National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for invasive plant species

  1. Invasive plant species as potential bioenergy producers and carbon contributors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, S.; Gopalakrishnan, G.; Keshwani, D.

    2011-03-01

    Current cellulosic bioenergy sources in the United States are being investigated in an effort to reduce dependence on foreign oil and the associated risks to national security and climate change (Koh and Ghazoul 2008; Demirbas 2007; Berndes et al. 2003). Multiple sources of renewable plant-based material have been identified and include agricultural and forestry residues, municipal solid waste, industrial waste, and specifically grown bioenergy crops (Demirbas et al. 2009; Gronowska et al. 2009). These sources are most commonly converted to energy through direct burning, conversion to gas, or conversion to ethanol. Annual crops, such as corn (Zea Mays L.) and sorghum grain, can be converted to ethanol through fermentation, while soybean and canola are transformed into fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel) by reaction with an alcohol (Demirbas 2007). Perennial grasses are one of the more viable sources for bioenergy due to their continuous growth habit, noncrop status, and multiple use products (Lewandowski el al. 2003). In addition, a few perennial grass species have very high water and nutrient use efficiencies producing large quantities of biomass on an annual basis (Dohleman et al. 2009; Grantz and Vu 2009).

  2. EO 13112: Invasive Species | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EO 13112: Invasive Species EO 13112: Invasive Species Establishment of the Invasive Species Council PDF icon EO 13112: Invasive Species More Documents & Publications EO 13089 -- ...

  3. EO 13112: Invasive Species

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Presidential Documents 6183 Federal Register / Vol. 64, No. 25 / Monday, February 8, 1999 / Presidential Documents Executive Order 13112 of February 3, 1999 Invasive Species By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), Nonindigenous Aquatic Nuisance Prevention and Control Act of 1990, as amended (16 U.S.C. 4701 et seq.), Lacey Act, as

  4. Invasive, Nonnative Species | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Species Jump to: navigation, search Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleInvasive,NonnativeSpecies&oldid647789" Feedback Contact needs updating...

  5. EO 13112: Invasive Species (1999) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EO 13112: Invasive Species (1999) EO 13112: Invasive Species (1999) EO 13112: Invasive Species (51.32 KB) More Documents & Publications EO 13089 -- Coral Reef Protection EA-2006: Draft Environmental Assessment Memorandum of Understanding, Responsibilities of Federal Agencies to Protect Migratory Birds

  6. Photo of the Week: Mapping the Link between Invasive Plants and Wildfire in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Mojave Desert | Department of Energy Mapping the Link between Invasive Plants and Wildfire in the Mojave Desert Photo of the Week: Mapping the Link between Invasive Plants and Wildfire in the Mojave Desert August 21, 2013 - 4:03pm Addthis Scientists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are using predictive tools to understand ecological changes driven by frequent fires due to invasive plant species in California’s Mojave Desert. In collaboration with the U.S. Geological

  7. In the Weeds: Idaho’s Invasive Species Laws and Biofuel Research and Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pope, April Lea

    2015-05-01

    Federal laws, policies, and programs that incentivize and mandate the development of biofuels have local effects on both Idaho’s environment and on research supporting biofuels. The passage of a new energy crop rule in Idaho, effective as of March 20, 2014, follows an increased interest in growing, possessing, and transporting energy crops comprised of invasive plant species that are regulated under Idaho’s Invasive Species Act. Idaho’s new energy crop rule is an example of how a state can take measures to protect against unintended consequences of federal laws, policies, and programs while also taking advantage of the benefits of such policies and programs.

  8. Predicting trends of invasive plants richness using local socio-economic data: An application in North Portugal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santos, Mario; Freitas, Raul; Crespi, Antonio L.; Hughes, Samantha Jane; Cabral, Joao Alexandre

    2011-10-15

    This study assesses the potential of an integrated methodology for predicting local trends in invasive exotic plant species (invasive richness) using indirect, regional information on human disturbance. The distribution of invasive plants was assessed in North Portugal using herbarium collections and local environmental, geophysical and socio-economic characteristics. Invasive richness response to anthropogenic disturbance was predicted using a dynamic model based on a sequential modeling process (stochastic dynamic methodology-StDM). Derived scenarios showed that invasive richness trends were clearly associated with ongoing socio-economic change. Simulations including scenarios of growing urbanization showed an increase in invasive richness while simulations in municipalities with decreasing populations showed stable or decreasing levels of invasive richness. The model simulations demonstrate the interest and feasibility of using this methodology in disturbance ecology. - Highlights: {yields} Socio-economic data indicate human induced disturbances. {yields} Socio-economic development increase disturbance in ecosystems. {yields} Disturbance promotes opportunities for invasive plants.{yields} Increased opportunities promote richness of invasive plants.{yields} Increase in richness of invasive plants change natural ecosystems.

  9. Assessment of Nonnative Invasive Plants in the DOE Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drake, S.J.

    2002-11-05

    The Department of Energy (DOE) National Environmental Research Park at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, is composed of second-growth forest stands characteristic of much of the eastern deciduous forest of the Ridge and Valley Province of Tennessee. Human use of natural ecosystems in this region has facilitated the establishment of at least 167 nonnative, invasive plant species on the Research Park. Our objective was to assess the distribution, abundance, impact, and potential for control of the 18 most abundant invasive species on the Research Park. In 2000, field surveys were conducted of 16 management areas on the Research Park (14 Natural Areas, 1 Reference Area, and Walker Branch Watershed) and the Research Park as a whole to acquire qualitative and quantitative data on the distribution and abundance of these taxa. Data from the surveys were used to rank the relative importance of these species using the ''Alien Plant Ranking System, Version 5.1'' developed by the U.S. Geological Survey. Microstegium (Microstegium vimineum) was ranked highest, or most problematic, for the entire Research Park because of its potential impact on natural systems, its tendency to become a management problem, and how difficult it is to control. Microstegium was present in 12 of the 16 individual sites surveyed; when present, it consistently ranked as the most problematic invasive species, particularly in terms of its potential impact on natural systems. Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica) and Chinese privet (Ligustrum sinense) were the second- and third-most problematic plant species on the Research Park; these two species were present in 12 and 9 of the 16 sites surveyed, respectively, and often ranked second- or third-most problematic. Other nonnative, invasive species, in decreasing rank order, included kudzu (Pueraria montma), multiflora rose (Rosa multiflora), Chinese lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneara), and other species representing a variety of life forms and growth forms. Results of

  10. In the Weeds: Idaho’s Invasive Species Laws and Biofuel Research and Development

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pope, April Lea

    2015-05-01

    Federal laws, policies, and programs that incentivize and mandate the development of biofuels have local effects on both Idaho’s environment and on research supporting biofuels. The passage of a new energy crop rule in Idaho, effective as of March 20, 2014, follows an increased interest in growing, possessing, and transporting energy crops comprised of invasive plant species that are regulated under Idaho’s Invasive Species Act. Idaho’s new energy crop rule is an example of how a state can take measures to protect against unintended consequences of federal laws, policies, and programs while also taking advantage of the benefits of suchmore » policies and programs.« less

  11. Landscape corridors can increase invasion by an exotic species and reduce diversity of native species.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Resasco, Julian; et al,

    2014-04-01

    Abstract. Landscape corridors are commonly used to mitigate negative effects of habitat fragmentation, but concerns persist that they may facilitate the spread of invasive species. In a replicated landscape experiment of open habitat, we measured effects of corridors on the invasive fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, and native ants. Fire ants have two social forms: polygyne, which tend to disperse poorly but establish at high densities, and monogyne, which disperse widely but establish at lower densities. In landscapes dominated by polygyne fire ants, fire ant abundance was higher and native ant diversity was lower in habitat patches connected by corridors than in unconnected patches. Conversely, in landscapes dominated by monogyne fire ants, connectivity had no influence on fire ant abundance and native ant diversity. Polygyne fire ants dominated recently created landscapes, suggesting that these corridor effects may be transient. Our results suggest that corridors can facilitate invasion and they highlight the importance of considering species traits when assessing corridor utility.

  12. Photo of the Week: Mapping the Link between Invasive Plants and...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Mapping the Link between Invasive Plants and Wildfire in the Mojave Desert Photo of the Week: Mapping the Link between Invasive Plants and Wildfire in the Mojave Desert August 21, ...

  13. Anthropogenic increase in carbon dioxide compromises plant defense against invasive insects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zavala, J.; Casteel, C.; DeLucia, E.; Berenbaum, M.

    2008-04-01

    Elevated levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), a consequence of anthropogenic global change, can profoundly affect the interactions between crop plants and insect pests and may promote yet another form of global change: the rapid establishment of invasive species. Elevated CO{sub 2} increased the susceptibility of soybean plants grown under field conditions to the invasive Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica) and to a variant of western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) resistant to crop rotation by down-regulating gene expression related to defense signaling [lipoxygenase 7 (lox7), lipoxygenase 8 (lox8), and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (acc-s)]. The down-regulation of these genes, in turn, reduced the production of cysteine proteinase inhibitors (CystPIs), which are specific deterrents to coleopteran herbivores. Beetle herbivory increased CystPI activity to a greater degree in plants grown under ambient than under elevated CO{sub 2}. Gut cysteine proteinase activity was higher in beetles consuming foliage of soybeans grown under elevated CO{sub 2} than in beetles consuming soybeans grown in ambient CO{sub 2}, consistent with enhanced growth and development of these beetles on plants grown in elevated CO{sub 2}. These findings suggest that predicted increases in soybean productivity under projected elevated CO{sub 2} levels may be reduced by increased susceptibility to invasive crop pests.

  14. Effects of climate change, land-use change, and invasive species on the ecology of the Cumberland forests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, Virginia H; Lannom, Karen O.; Hodges, Donald G.; Tharp, M Lynn; Fogel, Jonah

    2009-02-01

    Effects of climate change, land-use change, and invasive species on the ecology of the Cumberland forests

  15. Remote-Sensed Monitoring of Dominant Plant Species Distribution and Dynamics at Jiuduansha Wetland in Shanghai, China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Wenpeng; Chen, Guangsheng; Guo, Pupu; Zhu, Wenquan; Zhang, Donghai

    2015-08-11

    Spartina alterniflora is one of the most hazardous invasive plant species in China. Monitoring the changes in dominant plant species can help identify the invasion mechanisms of S. alterniflora, thereby providing scientific guidelines on managing or controlling the spreading of this invasive species at Jiuduansha Wetland in Shanghai, China. However, because of the complex terrain and the inaccessibility of tidal wetlands, it is very difficult to conduct field experiments on a large scale in this wetland. Hence, remote sensing plays an important role in monitoring the dynamics of plant species and its distribution on both spatial and temporal scales. In this paper, based on multi-spectral and high resolution (<10 m) remote sensing images and field observational data, we analyzed spectral characteristics of four dominant plant species at different green-up phenophases. Based on the difference in spectral characteristics, a decision tree classification was built for identifying the distribution of these plant species. The results indicated that the overall classification accuracy for plant species was 87.17%, and the Kappa Coefficient was 0.81, implying that our classification method could effectively identify the four plant species. We found that the area of Phragmites australi showed an increasing trend from 1997 to 2004 and from 2004 to 2012, with an annual spreading rate of 33.77% and 31.92%, respectively. The area of Scirpus mariqueter displayed an increasing trend from 1997 to 2004 (12.16% per year) and a decreasing trend from 2004 to 2012 (-7.05% per year). S. alterniflora has the biggest area (3302.20 ha) as compared to other species, accounting for 51% of total vegetated area at the study region in 2012. It showed an increasing trend from 1997 to 2004 and from 2004 to 2012, with an annual spreading rate of 130.63% and 28.11%, respectively. As a result, the native species P. australi was surrounded and the habitats of S. mariqueter were occupied by S

  16. Remote-Sensed Monitoring of Dominant Plant Species Distribution and Dynamics at Jiuduansha Wetland in Shanghai, China

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lin, Wenpeng; Chen, Guangsheng; Guo, Pupu; Zhu, Wenquan; Zhang, Donghai

    2015-08-11

    Spartina alterniflora is one of the most hazardous invasive plant species in China. Monitoring the changes in dominant plant species can help identify the invasion mechanisms of S. alterniflora, thereby providing scientific guidelines on managing or controlling the spreading of this invasive species at Jiuduansha Wetland in Shanghai, China. However, because of the complex terrain and the inaccessibility of tidal wetlands, it is very difficult to conduct field experiments on a large scale in this wetland. Hence, remote sensing plays an important role in monitoring the dynamics of plant species and its distribution on both spatial and temporal scales. Inmore » this paper, based on multi-spectral and high resolution (<10 m) remote sensing images and field observational data, we analyzed spectral characteristics of four dominant plant species at different green-up phenophases. Based on the difference in spectral characteristics, a decision tree classification was built for identifying the distribution of these plant species. The results indicated that the overall classification accuracy for plant species was 87.17%, and the Kappa Coefficient was 0.81, implying that our classification method could effectively identify the four plant species. We found that the area of Phragmites australi showed an increasing trend from 1997 to 2004 and from 2004 to 2012, with an annual spreading rate of 33.77% and 31.92%, respectively. The area of Scirpus mariqueter displayed an increasing trend from 1997 to 2004 (12.16% per year) and a decreasing trend from 2004 to 2012 (-7.05% per year). S. alterniflora has the biggest area (3302.20 ha) as compared to other species, accounting for 51% of total vegetated area at the study region in 2012. It showed an increasing trend from 1997 to 2004 and from 2004 to 2012, with an annual spreading rate of 130.63% and 28.11%, respectively. As a result, the native species P. australi was surrounded and the habitats of S. mariqueter were occupied by S

  17. Leaf Photosynthesis and Plant Competitive Success in a Mixed-grass Prairie: With Reference to Exotic Grasses Invasion

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dong, Dr. Xuejun; Patton, J.; Gu, Lianhong; Wang, J.; Patton, B.

    2014-11-26

    The widespread invasion of exotic cool-season grasses in mixed-grass rangeland is diminishing the hope of bringing back the natural native plant communities. However, ecophysiological mechanisms explaining the relative competitiveness of these invasive grasses over the native species generally are lacking. In this study, we used experimental data collected in south-central North Dakota, USA to address this issue. Photosynthetic potential was obtained from the net assimilation (A) vs. internal CO2 (Ci) response curves from plants grown in a greenhouse. Plant success was defined as the average frequency measured over 25 years (1988 to 2012) on overflow range sites across five levelsmore » of grazing intensity. In addition, estimated leaf area index of individual species under field conditions was used to indicate plant success. The correlation between photosynthetic potential based on A/Ci curves and plant frequency was negative. The correlation between leaf photosynthesis and plant success (defined as leaf area within a unit land area) was also negative, although statistically weak. These results suggest that the two cool-season grasses, Poa pratensis and Bromus inermis, do not rely on superior leaf-level photosynthesis for competitive success. Instead, some other traits, such as early and late-season growth, may be more important for them to gain dominance in the mixed-grass prairie. We propose that the negative photosynthesis-frequency relation as observed in this study results from a strong competition for limited soil nutrients in the mixed-grass prairie. In conclusion, it has implications for the stability and productivity of the grassland under various human disruptions influencing the soil nutrient status.« less

  18. Habitat types on the Hanford Site: Wildlife and plant species of concern

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Downs, J.L.; Rickard, W.H.; Brandt, C.A.

    1993-12-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a comprehensive source of the best available information on Hanford Site sensitive and critical habitats and plants and animals of importance or special status. In this report, sensitive habitats include areas known to be used by threatened, endangered, or sensitive plant or animal species, wetlands, preserves and refuges, and other sensitive habitats outlined in the Hanford Site Baseline Risk Assessment Methodology. Potentially important species for risk assessment and species of special concern with regard to their status as threatened, endangered, or sensitive are described, and potential habitats for these species identified.

  19. An evaluation of the contaminant impacts on plants serving as habitat for an endangered species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeShields, B.R.; Stelljes, M.E.; Hawkins, E.T.; Alsop, W.R. [Harding Lawson Associates, Novato, CA (United States); Collins, W. [Dept. of the Army, Fort Ord, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    As part of an ecological risk assessment at a Superfund site in Monterey County, California, potential impacts on an endangered species, the Smith`s blue butterfly (Euphilotes enoptes smithi) were evaluated. This species of butterfly lives along beach dunes historically used as small arms trainfire ranges. Historical land use resulted in the accumulation of spent bullets and varying concentrations of metals in site soil. Two species of buckwheat occurring at the site (Erigonium parvifolium and E. latifolium) that serve as the sole habitat for the butterfly were evaluated. It was assumed that if there were no impacts to the habitat, there would be no impacts to the endangered species itself. Surface soil and collocated plants were sampled and chemically analyzed in order to correlate soil concentrations with plant tissue concentrations. Surface soil and collocated plants were also sampled at reference sites to determine background concentrations. Tissue concentrations were compared to benchmark concentrations to evaluate potential impacts. In addition, soil samples and seeds from buckwheat growing at the site were collected and used to conduct root elongation assays in the laboratory. The objective of the assays was to assess effects of metals associated with the spent bullets in soil on plant growth. Within the plants, higher concentrations of all metals except zinc were found in the roots; zinc was equally distributed throughout the plants. No chemical-related impacts to the plants were identified.

  20. Threatened and endangered species evaluation for 75 licensed commercial nuclear power generating plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sackschewsky, M.R.

    1997-03-01

    The Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973, as amended, and related implementing regulations of the jurisdictional federal agencies, the U.S. Departments of Commerce and Interior, at 50 CFR Part 17. 1, et seq., require that federal agencies ensure that any action authorized, funded, or carried out under their jurisdiction is not likely to jeopardize the continued existence of any threatened or endangered species or result in the destruction or adverse modification of critical habitats for such species. The issuance and maintenance of a federal license, such as a construction permit or operating license issued by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for a commercial nuclear power generating facility is a federal action under the jurisdiction of a federal agency, and is therefore subject to the provisions of the ESA. The U.S. Department of the Interior (through the Fish and Wildlife Service), and the U.S. Department of Commerce, share responsibility for administration of the ESA. The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) deals with species that inhabit marine environments and anadromous fish, while the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) is responsible for terrestrial and freshwater species and migratory birds. A species (or other distinct taxonomic unit such as subspecies, variety, and for vertebrates, distinct population units) may be classified for protection as `endangered` when it is in danger of extinction within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range. A `threatened` classification is provided to those animals and plants likely to become endangered within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of their ranges. As of February 1997, there were about 1067 species listed under the ESA in the United States. Additionally there were approximately 125 species currently proposed for listing as threatened or endangered, and another 183 species considered to be candidates for formal listing proposals.

  1. Threatened and Endangered Species Evaluation for Operating Commercial Nuclear Power Generating Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sackschewsky, Michael R.

    2004-01-15

    &E species take, consultations, and evaluations of potential effects of operation on T&E species. This search recovered a total of approximately 100 documents from 13 sites. Sites that were in the relicensing or decommissioning processes were excluded from the ADAMS search. In general the ADAMS search did not reveal any serious deficiencies or compliance problems. The most notable finds were reports of takes of green sea turtles at Diablo Canyon. While these events were reported to both the NRC and to NOAA Fisheries, no record of interaction between the two federal agencies was found. Species potentially present at each site were determined via querying the Geographical, Environmental, and Siting Information System (GEn&SIS) database developed for the NRC by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The results of these queries were compared against the 1997 review, and in the cases of sites that were in the relicensing process, with the results of those site specific evaluations. A total of 452 T&E species were identified as potentially occurring near one or more of the operating commercial nuclear power generating plants. Information about each of these species was gathered to support an assessment of the probability of occurrence at each of the reactor sites. Based on the assessments of which species are potentially affected at each site, and the information gathered through the ADAMS search, each site was assigned a priority value for follow-up evaluations. The priority listing did not include any sites that had entered the relicensing process, those where the licensee has indicated that they intend to enter the relicensing process before the end of 2005, or those that have entered the decommissioning process. Of the 39 remaining sites, those that were identified as the highest priority for follow-on evaluations are: Diablo Canyon, San Onofre, Crystal River, Harris, and Vogtle, followed by South Texas, Palo Verde, Salem, and Cooper.

  2. A comparison of {sup 137}Cs radioactivity in localized evergreen and deciduous plant species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rangel, R.C.

