUVsource. The annular spherical mirror substrates were coated with Mo ? Si multilayer systems. With a single mirror reflectance of more than 65% the total transmittance of the Schwarzschild objective exceeds 40% at 13.5 nm . From the properties of the EUVsource (pulse energy 3 mJ at 13.5 nm and plasma diameter approximately 300 ? m ) energy densities of 73 mJ ? cm 2 at a pulse length of 6 ns can be estimated in the image plane of the objective. As a first application the formation of color centers in lithium fluoride crystals by EUVradiation was investigated. F 2 F 3 and F 3 + color centers could be identified by absorption spectroscopy. The formation dynamics was studied as a function of the EUV dose. By imaging of a pinhole positioned behind the plasma an EUV spot of 5 ? m diameter was generated which accomplishes direct writing of color centers with micrometer resolution.

Frank Barkusky; Christian Peth; Klaus Mann; Torsten Feigl; Norbert Kaiser

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Direct photo-etching of poly(methyl methacrylate) using focused extreme ultraviolet radiation from a table-top laser-induced plasma source  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In order to perform material interaction studies with intense extreme ultraviolet(EUV)radiation a Schwarzschild mirror objective coated with Mo/Si multilayers was adapted to a compact laser-based EUVplasma source (pulse energy 3 ? mJ ? at ? ? = 13.5 ? nm plasma diameter ? 300 ? ? m ). By 10 × demagnified imaging of the plasma a pulse energy density of ? 75 ? mJ ? cm 2 at a pulse length of 6 ns can be achieved in the image plane of the objective. As demonstrated for poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) photoetching of polymer surfaces is possible at this EUV fluence level. This paper presents first results including a systematic determination of PMMA etching rates under EUVirradiation. Furthermore the contribution of out-of-band radiation to the surface etching of PMMA was investigated by conducting a diffraction experiment for spectral discrimination from higher wavelength radiation. Imaging of a pinhole positioned behind the plasma accomplished the generation of an EUV spot of 1 ? ? m diameter which was employed for direct writing of surface structures in PMMA.

Frank Barkusky; Christian Peth; Armin Bayer; Klaus Mann

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Resonance Effects in Photoemission from TiO2-capped Mo/Si Multilayer Mirrors for Extreme Ultraviolet Applications  

SciTech Connect

In the unbaked vacuum systems of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography steppers, oxide formation and carbon growth on Mo/Si multilayer mirrors (MLMs) are competing processes leading to reflectivity loss. A major contribution to this mirror degradation is a series of surface reactions that are thought to be driven in large part by photoemitted electrons. In this paper, we focus on the resonance effects in photoemission from Mo/Si MLMs protected by thin TiO{sub 2} cap layers. In the vicinity of the resonant energy of the mirror, the energy flux of the EUV radiation forming standing wave oscillates throughout the multilayer stack. As a result, light absorption followed by the emission of photoelectrons becomes a complex process that varies rapidly with depth and photon energy. The electron emission is characterized as a function of the EUV photon energy, the angle of incidence, and the position of the standing wave with respect to the solid/vacuum interface. In our experiments, the position of the standing wave was controlled both by deliberately varying the thickness of the Si terminating layer (of the Mo/Si stack) and by depositing C films of various thicknesses on the TiO{sub 2}. The experimental data are compared with model simulations to examine the changes in photoemission yield due to the presence of carbon and to the changes in the position of the standing wave. We find that carbon deposition can have a dramatic impact on the yield and, therefore, on the rates of electron mediated reactions at the surface.

N Faradzhev; B Yakshinskiy; E Starodub; T Madey; S Hill; S Grantham; T Lucatorto; S Yulin; E Vescovo; J Keister

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

90

Direct photoetching of polymers using radiation of high energy density from a table-top extreme ultraviolet plasma source  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In order to perform material interaction studies with intense extreme ultraviolet(EUV)radiation a Schwarzschild mirror objective coated with Mo/Si multilayers was adapted to a compact laser-driven EUV plasma source utilizing a solid Au target. By 10× demagnified imaging of the plasma a maximum pulse energy density of ? 0.73 ? J / cm 2 at a wavelength of 13.5 nm can be achieved in the image plane of the objective at a pulse duration of 8.8 ns. In this paper we present EUV photoetching rates measured for polymethyl methacrylate polycarbonate and polytetrafluoroethylene at various fluence levels. A linear dependence between etch depth and applied EUV pulse number could be observed without the necessity for any incubation pulses. By evaluating the slope of these data etch rates were determined revealing also a linear behavior for low fluences. A threshold energy density could not be observed. The slope of the linear etch regime as well as deviations from the linear trend at higher energy densities are discussed and compared to data known from deep UV laser ablation. Furthermore the surface roughness of the structuredpolymers was measured by atomic force microscopy and compared to the nonirradiated polymer surface indicating a rather smooth etch process (roughness increase of 20%–30%). The different shapes of the etch craters observed for the three polymers at high energy densities can be explained by the measured fluence dependence of the etch rates having consequences for the proper use of polymerablation for beam profiling of focused EUVradiation.

Frank Barkusky; Armin Bayer; Christian Peth; Klaus Mann

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Direct photoetching of polymers using radiation of high energy density from a table-top extreme ultraviolet plasma source  

SciTech Connect

In order to perform material interaction studies with intense extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation, a Schwarzschild mirror objective coated with Mo/Si multilayers was adapted to a compact laser-driven EUV plasma source utilizing a solid Au target. By 10x demagnified imaging of the plasma a maximum pulse energy density of {approx}0.73 J/cm{sup 2} at a wavelength of 13.5 nm can be achieved in the image plane of the objective at a pulse duration of 8.8 ns. In this paper we present EUV photoetching rates measured for polymethyl methacrylate, polycarbonate, and polytetrafluoroethylene at various fluence levels. A linear dependence between etch depth and applied EUV pulse number could be observed without the necessity for any incubation pulses. By evaluating the slope of these data, etch rates were determined, revealing also a linear behavior for low fluences. A threshold energy density could not be observed. The slope of the linear etch regime as well as deviations from the linear trend at higher energy densities are discussed and compared to data known from deep UV laser ablation. Furthermore, the surface roughness of the structured polymers was measured by atomic force microscopy and compared to the nonirradiated polymer surface, indicating a rather smooth etch process (roughness increase of 20%-30%). The different shapes of the etch craters observed for the three polymers at high energy densities can be explained by the measured fluence dependence of the etch rates, having consequences for the proper use of polymer ablation for beam profiling of focused EUV radiation.

Barkusky, Frank; Bayer, Armin; Peth, Christian; Mann, Klaus [Laser-Laboratorium-Goettingen e.V., Hans-Adolf-Krebs-Weg 1, D-37077 Goettingen (Germany)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

CHROMOSPHERIC EVAPORATION IN AN M1.8 FLARE OBSERVED BY THE EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET IMAGING SPECTROMETER ON HINODE  

SciTech Connect

We discuss observations of chromospheric evaporation for a complex flare that occurred on 2012 March 9 near 03:30 UT obtained from the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on board the Hinode spacecraft. This was a multiple event with a strong energy input that reached the M1.8 class when observed by EIS. EIS was in raster mode and fortunately the slit was almost at the exact location of a significant energy input. Also, EIS obtained a full-CCD spectrum of the flare, i.e., the entire CCD was readout so that data were obtained for about the 500 lines identified in the EIS wavelength ranges. Chromospheric evaporation characterized by 150-200 km s{sup -1} upflows was observed in multiple locations in multi-million degree spectral lines of flare ions such as Fe XXII, Fe XXIII, and Fe XXIV, with simultaneous 20-60 km s{sup -1} upflows in million degree coronal lines from ions such as Fe XII-Fe XVI. The behavior of cooler, transition region ions such as O VI, Fe VIII, He II, and Fe X is more complex, but upflows were also observed in Fe VIII and Fe X lines. At a point close to strong energy input in space and time, the flare ions Fe XXII, Fe XXIII, and Fe XXIV reveal an isothermal source with a temperature close to 14 MK and no strong blueshifted components. At this location there is a strong downflow in cooler active region lines from ions such as Fe XIII and Fe XIV, on the order of 200 km s{sup -1}. We speculate that this downflow may be evidence of the downward shock produced by reconnection in the current sheet seen in MHD simulations. A sunquake also occurred near this location. Electron densities were obtained from density sensitive lines ratios from Fe XIII and Fe XIV. Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory are used with JHelioviewer to obtain a qualitative overview of the flare. However, AIA data are not presented in this paper. In summary, spectroscopic data from EIS are presented that can be used for predictive tests of models of chromospheric evaporation as envisaged in the Standard Flare Model.

Doschek, G. A.; Warren, H. P. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)] [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Young, P. R. [College of Science, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States)] [College of Science, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States)

2013-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

93

Systematic investigation of resonance-induced single-harmonic enhancement in the extreme-ultraviolet range  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate the intensity enhancement of single harmonics in high-order harmonic generation from laser plasma. We identified several targets (In, Sn, Sb, Cr, and Mn) that demonstrate resonance-induced enhancement of single harmonic, that are spectrally close to ionic transitions with strong oscillator strengths. We optimized and obtained enhancements of the 13th, 17th, 21st, 29th, and 33rd harmonics from the above targets, by varying the chirp of the 800 nm wavelength femtosecond laser. We also observe harmonic enhancement by using frequency-doubled pump laser (400 nm wavelength). For Mn plasma pumped by the 400 nm wavelength laser, the maximum order of the enhanced harmonic observed was the 17th order ({lambda}=23.5 nm), which corresponds to the highest photon energy (52.9 eV) reported for an enhanced single harmonic.

Ganeev, R. A. [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Energie, Materiaux et Telecommunications, 1650 Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Scientific Association Akadempribor, Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan, Akademgorodok, Tashkent 700125 (Uzbekistan); Bom, L. B. Elouga; Kieffer, J.-C.; Ozaki, T. [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Energie, Materiaux et Telecommunications, 1650 Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada)

2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

94

The Effects of Oxygen Plasma on the Chemical Composition and Morphology of the Ru Capping Layer of the Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Mask Blanks  

SciTech Connect

Contamination removal from extreme ultraviolet (EUV) mask surfaces is one of the most important aspects to improve reliability for the next generation of EUV lithography. We report chemical and morphological changes of the ruthenium (Ru) mask surface after oxygen plasma treatment using surface sensitive analytical methods: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Chemical analysis of the EUV masks shows an increase in the subsurface oxygen concentration, Ru oxidation and surface roughness. XPS spectra at various photoelectron takeoff angles suggest that the EUV mask surface was covered with chemisorbed oxygen after oxygen plasma treatment. It is proposed that the Kirkendall effect is the most plausible mechanism that explains the Ru surface oxidation. The etching rate of the Ru capping layer by oxygen plasma was estimated to be 1.5 {+-} 0.2 {angstrom}/min, based on TEM cross sectional analysis.

Belau, Leonid; Park, Jeong Y.; Liang, Ted; Somorjai, Gabor A.

2008-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

95

Investigation of ultraviolet response enhanced PV cell with silicon-based SINP configuration  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, we report on the realization of ultraviolet response enhancement in PV cells through the structure of ITO/SiO2/np-Silicon frame (named as SINP), which was fabricated by the state of the art process...

Bo He; ZhongQuan Ma; Lei Zhao; NanSheng Zhang…

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Tri-material multilayer coatings with high reflectivity and wide bandwidth for 25 to 50 nm extreme ultraviolet light  

SciTech Connect

Magnesium/silicon carbide (Mg/SiC) multilayers have been fabricated with normal incidence reflectivity in the vicinity of 40% to 50% for wavelengths in the 25 to 50 nm wavelength range. However many applications, for example solar telescopes and ultrafast studies using high harmonic generation sources, desire larger bandwidths than provided by high reflectivity Mg/SiC multilayers. We investigate introducing a third material, Scandium, to create a tri-material Mg/Sc/SiC multilayer allowing an increase the bandwidth while maintaining high reflectivity.

Aquila, Andrew; Salmassi, Farhad; Liu, Yanwei; Gullikson, Eric M.

2009-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

97

FAST EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET DIMMING ASSOCIATED WITH A CORONAL JET SEEN IN MULTI-WAVELENGTH AND STEREOSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS  

SciTech Connect

We have investigated a coronal jet observed near the limb on 2010 June 27 by the Hinode/X-Ray Telescope (XRT), EUV Imaging Spectrograph (EIS), and Solar Optical Telescope (SOT), and by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), and on the disk by STEREO-A/EUVI. From EUV (AIA and EIS) and soft X-ray (XRT) images we have identified both cool and hot jets. There was a small loop eruption seen in Ca II images of the SOT before the jet eruption. We found that the hot jet preceded its associated cool jet by about 2 minutes. The cool jet showed helical-like structures during the rising period which was supported by the spectroscopic analysis of the jet's emission. The STEREO observation, which enabled us to observe the jet projected against the disk, showed dimming at 195 A along a large loop connected to the jet. We measured a propagation speed of {approx}800 km s{sup -1} for the dimming front. This is comparable to the Alfven speed in the loop computed from a magnetic field extrapolation of the photospheric field measured five days earlier by the SDO/Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager, and the loop densities obtained from EIS Fe XIV {lambda}264.79/274.20 line ratios. We interpret the dimming as indicating the presence of Alfvenic waves initiated by reconnection in the upper chromosphere.

Lee, K.-S.; Moon, Y.-J.; Lee, Jin-Yi [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Innes, D. E. [Max Plank Institute for Solar System Research, D-37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany)] [Max Plank Institute for Solar System Research, D-37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany); Shibata, K. [Kwasan and Hida Observatories, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto 607-8471 (Japan)] [Kwasan and Hida Observatories, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto 607-8471 (Japan); Park, Y.-D., E-mail: lksun@khu.ac.kr [Solar and Space Weather Research Group, Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

98

Models of the Solar Chromosphere and Transition Region from SUMER and HRTS Observations: Formation of the Extreme-Ultraviolet Spectrum of Hydrogen, Carbon, and Oxygen  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present the results of optically thick non-LTE radiative transfer calculations of lines and continua of H, C I-IV, and O I-VI and other elements using a new one-dimensional, time-independent model corresponding to the average quiet-Sun chromosphere and transition region. The model is based principally on the Curdt et al. SUMER atlas of the extreme ultraviolet spectrum. Our model of the chromosphere is a semiempirical one, with the temperature distribution adjusted to obtain optimum agreement between calculated and observed continuum intensities, line intensities, and line profiles. Our model of the transition region is determined theoretically from a balance between (a) radiative losses and (b) the downward energy flow from the corona due to thermal conduction and particle diffusion, and using boundary conditions at the base of the transition region established at the top of the chromosphere from the semiempirical model. The quiet-Sun model presented here should be considered as a replacement of the earlier model C of Vernazza et al., since our new model is based on an energy-balance transition region, a better underlying photospheric model, a more extensive set of chromospheric observations, and improved calculations. The photospheric structure of the model given here is the same as in Table 3 of Fontenla, Avrett, Thuiller, & Harder. We show comparisons between calculated and observed continua, and between the calculated and observed profiles of all significant lines of H, C I-IV, and O I-VI in the wavelength range 67-173 nm. While some of the calculated lines are not in emission as observed, we find reasonable general agreement, given the uncertainties in atomic rates and cross sections, and we document the sources of the rates and cross sections used in the calculation. We anticipate that future improvements in the atomic data will give improved agreement with the observations.

Eugene H. Avrett; Rudolf Loeser

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

RAPID EVOLUTION OF THE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE DURING THE IMPULSIVE PHASE OF A MICROFLARE OBSERVED WITH THE EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET IMAGING SPECTROMETER ABOARD HINODE: HINTS OF CHROMOSPHERIC MAGNETIC RECONNECTION  

SciTech Connect

We obtained rapid cadence (11.2 s) EUV stare spectra of a solar microflare with the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer aboard Hinode. The intensities of lines formed at temperatures too cool to be found in the corona brightened by factors around 16 early during this event, indicating that we observed a site of energy deposition in the chromosphere. We derive the density evolution of the flare plasma at temperature around 2 MK from the intensity ratio of Fe XIV lines at 264.789 Å and 274.204 Å. From both lines we removed the bright pre-flare quiescent emission, and from 274.204 we removed the blended emission of Si VII ?274.180 based on the Si VII ?274.180/275.361 intensity ratio, which varies only slightly with density. In this way the flare electron density is derived with emission from only the flare plasma. The density increased by an order of magnitude from its pre-flare quiescent average of (3.43 ± 0.19) × 10{sup 9} cm{sup –3} to its maximum impulsive phase value of (3.04 ± 0.57) × 10{sup 10} cm{sup –3} in 2 minutes. The fact that this rapid increase in density is not accompanied by systematic, large upward velocities indicates that the density increase is not due to the filling of loops with evaporated chromospheric material, but rather due to material being directly heated in the chromosphere, likely by magnetic reconnection. The density increase may be due to a progression of reconnection sites to greater depths in the chromosphere, where it has access to larger densities, or it may be due to compression of 2 MK plasma by the 10 MK plasma as it attempts to expand against the high-density chromospheric plasma.

Brosius, Jeffrey W., E-mail: Jeffrey.W.Brosius@nasa.gov [Catholic University of America at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Solar Physics Laboratory, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

2013-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

100

The Solar Extreme Ultraviolet Continuum  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...continuous emission of the Sun are reviewed, and intercompared...are discussed in terms of the distribution of temperature in the solar atmosphere particularly...more precisely the value of the temperature minimum. An attempt will be...

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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101

Investigation of carbon dioxide phase shift possibility under extreme Antarctic winter conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Antarctic winter atmosphere minimal temperature and pressure series reveal that $CO_2$ phase shift (deposition) is possible in some extreme cases, even leading to possible $CO_2$ snow phenomenon at Vostok Antarctic station and in other near South Pole regions. A hypothesis has been formulated that stable $CO_2$ snow cover might have formed in Earth past which may influence interpretation of glacial chronology records. This effect may also manifest in other minor gases. Its global climate role is discussed.

Vashchenko, V M

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

EMSL - ultraviolet  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ultraviolet en Structures and Stabilities of (MgO)n Nanoclusters. http:www.emsl.pnl.govemslwebpublicationsstructures-and-stabilities-mgon-nanoclusters

103

An investigation of the usefulness of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic measurements for treaty verification  

SciTech Connect

From FY 1986 through FY 1988, we monitored extremely low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic (EM) fields to determine whether these signals could be detected from underground nuclear explosions. Signals clearly related to underground tests were detected only when the ELF field sensors were located within 10 km of surface ground zero. Theoretical analysis, based on the results of these measurements, shows that the ELF impulse signals from underground nuclear tests are of longer duration than those from lightning sources and are, therefore, less efficient in exciting resonances in the earth-ionosphere cavity, even though the source strength for each may be the same. Thus, ELF signals from underground nuclear tests with yields of <150 kT are generally lower than the background signals caused by worldwide lightning activity. Our conclusion is that ELF monitoring probably will not be useful for detecting underground nuclear tests at distances >10 km from the tests. 16 refs., 24 figs., 3 tabs.

Sweeney, J.J.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

An investigation into the vector ellipticity of extremely low frequency magnetic fields from appliances in UK homes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Elliptically polarized magnetic fields induce higher currents in the body compared with their plane polarized counterparts. This investigation examines the degree of vector ellipticity of extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs) in the home, with regard to the adverse health effects reportedly associated with ELF-MFs, for instance childhood leukaemia. Tri-axial measurements of the magnitude and phase of the 0?3000 Hz magnetic fields, produced by 226 domestic mains-fed appliances of 32 different types, were carried out in 16 homes in Worcestershire in the summer of 2004. Magnetic field strengths were low, with average (RMS) values of 0.03 ? 0.02 ?T across all residences. In contrast, background field ellipticities were high, on average 47 ? 11%. Microwave and electric ovens produced the highest ellipticities: mean respective values of 21 ? 21% and 21 ? 17% were observed 20 cm away from these appliances. There was a negative correlation between field strength and field polarization, which we attribute to the higher relative field contribution close to each individual (single-phase) appliance. The measurements demonstrate that domestic magnetic fields are extremely complex and cannot simply be characterized by traditional measurements such as time-weighted average or peak exposure levels. We conclude that ellipticity should become a relevant metric for future epidemiological studies of health and ELF-MF exposure.

Elizabeth A Ainsbury; Emma Conein; Denis L Henshaw

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Flows and Non-thermal Velocities in Solar Active Regions Observed with the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer on Hinode: A Tracer of Active Region Sources of Heliospheric Magnetic Fields?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

From Doppler velocity maps of active regions constructed from spectra obtained by the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on the Hinode spacecraft we observe large areas of outflow (20-50 km/s) that can persist for at least a day. These outflows occur in areas of active regions that are faint in coronal spectral lines formed at typical quiet Sun and active region temperatures. The outflows are positively correlated with non-thermal velocities in coronal plasmas. The bulk mass motions and non-thermal velocities are derived from spectral line centroids and line widths, mostly from a strong line of Fe XII at 195.12 Angstroms. The electron temperature of the outflow regions estimated from an Fe XIII to Fe XII line intensity ratio is about 1.2-1.4 MK. The electron density of the outflow regions derived from a density sensitive intensity ratio of Fe XII lines is rather low for an active region. Most regions average around 7E10+8 cm(-3), but there are variations on pixel spatial scales of about a factor of 4. We discuss results in detail for two active regions observed by EIS. Images of active regions in line intensity, line width, and line centroid are obtained by rastering the regions. We also discuss data from the active regions obtained from other orbiting spacecraft that support the conclusions obtained from analysis of the EIS spectra. The locations of the flows in the active regions with respect to the longitudinal photospheric magnetic fields suggest that these regions might be tracers of long loops and/or open magnetic fields that extend into the heliosphere, and thus the flows could possibly contribute significantly to the solar wind.

G. A. Doschek; H. P. Warren; J. T. Mariska; K. Muglach; J. L. Culhane; H. Hara; T Watanabe

2008-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

106

Extreme Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of the Solar Corona  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

range of spectroscopic diagnostic tech- niques to determine the temperature distribution, densities a factor of 2 lower than in the quiet sun, with much lower emission measures at temperatures above 106 K been used to infer the temperature structure and the element abundances. The importance of including

Del Zanna, Giulio

107

Extreme Tourism  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Broadcast Transcript: The stereotype of the Japanese tourist with his camera has been taken to an extreme by one Toshifumi Fujimoto. Mr. Fujimoto likes to don camo clothing and sneak up to the front lines of international ...

Hacker, Randi

2013-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

108

Extremal quantum protocols  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Generalized quantum instruments correspond to measurements where the input and output are either states or more generally quantum circuits. These measurements describe any quantum protocol including games, communications, and algorithms. The set of generalized quantum instruments with a given input and output structure is a convex set. Here we investigate the extremal points of this set for the case of finite dimensional quantum systems and generalized instruments with finitely many outcomes. We derive algebraic necessary and sufficient conditions for extremality.

Giacomo Mauro D'Ariano; Paolo Perinotti; Michal Sedlak

2011-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

109

Ultraviolet studies of interacting binaries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Interacting Binaries consist of a variety of stellar objects in different stages of evolution and those containing accreting compact objects still represent a major challenge to our understanding of not only close binary evolution but also of the chemical evolution of the Galaxy. These end-points of binary star evolution are ideal laboratories for the study of accretion and outflow processes, and provide insight on matter under extreme physical conditions. One of the key-questions of fundamental relevance is the nature of SNIa progenitors. The study of accreting compact binary systems relies on observations over the entire electromagnetic spectrum and we outline here those unresolved questions for which access to the ultraviolet range is vital, as they cannot be addressed by observations in any other spectral region.

B. T. Gaensicke; D. de Martino; T. R. Marsh; C. A. Haswell; C. Knigge; K. S. Long; S. N. Shore

2005-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

110

Weather Extremes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Extremes Extremes Nature Bulletin No. 45 December 15, 1945 Forest Preserve District of Cook County Clayton F. Smith, President Roberts Mann, Superintendent of Conservation WEATHER EXTREMES Chicago lies in a temperate zone. We are fortunate. The lowest temperature recorded here since the establishment of the Weather Bureau in 1870 was -- 23 F on Dec. 24, 1872. The lowest records elsewhere in the United States are--66 F at Riverside Ranger Station, Yellowstone Park, Wyoming, on Feb. 9, 1933; and -- 78 F at Fort Yukon, Alaska, on Jan. 14, 1934. The lowest record anywhere on earth is 90 F at Verkhoyansk, Siberia, Feb. 5 and 7, 1892. The greatest snowfall recorded in Chicago in one 24-hour period was 14.9 inches on Jan. 30, 1939; but 19.2 inches fell between 1:10 a.m. on March 24 and 8:33 p.m. on March 26, 1930.

111

Extreme superstarclusters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The presence of superstarclusters is a characteristic feature of starburst galaxies. We examine the properties of star forming regions and young star clusters in various environments, ranging from common to extreme. We then discuss new high spatial resolution mid-infrared imaging and spectroscopy of extreme superstarclusters in the obscured region of the Antennae (NGC4038-4039). We find that the PAH emission in this region is not dominated by the superstarclusters but is mostly diffuse. Emission line ratios found in our high spatial resolution data differ significantly from those in larger apertures, strongly affecting the derived results.

Paul P. van der Werf; Leonie Snijders

2006-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

112

Extreme Users WHY engage with extreme users  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Extreme Users METHOD WHY engage with extreme users HOW to engage extreme users Designers engage inspiration from their work-arounds and frameworks. When you speak with and observe extreme users, their needs extreme users are often also needs of a wider population. Determine who's extreme Determining who

Prinz, Friedrich B.

113

Extreme MPG  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Extreme MPG Extreme MPG World Record Fuel Efficiency Link to video of Pac Car Link to Pac Car Animation Pac II vehicle and team The PAC-Car II set a new world record in fuel efficient driving during the Shell Eco-marathon in Ladoux (France) on June 26, 2005. Running on hydrogen, the PAC-Car II achieved a fuel economy of 12,665 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (MPGe)! Most Efficient EPA-Certified Vehicles* Current Model Year 2013 Chevrolet Volt 2014 Chevrolet Volt City 63 Hwy 61 Comb 62 Fuel Type: Gas/Electricity Gasoline - All Years 2000 Honda Insight 2000 Honda Insight City 49 Hwy 61 Comb 53 Fuel Type: Gasoline All Fuels - All Years 2013 Scion iQ EV 2013 Scion iQ EV City 138 Hwy 105 Comb 121 Fuel Type: Electricity *Based on Combined MPG rating. Current Model Year excludes pure EVs.

114

Extremal Graph Problems, Degenerate Extremal Problems,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Extremal Graph Problems, Degenerate Extremal Problems, and Supersaturated Graphs Mikl´os Simonovits´an-type extremal problem. The graphs attaining the maximum will be called extremal and their family will be denoted and multi- ple edges. In 1940, P. Tur´an posed and solved the extremal problem of Kp+1, the complete graph

Simonovits, Miklós

115

THE EXTREME HOSTS OF EXTREME SUPERNOVAE  

SciTech Connect

We use GALEX ultraviolet (UV) and optical integrated photometry of the hosts of 17 luminous supernovae (LSNe, having peak M{sub V} < -21) and compare them to a sample of 26, 000 galaxies from a cross-match between the SDSS DR4 spectral catalog and GALEX interim release 1.1. We place the LSN hosts on the galaxy NUV - r versus M{sub r} color-magnitude diagram (CMD) with the larger sample to illustrate how extreme they are. The LSN hosts appear to favor low-density regions of the galaxy CMD falling on the blue edge of the blue cloud toward the low-luminosity end. From the UV-optical photometry, we estimate the star formation history of the LSN hosts. The hosts have moderately low star formation rates (SFRs) and low stellar masses (M{sub *}) resulting in high specific star formation rates (sSFR). Compared with the larger sample, the LSN hosts occupy low-density regions of a diagram plotting sSFR versus M{sub *} in the area having higher sSFR and lower M{sub *}. This preference for low M{sub *}, high sSFR hosts implies that the LSNe are produced by an effect having to do with their local environment. The correlation of mass with metallicity suggests that perhaps wind-driven mass loss is the factor that prevents LSNe from arising in higher-mass, higher-metallicity hosts. The massive progenitors of the LSNe (>100 M{sub sun}), by appearing in low-SFR hosts, are potential tests for theories of the initial mass function that limit the maximum mass of a star based on the SFR.

Neill, James D.; Quimby, Robert; Ofek, Eran; Wyder, Ted K.; Martin, D. Christopher; Barlow, Tom A.; Foster, Karl; Friedman, Peter G.; Morrissey, Patrick [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Sullivan, Mark [University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Gal-Yam, Avishay [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel); Howell, D. Andrew [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Dr., Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Nugent, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, MS 50F-1650, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720-8139 (United States); Seibert, Mark [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institute of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Overzier, Roderik [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Neff, Susan G. [Laboratory for Astronomy and Solar Physics, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Schiminovich, David [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Bianchi, Luciana [Center for Astrophysical Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Donas, Jose [Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, BP 8, Traverse du Siphon, 13376 Marseille Cedex 12 (France); Heckman, Timothy M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, Homewood Campus, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

2011-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

116

The irradiation hardness of CdTe solar cells was inves-tigated for extremely high fluence of protons (up to  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ABSTRACT The irradiation hardness of CdTe solar cells was inves- tigated for extremely high fluence high fluences. One general degradation characteristic for CdTe cells was calculated using a damage dose formulation, allowing a comprehen- sive comparison with other cell technologies. CdTe cells show an excellent

Romeo, Alessandro

117

Ultraviolet stimulation of hydrogen peroxide production using...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ultraviolet stimulation of hydrogen peroxide production using aminoindazole, diaminopyridine, and phenylenediamine solid polymer Ultraviolet stimulation of hydrogen peroxide...

118

Development of a laboratory extreme-ultraviolet lithography tool  

SciTech Connect

The development of a laboratory EUV lithography tool based on a laser plasma source, a 10x Schwarzchild camera, and a magnetically levitated wafer stage is presented. Interferometric measurements of the camera aberrations are incorporated into physical-optics simulations to estimate the EUV imaging performance of the camera. Experimental results demonstrate the successful matching of five multilayer reflecting surfaces, coated to specification for a wide range of figure and incidence angle requirements. High-resolution, 10x-reduction images of a reflection mask are shown.

Tichenor, D.A.; Kubiak, G.D.; Malinowski, M.E.; Stulen, R.H.; Haney, S.J.; Berger, K.W.; Nissen, R.P.; Wilkerson, G.A.; Paul, P.H.; Birtola, S.R.; Jin, P.S.; Arling, R.W.; Ray-Chaudhuri, A.K. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Sweatt, W.C.; Chow, W.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bjorkholm, J.E.; Freeman, R.R.; Himel, M.D.; MacDowell, A.A.; Tennant, D.M.; Fetter, L.A.; Wood, O.R. II [AT& T Bell Labs., Holmdel, NJ (United States); Waskiewicz, W.K.; White, D.L.; Windt, D.L. [AT& T Bell Labs., Murray Hill, NJ (United States); Jewell, T.E. [Jewell (T.E.), Boulder, CO (United States)

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Reflective optical imaging system for extreme ultraviolet wavelengths  

SciTech Connect

This invention is comprised of a projection reflection optical system having two mirrors in a coaxial, four reflection configuration to reproduce the image of an object. The mirrors have aspherical reflection surfaces to provide a very high resolution of object feature wavelengths less than 200 {mu}m, and preferably less than 100 {mu}m. An image resolution of features less than 0.05--0.1 {mu}m, is obtained over a large area field; i.e., 25.4 mm {times} 25.4 mm, with a distortion less than 0.1 of the resolution over the image field.

Viswanathan, V.K.; Newnam, B.E.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

120

Extreme ultraviolet interferometric measurements of diffraction-limited optics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and align these two-mirror, multilayer-coated Schwarzschild optical systems designed with a numerical in lithographic resolution as well as reduced flare. These two-mirror, multilayer-coated Schwarzschild objectives

Bokor, Jeffrey

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "investigating extreme ultraviolet" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

PROMINENCE PLASMA DIAGNOSTICS THROUGH EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET ABSORPTION  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we introduce a new diagnostic technique that uses EUV and UV absorption to determine the electron temperature and column emission measure, as well as the He/H relative abundance of the absorbing plasma. If a realistic assumption on the geometry of the latter can be made and a spectral code such as CHIANTI is used, then this technique can also yield the absorbing plasma hydrogen and electron density. This technique capitalizes on the absorption properties of hydrogen and helium at different wavelength ranges and temperature regimes. Several cases where this technique can be successfully applied are described. This technique works best when the absorbing plasma is hotter than 15,000 K. We demonstrate this technique on AIA observations of plasma absorption during a coronal mass ejection eruption. This technique can be easily applied to existing observations of prominences and cold plasmas in the Sun from almost all space missions devoted to the study of the solar atmosphere, which we list.