    1996-05-01

    A vegetation study at the Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station (CPSES) near Glen Rose, Texas was conducted in 1991 and 1992. The CPSES is a commercial nuclear power plant owned and operated by Texas Utilities Electric of Dallas, Texas. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) requires the CPSES to routinely sample broadleaf vegetation in place of milk samples. Few commercial dairies exist in the vicinity. Broadleaf tree species are scarce because the climate and local limestone geology have produced a dry rolling hill topography. An evergreen juniper is the dominant tree species. Few broadleaves during the winter season have hindered year-round sampling. This study compares the environmental {sup 137}Cs concentrations between broadleaf and evergreen foliage at CPSES. Soil {sup 137}Cs concentrations from each vegetation location were also compared to the foliage {sup 137}Cs concentrations. The study`s objective was to determine if the deciduous and evergreen vegetation {sup 137}Cs concentrations are statistically the same.

  3. A checklist of plant and animal species at Los Alamos National Laboratory and surrounding areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinojosa, H.

    1998-02-01

    Past and current members of the Biology Team (BT) of the Ecology Group have completed biological assessments (BAs) for all of the land that comprises Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Within these assessments are lists of plant and animal species with the potential to exist on LANL lands and the surrounding areas. To compile these lists, BT members examined earlier published and unpublished reports, surveys, and data bases that pertained to the biota of this area or to areas that are similar. The species lists that are contained herein are compilations of the lists from these BAs, other lists that were a part of the initial research for the performance of these BAs, and more recent surveys.

  4. Rhizosphere effect of colonizer plant species on the development of soil microbial community during primary succession on postmining sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elhottova, D.; Kristufek, V.; Maly, S.; Frouz, J.

    2009-07-01

    The impact of pioneer plant species Tussilago farfara on structural, functional, and growth characterization of microbial community colonizing the spoil colliery substrate was studied in a laboratory microcosm experiment. Microcosms consisting of spoil substrate (0.7 dm{sup 3} of tertiary alkaline clay sediment from Sokolov brown-coal mine area) from a pioneer site (without vegetation, 5 years after heaping) were cultivated in a greenhouse with one plant of this species. Plant roots substantially increased microbial diversity and biomass after one season (7 months) of cultivation. Roots influenced the microbial community and had nearly twice the size, higher growth, and metabolic potential in comparison to the control. The development of microbial specialists improves the plant nutrient status. Bacterial nitrogen (N{sub 2}) fixators (Bradyrhizobium japonicum, Rhizobium radiobacter) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were confirmed in the rhizosphere of Tussilago farfara.

  5. Impacts of precipitation variability on plant species and community water stress in a temperate deciduous forest in the central US

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gu, Lianhong; Pallardy, Stephen G.; Hosman, Kevin P.; Sun, Ying

    2015-12-11

    Variations in precipitation regimes can shift ecosystem structure and function by altering frequency, severity and timing of plant water stress. There is a need for predictively understanding impacts of precipitation regimes on plant water stress in relation to species water use strategies. Here we first formulated two complementary, physiologically-linked measures of precipitation variability (PV) - Precipitation Variability Index (PVI) and Average Recurrence Interval of Effective Precipitation (ARIEP). We then used nine-year continuous measurements of Predawn Leaf Water Potential Integral (PLWPI) in a central US forest to relate PVI and ARIEP to actual plant water availability and comparative water stress responsesmore » of six species with different capacities to regulate their internal water status. We found that PVI and ARIEP explained nearly all inter-annual variations in PLWPI for all species as well as for the community scaled from species measurements. The six species investigated showed differential sensitivities to variations in precipitation regimes. Their sensitivities were reflected more in the responses to PVI and ARIEP than to the mean precipitation rate. Further, they exhibited tradeoffs between responses to low and high PV. Finally, PVI and ARIEP were closely correlated with temporal integrals of positive temperature anomalies and vapor pressure deficit. We suggest that the comparative responses of plant species to PV are part of species-specific water use strategies in a plant community facing the uncertainty of fluctuating precipitation regimes. In conclusion, PVI and ARIEP should be adopted as key indices to quantify physiological drought and the ecological impacts of precipitation regimes in a changing climate.« less

  6. Impacts of precipitation variability on plant species and community water stress in a temperate deciduous forest in the central US

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Lianhong; Pallardy, Stephen G.; Hosman, Kevin P.; Sun, Ying

    2015-12-11

    Variations in precipitation regimes can shift ecosystem structure and function by altering frequency, severity and timing of plant water stress. There is a need for predictively understanding impacts of precipitation regimes on plant water stress in relation to species water use strategies. Here we first formulated two complementary, physiologically-linked measures of precipitation variability (PV) - Precipitation Variability Index (PVI) and Average Recurrence Interval of Effective Precipitation (ARIEP). We then used nine-year continuous measurements of Predawn Leaf Water Potential Integral (PLWPI) in a central US forest to relate PVI and ARIEP to actual plant water availability and comparative water stress responses of six species with different capacities to regulate their internal water status. We found that PVI and ARIEP explained nearly all inter-annual variations in PLWPI for all species as well as for the community scaled from species measurements. The six species investigated showed differential sensitivities to variations in precipitation regimes. Their sensitivities were reflected more in the responses to PVI and ARIEP than to the mean precipitation rate. Further, they exhibited tradeoffs between responses to low and high PV. Finally, PVI and ARIEP were closely correlated with temporal integrals of positive temperature anomalies and vapor pressure deficit. We suggest that the comparative responses of plant species to PV are part of species-specific water use strategies in a plant community facing the uncertainty of fluctuating precipitation regimes. In conclusion, PVI and ARIEP should be adopted as key indices to quantify physiological drought and the ecological impacts of precipitation regimes in a changing climate.

  7. Sensitive Species

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sensitive Species Sensitive Species By avoiding or minimizing the impact of Laboratory activities on sensitive species, LANL can potentially reduce the possibility of these species being upgraded to federal protection. February 2, 2015 sensitive species The bald eagle is one of our sensitive species. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email Sensitive species are plants and animals that are protected at the state

  8. Nitrogen control of 13C enrichment in heterotrophic organs relative to leaves in a landscape-building desert plant species

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, J.; Gu, L.; Bao, F.; Cao, Y.; Hao, Y.; He, J.; Li, J.; Li, Y.; Ren, Y.; Wang, F.; et al

    2014-09-10

    A longstanding puzzle in isotope studies of C3 plant species is that heterotrophic plant organs (e.g., stems, roots, seeds, and fruits) tend to be enriched in 13C compared to the autotrophic organ (leaves) that provides them with photosynthate. Our inability to explain this puzzle suggests key deficiencies in understanding post-photosynthetic metabolic processes. It also limits the effectiveness of applications of stable carbon isotope analyses in a variety of scientific disciplines ranging from plant physiology to global carbon cycle studies. To gain insight into this puzzle, we excavated whole plant architectures of Nitraria tangutorum Bobrov, a C3 species that has anmore » exceptional capability of fixing sands and building sand dunes, in two deserts in northwestern China. We systematically and simultaneously measured carbon isotope ratios and nitrogen and phosphorous contents of different parts of the excavated plants. We also determined the seasonal variations in leaf carbon isotope ratios on nearby intact plants of N. tangutorum. We found, for the first time, that higher nitrogen contents in heterotrophic organs were significantly correlated with increased heterotrophic 13C enrichment compared to leaves. However, phosphorous contents had no effect on the enrichment. In addition, new leaves had carbon isotope ratios similar to roots but were progressively depleted in 13C as they matured. We concluded that a nitrogen-mediated process, probably the refixation of respiratory CO2 by phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylase, was responsible for the differences in 13C enrichment among different heterotrophic organs while processes within leaves or during phloem loading may contribute to the overall autotrophic – heterotrophic difference in carbon isotope compositions.« less

  9. Nitrogen control of 13C enrichment in heterotrophic organs relative to leaves in a landscape-building desert plant species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jinxin [Chinese Academy of Forestry; Gu, Lianhong [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    A longstanding puzzle in isotopic studies of C3 plant species is that heterotrophic plant organs (e.g., stems, roots, seeds, and fruits) tend to be enriched in 13C compared to the autotrophic organ (leaves) that provides them with photosynthate. Our inability to explain this puzzle suggests key deficiencies in understanding post-photosynthetic metabolic processes. It also limits the effectiveness of applications of stable carbon isotope analyses in a variety of scientific disciplines ranging from plant physiology to global carbon cycle studies. To gain insight into this puzzle, we excavated whole plant architectures of Nitraria tangutorum Bobrov, a C3 species that has an exceptional capability of fixing sands and building sand dunes, in two deserts in northwestern China. We systematically and simultaneously measured carbon isotopic ratios and nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations of different parts of the excavated plants. We also determined the seasonal variations in leaf carbon isotopic ratios on nearby intact plants of N. tangutorum. We found that higher nitrogen concentrations in heterotrophic organs were significantly correlated with increased heterotrophic 13C enrichment compared to leaves. However, phosphorous concentrations had no effect on the enrichment. In addition, new leaves had carbon isotopic ratios similar to roots but were progressively depleted in 13C as they matured. We concluded that a nitrogen-mediated process, probably the refixation of respiratory CO2 by phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylase, was responsible for the differences in 13C enrichment among different heterotrophic organs while processes within leaves or during phloem loading may contribute to the overall autotrophic heterotrophic difference in carbon isotopic compositions.

  10. Ecosystem management: Controlling biological invasion in an Illinois nature preserve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thelen, C.S.; Schulz, K.E.

    1995-12-01

    Understanding the nature and effects of human interaction with the landscape is an important aspect of environmental decisionmaking. Often, human action alters the composition and distribution of organisms. In the North American central Midwest, human occupation has decimated native woodlands, which endure as habitat islands in a highly fragmented natural landscape dominated by intensive agriculture and permeated by invasive exotic species. The alterations in the landscape have affected the structure and function of the few remaining intact forests by altering the environment experienced by tree and herb species. A frequent invader of forest understories throughout the central Midwest is Vinca minor, a horticultural groundcover, yet this species has not previously been studied as a woodland invader. We tested the hypothesis that native understory species were excluded from colonized areas, and that tree seedling growth was suppressed. Using study plots in Knobeloch Woods Nature Preserve, St. Clair County, Illinois, we measured the effect of Vinca colonization on understory composition and diversity, by comparing colonized and uncolonized plots. We also related understory characteristics to soil and canopy properties. Finally, to evaluate an ongoing program to control the invasion in the field, we tested the hypothesis that simultaneous cutting and herbicide treatment had increased the diversity of native understory species. We hope with this study to provide fact-based recommendations for management of midwestern nature preserves experiencing exotic plant invasions.

  11. Current distribution, habitat, and status of Category 2 candidate plant species on and near the U.S. Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blomquist, Kevin W.; Lindemann, Tim A.; Lyon, Glen E.; Steen, Dan C.; Wills, Cathy A.; Flick, Sarah A.; Ostler, W. Kent

    1995-12-31

    Results of surveys conducted between 1991 and 1995 were used to document the distribution and habitat of 11 Category 2 candidate plant species known to occur on or near the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Approximately 200 areas encompassing about 13,000 ha were surveyed. Distributions of all species except Frasera-pahutensis and Phaceliaparishii were increased, and the ranges of Camissonia megalantha, Galium hilendiae ssp. kingstonense, Penstemon albomarginatus, and Penstemon pahutensis were expanded. The status of each species was assessed based on current distribution population trends, and potential threats. Recommendations were made to reclassi& the following five species to Category 3C: Arctomecon merriamii, F. pahutensis, P. pahutensis, Phacelia beatleyae, and Phaceliaparishii. Two species, C. megalantha and Cymopterus ripIeyi var. saniculoides, were recommended for reclassification to Category 3B status. No recommendation was made to reclassify Astragalus funereus, G. hilendiae ssp. kingstonense, P. albomarginatus, or Penstemon fruticiformis var. amargosae from their current Category 2 status. Populations of these four species are not threatened on NTS, but the NTS populations represent only a.small portion of each species range and the potential threats of mining or grazing activities off NTS on these species was notassessed. Conservation measures recommended included the development of an NTS ecosystem conservation plan, continued conduct of preactivity and plant surveys on NTS, and protection of plant type localities on NTS.

  12. Chemical characterization of biogenic SOA generated from plant emissions under baseline and stressed conditions: inter- and intra-species variability for six coniferous species

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Faiola, C. L.; Wen, M.; VanReken, T. M.

    2014-10-01

    The largest global source of secondary organic aerosol in the atmosphere is derived from the oxidation of biogenic emissions. Plant stressors associated with a changing environment can alter both the quantity and composition of the compounds that are emitted. Alterations to the biogenic VOC profile could impact the characteristics of the SOA formed from those emissions. This study investigated the impacts of one global change stressor, increased herbivory, on the composition of SOA derived from real plant emissions. Herbivory was simulated via application of methyl jasmonate, a proxy compound. Experiments were repeated under pre- and post-treatment conditions for six differentmore » coniferous plant types. VOCs emitted from the plants were oxidized to form SOA via dark ozone-initiated chemistry. The SOA particle size distribution and chemical composition were measured using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-AMS), respectively. The aerosol mass spectra of pre-treatment biogenic SOA from all plant types tended to be similar with correlations usually greater than or equal to 0.90. The presence of a stressor produced characteristic differences in the SOA mass spectra. Specifically, the following m/z were identified as a possible biogenic stress AMS marker with the corresponding HR ion(s) shown in parentheses: m/z 31 (CH3O+), m/z 58 (C2H2O2+, C3H6O+) m/z 29 (C2H5+), m/z 57 (C3H5O+), m/z 59 (C2H3O2+, C3H7O+), m/z 71 (C3H3O2+, C4H7O+), and m/z 83 (C5H7O+). The first aerosol mass spectrum of SOA generated from the oxidation of the plant stress hormone, methyl jasmonate, is also presented. Elemental analysis results demonstrated an O:C range of baseline biogenic SOA between 0.3–0.47. The O:C of standard methyl jasmonate SOA was 0.52. Results presented here could be used to help identify a biogenic plant stress marker in ambient datasets collected in forest environments.« less

  13. Chemical characterization of biogenic secondary organic aerosol generated from plant emissions under baseline and stressed conditions: inter- and intra-species variability for six coniferous species

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Faiola, C. L.; Wen, M.; VanReken, T. M.

    2015-04-01

    The largest global source of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in the atmosphere is derived from the oxidation of biogenic emissions. Plant stressors associated with a changing environment can alter both the quantity and composition of the compounds that are emitted. Alterations to the biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) profile could impact the characteristics of the SOA formed from those emissions. This study investigated the impacts of one global change stressor, increased herbivory, on the composition of SOA derived from real plant emissions. Herbivory was simulated via application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA), a proxy compound. Experiments were repeated under pre- andmore » post-treatment conditions for six different coniferous plant types. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from the plants were oxidized to form SOA via dark ozone-initiated chemistry. The SOA chemical composition was measured using a Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-AMS). The aerosol mass spectra of pre-treatment biogenic SOA from all plant types tended to be similar with correlations usually greater than or equal to 0.90. The presence of a stressor produced characteristic differences in the SOA mass spectra. Specifically, the following m/z were identified as a possible biogenic stress AMS marker with the corresponding HR ion(s) shown in parentheses: m/z 31 (CH3O+), m/z 58 (C2H2O2+, C3H6O+), m/z 29 (C2H5+), m/z 57 (C3H5O+), m/z 59 (C2H3O2+, C3H7O+), m/z 71 (C3H3O2+, C4H7O+), and m/z 83 (C5H7O+). The first aerosol mass spectrum of SOA generated from the oxidation of the plant stress hormone, MeJA, is also presented. Elemental analysis results demonstrated an O : C range of baseline biogenic SOA between 0.3 and 0.47. The O : C of standard MeJA SOA was 0.52. Results presented here could be used to help identify a biogenic plant stress marker in ambient data sets collected in forest environments.« less

  14. Nitrogen control of 13C enrichment in heterotrophic organs relative to leaves in a landscape-building desert plant species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, J.; Gu, L.; Bao, F.; Cao, Y.; Hao, Y.; He, J.; Li, J.; Li, Y.; Ren, Y.; Wang, F.; Wu, R.; Yao, B.; Zhao, Y.; Lin, G.; Wu, B.; Lu, Q.; Meng, P.

    2014-09-10

    A longstanding puzzle in isotope studies of C3 plant species is that heterotrophic plant organs (e.g., stems, roots, seeds, and fruits) tend to be enriched in 13C compared to the autotrophic organ (leaves) that provides them with photosynthate. Our inability to explain this puzzle suggests key deficiencies in understanding post-photosynthetic metabolic processes. It also limits the effectiveness of applications of stable carbon isotope analyses in a variety of scientific disciplines ranging from plant physiology to global carbon cycle studies. To gain insight into this puzzle, we excavated whole plant architectures of Nitraria tangutorum Bobrov, a C3 species that has an exceptional capability of fixing sands and building sand dunes, in two deserts in northwestern China. We systematically and simultaneously measured carbon isotope ratios and nitrogen and phosphorous contents of different parts of the excavated plants. We also determined the seasonal variations in leaf carbon isotope ratios on nearby intact plants of N. tangutorum. We found, for the first time, that higher nitrogen contents in heterotrophic organs were significantly correlated with increased heterotrophic 13C enrichment compared to leaves. However, phosphorous contents had no effect on the enrichment. In addition, new leaves had carbon isotope ratios similar to roots but were progressively depleted in 13C as they matured. We concluded that a nitrogen-mediated process, probably the refixation of respiratory CO2 by phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylase, was responsible for the differences in 13C enrichment among different heterotrophic organs while processes within leaves or during phloem loading may contribute to the overall autotrophic – heterotrophic difference in carbon isotope compositions.

  15. Comparative plant uptake and microbial degradation of trichloroethylene in the rhizospheres of five plant species-- implications for bioremediation of contaminated surface soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, T.A. ); Walton, B.T. )

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this study was to collect data that would provide a foundation for the concept of using vegetation to enhance in situ bioremediation of contaminated surface soils. Soil and vegetation (Lespedeza cuneata, Paspalum notatum, Pinus taeda, and Solidago sp.) samples from the Miscellaneous Chemicals Basin (MCB) at the Savannah River Site were used in tests to identify critical plant and microbiological variables affecting the fate of trichloroethylene (TCE) in the root zone. Microbiological assays including phospholipid acid analyses, and {sup 14}C-acetate incorporation were conducted to elucidate differences in rhizosphere and nonvegetated soil microbial communities from the MCB. The microbial activity, biomass, and degradation of TCE in rhizosphere soils were significantly greater than corresponding nonvegetated soils. Vegetation had a positive effect on microbial degradation of {sup 14}C-TCE in whole-plant experiments. Soils from the MCB containing Lespedeza cuneata, Pinus taeda, and Glycine max mineralized greater than 25% of the {sup 14}C- TCE added compared with less than 20% in nonvegetated soils. Collectively, these results provide evidence for the positive role of vegetation in enhancing biodegradation.

  16. Endangered Species

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Endangered Species Protecting our Endangered Species The Endangered Species Act requires that endangered species be protected at the individual level. February 2, 2015 Adult Mexican Spotted Owl Adult Mexican Spotted Owl recorded in 2010. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email The Habitat Management Plan details how threatened and endangered species and their habitats are managed at LANL. Endangered species on

  17. A Review of Hazardous Chemical Species Associated with CO2 Capturefrom Coal-Fired Power Plants and Their Potential Fate in CO2 GeologicStorage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apps, J.A.

    2006-02-23

    Conventional coal-burning power plants are major contributors of excess CO2 to the atmospheric inventory. Because such plants are stationary, they are particularly amenable to CO2 capture and disposal by deep injection into confined geologic formations. However, the energy penalty for CO2 separation and compression is steep, and could lead to a 30-40 percent reduction in useable power output. Integrated gas combined cycle (IGCC) plants are thermodynamically more efficient, i.e.,produce less CO2 for a given power output, and are more suitable for CO2 capture. Therefore, if CO2 capture and deep subsurface disposal were to be considered seriously, the preferred approach would be to build replacement IGCC plants with integrated CO2 capture, rather than retrofit existing conventional plants. Coal contains minor quantities of sulfur and nitrogen compounds, which are of concern, as their release into the atmosphere leads to the formation of urban ozone and acid rain, the destruction of stratospheric ozone, and global warming. Coal also contains many trace elements that are potentially hazardous to human health and the environment. During CO2 separation and capture, these constituents could inadvertently contaminate the separated CO2 and be co-injected. The concentrations and speciation of the co-injected contaminants would differ markedly, depending on whether CO2 is captured during the operation of a conventional or an IGCC plant, and the specific nature of the plant design and CO2 separation technology. However, regardless of plant design or separation procedures, most of the hazardous constituents effectively partition into the solid waste residue. This would lead to an approximately two order of magnitude reduction in contaminant concentration compared with that present in the coal. Potential exceptions are Hg in conventional plants, and Hg and possibly Cd, Mo and Pb in IGCC plants. CO2 capture and injection disposal could afford an opportunity to deliberately capture

  18. Selective Herbivory by an Invasive Cyprinid, the Rudd Scardinius erythrophthalmus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kapuscinski, Kevin L; John, Farrell M; Stehman, Stephen V; Boyer, Gregory L; Fernando, Danilo D; Teece, Mark A; Tschaplinski, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    1. Herbivory by non-native animals is a problem of growing concern globally, especially for ecosystems where significant native herbivores did not previously exist or have been replaced by non-natives. The rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus) is an omnivorous cyprinid that has a nearly global longitudinal distribution due to human translocations, yet it is unknown whether the rudd feeds selectively among aquatic macrophyte species common to North American waters. 2. We tested a null hypothesis of non-selective feeding by rudds using five species of aquatic macrophytes: Ceratophyllum demersum, Elodea canadensis, Najas flexilis, Stuckenia pectinata, and Vallisneria americana. Four rudds were placed in 15 different 890-L tanks and presented with known quantities of each macrophyte species (each tank serving as a block in a randomized complete block design). Each macrophyte bundle was weighed on six dates during a 13 d experiment. Differences in mean percent weight remaining among macrophyte species were tested using repeated measures analysis of variance. We also quantified differences among chemical attributes of the five macrophyte species and qualitatively determined if selective feeding by rudds was related to dry matter content (DMC), percent C by dry weight (%C), percent N by dry weight (%N), and the concentrations of total soluble proteins, two organic acids (aconitic and oxalic acid), total soluble phenolic compounds (<1,000 Da), nine soluble phenolic metabolites, and total phenolic compounds. 3. Selective feeding by rudds was evident, with the order of macrophyte removal (from highest to lowest) being: N. flexilis > E. canadensis > S. pectinata > V. americana > C. demersum. Selection was positively related to %C and atomic C:N, but not DMC, %N, or concentration of total soluble proteins, contrary to the expectation that rudds would select the most nutritious plants available. The concentration of aconitic acid was greatest in N. flexilis, a preferred macrophyte

  19. Using multispectral videography to distinguish the pattern of zonation and plant species composition in brackish water marshes of the Rio Grande Delta

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Judd, F.W.; Lonard, R.I.; Everitt, J.H. [Univ. of Texas-Pan American, Edinburg, TX (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    Cyclical flooding of the Rio Grande and movement of floodwater into distributary channels formerly constituted significant freshwater input into the marshes of the Rio Grande Delta, but dams and flood control projects have eliminated this source of freshwater. The marshes are now dependent on rainfall alone for freshwater input and may be experiencing significant change in species of vegetation, abundance and patterns of distribution. Unfortunately, little is known of the ecology of these marshes. As a first step in providing needed information, multispectral videography was used to distinguish species composition and patterns of zonation in a brackish water marsh at Laguna Atascosa National Wildlife Refuge, Cameron County, Texas. The line intercept method of vegetation analysis provided ground truth and quantified species distribution and abundance. The vegetation of a typical brackish water marsh is organized into three zones along an elevation gradient. At the lowest elevations there is a distinct zone dominated by maritime saltwort, Batis maritime. At the lowest elevations in this zone where rainwater remains the longest, stands of California bulrush, Scirpus californicus, occur. An intermediate zone supports shoregrass, Monanthochloe littoralis, as the dominant species. A third (highest) zone is dominated by Gulf cordgrass, Spartina spartinae. The upper margin of this zone grades gradually into a shrub-grassland community that occurs on lomas (clay dunes). Each of the zones is distinguished by a distinctive signature in the multispectral videography. The Batis maritime community has a bright pink to red image response. Monanthochloe littoralis has a dark brown color and Spartina spartinae has a light gray to pinkish-tan color. Brackish water marshes may be distinguished from saltwater marshes by the relative positions of the Monanthochloe littoralis and Spartina spartinae communities, but additional data are needed before this possibility is confirmed.

  20. Plant Phenotype Characterization System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel W McDonald; Ronald B Michaels

    2005-09-09

    This report is the final scientific report for the DOE Inventions and Innovations Project: Plant Phenotype Characterization System, DE-FG36-04GO14334. The period of performance was September 30, 2004 through July 15, 2005. The project objective is to demonstrate the viability of a new scientific instrument concept for the study of plant root systems. The root systems of plants are thought to be important in plant yield and thus important to DOE goals in renewable energy sources. The scientific study and understanding of plant root systems is hampered by the difficulty in observing root activity and the inadequacy of existing root study instrumentation options. We have demonstrated a high throughput, non-invasive, high resolution technique for visualizing plant root systems in-situ. Our approach is based upon low-energy x-ray radiography and the use of containers and substrates (artificial soil) which are virtually transparent to x-rays. The system allows us to germinate and grow plant specimens in our containers and substrates and to generate x-ray images of the developing root system over time. The same plant can be imaged at different times in its development. The system can be used for root studies in plant physiology, plant morphology, plant breeding, plant functional genomics and plant genotype screening.

  1. Pipeline corridors through wetlands - summary of seventeen plant-community studies at ten wetland crossings. Topical report, February 1990--August 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Dyke, G.D. |; Shem, L.M.; Wilkey, P.L.; Zimmerman, R.E.; Alsum, S.K.

    1994-12-01

    As part of the Gas Research Institute Wetland Corridors Program, Argonne National Laboratory conducted field studies on 10 wetland crossings located in six states to document impacts of natural gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROWS) on 15 wetland plant communities. This study is unique in the number, range, ages, and variety of wetland crossings surveyed and compared. Vegetation data and recorded observations were analyzed to reveal patterns associated with age, installation technology, maintenance practices, and wetland type. This report summarizes the findings of this study. Results revealed that ROWs of pipelines installed according to recent wetland regulations rapidly revegetated with dense and diverse plant communities. The ROW plant communities were similar to those in the adjacent natural areas in species richness, wetland indicator values, and percentages of native species. The ROW plant communities developed from naturally available propagules without fertilization, liming, or artificial seeding. ROWs contributed to increased habitat and plant species diversity in the wetland. There was little evidence that they degrade the wetland by providing avenues for the spread of invasive and normative plant species. Most impacts are temporal in nature, decreasing rapidly during the first several years and more slowly thereafter to the extent permitted by maintenance and other ROW activities.

  2. Compact Beta Particle/Positron Imager for Plant Biology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weisenberger, Andrew; Lee, Seung Joon; McKisson, John; Xi, Wenze; Zorn, Carl; Stolin, Alexander; Majewski, Stan; Majewski, Stanislaw; Howell, Calvin; Crowell, Alec

    2011-06-01

    The 11CO2 tracer is used to facilitate plant biology research towards optimization of plant productivity, biofuel development and carbon sequestration in biomass. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has been used to study carbon transport in live plants using 11CO2. Plants typically have very thin leaves resulting in little medium for the emitted positrons to undergo an annihilation event. For the emitted positron from 11C decay approximately 1mm of water equivalent material is needed for positron annihilation. Thus most of the positrons do not annihilate inside the leaf, resulting in limited sensitivity for PET imaging. To address this problem we have developed a compact beta-positive beta-minus particle (BPBM) imager for 11CO2 leaf imaging. The detector is based on a Hamamatsu H8500 position sensitive photomultiplier tube optically coupled via optical grease and a 3mm thick glass plate to a 0.5mm thick Eljin EJ-212 plastic scintillator. The detector is equipped with a flexible arm to allow its placement and orientation on the leaf of the plant of interest while maintaining the leaf's original orientation. We are planning to utilize the imaging device at the Duke University Phytotron to investigate dynamic carbon transport differences between invasive and native species.

  3. Final Report for DOE Project: Climate Effects on Plant Range Distributions and Community Structure of Pacific Northwest Prairies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bridgham, Scott D.; Johnson, Bart

    2013-09-26

    Pacific Northwest (PNW) prairies are an imperiled ecosystem that contain a large number of plant species with high fidelity to this habitat. The few remaining high-quality PNW prairies harbor a number of sensitive, rare, and endangered plant species that may be further at-risk with climate change. Thus, PNW prairies are an excellent model system to examine how climate change will affect the distribution of native plant species in grassland sites. Our experimental objectives were to determine: (i) how climate change will affect the range distribution of native plant species; (ii) what life history stages are most sensitive to climate change in a group of key indicator native species; (iii) the robustness of current restoration techniques and suites of species to changing climate, and in particular, the relative competitiveness of native species versus exotic invasive species; and (iv) the effects of climate change on carbon and nutrient cycling and soil-microbial-plant feedbacks. We addressed these objectives by experimentally increasing temperature 2.5 to 3.0 ºC above ambient with overhead infrared lamps and increasing wet-season precipitation by 20% above ambient in three upland prairie sites in central-western Washington, central-western Oregon, and southwestern Oregon from fall 2010 through 2012. Additional precipitation was applied within 2 weeks of when it fell so precipitation intensity was increased, particularly during the winter rainy season but with minimal additions during the summer dry season. These three sites also represent a 520-km natural climate gradient of increasing degree of severity of Mediterranean climate from north to south. After removing the extant vegetation, we planted a diverse suite of 12 native species that have their northern range limit someplace within the PNW in each experimental plot. An additional 20 more wide-spread native species were also planted into each plot. We found that recruitment of plant species within their ranges

  4. SERI Aquatic Species Program: 1983 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-03-01

    During 1983 research was carried out under three tasks: biological, engineering, and analysis. Biological research was aimed at screening for promising species of microalgae, macroalgae, and emergent plants that could be cultivated for energy products. Promising species were studied further to improve yields.

  5. A human breast cell model of pre-invasive to invasive transition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bissell, Mina J; Rizki, Aylin; Weaver, Valerie M.; Lee, Sun-Young; Rozenberg, Gabriela I.; Chin, Koei; Myers, Connie A.; Bascom, Jamie L.; Mott, Joni D.; Semeiks, Jeremy R.; Grate, Leslie R.; Mian, I. Saira; Borowsky, Alexander D.; Jensen, Roy A.; Idowu, Michael O.; Chen, Fanqing; Chen, David J.; Petersen, Ole W.; Gray, Joe W.; Bissell, Mina J.

    2008-03-10

    A crucial step in human breast cancer progression is the acquisition of invasiveness. There is a distinct lack of human cell culture models to study the transition from pre-invasive to invasive phenotype as it may occur 'spontaneously' in vivo. To delineate molecular alterations important for this transition, we isolated human breast epithelial cell lines that showed partial loss of tissue polarity in three-dimensional reconstituted-basement membrane cultures. These cells remained non-invasive; however, unlike their non-malignant counterparts, they exhibited a high propensity to acquire invasiveness through basement membrane in culture. The genomic aberrations and gene expression profiles of the cells in this model showed a high degree of similarity to primary breast tumor profiles. The xenograft tumors formed by the cell lines in three different microenvironments in nude mice displayed metaplastic phenotypes, including squamous and basal characteristics, with invasive cells exhibiting features of higher grade tumors. To find functionally significant changes in transition from pre-invasive to invasive phenotype, we performed attribute profile clustering analysis on the list of genes differentially expressed between pre-invasive and invasive cells. We found integral membrane proteins, transcription factors, kinases, transport molecules, and chemokines to be highly represented. In addition, expression of matrix metalloproteinases MMP-9,-13,-15,-17 was up regulated in the invasive cells. Using siRNA based approaches, we found these MMPs to be required for the invasive phenotype. This model provides a new tool for dissection of mechanisms by which pre-invasive breast cells could acquire invasiveness in a metaplastic context.

  6. Effect of acid deposition on potentially sensitive soil-plant systems at Vandenberg AFB, California. Final report, 1 September 1984-1 September 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zedler, P.H.; Marion, G.

    1988-04-30

    The objectives of this study were to assess the impact of the acid deposition expected from rocket launches on natural coastal vegetation and soils. Interest was directed primarily toward the longer-term and more-subtle effects of acidity, and the degree of sensitivity of different soil-plant systems. A study area was established along a topographic chronosequence that ranged from stabilized dunes to residual soils over bedrock. Soils and plants were collected from this region and used in three main studies. A leaching study measured the changes in chemical properties of four soils subjected to repeated acid additions. A second study treated seeds of wide variety of native or spontaneous species with HC1 on the four soils to establish the sensitivity of the vegetation to deposition events during the fall to winter germination pulse characteristic of California coastal ecosystems. A third study examined the effect of acid treatments on the growth of and competition between two common woody plants -- Artemisia californica and Pinus muricata. A fourth study partially supported by this grant studied the invasion of an exotic species in a recently burned site on one of the four study soils. The studies collectively show that, although the soil-plant systems are well buffered against moderate and low inputs of acidity, the effect of acid additions differed among soil types and from species to species. Overall the hypothesis that acidic deposition could affect plant-plant and soil-plant interactions was supported, but some of these effects are subtle and not all appear to be deleterious.

  7. Plant Operational Status - Pantex Plant

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plant Operational Status Plant Operational Status Page Content Shift 1 - Day The Pantex Plant is open for normal Day Shift operations. Plant personnel are to report as assigned. Personnel may call 477-3000, Option 1 for additional details. Shift 2 - Swing The Pantex Plant is open for normal Swing Shift operations. Plant personnel are to report as assigned. Personnel may call 477-3000, Option 1 for additional details. Shift 3 - Grave The Pantex Plant is open for normal Graveyard Shift operations.

  8. Vegetation component of geothermal EIS studies: Introduced plants, ecosystem stability, and geothermal development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-10-01

    This paper contributes new information about the impacts from introduced plant invasions on the native Hawaiian vegetation as consequences of land disturbance and geothermal development activities. In this regard, most geothermal development is expected to act as another recurring source of physical disturbance which favors the spread and maintenance of introduced organisms throughout the region. Where geothermal exploration and development activities extend beyond existing agricultural and residential development, they will become the initial or sole source of disturbance to the naturalized vegetation of the area. Kilauea has a unique ecosystem adapted to the dynamics of a volcanically active landscape. The characteristics of this ecosystem need to be realized in order to understand the major threats to the ecosystem and to evaluate the effects of and mitigation for geothermal development in Puna. The native Puna vegetation is well adapted to disturbances associated with volcanic eruption, but it is ill-adapted to compete with alien plant species in secondary disturbances produced by human activities. Introduced plant and animal species have become a major threat to the continued presence of the native biota in the Puna region of reference.

  9. COMPUTATIONAL RESOURCES FOR BIOFUEL FEEDSTOCK SPECIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buell, Carol Robin; Childs, Kevin L

    2013-05-07

    While current production of ethanol as a biofuel relies on starch and sugar inputs, it is anticipated that sustainable production of ethanol for biofuel use will utilize lignocellulosic feedstocks. Candidate plant species to be used for lignocellulosic ethanol production include a large number of species within the Grass, Pine and Birch plant families. For these biofuel feedstock species, there are variable amounts of genome sequence resources available, ranging from complete genome sequences (e.g. sorghum, poplar) to transcriptome data sets (e.g. switchgrass, pine). These data sets are not only dispersed in location but also disparate in content. It will be essential to leverage and improve these genomic data sets for the improvement of biofuel feedstock production. The objectives of this project were to provide computational tools and resources for data-mining genome sequence/annotation and large-scale functional genomic datasets available for biofuel feedstock species. We have created a Bioenergy Feedstock Genomics Resource that provides a web-based portal or “clearing house” for genomic data for plant species relevant to biofuel feedstock production. Sequence data from a total of 54 plant species are included in the Bioenergy Feedstock Genomics Resource including model plant species that permit leveraging of knowledge across taxa to biofuel feedstock species.We have generated additional computational analyses of these data, including uniform annotation, to facilitate genomic approaches to improved biofuel feedstock production. These data have been centralized in the publicly available Bioenergy Feedstock Genomics Resource (http://bfgr.plantbiology.msu.edu/).

  10. Proceedings of the Subcontractors' Review Meeting: Aquatic Species Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    The Aquatic Species Program (ASP) addresses the utilization of plant biomass that naturally occurs in wetland or submerged areas. Processes are being developed through this program to make use of such aquatic species, capitalizing on their inherent capacity for rapid growth as well as their extraordinary chemical compositions.

  11. California Endangered Species Act Species List | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    California Endangered Species Act Species List Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- OtherOther: California Endangered Species Act...

  12. CO2 EFFECTS ON MOJAVE DESERT PLANT INTERACTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. A. DEFALCO; G. C. FERNANDEZ; S. D. SMITH; R. S. NOWAK

    2004-01-01

    Seasonal and interannual droughts characteristic of deserts have the potential to modify plant interactions as atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations continue to rise. At the Nevada Desert FACE (free-air CO{sub 2} enrichment) facility in the northern Mojave Desert, the effects of elevated atmospheric C02 (550 vs. ambient {approx}360 {micro}mol mol{sup -1}) on plant interactions were examined during two years of high and low rainfall. Results suggest that CO{sub 2} effects on the interaction between native species and their understory herbs are dependent on the strength of competition when rainfall is plentiful, but are unimportant during annual drought. Seasonal rainfall for 1999 was 23% the long-term average for the area, and neither elevated CO{sub 2} nor the low production of herbaceous neighbors had an effect on relative growth rate (RGR, d{sup -1}) and reproductive effort (RE, number of flowers g{sup -1}) for Achnatherum hymenoides (early season perennial C{sub 3} grass), Pleuraphis rigida (late season perennial C{sub 4} grass), and Larrea tridentata (evergreen C{sub 3} shrub). In contrast, 1998 received 213% the average rainfall. Consequently, the decrease in RGR and increase in RE for Achnatherum, whose period of growth overlaps directly with that of its neighbors, was exaggerated at elevated CO{sub 2}. However, competitive effects of neighbors on Eriogonum trichopes (a winter annual growing in shrub interspaces), Pleuraphis and Larrea were not affected by elevated CO{sub 2}, and possible explanations are discussed. Contrary to expectations, the invasive annual neighbor Bromus madritensis ssp. rubens had little influence on target plant responses because densities in 1998 and 1999 at this site were well below those found in other studies where it has negatively affected perennial plant growth. The extent that elevated CO{sub 2} reduces the performance of Achnatherum in successive years to cause its loss from the plant community depends more on future pressure

  13. Bagdad Plant

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bagdad Plant 585 Silicon Drive Leechburg, P A 15656 * ATI Allegheny "'I Ludlum e-mail: Raymond.Polinski@ATImetals.com Mr. James Raba U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy ...

  14. Mathematical modeling of positron emission tomography (PET) data to assess radiofluoride transport in living plants following petiolar administration

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Converse, Alexander K.; Ahlers, Elizabeth O.; Bryan, Tom W.; Hetue, Jackson D.; Lake, Katherine A.; Ellison, Paul A.; Engle, Jonathan W.; Barnhart, Todd E.; Nickles, Robert J.; Williams, Paul H.; et al

    2015-03-15

    Background: Ion transport is a fundamental physiological process that can be studied non-invasively in living plants with radiotracer imaging methods. Fluoride is a known phytotoxic pollutant and understanding its transport in plants after leaf absorption is of interest to those in agricultural areas near industrial sources of airborne fluoride. Here we report the novel use of a commercial, high-resolution, animal positron emission tomography (PET) scanner to trace a bolus of [¹⁸F]fluoride administered via bisected petioles of Brassica oleracea, an established model species, to simulate whole plant uptake of atmospheric fluoride. This methodology allows for the first time mathematical compartmental modelingmore » of fluoride transport in the living plant. Radiotracer kinetics in the stem were described with a single-parameter free- and trapped-compartment model and mean arrival times at different stem positions were calculated from the free-compartment time-activity curves. Results: After initiation of administration at the bisected leaf stalk, [¹⁸F] radioactivity climbed for approximately 10 minutes followed by rapid washout from the stem and equilibration within leaves. Kinetic modeling of transport in the stem yielded a trapping rate of 1.5 +/- 0.3%/min (mean +/- s.d., n = 3), velocity of 2.2 +/- 1.1 cm/min, and trapping fraction of 0.8 +/- 0.5%/cm. Conclusion: Quantitative assessment of physiologically meaningful transport parameters of fluoride in living plants is possible using standard positron emission tomography in combination with petiolar radiotracer administration. Movement of free fluoride was observed to be consistent with bulk flow in xylem, namely a rapid and linear change in position with respect to time. Trapping, likely in the apoplast, was observed. Future applications of the methods described here include studies of transport of other ions and molecules of interest in plant physiology.« less

  15. Establishment and growth of experimental grass species mixtures on coal mine sites reclaimed with municipal biosolids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halofsky, J.E.; McCormick, L.H.