Landi, E. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Reale, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Universita di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, I-90134 Palermo (Italy)

2013-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

122

The dangers of extremes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of quantum corrections to extreme black holes indicate noeffects [10]. The dangers of extremes 8. Ori, A. : StructureFOUNDATION The dangers of extremes Donald Marolf Published

Marolf, Donald

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Materials Under Extremes | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Home | Science & Discovery | Advanced Materials | Research Areas | Materials Under Extremes SHARE Materials Under Extremes Materials that can withstand extreme conditions such...

124

Psoriasis and ultraviolet radiation  

SciTech Connect

Prevention and detection screening programs as a public health service in curtailing the ever-increasing incidence of all forms of skin cancer are reviewed. The effect of solar and artificial ultraviolet radiation on the general population and persons with psoriasis is examined. 54 refs.

Farber, E.M.; Nall, L. (Psoriasis Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States))

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Extremal quantum cloning machines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the problem of cloning a set of states that is invariant under the action of an irreducible group representation. We then characterize the cloners that are "extremal" in the convex set of group covariant cloning machines, among which one can restrict the search for optimal cloners. For a set of states that is invariant under the discrete Weyl-Heisenberg group, we show that all extremal cloners can be unitarily realized using the so-called "double-Bell states", whence providing a general proof of the popular ansatz used in the literature for finding optimal cloners in a variety of settings. Our result can also be generalized to continuous-variable optimal cloning in infinite dimensions, where the covariance group is the customary Weyl-Heisenberg group of displacements.

G. Chiribella; G. M. D'Ariano; P. Perinotti; N. J. Cerf

2005-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

126

Extreme Optimization Announcements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Extreme Optimization Announcements Assignment 3 due tomorrow @ 5pm. No late days on Extreme, we will hold extra office hours during regular section times. #12;Extreme Optimization Extreme University Fall 2014 #12;Extreme Optimization The radiotherapy problem Saving Lives: Radiotherapy Radiation

Chen, Yiling

127

Ultraviolet-Renormalon Calculus  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We consider the status of the so-called ultraviolet (UV) renormalon which contributes to large order divergences of perturbative expansions in quantum chromodynamics. We argue that although the renormalon is associated with short distance dynamics, the class of renormalon graphs is not well defined and its overall weight is not controlled by theory. From this point of view there is not much difference from the case of Borel nonsummable singularities. Phenomenologically the UV renormalon is related to an effective four-fermion interaction originating within fundamental QCD.

A. I. Vainshtein and V. I. Zakharov

1994-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

128

Type B Accident Investigation Board Report on the June 2002 High Radiation Dose to Extremities in Building 151, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This report is an independent product of the Type B Accident Investigation Board appointed by Camille Yuan-Soo Hoo, Manager of the U.S. Department of Energy, Oakland Operations Office.

129

Biomedical devices from ultraviolet LEDs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biomedical devices from ultraviolet LEDs Biomedical devices from ultraviolet LEDs Light-emitting nanocrystal diodes go ultraviolet Biomedical devices with active components could be made from nanostructured systems. February 24, 2012 Researcher working with nanocrystals A researcher at LANL works with nanocrystals. Get Expertise Researcher Sergio Brovelli Physical Chem & Applied Spectroscopy Email Research Team Leader Alberto Paleari University of Milano-Bicocca in Italy Such devices could, for example, selectively activate light-sensitive drugs for better medical treatment or probe for the presence of fluorescent markers in medical diagnostics. LEDs produce light in the ultraviolet range A process for creating glass-based, inorganic light-emitting diodes (LEDs) that produce light in the ultraviolet range has been developed by a

130

The effects of cerium doping on the size, morphology, and optical properties of ?-hematite nanoparticles for ultraviolet filtration  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: • Possible application of cerium-doped ?-hematite as ultraviolet filter. • Nanoparticles obtained through co-precipitation technique using various cerium doping levels followed by annealing. • Comprehensive materials characterisation utilizing XRD, DSC/TGA, STEM, UV–vis spectroscopy. • Increasing cerium content reduces particle sizing and alters morphology. • Solubility of cerium in hematite seen between 5 and 10% doping, 10% cerium doping greatly enhances attenuation in ultraviolet region and increases optical bandgap. - Abstract: Metal oxide nanoparticles have potential use in energy storage, electrode materials, as catalysts and in the emerging field of nanomedicine. Being able to accurately tailor the desirable properties of these nanoceramic materials, such as particle size, morphology and optical bandgap (E{sub g}) is integral in the feasibility of their use. In this study we investigate the altering of both the structure and physical properties through the doping of hematite (?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanocrystals with cerium at a range of concentrations, synthesised using a one-pot co-precipitation method. This extremely simple synthesis followed by thermal treatment results in stable Fe{sub 2?x}Ce{sub x}O{sub y} nanoceramics resulting from the burning of any unreacted precursors and transformation of goethite-cerium doped nanoparticle intermediate. The inclusion of Ce into the crystal lattice of these ?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles causes a significantly large reduction in mean crystalline size and alteration in particle morphology with increasing cerium content. Finally we report an increase optical semiconductor bandgap, along with a substantial increase in the ultraviolet attenuation found for a 10% Ce-doping concentration which shows the potential application of cerium-doped hematite nanocrystals to be used as a pigmented ultraviolet filter for cosmetic products.

Cardillo, Dean [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, AIIM Facility, University of Wollongong Innovation Campus, Squires Way, North Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia); Konstantinov, Konstantin, E-mail: konstan@uow.edu.au [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, AIIM Facility, University of Wollongong Innovation Campus, Squires Way, North Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia); Devers, Thierry [Centre de Recherche sur la Matière Divisée, Institut de Physique, site de Chartres, Université d’Orléans (France)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

131

Extreme Value Theory, Extreme Temperatures, and demonstration of extRemes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Extreme Value Theory, Extreme Temperatures, and demonstration of extRemes Eric Gilleland, National;Extremes Toolkit (extRemes) Web Page http://www.isse.ucar.edu/extremevalues/evtk.html #12;Background on Extreme Value Analysis (EVA) Motivation Central Limit Theorem Extremal Types Theorem Normal (light tail

Gilleland, Eric

132

Extremely asymmetric electron localization in H2+ controlled with a THz field  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We propose a scheme to achieve extremely asymmetric electron localization during molecular dissociations. Hydrogen molecular ion (H2+) dissociation is investigated theoretically. A THz pulse is used to steer the electron motion after the molecular ion is excited by an ultrashort ultraviolet laser pulse. A high probability, as high as 99.3%, to localize electrons on one of the two nuclei is demonstrated, with a dissociation probability of 6.14% and almost no ionization, by optimizing the peak intensities and time delay of the two pulses. Even when the total dissociation probability is increased to 25.6%, more than 96.3% electrons can be localized in all dissociation events. These results represent a significant advancement in the electronic dynamics control in molecules.

Zhengmao Jia; Zhinan Zeng; Ruxin Li; Zhizhan Xu; Yunpei Deng

2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

133

The Extremes Toolkit (extRemes) Weather and Climate Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Extremes Toolkit (extRemes) Weather and Climate Applications of Extreme Value Statistics Eric;The Extremes Toolkit (extRemes) Web Page http://www.assessment.ucar.edu/toolkit Acknowledgements 1. The Extremes Toolkit is funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) through the NCAR Weather and Cli- mate

Gilleland, Eric

134

Maximal rank of extremal marginal tracial states  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

States on coupled quantum system whose restrictions to each subsystems are normalized traces are called marginal tracial states. We investigate extremal marginal tracial states and maximal rank of such states. Diagonal marginal tracial states are also considered.

Hiromichi Ohno

2009-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

135

Climate Extremes in the Southeast United States: Observed Variability, Spatial Classification, and Related Planning.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Spatial and temporal trends in temperature and precipitation extremes were investigated for the Southeast United States for the period 1948 to 2012 using 27 extreme… (more)

Powell, Emily J.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Toward resistant vacuum-ultraviolet coatings for free-electron lasers down to 150 nm  

SciTech Connect

Research and development are currently trying to run a storage ring free-electron laser down to 150 nm with robust optics. Vacuum-ultraviolet fluoride optics with protected oxide layers and enhanced metallic mirrors are investigated.

Gatto, Alexandre; Yang Minghong; Kaiser, Norbert; Guenster, Stefan; Ristau, Detlev; Trovo, Mauro; Danailov, Miltcho

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Extremal covariant POVM's  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider the convex set of positive operator valued measures (POVM) which are covariant under a finite dimensional unitary projective representation of a group. We derive a general characterization for the extremal points, and provide bounds for the ranks of the corresponding POVM densities, also relating extremality to uniqueness and stability of optimized measurements. Examples of applications are given.

Giulio Chiribella; Giacomo Mauro D'Ariano

2004-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

138

Extremal generalized quantum measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A measurement on a section K of the set of states of a finite dimensional C*-algebra is defined as an affine map from K to a probability simplex. Special cases of such sections are used in description of quantum networks, in particular quantum channels. Measurements on a section correspond to equivalence classes of so-called generalized POVMs, which are called quantum testers in the case of networks. We find extremality conditions for measurements on K and characterize generalized POVMs such that the corresponding measurement is extremal. These results are applied to the set of channels. We find explicit extremality conditions for two outcome measurements on qubit channels and give an example of an extremal qubit 1-tester such that the corresponding measurement is not extremal.

Anna Jencova

2012-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

139

FORECAST VERIFICATION OF EXTREMES: USE OF EXTREME VALUE THEORY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 FORECAST VERIFICATION OF EXTREMES: USE OF EXTREME VALUE THEORY Rick Katz Institute for Study ON EXTREMES · Emil Gumbel (1891 ­ 1966) -- Pioneer in application of statistics of extremes (Germany, France) Conventional Methods (3) Extreme Value Theory (EVT) (4) Application of EVT to Verification (5) Frost

Katz, Richard

140

FORECAST VERIFICATION OF EXTREMES: USE OF EXTREME VALUE THEORY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 FORECAST VERIFICATION OF EXTREMES: USE OF EXTREME VALUE THEORY Rick Katz Institute for Study on Extremes · Emil Gumbel (1891 ­ 1966) -- Pioneer in application of statistics of extremes "Il est impossible que l'improbable n'arrive jamais." #12;3 OUTLINE (1) Motivation (2) Conventional Methods (3) Extreme

Katz, Richard

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "investigating extreme ultraviolet" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

FORECAST VERIFICATION OF EXTREMES: USE OF EXTREME VALUE THEORY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 FORECAST VERIFICATION OF EXTREMES: USE OF EXTREME VALUE THEORY Rick Katz Institute for Study ON EXTREMES · Emil Gumbel (1891 ­ 1966) -- Pioneer in application of statistics of extremes "Il est impossible que l'improbable n'arrive jamais." #12;3 OUTLINE (1) Motivation (2) Conventional Methods (3) Extreme

Katz, Richard

142

Extremal asymmetric universal cloning machines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The trade-offs among various output fidelities of asymmetric universal cloning machines are investigated. First we find out all the attainable optimal output fidelities for the 1 to 3 asymmetric universal cloning machine and it turns out that there are two kinds of extremal asymmetric cloning machines which have to cooperate in order to achieve some of the optimal output fidelities. Second we construct a family of extremal cloning machines that includes the universal symmetric cloning machine as well as an asymmetric 1 to $1+N$ cloning machine for qudits with two different output fidelities such that the optimal trade-off between the measurement disturbance and state estimation is attained in the limit of infinite $N$.

Mingming Jiang; Sixia Yu

2012-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

143

Impact of externally forced changes on temperature extremes.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis investigates changes in temperature extremes between 1950-2005, analysing gridded data sets of observations and climate model simulations. It focuses on changes in the… (more)

Morak, Simone

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

A combined climate extremes index for the Australian Region .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Changes in the area of Australia experiencing concurrent temperature and rainfall extremes are investigated through the use of two combined indices. The indices describe variations… (more)

Gallant, Ailie J. E.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Phytoplankton photosynthetic response to solar ultraviolet irradiance ...  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Phytoplankton photosynthetic response to solar ultraviolet irradiance in the Ross Sea Polynya: Development and evaluation of a time-dependent model with ...

146

Ultraviolet photodissociation enhances top?down mass...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ultraviolet photodissociation enhances top-down mass spectrometry as demonstrated on green fluorescent protein variants Xibei Dang 1,2 and Nicolas L. Young 1 1 Ion Cyclotron...

147

Extremality of Gaussian quantum states  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate Gaussian quantum states in view of their exceptional role within the space of all continuous variables states. A general method for deriving extremality results is provided and applied to entanglement measures, secret key distillation and the classical capacity of Bosonic quantum channels. We prove that for every given covariance matrix the distillable secret key rate and the entanglement, if measured appropriately, are minimized by Gaussian states. This result leads to a clearer picture of the validity of frequently made Gaussian approximations. Moreover, it implies that Gaussian encodings are optimal for the transmission of classical information through Bosonic channels, if the capacity is additive.

Michael M. Wolf; Geza Giedke; J. Ignacio Cirac

2005-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

148

Microgap ultra-violet detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A microgap ultra-violet detector of photons with wavelengths less than 400 run (4000 Angstroms) which comprises an anode and a cathode separated by a gas-filled gap and having an electric field placed across the gap. Either the anode or the cathode is semi-transparent to UV light. Upon a UV photon striking the cathode an electron is expelled and accelerated across the gap by the electric field causing interactions with other electrons to create an electron avalanche which contacts the anode. The electron avalanche is detected and converted to an output pulse.

Wuest, Craig R. (Danville, CA); Bionta, Richard M. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Microgap ultra-violet detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A microgap ultra-violet detector of photons with wavelengths less than 400 run (4,000 Angstroms) which comprises an anode and a cathode separated by a gas-filled gap and having an electric field placed across the gap is disclosed. Either the anode or the cathode is semi-transparent to UV light. Upon a UV photon striking the cathode an electron is expelled and accelerated across the gap by the electric field causing interactions with other electrons to create an electron avalanche which contacts the anode. The electron avalanche is detected and converted to an output pulse. 2 figs.

Wuest, C.R.; Bionta, R.M.

1994-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

150

Nonparametric Spatial Models for Extremes: Application to Extreme Temperature Data.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nonparametric Spatial Models for Extremes: Application to Extreme Temperature Data. Montserrat-developed, extending these tools to model spatial extreme data is an active area of research. In this paper, in order-developed. However, extending these tools to model spatial extreme data is an active area of research. One

Reich, Brian J.

151

Extremal covariant measurements  

SciTech Connect

We characterize the extremal points of the convex set of quantum measurements that are covariant under a finite-dimensional projective representation of a compact group, with action of the group on the measurement probability space which is generally nontransitive. In this case the POVM density is made of multiple orbits of positive operators, and, in the case of extremal measurements, we provide a bound for the number of orbits and for the rank of POVM elements. Two relevant applications are considered, concerning state discrimination with mutually unbiased bases and the maximization of the mutual information.

Chiribella, Giulio; Mauro D'Ariano, Giacomo [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica della Materia, Unita di Pavia, Dipartimento di Fisica 'A. Volta', via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy) and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

2006-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

152

Extremal covariant measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We characterize the extremal points of the convex set of quantum measurements that are covariant under a finite-dimensional projective representation of a compact group, with action of the group on the measurement probability space which is generally non-transitive. In this case the POVM density is made of multiple orbits of positive operators, and, in the case of extremal measurements, we provide a bound for the number of orbits and for the rank of POVM elements. Two relevant applications are considered, concerning state discrimination with mutually unbiased bases and the maximization of the mutual information.

G. Chiribella; G. M. D'Ariano

2006-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

153

Extreme Financial cycles$ B. Candelonb,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Extreme Financial cycles$ B. Candelonb, , G. Gauliera , C. Hurlinb aUniversity Maastricht proposes a new approach to date extreme financial cycles. Elabo- rating on recent methods in extreme value theory, it elaborates an extension of the famous calculus rule to detect extreme peaks and troughs

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

154

Extremes in Chaotic Dynamical Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Extremes in Chaotic Dynamical Systems Valerio Lucarini valerio.lucarini@uni-hamburg.de D. Faranda Vortragsthema Datum #12;1. Introduction 2. Classical Theory: Extreme Values for i.i.d. Variables 3. Extreme Values in Dynamical Systems: Theoretical Background 4. Numerical Algorithms for studying Extremes 5

155

Estimated Ultraviolet Radiation Doses in Wetlands in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Estimated Ultraviolet Radiation Doses in Wetlands in Six National Parks Stephen A. Diamond,1 ABSTRACT Ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B, 280­320-nm wave- lengths) doses were estimated for 1024 wetlands of vegetative features, and quantification of DOC concentration and spectral absorbance. UV-B dose estimates

Knapp, Roland

156

de Sitter Extremal Surfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study extremal surfaces in de Sitter space in the Poincare slicing in the upper patch, anchored on spatial subregions at the future boundary ${\\cal I}^+$, restricted to constant boundary Euclidean time slices (focussing on strip subregions). We find real extremal surfaces of minimal area as the boundaries of past lightcone wedges of the subregions in question: these are null surfaces with vanishing area. We find also complex extremal surfaces as complex extrema of the area functional, and the area is not always real-valued. In $dS_4$ the area is real and has some structural resemblance with entanglement entropy in a dual $CFT_3$. There are parallels with analytic continuation from the Ryu-Takayanagi expressions for holographic entanglement entropy in $AdS$. We also discuss extremal surfaces in the $dS$ black brane and the de Sitter "bluewall" studied previously. The $dS_4$ black brane complex surfaces exhibit a real finite cutoff-independent extensive piece. In the bluewall geometry, there are real surface...

Narayan, K

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Ultraviolet divergences in cosmological correlations  

SciTech Connect

A method is developed for dealing with ultraviolet divergences in calculations of cosmological correlations, which does not depend on dimensional regularization. An extended version of the WKB approximation is used to analyze the divergences in these calculations, and these divergences are controlled by the introduction of Pauli-Villars regulator fields. This approach is illustrated in the theory of a scalar field with arbitrary self-interactions in a fixed flat-space Robertson-Walker metric with arbitrary scale factor a(t). Explicit formulas are given for the counterterms needed to cancel all dependence on the regulator properties, and an explicit prescription is given for calculating finite regulator-independent correlation functions. The possibility of infrared divergences in this theory is briefly considered.

Weinberg, Steven [Theory Group, Department of Physics, University of Texas Austin, Texas, 78712 (United States)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

158

Holographic screens in ultraviolet self-complete quantum gravity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we study the geometry and the thermodynamics of a holographic screen in the framework of the ultraviolet self-complete quantum gravity. To achieve this goal we construct a new static, neutral, non-rotating black hole metric, whose outer (event) horizon coincides with the surface of the screen. The space-time admits an extremal configuration corresponding to the minimal holographic screen and having both mass and radius equalling the Planck units. We identify this object as the space-time fundamental building block, whose interior is physically unaccessible and cannot be probed even during the Hawking evaporation terminal phase. In agreement with the holographic principle, relevant processes take place on the screen surface. The area quantization leads to a discrete mass spectrum. An analysis of the entropy shows that the minimal holographic screen can store only one byte of information while in the thermodynamic limit the area law is corrected by a logarithmic term.

Piero Nicolini; Euro Spallucci

2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

159

Extremal Limits and Kerr Spacetime  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The fact that one must evaluate the near-extremal and near-horizon limits of Kerr space-time in a specific order, is shown to a lead to discontinuity in the extremal limit, such that this limiting space-time differs nontrivially from the precisely extremal space-time. This is established by first showing a discontinuity in the extremal limit of the maximal analytic extension of the Kerr geometry, given by Carter. Next, we examine the ISCO of the exactly extremal Kerr geometry and show that on the event horizon of the extremal Kerr black hole, it coincides with the principal null geodesic generator of the horizon, having vanishing energy and angular momentum. We find that there is no such ISCO in the near-extremal geometry, thus garnering additional support for our primary contention. We relate this disparity between the two geometries to the lack of a trapping horizon in the extremal situation.

Parthapratim Pradhan; Parthasarathi Majumdar

2011-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

160

Tetrachloroethylene Degradation by Dithionite with Ultraviolet Activation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. This project has conducted research on degrading PCE with an ARP that combines dithionite and ultraviolet activation. The purpose of the project is to provide knowledge for the development of potential wastewater treatment technologies. Several control...

Zhang, Jingyuan

2013-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "investigating extreme ultraviolet" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems: Ultraviolet Light Disinfection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Some onsite wastewater treatment systems include a disinfection component. This publication explains how homeowners can disinfect wastewater with ultraviolet light, what the components of such a system are, what factors affect the performance of a...

Lesikar, Bruce J.

2008-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

162

Extremal covariant measurements Giulio Chiribellaa  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Extremal covariant measurements Giulio Chiribellaa and Giacomo Mauro D'Arianob Istituto Nazionale characterize the extremal points of the convex set of quantum measurements that are covariant under a finite operators, and, in the case of extremal measurements, we provide a bound for the number of orbits

D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro

163

Climate Policy: Science, Economics, and Extremes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

C. Herring, 2013. Explaining extreme events of 2012 from a2010. Fat tails, exponents, extreme uncertainty: SimulatingScience, Economics, and Extremes Anthony C. Fisher and Phu

Fisher, A. C; Le, P. V

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Extremal index estimation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) + 2c(1-P(S k&0))ES Thus- 2k E(T k) = rn/r] E(T 1) = [n/r] E(S k- tp ) /d + c [n/r]P(S kW)P(S k&0)/d + 2c[n/r](1-P(S &0))ES /d 2 2 2 2 [n/r] E(S k- tp ) /d + c 8 + 2c n, k n But as conditions of lemma 3. 3 hold, and taking c=0, we can conclude.... Academic Press. New York. T. HSING (1984). Point processes associated with extreme value theorg. Tech. Rpt. 83, Center for Stoch. Proc. , Univ. N. Curolina, Chapel Hill. T. HSING (1988). On a loss of memorg propertg of the maximum. Tech. Rpt. 88...

Kampa, Aleksander Edward

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

165

The Extreme Physics Explorer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Some tests of fundamental physics - the equation of state at supra-nuclear densities, the metric in strong gravity, the effect of magnetic fields above the quantum critical value - can only be measured using compact astrophysical objects: neutron stars and black holes. The Extreme Physics Explorer is a modest sized (~500 kg) mission that would carry a high resolution (R ~300) X-ray spectrometer and a sensitive X-ray polarimeter, both with high time resolution (~5 ?s) capability, at the focus of a large area (~5 sq.m), low resolution (HPD~1 arcmin) X-ray mirror. This instrumentation would enable new classes of tests of fundamental physics using neutron stars and black holes as cosmic laboratories.

Martin Elvis

2006-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

166

Finding Extreme Subdwarfs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I develop a new technique to identify M-type extreme subdwarfs (esdMs) and demonstrate that it is substantially more efficient than previous methods. I begin by obtaining spectroscopy and improved photometry of a sample of 54 late-type halo candidates using the rNLTT reduced proper motion (RPM) diagram. From spectroscopy, I find that four of these are esdMs, three of which were previously unknown. From the improved photometry, I show that all four lie in a narrow RPM corridor that contains only 4 non-esdMs. Hence, with good photometry (i.e., without spectroscopy), it appears possible to select esdM candidates with a 50% esdM yield. This is more than an order of magnitude more efficient than previous methods.

J. L. Marshall

2007-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

167

Extremal vs. Non-Extremal Correlators with Giant Gravitons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider extremal and non-extremal three-point functions of two giant gravitons and one point-like graviton using Schur polynomials in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory and holographically, using a semiclassical Born-Infeld analysis as well as bubbling geometries. For non-extremal three-point functions our computations using all three approaches are in perfect agreement. For extremal correlators we find that our results from the bubbling geometry analysis agree with existing results from the gauge theory. The semiclassical Born-Infeld computation for the extremal case is known to give a different answer, which we interpret as a manifestation of the known subtlety of holography for extremal correlators.

Pawel Caputa; Robert de Mello Koch; Konstantinos Zoubos

2012-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

168

Gate-controlled ultraviolet photo-etching of graphene edges  

SciTech Connect

The chemical reactivity of graphene under ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation is investigated under positive and negative gate electric fields. Graphene edges are selectively etched when negative gate voltages are applied while the reactivity is significantly suppressed for positive gate voltages. Oxygen adsorption onto graphene is significantly affected by the Fermi level of the final state achieved during previous electrical measurements. UV irradiation after negative-to-positive gate sweeps causes predominant oxygen desorption while UV irradiation after gate sweeps in the opposite direction causes etching of graphene edges.

Mitoma, Nobuhiko; Nouchi, Ryo [Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Research Center, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka 599-8570 (Japan)] [Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Research Center, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka 599-8570 (Japan)

2013-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

169

Extreme measures : mechanisms driving changes in climate extremes in Australia.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Changes in the frequency and/or severity of extreme climate events have the potential to have profound societal and ecological impacts and observations suggest that in… (more)

Alexander, Lisa Victoria

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Trends in Daily Temperature and Precipitation Extremes for the Southeastern United States: 1948-2012  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Spatial and temporal trends in temperature and precipitation extremes were investigated for the period 1948 to 2012 across the southeastern United States using 27 previously defined indices. Results show that region-wide warming in extreme minimum ...

Emily J. Powell; Barry D. Keim

171

Extremality conditions for generalized channels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A generalized channel is a completely positive map that preserves trace on a given subspace. We find conditions under which a generalized channel with respect to a positively generated subspace J is an extreme point in the set of all such generalized channels. As a special case, this yields extremality conditions for quantum protocols. In particular, we obtain new extremality conditions for quantum 1-testers with 2 outcomes, which correspond to yes/no measurements on the set of quantum channels.

Anna Jencova

2012-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

172

Dynamics of laser-produced Sn microplasma for a high-brightness extreme ultraviolet light source  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

EUV light source is excessive in terms of power, cost, and size foot- print . An HVM lithography etendue on the order of 0.03 mm2 sr , and bright several watts of power . This means that the focal spot

Najmabadi, Farrokh

173

Extreme ultra-violet emission from coronal loop structures. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

We calculate the XUV line and broad-band emission from a model active-region loop. The spectrum is found to be sensitive to both the coronal heating rate and to the loop geometry.

Tucker, W.H.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

X-ray and extreme-ultraviolet emission from the coronae of Capella  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......emission measure distributions and compare...material has a temperature distribution that peaks...surfaces. Sun: flares|Sun: X-rays...at least two temperature components...continuous distribution over the temperature......

K.J.H. Phillips; M. Mathioudakis; D.P. Huenemoerder; D.R. Williams; M.E. Phillips; F.P. Keenan

2001-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

175

Small blaze angle gratings with various surface treatments for use in the extreme ultraviolet  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Three replica gratings were made from a single master; two were epoxy overcoated with different thicknesses of gold, and one was replicated directly in gold. Their performance in EUV...

Miller, Anne; Jelinsky, Patrick; Bowyer, Stuart; Welsh, Barry Y

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Multilayer coating and tests of a 10x extreme ultraviolet lithographc camera  

SciTech Connect

A new set of mirrors for the SANDIA I OX microstepper has been fabricated. The optics have been tested by optical profilometry, atomic force microscopy, EUV reflectometry and EUV scattering. These measurements allow one to predict the performance of the camera. Mo/Si multilayer coatings with the required thickness profile were produced by DC magnetron sputtering using shadow masks in front of the rotating substrates. The failure errors of the new mirrors (0.6 nm) are considerably smaller than those obtained previously, while mid-spatial frequency roughness still needs improvement. This roughness reduces mostly the throughput of the system; i. e. most of the scattered light occurs outside the field of the camera and there is only a small reduction of contrast or resolution.

Spiller, E.; Weber, F.J.; Montcalm, C.; Baker, S.L.; Gullikson, E.M.; Underwood, J.H.

1998-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

177

Time-resolved visible and extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy of laser-produced tin plasma  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and copper plasma temperature in one atmosphere of argonand copper plasma electron temperature in one atmosphere ofand copper plasma electron temperature in one atmosphere of

O'Shay, Joseph Fred

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

THE REFLECTING POWER OF SOME SUBSTANCES IN THE EXTREME ULTRA-VIOLET  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...1849 A line of the mercury arc spec- trum. Their numerical...the spectrum of the hydrogen discharge. The intensities of the light...mirror and swing the photo- electric cell to a position to receive...time by using a direct current discharge in a well out-gassed tube...

Paul R. Gleason

1929-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Extreme-ultraviolet radiation transport in small scale length laser-produced tin plasmas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Laser Plasma . Handbook of Plasma Physics, ed. A. RubenchikLaser Plasma . Handbook of Plasma Physics, ed. A. RubenchikLaser Plasma . Handbook of Plasma Physics, ed. A. Rubenchik

Sequoia, Kevin Lamar Williams

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Reflection mode imaging with nanoscale resolution using a compact extreme ultraviolet  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Schwarzschild condenser and a freestanding zone plate objective. The reported results advance the development-produced plasma source and normal-incidence multilayer mirrors," Opt. Lett. 14, 539-541 (1989). 6. I. A. Artioukov in the Schwarzschild configuration using a soft-x-ray laser at 18.2 nm," Opt. Lett. 17, 157-159 (1992). 9. T. Haga, H

Rocca, Jorge J.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "investigating extreme ultraviolet" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Actinic extreme ultraviolet mask inspection beyond 0.25 numerical aperture K. A. Goldberg,a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and smaller. An angle-scanning mirror reduces the high coherence of the synchrotron beamline light source the zoneplate lens. Glancing incidence beamline mirrors, including a Kirkpatrick­Baez KB mirror pair create Schwarzschild objective. Using an off-axis subaperture of the Schwarzs- child objecti

182

At-wavelength characterization of the extreme ultraviolet Engineering Test Stand Set-2 optic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and alignment of numerous small-field EUV 10 -reduction Schwarzschild objectives.11 Indepen- dent verification the ETS Set-2 optic has been fabri- cated and assembled. The projection optics are four-mirror, aspheric

Bokor, Jeffrey

183

Measurement and Modeling of Density-Sensitive Lines of Fe XIII in the Extreme Ultraviolet  

SciTech Connect

We present an analysis of the spectral emission of Fe XIII near 200 {angstrom}. High resolution spectra were recorded at two densities ({approx} x 10{sup 11} and {approx} 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3}) in the laboratory and compared to collisional radiative model calculations based on the CHIANTI data base as well as to models using atomic data from distorted-wave and R-matrix calculations. The Fe XIII lines in this wavelength range are sensitive indicators of plasma density below {approx} 10{sup 11} cm{sup -3}. The laboratory data thus test the calculations in the astrophysically high-density limit. Significant differences between the measurements and models were found for several line ratios. Differences in the wavelengths employed in the different models also changed the agreement with the measurements. Best agreement was found in the comparisons with CHIANTI.

Yamamoto, N; Kato, T; Beiersdorfer, P; Lepson, J K

2008-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

184

Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation for Preventing Infectious Disease  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation for Preventing Infectious Disease Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation for Preventing Infectious Disease Transmission Speaker(s): Peng Xu Date: February 19, 2002 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 The transmission of tuberculosis (TB) and other infectious diseases in health-care buildings has been a recognized hazard for decades. Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) of upper room air is used as an engineering control method to prevent the spread of airborne infectious disease. Under full-scale conditions, the efficacy of UVGI for inactivating airborne bacterial spores and active cells was evaluated. A test room fitted with a modern UVGI system was used to conduct bio-aerosol inactivation experiments. UVGI efficacy can be affected by environmental factors such as relative humidity (RH), and air mixing

185

MUTATIONS INDUCED BY ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT WITHOUT ATTENDANT LETHALITY  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...resistance by doses of ultraviolet...exposure to the radiation. With these...followed. The estimation of the extent...by noncidal doses of ultraviolet...dependent upon the dose of radiation. REFERENCES...quantitative estimation of radiation...

Thomas S. Matney; Delbert M. Shankel; Orville Wyss

1958-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Extreme Value Theory and the Solar Cycle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the statistical properties of the extreme events of the solar cycle as measured by the sunspot number. The recent advances in the methodology of the theory of extreme values is applied to the maximal extremes of the time series of sunspots. We focus on the extreme events that exceed a carefully chosen threshold and a generalized Pareto distribution is fitted to the tail of the empirical cumulative distribution. A maximum likelihood method is used to estimate the parameters of the generalized Pareto distribution and confidence levels are also given to the parameters. Due to the lack of an automatic procedure for selecting the threshold, we analyze the sensitivity of the fitted generalized Pareto distribution to the exact value of the threshold. According to the available data, that only spans the previous ~250 years, the cumulative distribution of the time series is bounded, yielding an upper limit of 324 for the sunspot number. We also estimate that the return value for each solar cycle is ~188, while the return value for a century increases to ~228. Finally, the results also indicate that the most probable return time for a large event like the maximum at solar cycle 19 happens once every ~700 years and that the probability of finding such a large event with a frequency smaller than ~50 years is very small. In spite of the essentially extrapolative character of these results, their statistical significance is very large.