    2005-05-01

    The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 requires that coal mine sites in the United States be reclaimed to establish vegetative cover that is diverse, native, and capable of plant succession. However, there is a question as to whether vegetation established on coal mine sites reclaimed with biosolids is diverse and capable of plant succession. The influx of nutrients with the addition of biosolids leads to long-term dominance by early-successional species, most notably grasses, and consequently, a low establishment of woody and volunteer species. Additionally, many grass species commonly planted in reclamation have aggressive growth habits that lead to their dominance in coal mine plant communities. The establishment and growth of selected grass mixes was evaluated to determine whether alternative grass mixes would be less competitive with woody and volunteer species as compared to commonly used grass mixes. Percent vegetative cover, species richness, and the survival of direct-seeded woody species were assessed for each treatment grass mixture. It was found that Poa compress and a mixture of P. compress, Panicum virgatum, and Trifolium repens provided adequate coverage while still allowing the highest species richness and survival of woody species. Use of these species mixtures in coal mine reclamation with biosolids in the eastern United States would likely lead to establishment of a more species-rich plant community with a greater woody species component while still providing erosion control and site protection.

  16. TGF-{beta}1 increases invasiveness of SW1990 cells through Rac1/ROS/NF-{kappa}B/IL-6/MMP-2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Binker, Marcelo G.; CBRHC Research Center, Buenos Aires ; Binker-Cosen, Andres A.; Gaisano, Herbert Y.; Cosen, Rodica H. de; Cosen-Binker, Laura I.

    2011-02-04

    Research highlights: {yields} Rac1 mediates TGF-{beta}1-induced SW1990 invasion through MMP-2 secretion and activation. {yields} NADPH-generated ROS act downstream of Rac1 in TGF-{beta}1-challenged SW1990 cells. {yields} TGF-{beta}1-stimulated ROS activate NF-{kappa}B in SW1990 cells. {yields} NF{kappa}B-induced IL-6 release is required for secretion and activation of MMP-2 in SW1990 cells. -- Abstract: Human pancreatic cancer invasion and metastasis have been found to correlate with increased levels of active matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2). The multifunctional cytokine transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-{beta}1) has been shown to increase both secretion of MMP-2 and invasion by several pancreatic cancer cell types. In the present study, we investigated the signaling pathway involved in TGF-{beta}1-promoted MMP-2 secretion and invasion by human pancreatic cancer cells SW1990. Using specific inhibitors, we found that stimulation of these tumor cells with TGF-{beta}1 induced secretion and activation of the collagenase MMP-2, which was required for TGF-{beta}1-stimulated invasion. Our results also indicate that signaling events involved in TGF-{beta}1-enhanced SW1990 invasiveness comprehend activation of Rac1 followed by generation of reactive oxygen species through nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase, activation of nuclear factor-kappa beta, release of interleukin-6, and secretion and activation of MMP-2.

  17. Elevated Carbon Dioxide Suppresses Dominant Plant Species in...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    depend on interannual variation in precipitation and (2) the effects of elevated carbon dioxide are not limited to water saving because they differ from those of irrigation. ...

  18. Genomic definition of species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crkvenjakov, R.; Drmanac, R.

    1991-07-01

    The subject of this paper is the definition of species based on the assumption that genome is the fundamental level for the origin and maintenance of biological diversity. For this view to be logically consistent it is necessary to assume the existence and operation of the new law which we call genome law. For this reason the genome law is included in the explanation of species phenomenon presented here even if its precise formulation and elaboration are left for the future. The intellectual underpinnings of this definition can be traced to Goldschmidt. We wish to explore some philosophical aspects of the definition of species in terms of the genome. The point of proposing the definition on these grounds is that any real advance in evolutionary theory has to be correct in both its philosophy and its science.

  19. TGFβ loss activates ADAMTS-1-mediated EGF-dependent invasion in a model of esophageal cell invasion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Le Bras, Grégoire F.; Taylor, Chase; Koumangoye, Rainelli B.; Revetta, Frank; Loomans, Holli A.; Andl, Claudia D.

    2015-01-01

    The TGFβ signaling pathway is essential to epithelial homeostasis and is often inhibited during progression of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Recently, an important role for TGFβ signaling has been described in the crosstalk between epithelial and stromal cells regulating squamous tumor cell invasion in mouse models of head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Loss of TGFβ signaling, in either compartment, leads to HNSCC however, the mechanisms involved are not well understood. Using organotypic reconstruct cultures (OTC) to model the interaction between epithelial and stromal cells that occur in dysplastic lesions, we show that loss of TGFβ signaling promotes an invasive phenotype in both fibroblast and epithelial compartments. Employing immortalized esophageal keratinocytes established to reproduce common mutations of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, we show that treatment of OTC with inhibitors of TGFβ signaling (A83-01 or SB431542) enhances invasion of epithelial cells into a fibroblast-embedded Matrigel/collagen I matrix. Invasion induced by A83-01 is independent of proliferation but relies on protease activity and expression of ADAMTS-1 and can be altered by matrix density. This invasion was associated with increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL1 and EGFR ligands HB-EGF and TGFα. Altering EGF signaling prevented or induced epithelial cell invasion in this model. Loss of expression of the TGFβ target gene ROBO1 suggested that chemorepulsion may regulate keratinocyte invasion. Taken together, our data show increased invasion through inhibition of TGFβ signaling altered epithelial-fibroblasts interactions, repressing markers of activated fibroblasts, and altering integrin-fibronectin interactions. These results suggest that inhibition of TGFβ signaling modulates an array of pathways that combined promote multiple aspects of tumor invasion. - Highlights: • Chemical inhibition of TGFβ signaling advances collective invasion

  20. Genomic Aspects of Research Involving Polyploid Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Xiaohan [ORNL; Ye, Chuyu [ORNL; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Almost all extant plant species have spontaneously doubled their genomes at least once in their evolutionary histories, resulting in polyploidy which provided a rich genomic resource for evolutionary processes. Moreover, superior polyploid clones have been created during the process of crop domestication. Polyploid plants generated by evolutionary processes and/or crop domestication have been the intentional or serendipitous focus of research dealing with the dynamics and consequences of genome evolution. One of the new trends in genomics research is to create synthetic polyploid plants which provide materials for studying the initial genomic changes/responses immediately after polyploid formation. Polyploid plants are also used in functional genomics research to study gene expression in a complex genomic background. In this review, we summarize the recent progress in genomics research involving ancient, young, and synthetic polyploid plants, with a focus on genome size evolution, genomics diversity, genomic rearrangement, genetic and epigenetic changes in duplicated genes, gene discovery, and comparative genomics. Implications on plant sciences including evolution, functional genomics, and plant breeding are presented. It is anticipated that polyploids will be a regular subject of genomics research in the foreseeable future as the rapid advances in DNA sequencing technology create unprecedented opportunities for discovering and monitoring genomic and transcriptomic changes in polyploid plants. The fast accumulation of knowledge on polyploid formation, maintenance, and divergence at whole-genome and subgenome levels will not only help plant biologists understand how plants have evolved and diversified, but also assist plant breeders in designing new strategies for crop improvement.

  1. Deming Solar Plant Solar Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Deming Solar Plant Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name Deming Solar Plant Solar Power Plant Facility Deming Solar Plant Sector Solar Facility Type Photovoltaic...

  2. Prescott Airport Solar Plant Solar Power Plant | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Prescott Airport Solar Plant Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name Prescott Airport Solar Plant Solar Power Plant Facility Prescott Airport Solar Plant Sector Solar...

  3. Solana Generating Plant Solar Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solana Generating Plant Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name Solana Generating Plant Solar Power Plant Facility Solana Generating Plant Sector Solar Facility Type...

  4. Chest wall invasion by lung cancer: limitations of CT evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pennes, D.R.; Glazer, G.M.; Wimbish, K.J.; Gross, B.H.; Long, R.W.; Orringer, M.B.

    1985-03-01

    Thirty-three patients with peripheral pulmonary malignancies contiguous with a pleural surface were evaluated for chest wall invasion by computed tomography (CT). CT criteria included pleural thickening adjacent to the tumor, encroachment on or increased density of the extrapleural fat, asymmetry of the extrapleural soft tissues adjacent to the tumor, apparent mass invading the chest wall, and rib destruction. The CT scans were classified as positive, negative, or equivocal for invasion, and a decision matrix was constructed comparing CT results with pathologic data. CT scanning has low accuracy in assessing chest wall invasion in patients with peripheral lung cancers.

  5. Better Plants

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Leading manufacturers and industrial-scale energy-using organizations demonstrate their commitment to improving energy performance by signing a voluntary pledge to reduce their energy intensity by 25% over a ten year period. The U.S. Department of Energys Better Buildings, Better Plants Program is an important partnership which consists of approximately 150 industrial companies, representing about 2,300 facilities and close to 11% of the total U.S. manufacturing energy footprint as well as several water and wastewater treatment organizations.

  6. The initial phase of a Longleaf Pine-Wiregrass Savanna restoration: species establishment and community responses.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aschenbach, Todd, A; Foster, Bryan, L.; Imm, Donald, W.

    2010-09-01

    AbstractAbstract The significant loss of the longleaf pine-wiregrass ecosystem in the southeastern United States has serious implications for biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. In response to this loss, we have initiated a long-term and landscape-scale restoration experiment at the 80,125 ha (310 mi2) Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS) located near Aiken, South Carolina. Aristida beyrichiana (wiregrass), an important and dominant grass (i.e., a matrix species) of the longleaf pine savanna understory, and 31 other herbaceous non-matrix species were planted at six locations throughout SRS in 2002 and 2003. Of the 36,056 transplanted seedlings, 75% were still alive in June 2004, while mean 12 year survival across all planted species was 48%. Lespedeza hirta (hairy lespedeza) exhibited the greatest overall survival per 3 3 m cell at 95%, whereas Schizachyrium spp. (little bluestem) exhibited the greatest mean cover among individual species at 5.9%. Wiregrass survival and cover were significantly reduced when planted with non-matrix species. Aggregate cover of all planted species in restored cells averaged 25.9% in 2006. High rates of survival and growth of the planted species resulted in greater species richness (SR), diversity, and vegetative cover in restored cells. Results suggest that the loss of the longleaf pine-wiregrass ecosystem may be ameliorated through restoration efforts and illustrate the positive impact of restoration plantings on biodiversity and vegetative cover.

  7. Multimodality Plant Imaging of Small Molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeJesus, Onofre T.

    2015-03-12

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a non-invasive imaging technique used to diagnose disease and monitor therapy. PET imaging has had tremendous impact in healthcare delivery resulting in improved outcomes and reduced costs. The discovery and development of PET is one of the achievements of the Department of Energy’s (DOE) support of the peaceful uses of the atom. This project is a logical extension of the use of the PET technique to live plant imaging to advance DOE’s biological and environmental initiatives.

  8. MEMORANDUM FOR SEAN LEV DEPUTY GENERAL COUNSEL FOR ENVIRONMENT...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    eradicate Burning, and Revegetation Methods on the 150,000 noxious weeds and invasive plants, and promote desirable plant species and wildlife Hanford Site, Richland,...

  9. Comparative analysis of twelve Dothideomycete plant pathogens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohm, Robin; Aerts, Andrea; Salamov, Asaf; Goodwin, Stephen B.; Grigoriev, Igor

    2011-03-11

    The Dothideomycetes are one of the largest and most diverse groups of fungi. Many are plant pathogens and pose a serious threat to agricultural crops grown for biofuel, food or feed. Most Dothideomycetes have only a single host and related Dothideomycete species can have very diverse host plants. Twelve Dothideomycete genomes have currently been sequenced by the Joint Genome Institute and other sequencing centers. They can be accessed via Mycocosm which has tools for comparative analysis

  10. U.s. DEPARTl\\:IENT OF ENERGY EERE PROJECT MANAGEMENT CENTER

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Natural Resources provided a conservation measure of avoiding the introduction of invasive species in order to protect the integrity of nearby plant species of special...

  11. FWS - Candidate Species List under the Endangered Species Act...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    what a candidate species is under Section 4 of the Endangered Species Act. Author U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Published U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011 DOI Not Provided...

  12. Flora of the Mayacmas Mountains. [Listing of 679 species in the Geysers Geothermal Resource area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neilson, J.A.

    1981-09-01

    This flora describes the plants that occur within the Mayacmas Mountain Range of northern California. It is the result of ten years of environmental assessment by the author in the Geysers Geothermal Resource area, located in the center of the Mayacmas Range. The flora includes notes on plant communities and ecology of the area, as well as habitat and collection data for most of the 679 species covered. Altogether 74 families, 299 genera and 679 species are included in the flora. The work is divided into eight subdivisions: trees; shrubs; ferns and fern allies; aquatic plants; tules, sedges, and rushes; lilies and related plants; dicot herbs; and grasses. Within each subdivision, family, genera and species are listed alphabetically. Keys are provided at the beginning of each subdivision. A unique combination of physical, environmental and geologic factors have resulted in a rich and diverse flora in the Mayacmas. Maps have been provided indicating known locations for species of rare or limited occurrence.

  13. The role of plant-soil feedbacks and land-use legacies in restoration of a temperate steppe in northern China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Lili; Han, Xingguo; Zhang, Guangming; Kardol, Paul

    2010-11-01

    Plant soil feedbacks affect plant performance and plant community dynamics; however, little is known about their role in ecological restoration. Here, we studied plant soil feedbacks in restoration of steppe vegetation after agricultural disturbance in northern China. First, we analyzed abiotic and biotic soil properties under mono-dominant plant patches in an old-field restoration site and in a target steppe site. Second, we tested plant soil feedbacks by growing plant species from these two sites on soils from con- and heterospecific origin. Soil properties generally did not differ between the old-field site and steppe site, but there were significant differences among mono-dominant plant patches within the sites. While soil species origin (i.e., the plant species beneath which the soil was collected) affected biomass of individual plant species in the feedback experiment, species-level plant soil feedbacks were neutral . Soil site origin (old-field, steppe) significantly affected biomass of old-field and steppe species. For example, old-field species had higher biomass in old-field soils than in steppe soils, indicating a positive land-use legacy. However, soil site origin effects depended on the plant species beneath which the soils were collected. The predictive value of abiotic and biotic soil properties in explaining plant biomass differed between and within groups of old-field and steppe species. We conclude that the occurrence of positive land-use legacies for old-field species may retard successional replacement of old-field species by steppe species. However, high levels of idiosyncrasy in responses of old-field and steppe plant species to con- and heterospecific soils indicate interspecific variation in the extent to which soil legacies and plant soil feedbacks control successional species replacements in Chinese steppe ecosystems.

  14. Regulation of in situ to invasive breast carcinoma transition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polyak, Kornelia; Hu, Min; Yao, Jun; Carroll, Danielle K.; Weremowicz, Stanislawa; Chen, Haiyan; Carrasco, Daniel; Richardson, Andrea; Violette, Shelia; Gelman, Rebecca S.; Bissell, Mina J.; Schnitt, Stuart; Polyak, Kornelia

    2008-05-07

    The transition of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to invasive carcinoma is a key event in breast tumor progression that is poorly understood. Comparative molecular analysis of tumor epithelial cells from in situ and invasive tumors has failed to identify consistent tumor stage-specific differences. However, the myoepithelial cell layer, present only in DCIS, is a key distinguishing and diagnostic feature. To determine the contribution of non-epithelial cells to tumor progression, we analyzed the role of myoepithelial cells and fibroblasts in the progression of in situ carcinomas using a xenograft model of human DCIS. Progression to invasion was promoted by fibroblasts, but inhibited by normal myoepithelial cells. The invasive tumor cells from these progressed lesions formed DCIS rather than invasive cancers when re-injected into naive mice. Molecular profiles of myoepithelial and epithelial cells isolated from primary normal and cancerous human breast tissue samples corroborated findings obtained in the xenograft model. These results provide the proof of principle that breast tumor progression could occur in the absence of additional genetic alterations and that tumor growth and progression could be controlled by replacement of normal myoepithelial inhibitory signals.

  15. Regulation of In Situ to Invasive Breast CarcinomaTransition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Min; Carroll, Danielle K.; Weremowicz, Stanislawa; Chen,Haiyan; Carrasco, Daniel; Richardson, Andrea; Bissell, Mina; Violette,Shelia; Gelman, Rebecca S.; Schnitt, Stuart; Polyak, Kornelia

    2007-03-13

    The transition of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to invasive carcinoma is a key event in breast tumor progression that is poorly understood. Comparative molecular analysis of tumor epithelial cells from in situ and invasive tumors has failed to identify consistent tumor stage-specific differences. However, the myoepithelial cell layer, present only in DCIS, is a key distinguishing and diagnostic feature. To determine the contribution of non-epithelial cells to tumor progression, we analyzed the role of myoepithelial cells and fibroblasts in the progression of in situ carcinomas using a xenograft model of human DCIS. Progression to invasion was promoted by fibroblasts, but inhibited by normal myoepithelial cells. The invasive tumor cells from these progressed lesions formed DCIS rather than invasive cancers when re-injected into naive mice. Molecular profiles of myoepithelial and epithelial cells isolated from primary normal and cancerous human breast tissue samples corroborated findings obtained in the xenograft model. These results provide the proof of principle that breast tumor progression could occur in the absence of additional genetic alterations and that tumor growth and progression could be controlled by replacement of normal myoepithelial inhibitory signals.

  16. Plant-based Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plant-based Materials Catalysis Center for Energy Innovation teams with consumer goods and ... announced a research program with the Plant PET Technology Collaborative (PTC) to ...

  17. Quantitative proteomic analysis of the inhibitory effects of CIL-102 on viability and invasiveness in human glioma cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teng, Chih-Chuan; Kuo, Hsing-Chun; Sze, Chun-I

    2013-11-01

    CIL-102 (1-[4-(furo[2,3-b]quinolin-4-ylamino)phenyl]ethanone), the major active agent of the alkaloid derivative, has been demonstrated to exert anticancer effects. Herein, we present an investigation focused on the identification of the target(s) of CIL-102's action and the mechanism of its action in apoptotic and anti-invasive pathways. Proteomic approaches were used to purify and identify the protein substrates using 2D difference gel electrophoresis (2D SDS-PAGE) to assess changes in the expression of relevant protein treatment with CIL-102 that resulted in the inhibition of viability and invasion. Our results demonstrate that CIL-102 treatment of U87 cells decreased cell proliferation and invasiveness. CIL-102 dose-dependent induction of apoptosis and inhibitory invasiveness were accompanied by sustained phosphorylation of JNK1/2 and p70S6K as well as generation of the reactive oxygen species. In addition, differential proteins displayed between CIL-102-treated and untreated U87 were determined and validated. There were 11 differentially expressed proteins between the CIL-102-treated and untreated groups. Furthermore, we demonstrated that CIL-102 inhibited cancer cell proliferation and reduced anti-invasion properties by up-regulating the levels of FUMH (Fumarate hydratase). The investigation demonstrated that there was an increase in the cellular levels of FUMH in the CIL-102 reduction in viability and invasion via the activation of JNK1/2 and mTOR signaling modules. NAC administration and shRNA FUMH conferred resistance to CIL-102-inhibited HIF1? and MMP-2 levels via inhibition of JNK1/2 and mTOR activation. We concluded that CIL-102-induced an apoptosis cascade and decreased aggressiveness in astrocytoma cells by modulation of mitochondria function, providing a new mechanism for CIL-102 treatment. - Highlights: We found the effect of CIL-102 on neuroblastoma cells. Fumarate hydratase as a CIL-102's target by proteomic differential displays. CIL-102

  18. Aquatic Species Program Review: Proceedings of the March 1983 Principal Investigators Meeting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-06-01

    The Aquatic Species Program (ASP) addresses the utilization of plant biomass that naturally occurs in wetland or submerged areas. Processes are being developed through this program to make use of such aquatic species, capitalizing on their inherent capacity for rapid growth as well as their extraordinary chemical compositions.

  19. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Waste Isolation Pilot Plant AFFIDAVIT FOR SURVIVING RELATIVE STATE ) ) ss: COUNTY OF ) That I, , am the...

  20. Ethylene insensitive plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Joseph R.; Nehring, Ramlah; McGrath, Robert B.

    2007-05-22

    Nucleic acid and polypeptide sequences are described which relate to an EIN6 gene, a gene involved in the plant ethylene response. Plant transformation vectors and transgenic plants are described which display an altered ethylene-dependent phenotype due to altered expression of EIN6 in transformed plants.

  1. Polyhydroxyalkanoate synthesis in plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srienc, Friedrich; Somers, David A.; Hahn, J. J.; Eschenlauer, Arthur C.

    2000-01-01

    Novel transgenic plants and plant cells are capable of biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA). Heterologous enzymes involved in PHA biosynthesis, particularly PHA polymerase, are targeted to the peroxisome of a transgenic plant. Transgenic plant materials that biosynthesize short chain length monomer PHAs in the absence of heterologous .beta.-ketothiolase and acetoacetyl-CoA reductase are also disclosed.

  2. Method for non-invasive detection of ocular melanoma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lambrecht, R.M.; Packer, S.

    1984-10-30

    An apparatus and method is disclosed for diagnosing ocular cancer that is both non-invasive and accurate. The apparatus comprises two radiation detectors positioned before each of the patient's eyes which will measure the radiation level produced in each eye after the administration of a tumor-localizing radiopharmaceutical such as gallium-67. 2 figs.

  3. Method for non-invasive detection of ocular melanoma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lambrecht, Richard M.; Packer, Samuel

    1984-01-01

    There is described an apparatus and method for diagnosing ocular cancer that is both non-invasive and accurate which comprises two radiation detectors positioned before each of the patient's eyes which will measure the radiation level produced in each eye after the administration of a tumor-localizing radiopharmaceutical such as gallium-67.

  4. Plant fatty acid hydroxylases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank

    2001-01-01

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  5. Waste Treatment Plant Overview

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Waste Isolation Pilot Plant | June 2007 Salt Disposal Investigations Waste Isolation Pilot Plant | June 2007 Salt Disposal Investigations The mission of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site is to provide permanent, underground disposal of TRU and TRU-mixed wastes (wastes that also have hazardous chemical components). TRU waste consists of clothing, tools, and debris left from the research and production of nuclear weapons. TRU waste is

  6. The role of drebrin in glioma migration and invasion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terakawa, Yuzo; Agnihotri, Sameer; Golbourn, Brian; Nadi, Mustafa; Sabha, Nesrin; Smith, Christian A.; Croul, Sidney E.; Rutka, James T.

    2013-02-15

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor in adults. Despite current advances in therapy consisting of surgery followed by chemotherapy and radiation, the overall survival rate still remains poor. Therapeutic failures are partly attributable to the highly infiltrative nature of tumor adjacent to normal brain parenchyma. Recently, evidence is mounting to suggest that actin cytoskeleton dynamics are critical components of the cell invasion process. Drebrin is an actin-binding protein involved in the regulation of actin filament organization, and plays a significant role in cell motility; however, the role of drebrin in glioma cell invasiveness has not yet been fully elucidated. Therefore, this study was aimed to clarify the role of drebrin in glioma cell morphology and cell motility. Here we show that drebrin is expressed in glioma cell lines and in operative specimens of GBM. We demonstrate that stable overexpression of drebrin in U87 cells leads to alterations in cell morphology, and induces increased invasiveness in vitro while knockdown of drebrin in U87 cells by small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreases invasion and migration. In addition, we show that depletion of drebrin by siRNA alters glioma cell morphology in A172 GBM cell line. Our results suggest that drebrin contributes to the maintenance of cell shape, and may play an important role in glioma cell motility. - Highlights: ? Drebrin is an actin-binding protein aberrantly expressed in several cancers. ? Role of drebrin in glioma cell morphology and motility is previously unknown. ? We demonstrate that drebrin is expressed in 40% of glioblastoma specimens. ? Drebrin plays a significant role in modulating glioma cell migration and invasion.

  7. New Species of Cyanobacteria Forms Intracellular Carbonates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Species of Cyanobacteria Forms Intracellular Carbonates New Species of Cyanobacteria Forms Intracellular Carbonates Print Wednesday, 30 January 2013 00:00 A new species of ...

  8. Survey of protected vascular plants on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Awl, D.J.; Pounds, L.R.; Rosensteel, B.A.; King, A.L.; Hamlett, P.A.

    1996-06-01

    Vascular plant surveys were initiated during fiscal year 1992 by the environmentally sensitive areas program to determine the baseline condition of threatened and endangered (T&E) vascular plant species on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). T&E species receive protection under federal and state regulations. In addition, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requires that federally-funded projects avoid or mitigate impacts to listed species. T&E plant species found on or near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) are identified. Twenty-eight species identified on the ORR are listed by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation as either endangered, threatened, or of special concern. Four of these have been under review by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service for possible listing (listed in the formerly-used C2 candidate category). Additional species listed by the state occur near and may be present on the ORR. A range of habitats support the rare taxa on the ORR: river bluffs, sinkholes, calcareous barrens, wetlands, utility corridors, and forests. The list of T&E plant species and their locations on the ORR should be considered provisional because the entire ORR has not been surveyed, and state and federal status of all species continues to be updated. The purpose of this document is to present information on the listed T&E plant species currently known to occur on the ORR as well as listed species potentially occurring on the ORR based on geographic range and habitat availability. For the purpose of this report, {open_quotes}T&E species{close_quotes} include all federal- and state-listed species, including candidates for listing, and species of special concern. Consideration of T&E plant habitats is an important component of resource management and land-use planning; protection of rare species in their natural habitat is the best method of ensuring their long-term survival.

  9. BLM Sensitive Species | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    BLM Sensitive Species Jump to: navigation, search Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleBLMSensitiveSpecies&oldid612378...

  10. Plant centromere compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mach; Jennifer M. , Zieler; Helge , Jin; RongGuan , Keith; Kevin , Copenhaver; Gregory P. , Preuss; Daphne

    2011-11-22

    The present invention provides for the nucleic acid sequences of plant centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and minichromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic plant and animal cells.

  11. Plant centromere compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mach, Jennifer; Zieler, Helge; Jin, James; Keith, Kevin; Copenhaver, Gregory; Preuss, Daphne

    2007-06-05

    The present invention provides for the nucleic acid sequences of plant centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and minichromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic plant and animal cells.

  12. Plant centromere compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keith, Kevin; Copenhaver, Gregory; Preuss, Daphne

    2006-10-10

    The present invention provides for the nucleic acid sequences of plant centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and minichromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic plant and animal cells.

  13. Plant centromere compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mach, Jennifer; Zieler, Helge; Jin, James; Keith, Kevin; Copenhaver, Gregory; Preuss, Daphne

    2006-06-26

    The present invention provides for the nucleic acid sequences of plant centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and minichromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic plant and animal cells.

  14. Plant centromere compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mach, Jennifer M.; Zieler, Helge; Jin, RongGuan; Keith, Kevin; Copenhaver, Gregory P.; Preuss, Daphne

    2011-08-02

    The present invention provides for the nucleic acid sequences of plant centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and minichromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic plant and animal cells.

  15. T Plant - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    T Plant About Us About Hanford Cleanup Hanford History Hanford Site Wide Programs Contact ... and 618-11 Burial Grounds 700 Area B Plant B Reactor C Reactor Canister Storage ...

  16. An option pricing theory explanation of the invasion of Kuwait

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muhtaseb, M.R.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this paper is to explain the invasion of Kuwait by making an analogy between a call option and the Iraq-Kuwait situation before the invasion on August 2, 1990. A number of factors contributed to the issuance of a deep-in-the money European call option to Iraq against Kuwait. The underlying asset is the crude oil reserves under Kuwait. Price of crude oil is determined in world spot markets. The exercise price is equal to the cost of permanently annexing and retaining Kuwait. The volatility is measured by the annualized variance of the weekly rate of return of the spot price of crude oil. Time-to-expiration is equal to the time period between decision date and actual invasion date. Finally, since crude oil prices are quoted in U.S. dollars, the U.S. Treasury bill rate is assumed to be the risk-free rate. In a base-case scenario, Kuwait`s oil reserves amount to 94,500 million barrels valued at $18 a barrell in early February 1990 resulting in a market value of $1,701 billion. Because the cost of the war to Iraq is not known, we assume it is comparable to that of the U.S.-led coalition of $51.0 billion. Time-to-expiration is six months. The treasury bill rate in early 1990 was around 7.5 percent. Annualized standard deviation of weekly rates of return is 0.216. The value of Kuwait`s invasion option is $1,642.25 billion. Depending on the scenario, the value of this special option ranged between $1,450 billion and $3.624 billion. 10 refs., 1 tab.

  17. Plants & Animals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plants & Animals Plants & Animals Plant and animal monitoring is performed to determine whether Laboratory operations are impacting human health via the food chain. February 2, 2015 A rabbit on LANL land. A rabbit on Los Alamos National Laboratory land. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email We sample many plants and animals, including wild and domestic crops, game animals, fish, and food products from

  18. Grain Accumulation of Selenium Species in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carey, Anne-Marie; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Lombi, Enzo; Newville, Matt; Choi, Yongseong; Norton, Gareth J.; Price, Adam H.; Meharg, Andrew A.

    2012-09-05

    Efficient Se biofortification programs require a thorough understanding of the accumulation and distribution of Se species within the rice grain. Therefore, the translocation of Se species to the filling grain and their spatial unloading were investigated. Se species were supplied via cut flag leaves of intact plants and excised panicle stems subjected to a {+-} stem-girdling treatment during grain fill. Total Se concentrations in the flag leaves and grain were quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Spatial accumulation was investigated using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microtomography. Selenomethionine (SeMet) and selenomethylcysteine (SeMeSeCys) were transported to the grain more efficiently than selenite and selenate. SeMet and SeMeSeCys were translocated exclusively via the phloem, while inorganic Se was transported via both the phloem and xylem. For SeMet- and SeMeSeCys-fed grain, Se dispersed throughout the external grain layers and into the endosperm and, for SeMeSeCys, into the embryo. Selenite was retained at the point of grain entry. These results demonstrate that the organic Se species SeMet and SeMeSeCys are rapidly loaded into the phloem and transported to the grain far more efficiently than inorganic species. Organic Se species are distributed more readily, and extensively, throughout the grain than selenite.

  19. Power Plant Cycling Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

    2012-07-01

    This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

  20. Virginia Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal ... Electric & Power Co" "2 Plants 4 Reactors","3,501","26,572",100.0 "Note: ...

  1. Old-field plant succession on the Pajarito Plateau

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foxx, T.; Mullen, M.; Salisbury, M.; Tierney, G.

    1997-10-01

    Eight fallow historic fields of the ponderosa pine and pinon-juniper cover types were surveyed to determine species composition and distribution. The purpose of the study was to understand plant succession on old fields as related to mechanically manipulated sites such as material disposal areas (MDAs). Additionally, the authors wanted a listing of species on disturbed lands of the Pajarito Plateau to aide in the reclamation planning of MDAs using native species. They also wanted to determine if any species could be used as an indicator of disturbance. The eight historic fields were all within Los Alamos County, New Mexico, and had been abandoned in 1943. Two sites were within the boundaries of Los Alamos National Laboratory and were studied both in 1982 and 1993. The study provides a description of each of the field sites, historic information about the homesteads from patent applications, a photographic record of some of the sites, and a listing of species found within each field. The study showed that there were 78 different plant species found on disturbed sites. Of these 78 species, 23 were found to be dominant on one or more of the MDAs or old fields. Although, the disturbance history of each site is imperfectly known, the study does provide an indication of successional processes within disturbed sites of the Pajarito Plateau. Additionally, it provides a listing of species that will invade disturbed sites, species that may be used in site reclamation.

  2. Try-A Global Database of Plant Traits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornton, Peter E [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Plant traits the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants and their organs determine how primary producers respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, influence ecosystem processes and services and provide a link from species richness to ecosystem functional diversity. Trait data thus represent the raw material for a wide range of research from evolutionary biology, community and functional ecology to biogeography. Here we present the global database initiative named TRY, which has united a wide range of the plant trait research community worldwide and gained an unprecedented buy-in of trait data: so far 93 trait databases have been contributed. The data repository currently contains almost three million trait entries for 69 000 out of the world s 300 000 plant species, with a focus on 52 groups of traits characterizing the vegetative and regeneration stages of the plant life cycle, including growth, dispersal, establishment and persistence. A first data analysis shows that most plant traits are approximately log-normally distributed, with widely differing ranges of variation across traits. Most trait variation is between species (interspecific), but significant intraspecific variation is also documented, up to 40% of the overall variation. Plant functional types (PFTs), as commonly used in vegetation models, capture a substantial fraction of the observed variation but for several traits most variation occurs within PFTs, up to 75% of the overall variation. In the context of vegetation models these traits would better be represented by state variables rather than fixed parameter values. The improved availability of plant trait data in the unified global database is expected to support a paradigm shift from species to trait-based ecology, offer new opportunities for synthetic plant trait research and enable a more realistic and empirically grounded representation of terrestrial vegetation in

  3. Vascular Plants of the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Downs, Janelle L.

    2001-09-28

    This report provides an updated listing of the vascular plants present on and near the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. This document is an update of a listing of plants prepared by Sackschewdky et al. in 1992. Since that time there has been a significant increase in the botanical knowledge of the Hanford Site. The present listing is based on an examination of herbarium collections held at PNNL, at WSU-Tri Cities, WSU-Pullman, Bringham Young University, and The University of Washington, and on examination of ecological literature derived from the Hanford and Benton county areas over the last 100 years. Based on the most recent analysis, there are approximately 725 different plant species that have been documented on or around the Hanford Site. This represents an approximate 20% increase in the number of species reported within Sackschewsky et al. (1992). This listing directly supports DOE and contractor efforts to assess the potential impacts of Hanford Site operations on the biological environment, including impacts to rare habitats and to species listed as endangered or\\ threatened. This document includes a listing of plants currently listed as endangered, threatened, or otherwise of concern to the Washington Natural Heritage Program or the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, as well as those that are currently listed as noxious weeds by the State of Washington. Also provided is an overview of how plants on the Hanford Site can be used by people. This information may be useful in developing risk assessment models, and as supporting information for clean-up level and remediation decisions.

  4. Better Plants Pre-In-Plant Training Webinars

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    A listing of Better Plants pre-In-Plant Training webinars on reducing energy in a variety of systems.

  5. NEMS Modeling of Coal Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Liquid Fuels Market Module Model inputs for coal plants 3 * Existing coal plants - plant specific ... FF - Cost to convert to natural gas-fired steam plant - Cost to implement heat ...

  6. Epithelialmesenchymal transition during oncogenic transformation induced by hexavalent chromium involves reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanism in lung epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, Song-Ze; Yang, Yu-Xiu; Li, Xiu-Ling; Michelli-Rivera, Audrey; Han, Shuang-Yin; Wang, Lei; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Wang, Xin; Lu, Jian; Yin, Yuan-Qin; Budhraja, Amit; Hitron, Andrew J.

    2013-05-15

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is an important human carcinogen associated with pulmonary diseases and lung cancer. Exposure to Cr(VI) induces DNA damage, cell morphological change and malignant transformation in human lung epithelial cells. Despite extensive studies, the molecular mechanisms remain elusive, it is also not known if Cr(VI)-induced transformation might accompany with invasive properties to facilitate metastasis. We aimed to study Cr(VI)-induced epithelialmesenchymal transition (EMT) and invasion during oncogenic transformation in lung epithelial cells. The results showed that Cr(VI) at low doses represses E-cadherin mRNA and protein expression, enhances mesenchymal marker vimentin expression and transforms the epithelial cell into fibroblastoid morphology. Cr(VI) also increases cell invasion and promotes colony formation. Further studies indicated that Cr(VI) uses multiple mechanisms to repress E-cadherin expression, including activation of E-cadherin repressors such as Slug, ZEB1, KLF8 and enhancement the binding of HDAC1 in E-cadherin gene promoter, but DNA methylation is not responsible for the loss of E-cadherin. Catalase reduces Cr(VI)-induced E-cadherin and vimentin protein expression, attenuates cell invasion in matrigel and colony formation on soft agar. These results demonstrate that exposure to a common human carcinogen, Cr(VI), induces EMT and invasion during oncogenic transformation in lung epithelial cells and implicate in cancer metastasis and prevention. - Graphical abstract: Epithelialmesenchymal transition during oncogenic transformation induced by hexavalent chromium involves reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanisms in lung epithelial cells. - Highlights: We study if Cr(VI) might induce EMT and invasion in epithelial cells. Cr(VI) induces EMT by altering E-cadherin and vimentin expression. It also increases cell invasion and promotes oncogenic transformation. Catalase reduces Cr(VI)-induced EMT, invasion and

  7. Transplanting native dominant plants to facilitate community development in restored coastal plain wetlands.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Steven, Diane; Sharitz, Rebecca R.

    2007-12-01

    Abstract: Drained depressional wetlands are typically restored by plugging ditches or breaking drainage tiles to allow recovery of natural ponding regimes, while relying on passive recolonization from seed banks and dispersal to establish emergent vegetation. However, in restored depressions of the southeastern United States Coastal Plain, certain characteristic rhizomatous graminoid species may not recolonize because they are dispersal-limited and uncommon or absent in the seed banks of disturbed sites. We tested whether selectively planting such wetland dominants could facilitate restoration by accelerating vegetative cover development and suppressing non-wetland species. In an operational-scale project in a South Carolina forested landscape, drained depressional wetlands were restored in early 2001 by completely removing woody vegetation and plugging surface ditches. After forest removal, tillers of two rhizomatous wetland grasses (Panicum hemitomon, Leersia hexandra) were transplanted into singlespecies blocks in 12 restored depressions that otherwise were revegetating passively. Presence and cover of all plant species appearing in planted plots and unplanted control plots were recorded annually. We analyzed vegetation composition after two and four years, during a severe drought (2002) and after hydrologic recovery (2004). Most grass plantings established successfully, attaining 15%85% cover in two years. Planted plots had fewer total species and fewer wetland species compared to control plots, but differences were small. Planted plots achieved greater total vegetative cover during the drought and greater combined cover of wetland species in both years. By 2004, planted grasses appeared to reduce cover of non-wetland species in some cases, but wetter hydrologic conditions contributed more strongly to suppression of non-wetland species. Because these two grasses typically form a dominant cover matrix in herbaceous depressions, our results indicated that

  8. Conditional sterility in plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meagher, Richard B.; McKinney, Elizabeth; Kim, Tehryung

    2010-02-23

    The present disclosure provides methods, recombinant DNA molecules, recombinant host cells containing the DNA molecules, and transgenic plant cells, plant tissue and plants which contain and express at least one antisense or interference RNA specific for a thiamine biosynthetic coding sequence or a thiamine binding protein or a thiamine-degrading protein, wherein the RNA or thiamine binding protein is expressed under the regulatory control of a transcription regulatory sequence which directs expression in male and/or female reproductive tissue. These transgenic plants are conditionally sterile; i.e., they are fertile only in the presence of exogenous thiamine. Such plants are especially appropriate for use in the seed industry or in the environment, for example, for use in revegetation of contaminated soils or phytoremediation, especially when those transgenic plants also contain and express one or more chimeric genes which confer resistance to contaminants.

  9. SREL Reprint #3213

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    annual plant species introduced into North America from Asia that has recently become invasive. Methods and Results: A total of 12 polymorphic and 3 monomorphic loci were screened...