A. Asensio Ramos

2007-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

187

Global Warming and Extreme Weather  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Global Warming and Extreme Weather Global Warming and Extreme Weather Speaker(s): Michael Wehner Date: November 28, 2006 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Surabi Menon Extreme weather events can have serious impacts on human and ecological systems. Changes in the magnitude and frequency of extreme weather associated with changes in the mean climate are likely the most serious consequence of human induced global warming. Understanding what the future portends is vital if society hopes to adapt to the very different world that awaits. In this talk, we will exploit simple extreme value theory to make predictions about the late 21st century climate. Current work on the relationship between global warming and the hurricane cycle will also be presented. The bottom line is that events that are considered rare today

188

Ultraviolet emissions from Gd3 + ions excited by energy transfer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ultraviolet emissions from Gd3 + ions excited by energy transfer from Ho3 + ions Ying Yu October 2010 Accepted 28 October 2010 Available online 4 November 2010 Keywords: Ultraviolet emission Upconversion Energy transfer a b s t r a c t Ultraviolet (UV) upconversion (UC) emissions of Gd3+ ion were

Cao, Wenwu

189

The Galex Ultraviolet Variability (GUVV) Catalog  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present Version 1.0 of the NASA Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) ultraviolet variability catalog (GUVV) that contains information on 84 time-variable and transient sources gained with simultaneous near and far ultraviolet photometric observations. These time-variable sources were serendipitously revealed in the various 1.2 degree star fields currently being surveyed by the GALEX satellite in two ultraviolet bands (NUV 1750-2750A, FUV 1350-1750A) with limiting AB magnitudes of 23-25. The largest-amplitude variable objects presently detected by GALEX are M-dwarf flare stars, which can brighten by 5-10 mag in both the NUV and FUV bands during short duration (< 500s) outbursts. Other types of large-amplitude ultraviolet variable objects include ab-type RR Lyrae stars, which can vary periodically by 2-5mag in the GALEX FUV band. This first GUVV catalog lists galactic positions and possible source identifications in order to provide the astronomical community with a list of time-variable objects that can now be repeatedly observed at other wavelengths. We expect the total number of time-variable source detections to increase as the GALEX mission progresses, such that later version numbers of the GUVV catalog will contain substantially more variable sources.

Barry Y. Welsh; Jonathan M. Wheatley; Kenneth Heafield; Mark Seibert; Stanley E. Browne; Samir Salim; R. Michael Rich; Tom A. Barlow; Luciana Bianchi; Yong-Ik Byun; Jose Donas; Karl Forster; Peter G. Friedman; Timothy M. Heckman; Patrick N. Jelinsky; Young-Wook Lee; Barry F. Madore; Roger F. Malina; D. Christopher Martin; Bruno Milliard; Patrick Morrissey; Susan G. Neff; David Schiminovich; Oswald H. W. Siegmund; Todd Small; Alex S. Szalay; Ted K. Wyder

2005-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

190

On extreme Bosonic linear channels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The set of all channels with fixed input and output is convex. We first give a convenient formulation of necessary and sufficient condition for a channel to be extreme point of this set in terms of complementary channel, a notion of big importance in quantum information theory. This formulation is based on the general approach to extremality of completely positive maps in an operator algebra due to Arveson. We then apply this formulation to prove the main result of this note: under certain nondegeneracy conditions, purity of the environment is necessary and sufficient for extremality of Bosonic linear (quasi-free) channel. It follows that Gaussian channel between finite-mode Bosonic systems is extreme if and only if it has minimal noise.

A. S. Holevo

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

191

Extreme field physics and QED  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We give a brief overview of the most important QED effects that can be studied in the presence of extreme fields such as those expected at the Vulcan laser upgraded to a power of 10 Petawatts.

Thomas Heinzl; Anton Ilderton

2008-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

192

Extreme events in excitable systems and mechanisms of their generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study deterministic systems, composed of excitable units of FitzHugh-Nagumo type, that are capable of self-generating and self-terminating strong deviations from their regular dynamics without the influence of noise or parameter change. These deviations are rare, short-lasting, and recurrent and can therefore be regarded as extreme events. Employing a range of methods we analyze dynamical properties of the systems, identifying features in the systems' dynamics that may qualify as precursors to extreme events. We investigate these features and elucidate mechanisms that may be responsible for the generation of the extreme events.

Gerrit Ansmann; Rajat Karnatak; Klaus Lehnertz; Ulrike Feudel

2014-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

193

Multivariate Extremes Dependence Comparison Stochastic Tail Order Back to Multivariate Extremes Dependence Comparison of Multivariate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Multivariate Extremes Dependence Comparison Stochastic Tail Order Back to Multivariate Extremes Dependence Comparison of Multivariate Extremes Haijun Li Department of Mathematics Washington State University IWAP12, Jerusalem Haijun Li Dependence Comparison of Multivariate Extremes IWAP12, Jerusalem 1

Li, Haijun

194

Northeast Climate Science Center: Transposing Extreme Rainfall...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Center: Transposing Extreme Rainfall to Assess Climate Vulnerability Northeast Climate Science Center: Transposing Extreme Rainfall to Assess Climate Vulnerability November 12,...

195

Temperature Normals/Extremes - Hanford Site  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Extremes Hanford Meteorological Station Real Time Met Data from Around the Site Current HMS Observations Daily HMS Extremes in Met Data Met and Climate Data Summary Products...

196

Extremal Quantum Correlations and Cryptographic Security  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate a fundamental property of device independent security in quantum cryptography by characterizing probability distributions which are necessarily independent of the measurement results of any eavesdropper. We show that probability distributions that are secure in this sense are exactly the extremal quantum probability distributions. This allows us to give a characterization of security in algebraic terms. We apply the method to common examples for two-party as well as multi-party setups and present a scheme for verifying security of probability distributions with two parties, two measurement settings, and two outcomes.

T. Franz; F. Furrer; R. F. Werner

2010-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

197

Extremes are better: investigating mental map preservation in dynamic graphs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Purchase,H.C. Samra,A. Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Diagrammatic Representation and Inference pp 60-73

Purchase, H.C.

198

Extreme Conditions Modeling Workshop Report  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) hosted the Wave Energy Converter (WEC) Extreme Conditions Modeling (ECM) Workshop in Albuquerque, NM on May 13th-14th, 2014. The objective of the workshop was to review the current state of knowledge on how to model WECs in extreme conditions (e.g. hurricanes and other large storms) and to suggest how U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and national laboratory resources could be used to improve ECM methods for the benefit of the wave energy industry.

Coe, R. G.; Neary, V. S.; Lawson, M. J.; Yu, Y.; Weber, J.

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Extremely correlated quantum liquids B. Sriram Shastry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Extremely correlated quantum liquids B. Sriram Shastry Physics Department, University of California; published 20 January 2010 Extreme correlations arise as the limit of strong correlations, when the local-J model, embodying such extreme correlations. We formulate the picture of an extremely correlated electron

California at Santa Cruz, University of

200

Statistical Analysis of EXTREMES in GEOPHYSICS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Statistical Analysis of EXTREMES in GEOPHYSICS Zwiers FW and Kharin VV. 1998. Changes in the extremes of the climate simulated by CCC GCM2 under CO2 dou- bling. J. Climate 11:2200­2222. http://www.ral.ucar.edu/staff/ericg/readinggroup.html #12;Outline · Some background on Extreme Value Statistics ­ Extremal Types Theorem ­ Max

Gilleland, Eric

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "investigating extreme ultraviolet" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Extremes and Atmospheric Data Eric Gilleland  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Extremes and Atmospheric Data Eric Gilleland Research Applications Laboratory National Center for Atmospheric Research 2007-08 Program on Risk Analysis, Extreme Events and Decision Theory, opening workshop 16-19 September, North Carolina #12;Extremes · Interest in making inferences about large, rare, extreme phenomena

Gilleland, Eric

202

KNMI publicatie 221 Extreme klimaatverandering en  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Superstormen 16 5.1 Introductie: extreme wind en kustverdediging 16 5.2 Extreme wind en wateropzet in het verleden 17 5.3 Detectie van superstormen 18 5.4 Extreme wind en wateropzet in de toekomst 20 5.5 DiscussieKNMI publicatie 221 · · · · · · · · april 2008 Extreme klimaatverandering en waterveiligheid

Stoffelen, Ad

203

4, 23232360, 2007 Extreme precipitation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Close Full Screen / Esc Printer-friendly Version Interactive Discussion EGU Abstract Extreme hydro that are not-commonly used by hydro-meteorology community, i.e., Kolmogorov­Smirnov test, Levene's test for small data sets (e.g., less than 100 points) and small distribution parameter difference (e.g., 50

Boyer, Edmond

204

Extremely high frequency RF effects on electronics.  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this work was to understand the fundamental physics of extremely high frequency RF effects on electronics. To accomplish this objective, we produced models, conducted simulations, and performed measurements to identify the mechanisms of effects as frequency increases into the millimeter-wave regime. Our purpose was to answer the questions, 'What are the tradeoffs between coupling, transmission losses, and device responses as frequency increases?', and, 'How high in frequency do effects on electronic systems continue to occur?' Using full wave electromagnetics codes and a transmission-line/circuit code, we investigated how extremely high-frequency RF propagates on wires and printed circuit board traces. We investigated both field-to-wire coupling and direct illumination of printed circuit boards to determine the significant mechanisms for inducing currents at device terminals. We measured coupling to wires and attenuation along wires for comparison to the simulations, looking at plane-wave coupling as it launches modes onto single and multiconductor structures. We simulated the response of discrete and integrated circuit semiconductor devices to those high-frequency currents and voltages, using SGFramework, the open-source General-purpose Semiconductor Simulator (gss), and Sandia's Charon semiconductor device physics codes. This report documents our findings.

Loubriel, Guillermo Manuel; Vigliano, David; Coleman, Phillip Dale; Williams, Jeffery Thomas; Wouters, Gregg A.; Bacon, Larry Donald; Mar, Alan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Ultraviolet Resonant Raman Enhancements in the Detection of Explosives  

SciTech Connect

Raman-based spectroscopy is potentially militarily useful for standoff detection of high explosives. Normal (non-resonance) and resonance Raman spectroscopies are both light scattering techniques that use a laser to measure the vibrational spectrum of a sample. In resonance Raman, the laser is tuned to match the wavelength of a strong electronic absorbance in the molecule of interest, whereas, in normal Raman the laser is not tuned to any strong electronic absorbance bands. The selection of appropriate excitation wavelengths in resonance Raman can result in a dramatic increase in the Raman scattering efficiency of select band(s) associated with the electronic transition. Other than the excitation wavelength, however, resonance Raman is performed experimentally the same as normal Raman. In these studies, normal and resonance Raman spectral signatures of select solid high explosive (HE) samples and explosive precursors were collected at 785 nm, 244 nm and 229 nm. Solutions of PETN, TNT, and explosive precursors (DNT & PNT) in acetonitrile solvent as an internal Raman standard were quantitatively evaluated using ultraviolet resonance Raman (UVRR) microscopy and normal Raman spectroscopy as a function of power and select excitation wavelengths. Use of an internal standard allowed resonance enhancements to be estimated at 229 nm and 244 nm. Investigations demonstrated that UVRR provided {approx}2000-fold enhancement at 244 nm and {approx}800-fold improvement at 229 nm while PETN showed a maximum of {approx}25-fold at 244 nm and {approx}190-fold enhancement at 229 nm solely from resonance effects when compared to normal Raman measurements. In addition to the observed resonance enhancements, additional Raman signal enhancements are obtained with ultraviolet excitation (i.e., Raman scattering scales as !4 for measurements based on scattered photons). A model, based partly on the resonance Raman enhancement results for HE solutions, is presented for estimating Raman enhancements for solid HE samples.

Short, B J; Carter, J C; Gunter, D; Hovland, P; Jagode, H; Karavanic, K; Marin, G; Mellor-Crummey, J; Moore, S; Norris, B; Oliker, L; Olschanowsky, C; Roth, P C; Schulz, M; Shende, S; Snavely, A; Spear, W

2009-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

206

Extreme Co-movements and Extreme Impacts in High Frequency Data in Finance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Extreme Co-movements and Extreme Impacts in High Frequency Data in Finance Zhengjun Zhang, 2006 Abstract Extreme co-movement and extreme impact problems are inherently stochastic control in the future. Extreme co-movements among financial assets have been reported in the literature. However

Zhang, Zhengjun

207

Extremal limits and black hole entropy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Taking the extremal limit of a non-extremal Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black hole (by externally varying the mass or charge), the region between the inner and outer event horizons experiences an interesting fate -- while this region is absent in the extremal case, it does not disappear in the extremal limit but rather approaches a patch of $AdS_2\\times S^2$. In other words, the approach to extremality is not continuous, as the non-extremal Reissner-Nordstr\\"om solution splits into two spacetimes at extremality: an extremal black hole and a disconnected $AdS$ space. We suggest that the unusual nature of this limit may help in understanding the entropy of extremal black holes.

Sean M. Carroll; Matthew C. Johnson; Lisa Randall

2009-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

208

Studying Materials Under Extreme Pressure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Studying Materials Under Extreme Pressure Studying Materials Under Extreme Pressure Coupling undulator radiation from Advanced Photon Source (APS) beamlines 3-ID and 13-ID to nuclear resonant inelastic scattering techniques, researchers have determined the phonon density of states for iron under pressures up to 153 gigapascals, equivalent to those found at the Earth's core. Image of the Earth's core. Although indirect measurements and theory have, since the early 1950s, produced an informed picture of the structure and composition of the materials that make up the core of the Earth, direct proof and the answers to some intriguing questions remain unanswered. Previously, ultrahigh-pressure experiments using nuclear resonant inelastic scattering have been difficult to carry out due the tiny samples required.

209

Ultraviolet Exposure and Mortality among Women in Sweden  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...questions using detailed data on solar and artificial UV exposure during...843 subjects with a total energy intake outside the 1st and 99th...Risks to Humans Volume 55: Solar and Ultraviolet Radiation...Boscoe FP , Schymura MJ.Solar ultraviolet-B exposure and...

Ling Yang; Marie Lof; Marit Bragelien Veierød; Sven Sandin; Hans-Olov Adami; and Elisabete Weiderpass

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Femtosecond laser nanomachining initiated by ultraviolet multiphoton ionization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Femtosecond laser nanomachining initiated by ultraviolet multiphoton ionization Xiaoming Yu,1) femtosecond laser pulse initiated by an ultraviolet (UV) pulse. With both pulses at a short (~60 fs) delay.g. XUV and X-ray, with the required fluence below their normal threshold. ©2013 Optical Society

Van Stryland, Eric

211

E-Print Network 3.0 - ambient ultraviolet radiation Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

(2002). Ultraviolet Radiation Session CS36. ASLO 2002 Summer Meeting, Victoria, B.C., Canada. Summary: UV Bibliography (2002). Ultraviolet Radiation Session CS36. ASLO 2002...

212

Building Technologies Office: Nano-Enabled Titanium Dioxide Ultraviolet  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nano-Enabled Titanium Nano-Enabled Titanium Dioxide Ultraviolet Protective Layers for Cool-Color Roofing Research Project to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: Nano-Enabled Titanium Dioxide Ultraviolet Protective Layers for Cool-Color Roofing Research Project on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies Office: Nano-Enabled Titanium Dioxide Ultraviolet Protective Layers for Cool-Color Roofing Research Project on Twitter Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Nano-Enabled Titanium Dioxide Ultraviolet Protective Layers for Cool-Color Roofing Research Project on Google Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Nano-Enabled Titanium Dioxide Ultraviolet Protective Layers for Cool-Color Roofing Research Project on Delicious Rank Building Technologies Office: Nano-Enabled Titanium Dioxide

213

The Properties of Ultraviolet-Luminous Galaxies at the Current Epoch  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have used the first matched set of GALEX and SDSS data to investigate the properties of a sample of 74 nearby galaxies with far-ultraviolet luminosities chosen to overlap the luminosity range of typical high-z Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs). GALEX deep surveys have shown that ultraviolet-luminous galaxies (UVLGs) similar to these are the fastest evolving component of the UV galaxy population. Model fits to the combined GALEX and SDSS photometry yield typical FUV extinctions similar to LBGs. The implied star formation rates are SFR ~ 3 to 30 solar mass per year. This overlaps the range of SFRs for LBGs. We find a strong inverse correlation between galaxy mass and far-ultraviolet surface brightness, and on this basis divide the sample into ``large'' and ``compact'' UVLGs. The compact UVLGs have half-light radii of a few kpc or less (similar to LBGs). They are relatively low mass galaxies (~10 billion solar masses) with typical velocity dispersions of 60 to 150 km/s. They span a range in metallicity from 0.3 to 1 times solar, have blue optical-UV colors, and are forming stars at a rate sufficient to build the present galaxy in ~a Gigayear. In all these respects they appear similar to the LBG population. These ``living fossils'' may therefore provide an opportunity for detailed investigation of the physical processes occurring in typical star forming galaxies in the early universe.

Timothy M. Heckman; Charles G. Hoopes; Mark Seibert; Christopher Martin; Samir Salim; R. Michael Rich; Guinevere Kauffmann; Stephane Charlot; Tom A. Barlow; Luciana Bianchi; Yong-Ik Byun; Jose Donas; Karl Forster; Patrick N. Jelinsky; Young-Wook Lee; Barry F. Madore; Roger F. Malina; Bruno Milliard; Patrick F. Morrissey; Susan G. Neff; David Schiminovich; Oswald H. W. Siegmund; Todd Small; Alex S. Szalay; Barry Y. Welsh; Ted K. Wyder

2004-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

214

ATMOSPHERIC AND OCEANIC SCIENCE LETTERS, 2013, VOL. 6, NO. 5, 312319 Changes in Daily Climate Extremes of Observed Temperature and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Extremes of Observed Temperature and Precipitation in China WANG Ai-Hui and FU Jian-Jian Nansen precipitation for 1960­2011 and maxi- mum/minimum temperature extremes for 1960­2008 re- corded at 549 stations in China are utilized to investigate climate extreme variations. A set of indices is derived and analyzed

215

High silicon content silylating reagents for dry-developed positive-tone resists for extreme ultraviolet (13.5 nm) and deep ultraviolet (248 nm) microlithography  

SciTech Connect

Recent results in the use of disilanes as silylating reagents for near-surface imaging with deep-UV (248 nm) and EUV (13.5 nm) lithography are reported. A relatively thin imaging layer of a photo-cross-linking resist is spun over a thicker layer of hard-baked resist that functions as a planarizing layer and antireflective coating. Photoinduced acid generation and subsequent heating crosslinks and renders exposed areas impermeable to an aminodisilane that reacts with the unexposed regions. Subsequent silylation and reactive ion etching afford a positive-tone image. The use of disilanes introduces a higher concentration of silicon into the polymer than is possible with silicon reagents that incorporate only one silicon atom per reactive site. The higher silicon content in the silylated polymer increases etching selectivity between exposed and unexposed regions and thereby increases the contrast. Additional improvements that help to minimize flow during silylation are also discussed, including the addition of bifunctional disilanes. We have resolved high aspect ratio, very high quality 0.20 {mu}m line and space patterns at 248 nm with a stepper having a numerical aperture (NA)= 0.53, and have resolved {<=} 0.15 {mu}m line and spaces at 13.5 nm.

Wheeler, D.; Scharrer, E.; Kubiak, G. [and others

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

216

Extreme inequalities for infinite group problems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Apr 3, 2006 ... In this paper we derive new properties of extreme inequalities for infinite group ... (f,f(r)) is called extreme if it cannot be written as a convex ...

2006-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

217

Controlled doping of graphene using ultraviolet irradiation  

SciTech Connect

The electronic properties of graphene are tunable via doping, making it attractive in low dimensional organic electronics. Common methods of doping graphene, however, adversely affect charge mobility and degrade device performance. We demonstrate a facile shadow mask technique of defining electrodes on graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) thereby eliminating the use of detrimental chemicals needed in the corresponding lithographic process. Further, we report on the controlled, effective, and reversible doping of graphene via ultraviolet (UV) irradiation with minimal impact on charge mobility. The change in charge concentration saturates at {approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2} and the quantum yield is {approx}10{sup -5} e/photon upon initial UV exposure. This simple and controlled strategy opens the possibility of doping wafer-size CVD graphene for diverse applications.

Luo Zhengtang [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong); Pinto, Nicholas J.; Davila, Yarely [Department of Physics and Electronics, University of Puerto Rico at Humacao, Humacao, 00792 (Puerto Rico); Charlie Johnson, A. T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-6396 (United States)

2012-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

218

Generator of Rainfall And Discharge Extremes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Generator of Rainfall And Discharge Extremes (GRADE) for the Rhine and Meuse basins Report RWS RIZA 2007.027 KNMI-publication 218 #12;Generator of Rainfall And Discharge Extremes (GRADE) for the Rhine.027 KNMI-publication 218 ISBN 9789036914062 #12;2Generator of Rainfall And Discharge Extremes (GRADE

Stoffelen, Ad

219

Extreme Web Data Integration Keynote @ ICWE 2012  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Extreme Web Data Integration Keynote @ ICWE 2012 26.7.2012 Felix Naumann #12;Overview Felix Naumann | Extreme Web Data Integration | ICWE 2012 2 Web Data abounds Linked, open, and otherwise iPopulator WebWILD experience #12;A brief history of data Felix Naumann | Extreme Web Data Integration | ICWE 2012 3 DBMS DBMS

Weske, Mathias

220

Extreme phase and rotated quadrature measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We determine the extreme points of the convex set of covariant phase observables. Such extremals describe the best phase parameter measurements of laser light - the best in the sense that they are free from classical randomness due to fluctuations in the measuring procedure. We also characterize extreme fuzzy rotated quadratures.

Juha-Pekka Pellonpää

2009-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "investigating extreme ultraviolet" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Extremely Correlated Fermi Liquids B. Sriram Shastry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Extremely Correlated Fermi Liquids B. Sriram Shastry Physics Department, University of California the theory of an extremely correlated Fermi liquid with U ! 1. This liquid has an underlying auxiliary Fermi liquid Green's function that is further caparisoned by extreme correlations. The theory leads to two

California at Santa Cruz, University of

222

Extreme Web Data Integration August 14, 2010  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Extreme Web Data Integration August 14, 2010 Felix Naumann #12;Acknowledgements @IBM Almaden) Open Data community Felix Naumann | Extreme Web Data Integration | NFIC 2010 2 #12;Overview Felix Naumann | Extreme Web Data Integration | NFIC 2010 3 Web Data abounds ­ linked, open, and otherwise Web

Weske, Mathias

223

Presented by Climate Extremes: The Science,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Presented by Climate Extremes: The Science, Impacts, and Policy Relevance Auroop R. Ganguly-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Ganguly_ClimateExtremes_SC10 Global warming is credible: Without-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Ganguly_ClimateExtremes_SC10 Knowledge gaps exist in the science

224

Tuning the work function of graphene by ultraviolet irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Graphene layers grown by chemical vapor deposition were, respectively, irradiated for 0, 20, 40, and 60 min by an ultraviolet light source in order to experimentally study the change in the work function of graphene. The dependences of the work function and carrier concentration upon ultraviolet irradiation have been found. It is shown that ultraviolet irradiation may lead to oxygen desorption, thus reducing the hole density and work function of graphene. Based on the well-known expression for the Fermi energy of Dirac fermions, the Fermi velocity of graphene was extracted to be about 5.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} m/s.

Lin, Yow-Jon; Zeng, Jian-Jhou [Institute of Photonics, National Changhua University of Education, Changhua 500, Taiwan (China)] [Institute of Photonics, National Changhua University of Education, Changhua 500, Taiwan (China)

2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

225

Center for Materials at Irradiation and Mechanical Extremes:...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

EFRC Research Teams Irradiation Extremes and Mechanical Extremes are the two thrusts of CMIME. Currently, each thrust has two research teams. The Irradiation Extremes Thrust teams...

226

Medical Sequencing at the extremes of Human Body Mass  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Medical Sequencing at the Extremes of Human Body Mass Nadavcandidate genes and the extremes of human body mass.especially in the population extremes of a given phenotype

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Changes in concurrent monthly precipitation and temperature extremes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

changes in daily climate extremes of temperature J. Geophys.Bayesian spatial modeling of extreme precipitation returnand Mearns L 2000 Climate extremes: observations, modeling,

Hao, Zengchao; AghaKouchak, Amir; Phillips, Thomas J

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Deinococcus geothermalis: The Pool of Extreme Radiation Resistance Genes Shrinks  

SciTech Connect

Bacteria of the genus Deinococcus are extremely resistant to ionizing radiation (IR), ultraviolet light (UV) and desiccation. The mesophile Deinococcus radiodurans was the first member of this group whose genome was completely sequenced. Analysis of the genome sequence of D. radiodurans, however, failed to identify unique DNA repair systems. To further delineate the genes underlying the resistance phenotypes, we report the whole-genome sequence of a second Deinococcus species, the thermophile Deinococcus geothermalis, which at itsoptimal growth temperature is as resistant to IR, UV and desiccation as D. radiodurans, and a comparative analysis of the two Deinococcus genomes. Many D. radiodurans genes previously implicated in resistance, but for which no sensitive phenotype was observed upon disruption, are absent in D. geothermalis. In contrast, most D. radiodurans genes whose mutants displayed a radiation-sensitive phenotype in D. radiodurans are conserved in D. geothermalis. Supporting the existence of a Deinococcus radiation response regulon, a common palindromic DNA motif was identified in a conserved set of genes associated with resistance, and a dedicated transcriptional regulator was predicted. We present the case that these two species evolved essentially the same diverse set of gene families, and that the extreme stress-resistance phenotypes of the Deinococcus lineage emerged progressively by amassing cell-cleaning systems from different sources, but not by acquisition of novel DNA repair systems. Our reconstruction of the genomic evolution of the Deinococcus-Thermus phylum indicates that the corresponding set of enzymes proliferated mainly in the common ancestor of Deinococcus. Results of the comparative analysis weaken the arguments for a role of higher-order chromosome alignment structures in resistance; more clearly define and substantially revise downward the number of uncharacterized genes that might participate in DNA repair and contribute to resistance; and strengthen the case for a role in survival of systems involved in manganese and iron homeostasis.

Makarova, Kira S.; Omelchenko, Marina V.; Gaidamakova, Elena K.; Matrosova, Vera Y.; Vasilenko, Alexander; Zhai, Min; Lapidus, Alla; Copeland, Alex; Kim, Edwin; Land, Miriam; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Pitluck, Samuel; Richardson, Paul M.; Detter, Chris; Brettin, Thomas; Saunders, Elizabeth; Lai, Barry; Ravel, Bruce; Kemner, Kenneth M.; Wolf, Yuri I.; Sorokin, Alexander; Gerasimova, Anna V.; Gelfand, Mikhail S.; Fredrickson, James K.; Koonin, Eugene V.; Daly, Michael J.

2007-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

229

The Ultraviolet Sky: An Overview from the GALEX Surveys  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) has performed the first surveys of the sky in the Ultraviolet (UV). Its legacy is an unprecedented database with more than 200 million source measurements in far-UV (FUV) and near-UV (NUV), as well as wide-field imaging of extended objects, filling an important gap in our view of the sky across the electromagnetic spectrum. The UV surveys offer unique sensitivity for identifying and studying selected classes of astrophysical objects, both stellar and extra-galactic. We examine the overall content and distribution of UV sources over the sky, and with magnitude and color. For this purpose, we have constructed final catalogs of UV sources with homogeneous quality, eliminating duplicate measurements of the same source. Such catalogs can facilitate a variety of investigations on UV-selected samples, as well as planning of observations with future missions. We describe the criteria used to build the catalogs, their coverage and completeness. We included observations in which bo...

Bianchi, Luciana; Shiao, Bernie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Granular gases under extreme driving  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study inelastic gases in two dimensions using event-driven molecular dynamics simulations. Our focus is the nature of the stationary state attained by rare injection of large amounts of energy to balance the dissipation due to collisions. We find that under such extreme driving, with the injection rate much smaller than the collision rate, the velocity distribution has a power-law high energy tail. The numerically measured exponent characterizing this tail is in excellent agreement with predictions of kinetic theory over a wide range of system parameters. We conclude that driving by rare but powerful energy injection leads to a well-mixed gas and constitutes an alternative mechanism for agitating granular matter. In this distinct nonequilibrium steady-state, energy cascades from large to small scales. Our simulations also show that when the injection rate is comparable with the collision rate, the velocity distribution has a stretched exponential tail.

W. Kang; J. Machta; E. Ben-Naim

2010-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

231

Quantitative imaging of living cells by deep ultraviolet microscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Developments in light microscopy over the past three centuries have opened new windows into cell structure and function, yet many questions remain unanswered by current imaging approaches. Deep ultraviolet microscopy ...

Zeskind, Benjamin J

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Effects of ultraviolet radiation on trophic interactions not detected?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

ambient solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation on periphyton and grazers in a ... As a result of varying solar angles, both eleva- ..... Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2E9.

1999-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

233

Attenuation of ultraviolet radiation in mountain lakes: Factors ...  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High-altitude lakes are exposed to high fluence rates of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR; 290–400 nm) ... Rimouski, Quebec, G5L 3A1 Canada (isabelle laurion@.

1910-00-90T23:59:59.000Z

234

High-speed low-voltage ultraviolet light source  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A novel quasi-spark gap has been designed and constructed with high-speed and low-spark voltage characteristics. Ultraviolet light generating sparks can be operated at a rate of up to...

Huang, L; Hsu, S C; Kwok, H S

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Effects of Seasonality on the Estimation of Environmental Extremes: A Study of Non-Homogeneous Methods for Estimating Environmental Extremes:.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Extreme value theory is commonly applied in ocean engineering to estimate extreme environmental conditions (e.g. wave height and wind speed). Extreme value models generally assume… (more)

Trahan, A.C.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of carbohydrates and nucleotides  

SciTech Connect

Carbohydrates (2-deoxyribose, ribose, and xylose) and nucleotides (adenosine-, cytidine-, guanosine-, and uridine-5{sup ?}-monophosphate) are generated in the gas phase, and ionized with vacuum ultraviolet photons (VUV, 118.2 nm). The observed time of flight mass spectra of the carbohydrate fragmentation are similar to those observed [J.-W. Shin, F. Dong, M. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, and E. R. Bernstein, Chem. Phys. Lett. 506, 161 (2011)] for 46.9 nm photon ionization, but with more intensity in higher mass fragment ions. The tendency of carbohydrate ions to fragment extensively following ionization seemingly suggests that nucleic acids might undergo radiation damage as a result of carbohydrate, rather than nucleobase fragmentation. VUV photoionization of nucleotides (monophosphate-carbohydrate-nucleobase), however, shows that the carbohydrate-nucleobase bond is the primary fragmentation site for these species. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that the removed carbohydrate electrons by the 118.2 nm photons are associated with endocyclic C–C and C–O ring centered orbitals: loss of electron density in the ring bonds of the nascent ion can thus account for the observed fragmentation patterns following carbohydrate ionization. DFT calculations also indicate that electrons removed from nucleotides under these same conditions are associated with orbitals involved with the nucleobase-saccharide linkage electron density. The calculations give a general mechanism and explanation of the experimental results.

Shin, Joong-Won, E-mail: jshin@govst.edu [Division of Science, Governors State University, University Park, Illinois 60484-0975 (United States) [Division of Science, Governors State University, University Park, Illinois 60484-0975 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523-1872 (United States); Bernstein, Elliot R., E-mail: erb@lamar.colostate.edu [Department of Chemistry, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523-1872 (United States)

2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

237

Lamp for generating high power ultraviolet radiation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The apparatus is a gas filled ultraviolet generating lamp for use as a liquid purifier. The lamp is powred by high voltage AC, but has no metallic electrodes within or in contact with the gas enclosure which is constructed as two concentric quartz cylinders sealed together at their ends with the gas fill between the cylinders. Cooling liquid is pumped through the volume inside the inner quartz cylinder where an electrically conductive pipe spaced from the inner cylinder is used to supply the cooling liquid and act as the high voltage electrode. The gas enclosure is enclosed within but spaced from a metal housing which is connected to operate as the ground electrode of the circuit and through which the treated fluid flows. Thus, the electrical circuit is from the central pipe, and through the cooling liquid, the gas enclosure, the treated liquid on the outside of the outer quartz cylinder, and to the housing. The high voltage electrode is electrically isolated from the source of cooling liquid by a length of insulated hose which also supplies the cooling liquid.

Morgan, Gary L. (Elkridge, MD); Potter, James M. (Los Alamos, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Ultraviolet extrapolations in finite oscillator bases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The use of finite harmonic oscillator spaces in many-body calculations introduces both infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) errors. The IR effects are well approximated by imposing a hard-wall boundary condition at a properly identified radius L_eff. We show that duality of the oscillator implies that the UV effects are equally well described by imposing a sharp momentum cutoff at a momentum Lambda_eff complementary to L_eff. By considering two-body systems with separable potentials, we show that the UV energy corrections depend on details of the potential, in contrast to the IR energy corrections, which depend only on the S-matrix. An adaptation of the separable treatment to more general interactions is developed and applied to model potentials as well as to the deuteron with realistic potentials. The previous success with a simple phenomenological form for the UV error is also explained. Possibilities for controlled extrapolations for A > 2 based on scaling arguments are discussed.