  10. Better Buildings, Better Plants:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Buildings, Better Plants: AMO Technical Assistance Overview Andre de Fontaine This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information. 2 | Advanced Manufacturing Office Better Buildings, Better Plants Overview  Better Buildings, Better Plants is a national, voluntary industrial energy efficiency leadership initiative.  It is a key component of the President's Better Buildings Initiative, which seeks to improve the energy efficiency of

  11. SC Johnson Waxdale Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-01-01

    This is a combined heat and power (CHP) project profile on a 6.4 MW CHP application at SC Johnson Waxdale Plant in Racine, Wisconsin.

  12. Leatherwood prep plant upgrade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hollis, R.W.; Jain, S.M.

    2007-06-15

    The Blue Diamond Coal Co. recently implemented major circuit modifications to the Leatherwood coal preparation plant (formerly known as the J.K. Cornett prep plant) in Slemp, KY, USA. The plant was originally built in the late 1980s, and then modified in 1999. The 2006 plant modifications included: two Krebs 33-inch heavy-media cyclones; five 10 x 20 ft single deck Conn-Weld Banana type vibrating screens; two 10 ft x 48 inch Eriez self-leveling magnetic separators; two Derrick Stacksizer high frequency screens; two CMI EBR-48 centrifugal dryers; Warman process pumps; and eight triple start MDL spiral concentrators. 2 figs.

  13. concentrating solar power plant

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    power plant - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy ...

  14. Special Status Species | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Status Species Jump to: navigation, search Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleSpecialStatusSpecies&oldid647804" Feedback Contact needs updating Image...

  15. Threatened and Endangered Species | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Threatened and Endangered Species Jump to: navigation, search Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleThreatenedandEndangeredSpecies&oldid612178...

  16. New Species of Cyanobacteria Forms Intracellular Carbonates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Species of Cyanobacteria Forms Intracellular Carbonates Print A new species of cyanobacteria-photosynthetic bacteria that occupy a wide array of habitats-was discovered in the...

  17. Endangered Species Act and Section 7 Regulations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) is to protect and recover imperiled species and the ecosystems upon which they depend.

  18. Interactive effects of elevated CO{sub 2}, drought and high temperature on plant water use efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Theodore C. Hsiao

    1998-08-01

    Water use efficiency (WUE) by plants is a key determinant of productivity and survival of plants under water limiting or drought conditions. The aim of this project was to develop a mechanistic basis for predicting WUE without the prohibitive task of studying every plant species under a range of environmental conditions.

  19. Secondary plant succession on disturbed sites at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Angerer, J.P.; Ostler, W.K.; Gabbert, W.D.; Schultz, B.W.

    1994-12-01

    This report presents the results of a study of secondary plant succession on disturbed sites created during initial site investigations in the late 1970s and early 1980s at Yucca Mountain, NV. Specific study objectives were to determine the rate and success of secondary plant succession, identify plant species found in disturbances that may be suitable for site-specific reclamation, and to identify environmental variables that influence succession on disturbed sites. During 1991 and 1992, fifty seven disturbed sites were located. Vegetation parameters, disturbance characteristics and environmental variables were measured at each site. Disturbed site vegetation parameters were compared to that of undisturbed sites to determine the status of disturbed site plant succession. Vegetation on disturbed sites, after an average of ten years, was different from undisturbed areas. Ambrosia dumosa, Chrysothamnus teretifolius, Hymenoclea salsola, Gutierrezia sarothrae, Atriplex confertifolia, Atriplex canescens, and Stephanomeria pauciflora were the most dominant species across all disturbed sites. With the exception of A. dumosa, these species were generally minor components of the undisturbed vegetation. Elevation, soil compaction, soil potassium, and amounts of sand and gravel in the soil were found to be significant environmental variables influencing the species composition and abundance of perennial plants on disturbed sites. The recovery rate for disturbed site secondary succession was estimated. Using a linear function (which would represent optimal conditions), the recovery rate for perennial plant cover, regardless of which species comprised the cover, was estimated to be 20 years. However, when a logarithmic function (which would represent probable conditions) was used, the recovery rate was estimated to be 845 years. Recommendations for future studies and site-specific reclamation of disturbances are presented.

  20. NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carter, J.C.; Armstrong, R.H.; Janicke, M.J.

    1963-05-14

    A nuclear power plant for use in an airless environment or other environment in which cooling is difficult is described. The power plant includes a boiling mercury reactor, a mercury--vapor turbine in direct cycle therewith, and a radiator for condensing mercury vapor. (AEC)

  1. Better Plants Program Overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Better Buildings, Better Plants Program is a voluntary partnership initiative to drive significant energy efficiency improvement across energy intensive companies and organizations. 157 leading manufacturers and public water and wastewater treatment utilities are partnering with DOE through Better Plants to improve energy efficiency, slash carbon emissions, and cut energy costs.

  2. Modulating lignin in plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Apuya, Nestor; Bobzin, Steven Craig; Okamuro, Jack; Zhang, Ke

    2013-01-29

    Materials and methods for modulating (e.g., increasing or decreasing) lignin content in plants are disclosed. For example, nucleic acids encoding lignin-modulating polypeptides are disclosed as well as methods for using such nucleic acids to generate transgenic plants having a modulated lignin content.

  3. Plant pathogen resistance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenberg, Jean T.; Jung, Ho Won; Tschaplinski, Timothy

    2015-10-20

    Azelaic acid or its derivatives or analogs induce a robust and a speedier defense response against pathogens in plants. Azelaic acid treatment alone does not induce many of the known defense-related genes but activates a plant's defense signaling upon pathogen exposure.

  4. Plant growth promoting rhizobacterium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doktycz, Mitchel John; Pelletier, Dale A.; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Weston, David

    2015-08-11

    The present invention is directed to the Pseudomonas fluorescens strain GM30 deposited under ATCC Accession No. PTA-13340, compositions containing the GM30 strain, and methods of using the GM30 strain to enhance plant growth and/or enhance plant resistance to pathogens.

  5. Plant pathogen resistance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenberg, Jean T; Jung, Ho Won; Tschaplinski, Timothy

    2012-11-27

    Azelaic acid or its derivatives or analogs induce a robust and a speedier defense response against pathogens in plants. Azelaic acid treatment alone does not induce many of the known defense-related genes but activates a plant's defense signaling upon pathogen exposure.

  6. Plant fatty acid hydroxylase

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Somerville, Chris; van de Loo, Frank

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds.

  7. Better Plants Program Partners

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE recognizes the following companies for their commitment to reducing the energy intensity of their U.S. manufacturing operations by 25% or more within 10 years. These Better Plants Program Partners set ambitious goals, establish energy management plans, and report progress annually to DOE. Click on the arrows below to view Better Plants Program Partner profiles and learn more about their commitment.

  8. Corresponding development of plant and phytophagous orthopteran communities during southeastern old-field succession

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cross, W.H.; Cross, W.M.; Jackson, P.R.; Dixon, P.M.; Pinder, J.M. III

    1997-01-01

    Data are summarized from several previous studies to show (1) that the median number of phytophagous orthopteran species increases through the early stages of old-field succession in South Carolina, and (2) that this increase is largely due to the addition of orthopterans with mandibular morphologies that indicate feeding on parallel-veined grass leaves. The later addition of graminivorous orthopterans to the community coincides with the later invasion of grasses. 28 refs., 2 tabs.

  9. Elevated carbon dioxide is predicted to promote coexistence among competing species in a trait-based model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ali, Ashehad A.; Medlyn, Belinda E.; Aubier, Thomas G.; Crous, Kristine Y.; Reich, Peter B.

    2015-10-06

    Differential species responses to atmospheric CO2 concentration (Ca) could lead to quantitative changes in competition among species and community composition, with flow-on effects for ecosystem function. However, there has been little theoretical analysis of how elevated Ca (eCa) will affect plant competition, or how composition of plant communities might change. Such theoretical analysis is needed for developing testable hypotheses to frame experimental research. Here, we investigated theoretically how plant competition might change under eCa by implementing two alternative competition theories, resource use theory and resource capture theory, in a plant carbon and nitrogen cycling model. The model makes several novelmore » predictions for the impact of eCa on plant community composition. Using resource use theory, the model predicts that eCa is unlikely to change species dominance in competition, but is likely to increase coexistence among species. Using resource capture theory, the model predicts that eCa may increase community evenness. Collectively, both theories suggest that eCa will favor coexistence and hence that species diversity should increase with eCa. Our theoretical analysis leads to a novel hypothesis for the impact of eCa on plant community composition. In this study, the hypothesis has potential to help guide the design and interpretation of eCa experiments.« less

  10. Non-invasive hyperthermia apparatus including coaxial applicator having a non-invasive radiometric receiving antenna incorporated therein and method of use thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ross, M.P.

    1996-08-27

    A coaxial hyperthermia applicator is disclosed for applying non-invasively electromagnetic energy to a body against which it is placed. The coaxial applicator antenna has formed integrally within it a non-invasive radiometric antenna for receiving thermoelectromagnetic emissions. The coaxial-configured applicator produces a bell-shaped radiation pattern symmetric about the axis of symmetry of the coaxial applicator. Integrating the radiometric antenna within the coaxial applicator produces a single device that performs dual functions. The first function is to transmit non-invasively energy for heating a subcutaneous tumor. The second function is to receive non-invasively thermal electromagnetic radiation from the tumor by which temperature is sensed and fed back to control the output of the coaxial applicator. 11 figs.

  11. Non-invasive hyperthermia apparatus including coaxial applicator having a non-invasive radiometric receiving antenna incorporated therein and method of use thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ross, Michael P.

    1996-01-01

    A coaxial hyperthermia applicator for applying non-invasively electromagnetic energy to a body against which it is placed. The coaxial applicator antenna has formed integrally within it a non-invasive radiometric antenna for receiving thermoelectromagnetic emissions. The coaxial-configured applicator produces a bell-shaped radiation pattern symmetric about the axis of symmetry of the coaxial applicator. Integrating the radiometric antenna within the coaxial applicator produces a single device that performs dual functions. The first function is to transmit non-invasively energy for heating a subcutaneous tumor. The second function is to receive non-invasively thermal electromagnetic radiation from the tumor by which temperature is sensed and fed back to control the output of the coaxial applicator.

  12. Acetylation of cell wall is required for structural integrity of the leaf surface and exerts a global impact on plant stress responses

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nafisi, Majse; Stranne, Maria; Fimognari, Lorenzo; Atwell, Susanna; Martens, Helle J.; Pedas, Pai R.; Hansen, Sara F.; Nawrath, Christiane; Scheller, Henrik V.; Kliebenstein, Daniel J.; et al

    2015-07-22

    Here we report that the epidermis on leaves protects plants from pathogen invasion and provides a waterproof barrier. It consists of a layer of cells that is surrounded by thick cell walls, which are partially impregnated by highly hydrophobic cuticular components. We show that the Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion mutants of REDUCED WALL ACETYLATION 2 (rwa2), previously identified as having reduced O-acetylation of both pectins and hemicelluloses, exhibit pleiotrophic phenotype on the leaf surface. The cuticle layer appeared diffused and was significantly thicker and underneath cell wall layer was interspersed with electron-dense deposits. A large number of trichomes were collapsed andmore » surface permeability of the leaves was enhanced in rwa2 as compared to the wild type. A massive reprogramming of the transcriptome was observed in rwa2 as compared to the wild type, including a coordinated up-regulation of genes involved in responses to abiotic stress, particularly detoxification of reactive oxygen species and defense against microbial pathogens (e.g., lipid transfer proteins, peroxidases). In accordance, peroxidase activities were found to be elevated in rwa2 as compared to the wild type. These results indicate that cell wall acetylation is essential for maintaining the structural integrity of leaf epidermis, and that reduction of cell wall acetylation leads to global stress responses in Arabidopsis.« less

  13. Acetylation of cell wall is required for structural integrity of the leaf surface and exerts a global impact on plant stress responses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nafisi, Majse; Stranne, Maria; Fimognari, Lorenzo; Atwell, Susanna; Martens, Helle J.; Pedas, Pai R.; Hansen, Sara F.; Nawrath, Christiane; Scheller, Henrik V.; Kliebenstein, Daniel J.; Sakuragi, Yumiko

    2015-07-22

    Here we report that the epidermis on leaves protects plants from pathogen invasion and provides a waterproof barrier. It consists of a layer of cells that is surrounded by thick cell walls, which are partially impregnated by highly hydrophobic cuticular components. We show that the Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion mutants of REDUCED WALL ACETYLATION 2 (rwa2), previously identified as having reduced O-acetylation of both pectins and hemicelluloses, exhibit pleiotrophic phenotype on the leaf surface. The cuticle layer appeared diffused and was significantly thicker and underneath cell wall layer was interspersed with electron-dense deposits. A large number of trichomes were collapsed and surface permeability of the leaves was enhanced in rwa2 as compared to the wild type. A massive reprogramming of the transcriptome was observed in rwa2 as compared to the wild type, including a coordinated up-regulation of genes involved in responses to abiotic stress, particularly detoxification of reactive oxygen species and defense against microbial pathogens (e.g., lipid transfer proteins, peroxidases). In accordance, peroxidase activities were found to be elevated in rwa2 as compared to the wild type. These results indicate that cell wall acetylation is essential for maintaining the structural integrity of leaf epidermis, and that reduction of cell wall acetylation leads to global stress responses in Arabidopsis.

  14. FRIB Cryogenic Plant Status

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, Kelly D.; Ganni, Venkatarao; Knudsen, Peter N.; Casagranda, Fabio

    2015-12-01

    After practical changes were approved to the initial conceptual design of the cryogenic system for MSU FRIB and an agreement was made with JLab in 2012 to lead the design effort of the cryogenic plant, many activities are in place leading toward a cool-down of the linacs prior to 2018. This is mostly due to using similar equipment used at CHLII for the 12 GeV upgrade at JLab and an aggressive schedule maintained by the MSU Conventional Facilities department. Reported here is an updated status of the cryogenic plant, including the equipment procurement status, plant layout, facility equipment and project schedule.

  15. Wisconsin Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wisconsin nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant name..."8,291",62.4,"NextEra Energy Point Beach LLC" "2 Plants 3 Reactors","1,584","13,281",100.0

  16. Aquatic Species Program review: proceedings of principal investigators meeting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-06-01

    The purpose of the Aquatic Species Program is to improve the productivity, conversion to fuels, and cost efficiency of aquatic plant culture technologies. The emphasis of the program is on developing a mass culture technology for cultivating oil-yielding microalgae in the American southwest. A technical and economic analysis indicated that such a concept would be feasible if (1) lipid yields from microalgae are improved, (2) there is sufficient saline water for large-scale development, and (3) microalgal lipids can be economically converted to conventional fuels. It was determined that fuels from microalgal lipids presented better options than converting the microalgal biomass to either alcohols or methane. All lipids can potentially be catalytically converted to gasoline, or the fatty acids can be converted to substitute diesel fuels. The Southwest has the necessary low, flat, underutilized lands, and carbon dioxide is available from either natural deposits or flue gas from industrial plants. The amount of saline water available will probably determine how much fuel can be produced from aquatic species, and this question should be answered during 1985. The largest constraint of this technology is the economical production of an oil-rich microalgal feedstock. The agenda for the review was divided into four sections: species selection and characterization, applied physiological studies, outdoor mass cultivation, and systems design and analysis. Papers from these presentations are included in these proceedings. Program advances were reported in the areas of species collection and selection, modulated light physiology, mass culture yields, harvesting of microalgae, mass culture facility design and analysis, and assessments on fuel options from microalgae. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each paper for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  17. Tuberous legumes: preliminary evaluation of tropical Australian and introduced species as fuel crops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saxon, E.C.

    1981-04-01

    The evaluation of native and introduced legumes with starch-storing roots or tubers was undertaken to test whether plants traditionally collected as food by Australian aborigines might have a role in the development of crops for liquid fuel production (by fermentation of carbohydrates to ethanol). Tuberous-rooted legumes from overseas were planted at the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, division of Tropical Crops and Pastures, Kimberley Research Station, Western Australia (15/sup 0/39'S, 128/sup 0/42'E) in December 1974, March 1978 and February 1979. Roots from the latter plantings were harvested in June 1979. Native plant material was collected during visits to aboriginal communities in the Kimberleys between April and June 1979. The native and introduced specimens were analyzed for fermentable carbohydrate and protein content. Several native plants appear more promising than introduced species as liquid fuel crops.

  18. Genome Sequence of Amycolatopsis sp Strain ATCC 39116, a Plant Biomass-Degrading Actinomycete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, Jennifer R.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Woyke, Tanja; Teshima, Hazuki; Bruce, David; Detter, J. Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Shunsheng; Han, James; Pitluck, Sam; Nolan, Matt; Mikhailova, Natalia; Land, Miriam L; Sello, Jason K.

    2012-01-01

    We announce the availability of a high-quality draft of the genome sequence of Amycolatopsis sp. strain 39116, one of few bacterial species that are known to consume the lignin component of plant biomass. This genome sequence will further ongoing efforts to use microorganisms for the conversion of plant biomass into fuels and high-value chemicals.

  19. Method for production of petroselinic acid and OMEGA12 hexadecanoic acid in transgenic plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ohlrogge, J.B.; Cahoon, E.B.; Shanklin, J.; Somerville, C.R.

    1995-07-04

    The present invention relates to a process for producing lipids containing the fatty acid, petroselinic acid, in plants. The production of petroselinic acid is accomplished by genetically transforming plants which do not normally accumulate petroselinic acid with a gene for a {omega}12 desaturase from another species which does normally accumulate petroselinic acid. 19 figs.

  20. Method for production of petroselinic acid and OMEGA12 hexadecanoic acid in transgenic plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ohlrogge, John B.; Cahoon, Edgar B.; Shanklin, John; Somerville, Christopher R.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for producing lipids containing the fatty acid petroselinic acid in plants. The production of petroselinic acid is accomplished by genetically transforming plants which do not normally accumulate petroselinic acid with a gene for a .omega.12 desaturase from another species which does normally accumulate petroselinic acid.

  1. BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: Photosynthesis: Plants Making...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Photosynthesis: Plants Making Fuel BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: Photosynthesis: Plants Making Fuel BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: Photosynthesis: Plants Making Fuel

  2. Mapping the Metal Uptake in Plants from Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve - Oral Presentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lo, Allison

    2015-08-24

    Serpentine soil originates in the Earth’s mantle and contains high concentrations of potentially toxic transition metals. Although serpentine soil limits plant growth, endemic and adapted plants at Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve, located behind SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, can tolerate these conditions. Serpentine soil and seeds belonging to native California and invasive plants were collected at Jasper Ridge. The seeds were grown hydroponically and on serpentine and potting soil to examine the uptake and distribution of ions in the roots and shoots using synchrotron micro-focused X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The results were used to determine differences between serpentinetolerant plants. Rye grown on potting soil was enriched in Ni, Fe, Mn, and Cr compared to purple needlegrass grown on serpentine soil. Serpentine vegetation equally suppressed the uptake of Mn, Ni, and Fe in the roots and shoots. The uptake of Ca and Mg affected the uptake of other elements such as K, S, and P.

  3. Plant Vascular Biology 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, Biao

    2014-11-17

    This grant supported the Second International Conference on Plant Vascular Biology (PVB 2010) held July 24-28, 2010 on the campus of Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Biao Ding (Ohio State University; OSU) and David Hannapel (Iowa State University; ISU) served as co-chairs of this conference. Biao Ding served as the local organizer. PVB is defined broadly here to include studies on the biogenesis, structure and function of transport systems in plants, under conditions of normal plant growth and development as well as of plant interactions with pathogens. The transport systems cover broadly the xylem, phloem, plasmodesmata and vascular cell membranes. The PVB concept has emerged in recent years to emphasize the integrative nature of the transport systems and approaches to investigate them.

  4. Desalination Plant Optimization

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-10-01

    MSF21 and VTE21 perform design and costing calculations for multistage flash evaporator (MSF) and multieffect vertical tube evaporator (VTE) desalination plants. An optimization capability is available, if desired. The MSF plant consists of a recovery section, reject section, brine heater, and associated buildings and equipment. Operating costs and direct and indirect capital costs for plant, buildings, site, and intakes are calculated. Computations are based on the first and last stages of each section and amore » typical middle recovery stage. As a result, the program runs rapidly but does not give stage by stage parameters. The VTE plant consists of vertical tube effects, multistage flash preheater, condenser, and brine heater and associated buildings and equipment. Design computations are done for each vertical tube effect, but preheater computations are based on the first and last stages and a typical middle stage.« less

  5. B Plant facility description

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chalk, S.E.

    1996-10-04

    Buildings 225B, 272B, 282B, 282BA, and 294B were removed from the B Plant facility description. Minor corrections were made for tank sizes and hazardous and toxic inventories.

  6. Power Plant Cycling Costs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Intertek APTECH has organized the cycling cost data in consultation with NREL and WECC by the following eight generator plant types: 1. Small coal-fired sub-critical steam (35-299 ...

  7. Plant Phenotype Characterization System | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Plant Phenotype Characterization System Plant Phenotype Characterization System New X-Ray Technology Accelerates Plant Research The ability to analyze plant root structure and...

  8. Better Plants Overview SGH | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Better Plants Overview SGH 151007.pdf (315.86 KB) More Documents & Publications Better Plants Two-Page Overview Better Plants Progress Update Fall 2013 Better Plants Progress ...

  9. Special Better Plants Training Opportunities | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technical Assistance Better Plants Special Better Plants Training Opportunities Special Better Plants Training Opportunities Better Plants process heating training at an ...

  10. Washington Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Washington nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State ...

  11. Vermont Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net ...

  12. Quiz: Know Your Power Plants

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Think you know where coal, solar and other power plants are located around the country? Test your knowledge with our power plants quiz!

  13. Connecticut Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net ...

  14. Maryland Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net generation (percent)","Owner" "Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant ...

  15. Georgia Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net ...

  16. California Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    California nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State ...

  17. Pennsylvania Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Pennsylvania nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State ...

  18. Ohio Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Ohio nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net ...

  19. Virginia Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net ...

  20. Minnesota Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Minnesota nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear ...

  1. Alabama Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net ...

  2. Wisconsin Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wisconsin nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear ...

  3. Texas Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net ...

  4. Tennessee Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Tennessee nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear ...

  5. Illinois Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Illinois nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear ...

  6. Michigan Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net ...

  7. Nebraska Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Nebraska nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear ...

  8. Florida Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Florida nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear ...

  9. Gasification Plant Databases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plant Databases Welcome to the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory's Gasification Plant Databases Within these databases you will find current publicly available information on proposed projects and projects undergoing construction and initial operation within the United States and worldwide. Currently operating projects are excluded. The data have been compiled here to keep the public informed of the technologies and investments in major industrial coal

  10. Coal Preparation Plant Simulation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-02-25

    COALPREP assesses the degree of cleaning obtained with different coal feeds for a given plant configuration and mode of operation. It allows the user to simulate coal preparation plants to determine an optimum plant configuration for a given degree of cleaning. The user can compare the performance of alternative plant configurations as well as determine the impact of various modes of operation for a proposed configuration. The devices that can be modelled include froth flotationmore » devices, washers, dewatering equipment, thermal dryers, rotary breakers, roll crushers, classifiers, screens, blenders and splitters, and gravity thickeners. The user must specify the plant configuration and operating conditions and a description of the coal feed. COALPREP then determines the flowrates within the plant and a description of each flow stream (i.e. the weight distribution, percent ash, pyritic sulfur and total sulfur, moisture, BTU content, recoveries, and specific gravity of separation). COALPREP also includes a capability for calculating the cleaning cost per ton of coal. The IBM PC version contains two auxiliary programs, DATAPREP and FORLIST. DATAPREP is an interactive preprocessor for creating and editing COALPREP input data. FORLIST converts carriage-control characters in FORTRAN output data to ASCII line-feed (X''0A'') characters.« less

  11. Coal Preparation Plant Simulation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-02-25

    COALPREP assesses the degree of cleaning obtained with different coal feeds for a given plant configuration and mode of operation. It allows the user to simulate coal preparation plants to determine an optimum plant configuration for a given degree of cleaning. The user can compare the performance of alternative plant configurations as well as determine the impact of various modes of operation for a proposed configuration. The devices that can be modelled include froth flotationmore » devices, washers, dewatering equipment, thermal dryers, rotary breakers, roll crushers, classifiers, screens, blenders and splitters, and gravity thickeners. The user must specify the plant configuration and operating conditions and a description of the coal feed. COALPREP then determines the flowrates within the plant and a description of each flow stream (i.e. the weight distribution, percent ash, pyritic sulfur and total sulfur, moisture, BTU content, recoveries, and specific gravity of separation). COALPREP also includes a capability for calculating the cleaning cost per ton of coal.« less

  12. Redox Protein Expression Predicts Radiotherapeutic Response in Early-Stage Invasive Breast Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woolston, Caroline M.; Al-Attar, Ahmad; Storr, Sarah J.; Ellis, Ian O.; Morgan, David A.L.; Martin, Stewart G.

    2011-04-01

    Purpose: Early-stage invasive breast cancer patients have commonly undergone breast-conserving surgery and radiotherapy. In a large majority of these patients, the treatment is effective; however, a proportion will develop local recurrence. Deregulated redox systems provide cancer cells protection from increased oxidative stress, such as that induced by ionizing radiation. Therefore, the expression of redox proteins was examined in tumor specimens from this defined cohort to determine whether such expression could predict response. Methods and Materials: The nuclear and cytoplasmic expression of nine redox proteins (glutathione, glutathione reductase, glutaredoxin, glutathione peroxidase 1, 3, and 4, and glutathione S-transferase-{theta}, -{pi}, and -{alpha}) was assessed using conventional immunohistochemistry on a tissue microarray of 224 tumors. Results: A high cytoplasmic expression of glutathione S-transferase-{theta} significantly correlated with a greater risk of local recurrence (p = .008) and, when combined with a low nuclear expression (p = .009), became an independent predictive factor (p = .002) for local recurrence. High cytoplasmic expression of glutathione S-transferase-{theta} also correlated with a worse overall survival (p = .009). Low nuclear and cytoplasmic expression of glutathione peroxidase 3 (p = .002) correlated with a greater risk of local recurrence and was an independent predictive factor (p = .005). These proteins did not correlate with tumor grade, suggesting their function might be specific to the regulation of oxidative stress rather than alterations of tumor phenotype. Only nuclear (p = .005) and cytoplasmic (p = .001) expression of glutathione peroxidase 4 correlated with the tumor grade. Conclusions: Our results support the use of redox protein expression, namely glutathione S-transferase-{theta} and glutathione peroxidase 3, to predict the response to radiotherapy in early-stage breast cancer patients. If incorporated into

  13. Identification of NDRG1-regulated genes associated with invasive potential in cervical and ovarian cancer cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Gang; Department of Pathology, Tianjin Cancer Hospital, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin ; Chen, Jiawei; Deng, Yanqiu; Gao, Feng; Zhu, Jiwei; Feng, Zhenzhong; Lv, Xiuhong; Zhao, Zheng

    2011-04-29

    Highlights: {yields} NDRG1 was knockdown in cervical and ovarian cancer cell lines by shRNA technology. {yields} NDRG1 knockdown resulted in increased cell invasion activities. {yields} Ninety-six common deregulated genes in both cell lines were identified by cDNA microarray. {yields} Eleven common NDRG1-regulated genes might enhance cell invasive activity. {yields} Regulation of invasion by NDRG1 is an indirect and complicated process. -- Abstract: N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) is an important gene regulating tumor invasion. In this study, shRNA technology was used to suppress NDRG1 expression in CaSki (a cervical cancer cell line) and HO-8910PM (an ovarian cancer cell line). In vitro assays showed that NDRG1 knockdown enhanced tumor cell adhesion, migration and invasion activities without affecting cell proliferation. cDNA microarray analysis revealed 96 deregulated genes with more than 2-fold changes in both cell lines after NDRG1 knockdown. Ten common upregulated genes (LPXN, DDR2, COL6A1, IL6, IL8, FYN, PTP4A3, PAPPA, ETV5 and CYGB) and one common downregulated gene (CLCA2) were considered to enhance tumor cell invasive activity. BisoGenet network analysis indicated that NDRG1 regulated these invasion effector genes/proteins in an indirect manner. Moreover, NDRG1 knockdown also reduced pro-invasion genes expression such as MMP7, TMPRSS4 and CTSK. These results suggest that regulation of invasion and metastasis by NDRG1 is a highly complicated process.

  14. GEOTHERMAL POWER GENERATION PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd, Tonya

    2013-12-01

    Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) drilled a deep geothermal well on campus (to 5,300 feet deep) which produced 196oF resource as part of the 2008 OIT Congressionally Directed Project. OIT will construct a geothermal power plant (estimated at 1.75 MWe gross output). The plant would provide 50 to 75 percent of the electricity demand on campus. Technical support for construction and operations will be provided by OIT’s Geo-Heat Center. The power plant will be housed adjacent to the existing heat exchange building on the south east corner of campus near the existing geothermal production wells used for heating campus. Cooling water will be supplied from the nearby cold water wells to a cooling tower or air cooling may be used, depending upon the type of plant selected. Using the flow obtained from the deep well, not only can energy be generated from the power plant, but the “waste” water will also be used to supplement space heating on campus. A pipeline will be construction from the well to the heat exchanger building, and then a discharge line will be construction around the east and north side of campus for anticipated use of the “waste” water by facilities in an adjacent sustainable energy park. An injection well will need to be drilled to handle the flow, as the campus existing injection wells are limited in capacity.

  15. Owners of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, R.S.

    1991-07-01

    This report indicates percentage ownership of commercial nuclear power plants by utility companies. The report includes all plants operating, under construction, docketed for NRC safety and environmental reviews, or under NRC antitrust review, but does not include those plants announced but not yet under review or those plants formally cancelled. Part 1 of the report lists plants alphabetically with their associated applicants or licensees and percentage ownership. Part 2 lists applicants or licensees alphabetically with their associated plants and percentage ownership. Part 1 also indicates which plants have received operating licenses (OLS).

  16. Drought and resprouting plants

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zeppel, Melanie J. B.; Harrison, Sandy P.; Adams, Henry D.; Kelley, Douglas I.; Li, Guangqi; Tissue, David T.; Dawson, Todd E.; Fensham, Rod; Medlyn, Belinda E.; Palmer, Anthony; et al

    2014-12-17

    Many species have the ability to resprout vegetatively after a substantial loss of biomass induced by environmental stress, including drought. Many of the regions characterised by ecosystems where resprouting is common are projected to experience more frequent and intense drought during the 21st century. However, in assessments of ecosystem response to drought disturbance there has been scant consideration of the resilience and post-drought recovery of resprouting species. Systematic differences in hydraulic and allocation traits suggest that resprouting species are more resilient to drought-stress than nonresprouting species. Evidence suggests that ecosystems dominated by resprouters recover from disturbance more quickly than ecosystemsmore » dominated by nonresprouters. The ability of resprouters to avoid mortality and withstand drought, coupled with their ability to recover rapidly, suggests that the impact of increased drought stress in ecosystems dominated by these species may be small. Furthermore, the strategy of resprouting needs to be modelled explicitly to improve estimates of future climate-change impacts on the carbon cycle, but this will require several important knowledge gaps to be filled before resprouting can be properly implemented.« less

  17. Drought and resprouting plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeppel, Melanie J. B.; Harrison, Sandy P.; Adams, Henry D.; Kelley, Douglas I.; Li, Guangqi; Tissue, David T.; Dawson, Todd E.; Fensham, Rod; Medlyn, Belinda E.; Palmer, Anthony; West, Adam G.; McDowell, Nate G.

    2014-12-17

    Many species have the ability to resprout vegetatively after a substantial loss of biomass induced by environmental stress, including drought. Many of the regions characterised by ecosystems where resprouting is common are projected to experience more frequent and intense drought during the 21st century. However, in assessments of ecosystem response to drought disturbance there has been scant consideration of the resilience and post-drought recovery of resprouting species. Systematic differences in hydraulic and allocation traits suggest that resprouting species are more resilient to drought-stress than nonresprouting species. Evidence suggests that ecosystems dominated by resprouters recover from disturbance more quickly than ecosystems dominated by nonresprouters. The ability of resprouters to avoid mortality and withstand drought, coupled with their ability to recover rapidly, suggests that the impact of increased drought stress in ecosystems dominated by these species may be small. Furthermore, the strategy of resprouting needs to be modelled explicitly to improve estimates of future climate-change impacts on the carbon cycle, but this will require several important knowledge gaps to be filled before resprouting can be properly implemented.

  18. Geothermal Plant Capacity Factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greg Mines; Jay Nathwani; Christopher Richard; Hillary Hanson; Rachel Wood

    2015-01-01

    The capacity factors recently provided by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) indicated this plant performance metric had declined for geothermal power plants since 2008. Though capacity factor is a term commonly used by geothermal stakeholders to express the ability of a plant to produce power, it is a term frequently misunderstood and in some instances incorrectly used. In this paper we discuss how this capacity factor is defined and utilized by the EIA, including discussion on the information that the EIA requests from operations in their 923 and 860 forms that are submitted both monthly and annually by geothermal operators. A discussion is also provided regarding the entities utilizing the information in the EIA reports, and how those entities can misinterpret the data being supplied by the operators. The intent of the paper is to inform the facility operators as the importance of the accuracy of the data that they provide, and the implications of not providing the correct information.

  19. Willow plant name 'Preble'

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abrahamson, Lawrence P.; Kopp, Richard F.; Smart, Lawrence B.; Volk, Timothy A.

    2014-06-10

    A distinct female cultivar of Salix viminalis.times.(Salix sachalinensis.times.Salix miyabeana) named `Preble`, characterized by rapid stem growth producing 29% more woody biomass than the average of three current production cultivars (Salix.times.dasyclados `SV1` (unpatented), Salix sachalinensis `SX61` (unpatented), and Salix miyabeana `SX64` (unpatented)) when grown in the same field for the same length of time (three growing seasons after coppice) in two different trials in Constableville, N.Y. and Middlebury, Vt. `Preble` can be planted from dormant stem cuttings, produces multiple stems after coppice and the stem biomass can be harvested when the plant is dormant. In the spring following harvest, the plant will re-sprout very vigorously, producing new stems that can be harvested repeatedly after two to four years of growth. `Preble` displays a low incidence of rust disease and is not damaged by potato leafhoppers.

  20. Owners of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-11-01

    The list indicates percentage ownership of commercial nuclear power plants by utility companies as of September 1, 1982. The list includes all plants licensed to operate, under construction, docketed for NRC safety and environmental reviews, or under NRC antitrust review. Part I lists plants alphabetically with their associated applicants and percentage ownership. Part II lists applicants alphabetically with their associated plants and percentage ownership. Part I also indicates which plants have received operating licenses.

  1. Pantex Plant | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pantex Plant Pantex Plant Pantex Plant | September 2010 Aerial View Pantex Plant | September 2010 Aerial View The primary mission of the Pantex Plant is the assembly, disassembly, testing, and evaluation of nuclear weapons in support of the NNSA stockpile stewardship program. Pantex also performs research and development in conventional high explosives and serves as an interim storage site for plutonium pits removed from dismantled weapons. Enforcement April 8, 2015 Enforcement Letter, Packaging

  2. U Plant - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    About Us Projects & Facilities U Plant About Us About Hanford Cleanup Hanford History Hanford Site Wide Programs Contact Us 100 Area 118-K-1 Burial Ground 200 Area 222-S Laboratory 242-A Evaporator 300 Area 324 Building 325 Building 400 Area/Fast Flux Test Facility 618-10 and 618-11 Burial Grounds 700 Area B Plant B Reactor C Reactor Canister Storage Building and Interim Storage Area Canyon Facilities Cold Test Facility D and DR Reactors Effluent Treatment Facility Environmental Restoration

  3. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4-3542 Site Sustainability Plan Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Fiscal Year 2015 Narrative November 2014 Office of Site Operations Carlsbad Field Office U.S. Department of Energy Approved By: //signature on file// 12/30/14 Jose R. Franco, Date Manager, Carlsbad Field Office Site Sustainability Plan Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Fiscal Year 2015 Narrative DOE/WIPP-14-3542 Page 2 of 48 TABLE OF CONTENTS I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 4 TABLE 1. DOE Goal Summary Table 6 II. PERFORMANCE REVIEW AND PLAN NARRATIVE

  4. B Plant - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plant About Us About Hanford Cleanup Hanford History Hanford Site Wide Programs Contact Us 100 Area 118-K-1 Burial Ground 200 Area 222-S Laboratory 242-A Evaporator 300 Area 324 Building 325 Building 400 Area/Fast Flux Test Facility 618-10 and 618-11 Burial Grounds 700 Area B Plant B Reactor C Reactor Canister Storage Building and Interim Storage Area Canyon Facilities Cold Test Facility D and DR Reactors Effluent Treatment Facility Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility F Reactor H Reactor

  5. NEPA and the Endangered Species Act: Complementary approaches or regulatory excess

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salk, M.S.; McCold, L.N.

    1991-01-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended, provides a broad mandate requiring protection of human health and the natural environmental, while the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973, as amended, has a much narrower mandate. NEPA's purpose is to prevent or eliminate damage to the environment and biosphere{hor ellipsis},'' while the ESA's is to provide a means whereby the ecosystems upon which endangered species and threatened species depend may be conserved'' and a a program for the conservation of such endangered species and threatened species{hor ellipsis}'' NEPA's current role in improving the quality of decision making by federal agencies with respect to environmental matters is a matter of some debate. This paper discusses several ways in which NEPA provides protection for rare species beyond that provided by the ESA including public involvement, consideration of rare plant species, consideration of species which are not federally listed, consideration of incremental actions of federal agencies, and discussion of alternative means to accomplish the goal of a projected action. 3 refs.

  6. Genomic definition of species. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crkvenjakov, R.; Dramanac, R.

    1992-06-01

    A genome is the sum total of the DNA sequences in the cells of an individual organism. The common usage that species possess genomes comes naturally to biochemists, who have shown that all protein and nucleic acid molecules are at the same time species and individual-specific, with minor individual variations being superimposed on a consensus sequence that is constant for a species. By extension, this property is attributed to the common features of DNA in the chromosomes of members of a given species and is called (species) genome. The definition of species based on chromosomes, genes, or genome common to its member organisms has been implied or mentioned in passing numerous times. Some population biologists think that members of species have similar ``homeostatic genotypes,`` which are to a degree resistant to mutation or environmental change in the production of a basic phenotype.

  7. Genomic definition of species. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crkvenjakov, R.; Drmanac, R.

    1993-03-01

    A genome is the sum total of the DNA sequences in the cells of an individual organism. The common usage that species possess genomes comes naturally to biochemists, who have shown that all protein and nucleic acid molecules are at the same time species- and individual-specific, with minor individual variations being superimposed on a consensus sequence that is constant for a species. By extension, this property is attributed to the common features of DNA in the chromosomes of members of a given species and is called species genome. Our proposal for the definition of a biological species is as follows: A species comprises a group of actual and potential biological organisms built according to a unique genome program that is recorded, and at least in part expressed, in the structures of their genomic nucleic acid molecule(s), having intragroup sequence differences which can be fully interconverted in the process of organismal reproduction.

  8. NASA Ames Saves Energy and Reduces Project Costs with Non-Invasive Retrofit Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation—given at the Fall 2011 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting—covers the NASA Ames Research Center's effort to save energy and reduce project costs with non-invasive retrofit technologies.

  9. Grace adds hydroprocessing plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fattah, H.

    1997-01-01

    W.R. Grace`s Davison Refining Catalysts Division will build a 20-million lbs/year hydroprocessing catalysts plant at Lake Charles, LA. The plant, planned for startup in early 1998, is part of the company`s ongoing effort to increase capacity to take advantage of significant growth in the hydroprocessing markets. The move {open_quotes}signifies a major step in our long-term commitment to the market,{close_quotes} says Robert Bullard, v.p./hydroprocessing catalysts. Davison also has an expansion scheduled for startup in February at its hydroprocessing catalysts plant at Curtis Bay, MD that will raise capacity there to 30 million lbs/year. The Lake Charles plant and the expansion total $40 million in investment, Grace says. Catalyst Consultants (Spring House, PA) expects growth of hydroprocessing demand to outstrip capacity, which is projected to grow 2.5%-3.5%/year. Demand is largely being fueled by tough environmental requirements on the sulfur content of gasoline, as well as by increased use of heavy, sour crude oil.