S. König; S. K. Bogner; R. J. Furnstahl; S. N. More; T. Papenbrock

2014-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

239

Extremely Low Temperature | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Extremely Low Temperature Extremely Low Temperature Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Print PDF Sanyal Temperature Classification: Extremely Low Temperature Dictionary.png Extremely Low Temperature: No definition has been provided for this term. Add a Definition Sanyal Temp Classification This temperature scheme was developed by Sanyal in 2005 at the request of DOE and GEA, as reported in Classification of Geothermal Systems: A Possible Scheme. Extremely Low Temperature Very Low Temperature Low Temperature Moderate Temperature High Temperature Ultra High Temperature Steam Field Reservoir fluid less than 100°C is considered to to be "extremely low temperature." Note: Sanyal classified fluids of these temperatures to be "non-electrical grade" in 2005, but electricity has since been generated from these

240

Extreme Precipitation in an Atmosphere General Circulation Model: Impact of Horizontal and Vertical Model Resolution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To investigate the influence of atmospheric model resolution on the representation of daily precipitation extremes, ensemble simulations with the atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM5 at different horizontal (T213 to T31) and vertical (L31 ...

Claudia Volosciuk; Douglas Maraun; Vladimir A. Semenov; Wonsun Park

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "investigating extreme ultraviolet" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Intensification of precipitation extremes with warming in a cloud resolving model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A cloud-resolving model is used to investigate the effect of warming on high percentiles of precipitation (precipitation extremes) in the idealized setting of radiative-convective equilibrium. While this idealized setting ...

Muller, Caroline

242

Southern hemisphere regional precipitation and climate variability : extremes trends and predictability.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This PhD thesis investigates the relative importance of oceanic and atmospheric influences on extremes, long-term trends, and seasonal to interannual variability of precipitation for different… (more)

Ummenhofer, Caroline C

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

AN ELECTRONIC COMPENDIUM OF EXTREME FUNCTIONS FOR ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nov 18, 2014 ... The proof of extremality follows the basic roadmap mentioned in [4, sub- section 2.3]. ..... sis, Georgia Institute of Technology, June 2011.

2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

244

Wave Energy Converter Extreme Conditions Modeling Workshop |...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

adopted extreme conditions design, modeling, and analysis techniques developed for offshore oil & gas and naval architecture applications. While leveraging these existing design...

245

Temperature Normals/Extremes-August - Hanford Site  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

September October November December Historical Weather Charts Temperature NormalsExtremes-August Email Email Page | Print Print Page |Text Increase Font Size Decrease Font...

246

Extremely Hazardous Substances Risk Management Act (Delaware)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This act lays out provisions for local governments to implement regulations and standards for the management of extremely hazardous substances, which are defined and categorized as follows:

247

Temperature Normals/Extremes-October - Hanford Site  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

September October November December Historical Weather Charts Temperature NormalsExtremes-October Email Email Page | Print Print Page |Text Increase Font Size Decrease Font...

248

Temperature Normals/Extremes-April - Hanford Site  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

September October November December Historical Weather Charts Temperature NormalsExtremes-April Email Email Page | Print Print Page |Text Increase Font Size Decrease Font Size...

249

Temperature Normals/Extremes-July - Hanford Site  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

September October November December Historical Weather Charts Temperature NormalsExtremes-July Email Email Page | Print Print Page |Text Increase Font Size Decrease Font Size...

250

Temperature Normals/Extremes-May - Hanford Site  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

September October November December Historical Weather Charts Temperature NormalsExtremes-May Email Email Page | Print Print Page |Text Increase Font Size Decrease Font Size...

251

Temperature Normals/Extremes-December - Hanford Site  

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September October November December Historical Weather Charts Temperature NormalsExtremes-December Email Email Page | Print Print Page |Text Increase Font Size Decrease Font...

252

Temperature Normals/Extremes-March - Hanford Site  

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September October November December Historical Weather Charts Temperature NormalsExtremes-March Email Email Page | Print Print Page |Text Increase Font Size Decrease Font Size...

253

Temperature Normals/Extremes-September - Hanford Site  

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September October November December Historical Weather Charts Temperature NormalsExtremes-September Email Email Page | Print Print Page |Text Increase Font Size Decrease Font...

254

Temperature Normals/Extremes-November - Hanford Site  

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September October November December Historical Weather Charts Temperature NormalsExtremes-November Email Email Page | Print Print Page |Text Increase Font Size Decrease Font...

255

Temperature Normals/Extremes-June - Hanford Site  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

September October November December Historical Weather Charts Temperature NormalsExtremes-June Email Email Page | Print Print Page |Text Increase Font Size Decrease Font Size...

256

Temperature Normals/Extremes-February - Hanford Site  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

September October November December Historical Weather Charts Temperature NormalsExtremes-February Email Email Page | Print Print Page |Text Increase Font Size Decrease Font...

257

Temperature Normals/Extremes-January - Hanford Site  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

September October November December Historical Weather Charts Temperature NormalsExtremes-January Email Email Page | Print Print Page |Text Increase Font Size Decrease Font...

258

Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

for Discovery of Next-Generation Materials The Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes (MaRIE) experimental facility, will be used to discover and design the advanced...

259

Direct writing of ferroelectric domains on strontium barium niobate crystals using focused ultraviolet laser light  

SciTech Connect

We report ferroelectric domain inversion in strontium barium niobate (SBN) single crystals by irradiating the surface locally with a strongly focused ultraviolet (UV) laser beam. The generated domains are investigated using piezoresponse force microscopy. We propose a simple model that allows predicting the domain width as a function of the irradiation intensity, which indeed applies for both SBN and LiNbO{sub 3}. Evidently, though fundamentally different, the domain structure of both SBN and LiNbO{sub 3} can be engineered through similar UV irradiation.

Boes, Andreas; Crasto, Tristan; Steigerwald, Hendrik; Mitchell, Arnan [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering and ARC Center for Ultra-High Bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems (CUDOS), RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria 3001 (Australia)] [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering and ARC Center for Ultra-High Bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems (CUDOS), RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria 3001 (Australia); Wade, Scott [Faculty of Engineering and Industrial Sciences, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia)] [Faculty of Engineering and Industrial Sciences, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Frohnhaus, Jakob; Soergel, Elisabeth [Institute of Physics, University of Bonn, Wegelerstr. 8, 53115 Bonn (Germany)] [Institute of Physics, University of Bonn, Wegelerstr. 8, 53115 Bonn (Germany)

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

260

Alice: The Rosetta Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We describe the design, performance and scientific objectives of the NASA-funded ALICE instrument aboard the ESA Rosetta asteroid flyby/comet rendezvous mission. ALICE is a lightweight, low-power, and low-cost imaging spectrograph optimized for cometary far-ultraviolet (FUV) spectroscopy. It will be the first UV spectrograph to study a comet at close range. It is designed to obtain spatially-resolved spectra of Rosetta mission targets in the 700-2050 A spectral band with a spectral resolution between 8 A and 12 A for extended sources that fill its ~0.05 deg x 6.0 deg field-of-view. ALICE employs an off-axis telescope feeding a 0.15-m normal incidence Rowland circle spectrograph with a concave holographic reflection grating. The imaging microchannel plate detector utilizes dual solar-blind opaque photocathodes (KBr and CsI) and employs a 2 D delay-line readout array. The instrument is controlled by an internal microprocessor. During the prime Rosetta mission, ALICE will characterize comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko's coma, its nucleus, and the nucleus/coma coupling; during cruise to the comet, ALICE will make observations of the mission's two asteroid flyby targets and of Mars, its moons, and of Earth's moon. ALICE has already successfully completed the in-flight commissioning phase and is operating normally in flight. It has been characterized in flight with stellar flux calibrations, observations of the Moon during the first Earth fly-by, and observations of comet Linear T7 in 2004 and comet 9P/Tempel 1 during the 2005 Deep Impact comet-collision observing campaign

S. A. Stern; D. C. Slater; J. Scherrer; J. Stone; M. Versteeg; M. F. A'Hearn; J. L. Bertaux; P. D. Feldman; M. C. Festou; J. Wm. Parker; O. H. W. Siegmund

2006-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "investigating extreme ultraviolet" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Air quality and thermal comfort levels under extreme hot weather  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Meteorological (T and RH values) and air pollution data (PM10, NO2 and O3 concentrations) observed in Athens, Thessaloniki and Volos were analyzed to assess the air quality and the thermal comfort conditions and to study their synergy, when extreme hot weather prevailed in Greece during the period 2001–2010. The identification of a heat wave day was based on the suggestion made by the IPCC to define an extreme weather event. According to it, a heat wave day is detected when the daily maximum hourly temperature value exceeds its 90th percentile. This temperature criterion was applied to the data recorded at the cities center. Air quality was assessed at three sites in Athens (city center, near the city center, suburb), at two sites in Thessaloniki (city center, suburb) and at one site in Volos (city center), while thermal comfort conditions were assessed at the cities center. Mean pollution levels during the heat wave days and the non-heat wave days were calculated in order to examine the impact of the extreme hot weather on air quality. For this purpose, the distributions of the common air quality index and the exceedances of the air quality standards in force during the heat wave days and the non-heat wave days were also studied. Additionally, the variation of the daily maximum hourly value of Thom's discomfort index was studied in order to investigate the effect of extreme hot weather on people's thermal comfort. Moreover, the values of the common air quality index and Thom's discomfort index were comparatively assessed so as to investigate their synergy under extreme hot weather.

D.K. Papanastasiou; D. Melas; H.D. Kambezidis

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Aminodisilanes as silylating agents for dry-developed positive-tone resists for extreme ultraviolet (13.5) microlithography  

SciTech Connect

We recently described a near-surface imaging scheme that employs disilanes and a bilayer resist scheme which together dramatically improve silicon contrast. A relatively thin 0.25 to 0.1 {mu}m imaging layer of a chemically amplified photo-crosslinking resist (Shipley XP-8844 or XP-9472) is spin coated on top of a thicker (0.25-0.5 {mu}m) layer of hard-baked resist (such as Shipley MP-1807). This bilayer scheme improves silicon contrast and provides additional advantages such as providing a planarizing layer and a processing layer.

Wheeler, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kubiak, G.; Henderson, C.; Ray-Chadhuri, A. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

High-resolution tangential absolute extreme ultraviolet arrays for radiated power density measurements on NSTX-U  

SciTech Connect

The radiated-power-density diagnostic on the equatorial midplane for the NSTX-U tokamak will be upgraded to measure the radial structure of the photon emissivity profile with an improved radial resolution. This diagnostic will enhance the characterization and studies of power balance, impurity transport, and MHD. The layout and response expected of the new system is shown for different plasma conditions and impurity concentrations. The effect of toroidal rotation driving poloidal asymmetries in the core radiation from high-Z impurities is also addressed.

Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Kozub, T. A.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Stratton, B. C. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Faust, I. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Tritz, K. [The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21209 (United States)

2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

264

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET NON-THERMAL LINE BROADENING AND HIGH-ENERGY PARTICLES DURING SOLAR FLARES  

SciTech Connect

We have studied the relationship between the location of EUV non-thermal broadening and high-energy particles during large flares using the EUV Imaging Spectrometer on board Hinode, the Nobeyama Radio Polarimeter, the Nobeyama Radioheliograph, and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory. We have analyzed five large flare events that contain thermal-rich, intermediate, and thermal-poor flares classified by the definition discussed in the paper. We found that, in the case of thermal-rich flares, the non-thermal broadening of Fe XXIV occurred at the top of the flaring loop at the beginning of the flares. The source of 17 GHz microwaves is located at the footpoint of the flare loop. On the other hand, in the case of intermediate/thermal-poor flares, the non-thermal broadening of Fe XXIV occurred at the footpoint of the flare loop at the beginning of the flares. The source of 17 GHz microwaves is located at the top of the flaring loop. We discussed the difference between thermal-rich and intermediate/thermal-poor flares based on the spatial information of non-thermal broadening, which may provide clues that the presence of turbulence plays an important role in the pitch angle scattering of high-energy electrons.

Kawate, T. [Kwasan and Hida Observatory, Kyoto University, Kurabashira, Kamitakaracho, Takayama, Gifu 506-1314 (Japan); Imada, S. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Numerical and theoretical study of the generation of extreme ultraviolet radiation by relativistic laser interaction with a grating  

SciTech Connect

The generation of harmonics by the interaction of a femtosecond, relativistic intensity laser pulse with a grating of subwavelength periodicity was studied numerically and theoretically. For normal incidence, strong, coherent emission at the wavelength of the grating period and its harmonics is obtained, nearly parallel to the target surface, due to relativistic electron bunches emanating from each protuberance. For oblique incidence (30 deg.), only even harmonics of the grating periodicity are seen, but with an even higher intensity. This is due to constructive interference of the emission from the grating protuberances. The emission along the grating surface is composed of trains of attosecond pulses; therefore there is no need to use a filter. An efficiency greater than 10{sup -4} is obtained for the 24th harmonic. The conversion efficiency is fairly constant when the similarity parameter S=n{sub e}/(a{sub 0}n{sub c})({proportional_to}n{sub e{lambda}L}/I{sub L}{sup 1/2}) is held fixed, and is optimum when S{approx_equal}4. Here, n{sub e} and n{sub c} are the electron density and the critical density; a{sub 0}=eE{sub L}/(m{sub e{omega}L}c) is the quiver momentum in the laser field E{sub L} normalized to m{sub e}c.

Lavocat-Dubuis, X.; Matte, J.-P. [INRS-Energie, Materiaux et Telecommunications, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

266

X-RAY AND EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET EMISSION FROM COMETS VLADIMIR A. KRASNOPOLSKY1, JASON B. GREENWOOD2 and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with gas and dust productions in comets and with the solar x-rays and the solar wind. Even those.2. EUVE observations 2.2.1. Observations of comet Hale-Bopp 2.2.2. X-rays in eight observations of comets using EUVE DS 2.2.3. EUVE spectra of comet Hyakutake 2.3. BeppoSAX observation of comet Hale-Bopp 2

Stancil, Phillip C.

267

ARE CORONAE OF MAGNETICALLY ACTIVE STARS HEATED BY FLARES? II. EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET AND X-RAY FLARE STATISTICS AND THE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Institut, Wu¨renlingen and Villigen, CH-5232 Villigen PSI, Switzerland; guedel@astro.phys.ethz.ch, audard@astro.columbia.edu Vinay L. Kashyap and Jeremy J. Drake Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street almost 2 orders of magnitude in their radiated energy. We compare the observed light curves with light

Audard, Marc

268

THREE-DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURE AND EVOLUTION OF EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET BRIGHT POINTS OBSERVED BY STEREO/SECCHI/EUVI  

SciTech Connect

We unveil the three-dimensional structure of quiet-Sun EUV bright points and their temporal evolution by applying a triangulation method to time series of images taken by SECCHI/EUVI on board the STEREO twin spacecraft. For this study we examine the heights and lengths as the components of the three-dimensional structure of EUV bright points and their temporal evolutions. Among them we present three bright points which show three distinct changes in the height and length: decreasing, increasing, and steady. We show that the three distinct changes are consistent with the motions (converging, diverging, and shearing, respectively) of their photospheric magnetic flux concentrations. Both growth and shrinkage of the magnetic fluxes occur during their lifetimes and they are dominant in the initial and later phases, respectively. They are all multi-temperature loop systems which have hot loops ({approx}10{sup 6.2} K) overlying cooler ones ({approx}10{sup 6.0} K) with cool legs ({approx}10{sup 4.9} K) during their whole evolutionary histories. Our results imply that the multi-thermal loop system is a general character of EUV bright points. We conclude that EUV bright points are flaring loops formed by magnetic reconnection and their geometry may represent the reconnected magnetic field lines rather than the separator field lines.

Kwon, Ryun-Young; Poomvises, Watanachak [Department of Physics, Institute for Astrophysics and Computational Sciences, Catholic University of America, 620 Michigan Avenue, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Chae, Jongchul [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Davila, Joseph M.; Jones, Shaela I. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Solar Physics Laboratory, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Zhang Jie [School of Physics, Astronomy and Computational Sciences, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Moon, Yong-Jae, E-mail: ryunyoung.kwon@nasa.gov [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

MEASUREMENT OF THE Fe VIII-Fe XVI 3-3 EMISSION IN THE EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET AND COMPARISON WITH CHIANTI  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory measurements of the n = 3 to n = 3 emission from M-shell iron ions are presented and compared to synthetic spectra from the CHIANTI spectral model. The measurements cover the range 170-290 Angstrom-Sign and are made at an electron density of about 10{sup 11} cm{sup -3}. Emission from Fe VIII through Fe XVI has been identified. Excellent agreement with CHIANTI predictions is found for most lines. Twenty weaker features are noted in the laboratory data that are either absent in CHIANTI or have recently been added and correspond to lines that have not been verified by experimental measurements. A few of these lines may have already been observed (but not yet identified) in the Sun. The features are attributed to emission from various charge states of iron, notably Fe IX and Fe XIII, and two features have been identified as transitions in Fe VIII, i.e., the 3p{sup 6}3d {sup 2}D{sub 5/2}-3p {sup 5}3d{sup 2} {sup 2}P{sub 3/2} and the 3p {sup 6}3d {sup 2}D{sub 3/2}-3p {sup 5}3d{sup 2} {sup 2}P{sub 1/2} transitions at 225.25 {+-} 0.12 and 226.35 {+-} 0.10 Angstrom-Sign , respectively. Seven lines in Fe XI, Fe XII, and Fe XIII between 200 and 205 Angstrom-Sign are noted for which the wavelengths in the CHIANTI database disagree with those in the current database of the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Our measurements of five of these lines appear to agree with the assignments used in CHIANTI.

Beiersdorfer, P.; Lepson, J. K. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 96720 (United States)

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Effects of unresolved satellite lines on lasing of extreme ultraviolet light with nitrogen plasma in a recombining phase  

SciTech Connect

Satellite lines with a high-lying spectator electron give unresolved spectral feature with respect to a parent resonance line. In our previous study [T. Ozawa et al., Phys. Plasmas 19, 063302 (2012)], population inversion between 3l and 2l of hydrogenlike nitrogen in a recombining phase was quantitatively estimated and the dielectronic-capture ladderlike processes, which implicitly include such doubly excited states as nln?l? (n=2?4,n??n), were found to be indispensable in the estimation of a gain. In this study, the population densities of the doubly excited states are explicitly calculated by a time-dependent collisional-radiative model with desired plasma conditions for the lasing of nitrogen Balmer-?, which is a parent resonance line of unresolved satellite lines 3ln?l??2ln?l?. The stimulated emission of the unresolved satellite lines caused by Balmer-? is found to reduce the population inversion between 3l and 2l, leading to essential saturation of the amplification of Balmer-? laser light.

Tatsumura, Nao; Yamamura, Shuhei; Ozawa, Takuya; Horioka, Kazuhiko; Kawamura, Tohru [Department of Energy Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatsuta 4259, Midori, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan)] [Department of Energy Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatsuta 4259, Midori, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan)

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

271

Optimization of extreme ultraviolet photons emission and collection in mass-limited laser produced plasmas for lithography application  

SciTech Connect

The progress in development of commercial system for next generation EUV lithography requires, among other factors, significant improvement in EUV photon sources such as discharge produced plasma (DPP) and laser produced plasma (LPP) devices. There are still many uncertainties in determining the optimum device since there are many parameters for the suitable and efficient energy source and target configuration and size. Complex devices with trigger lasers in DPP or with pre-pulsing in LPP provide wide area for optimization in regards to conversion efficiency (CE) and components lifetime. We considered in our analysis a promising LPP source configuration using 10-30 {mu}m tin droplet targets, and predicted conditions for the most efficient EUV radiation output and collection as well as calculating photons source location and size. We optimized several parameters of dual-beam lasers and their relationship to target size. We used our HEIGHTS comprehensive and integrated full 3D simulation package to study and optimize LPP processes with various target sizes to maximize the CE of the system.

Sizyuk, T.; Hassanein, A. [Center for Materials under Extreme Environment, School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Lasing of extreme ultraviolet light with nitrogen plasma in a recombining phase-Roles of doubly excited states  

SciTech Connect

Focused are the properties of population inversion with nitrogen plasma between n = 3 and 2 of a hydrogen-like state in a recombining phase. The population inversion is calculated in the framework of population kinetics, and the gain coefficient G is estimated. The maximum plasma length L is approximated by a product of the duration of population inversion {tau}{sub e} and the speed of light c. In the calculation, dielectronic-capture ladderlike (DL) processes are considered. At the plasma ion densities of 10{sup 17-18} cm{sup -3} with a rapid cooling, the DL deexcitations make a large contribution to the population inversion, resulting in GL=5-10, and the prescription of plasma cooling is found to be definitely critical.

Ozawa, Takuya; Yamamura, Shuhei; Tatsumura, Nao; Horioka, Kazuhiko; Kawamura, Tohru [Department of Energy Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatsuta 4259, Midori, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

273

Extremal covariant quantum operations and POVM's  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider the convex sets of QO's (quantum operations) and POVM's (positive operator valued measures) which are covariant under a general finite-dimensional unitary representation of a group. We derive necessary and sufficient conditions for extremality, and give general bounds for ranks of the extremal POVM's and QO's. Results are illustrated on the basis of simple examples.

Giacomo Mauro D'Ariano

2003-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

274

Ris R 1068EN Extreme Winds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ris R 1068EN Extreme Winds in Denmark Leif Kristensen and Ole Rathmann Ris National Laboratory of this investigationis to study, on basis of climatologicalrecords, how large extreme wind speeds are in various parts;Abstract Wind-speed data from four sites in Denmark have been analyzed in order to obtain estimates

275

Deinococcus geothermalis: The Pool of Extreme Radiation Resistance Genes Shrinks  

SciTech Connect

The whole-genome sequence of Deinococcus geothermalis is the second for an extremely ionizing radiation (IR) resistant bacterium. The first was for Deinococcus radiodurans, which for 50 years has been the subject of extensive investigations aimed at solving the mystery of how this microbe can survive immense doses of ?-rays. So far, comparative analyses between the genome of D. radiodurans and genomes of other bacteria have failed to produce a coherent picture of the underlying resistance systems. Most surprisingly, many critical DNA repair genes identified in D. radiodurans are present in sensitive bacteria, whereas the involvement of many uncharacterized genes implicated in resistance by transcriptome analyses has not been borne out by mutant studies. Genomic subtraction of D. geothermalis from D. radiodurans was used to define a minimal gene set for extreme resistance, whereby unique genes were ruled out, and shared genes were pooled as candidates for resistance. We revise down substantially the number of potential genetic determinants of extreme radiation resistance, identify a putative regulator and a palindromic binding site for genes which comprise a distinct Deinococcus radiation response regulon, and consider the impact of those findings on the prevailing models of extreme radiation resistance.

Makarova, Kira S.; Omelchenko, M. V.; Gaidamakova, E.; Matrosova, V.; Vasilenko, A.; Zhai, M.; Lapidus, Alla; Copeland, A.; Kim, E.; Land, M.; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Pitluck, S.; Richardson, P. M.; Detter, J. C.; Brettin, T.; Saunders, Elizabeth; Lai, Barry; Ravel, B.; Kemmer, K. M.; Wolf, Y. I.; Sorokin, Alexander; Gerasimova, A. V.; Gelfand, Mikhail S.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Koonin, Eugene V.; Daly, M. J.

2007-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

276

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: EXTREMES  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

EXTREMES EXTREMES EXTREMES logo. Synthesizes extreme, but statistically possible, hot, cold or average sequences of hourly weather data for periods of up to one week for a specified month and for 329 locations in North America, with the capability of modifying or expanding the data for greater flexibility. Such data are needed in the design of building heating and cooling systems, particularly systems which utilize some form of energy storage. Screen Shots Keywords extreme weather, weather sequences, simulation, energy calculation Validation/Testing N/A Expertise Required Student or engineer of HVAC system design. Low level of computer literacy required. Users Worldwide distribution. Useful for U.S. and Canada locations Audience Researchers, Students, Engineers and Architects

277

Achieving Extreme Efficiency: How to get the job done when energy is extremely  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LBNL-5601E Achieving Extreme Efficiency: How to get the job done when energy is extremely expensive the job done when energy is extremely expensive and scarce Rich Brown, Louis-Benoit Desroches, Karina and scarce Rich Brown, Louis-Benoit Desroches, Karina Garbesi and Alan Meier Environmental Energy

278

Spatially Penalized Regression for Extremes Dependence Analysis and Prediction: Case of Precipitation Extremes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Spatially Penalized Regression for Extremes Dependence Analysis and Prediction: Case of Precipitation Extremes Debasish Das1,2 , Auroop R. Ganguly1 , Snigdhansu Chatterjee3 , Vipin Kumar4 , Zoran@cs.umn.edu, zoran.obradovic@temple.edu. ABSTRACT The inability to predict precipitation extremes under non

Obradovic, Zoran

279

Extreme wave impinging and overtopping  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This investigates the velocity fields of a plunging breaking wave impinging on a structure through measurements in a two-dimensional wave tank. As the wave breaks and overtops the structure, so-called green water is generated. The flow becomes multi...

Ryu, Yong Uk

2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

280

Radiative Hydrodynamic Models of the Optical and Ultraviolet Emission from Solar Flares  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on radiative hydrodynamic simulations of moderate and strong solar flares. The flares were simulated by calculating the atmospheric response to a beam of non-thermal electrons injected at the apex of a one-dimensional closed coronal loop, and include heating from thermal soft X-ray, extreme ultraviolet and ultraviolet (XEUV) emission. The equations of radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium were treated in non-LTE and solved for numerous transitions of hydrogen, helium, and Ca II allowing the calculation of detailed line profiles and continuum emission. This work improves upon previous simulations by incorporating more realistic non-thermal electron beam models and includes a more rigorous model of thermal XEUV heating. We find XEUV backwarming contributes less than 10% of the heating, even in strong flares. The simulations show elevated coronal and transition region densities resulting in dramatic increases in line and continuum emission in both the UV and optical regions. The optical continuum reaches a peak increase of several percent which is consistent with enhancements observed in solar white light flares. For a moderate flare (~M-class), the dynamics are characterized by a long gentle phase of near balance between flare heating and radiative cooling, followed by an explosive phase with beam heating dominating over cooling and characterized by strong hydrodynamic waves. For a strong flare (~X-class), the gentle phase is much shorter, and we speculate that for even stronger flares the gentle phase may be essentially non-existent. During the explosive phase, synthetic profiles for lines formed in the upper chromosphere and transition region show blue shifts corresponding to a plasma velocity of ~120 km/s, and lines formed in the lower chromosphere show red shifts of ~40 km/s.

J. C. Allred; S. L. Hawley; W. P. Abbett; M. Carlsson

2005-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "investigating extreme ultraviolet" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

A transparent ultraviolet triggered amorphous selenium p-n junction  

SciTech Connect

This paper will introduce a semitransparent amorphous selenium (a-Se) film exhibiting photovoltaic effects under ultraviolet light created through a simple and inexpensive method. We found that chlorine can be doped into a-Se through electrolysis of saturated salt water, and converts the weak p-type material into an n-type material. Furthermore, we found that a p-n diode fabricated through this process has shown an open circuit voltage of 0.35 V toward ultraviolet illumination. Our results suggest the possibility of doping control depending on the electric current during electrolysis and the possibility of developing a simple doping method for amorphous photoconductors.

Saito, Ichitaro; Soga, Kenichi; Overend, Mauro; Amaratunga, Gehan A. J. [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Miyazaki, Wataru; Onishi, Masanori; Masuzawa, Tomoaki; Okano, Ken [Department of Physics, International Christian University, 3-10-2 Osawa Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8585 (Japan); Kudo, Yuki [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Yamada, Takatoshi [Nanotube Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan); Koh, Angel; Chua, Daniel [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, 21 Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119077 (Singapore); Aono, Masami [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Defense Academy, 1-10-20 Hashirimizu Yokosuka, Kanagawa 239-8686 (Japan)

2011-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

282

Extreme Bowen-York initial data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Bowen-York family of spinning black hole initial data depends essentially on one, positive, free parameter. The extreme limit corresponds to making this parameter equal to zero. This choice represents a singular limit for the constraint equations. We prove that in this limit a new solution of the constraint equations is obtained. These initial data have similar properties to the extreme Kerr and Reissner-Nordstrom black hole initial data. In particular, in this limit one of the asymptotic ends changes from asymptotically flat to cylindrical. The existence proof is constructive, we actually show that a sequence of Bowen-York data converges to the extreme solution.

Sergio Dain; María E. Gabach Clément

2008-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

283

Route to extreme events in excitable systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Systems of FitzHugh-Nagumo units with different coupling topologies are capable of self-generating and -terminating strong deviations from their regular dynamics that can be regarded as extreme events due to their rareness and recurrent occurrence. Here we demonstrate the crucial role of an interior crisis in the emergence of extreme events. In parameter space we identify this interior crisis as the organizing center of the dynamics by employing concepts of mixed-mode oscillations and of leaking chaotic systems. We find that extreme events occur in certain regions in parameter space, and we show the robustness of this phenomenon with respect to the system size.

Rajat Karnatak; Gerrit Ansmann; Ulrike Feudel; Klaus Lehnertz

2014-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

284

E-Print Network 3.0 - all-solid-state ultraviolet laser Sample...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ultraviolet laser Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: all-solid-state ultraviolet laser Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 All-solid-state...

285

Extreme ProgrammingCS4150-15 administrivia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Extreme ProgrammingCS4150-15 administrivia today assignment 3 due (last assignment!) extreme from original) project designs due 1 Tuesday, October 19, 2010 #12;Extreme ProgrammingCS4150-15 extreme programming extreme programming (XP) is a recent shift about the last decade plus part of agile development

Damon, Craig A.

286

CONDITIONAL EXTREMES AND NEAREXTREMES: CONCEPTS, ASYMPTOTIC THEORY, AND ECONOMIC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CONDITIONAL EXTREMES AND NEAR­EXTREMES: CONCEPTS, ASYMPTOTIC THEORY, AND ECONOMIC APPLICATIONS on Graduate Studies: iii #12; Abstract This dissertation develops the theory of extremal (near­extreme and extreme) quantile re­ gression: estimation, inference, and applications in economics. In particular

Gabrieli, John

287

Extremal shot noises, heavy tails and maxstable random fields.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Extremal shot noises, heavy tails and max­stable random fields. Clément Dombry # May 31, 2010 Abstract We consider the extremal shot noise defined by M(y) = sup{mh(y - x); (x, m) # #}, where function. Extremal shot noises naturally appear in extreme value theory as a model for spatial extremes

Recanati, Catherine

288

Extreme Scale Computing, Co-design  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Extreme Scale Computing, Co-design Extreme Scale Computing, Co-design Extreme Scale Computing, Co-design Computational co-design may facilitate revolutionary designs in the next generation of supercomputers. Get Expertise Tim Germann Physics and Chemistry of Materials Email Allen McPherson Energy and Infrastructure Analysis Email Turab Lookman Physics and Condensed Matter and Complex Systems Email Computational co-design involves developing the interacting components of a computational system as a whole. Informing system design, ensuring productive and efficient code Project Description To address the increasingly complex problems of the modern world, scientists at Los Alamos are pushing the scale of computing to the extreme, forming partnerships with other national laboratories and industry to

289

Extreme events due to localisation of energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study a one-dimensional chain of harmonically coupled units in an asymmetric anharmonic soft potential. Due to nonlinear localisation of energy, this system exhibits extreme events in the sense that individual elements of the chain show very large excitations. A detailed statistical analysis of extremes in this system reveals some unexpected properties, e.g., a pronounced pattern in the inter event interval statistics. We relate these statistical properties to underlying system dynamics, and notice that often when extreme events occur the system dynamics adopts (at least locally) an oscillatory behaviour, resulting in, for example, a quick succession of such events. The model therefore might serve as a paradigmatic model for the study of the interplay of nonlinearity, energy transport, and extreme events.

Colm Mulhern; Stephan Bialonski; Holger Kantz

2015-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

290

Extremal Problems on Posets and Hypergraphs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

]. Then |F| n n 2 . This result is tight. LYM inequality: FF 1 ( n |F |) 1. It is discovered by Lubell. It is discovered by Lubell, Yamamoto, Meshalkin, Bollob�as independently. LYM Sperner theorem #12;Posets Extremal

Griggs, Jerrold R.

291

RESISTANCE TO ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT AS AN INDEX TO THE REPRODUCTION OF BACTERIOPHAGE  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...BENZER ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT INDEX IN BACTERIOPHAGE This result...intermediate stage without reaching completion. We can test for this by making...nutrient. 1ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT INDEX IN BACTERIOPHAGE T2r is adsorbed...BENZER 1]ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT INDEX IN BAUERIOPHAGE such a low...

S. Benzer

1952-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Jordan Algebras and Extremal Black Holes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We review various properties of the exceptional Euclidean Jordan algebra of degree three. Euclidean Jordan algebras of degree three and their corresponding Freudenthal triple systems were recently shown to be intimately related to extremal black holes in N=2, d=4 homogeneous supergravities. Using a novel type of eigenvalue problem with eigenmatrix solutions, we elucidate the rich matrix geometry underlying the exceptional N=2, d=4 homogeneous supergravity and explore the relations to extremal black holes.

Michael Rios

2007-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

293

Extremal properties of interval control systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

EXTREMAL PROPERTIES OF INTERVAL CONTROL SYSTEMS A Thesis by FARIS RAGHEB KAMAL Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1991 Major... Subject: Electrical Engineering EXTREMAL PROPERTIES OF INTERVAL CONTROL SYSTEMS A Thesis by FARIS RAGHEB I&AMAL Approved as to style and content b1 Mohammed A. Dahleh (Chair of Committee) ostas Georghiades (Member ) Ehsani Mehrdad (Member...

Kamal, Faris Ragheb

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

294

Extremal Channels for a genaral Quantum system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Quantum channels can be mathematically represented as completely positive trace-preserving maps that act on a density matrix. A general quantum channel can be written as a convex sum of `extremal' channels. We show that for an $N$-level system, the extremal channel can be characterized in terms of $N^2$-$N$ real parameters coupled with rotations. We give a representation for $N$= 2, 3, 4.

Kuldeep Dixit; E. C. G. Sudarshan

2009-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

295

Could the Earth's surface Ultraviolet irradiance be blamed for the global warming? A new effect may exist  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Whether natural factors could interpret the rise of the Earth's surface temperature is still controversial. Though numerous recent researches have reported apparent correlations between solar activity and the Earth's climate, solar activity has encountered a big problem when describing the rapid global warming after 1970s. Our investigation shows the good positive correlations between the Earth's surface Ultraviolet irradiance (280-400 nm) and the Earth's surface temperature both in temporal and spatial variations by analyzing the global surface Ultraviolet irradiance (280-400 nm) and global surface temperature data from 1980-1999. The rise of CO$_2$ cannot interpret the good positive correlations, and we could even get an opposite result to the good correlations when employing the rise of CO$_2$ to describe the relation between them. Based on the good positive correlations, we suggest a new effect, named "Highly Excited Water Vapor" (HEWV) effect, which can interpret how the Sun influences the Earth's surfac...

Chen, Jilong; Zhao, Juan; Zheng, Yujun

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

APPROXIMATE PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF WIRELESS ULTRAVIOLET LINKS Zhengyuan Xu  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, the solar radiation observed outside the atmosphere shows a wavelength- dependent energy distribution due. INDEX TERMS Ultraviolet, line of sight, non-line of sight, link budget, solar blind. 1. INTRODUCTION advantages [8], such as huge unli- censed bandwidth, low-power and miniaturized transceiver, higher power

Xu, Zhengyuan "Daniel"

297

Evaluation of a Combined Ultraviolet Photocatalytic Oxidation (UVPCO) /  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Evaluation of a Combined Ultraviolet Photocatalytic Oxidation (UVPCO) / Evaluation of a Combined Ultraviolet Photocatalytic Oxidation (UVPCO) / Chemisorbent Air Cleaner for Indoor Air Applications Title Evaluation of a Combined Ultraviolet Photocatalytic Oxidation (UVPCO) / Chemisorbent Air Cleaner for Indoor Air Applications Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-62202 Year of Publication 2007 Authors Hodgson, Alfred T., Hugo Destaillats, Toshifumi Hotchi, and William J. Fisk Report Number LBNL-62202 Abstract We previously reported that gas-phase byproducts of incomplete oxidation were generated when a prototype ultraviolet photocatalytic oxidation (UVPCO) air cleaner was operated in the laboratory with indoor-relevant mixtures of VOCs at realistic concentrations. Under these conditions, there was net production of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, two important indoor air toxicants. Here, we further explore the issue of byproduct generation. Using the same UVPCO air cleaner, we conducted experiments to identify common VOCs that lead to the production of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde and to quantify their production rates. We sought to reduce the production of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde to acceptable levels by employing different chemisorbent scrubbers downstream of the UVPCO device. Additionally, we made preliminary measurements to estimate the capacity and expected lifetime of the chemisorbent media. For most experiments, the system was operated at 680 - 780 m3/h (400 - 460 cfm).

298

Drought and the California Delta—A Matter of Extremes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

California Delta—A Matter of Extremes Michael Dettinger 1, *1962 California is in an extreme drought as a result of lowIn large part, this extreme variability arises from the

Dettinger, Michael; Cayan, Daniel R.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Extreme Value Analysis and Ventures into Space and Time  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Extreme Value Analysis and Ventures into Space and Time 15 Center for Atmospheric Research Copyright NCAR 2013 #12;Extreme Value Analysis'arrive jamais" --Emil Gumbel Copyright NCAR 2013 Extreme Value Analysis #12;Copyright

Gilleland, Eric

300

Regime Transition of the North Atlantic Oscillation and the Extreme Cold Event over Europe in January–February 2012  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, large-scale aspects for the onset of the extreme cold European weather event in January–February 2012 are investigated. It is shown that the outbreak of this extreme cold weather event may be attributed to the transition from a ...

Dehai Luo; Yao Yao; Steven B. Feldstein

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "investigating extreme ultraviolet" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

SpatialIntensity Variations in Extreme Precipitation in the Contiguous United States and the MaddenJulian Oscillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(MJO) are investigated. Daily gridded precipitation is used to define two types of contiguous regionsSpatial­Intensity Variations in Extreme Precipitation in the Contiguous United States form 23 January 2012) ABSTRACT The spatial­intensity variability of extreme precipitation over

California at Santa Barbara, University of

302

Daily HMS Extremes in Met Data - Hanford Site  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hanford Meteorological Station > Daily HMS Extremes in Met Data Hanford Meteorological Station Real Time Met Data from Around the Site Current HMS Observations Daily HMS Extremes...

303

Daily HMS Extremes in Met Data - Hanford Site  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Meteorological Station > Daily HMS Extremes in Met Data Hanford Meteorological Station Real Time Met Data from Around the Site Current HMS Observations Daily HMS Extremes in Met...

304

Remote measurement of sulfur dioxide emissions using an ultraviolet light sensitive video system  

SciTech Connect

Remote measurements of SO/sub 2/ emissions and plume velocities were made with a portable ultraviolet light-sensitive video system and compared with EPA in-stack compliance measurement methods. The instrument system measures the ultraviolet light absorption of SO/sub 2/ and movement of SO/sub 2/ fluctuations in the effluent plume and relates these measurements to the SO/sub 2/ concentration and velocity of the plume. Laboratory and field tests were conducted to establish the potential for using this technique for rapid surveillance of SO/sub 2/ emissions. The effects caused by submicron aerosols also were investigated. The field tests were performed on two occasions. On the first occasion, SO/sub 2/ and plume velocity measurements were made at a typical coal-fired power plant with flue gas desulfurization (FGD) controls (concentrations ranged from 80 to 365 ppm). The second occasion involved participation in an urban particulate modeling study, which resulted in routine SO/sub 2/ emission measurements performed at 12 industrial sites. The results of smoke generator and field tests indicate that the sulfur dioxide concentration of smoke stack emissions can be made with an accuracy less than +/-120 ppm (relative to the EPA stack test compliance method), provided the particulate opacity of the emissions is less than 22 percent. The velocity measurement feature of the instrument correlated poorly with the EPA compliance method for stack gas velocity.

McElhoe, H.B.; Conner, W.D.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Vacuum-Ultraviolet (VUV) Photoionization of Small Methanol and Methanol-Water Clusters  

SciTech Connect

In this work, we report on the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization of small methanol and methanol-water clusters. Clusters of methanol with water are generated via co-expansion of the gas phase constituents in a continuous supersonic jet expansion of methanol and water seeded in Ar. The resulting clusters are investigated by single photon ionization with tunable vacuum-ultraviolet synchrotron radiation and mass analyzed using reflectron mass spectrometry. Protonated methanol clusters of the form (CH3OH)nH+(n = 1-12) dominate the mass spectrum below the ionization energy of the methanol monomer. With an increase in water concentration, small amounts of mixed clusters of the form (CH3OH n(H2O)H+ (n = 2-11) are detected. The only unprotonated species observed in this work are the methanol monomer and dimer. Appearance energies are obtained from the photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves for CH3OH+, (CH3OH)2+, (CH3OH)nH+ (n = 1-9), and (CH3OH)n(H2O)H+ (n = 2-9) as a function of photon energy. With an increasein the water content in the molecular beam, there is an enhancement of photoionization intensity for the methanol dimer and protonated methanol monomer at threshold. These results are compared and contrasted to previous experimental observations.

Kostko, Oleg; Belau, Leonid; Wilson, Kevin R.; Ahmed, Musahid

2008-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

306

Transiting the Sun: The impact of stellar activity on X-ray and ultraviolet transits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Transits of hot Jupiters in X-rays and the ultraviolet have been shown to be both deeper and more variable than the corresponding optical transits. This variability has been attributed to hot Jupiters having extended atmospheres at these wavelengths. Using resolved images of the Sun from NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory spanning 3.5 years of Solar Cycle 24 we simulate transit light curves of a hot Jupiter to investigate the impact of Solar like activity on our ability to reliably recover properties of the planet's atmosphere in soft X-rays (94 {\\AA}), the UV (131-1700 {\\AA}), and the optical (4500 {\\AA}). We find that for stars with similar activity levels to the Sun, the impact of stellar activity results in the derived radius of the planet in soft X-ray/EUV to be underestimated by up-to 25% or overestimated by up-to 50% depending on whether the planet occults active regions. We also find that in up-to 70% of the X-ray light curves the planet transits over bright star spots. In the far ultraviolet (1600 &am...

Llama, J

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

ULTRAVIOLET SPECTROSCOPIC ANALYSIS OF TRANSIENT MASS FLOW OUTBURST IN U CEPHEI  

SciTech Connect

Spectra from the International Ultraviolet Explorer taken in 1989 September over one full orbital period of U Cephei (U Cep, HD 5796) are analyzed. The TLUSTY and SYNSPEC stellar atmospheric simulation programs are used to generate synthetic spectra to which U Cep continuum levels are normalized. Absorption lines attributed to the photosphere are divided out to isolate mass flow and accretion spectra. A radial velocity curve is constructed for conspicuous gas stream features, and shows evidence for a transient flow during secondary eclipse with outward velocities ranging between 200 and 350 km s{sup –1}, and a number density of (3 ± 2) × 10{sup 10} cm{sup –3}. The validity of C IV 1548 and 1550 and Si IV 1393 and 1402 lines are re-examined in the context of extreme rotational blending effects. A G-star to B-star mass transfer rate of (5 ± 4) × 10{sup –9} M{sub ?} yr{sup –1} is calculated as an approximate upper limit, and a model system is presented.

Tupa, Peter R.; DeLeo, Gary G.; McCluskey, George E. [Physics Department, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States); Kondo, Yoji [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Sahade, Jorge [Facultad de Ciencias Astronómicas, Paseo del Bosque s/n, B1900FWA-La Plata (Argentina); Giménez, Alvaro [Centro de Astrobiologia, CSIC/INTA, Carretera de Torrejon a Ajalvir, E-28850 Torrejon de Ardoz (Madrid) (Spain); Caton, Daniel B., E-mail: pet205@lehigh.edu [Appalachian State University, Boone, NC 28608 (United States)

2013-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

308

Extreme Scale Computing, Co-design  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Extreme Scale Computing, Co-design Extreme Scale Computing, Co-design Informing system design, ensuring productive and efficient code Project Description To address the increasingly complex problems of the modern world, scientists at Los Alamos are pushing the scale of computing to the extreme, forming partnerships with other national laboratories and industry to develop supercomputers that can achieve "exaflop" speeds-that is, a quintillion (a million trillion) calculations per second. To put such speed in perspective, it is equivalent to 50 million laptops all working together at the same time. Researchers are also developing the interacting components of a computational system as a whole. This approach, known as computational co-design, may facilitate revolutionary designs in the next generation of supercomputers.

309

Extreme Computing Software | Argonne National Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Extreme Computing Software Extreme Computing Software Argonne's Mathematics and Computer Science Division is exploring new approaches to systems software, fault tolerance, and innovative programming models for next-generation computers. Software for extreme computing includes: ADLB (Asynchronous Dynamic Load Balancing) is an MPI-based software library designed to help rapidly build scalable parallel programs. It provides a master/worker system with a put/get API for task descriptions, thus allowing workers to add work dynamically to the system. The library has been used as an execution engine for complicated applications such as Green's function Monte Carlo and higher level "many-task" programming models. Aesop is a high-productivity programming language designed for highly concurent services.

310

Extreme multistability in a chemical model system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coupled systems can exhibit an unusual kind of multistability, namely, the coexistence of infinitely many attractors for a given set of parameters. This extreme multistability is demonstrated to occur in coupled chemical model systems with various types of coupling. We show that the appearance of extreme multistability is associated with the emergence of a conserved quantity in the long-term limit. This conserved quantity leads to a “slicing” of the state space into manifolds corresponding to the value of the conserved quantity. The state space “slices” develop as t?? and there exists at least one attractor in each of them. We discuss the dependence of extreme multistability on the coupling and on the mismatch of parameters of the coupled systems.

Calistus N. Ngonghala; Ulrike Feudel; Kenneth Showalter

2011-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

311

Reduction of turkey hatching egg shell contamination with ultraviolet irradiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Page v ACKNOWLEDGMENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS VI VI I LIST OF FIGURES IX LIST OF TABLES INTRODUCTION LITERATURE REVIEW Introduction Potential Egg Sanitizers Ultraviolet Light as an Egg Sanitizer TREATMENT OF TURKEY HATCHING EGGS... of organic material entering a hatchery is the eggs (Coufal, 2000), eggshell sanitation is considered a critical control point (CCP) in the hatching process. It is considered a CCP because eggshell sanitation is critical in preventing hatchery pathogen...

Russo, Rebecca Ann

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

On the ultraviolet behaviour of quantum fields over noncommutative manifolds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

By exploiting the relation between Fredholm modules and the Segal-Shale-Stinespring version of canonical quantization, and taking as starting point the first-quantized fields described by Connes' axioms for noncommutative spin geometries, a Hamiltonian framework for fermion quantum fields over noncommutative manifolds is introduced. We analyze the ultraviolet behaviour of second-quantized fields over noncommutative 3-tori, and discuss what behaviour should be expected on other noncommutative spin manifolds.

Varilly, J C; Varilly, Joseph C.; Gracia-Bondia, Jose M.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Magnetic fluorescent lamp having reduced ultraviolet self-absorption  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The radiant emission of a mercury-argon discharge in a fluorescent lamp assembly (10) is enhanced by providing means (30) for establishing a magnetic field with lines of force along the path of electron flow through the bulb (12) of the lamp assembly, to provide Zeeman splitting of the ultraviolet spectral line. Optimum results are obtained when the magnetic field strength causes a Zeeman splitting of approximately 1.7 times the thermal line width.

Berman, Samuel M. (San Francisco, CA); Richardson, Robert W. (Pelham, NY)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Inorganic volumetric light source excited by ultraviolet light  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to a composition for the volumetric generation of radiation. The composition comprises a porous substrate loaded with a component capable of emitting radiation upon interaction with an exciting radiation. Preferably, the composition is an aerogel substrate loaded with a component, e.g., a phosphor, capable of interacting with exciting radiation of a first energy, e.g., ultraviolet light, to produce radiation of a second energy, e.g., visible light.

Reed, Scott (Albuquerue, NM); Walko, Robert J. (Albuquerue, NM); Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerue, NM); Brinker, C. Jeffrey (Albuquerue, NM)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

EXTREMAL METRIC FOR THE FIRST EIGENVALUE ON A KLEIN BOTTLE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

EXTREMAL METRIC FOR THE FIRST EIGENVALUE ON A KLEIN BOTTLE DMITRY JAKOBSON, NIKOLAI NADIRASHVILI extremal metrics. The only known extremal metrics are a round sphere, a standard projective plane, a Clifford torus and an equilateral torus. We construct an extremal metric on a Klein bottle. It is a metric

Leclercq, Remi

316

STATISTICS OF PRECIPITATION EXTREMES: QUANTIFYING CONFIDENCE IN TRENDS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 STATISTICS OF PRECIPITATION EXTREMES: QUANTIFYING CONFIDENCE IN TRENDS Rick Katz Institute of the validity of this analysis." -- Emil Gumbel #12;3 Outline (1) Introduction (2) Extreme Value Analysis under Stationarity: Classical Approach (3) Extreme Value Analysis under Stationarity: Modern Approach (4) Extreme

Katz, Richard

317

STATISTICS OF EXTREMES IN CLIMATE CHANGE Richard W. Katz  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

STATISTICS OF EXTREMES IN CLIMATE CHANGE Richard W. Katz Institute for Study of Society the application of the statistical theory of extreme values to climate, in general, and to climate change, in particular. The statistical theory of extreme values is briefly reviewed, both the extremal types theorem

Katz, Richard

318

STATISTICS OF EXTREMES IN CLIMATE: RECONCILING THEORY WITH OBSERVATIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 STATISTICS OF EXTREMES IN CLIMATE: RECONCILING THEORY WITH OBSERVATIONS Rick Katz Institute) Unified Modeling of Distributions (6) Resources #12;4 #12;5 (1) Background · Use of Extremal Models -- Stochastic weather generators Improved treatment of extremes #12;6 (2) Observed Tail Behavior · Extreme Value

Katz, Richard

319

EXTREMAL METRIC FOR THE FIRST EIGENVALUE ON A KLEIN BOTTLE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

EXTREMAL METRIC FOR THE FIRST EIGENVALUE ON A KLEIN BOTTLE DMITRY JAKOBSON, NIKOLAI NADIRASHVILI extremal metrics. The only known extremal metrics are a round sphere, a standard projective plane, a Cli#11;ord torus and an equilateral torus. We construct an extremal metric on a Klein bottle. It is a metric

Jakobson, Dmitry

320

European Temperature Extremes: Mechanisms and Responses to Climate Change  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

European Temperature Extremes: Mechanisms and Responses to Climate Change PhD Thesis Julien temperature extremes under CC December 22, 2010 1 / 41 #12;Extremes? Why? Summer 2003: public & scientific of summer heat-waves (e.g., Fischer and Schär, 2009). Years ISI Publi's topic: 'Temperature extreme' 1985

Ribes, Aurélien

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "investigating extreme ultraviolet" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

On Extremes and Crashes Alexander J. McNeil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to withstand extreme winds or extreme water levels. The 50­year return level is a level which, on averageOn Extremes and Crashes Alexander J. McNeil Departement Mathematik ETH Zentrum CH­8092 Z¨urich Tel in extreme value theory as part of his mathematics degree. He therefore decides to undertake an analysis

McNeil, Alexander J.

322

On Extremes and Crashes Alexander J. McNeil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

extreme winds or extreme water levels. The 50-year return level is a level which, on average, should onlyOn Extremes and Crashes Alexander J. McNeil Departement Mathematik ETH Zentrum CH-8092 Zurich Tel in extreme value theory as part of his mathematics degree. He therefore decides to undertake an analysis

McNeil, Alexander J.

323

Estimation methods review and analysis of offshore extreme wind speeds and wind energy resources  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Offshore wind resources are more abundant and stronger and they blow more consistently than land-based wind resources. While gale force winds are easier to hit on the sea, the strong wind vibration and wind loads may exert severe damage and shock to wind turbines and wind power grids, even resulting in power grid collapse. Thus, to develop offshore wind power, apart from accurate quantitative wind energy potential assessments, it is necessary to effectively estimate extreme wind speeds. Toward this purpose, this paper investigates the current status of extreme wind speeds and wind energy assessment from literature review. It turns out that much work on wind energy estimation has been performed, whereas relatively little research involves extreme wind speeds, the main challenge stemming from the limited availability of derived extreme winds. Then a GH method based on artificial intelligence optimization algorithms is developed to re-analyze future samples of extreme wind speeds. On the basis of the re-analyzed extreme samples, as well as the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) and Gumbel models optimized by Cuckoo Search (CS) and Chaotic Particle Swarm Optimization (CPSO) algorithms, the potential risks of extreme wind speeds are conducted based on 23-year (1990–2012) historic wind speeds. Thus, in terms of wind speeds, a comprehensive estimation for offshore wind energy is initially implemented in Bohai Rim, China. The assessment shows that the study areas have high-strength wind power but are rarely subjected to extreme wind speeds, which implies that it is suitable for wind farm construction.

Jianzhou Wang; Shanshan Qin; Shiqiang Jin; Jie Wu

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Extreme overirradiance events in São Paulo, Brazil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Phenomena of overirradiance have been pointed all over the World. This note presents the most extreme enhancement event reported in Brazil, which contains an irradiance reading of 1590 W/m2 measured in São Paulo (latitude 23°32?S) at relatively low altitude (760 m a.s.l.).

Marcelo Pinho Almeida; Roberto Zilles; Eduardo Lorenzo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Ultra- and extremely high energy neutrino astronomy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Scientific motivations for ultra- and extremely high energy neutrino astronomy are considered. Sources and expected fluxes of EHE/UHE neutrinos are briefly discussed. Operating and planned experiments on astrophysical neutrino detection are reviewed focusing on deep underwater/ice Cherenkov neutrino telescopes.

I. Sokalski

2005-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

326

Viscosity to entropy ratio at extremality  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Assuming gauge theory realization at the boundary, we show that the viscosity to entropy ratio is 1/(4 pi) where the bulk is represented by a large class of extremal black holes in anti-de Sitter space. In particular, this class includes multiple R-charged black holes in various dimensions.

Sayan K. Chakrabarti; Sachin Jain; Sudipta Mukherji

2009-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

327

Extremes in climate science Andreas Sterl (KNMI)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(non-deterministic) influences: sun, volcanoes, anthropogenic effects (GHG emissions) => deterministic Sterl, PhysMathClim Climate change GHG concentrations increase => Temperature increases => other weather;31.01.2012, Utrecht Andreas Sterl, PhysMathClim EVT - 1 Extremes: tail of a distribution => few observations => tail

Stoffelen, Ad

328

ECSS in the eXtreme  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The ESAC Gaia team engages in a form of eXtreme programming while the DPAC will follow a series of six month development cycles modeled on this approach. As a project within the European Space Agency the European Committee for Space Standardization (ECSS) standards are required. We present the bringing together of these realms.

William O'Mullane; John Hoar; Uwe Lammers

2007-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

329

Extremal unital completely positive normal maps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the convex set of unital completely positive normal map on a von-Neumann algebra and find a necessary and sufficient condition for an element in the convex set to be extremal. We also deal with the same problem for the convex subset which admits a faithful normal state.

Anilesh Mohari

2013-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

330

Investigations of the plume accompanying pulsed ultraviolet laser ablation of graphite in vacuum  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, and subsequent radiative cascade from the high n,l Rydberg states that result. The distribution of C neutral be accommodated, re- bound back into the gas phase, or induce surface modification via sputtering, compaction, the laser­target interac- tions will be sensitively dependent both on the nature and condition of the target

Bristol, University of

331

Intensity enhancement of O VI ultraviolet emission lines in solar spectra due to opacity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Opacity is a property of many plasmas, and it is normally expected that if an emission line in a plasma becomes optically thick, its intensity ratio to that of another transition that remains optically thin should decrease. However, radiative transfer calculations undertaken both by ourselves and others predict that under certain conditions the intensity ratio of an optically thick to thin line can show an increase over the optically thin value, indicating an enhancement in the former. These conditions include the geometry of the emitting plasma and its orientation to the observer. A similar effect can take place between lines of differing optical depth. Previous observational studies have focused on stellar point sources, and here we investigate the spatially-resolved solar atmosphere using measurements of the I(1032 A)/I(1038 A) intensity ratio of O VI in several regions obtained with the Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation (SUMER) instrument on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (...

Keenan, F P; Madjarska, M S; Rose, S J; Bowler, L A; Britton, J; McCrink, L; Mathioudakis, M

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Enhanced ultraviolet photoconductivity in semiconducting ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films  

SciTech Connect

We have investigated the conductivity and photoconductivity response of undoped and Li-doped ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} epitaxial films grown using pulsed-laser deposition. A significant enhancement of the ultraviolet (UV) photoresponse is observed with Li doping that also correlates with an enhanced luminescent intensity. The wavelength dependence observed for creation of free carriers under UV excitation suggests that the transition is either band-to-band or involves a defect level near the band edge. Moderate n-type dark conductivity is observed for undoped films processed under reducing conditions. With Li doping, dark conductivity is reduced, suggesting that lithium ions in the zinc gallate lattice serve as deep acceptors. In addition, Li doping effectively eliminates persistent photoconductivity that is commonly observed in undoped films, suggesting the possible use of Li-doped ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} as a visible wavelength blind UV photodetector.

Lee, Yong Eui; Norton, David P.; Budai, John D.; Wei, Yayi

2001-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

333

Injection locking of a high power ultraviolet laser diode for laser cooling of ytterbium atoms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We developed a high-power laser system at a wavelength of 399 nm for laser cooling of ytterbium atoms with ultraviolet laser diodes. The system is composed of an external cavity laser diode providing frequency stabilized output at a power of 40 mW and another laser diode for amplifying the laser power up to 220 mW by injection locking. The systematic method for optimization of our injection locking can also be applied to high power light sources at any other wavelengths. Our system, which does not depend on complex nonlinear frequency-doubling, has great importance for implementing transportable optical lattice clocks, and is also useful for investigations on condensed matter physics or quantum information processing using cold atoms.

Toshiyuki Hosoya; Martin Miranda; Ryotaro Inoue; Mikio Kozuma

2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

334

Inhibition of Photosynthesis in Some Algae by Extreme-Red Light Author(s): Eugene Rabinowitch, Govindjee, Jan B. Thomas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Inhibition of Photosynthesis in Some Algae by Extreme-Red Light Author(s): Eugene Rabinowitch://www.jstor.org #12;Inhibition of Photosynthesis in Some Algae by Extreme"Red Light Abstract. Photosynthesis produced lamp through a very dense aqueous solution of the phycobilins, produces little or no photosynthesis

Govindjee

335

Hubble Space Telescope Near-Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of the Bright CEMP-no Star BD+44 493  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present an elemental-abundance analysis, in the near-ultraviolet (NUV) spectral range, for the extremely metal-poor star BD+44 493, a 9th magnitude sub-giant with [Fe/H] = -3.8 and enhanced carbon, based on data acquired with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. This star is the brightest example of a class of objects that, unlike the great majority of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars, does not exhibit over-abundances of heavy neutron-capture elements (CEMP-no). In this paper, we validate the abundance determinations for a number of species that were previously studied in the optical region, and obtain strong upper limits for beryllium and boron, as well as for neutron-capture elements from zirconium to platinum, many of which are not accessible from ground-based spectra. The boron upper limit we obtain for BD+44 493, logeps(B) < -0.70, the first such measurement for a CEMP star, is the lowest yet found for very and extremely metal-poor stars. In addition, we ob...

Placco, Vinicius; Roederer, Ian; Cowan, John; Frebel, Anna; Filler, Dan; Ivans, Inese I; Lawler, James E; Schatz, Hendrik; Sneden, Christopher; Sobeck, Jennifer; Aoki, Wako; Smith, Verne

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Gamma ray bursts and extreme energy cosmic rays  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Extreme Energy Cosmic Ray particles (EECR) with E>10 20 ?eV arriving on Earth with very low flux (?1 particle/Km2-1000yr) require for their investigation very large detecting areas exceeding values of 1000 km2?sr. Projects with these dimensions are now being proposed: Ground Arrays (“Auger” with 2×3500? km 2 ?sr ) or exploiting the Earth Atmosphere as seen from space (“AIR WATCH” and OWL ” with effective area reaching 1 million km2?sr). In this last case by using as a target the 10 13 tons of air viewed also the high energy neutrino flux can be investigated conveniently. Gamma Rays Bursts are suggested as a possible source for EECR and the associated High Energy neutrino flux.

Livio Scarsi

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Statistical Modelling of Spatial Extremes --Mathieu Ribatet Jstar'11 1 / 37 Statistical Modelling of Spatial Extremes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Modelling of Spatial Extremes Davison, A.C. Padoan, S.A. Ribatet, M. Institute of Mathematics, EPFL 2010 50100150 Gruningen-Hinwil 1970 1990 2010 50100150 Hallau-Kleine Scheid 1970 1990 2010 50100150

Ribatet, Mathieu

338

LANL | Physics | Hydrodynamic Material Instabilities at extremes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Understanding hydrodynamic material instabilities at extremes Understanding hydrodynamic material instabilities at extremes The National Nuclear Security Administration science-based stockpile stewardship program funds research that will improve critical physics-based dynamic materials models. Los Alamos National Laboratory and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, as nuclear weapon design laboratories, are mandated to predict the reliability and durability of the nuclear weapons stockpile. This is done using state-of-the-art supercomputers and computer codes. It is also important to have state-of-the-art physics models in these codes. Los Alamos has theory experts in dynamic materials, thus creating powerful working groups when combined with experimental experts in Physics Division and elsewhere. Key to the science-based stockpile stewardship program is making

339

Extremely Metal-Poor Galaxies: The Environment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have analyzed bibliographical observational data and theoretical predictions, in order to probe the environment in which extremely metal-poor dwarf galaxies (XMPs) reside. We have assessed the HI component and its relation to the optical galaxy, the cosmic web type (voids, sheets, filaments and knots), the overdensity parameter and analyzed the nearest galaxy neighbours. The aim is to understand the role of interactions and cosmological accretion flows in the XMP observational properties, particularly the triggering and feeding of the star formation. We find that XMPs behave similarly to Blue Compact Dwarfs; they preferably populate low-density environments in the local Universe: ~60% occupy underdense regions, and ~75% reside in voids and sheets. This is more extreme than the distribution of irregular galaxies, and in contrast to those regions preferred by elliptical galaxies (knots and filaments). We further find results consistent with previous observations; while the environment does determine the frac...

Filho, M E; Muñoz-Tuñón, C; Nuza, S E; Kitaura, F; Heß, S

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Extreme events in discrete nonlinear lattices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We perform statistical analysis on discrete nonlinear waves generated though modulational instability in the context of the Salerno model that interpolates between the intergable Ablowitz-Ladik (AL) equation and the nonintegrable discrete nonlinear Schrodinger (DNLS) equation. We focus on extreme events in the form of discrete rogue or freak waves that may arise as a result of rapid coalescence of discrete breathers or other nonlinear interaction processes. We find power law dependence in the wave amplitude distribution accompanied by an enhanced probability for freak events close to the integrable limit of the equation. A characteristic peak in the extreme event probability appears that is attributed to the onset of interaction of the discrete solitons of the AL equation and the accompanied transition from the local to the global stochasticity monitored through the positive Lyapunov exponent of a nonlinear map.

A. Maluckov; Lj. Hadzievski; N. Lazarides; G. P. Tsironis

2009-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "investigating extreme ultraviolet" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

The effect of ultraviolet B on phytoplankton populations in clear and ...  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

E4L 1G6, Canada ... from the National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada. ...... Ecosystem response to solar ultraviolet-B radiation: Influence.

2000-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

342

Extreme commutative quantum observables are sharp  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is well known that, in the description of quantum observables, positive operator valued measures (POVMs) generalize projection valued measures (PVMs) and they also turn out be more optimal in many tasks. We show that a commutative POVM is an extreme point in the convex set of all POVMs if and only if it is a PVM. This results implies that non-commutativity is a necessary ingredient to overcome the limitations of PVMs.

Teiko Heinosaari; Juha-Pekka Pellonpää

2011-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

343

Shipboard investigations with selected fuels of tomorrow  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a 2 1/2 year project to investigate both short and long term effects that extreme marine residual fuel qualities could have on shipboard handling, preparation and engine performance. The investigations were carried out on a 44800 T deadweight ''LASH'' vessel, powered by a Sulzer 9RND90 two-stroke crosshead diesel engine. 15 refs.

Hellingman, G.J.; Barrow, S.

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Gamma Ray Burst Constraints on Ultraviolet Lorentz Invariance Violation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a unified general formalism for ultraviolet Lorentz invariance violation (LV) testing through electromagnetic wave propagation, based on both dispersion and rotation measure data. This allows for a direct comparison of the efficacy of different data to constrain LV. As an example we study the signature of LV on the rotation of the polarization plane of $\\gamma$-rays from gamma ray bursts in a LV model. Here $\\gamma$-ray polarization data can provide a strong constraint on LV, 13 orders of magnitude more restrictive than a potential constraint from the rotation of the cosmic microwave background polarization proposed by Gamboa, L\\'{o}pez-Sarri\\'{o}n, and Polychronakos (2006).

Tina Kahniashvili; Grigol Gogoberidze; Bharat Ratra

2006-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

345

Large area, surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet light source  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Large area, surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light source is disclosed. A contamination-free VUV light source having a 225 cm{sup 2} emission area in the 240-340 nm region of the electromagnetic spectrum with an average output power in this band of about 2 J/cm{sup 2} at a wall-plug efficiency of approximately 5% is described. Only ceramics and metal parts are employed in this surface discharge source. Because of the contamination-free, high photon energy and flux, and short pulse characteristics of the source, it is suitable for semiconductor and flat panel display material processing. 3 figs.

Sze, R.C.; Quigley, G.P.

1996-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

346

Aluminum nitride nanophotonic circuits operating at ultraviolet wavelengths  

SciTech Connect

Aluminum nitride (AlN) has recently emerged as a promising material for integrated photonics due to a large bandgap and attractive optical properties. Exploiting the wideband transparency, we demonstrate waveguiding in AlN-on-Insulator circuits from near-infrared to ultraviolet wavelengths using nanophotonic components with dimensions down to 40?nm. By measuring the propagation loss over a wide spectral range, we conclude that both scattering and absorption of AlN-intrinsic defects contribute to strong attenuation at short wavelengths, thus providing guidelines for future improvements in thin-film deposition and circuit fabrication.

Stegmaier, M.; Ebert, J.; Pernice, W. H. P., E-mail: wolfram.pernice@kit.edu [Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76133 Karlsruhe (Germany); Meckbach, J. M.; Ilin, K.; Siegel, M. [Institute of Micro- und Nanoelectronic Systems, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76187 Karlsruhe (Germany)

2014-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

347

Asymmetry of winter European surface air temperature extremes and the North Atlantic Oscillation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Inter-annual variations of winter warm and cold extremes in Europe are investigated. It is found that the variations are closely connected to the phase of the North Atlantic oscillation (NAO). The leading EOF of the winter cold (warm) surface air ...

Yina Diao; Shang-Ping Xie; Dehai Luo

348

Staying Green at the Extreme : Exploring Energy Challenges and Tradeoffs for  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

hierarchies) and applications (e.g., coupled simulation workflows) from an energy perspective and investigate5/13/13 1 Staying Green at the Extreme : Exploring Energy Challenges and Tradeoffs for Science Informatics Institute (RDI2) Professor, Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering Rutgers Discovery

Parashar, Manish

349

PITTING CORROSION ON MAGNESIUM ALLOYS : A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF FIELD DATA USING EXTREME VALUE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PITTING CORROSION ON MAGNESIUM ALLOYS : A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF FIELD DATA USING EXTREME VALUE corrosion of the magnesium alloys AZ91D and AM60B combined with different coatings on steel bolts was investigated in field corrosion tests carried out by Volvo Car Corporation. Light metals like magnesium

Maume-Deschamps, Véronique

350

Sensitivity of tropical precipitation extremes to climate change  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Precipitation extremes increase in intensity over many regions of the globe in simulations of a warming climate1, 2, 3. The rate of increase of precipitation extremes in the extratropics is consistent across global climate ...

O'Gorman, Paul Ambrose

351

DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Green Extreme Homes &...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

Green Extreme Homes & Carl Franklin Homes, Garland, TX DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Green Extreme Homes & Carl Franklin Homes, Garland, TX Case study of a DOE Zero Energy...

352

Daily HMS Extremes in Met Data - Hanford Site  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Daily HMS Extremes in Met Data Hanford Meteorological Station Real Time Met Data from Around the Site Current HMS Observations Daily HMS Extremes in Met Data Met and Climate Data...

353

Method for detection of extremely low concentration  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An ultratrace detector system for hand-held gas chromatography having high sensitivity, for example, to emissions generated during production of weapons, biological compounds, drugs, etc. The detector system is insensitive to water, air, helium, argon, oxygen, and CO.sub.2. The detector system is basically composed of a hand-held capillary gas chromatography (GC), an insulated heated redox-chamber, a detection chamber, and a vapor trap. For example, the detector system may use gas phase redox reactions and spectral absorption of mercury vapor. The gas chromatograph initially separates compounds that percolate through a bed of heated mercuric oxide (HgO) in a silica--or other metal--aerogel material which acts as an insulator. Compounds easily oxidized by HgO liberate atomic mercury that subsequently pass through a detection chamber which includes a detector cell, such as quartz, that is illuminated with a 254 nm ultra-violet (UV) mercury discharge lamp which generates the exact mercury absorption bands that are used to detect the liberated mercury atoms. Atomic mercury strongly absorbs 254 nm energy is therefore a specific signal for reducing compounds eluting from the capillary GC, whereafter the atomic mercury is trapped for example, in a silicon-aerogel trap.

Andresen, Brian D. (Livermore, CA); Miller, Fred S. (Bethal Island, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Accident Investigations  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

This Order prescribes organizational responsibilities, authorities, and requirements for conducting investigations of certain accidents occurring at DOE sites, facilities, areas, operations, and activities.

2011-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

355

Ultraviolet Divergences and Factorization for Coordinate-Space Amplitudes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider the coordinate-space matrix elements that correspond to fixed-angle scattering amplitudes involving partons and Wilson lines in coordinate space, working in Feynman gauge. In coordinate space, both collinear and short-distance limits produce ultraviolet divergences. We classify singularities in coordinate space, and identify neighborhoods associated unambiguously with individual subspaces (pinch surfaces) where the integrals are singular. The set of such regions is finite for any diagram. Within each of these regions, coordinate-space soft-collinear and hard-collinear approximations reproduce singular behavior. Based on this classification of regions and approximations, we develop a series of nested subtraction approximations by analogy to the formalism in momentum space. This enables us to rewrite each amplitude as a sum of terms to which gauge theory Ward identities can be applied, factorizing them into hard, jet and soft factors, and to confirm the multiplicative renormalizability of products of lightlike Wilson lines. We study in some detail the simplest case, the color-singlet cusp linking two Wilson lines, and show that the logarithm of this amplitude, which is a sum of diagrams known as webs, is closely related to the corresponding subtracted amplitude order by order in perturbation theory. This enables us to confirm that the logarithm of the cusp can be written as the integral of an ultraviolet-finite function over a surface. We study to what extent this result generalizes to amplitudes involving multiple Wilson lines.

Ozan Erdo?an; George Sterman

2014-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

356

Ultraviolet Free Electron Laser Facility preliminary design report  

SciTech Connect

This document, the Preliminary Design Report (PDR) for the Brookhaven Ultraviolet Free Electron Laser (UV FEL) facility, describes all the elements of a facility proposed to meet the needs of a research community which requires ultraviolet sources not currently available as laboratory based lasers. Further, for these experiments, the requisite properties are not extant in either the existing second or upcoming third generation synchrotron light sources. This document is the result of our effort at BNL to identify potential users, determine the requirements of their experiments, and to design a facility which can not only satisfy the existing need, but have adequate flexibility for possible future extensions as need dictates and as evolving technology allows. The PDR is comprised of three volumes. In this, the first volume, background for the development of the proposal is given, including descriptions of the UV FEL facility, and representative examples of the science it was designed to perform. Discussion of the limitations and potential directions for growth are also included. A detailed description of the facility design is then provided, which addresses the accelerator, optical, and experimental systems. Information regarding the conventional construction for the facility is contained in an addendum to volume one (IA).

Ben-Zvi, I. (ed.)

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Noma — The Ulcer of Extreme Poverty  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...in adolescents and adults. Noma was common in Europe and North America until the early 20th century, when it essentially disappeared from developed countries, except for cases found in the concentration camps of Bergen-Belsen and Auschwitz and, more recently, in association with intensive immunosuppressive... Noma thrives in communities characterized by extreme poverty and severe malnutrition. Dr. Cyril Enwonwu writes that poverty-reduction efforts must go hand in hand with appropriate nutrition and health education if noma is to be eliminated.

Enwonwu C.O.

2006-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

358

Scaling Extreme Astrophysical Phenomena to the Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

High-energy-density (HED) physics refers broadly to the study of macroscopic collections of matter under extreme conditions of temperature and density. The experimental facilities most widely used for these studies are high-power lasers and magnetic-pinch generators. The HED physics pursued on these facilities is still in its infancy, yet new regimes of experimental science are emerging. Examples from astrophysics include work relevant to planetary interiors, supernovae, astrophysical jets, and accreting compact objects (such as neutron stars and black holes). In this paper, we review a selection of recent results in this new field of HED laboratory astrophysics and provide a brief look ahead to the coming decade.

Remington, B A

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Extremely compliant and highly stretchable patterned graphene  

SciTech Connect

Graphene is intrinsically ultra-stiff in its plane. Its huge mechanical mismatch when interfacing with ultra-compliant biological tissues and elastomers (7–9 orders of magnitude difference in stiffness) poses significant challenge in its application to functional devices such as epidermal electronics and sensing prosthesis. We offer a feasible and promising solution to this significant challenge by suitably patterning graphene into a nanomesh. Through systematic coarse-grained simulations, we show that graphene nanomesh can be made extremely compliant with nearly zero stiffness up to about 20% elongation and then remain highly compliant up to about 50% elongation.

Zhu, Shuze; Huang, Yinjun; Li, Teng, E-mail: LiT@umd.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Maryland NanoCenter, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

360

Managing Upper extremity Fx's Sweden 10-Managing Pediatric  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Managing Upper extremity Fx's Sweden 10- 05 1 Managing Pediatric Fractures Andrew Pennock, M extremity Fx's Sweden 10- 05 2 Children Are Not Miniature Adults! · Open Growth Plates · Remodeling is Changing "Citius, Altius, Fortius" - Faster, Higher, Stronger #12;Managing Upper extremity Fx's Sweden 10

Squire, Larry R.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "investigating extreme ultraviolet" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

PROBLEM APPLICATIONS: EXERCISE SESSION ON ANALYSES OF EXTREMES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PROBLEM APPLICATIONS: EXERCISE SESSION ON ANALYSES OF EXTREMES Rick Katz Institute for Study exercises) serves as a companion to the lecture by Richard Smith on Extreme Value Theory. It consists of two parts, the first focuses on climate applications of extreme value theory under stationarity, the second

Katz, Richard

362

Extreme Response Analysis A. Naess1,2)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NTNU Extreme Response Analysis A. Naess1,2) 1) Centre for Ships and Ocean Structures (CeSOS) 2) Department of Mathematical Sciences Norwegian University of Science and Technology Trondheim, Norway Extreme Response Analysis ­ p. 1/33 #12;NTNU Introduction The approach to extreme value statistics generally

Nørvåg, Kjetil

363

Extreme Loads for an Offshore Wind Turbine using Statistical  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Extreme Loads for an Offshore Wind Turbine using Statistical Extrapolation from Limited Field Data models to establish extreme loads associated with return periods on the order of 20­50 years. Distribu- tions for the extreme mudline bending moment are established using parametric models. Long

Manuel, Lance

364

Climatic extremes improve predictions of spatial patterns of tree species  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Climatic extremes improve predictions of spatial patterns of tree species Niklaus E. Zimmermanna,1 of climate extremes suggests the importance of understanding their additional influence on range limits. Here, we assess how measures representing climate extremes (i.e., interannual variability in climate

Zimmermann, Niklaus E.

365

SEASONAL CLIMATE EXTREMES: MECHANISMS, PREDICTABILITY AND RESPONSES TO GLOBAL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SEASONAL CLIMATE EXTREMES: MECHANISMS, PREDICTABILITY AND RESPONSES TO GLOBAL WARMING Mxolisi Excellent Shongwe #12;ISBN : 978-90-902-5046-5 #12;SEASONAL CLIMATE EXTREMES: MECHANISMS, PREDICTABILITY;. . . Dedicated to my late father John Mabhensa Shongwe #12;ABSTRACT Climate extremes are rarely occurring natural

Haak, Hein

366

Robust Extremes in Chaotic Deterministic Systems Renato Vitolo,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Robust Extremes in Chaotic Deterministic Systems Renato Vitolo, Mark P. Holland, and Christopher A: December 11, 2008) Abstract A chaotic deterministic system exhibits robust extremes when the statistics of its extreme values depend smoothly on the system's control parameters. Such robustness can

367

Ecosystem recovery after climatic extremes enhanced by genotypic diversity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ecosystem recovery after climatic extremes enhanced by genotypic diversity Thorsten B. H. Reusch with such climatic extremes is a question central to contem- porary ecology and biodiversity conservation. Previous, and it may buffer against extreme climatic events. In a manipulative field experiment, increasing

Myers, Ransom A.

368

Extremal Properties of Random Structures E. Ben-Naim1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Extremal Properties of Random Structures E. Ben-Naim1 , P. L. Krapivsky2 , and S. Redner2 1. The extremal characteristics of random structures, including trees, graphs, and networks, are discussed. A statistical physics approach is employed in which extremal properties are obtained through suitably defined

Redner, Sidney

369

Extreme-Point Stability Tests for Discrete-Time Polynomials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

TA9 -10:40 Extreme-Point Stability Tests for Discrete-Time Polynomials F. PCrez *, C been an increasinginterest in finding extreme- point results for the study of stability of uncertain in the coefficients space where Schur stability of the extremes im- plies the stability of the entire family 12). Our

370

Issue: April 2013 Algae Go to Extremes with "Borrowed" Genes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Issue: April 2013 Algae Go to Extremes with "Borrowed" Genes by Patricia Waldron Brand-New Genes their extreme environment. For example, some bacteria that live at high temperatures have special molecules that are highly acidic, or full of toxic metals. While most microbes that live in extreme environments

Schönknecht, Gerald

371

Science moves forward, at least in part, by pursuing extremes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Science moves forward, at least in part, by pursuing extremes -- seeking what's faster, hotter into space. In chasing such extremes, we often pass milestones, sometimes almost without noticing. Seventy inability to produce the extreme conditions required to see them. But with the rapid and continuing

Loss, Daniel

372

Seasonal Forecasting of Extreme Wind and Precipitation Frequencies in Europe  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Seasonal Forecasting of Extreme Wind and Precipitation Frequencies in Europe Matthew J. Swann;Abstract Flood and wind damage to property and livelihoods resulting from extreme precipitation events variability of these extreme events can be closely related to the large-scale atmospheric circulation

Feigon, Brooke

373

Performance of building cladding in urban environments under extreme winds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Performance of building cladding in urban environments under extreme winds By Tiphaine Williamsa ABSTRACT: When tropical storms, hurricanes, typhoons and other extreme wind events make landfall-rise construction in these regions, as well as other areas impacted by extreme wind events, generally reveal

Kareem, Ahsan

374

Association between Ambient Ultraviolet Radiation and Risk of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Boscoe FP , Schymura MJ.Solar ultraviolet-B exposure and...Spain with respect to indices of solar UVB irradiance and smoking...a case-control study in Mexico.Oncology 2002;63:151-7...suggest that higher exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR...

Bich Tran; Susan J. Jordan; Robyn Lucas; Penelope M. Webb; and Rachel Neale

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Ultraviolet-B Radiation Harms Aquatic Life -Current Results http://www.currentresults.com/Water/Water-Pollution/ultraviolet.php 1 of 2 8/7/2007 1:45 PM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ultraviolet-B Radiation Harms Aquatic Life - Current Results http://www.currentresults.com/Water/Water-Pollution Water E Coli UVB Sunscreen #12;Ultraviolet-B Radiation Harms Aquatic Life - Current Results http://www.currentresults.com/Water/Water-Pollution/ultraviolet.php 2 of 2 8/7/2007 1:45 PM Home | About | Privacy Policy | Terms of Use | Advertise on This Site

Blaustein, Andrew R.

376

Modeling hydrologic and water quality extremes in a changing climate: A statistical approach based on extreme value theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Modeling hydrologic and water quality extremes in a changing climate: A statistical approach based on extreme value theory Erin Towler,1,2 Balaji Rajagopalan,1,3 Eric Gilleland,2 R. Scott Summers,1 David makes quantifying changes to hydrologic extremes, as well as associated water quality effects

Katz, Richard

377

Facilitating Co-Design for Extreme-Scale Systems Through Lightweight Simulation  

SciTech Connect

This work focuses on tools for investigating algorithm performance at extreme scale with millions of concurrent threads and for evaluating the impact of future architecture choices to facilitate the co-design of high-performance computing (HPC) architectures and applications. The approach focuses on lightweight simulation of extreme-scale HPC systems with the needed amount of accuracy. The prototype presented in this paper is able to provide this capability using a parallel discrete event simulation (PDES), such that a Message Passing Interface (MPI) application can be executed at extreme scale, and its performance properties can be evaluated. The results of an initial prototype are encouraging as a simple 'hello world' MPI program could be scaled up to 1,048,576 virtual MPI processes on a four-node cluster, and the performance properties of two MPI programs could be evaluated at up to 16,384 virtual MPI processes on the same system.

Engelmann, Christian [ORNL; Lauer, Frank [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Spectral Dependencies of Killing, Mutation, and Transformation in Mammalian Cells and Their Relevance to Hazards Caused by Solar Ultraviolet Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...to Hazards Caused by Solar Ultraviolet Radiation...States Department of Energy, Contract W-31-109-ENG-38...to hazards caused by solar ultraviolet radiation...to Hazards Caused by Solar Ultraviolet Radiation1...States Department of Energy, Contract W-31-109...

F. Suzuki; A. Han; G. R. Lankas; H. Utsumi; and M. M. Elkind

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

STATISTICS OF EXTREMES IN CLIMATOLOGY AND HYDROLOGY PART II: RECONCILING THEORY WITH OBSERVATIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 STATISTICS OF EXTREMES IN CLIMATOLOGY AND HYDROLOGY PART II: RECONCILING THEORY WITH OBSERVATIONS of Climate/Hydrologic Extremes (3) Unified Approach (Extremes/Non-Extremes) (4) Complex Extreme Climate Design -- No longer only need for extreme value theory · Complex Extreme Events -- e. g., heat waves

Katz, Richard

380

Towards Extreme(ly) Usable Software: Exploring Tensions Between Usability and Agile Software Development  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that draws from extreme programming (XP), a widely practiced agile software development process, and scenario that need to be addressed for agile software development methods and usability engineering practices to work with multidisciplinary system design--focusing specifically on agile software development and usability----by developing

McCrickard, Scott

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "investigating extreme ultraviolet" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

The Solar Energetic Particle Event on 2013 April 11: An Investigation of its Solar Origin and Longitudinal Spread  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the solar phenomena associated with the origin of the solar energetic particle (SEP) event observed on 2013 April 11 by a number of spacecraft distributed in the inner heliosphere over a broad range of heliolongitudes. We use Extreme UltraViolet (EUV) and white-light coronagraph observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), the SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and the twin Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory spacecraft (STEREO-A and STEREO-B) to determine the angular extent of the EUV wave and coronal mass ejection (CME) associated with the origin of the SEP event. We compare the estimated release time of SEPs observed at each spacecraft with the arrival time of the structures associated with the CME at the footpoints of the field lines connecting each spacecraft with the Sun. Whereas the arrival of the EUV wave and CME-driven shock at the footpoint of STEREO-B is consistent, within uncertainties, with the release time of the particles observed by this spacecraft, the EUV...

Lario, D; Kwon, R -Y; Zhang, J; Gomez-Herrero, R; Dresing, N; Riley, P

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Laser plasma formation assisted by ultraviolet pre-ionization  

SciTech Connect

We present experimental and modeling studies of air pre-ionization using ultraviolet (UV) laser pulses and its effect on laser breakdown of an overlapped near-infrared (NIR) pulse. Experimental studies are conducted with a 266?nm beam (fourth harmonic of Nd:YAG) for UV pre-ionization and an overlapped 1064?nm NIR beam (fundamental of Nd:YAG), both having pulse duration of ?10?ns. Results show that the UV beam produces a pre-ionized volume which assists in breakdown of the NIR beam, leading to reduction in NIR breakdown threshold by factor of >2. Numerical modeling is performed to examine the ionization and breakdown of both beams. The modeled breakdown threshold of the NIR, including assist by pre-ionization, is in reasonable agreement with the experimental results.

Yalin, Azer P., E-mail: ayalin@engr.colostate.edu; Dumitrache, Ciprian [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 (United States); Wilvert, Nick [Sandia Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 (United States); Joshi, Sachin [Cummins Inc., Columbus, Indiana 47201 (United States); Shneider, Mikhail N. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

383

Ultraviolet Divergences and Factorization for Coordinate-Space Amplitudes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider the coordinate-space matrix elements that correspond to fixed-angle scattering amplitudes involving partons and Wilson lines in coordinate space, working in Feynman gauge. In coordinate space, both collinear and short-distance limits produce ultraviolet divergences. We classify singularities in coordinate space, and identify neighborhoods associated unambiguously with individual subspaces (pinch surfaces) where the integrals are singular. The set of such regions is finite for any diagram. Within each of these regions, coordinate-space soft-collinear and hard-collinear approximations reproduce singular behavior. Based on this classification of regions and approximations, we develop a series of nested subtraction approximations by analogy to the formalism in momentum space. This enables us to rewrite each amplitude as a sum of terms to which gauge theory Ward identities can be applied, factorizing them into hard, jet and soft factors, and to confirm the multiplicative renormalizability of products o...

Erdo?an, Ozan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Tunnel-injection quantum dot deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with polarization-induced doping in III-nitride heterostructures  

SciTech Connect

Efficient semiconductor optical emitters in the deep-ultraviolet spectral window are encountering some of the most deep rooted problems of semiconductor physics. In III-Nitride heterostructures, obtaining short-wavelength photon emission requires the use of wide bandgap high Al composition AlGaN active regions. High conductivity electron (n-) and hole (p-) injection layers of even higher bandgaps are necessary for electrical carrier injection. This approach requires the activation of very deep dopants in very wide bandgap semiconductors, which is a difficult task. In this work, an approach is proposed and experimentally demonstrated to counter the challenges. The active region of the heterostructure light emitting diode uses ultrasmall epitaxially grown GaN quantum dots. Remarkably, the optical emission energy from GaN is pushed from 365?nm (3.4?eV, the bulk bandgap) to below 240?nm (>5.2?eV) because of extreme quantum confinement in the dots. This is possible because of the peculiar bandstructure and band alignments in the GaN/AlN system. This active region design crucially enables two further innovations for efficient carrier injection: Tunnel injection of carriers and polarization-induced p-type doping. The combination of these three advances results in major boosts in electroluminescence in deep-ultraviolet light emitting diodes and lays the groundwork for electrically pumped short-wavelength lasers.

Verma, Jai, E-mail: jverma@nd.edu; Islam, S. M.; Protasenko, Vladimir; Kumar Kandaswamy, Prem; Xing, Huili; Jena, Debdeep [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States)

2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

385

Three Essays on the Impact of Climate Change and Weather Extremes on the United States' Agriculture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ii Contents Essay 3 Impact of Extreme Heating Condition on2 Modeling the Impact of Extreme Heating on FarmlandSuggests that Recent Extreme Droughts Contributed to

Le, Phu Viet

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Oxygen Loss from Venus and the Influence of Extreme Solar Wind Conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the influence of extreme solar wind conditions on O + escapeand the Influence of Extreme Solar Wind Conditions by Tessand the Influence of Extreme Solar Wind Conditions Copyright

McEnulty, Tess

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Left-Wing Extremism: The Current Threat  

SciTech Connect

Left-wing extremism is ''alive and well'' both in the US and internationally. Although the current domestic terrorist threat within the U. S. is focused on right-wing extremists, left-wing extremists are also active and have several objectives. Leftist extremists also pose an espionage threat to U.S. interests. While the threat to the U.S. government from leftist extremists has decreased in the past decade, it has not disappeared. There are individuals and organizations within the U.S. who maintain the same ideology that resulted in the growth of left-wing terrorism in this country in the 1970s and 1980s. Some of the leaders from that era are still communicating from Cuba with their followers in the U.S., and new leaders and groups are emerging.

Karl A. Seger

2001-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

388

Non-extremal fuzzballs and ergoregion emission  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the traditional picture of black holes Hawking radiation is created by pair creation from the vacuum at the horizon. In the fuzzball proposal, individual microstates do not have a horizon with the `vacuum' state in its vicinity. For a special family of non-extremal microstates it was recently found that emission occurs due to pair creation in an ergoregion, rather than at a horizon. In this paper we extend this result to a slightly larger class of microstates, again finding exact agreement between the emission in the gravity picture and the CFT dual. We write down an expression for emission from geometries with ergoregions, in terms of the leading falloff behavior of the wavefunctions in the fuzzball region. Finally, we describe another family of nonextremal microstates and find their ergoregion.

Borun D. Chowdhury; Samir D. Mathur

2008-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

389

Matter Under Extreme Conditions: The Early Years  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Extreme conditions in natural flows are examined, starting with a turbulent big bang. A hydro-gravitational-dynamics cosmology model is adopted. Planck-Kerr turbulence instability causes Planck-particle turbulent combustion. Inertial-vortex forces induce a non-turbulent kinetic energy cascade to Planck-Kolmogorov scales where vorticity is produced, overcoming 10^113 Pa Planck-Fortov pressures. The spinning, expanding fireball has a slight deficit of Planck antiparticles. Space and mass-energy powered by gluon viscous stresses expand exponentially at speeds >10^25 c. Turbulent temperature and spin fluctuations fossilize at scales larger than ct, where c is light speed and t is time. Because â??dark-energyâ? antigravity forces vanish when inflation ceases, and because turbulence produces entropy, the universe is closed and will collapse and rebound. Density and spin fossils of big bang turbulent mixing trigger structure formation in the plasma epoch. Fragmenting protosuperclustervoids and protoclustervoi...

Keeler, R Norris

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Evidence of patchy hydrogen reionization from an extreme Ly$\\alpha$ trough below redshift six  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report the discovery of an extremely long ($\\sim$110 Mpc/$h$) and dark ($\\tau_{\\rm eff} \\gtrsim 7$) Ly$\\alpha$ trough extending down to $z \\simeq 5.5$ towards the $z_{\\rm em} \\simeq 6.0$ quasar ULAS J0148+0600. We use these new data in combination with Ly$\\alpha$ forest measurements from 42 quasars at $4.5 \\le z_{\\rm em} \\le 6.4$ to conduct an updated analysis of the line-of-sight variance in the intergalactic Ly$\\alpha$ opacity over $4 \\le z \\le 6$. We find that the scatter in transmission among lines of sight near $z \\sim 6$ significantly exceeds theoretical expectations for either a uniform ultraviolet background (UVB) or simple fluctuating UVB models in which the mean free path to ionizing photons is spatially invariant. The data, particularly near $z \\simeq 5.6$-5.8, instead require fluctuations in the volume-weighted hydrogen neutral fraction that are a factor three or more beyond those expected from density variations alone. We argue that these fluctuations are most likely driven by large-scale vari...

Becker, George D; Madau, Piero; Pettini, Max; Ryan-Weber, Emma V; Venemans, Bram P

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Extreme Environment Silicon Carbide Hybrid Temperature & Pressure Optical Sensors  

SciTech Connect

This final report contains the main results from a 3-year program to further investigate the merits of SiC-based hybrid sensor designs for extreme environment measurements in gas turbines. The study is divided in three parts. Part 1 studies the material properties of SiC such as temporal response, refractive index change with temperature, and material thermal response reversibility. Sensor data from a combustion rig-test using this SiC sensor technology is analyzed and a robust distributed sensor network design is proposed. Part 2 of the study focuses on introducing redundancy in the sensor signal processing to provide improved temperature measurement robustness. In this regard, two distinct measurement methods emerge. A first method uses laser wavelength sensitivity of the SiC refractive index behavior and a second method that engages the Black-Body (BB) radiation of the SiC package. Part 3 of the program investigates a new way to measure pressure via a distance measurement technique that applies to hot objects including corrosive fluids.

Nabeel Riza

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Method and apparatus for producing durationally short ultraviolet or x-ray laser pulses  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus is disclosed for producing ultraviolet or x- ray laser pulses of short duration. An ultraviolet or x-ray laser pulse of long duration is progressively refracted, across the surface of an opaque barrier, by a streaming plasma that is produced by illuminating a solid target with a pulse of conventional line focused high power laser radiation. The short pulse of ultraviolet or x-ray laser radiation, which may be amplified to high power, is separated out by passage through a slit aperture in the opaque barrier.

MacGowan, B.J.; Matthews, D.L.; Trebes, J.E.

1987-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

393

Method and apparatus for producing durationally short ultraviolet or X-ray laser pulses  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus is disclosed for producing ultraviolet or X-ray laser pulses of short duration (32). An ultraviolet or X-ray laser pulse of long duration (12) is progressively refracted, across the surface of an opaque barrier (28), by a streaming plasma (22) that is produced by illuminating a solid target (16, 18) with a pulse of conventional line focused high power laser radiation (20). The short pulse of ultraviolet or X-ray laser radiation (32), which may be amplified to high power (40, 42), is separated out by passage through a slit aperture (30) in the opaque barrier (28).

MacGowan, Brian J. (Livermore, CA); Matthews, Dennis L. (El Granada, CA); Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Extremal black holes and the first law of thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We study the low-temperature expansion of the first law of thermodynamics for near-extremal black holes. We show that for extremal black holes with nonvanishing entropy, the leading-order contribution yields an expression for their extremal entropy that is in agreement with the entropy-function result. When their entropy vanishes due to the vanishing of a one-cycle on the horizon, such a leading contribution is always compatible with the first law satisfied by a Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black hole. The universality of these results follows from universal facts about extremal black holes. Our results are consistent with both the presence of local AdS2 and AdS3 near-horizon throats for extremal black holes and with the suggested quantum microscopic descriptions (AdS2/CFT1, Kerr/CFT, and extremal vanishing horizon/CFT).

Maria Johnstone; M. M. Sheikh-Jabbari; Joan Simón; Hossein Yavartanoo

2013-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

395

Extremal correlations of the tripartite no-signaling polytope  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The no-signaling polytope associated to a Bell scenario with three parties, two inputs, and two outputs is found to have 53856 extremal points, belonging to 46 inequivalent classes. We provide a classification of these points according to various definitions of multipartite non-locality and briefly discuss other issues like the interconversion between extremal points seen as a resource and the relation of the extremal points to Bell-type inequalities.

Stefano Pironio; Jean-Daniel Bancal; Valerio Scarani

2011-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

396

Extremal Graph Numbers of Graphs on Few May 4, 2012  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Extremal Graph Numbers of Graphs on Few Vertices John Kim May 4, 2012 1 Introduction Let H this number to be the extremal graph number of H on n vertices, and we denote it by ex(n, H). When H(n, K3) n 2 2 . A precise formula for ex(n, K3) is given by: ex(n, K3) = n 2 n + 1 2 . The extremal

Zeilberger, Doron

397

Influence of non-Gaussian wind characteristics on wind turbine extreme response  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The wind turbulence inflows specified in current wind turbine design standards and turbine response simulation tools are usually modeled as stationary random Gaussian processes. Field measurement data, however, suggest that wind turbulence in complex terrain exhibits non-Gaussian characteristics. This study presents a comprehensive investigation on extreme response of operational and parked wind turbines to non-Gaussian wind field. The non-Gaussian wind fields with specified non-Gaussian statistics and power spectral characteristics are generated using translation process theory and spectral representation method. The wind turbine response time histories at each wind speed bin are simulated. The turbine response statistical moments influenced by the non-Gaussian wind inflow are examined. The extreme response distributions conditional on wind speeds are determined from the simulation data using global maxima method and random process model method. The overall extreme response distribution is then calculated by further integrating the distribution of mean wind speed, which is used to quantify the extreme responses with various mean recurrence intervals (MRIs). The results showed that the non-Gaussian characteristics of wind inflows can result in noticeably larger extremes of blade root edgewise and tower base fore-aft bending moments of operational turbine, and blade root flapwise bending moment of parked turbine. The responses with larger \\{MRIs\\} are more sensitive to the non-Gaussian characteristics of wind inflows. The responses of parked turbine are less sensitive to non-Gaussian, especially, the tower base side-to-side bending moment is almost not affected by non-Gaussian. New insights on the determination of extreme response distribution from random process method are also presented focusing on a better modeling of the response distribution tail.

Kuangmin Gong; Xinzhong Chen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

An electronic compendium of extreme functions for the Gomory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nov 18, 2014 ... Abstract: In this note we announce the availability of an electronic compendium of extreme functions for Gomory--Johnson's infinite group ...

Matthias Köppe

2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

399

Secretary Chu to Appear This Sunday on ABC's Extreme Makeover...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Related Articles 'Extreme Makeover: Home Edition' Builds Efficiently Teaching Them to Fish ... for Energy Efficiency Secretary Chu to Give Keynote Address at World Forum on...

400

Predictability of extreme events in a branching diffusion model Abstract  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

... electric power blackouts, economic recessions, stock-market crashes, .... the extreme ones, a cascade process responsible for redistribution of energy (or.

2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "investigating extreme ultraviolet" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

LDRD symposium focuses on materials in extremes, big data, and...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

symposium focuses on materials in extremes, big data, and energy use impacts | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing...

402

Center for Materials at Irradiation and Mechanical Extremes:...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Center for Materials at Irradiation and Mechanical Extremes A BES Energy Frontier Research Center Home Teams Partners Others Participants Summer School Contacts Project Office...

403

Energy Frontier Research in Extreme Environments (EFree) | U...  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Frontier Research in Extreme Environments (EFree) Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers EFRC External Websites Research Science Highlights News & Events...

404

Extreme point inequalities and geometry of the rank sparsity ball  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ities balancing the various features of the optimization problem at hand, at the extreme points of the solution set. Keywords Nuclear norm · compressed sensing

2014-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

405

Joint probability analysis of precipitation and streamflow extremes.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis focuses on evaluation of joint occurrence of extreme precipitation and streamflow events at several hydrologic structures in South Florida. An analysis of twelve… (more)

Lin, Chia-hung.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Seasonal Climate Extremes : Mechanism, Predictability and Responses to Global Warming.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Climate extremes are rarely occurring natural phenomena in the climate system. They often pose one of the greatest environmental threats to human and natural systems.… (more)

Shongwe, M.E.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Extreme overbalance stimulations using TCP proppant carriers  

SciTech Connect

The tubing-conveyed perforating (TCP) system with proppant carrier releases proppant and other particulates at the moment of detonation and allows materials to be injected into the producing interval while overbalance pressure levels and injection rates are maximized. Materials released at detonation are designed to enhance near-wellbore conductivity by scouring and propping the formation. This article briefly describes the mechanics of the TCP/proppant carrier system, and then discusses field applications to date. Topics encompassed will be treatment designs in fluid--sensitive formations, stimulations near water, productivity comparisons to other techniques and recommended permeability ranges where the system has been successful. Finally, the article addresses efforts to optimize and improve the technology, including use of fast gauge data, tracer logs and a combination perforating gun/propellant sleeve system. The combination system is currently being field tested by Marathon and a group of service companies as a joint development project, and has potential to be the next major improvement in extreme overbalance stimulation technology.

Snider, P.M. [Marathon Oil Co., Houston, TX (United States); Oriold, F.D. [Canadian Perforators, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Extreme nitriding limits in aluminium extrusion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Extrusion of aluminium is an efficient manufacturing process which allows long continuous production. The heated billet (aluminium material) is squeezed through the opening of a metal die in order to shape the desired aluminium profile. A long continuous production increases aging of the die and hampers its capability to yield homogeneously shaped profiles. Hence the dies are usually removed from production lines before their breaking point and only go back into production after receiving a layer coat for protection of the metal. This paper consists of a preliminary analysis of the extrusion amounts between consecutive maintenance procedures of the dies. A maintenance procedure in its whole encompasses an immersion bath of the die in caustic soda, a polishing operation and possibly a subsequent coat layering process in a nitriding chamber. The main goal here is to find the optimal life cycle for a die, in the sense that we are looking for a risk level (an extrusion amount) above which die-damage occurs with a certain high probability. We shall rely on extreme value statistics to answer the question of how long can we go on at each continuous operation of aluminium extrusion.

Claudia Neves; M. Ivette Gomes; Isabel Fraga Alves

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

1 MODELING THE PERFORMANCE OF ULTRAVIOLET REACTOR IN EULERIAN AND LAGRANGIAN FRAMEWORKS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CFD models for simulating the performance of ultraviolet (UV) reactors for micro-organism inactivation were developed in Eulerian and Lagrangian frameworks, taking into account hydrodynamics, kinetics, and radiation field within UV reactor. In the Lagrangian framework, micro-organisms were treated as discrete particles where the trajectory was predicted by integrating the force balance on the particle. In the Eulerian framework, the conservation equation of species (microorganisms) was solved along with the transport equations. The fluid flow was characterized experimentally using particle image velocimetry (PIV) flow visualization techniques and modeled using CFD for a UV reactor prototype model. The performance of annular UV reactors with an inlet parallel and perpendicular to the reactor axis were investigated. The results indicated that the fluid flow distribution within the reactor volume can significantly affect the reactor performance. Both the Eulerian and Lagrangian models were used to obtain complimentary information on the reactors; while the Lagrangian method provided an estimation of the UV-fluence distribution and the trajectory of species, the Eulerian approach showed the concentration distribution and local photo-reaction rates. The combined information can be used to predict and monitor reactor performance and to improve the reactor design.

Angelo Sozzi; Fariborz Taghipour

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Vacuum ultraviolet reflectivities of LiF, NaF, and KF  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High-resolution normal-incidence (9°) reflectivities of lithium-fluoride, sodium-fluoride, and potassium-fluoride single crystals were investigated between 6 and 35 eV at room temperature, 100 and 30 K using a minicomputer-controlled vacuum ultraviolet reflectometer at the Winconsin Synchrotron Radiation Facility. Data were taken on surfaces cleaved and maintained in high vacuum. Reflectivity data were Kramers-Kronig analyzed to yield the dielectric functions of the materials and various energy and temperature derivatives were calculated as an aid to interpretation. In all materials, considerable new structure is reported with broad, general agreement with earlier work on LiF and KF. We report the first reflectivity data between 12 and 35 eV for NaF. Computed values of -Im(1?) were in good agreement with electron-energy-loss experiments of Creuzburg. It is only possible to provide detailed interpretation of optical features in special cases, but a general discussion is provided in the conventional framework.

K. Kameswara Rao; T. J. Moravec; J. C. Rife; R. N. Dexter

1975-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

411

Vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization of small methanol and methanol-water clusters  

SciTech Connect

In this work we report on thevacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization of small methanol and methanol-water clusters. Clusters of methanol with water are generated via co-expansion of the gas phase constituents in a continuous supersonic jet expansion of methanol and water seeded in Ar. The resulting clusters are investigated by single photon ionization with tunable vacuumultraviolet synchrotron radiation and mass analyzed using reflectron mass spectrometry. Protonated methanol clusters of the form (CH3OH)nH + (n=1-12) dominate the mass spectrum below the ionization energy of the methanol monomer. With an increase in water concentration, small amounts of mixed clusters of the form (CH3OH)n(H2O)H + (n=2-11) are detected. The only unprotonated species observed in this work are the methanol monomer and dimer. Appearance energies are obtained from the photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves for CH3OH +, (CH 3OH)2 +, (CH3OH)nH + (n=1-9), and (CH 3OH)n(H2O)H + (n=2-9 ) as a function of photon energy. With an increase in the water content in the molecular beam, there is an enhancement of photoionization intensity for methanol dimer and protonated methanol monomer at threshold. These results are compared and contrasted to previous experimental observations.

Ahmed, Musahid; Ahmed, Musahid; Wilson, Kevin R.; Belau, Leonid; Kostko, Oleg

2008-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

412

Nano-Enabled Titanium Dioxide Ultraviolet Protective Layers for Cool-Color  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Nano-Enabled Titanium Dioxide Ultraviolet Nano-Enabled Titanium Dioxide Ultraviolet Protective Layers for Cool-Color Roofing Research Project Nano-Enabled Titanium Dioxide Ultraviolet Protective Layers for Cool-Color Roofing Research Project The Department of Energy (DOE) is currently undertaking research into nano-enabled titanium dioxide (TiO2) ultraviolet (UV) protective layers for cool-color roofing applications. Project Description This project entails optimizing and scaling up silicon dioxide-coated TiO2 nanocrystal synthesis and functionalization in aqueous solution in order to formulate a 10 gallon waterborne clear UV protective nanocomposite coating material. Project Partners This project is being undertaken between DOE and Nanotrons, a Massachusetts-based company that uses nano-engineering technologies to

413

Direct Detection of Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation for Nonmetal Determinations with a Helium Microwave-Induced Plasma  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A study of the determination of metals, nonmetals, and metalloids (F, Cl, Br, I, S, P, Se, As, Sb, and Pb) in the vacuum-ultraviolet spectral region with a kilowatt-plus helium...

Alvarado, Jorge; Carnahan, Jon W

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Ultraviolet vortex generation using periodically bonded ?-BaB2O4 device  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper describes the first demonstration of ultraviolet (266nm) vortex generation using the combination of a frequency-doubled nanosecond green laser, a spiral phase plate, and a...

Sasaki, Yuta; Koyama, Mio; Miyamoto, Katsuhiko; Ariga, Yoshimi; Onda, Tomomi; Shoji, Ichiro; Omatsu, Takashige

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Should we believe the results of ultraviolet–millimetre galaxy spectral energy distribution modelling?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......its star formation history (SFH), its stellar, gas, and metal content, and the physical conditions of its interstellar medium (ISM). The number of galaxies, both local and high-redshift, with well-sampled ultraviolet (UV) to millimetre (mm......

Christopher C. Hayward; Daniel J. B. Smith

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Microbial Reduction on Eggshell Surfaces by the use of Hydrogen Peroxide and Ultraviolet Light  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) in combination with ultraviolet light (UV) as an egg sanitization process on eggshell surfaces was studied. Preliminary experiments were conducted to develop an optimized methodology for eggshell disinfection that will be an effective and efficient way to reduce...

Gottselig, Steven Michael

2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

417

Ultraviolet-ozone-treated PEDOT:PSS as anode buffer layer for organic solar cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ultraviolet-ozone-treated poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)was used as the anode buffer layer in copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)/fullerene-based solar cells. The power conversion e...

Zisheng Su; Lidan Wang; Yantao Li; Haifeng Zhao; Bei Chu…

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

E-Print Network 3.0 - algan-based deep ultraviolet Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

GanAlgan- Based Laser Diodes with Modulation-Doped Strained... in ultraviolet optoelectronics2-4 , room temperature lasing5-8 , and solar cells applications9... -LEDs and...

419

Tryptophan Cluster Protects Human ?D-Crystallin from Ultraviolet Radiation-Induced Photoaggregation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is a significant risk factor for age-related cataract, a disease of the human lens and the most prevalent cause of blindness in the world. Cataract pathology involves protein misfolding ...

Schafheimer, Steven Nathaniel

420

THE ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION ENVIRONMENT AROUND M DWARF EXOPLANET HOST STARS  

SciTech Connect

The spectral and temporal behavior of exoplanet host stars is a critical input to models of the chemistry and evolution of planetary atmospheres. Ultraviolet photons influence the atmospheric temperature profiles and production of potential biomarkers on Earth-like planets around these stars. At present, little observational or theoretical basis exists for understanding the ultraviolet spectra of M dwarfs, despite their critical importance to predicting and interpreting the spectra of potentially habitable planets as they are obtained in the coming decades. Using observations from the Hubble Space Telescope, we present a study of the UV radiation fields around nearby M dwarf planet hosts that covers both far-UV (FUV) and near-UV (NUV) wavelengths. The combined FUV+NUV spectra are publicly available in machine-readable format. We find that all six exoplanet host stars in our sample (GJ 581, GJ 876, GJ 436, GJ 832, GJ 667C, and GJ 1214) exhibit some level of chromospheric and transition region UV emission. No 'UV-quiet' M dwarfs are observed. The bright stellar Ly{alpha} emission lines are reconstructed, and we find that the Ly{alpha} line fluxes comprise {approx}37%-75% of the total 1150-3100 A flux from most M dwarfs; {approx}>10{sup 3} times the solar value. We develop an empirical scaling relation between Ly{alpha} and Mg II emission, to be used when interstellar H I attenuation precludes the direct observation of Ly{alpha}. The intrinsic unreddened flux ratio is F(Ly{alpha})/F(Mg II) = 10 {+-} 3. The F(FUV)/F(NUV) flux ratio, a driver for abiotic production of the suggested biomarkers O{sub 2} and O{sub 3}, is shown to be {approx}0.5-3 for all M dwarfs in our sample, >10{sup 3} times the solar ratio. For the four stars with moderate signal-to-noise Cosmic Origins Spectrograph time-resolved spectra, we find UV emission line variability with amplitudes of 50%-500% on 10{sup 2}-10{sup 3} s timescales. This effect should be taken into account in future UV transiting planet studies, including searches for O{sub 3} on Earth-like planets. Finally, we observe relatively bright H{sub 2} fluorescent emission from four of the M dwarf exoplanetary systems (GJ 581, GJ 876, GJ 436, and GJ 832). Additional modeling work is needed to differentiate between a stellar photospheric or possible exoplanetary origin for the hot (T(H{sub 2}) Almost-Equal-To 2000-4000 K) molecular gas observed in these objects.

France, Kevin; Froning, Cynthia S.; Stocke, John T.; Bushinsky, Rachel [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)] [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Linsky, Jeffrey L. [JILA, University of Colorado and NIST, 440 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)] [JILA, University of Colorado and NIST, 440 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Roberge, Aki [Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)] [Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Tian, Feng [Center for Earth System Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)] [Center for Earth System Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Desert, Jean-Michel [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)] [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mauas, Pablo; Vieytes, Mariela [Instituto de Astronomsica del Espacio (CONICET-UBA), C.C. 67 Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Instituto de Astronomsica del Espacio (CONICET-UBA), C.C. 67 Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Walkowicz, Lucianne M., E-mail: kevin.france@colorado.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "investigating extreme ultraviolet" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Ultraviolet light absorbers having two different chromophors in the same molecule  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to novel ultraviolet light absorbers having two chromophors in the same molecule, and more particularly to benzotriazole substituted dihydroxybenzophenones and acetophenones. More particularly, this invention relates to 3,5-(di(2H-benzotriazole-2-yl))-2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone and 3,5-(di(2H-benzotriazole-2-yl))-2,4-dihydroxyacetophenone which are particularly useful as an ultraviolet light absorbers.

Vogl, O.; Li, S.

1983-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

422

Extremal dilatonic black holes in 4D Gauss-Bonnet gravity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This is a report of our recent investigation on the extremal dilatonic black holes in four dimensional Gauss-Bonnet gravity. We found that a global solution can exist only when the dilaton coupling is less than a critical value which can be determined numerically. Moreover, the black hole horizon is stretched by the Gauss-Bonnet correction and the entropy is twice the value given by Bekenstein-Hawking formula.

Chiang-Mei Chen

2007-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

423

An investigation of symmetry in upper extremity strength during sagittal plane lifting tasks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

438. 76 461. 61 S. D. 26. 73 29. 60 18. 40 25. 03 103. 42 86. 07 Note: Data collected at a rate of 50 Hz. 52 APPENDIX I LIFTING TESTS DATA 53 LIFTING TESTS DATA (N) STOOP LIFT Left Ri ht SQUAT LIFT Left Ri ht Sub'ect Trial Av . S. D. Av . S.... D. Av . S. D. Av . S. D 2 137. 89 1. 97 118. 05 5. 30 162. 09 7. 77 148. 83 10. 75 3 113. 11 5. 56 97. 01 5. 14 120. 05 3. 83 130. 33 3. 72 4 143. 98 11. 16 134. 55 5. 78 119. 56 5. 77 129. 57 4. 50 2 134. 06 13. 08 88. 69 10. 18 135. 31 9. 04...

Key, Wendy Ross

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

424

Theoretical and experimental investigation of evanescent-wave absorption sensors for extreme temperature applications  

SciTech Connect

Recently, significant developments in evanescent wave absorption sensors have been demonstrated for high temperature sensing applications based upon the optical responses of advanced thin film materials. We will demonstrate how such sensors can be utilized in a mode that allows for chemical or temperature sensing starting from basic theoretical considerations. We will also present experimental high temperature sensing results for fabricated sensors. Potential applications of the sensors to be discussed include a range of high temperature systems relevant for fossil energy and combustion monitoring such as industrial combustors or reaction vessels, solid oxide fuel cells, and gas turbines. In these applications, even a small increase in operating efficiency realized via careful observation of in-process parameters and implementation of real-time process controls can result in dramatic savings across the energy industry, illustrating the necessity of pursuing such techniques. It is hoped that sensors of the type described here will allow for unprecedented measurement-access to processes which present challenging high-temperature and chemically reactive environments.

Buric, Michael P. [U.S. DOE; Ohodnicki, Paul R. [U.S. DOE; Chorpening, Benjamin T. [U.S. DOE

2013-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

425

Low-pressure microwave plasma ultraviolet lamp for water purification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Low-pressure mercury lamps are commonly used for germicidal applications. The germicidal effect is due to the emission of light at 254 nm, which leads to the destruction of the most waterborne bacteria and viruses. The microwave plasma ultraviolet (UV) lamp (MPUVL) is a new technology for generating a high-intensity UV light and that can be also controlled to operate at 185 nm; irradiation is in air at this wavelength produces ozone. The microwave power is injected into a resonant cavity and the surface wave excitation takes place within the cavity through that part of the discharge tube (fused silica) protruding inside it. The MPUVL has many advantages over conventional lamps, which are limited to an output power in the region of 30 W m-1, while MPUVL can deliver any amount of power per unit length and the tube can be of any shape, length or diameter. This paper describes the design of the MPUVL and compares its efficiency with that of conventional lamps through spectral analysis. Other results, which include the effects of temperature and different power inputs, are also discussed.

A I Al-Shamma'a; I Pandithas; J Lucas

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

The Swift-UVOT ultraviolet and visible grism calibration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the calibration of the Swift UVOT grisms, of which there are two, providing low-resolution field spectroscopy in the ultraviolet and optical bands respectively. The UV grism covers the range 1700-5000 Angstrom with a spectral resolution of 75 at 2600 Angstrom for source magnitudes of u=10-16 mag, while the visible grism covers the range 2850-6600 Angstrom with a spectral resolution of 100 at 4000 Angstrom for source magnitudes of b=12-17 mag. This calibration extends over all detector positions, for all modes used during operations. The wavelength accuracy (1-sigma) is 9 Angstrom in the UV grism clocked mode, 17 Angstrom in the UV grism nominal mode and 22 Angstrom in the visible grism. The range below 2740 Angstrom in the UV grism and 5200 Angstrom in the visible grism never suffers from overlapping by higher spectral orders. The flux calibration of the grisms includes a correction we developed for coincidence loss in the detector. The error in the coincidence loss correction is less than 20%. The...

Kuin, N P M; Breeveld, A A; Page, M J; James, C; Lamoureux, H; Mehdipour, M; Still, M; Yershov, V; Brown, P J; Carter, M; Mason, K O; Kennedy, T; Marshall, F; Roming, P W A; Siegel, M; Oates, S; Smith, P J; De Pasquale, M

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Femtosecond photoelectron and photoion spectrometer with vacuum ultraviolet probe pulses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We describe a setup to study ultrafast dynamics in gas-phase molecules using time-resolved photoelectron and photoion spectroscopy. The vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) probe pulses are generated via strong field high-order harmonic generation from infrared femtosecond laser pulses. The band pass characteristic in transmission of thin indium (In) metal foil is exploited to isolate the $9^{\\text{th}}$ harmonic of the 800 nm fundamental (H9, 14 eV, 89 nm) from all other high harmonics. The $9^{\\text{th}}$ harmonic is obtained with high conversion efficiencies and has sufficient photon energy to access the complete set of valence electron levels in most molecules. The setup also allows for direct comparison of VUV single-photon probe with 800 nm multi-photon probe without influencing the delay of excitation and probe pulse or the beam geometry. We use a magnetic bottle spectrometer with high collection efficiency for electrons, serving at the same time as a time of flight spectrometer for ions. Characterization measurem...

Koch, Markus; Grilj, Jakob; Sistrunk, Emily; Gühr, Markus

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Impact of horizontal resolution on simulation of precipitation extremes in an aqua-planet version of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM)  

SciTech Connect

One key question regarding current climate models is whether the projection of climate extremes converges to a realistic representation as the spatial and temporal resolutions of the model are increased. Ideally the model extreme statistics should approach a fixed distribution once the resolutions are commensurate with the characteristic length and time scales of the processes governing the formation of the extreme phenomena of interest. In this study, a series of AGCM runs with idealized 'aquaplanet-steady-state' boundary conditions have been performed with the Community Atmosphere Model CAM3 to investigate the effect of horizontal resolution on climate extreme simulations. The use of the aquaplanet framework highlights the roles of model physics and dynamics and removes any apparent convergence in extreme statistics due to better resolution of surface boundary conditions and other external inputs. Assessed at a same large spatial scale, the results show that the horizontal resolution and time step have strong effects on the simulations of precipitation extremes. The horizontal resolution has a much stronger impact on precipitation extremes than on mean precipitation. Updrafts are strongly correlated with extreme precipitation at tropics at all the resolutions, while positive low-tropospheric temperature anomalies are associated with extreme precipitation at mid-latitudes.

Li, F.; Collins, W.D.; Wehner, M.F.; Williamson, D.L.; Olson, J.G.; Algieri, C.

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Extremely local MR representations: Youngmi Hur1 & Amos Ron2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Extremely local MR representations: L-CAMP Youngmi Hur1 & Amos Ron2 Workshop on sparse representations: UMD, May 2005 1 Math, UW-Madison 2 CS, UW-Madison #12;Wavelet and framelet constructions History of all local MR representations #12;L-CAMP: Extremely local MR constructions Bird's view of the CAP

Maryland at College Park, University of

430

Climate, Extreme Heat, and Electricity Demand in California  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Over the twenty-first century, the frequency of extreme-heat events for major cities in heavily air conditioned California is projected to increase rapidly. Extreme heat is defined here as the temperature threshold for the 90th-percentile ...

Norman L. Miller; Katharine Hayhoe; Jiming Jin; Maximilian Auffhammer

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Free Extreme Values Gerard Ben Arous and Dan Virgil Voiculescu  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Free Extreme Values Gerard Ben Arous and Dan Virgil Voiculescu New York University and University at Berkeley Berkeley, CA 94720-3840 E-mail:dvv@math.berkeley.edu Abstract: Free probability analogues- sification of freely max-stable laws and their domains of attraction, using "free extremal convolutions

Ben Arous, Gérard

432

Origins of the extremely warm European fall of 2006  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Origins of the extremely warm European fall of 2006 Julien Cattiaux R. Vautard, P. Yiou LSCE ­ IPSL France European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2009 CL1 Session: Climate Extremes and Impacts. #12.Cattiauxetal.,OriginsoftheextremelywarmEuropeanfallof2006 European temperatures and atmospheric circulation #12;The best correlation is found for the V-Wind

Ribes, Aurélien

433

RisR1437(EN) Wind Simulation for Extreme  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Risø­R­1437(EN) Wind Simulation for Extreme and Fatigue Loads M. Nielsen, G. C. Larsen, J. Mann, S integrity of a wind turbine structure involves analyses of fatigue loading as well as extreme loading University of Denmark, and NEG-Micon A/S, as part of the EFP-2001(Wind) programme sponsored by the Danish

434

Photon Sciences Worksheet 05-02 Extreme Conditions Extreme Environments Diff.  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5-02 Extreme Conditions 5-02 Extreme Conditions Extreme Environments Diff. Resources Available - BE Mid 2012 Mid 2014 Mid 2016 Beamline X-ray Source Total Total Total NSLS 1.16 1.16 0 X17B2 Wiggler 0.33 0.33 0 X17B3 Wiggler 0.33 0.33 0 X17C Wiggler 0.5 0.5 0 APS 5.4 6.1 6.1 3-ID Bend 0 0 0 11-ID-B Undulator 0.1 0.1 0.1 11-ID-C Undulator 0.1 0.1 0.1 13-BM-D a Bend 0.4 0.4 0.4 CAT 13-ID-D a Undulator 0.3 1 1 CAT 16-BM-B b Bend 1 1 1 CAT 16-BM-D b Bend 1 1 1 CAT 16-ID-B b Undulator 1 1 1 CAT 16-ID-D Undulator 1 1 1 CAT 13-BM-C Bend 0.5 0.5 0.5 CAT ALS 1 1 1 12.2.2 Superbend 1 1 1 SSRL 0 0 0 NSLS-II 0 0 0.3 XPD c Dampingwiggler 0 0 0.3 Project Funded and under construction in NSLS-II Project - Available 2015 4DE Wiggler 0 0 0 TEC Undulator 0 0 0 Totals 7.56 8.26 7.4 Diamond Anvil Cell (DAC) only Large Volume Press (LVP) only DAC & LVP BE - Beamline equivalent - 1 BE is a station running the full operating schedule of the facility. Typically 5000 Hrs/yr

435

OBSERVATIONS AND MODELING OF THE EMERGING EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET LOOPS IN THE QUIET SUN AS SEEN WITH THE SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY  

SciTech Connect

We used data from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) to study coronal loops at small scales, emerging in the quiet Sun. With HMI line-of-sight magnetograms, we derive the integrated and unsigned photospheric magnetic flux at the loop footpoints in the photosphere. These loops are bright in the EUV channels of AIA. Using the six AIA EUV filters, we construct the differential emission measure (DEM) in the temperature range 5.7-6.5 in log T (K) for several hours of observations. The observed DEMs have a peak distribution around log T Almost-Equal-To 6.3, falling rapidly at higher temperatures. For log T < 6.3, DEMs are comparable to their peak values within an order of magnitude. The emission-weighted temperature is calculated, and its time variations are compared with those of magnetic flux. We present two possibilities for explaining the observed DEMs and temperatures variations. (1) Assuming that the observed loops are composed of a hundred thin strands with certain radius and length, we tested three time-dependent heating models and compared the resulting DEMs and temperatures with the observed quantities. This modeling used enthalpy-based thermal evolution of loops (EBTEL), a zero-dimensional (0D) hydrodynamic code. The comparisons suggest that a medium-frequency heating model with a population of different heating amplitudes can roughly reproduce the observations. (2) We also consider a loop model with steady heating and non-uniform cross-section of the loop along its length, and find that this model can also reproduce the observed DEMs, provided the loop expansion factor {gamma} {approx} 5-10. More observational constraints are required to better understand the nature of coronal heating in the short emerging loops on the quiet Sun.

Chitta, L. P.; Van Ballegooijen, A. A.; DeLuca, E. E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-15, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kariyappa, R.; Hasan, S. S. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore 560 034 (India); Hanslmeier, A. [Institut fuer Physik, IGAM, Universitaet Graz, Universitaetsplatz 5, A-8010 Graz (Austria)

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

The Effects of Oxygen Plasma on the Chemical Composition and Morphology of the Ru Capping Layer of the Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Mask Blanks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

P-5B-03 The effects of oxygen plasma on the chemicalRu) mask surface after oxygen plasma treatment using surfacein the subsurface oxygen concentration, Ru oxidation and

Belau, Leonid

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Extremality of translation-invariant phases for a finite-state SOS-model on the binary tree  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider the SOS (solid-on-solid) model, with spin values $0,1,2$, on the Cayley tree of order two (binary tree). We treat both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic coupling, with interactions which are proportional to the absolute value of the spin differences. We present a classification of all translation-invariant phases (splitting Gibbs measures) of the model: We show uniqueness in the case of antiferromagnetic interactions, and existence of up to seven phases in the case of ferromagnetic interactions, where the number of phases depends on the interaction strength. Next we investigate whether these states are extremal or non-extremal in the set of all Gibbs measures, when the coupling strength is varied, whenever they exist. We show that two states are always extremal, two states are always non-extremal, while three of the seven states make transitions between extremality and non-extremality. We provide explicit bounds on those transition values, making use of algebraic properties of the models, and an adaptation of the method of Martinelli, Sinclair, Weitz.

C. Kuelske; U. A. Rozikov

2014-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

438

Influence of ultraviolet light irradiation on corrosion behavior of weathering steel with and without TiO2-coating in 3 mass% NaCl solution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study the influence of ultraviolet (UV) light on the corrosion behavior of weathering steel with and without TiO2 coating has been investigated in 3% NaCl solution, using anodic polarization, dipping and dropping tests. In polarization tests a large negative shift of corrosion potential appeared for the TiO2-coated specimen in UV light. The weight loss of the steels with and without TiO2 film increased under UV light in the dipping test, while they decreased in the dropping test. The rust formed on the weathering steel showed a semiconductor like behavior, similar to that shown by TiO2 film.

Manal G. Mahmoud; Rongguang Wang; Masahiko Kato; Keijiro Nakasa

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

PART 1 OF TUTORIAL ON EXTREMES TOOLKIT (1) Installation of R software  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PART 1 OF TUTORIAL ON EXTREMES TOOLKIT (1) Installation of R software R-2.9.2-win32.exe Use default options (2) Installation of Extremes Toolkit extRemes (R package for extreme value analysis): extRemes_1.60.zip ismev (R package used by extRemes): ismev_1.34.zip Lmoments (R package used by extRemes): Lmoments

Katz, Richard

440

Nearly extremal apparent horizons in simulations of merging black holes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The spin angular momentum $S$ of an isolated Kerr black hole is bounded by the surface area $A$ of its apparent horizon: $8\\pi S \\le A$, with equality for extremal black holes. In this paper, we explore the extremality of individual and common apparent horizons for merging, rapidly spinning binary black holes. We consider simulations of merging black holes with equal masses $M$ and initial spin angular momenta aligned with the orbital angular momentum, including new simulations with spin magnitudes up to $S/M^2 = 0.994$. We measure the area and (using approximate Killing vectors) the spin on the individual and common apparent horizons, finding that the inequality $8\\pi S extremality by computing the smallest value that Booth and Fairhurst's extremality parameter can take for any scaling. Using this lower bound, we conclude that the common horizons are at least moderately close to extremal just after they appear. Finally, following Lovelace et al. (2008), we construct quasiequilibrium binary-black-hole initial data with "overspun" marginally trapped surfaces with $8\\pi S > A$ and for which our lower bound on their Booth-Fairhurst extremality exceeds unity. These superextremal surfaces are always surrounded by marginally outer trapped surfaces (i.e., by apparent horizons) with $8\\pi Sextremality lower bound on the enclosing apparent horizon is always less than unity but can exceed the value for an extremal Kerr black hole. (Abstract abbreviated.)

Geoffrey Lovelace; Mark A. Scheel; Robert Owen; Matthew Giesler; Reza Katebi; Bela Szilagyi; Tony Chu; Nicholas Demos; Daniel A. Hemberger; Lawrence E. Kidder; Harald P. Pfeiffer; Nousha Afshari

2014-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "investigating extreme ultraviolet" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Extremal shot noises, heavy tails and max-stable random fields.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Extremal shot noises, heavy tails and max-stable random fields. Cl´ement Dombry May 31, 2010 Abstract We consider the extremal shot noise defined by M(y) = sup{mh(y - x); (x, m) }, where. Extremal shot noises naturally appear in extreme value theory as a model for spatial extremes and serve

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

442

Former Assistant Secretary Shares Experiences Leading EM: 'Extremely  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

'Extremely Rewarding' Former Assistant Secretary Shares Experiences Leading EM: 'Extremely Rewarding' September 30, 2013 - 10:25am Addthis Dr. Inés Triay said serving as EM Assistant Secretary was challenging and extremely rewarding. Dr. Inés Triay said serving as EM Assistant Secretary was challenging and extremely rewarding. In an occasional EM Update series, we feature interviews with former EM Assistant Secretaries to reflect on their achievements and challenges in the Cold War cleanup and to discuss endeavors in life after EM. Before serving as EM's Assistant Secretary in 2009 - leading the largest, most diverse and most technically complex environmental cleanup program in the world - Dr. Inés Triay was the cleanup program's Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary, Chief Operations Officer, Deputy

443

'Extreme Makeover: Home Edition' Builds Efficiently | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

'Extreme Makeover: Home Edition' Builds Efficiently 'Extreme Makeover: Home Edition' Builds Efficiently 'Extreme Makeover: Home Edition' Builds Efficiently February 12, 2010 - 9:30am Addthis Joshua DeLung You may recall this post on Energy Empowers, which previewed an upcoming episode of ABC's "Extreme Makeover: Home Edition" where the U.S. Department of Energy collaborated with builders to incorporate energy-efficiency and renewable energy technologies at The Fishing School, one of two such collaborative projects in an episode that was set to air during a special 2010 Valentine's Day episode, featuring filmmaker Tyler Perry as a guest. The episode aired and told the story of energy efficiency changing the lives of some very special mentors and of America's youth. Additionally, Clean Skies News covered the builds. Here's its first video

444

Extreme thermophiles: moving beyond single-enzyme biocatalysis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

COCHE-51; NO. OF PAGES 10 COCHE-51; NO. OF PAGES 10 Please cite this article in press as: Frock AD, Kelly RM. Extreme thermophiles: moving beyond single-enzyme biocatalysis, Curr Opin Chem Eng (2012), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/ j.coche.2012.07.003 Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Extreme thermophiles: moving beyond single-enzyme biocatalysis Andrew D Frock and Robert M Kelly Extremely thermophilic microorganisms have been sources of thermostable and thermoactive enzymes for over 30 years. However, information and insights gained from genome sequences, in conjunction with new tools for molecular genetics, have opened up exciting new possibilities for biotechnological opportunities based on extreme thermophiles that go beyond single-step biotransformations. Although the pace for discovering novel microorganisms has slowed over

445

Geocomputation's future at the extremes: high performance computing and nanoclients  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Geocomputation's future at the extremes: high performance computing and nanoclients K.C. Clarke; High performance computing; Tractability; Geocom- putation E-mail address: kclarke@geog.ucsb.edu (K

Clarke, Keith

446

Observations of Gamma-Ray Bursts at Extreme Energies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Gamma-Ray Bursts . . . . . . . . . . . . . Redshift-CRUZ OBSERVATIONS OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS AT EXTREME ENERGIES AAncient Unvierse with Gamma-Ray Bursts, pages 330–333. AIP,

Aune, Taylor

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Role of Polyphosphates in Microbial Adaptation to Extreme Environments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Tecnicas, Buenas Aires, Argentina 3 Centro Regional de Investigacion...Comodoro Rivadavia, Chubut, Argentina 4 PROIMI Planta Piloto de...Caseros-(4000), Tucuman, Argentina EXTREME ENVIRONMENTS AND EXTREMOPHILES...residues linked by high-energy phosphoanhydride bonds, were...

Manfredo J. Seufferheld; Héctor M. Alvarez; Maria E. Farias

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

448

Argonne Training Program on Extreme-Scale Computing Scheduled...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

10-petaflops supercomputer ushers in a new scientific era at the ALCF. Argonne Training Program on Extreme-Scale Computing Scheduled for August 2-14, 2015 Author: Brian...

449

Extremal Black Holes and First Law of Thermodynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the low temperature expansion of the first law of thermodynamics for near-extremal black holes. We show that for extremal black holes with non-vanishing entropy, the leading order contribution yields an expression for their extremal entropy in agreement with the entropy function result and the Cardy formula for the entropy of a two dimensional chiral conformal field theory (CFT). When their entropy vanishes due to the vanishing of a one-cycle on the horizon, such leading contribution is always compatible with the first law satisfied by a BTZ black hole. These results are universal and consistent both with the presence of local AdS2 and AdS3 near horizon throats for extremal black holes and with the suggested quantum microscopic descriptions (AdS2/CFT1, Kerr/CFT and EVH/CFT).

Maria Johnstone; M. M. Sheikh-Jabbari; Joan Simon; Hossein Yavartanoo

2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

450

Center for Materials at Irradiation and Mechanical Extremes:...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

thrust in CMIME, and Pascal Bellon, from the severe plastic deformation team of the mechanical extremes thrust in CMIME, co-authored an article on design of radiation-tolerant...

451

Improving Societal Outcomes of Extreme Weather in a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, 2 Research Applications Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309; email: ldilling@colorado.edu Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour- itation extremes (including floods and droughts), and storms and severe weather (including tropical

Neff, Jason

452

The Argument of an Extremal Dilatation Marvin Ortel; Wayne Smith  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Argument of an Extremal Dilatation Marvin Ortel; Wayne Smith Proceedings of the American DILATATION MARVIN ORTEL -4ND WAYNE SMITH (Communicated by Irwin Kra) ABSTRACT.Suppose n is the complex

Smith, Wayne

453

Fitting In: Extreme Corporate Wellness and Organizational Communication  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, and (3) corporeal ethics. First, organizational culture, including espoused values and shared levels of assumptions, took on certain changes because of an emphasis on extreme fitness. Employee participation in CrossFit led to strict notions of strength...

James, Eric Preston

2014-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

454

Ultraviolet radiation as disinfection for fish surgical tools  

SciTech Connect

Telemetry is frequently used to examine the behavior of fish, and the transmitters used are normally surgically implanted into the coelomic cavity of fish. Implantation requires the use of surgical tools such as scalpels, forceps, needle holders, and sutures. When fish are implanted consecutively, as in large telemetry studies, it is common for surgical tools to be sterilized or, at minimum, disinfected between each use so that pathogens that may be present are not spread among fish. To determine the efficacy for this application, ultraviolet (UV) radiation was used to disinfect surgical tools exposed to one of four aquatic organisms that typically lead to negative health issues for salmonids. These organisms included Aeromonas salmonicida, Flavobacterium psychrophilum, Renibacterium salmoninarum, and Saprolegnia parasitica, causative agents of furunculosis, coldwater disease, bacterial kidney disease, and saprolegniasis (water mold), respectively. Four experiments were conducted to address the question of UV efficacy. In the first experiment, forceps were exposed to the three bacteria at three varying concentrations. After exposure to the bacterial culture, tools were placed into a mobile Millipore UV sterilization apparatus. The tools were then exposed for three different time periods – 2, 5, or 15 min. UV radiation exposures at all durations were effective at killing all three bacteria on forceps at the highest bacteria concentrations. In the second experiment, stab scalpels, sutures, and needle holders were exposed to A. salmonicida using the same methodology as used in Experiment 1. UV radiation exposure at 5 and 15 min was effective at killing A. salmonicida on stab scalpels and sutures but not needle holders. In the third experiment, S. parasitica, a water mold, was tested using an agar plate method and forceps-pinch method. UV radiation was effective at killing the water mold at all three exposure durations. Collectively, this study shows that UV radiation appears to provide a quick alternative disinfection technique to chemical disinfectants (e.g., ethanol) for some surgical tools. However, we do not recommend using this method for tools such as needle holders having overlapping parts or other structures that cannot be exposed directly to UV radiation

Walker, Ricardo W.; Markillie, Lye Meng; Colotelo, Alison HA; Geist, David R.; Gay, Marybeth E.; Woodley, Christa M.; Eppard, M. B.; Brown, Richard S.

2013-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

455

Extremal Three-point Correlators in Kerr/CFT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We compute three-point correlation functions in the near-extremal, near-horizon region of a Kerr black hole, and compare to the corresponding finite-temperature conformal field theory correlators. For simplicity, we focus on scalar fields dual to operators ${\\cal O}_h$ whose conformal dimensions obey $h_3=h_1+h_2$, which we name \\emph{extremal} in analogy with the classic $AdS_5 \\times S^5$ three-point function in the literature. For such extremal correlators we find perfect agreement with the conformal field theory side, provided that the coupling of the cubic interaction contains a vanishing prefactor $\\propto h_3-h_1-h_2$. In fact, the bulk three-point function integral for such extremal correlators diverges as $1/(h_3-h_1-h_2)$. This behavior is analogous to what was found in the context of extremal AdS/CFT three-point correlators. As in AdS/CFT our correlation function can nevertheless be computed via analytic continuation from the non-extremal case.

Melanie Becker; Sera Cremonini; Waldemar Schulgin

2010-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

456

Ultraviolet - "Green" Energy in the "C" Band  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ultraviolet - "Green" Energy in the "C" Band Ultraviolet - "Green" Energy in the "C" Band Speaker(s): Forrest Fencl Date: April 16, 2009 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Mr. Forrest Fencl of UV Resources, Inc. will discuss how air conditioning system operation, maintenance, and utilization influence system cooling capacity and indoor air quality. The use of ultraviolet germicidal radiation to clean heat exchangers and maintain their efficiency will be reviewed and energy savings estimates will be provided. Additionally, he will discuss why UV-C is considered the "green" cleaner and how widely it is used today as an engineering strategy for precluding the growth, dissemination and recirculation of microbial contaminants. For more information about this seminar, please contact: Bill Fisk(510) 486-591

457

Action Spectrum for Growth Delay Induced in Escherichia coli B/r by Far-Ultraviolet Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...by Far-Ultraviolet Radiation Hiraku Takebe 1 John...University, Osaka 530, Japan. An action spectrum...by far-ultraviolet radiation (230 to 295 nm) was...suspension. Near-UV radiation induces extensive growth...University, Osaka 530, Japan. ducing little killing...

Hiraku Takebe; John Jagger

1969-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Studying the Mechanisms of Titanium Dioxide as Ultraviolet-Blocking Additive for Films and Fabrics by an  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Studying the Mechanisms of Titanium Dioxide as Ultraviolet-Blocking Additive for Films and Fabrics November 2003 ABSTRACT: Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has good ultraviolet (UV)-blocking power and is very: inorganic UV-blocking agents; additives; films; adsorption; light scattering INTRODUCTION More frequent

Pan, Ning

459

Full scale experimental analysis of extreme coherent gust with wind direction changes (EOD)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A coherent wind speed and wind direction change (ECD) load case is defined in the wind turbine standard. This load case is an essential extreme load case that e.g. may be design driving for flap defection of active stall controlled wind turbines. The present analysis identifies statistically the magnitudes of a joint gust event defined by a simultaneously wind speed- and direction change in order to obtain an indication of the validity of the magnitudes specified in the IEC code. The analysis relates to pre-specified recurrence periods and is based on full-scale wind field measurements. The wind speed gust amplitude, occurring simultaneously with a wind direction change, corresponds well to the recommended ECD value of 15 m/s, except for the complex terrain case, where estimated extreme wind speed gust amplitudes are seen to exceed the IEC value with approximately 50%. The estimated extreme wind direction gust amplitudes associated with the investigated European sites are low compared to the recommended IEC- values. However, these values, as function of the mean wind speed, are difficult to validate thoroughly due to the limited number of fully correlated measurements.

K S Hansen; G C Larsen

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

ASU EFRC - Principal investigators  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Principal investigators Ana Moore Principal Investigator Subtask 4 Leader Anne Jones Principal Investigator Devens Gust Director of the Center Principal Investigator Don Seo...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "investigating extreme ultraviolet" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Slow neutron detection without 3He: far ultraviolet noble-gas-excimer radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Slow neutron detection without 3He: far ultraviolet noble-gas-excimer radiation induced by neutron (NIST) 3 Nuclear Engineering Program, UMD 4 Joint Quantum Institute, NIST and UMD Slow neutron detection without 3He Eighth Ultracold Neutron Workshop Saint Petersburg ­ Moscow, June 2011 #12;Summary We have

Titov, Anatoly

462

AMLR program: Ultraviolet and visible solar irradiance around Elephant Island, Antarctica, January to March 1993  

SciTech Connect

Since the discovery of the seasonal ozone hole over Antarctica, great efforts have been made in measuring incident ultraviolet radiation at high latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere, as well as the impact that enhanced UV-B radiation could have on terrestrial and aquatic environments. The measurements described in this article were conducted on board the NOAA ship Surveyor. 3 refs., 3 figs.

Helbling, E.W.; Holm-Hansen, O. (Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)); Moran, P. (Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahia Blanca (Argentina))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Signatures of the Protein Folding Pathway in Two-Dimensional Ultraviolet Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Signatures of the Protein Folding Pathway in Two-Dimensional Ultraviolet Spectroscopy Jun Jiang of the signals provides a quantitative marker of protein folding status, accessible by both theoretical calculations and experiments. SECTION: Biophysical Chemistry and Biomolecules Protein folding is an important

Mukamel, Shaul

464

Near-infrared femtosecond laser machining initiated by ultraviolet multiphoton ionization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Near-infrared femtosecond laser machining initiated by ultraviolet multiphoton ionization X. Yu, Q://apl.aip.org/features/most_downloaded Information for Authors: http://apl.aip.org/authors #12;Near-infrared femtosecond laser machining initiated, and the near-infrared pulse utilizes these electrons to cause damage by avalanche ionization. VC 2013 American

Van Stryland, Eric

465

Supercomputers: Extreme Computing at the National Labs | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Supercomputers: Extreme Computing at the National Labs Supercomputers: Extreme Computing at the National Labs Supercomputers: Extreme Computing at the National Labs September 4, 2013 - 1:08pm Addthis Titan 1 of 5 Titan Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Titan has a theoretical peak performance of more than 20 petaflops, or more than 20 quadrillion calculations per second. This will enable researchers across the scientific arena, from materials to climate change to astrophysics, to acquire unparalleled accuracy in their simulations and achieve research breakthroughs more rapidly than ever before. Titan is currently the second fastest supercomputer in the world. Image: Courtesy of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Sequoia 2 of 5 Sequoia Sequoia is a 20 petaflop, that is 20 quadrillion floating point operations per second, IBM BlueGene/Q system at Lawrence Livermore National

466

From Extreme Values of I.I.D. Random Fields to Extreme Eigenvalues of Finite-volume Anderson Hamiltonian  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The aim of this paper is to study asymptotic geometric properties almost surely or/and in probability of extreme order statistics of an i.i.d. random field (potential) indexed by sites of multidimensional lattice cube, the volume of which unboundedly increases. We discuss the following topics: (I) high level exceedances, in particular, clustering of exceedances; (II) decay rate of spacings in comparison with increasing rate of extreme order statistics; (III) minimum of spacings of successive order statistics; (IV) asymptotic behavior of values neighboring to extremes and so on. The conditions of the results are formulated in terms of regular variation (RV) of the cumulative hazard function and its inverse. A relationship between RV classes of the present paper as well as their links to the well-known RV classes (including domains of attraction of max-stable distributions) are discussed. The asymptotic behavior of functionals (I)--(IV) determines the asymptotic structure of the top eigenvalues and the corresponding eigenfunctions of the large-volume discrete Schr\\" odinger operators with an i.i.d. potential (Anderson Hamiltonian). Thus, another aim of the present paper is to review and comment a recent progress on extreme value theory for eigenvalues of random Schr\\"odinger operators as well as to provide a clear and rigorous understanding of the relationship between the top eigenvalues and extreme values of i.i.d. potentials.

Arvydas Astrauskas

2015-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

467

Climate, extreme heat, and electricity demand in California  

SciTech Connect

Climate projections from three atmosphere-ocean climate models with a range of low to mid-high temperature sensitivity forced by the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change SRES higher, middle, and lower emission scenarios indicate that, over the 21st century, extreme heat events for major cities in heavily air-conditioned California will increase rapidly. These increases in temperature extremes are projected to exceed the rate of increase in mean temperature, along with increased variance. Extreme heat is defined here as the 90 percent exceedance probability (T90) of the local warmest summer days under the current climate. The number of extreme heat days in Los Angeles, where T90 is currently 95 F (32 C), may increase from 12 days to as many as 96 days per year by 2100, implying current-day heat wave conditions may last for the entire summer, with earlier onset. Overall, projected increases in extreme heat under the higher A1fi emission scenario by 2070-2099 tend to be 20-30 percent higher than those projected under the lower B1 emission scenario, ranging from approximately double the historical number of days for inland California cities (e.g. Sacramento and Fresno), up to four times for previously temperate coastal cities (e.g. Los Angeles, San Diego). These findings, combined with observed relationships between high temperature and electricity demand for air-conditioned regions, suggest potential shortfalls in transmission and supply during T90 peak electricity demand periods. When the projected extreme heat and peak demand for electricity are mapped onto current availability, maintaining technology and population constant only for demand side calculations, we find the potential for electricity deficits as high as 17 percent. Similar increases in extreme heat days are suggested for other locations across the U.S. southwest, as well as for developing nations with rapidly increasing electricity demands. Electricity response to recent extreme heat events, such as the July 2006 heat wave in California, suggests that peak electricity demand will challenge current supply, as well as future planned supply capacities when population and income growth are taken into account.

Miller, N.L.; Hayhoe, K.; Jin, J.; Auffhammer, M.

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Semiclassical decay of near-extremal black holes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The decay of a near-extremal black hole down to the extremal state is studied in the background field approximation to determine the fate of injected matter and Hawking pairs. By examining the behavior of light rays and solutions to the wave equation it is concluded that the singularity at the origin is irrelevant. Furthermore, there is most likely an instability of the event horizon arising from the accumulation of injected matter and Hawking partners there. The possible role of this instability in reconciling the D-brane and black hole pictures of the decay process is discussed.

Ted Jacobson

1998-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

469

Extreme high-head portables provide more pumping options  

SciTech Connect

Three years ago, Godwin Pumps, one of the largest manufacturers of portable pumps, introduced its Extreme Duty High Lift (HL) series of pumps and more mines are finding unique applications for these pumps. The Extreme HL series is a range single-stage Dri-Prime pumps with heads up to 600 feet and flows up to 5,000 gallons per minute. The American Coal Co.'s Galatia mine, an underground longwall mine in southern Illinois, used an HL 160 to replace a multiple-staged centrifugal pump. It provided Galatia with 1,500 gpm at 465 ft. 3 photos.

Fiscor, S.

2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

470

TECA: A Parallel Toolkit for Extreme Climate Analysis  

SciTech Connect

We present TECA, a parallel toolkit for detecting extreme events in large climate datasets. Modern climate datasets expose parallelism across a number of dimensions: spatial locations, timesteps and ensemble members. We design TECA to exploit these modes of parallelism and demonstrate a prototype implementation for detecting and tracking three classes of extreme events: tropical cyclones, extra-tropical cyclones and atmospheric rivers. We process a modern TB-sized CAM5 simulation dataset with TECA, and demonstrate good runtime performance for the three case studies.

Prabhat, Mr; Ruebel, Oliver; Byna, Surendra; Wu, Kesheng; Li, Fuyu; Wehner, Michael; Bethel, E. Wes

2012-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

471

Absorption of scalars by extremal black holes in string theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show that the low frequency absorption cross section of minimally coupled massless scalar fields by extremal spherically symmetric black holes in d dimensions in the presence of string-theoretical alpha' corrections is equal to the horizon area. Classically one has the relation sigma=4GS between the absorption cross section and the black hole entropy. We discuss the validity of such relation in the presence of alpha' corrections for extremal black holes, both nonsupersymmetric and supersymmetric. The examples we consider seem to indicate that this relation is verified in the presence of alpha' corrections for supersymmetric black holes, but not for nonsupersymmetric ones.

Filipe Moura

2014-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

472

Extreme Value Analysis of Tidal Stream Velocity Perturbations  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a statistical extreme value analysis of maximum velocity perturbations from the mean flow speed in a tidal stream. This study was performed using tidal velocity data measured using both an Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) and an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) at the same location which allows for direct comparison of predictions. The extreme value analysis implements of a Peak-Over-Threshold method to explore the effect of perturbation length and time scale on the magnitude of a 50-year perturbation.

Harding, Samuel; Thomson, Jim; Polagye, Brian; Richmond, Marshall C.; Durgesh, Vibhav; Bryden, Ian

2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

473

A LIBRARY OF THEORETICAL ULTRAVIOLET SPECTRA OF MASSIVE, HOT STARS FOR EVOLUTIONARY SYNTHESIS  

SciTech Connect

We computed a comprehensive set of theoretical ultraviolet spectra of hot, massive stars with the radiation-hydrodynamics code WM-Basic. This model atmosphere and spectral synthesis code is optimized for computing the strong P Cygni type lines originating in the winds of hot stars, which are the strongest features in the ultraviolet spectral region. The computed set is suitable as a spectral library for inclusion in evolutionary synthesis models of star clusters and star-forming galaxies. The chosen stellar parameters cover the upper left Hertzsprung-Russell diagram at L {approx}> 10{sup 2.75} L {sub sun} and T {sub eff} {approx}> 20,000 K. The adopted elemental abundances are 0.05 Z {sub sun}, 0.2 Z {sub sun}, 0.4 Z {sub sun}, Z {sub sun}, and 2 Z {sub sun}. The spectra cover the wavelength range from 900 to 3000 A and have a resolution of 0.4 A. We compared the theoretical spectra to data of individual hot stars in the Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds obtained with the International Ultraviolet Explorer and Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer satellites and found very good agreement. We built a library with the set of spectra and implemented it into the evolutionary synthesis code Starburst99 where it complements and extends the existing empirical library toward lower chemical abundances. Comparison of population synthesis models at solar and near-solar composition demonstrates consistency between synthetic spectra generated with either library. We discuss the potential of the new library for the interpretation of the rest-frame ultraviolet spectra of star-forming galaxies. Properties that can be addressed with the models include ages, initial mass function, and heavy-element abundance. The library can be obtained both individually or as part of the Starburst99 package.

Leitherer, Claus [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Ortiz Otalvaro, Paula A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia, MedellIn (Colombia); Bresolin, Fabio; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Lo Faro, Barbara [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Universita di Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 2, 35122 Padova (Italy); Pauldrach, Adalbert W. A. [Universitaets-Sternwarte Muenchen, Scheinerstr. 1, 81679 Muenchen (Germany); Pettini, Max [University of Cambridge, Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Rd., Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Rix, Samantha A., E-mail: leitherer@stsci.ed, E-mail: pauortizo@gmail.co, E-mail: bresolin@ifa.hawaii.ed, E-mail: kud@ifa.hawaii.ed, E-mail: barbara.lofaro@gmail.co, E-mail: uh10107@usm.uni-muenchen.d, E-mail: pettini@ast.cam.ac.u, E-mail: srix@ing.iac.e [Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes, Apartado de Correos 321, E-38700 Santa Cruz de La Palma, Canary Islands (Spain)

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

474

Spectroscopic Investigations of Selected Cyclic and Bicyclic Molecules  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

fluorescence spectroscopy of jet-cooled molecules along with ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy. In recent years the group has investigated a number of bicyclic molecules containing the benzene ring including tetralin7 (TET) and 1,4-benzodioxan8 (14BZD... Description S 0 a S 1 b A? 1 1 C-H sym. stretch 3081 [3047] A? 26 35 Benzene stretch 756 722 2 2 C-H stretch [3072] [3028] 27 37 Benzene ring bend 712 682 3 3 C-H stretch 3060 R [3020] 28 39 Benzene ring bend 588 525 4 4 C...

McCann, Kathleen Rae

2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

475

Influence of Modes of Climate Variability on Global Temperature Extremes JESSE KENYON  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Influence of Modes of Climate Variability on Global Temperature Extremes JESSE KENYON Nicholas variability on worldwide summer and winter temperature extremes has been analyzed, namely, that of the El Niño for temperature extremes from world- wide land areas are used describe moderate extremes, such as the number

476

Extremes (2010) 13:205217 DOI 10.1007/s10687-010-0105-7  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Extremes (2010) 13:205­217 DOI 10.1007/s10687-010-0105-7 Sources of uncertainty in the extreme in the calculation of extreme value statistics for observed and modeled climate data. Inter-model differences in the CMIP3 dataset. Keywords Extreme temperature · Return value · Uncertainty · Climate models AMS 2000

477

STATISTICAL METHODS FOR RELATING TEMPERATURE EXTREMES TO LARGE-SCALE METEOROLOGICAL PATTERNS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 STATISTICAL METHODS FOR RELATING TEMPERATURE EXTREMES TO LARGE-SCALE METEOROLOGICAL PATTERNS Rick Extreme Value Analysis: Block Maxima (3) Conditional Extreme Value Analysis: Peaks over Threshold (4) Application to California Temperature Extremes (5) Remaining Work #12;3 #12;4 #12;5 (1) Introduction

Katz, Richard

478

Detection of changes in temperature extremes during the second half of the 20th century  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Detection of changes in temperature extremes during the second half of the 20th century Nikolaos in extremely warm nights. Human influence on cold nights and days is also detected, although less robustly, but there is no detection of a significant human influence on extremely warm days. In the future, extreme temperatures

479

CONDITIONAL EXTREMES FROM HEAVY-TAILED DISTRIBUTIONS: AN APPLICATION TO THE ESTIMATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CONDITIONAL EXTREMES FROM HEAVY-TAILED DISTRIBUTIONS: AN APPLICATION TO THE ESTIMATION OF EXTREME author, Stephane.Girard@inrialpes.fr Abstract - This paper is dedicated to the estimation of extreme on a simulation study. An application to the estimation of pointwise return levels of extreme rainfalls in the C

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

480

The effect of climate change on extreme waves in the North Sea  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

#12;Results Extreme wind climate NCK days 18 March 2011 Renske de Winter Difference in wind speeds Sea #12;Results Extreme wind climate Winds exceeding 8 Bf (17 m/s) Means over all ESSENCE members of climate change. The are minor changes in the extreme wind climate Extreme wave heights probably do

Vries, Hans de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "investigating extreme ultraviolet" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Report on the `Aha Huliko'a workshop on extreme events  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

talked about my work on extreme wind events in GCMs ­ My main contributions: · Asking when GCMs: Extreme wind events · Extreme windstorm Kyrill (18-19 January 2007) ­ Wind gusts up to 134 mph (216 kphReport on the `Aha Huliko'a workshop on extreme events Held 23-26 January 2007, Honolulu, HI Jeff

Gilleland, Eric

482

Measuring extremal dependencies in Web graphs Yana Volkovich  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Measuring extremal dependencies in Web graphs Yana Volkovich University of Twente P.O. Box 217 dependencies in power law graph data (Web sample, Wikipedia sample and a preferential attachment graph) using of the proposed methods have never been applied to the Web graph data. This paper fills this gap. The new insights

Boucherie, Richard J.

483

Measuring Extremal Dependencies in Web Graphs Yana Volkovich  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Measuring Extremal Dependencies in Web Graphs Yana Volkovich University of Twente P.O. Box 217 graph data (Web sample, Wikipedia sample and a preferential attachment graph) using statistical of the proposed meth- ods have never been used in the Web graph data mining. The present work fills this gap

Boucherie, Richard J.

484

How Climate Change is Playing Out in Minnesota: Extreme Weather  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

How Climate Change is Playing Out in Minnesota: Extreme Weather Dr. Mark Seeley Dept of Soil, Water Climate Headlines Data Sources Changing Minnesota Climate Features Climate Consequences Implications for Severe Weather #12;Three Reasons to Accept That Climate Change is Real #12;#12;Stationary (1) Cyclical (2

Minnesota, University of

485

Causal Analysis of the Unanticipated Extremity Exposure at HFEF  

SciTech Connect

This report covers the unintended extremity exposure to an operator while handling a metallurgical mount sample of irradiated fuel following an off-scale high beta radiation reading of the sample. The decision was made to continue working after the meter indicated high off-scale by the HPT Supervisor, which resulted in the operator at the next operation being exposed.

David E. James; Charles R. Posegate; Thomas P. Zahn; Alan G. Wagner

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

Extreme resistance of bdelloid rotifers to ionizing radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...of IR or high-energy electrons required...that the measured efficiency of IR...where the decreased efficiency of repair is more...dilatata are free-swimming and may easily be...geothermalis: The pool of extreme radiation...International Atomic Energy Agency Final Research...

Eugene Gladyshev; Matthew Meselson

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

EXTREMAL CONFIGURATIONS OF ROBOT ARMS IN THREE DIMENSIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

EXTREMAL CONFIGURATIONS OF ROBOT ARMS IN THREE DIMENSIONS DIRK SIERSMA Abstract. We define a volume function for a robot arm in R3 and give geometric conditions for its critical points. 1. Introduction configurations of planar polygonal linkages and open robot arms considered as the critical points of the oriented

Siersma, Dirk

488

Wind Extremes and Scales: Multifractal Insights and Empirical Evidence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-time scales (e.g. gusts, tempests, etc.) is of prime importance for a safe and efficient wind energy potential estimates and wind farm implementation. We discuss the consequences of the multifractal behaviour17 Wind Extremes and Scales: Multifractal Insights and Empirical Evidence I. Tchiguirinskaia, D

Lovejoy, Shaun

489

Hamilton cycles in graphs and hypergraphs: an extremal perspective  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hamilton cycles in graphs and hypergraphs: an extremal perspective Abstract. As one of the most fundamental and well-known NP-complete problems, the Hamilton cycle problem has been the subject of intensive and the study of Hamilton cycles in hypergraphs. We survey these developments and highlight open problems

Osthus, Deryk

490

HAMILTON CYCLES IN GRAPHS AND HYPERGRAPHS: AN EXTREMAL PERSPECTIVE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HAMILTON CYCLES IN GRAPHS AND HYPERGRAPHS: AN EXTREMAL PERSPECTIVE DANIELA K¨UHN AND DERYK OSTHUS Abstract. As one of the most fundamental and well-known NP-complete problems, the Hamilton cycle problem emerged, such as resilience, robustness and the study of Hamilton cycles in hypergraphs. We survey

Osthus, Deryk

491

HAMILTON CYCLES IN GRAPHS AND HYPERGRAPHS: AN EXTREMAL PERSPECTIVE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HAMILTON CYCLES IN GRAPHS AND HYPERGRAPHS: AN EXTREMAL PERSPECTIVE DANIELA K¨UHN AND DERYK OSTHUS Abstract. As one of the most fundamental and well-known NP-complete prob- lems, the Hamilton cycle problem emerged, such as resilience, robustness and the study of Hamilton cycles in hypergraphs. We survey

Osthus, Deryk

492

Extreme English Origins of English and its Sibling, Frisian  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for Atmospheric Research April 23, 2009 -- IBM Take Our Children to Work Day "Out of this world Yoda's syntax always has been." Chicago Tribune, May 17, 2005 By Nathan Bierma #12;Extreme English -- 23 April 2009 In âld folksrymke seit: Ien, twa, trije De boer dy soe my krije Ik sprong oer de hikke Doe koe er my net

Gilleland, Eric

493

An extreme cytoplasmic bottleneck in the modern European cultivated potato  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An extreme cytoplasmic bottleneck in the modern European cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum and nuclear diversity in the gene pool of the European cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum to amplify polymorphic products in a range of potato cultivars. Combining the data from seven polymorphic cp

Provan, Jim

494

Quantum Chromodynamics and Nuclear Physics at Extreme Energy Density  

SciTech Connect

The report describes research in theoretical quantum chromodynamics, including effective field theories of hadronic interactions, properties of strongly interacting matter at extreme energy density, phenomenology of relativistic heavy ion collisions, and algorithms and numerical simulations of lattice gauge theory and other many-body systems.

Mueller, B.; Bass, S.A.; Chandrasekharan, S.; Mehen, T.; Springer, R.P.

2005-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

495

REVIEW Open Access Climate change, air pollution and extreme events  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

REVIEW Open Access Climate change, air pollution and extreme events leading to increasing dramatically during the past few decades not only in industrialized countries. Urban air pollution from motor be explained only in changes occurred in the environment. Despite some differences in the air pollution profile

496

Instabilities of (near) extremal rotating black holes in higher dimensions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recently, Durkee and Reall have conjectured a criterion for linear instability of rotating, extremal, asymptotically Minkowskian black holes in $d\\ge 4$ dimensions, such as the Myers-Perry black holes. They considered a certain elliptic operator, $\\cal A$, acting on symmetric traceless tensors intrinsic to the horizon. Based in part on numerical evidence, they suggested that if the lowest eigenvalue, $\\lambda$, of this operator is less than the critical value $-1/4$ ( called "effective BF-bound"), then the black hole is linearly unstable. In this paper, we prove their conjecture. Our proof uses a combination of methods such as (i) the "canonical energy method" of Hollands-Wald, (ii) algebraically special properties of the near horizon geometries associated with the black hole, and (iii) the structure of the (linearized) constraint equations. Our method of proof is also applicable to rotating, extremal asymptotically Anti-deSitter black holes. In that case, our methods show that "all" such black holes are unstable. Although we explicitly discuss in this paper only extremal black holes, we argue that our methods can be generalized straightforwardly to obtain the same results for "near" extremal black holes.

Stefan Hollands; Akihiro Ishibashi

2014-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

497

INHIBITION OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS IN CERTAIN ALGAE BY EXTREME RED LIGHT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

INHIBITION OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS IN CERTAIN ALGAE BY EXTREME RED LIGHT GOVINDJEE, EUGENE RABINOWITCH, and JAN B. THOMAS From the Photosynthesis Research Laboratory, Department of Botany, University photosynthesis produced by "far red" light (up to 720 m,u). From the action spectrum of this phenomenon

Govindjee

498

Recent years have witnessed a vigorous growth in the use of Extreme Value Theory and Statistics of Extremes, with relevance to applications in a broad  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

FOREWORD Recent years have witnessed a vigorous growth in the use of Extreme Value Theory and Statistics of Extremes, with relevance to applications in a broad spectrum of areas, ranging for example from, through recent advances in the field. Statistics of Extremes and Related Fields consists of six articles

Alves, Maria Isabel Fraga

499

Published in Proceedings of the XL2003 (Response of Structures to Extreme Loading) Conference, Toronto, August 2003. EFFICIENT MODELS FOR WIND TURBINE EXTREME LOADS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Toronto, August 2003. EFFICIENT MODELS FOR WIND TURBINE EXTREME LOADS USING INVERSE RELIABILITY K, USA ABSTRACT The reliability of wind turbines against extreme loads is the focus of this study of randomness in the gross wind environment as well as in the extreme response given wind conditions. A detailed

Manuel, Lance

500

Repair of 254 nm ultraviolet-induced (6-4) photoproducts: monoclonal antibody recognition and differential defects in xeroderma pigmentosum complementation groups A, D, and variant  

SciTech Connect

Repair kinetics of ultraviolet (UV) light-induced (6-4) photoproducts in xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A, D, and variant cells were studied by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a specific monoclonal antibody raised against (6-4) photoproducts, together with unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) and loss of T4 endonuclease V-susceptible sites (ESS). Group AXP35KO cells completely failed to repair both ESS (cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers) and antibody-recognizing (6-4) photoproducts until tested 24 h after irradiation, and had 2% early-time UDS. Group DXP43KO cells showed about 10% removal of both (6-4) photoproducts and ESS in 24 h, despite showing a residually higher level of 40% early-time and cumulative UDS. Thus, the results substantiated the extreme UV hypersensitivity of XP group A and D cells. However, XP52KO variant cells exhibited the normal level of UDS and ESS loss, but a slightly reduced repair of antibody-recognizing (6-4) photoproducts at 6 and 12 h after irradiation, which may account for a small UV hypersensitivity of the XP variant cells.

Hiramoto, T.; Matsunaga, T.; Ichihashi, M.; Nikaido, O.; Fujiwara, Y.; Mishima, Y. (Kobe Univ. (Japan))

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z