  10. B Plant hazards assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Broz, R.E.

    1994-09-23

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning Activities for B Plant on the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE Order 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific , Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated.

  11. T Plant hazards assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Broz, R.E.

    1994-09-27

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning activities for the T Plant on the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE ORDER 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated.

  12. Fossil plant self assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bozgo, R.H.; Maguire, B.A.

    1996-07-01

    The increasingly competitive environment of the electric utility business is focusing utilities attention on reducing the cost of electricity generation. By using benchmark indicators, gains are being sought in plant material condition with corresponding improvements in operating efficiency and capacity factor as well as reductions in Operating and Maintenance (O&M) costs. In designing a process for improvement, Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc. (Con Edison) plant managers were asked to review and approve objectives and criteria for Fossil Plant Operations. The program methods included optimizing work processes (including material condition, maintenance programs, work control systems, and personnel performance); team building techniques to foster personnel buy-in of the process; and long term cultural change to insure an ongoing continuous improvement process with measurable results. The program begins with a self assessment of each plant based upon the approved Objectives and Criteria. The Criteria and Review Approaches (CRAs) are established by senior management and the review team. The criteria cover Management, Operations, Maintenance, and Support Functions including Technical Support, Training and Qualification, Environmental Compliance, Chemistry, and Safety and Emergency Preparedness. The Assessment is followed by a review of corrective action plans and an interim corrective action review. Annual Assessments are planned to ensure continuous improvement. Emphasis is placed on progress made in maintenance at the fossil stations.

  13. Pinellas Plant facts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1990-11-01

    The Pinellas Plant, near St. Petersburg, Florida, is wholly owned by the United States Government. It is operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) by GE Aerospace, Neutron Devices (GEND). This plant was built in 1956 to manufacture neutron generators, a principal component in nuclear weapons. The neutron generators built at Neutron Devices consist of a miniaturized linear ion accelerator assembled with the pulsed electrical power supplies required for its operation. Production of these devices has necessitated the development of several uniquely specialized areas of competence and supporting facilities. The ion accelerator, or neutron tube, requires ultra clean, high vacuum technology; hermetic seals between glass, ceramic, glass-ceramic, and metal materials; plus high voltage generation and measurement technology. The existence of these capabilities at Neutron Devices has led directly to the assignment of other weapon application products: the lightning arrester connector, specialty capacitor, vacuum switch, and crystal resonator. Other product assignments such as active and reserve batteries and the radioisotopically-powered thermoelectric generator evolved from the plant`s materials measurement and controls technologies which are required to ensure neutron generator life.

  14. Mechanisms in Plant Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hake, Sarah

    2013-08-21

    This meeting has been held every other year for the past twenty-two years and is the only regularly held meeting focused specifically on plant development. Topics covered included: patterning in developing tissues; short and long distance signaling; differentiation of cell types; the role of epigenetics in development; evolution; growth.

  15. Role of HLA-G1 in trophoblast cell proliferation, adhesion and invasion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Feng; Zhao, Hongxi; Wang, Li; Guo, Xinyu; Wang, Xiaohong; Yin, Guowu; Hu, Yunsheng; Li, Yi; Yao, Yuanqing

    2015-02-27

    Trophoblast cells are important in embryo implantation and fetomaternal tolerance. HLA-G is specifically expressed at the maternal–fetal interface and is a regulator in pregnancy. The aim of the present study was to detect the effect of HLA-G1 on trophoblast cell proliferation, adhesion, and invasion. Human trophoblast cell lines (JAR and HTR-8/SVneo cells) were infected with HLA-G1-expressing lentivirus. After infection, HLA-G1 expression of the cells was detected by western blotting. Cell proliferation was detected by the BrdU assay. The cell cycle and apoptosis of JAR and HTR-8/SVneo cells was measured by flow cytometry (FCM). The invasion of the cells under different conditions was detected by the transwell invasion chamber assay. HLA-G1 didn't show any significant influence on the proliferation, apoptosis, adhesion, and invasion of trophocytes in normal culture conditions. However, HLA-G1 inhibited JAR and HTR-8/SVneo cells invasion induced by hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) under normal oxygen conditions. In conditions of hypoxia, HLA-G1 couldn't inhibit the induction of cell invasion by HGF. HLA-G1 is not an independent factor for regulating the trophocytes. It may play an indirect role in embryo implantation and formation of the placenta. - Highlights: • HLA-G1 could not influence trophocytes under normal conditions. • HLA-G1 inhibited cell invasion induced by HGF under normal oxygen condition. • HLA-G1 could not influence cell invasion under hypoxia conditions.

  16. Conservation plan for protected species on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Otten, M.R.M.; Cypher, B.L.

    1997-07-01

    Habitats in and around Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1) support populations of various vertebrates and plants, including a number of threatened and endangered species. Adequate conservation of habitats and species, particularly protected species, can be facilitated through development and implementation of management plans. This document provides a comprehensive plan for the conservation of protected species on NPR-1, through compliance with terms and conditions expressed in Biological Opinions rendered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service for NPR-1 activities. Six conservation strategies by which threatened and endangered species have been, and will be, protected are described: population monitoring, mitigation strategies, special studies, operating guidelines and policies, information transfer and outreach, and the endangered species conservation area. Population monitoring programs are essential for determining population densities and for assessing the effects of oil field developments and environmental factors on protected species. Mitigation strategies (preactivity surveys and habitat reclamation) are employed to minimize the loss of important habitats components and to restore previously disturbed lands to conditions more suitable for species` use. A number of special studies were undertaken between 1985 and 1995 to investigate the effectiveness of a variety of population and habitat management techniques with the goal of increasing the density of protected species. Operating guidelines and policies governing routine oil field activities continue to be implemented to minimize the potential for the incidental take of protected species and minimize damage to wildlife habitats. Information transfer and outreach activities are important means by which technical and nontechnical information concerning protected species conservation on NPR-1 is shared with both the scientific and non-scientific public.

  17. Proceedings of the SERI Biomass Program Principal Investigators' Review Meeting: Aquatic Species Program Reports; 23-25 June 1982, Washington, DC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-12-01

    The Aquatic Species Program (ASP) is concerned with how plant biomass that naturally occurs in wetland or submerged areas is utilized. Processes are being developed in this program to make use of those aquatic species, capitalizing on their inherent capacity for rapid growth as well as on their extraordinary chemical compositions.

  18. Getting Inside Plants | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Getting Inside Plants Getting Inside Plants Seeing Green - This image of a rose leaf was captured with a plant imaging system that is based on the same technology used to conduct PET scans in humans. The ultimate goal of the plant imaging program is to see how plants will respond to rising levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Getting Inside Plants PET scans have been used for decades to help doctors diagnose disease in people - from cancers to heart problems. Now, the technology is

  19. Production of virus resistant plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dougherty, W.G.; Lindbo, J.A.

    1996-12-10

    A method of suppressing virus gene expression in plants using untranslatable plus sense RNA is disclosed. The method is useful for the production of plants that are resistant to virus infection. 9 figs.

  20. Arkansas Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation ...,"1,835","15,023",100.0,"Entergy Arkansas Inc" "1 Plant 2 Reactors","1,835","15,023",100.0

  1. Production of virus resistant plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dougherty, William G.; Lindbo, John A.

    1996-01-01

    A method of suppressing virus gene expression in plants using untranslatable plus sense RNA is disclosed. The method is useful for the production of plants that are resistant to virus infection.

  2. Gene encoding plant asparagine synthetase

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coruzzi, Gloria M.; Tsai, Fong-Ying

    1993-10-26

    The identification and cloning of the gene(s) for plant asparagine synthetase (AS), an important enzyme involved in the formation of asparagine, a major nitrogen transport compound of higher plants is described. Expression vectors constructed with the AS coding sequence may be utilized to produce plant AS; to engineer herbicide resistant plants, salt/drought tolerant plants or pathogen resistant plants; as a dominant selectable marker; or to select for novel herbicides or compounds useful as agents that synchronize plant cells in culture. The promoter for plant AS, which directs high levels of gene expression and is induced in an organ specific manner and by darkness, is also described. The AS promoter may be used to direct the expression of heterologous coding sequences in appropriate hosts.

  3. Columbia Boulevard Wastewater Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-08-01

    This is a combined heat and power (CHP) project profile on 320 kW fuel cell and microturbine power plants at Columbia Boulevard Wastewater Treatment Plant in Portland, Oregon.

  4. Louisiana Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Louisiana nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant NameTotal Reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear ...

  5. New Species of Cyanobacteria Forms Intracellular Carbonates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Species of Cyanobacteria Forms Intracellular Carbonates New Species of Cyanobacteria Forms Intracellular Carbonates Print Wednesday, 30 January 2013 00:00 A new species of cyanobacteria-photosynthetic bacteria that occupy a wide array of habitats-was discovered in the Mexican Lake of Alchichica where massive carbonate rocks form. Cyanobacteria have been impacting the global carbon cycle of the Earth for more than 2.3 billion years by assimilating CO2 into organic compounds and triggering

  6. Integrated turbomachine oxygen plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; DePuy, Richard Anthony; Muthaiah, Veerappan

    2014-06-17

    An integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes a turbomachine and an air separation unit. One or more compressor pathways flow compressed air from a compressor through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. An air separation unit is operably connected to the one or more compressor pathways and is configured to separate the compressed air into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air. A method of air separation in an integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes compressing a flow of air in a compressor of a turbomachine. The compressed flow of air is flowed through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander of the turbomachine to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. The compressed flow of air is directed to an air separation unit and is separated into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air.

  7. Jennings Demonstration PLant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russ Heissner

    2010-08-31

    Verenium operated a demonstration plant with a capacity to produce 1.4 million gallons of cellulosic ethanol from agricultural resiues for about two years. During this time, the plant was able to evaluate the technical issues in producing ethanol from three different cellulosic feedstocks, sugar cane bagasse, energy cane, and sorghum. The project was intended to develop a better understanding of the operating parameters that would inform a commercial sized operation. Issues related to feedstock variability, use of hydrolytic enzymes, and the viability of fermentative organisms were evaluated. Considerable success was achieved with pretreatment processes and use of enzymes but challenges were encountered with feedstock variability and fermentation systems. Limited amounts of cellulosic ethanol were produced.

  8. Endangered Species Act | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    species and the ecosystems upon which they depend. It is administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the Commerce Department's National Marine Fisheries Service...

  9. NEUTRONIC REACTOR POWER PLANT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Metcalf, H.E.

    1962-12-25

    This patent relates to a nuclear reactor power plant incorporating an air-cooled, beryllium oxide-moderated, pebble bed reactor. According to the invention means are provided for circulating a flow of air through tubes in the reactor to a turbine and for directing a sidestream of the circu1ating air through the pebble bed to remove fission products therefrom as well as assist in cooling the reactor. (AEC)

  10. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plans and Reports WIPP Recovery Plan The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Recovery Plan outlines the necessary steps to resume limited waste disposal operations in the first quarter of calendar year 2016. WIPP operations were suspended following an underground truck fire and a radiological release in February 2014. The recovery plan was issued on Sept. 30, 2014. Key elements of the recovery plan include strengthening safety programs, regulatory compliance, decontamination of the underground,

  11. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protective Actions Actions to Protect Workers, Public and the Environment The February 14 radioactivity release was a watershed event for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). It was the first accident of its kind in the 15-year operating history of the transuranic nuclear waste repository. No workers were underground when the release occurred. There were 11 workers on the night shift at the time of the release and two additional employees entered the site in response to the accident. These 13

  12. Power plant emissions reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy

    2015-10-20

    A system for improved emissions performance of a power plant generally includes an exhaust gas recirculation system having an exhaust gas compressor disposed downstream from the combustor, a condensation collection system at least partially disposed upstream from the exhaust gas compressor, and a mixing chamber in fluid communication with the exhaust gas compressor and the condensation collection system, where the mixing chamber is in fluid communication with the combustor.

  13. wave energy plant

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    plant - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear

  14. Better Plants | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    You are here Home » Technical Assistance » Better Plants Better Plants Better Plants has moved to its new <a href="http://betterbuildingssolutioncenter.energy.gov/better-plants">home</a> at the Better Buildings Solution Center, which includes new information and resources. It features effective strategies, tips, and best-practice models and more than 400 solutions. Search by topic, building type, solution type, building size, sector, technology, location, and more. Better

  15. NEMS Modeling of Coal Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    NEMS Modeling of Coal Plants Office of Electricity, Coal, Nuclear, and Renewable Analysis Laura Martin June 14, 2016 Washington, DC 2 EMM Structure EFD ECP EFP ELD Laura Martin Washington, DC, June 14, 2016 Electricity Load and Demand Submodule Liquid Fuels Market Module Model inputs for coal plants 3 * Existing coal plants - plant specific inputs - Fixed and variable operating and maintenance costs, annual capital additions - Retrofit costs (capital and O&M) - FGD, DSI, SCR, SNCR, CCS, FF -

  16. US prep plant census 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiscor, S.

    2008-10-15

    Each year Coal Age conducts a fairly comprehensive survey of the industry to produce the US coal preparation plant survey. This year's survey shows how many mergers and acquisitions have given coal operators more coal washing capacity. The plants are tabulated by state, giving basic details including company owner, plant name, raw feed, product ash %, quality, type of plant builder and year built. 1 tab., 1 photo.

  17. Development of Virtual Power Plants | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Development of Virtual Power Plants

  18. Regulating nutrient allocation in plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Udvardi, Michael; Yang, Jiading; Worley, Eric

    2014-12-09

    The invention provides coding and promoter sequences for a VS-1 and AP-2 gene, which affects the developmental process of senescence in plants. Vectors, transgenic plants, seeds, and host cells comprising heterologous VS-1 and AP-2 genes are also provided. Additionally provided are methods of altering nutrient allocation and composition in a plant using the VS-1 and AP-2 genes.

  19. Advanced Power Plant Development and Analysis Methodologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.D. Rao; G.S. Samuelsen; F.L. Robson; B. Washom; S.G. Berenyi

    2006-06-30

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory, a multi-disciplinary team led by the Advanced Power and Energy Program of the University of California at Irvine is defining the system engineering issues associated with the integration of key components and subsystems into advanced power plant systems with goals of achieving high efficiency and minimized environmental impact while using fossil fuels. These power plant concepts include 'Zero Emission' power plants and the 'FutureGen' H2 co-production facilities. The study is broken down into three phases. Phase 1 of this study consisted of utilizing advanced technologies that are expected to be available in the 'Vision 21' time frame such as mega scale fuel cell based hybrids. Phase 2 includes current state-of-the-art technologies and those expected to be deployed in the nearer term such as advanced gas turbines and high temperature membranes for separating gas species and advanced gasifier concepts. Phase 3 includes identification of gas turbine based cycles and engine configurations suitable to coal-based gasification applications and the conceptualization of the balance of plant technology, heat integration, and the bottoming cycle for analysis in a future study. Also included in Phase 3 is the task of acquiring/providing turbo-machinery in order to gather turbo-charger performance data that may be used to verify simulation models as well as establishing system design constraints. The results of these various investigations will serve as a guide for the U. S. Department of Energy in identifying the research areas and technologies that warrant further support.

  20. Advanced Power Plant Development and Analyses Methodologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G.S. Samuelsen; A.D. Rao

    2006-02-06

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory, a multi-disciplinary team led by the Advanced Power and Energy Program of the University of California at Irvine is defining the system engineering issues associated with the integration of key components and subsystems into advanced power plant systems with goals of achieving high efficiency and minimized environmental impact while using fossil fuels. These power plant concepts include ''Zero Emission'' power plants and the ''FutureGen'' H{sub 2} co-production facilities. The study is broken down into three phases. Phase 1 of this study consisted of utilizing advanced technologies that are expected to be available in the ''Vision 21'' time frame such as mega scale fuel cell based hybrids. Phase 2 includes current state-of-the-art technologies and those expected to be deployed in the nearer term such as advanced gas turbines and high temperature membranes for separating gas species and advanced gasifier concepts. Phase 3 includes identification of gas turbine based cycles and engine configurations suitable to coal-based gasification applications and the conceptualization of the balance of plant technology, heat integration, and the bottoming cycle for analysis in a future study. Also included in Phase 3 is the task of acquiring/providing turbo-machinery in order to gather turbo-charger performance data that may be used to verify simulation models as well as establishing system design constraints. The results of these various investigations will serve as a guide for the U. S. Department of Energy in identifying the research areas and technologies that warrant further support.

  1. Geothermal Steam Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Steam Power Plant (Redirected from Dry Steam) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home General List of Dry Steam Plants List of Flash Steam Plants...

  2. Geothermal/Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Plant < Geothermal(Redirected from Power Plant) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Land Use Planning Leasing Exploration Well Field Power Plant Grid...

  3. Mecca Plant Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Plant Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Mecca Plant Biomass Facility Facility Mecca Plant Sector Biomass Location Riverside County, California Coordinates...

  4. Deniz Geothermal Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Plant Information Facility Type Binary Cycle Power Plant, ORC Owner MAREN Developer MAREN Energy Purchaser TEDAS Number of Units 1 Commercial Online Date 2012 Power Plant Data Type...

  5. Wairakei Geothermal Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Taupo Volcanic Zone Plant Information Facility Type Binary, Wet Steam Owner Contact Energy Number of Units 12 1 Commercial Online Date 1958 Power Plant Data Type of Plant...

  6. Kakkonda Geothermal Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Arc Plant Information Facility Type Single Flash Owner Tohoku Hydropower,Geothermal Energy.CoTohoku Electric Power Commercial Online Date 1978 Power Plant Data Type of Plant...

  7. Niigata Geothermal Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Japanese Archipelago Plant Information Facility Type Binary Owner Wasabi Developer Wasabi Energy Purchaser EcoGen Commercial Online Date 2012 Power Plant Data Type of Plant Number...

  8. Nagqu Geothermal Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name Nagqu Geothermal Power Plant Facility Geothermal Power Plant Sector Geothermal energy Location Information Geothermal Resource Area Geothermal Region Plant Information...

  9. Pailas Geothermal Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Information Facility Type Binary Cycle Power Plant Owner Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad Number of Units 1 1 Commercial Online Date 2011 Power Plant Data Type of Plant...

  10. Cibuni Geothermal Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map Geothermal Resource Area Pengalengan Geothermal Area Geothermal Region West Java Plant Information Owner PLN Commercial Online Date 2014 Power Plant Data Type of Plant...

  11. BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: Photosynthesis: Plants Making Fuel |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Photosynthesis: Plants Making Fuel BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: Photosynthesis: Plants Making Fuel BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: Photosynthesis: Plants Making Fuel

  12. SC Johnson Waxdale Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    SC Johnson Waxdale Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name SC Johnson Waxdale Plant Facility SC Johnson Waxdale Plant Sector Wind energy Facility Type Community Wind Facility Status...

  13. Hull Municipal Light Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hull Municipal Light Plant Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Hull Municipal Light Plant Name: Hull Municipal Light Plant Place: Massachusetts Phone Number: 781-925-0051 Website:...

  14. Plant Metabolic Imaging | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plant Metabolic Imaging The Ames Laboratory has developed state-of-the-art processes for imaging plant metabolites. Identifying and understanding plant chemicals will lead to the ...

  15. Independent Oversight Review, Pantex Plant - February 2012 |...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Plant - February 2012 Independent Oversight Review, Pantex Plant - February 2012 February 2012 Review of the Pantex Plant Implementation Verification Review Processes This report ...

  16. Eburru Geothermal Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Eburru Geothermal Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Eburru Geothermal Power Plant General Information Name Eburru Geothermal Power Plant...

  17. Ndunga Geothermal Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ndunga Geothermal Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Ndunga Geothermal Power Plant General Information Name Ndunga Geothermal Power Plant...

  18. Irem Geothermal Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Irem Geothermal Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Irem Geothermal Power Plant General Information Name Irem Geothermal Power Plant Facility...

  19. Tuzla Geothermal Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tuzla Geothermal Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Tuzla Geothermal Power Plant General Information Name Tuzla Geothermal Power Plant...

  20. Sibayak Geothermal Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sibayak Geothermal Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Sibayak Geothermal Power Plant General Information Name Sibayak Geothermal Power Plant...

  1. Enterprise Assessments Review, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant -...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - December 2014 Enterprise Assessments Review, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - December 2014 December, 2014 Review of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant ...

  2. Plant Optimization Technologies | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Science & Innovation Clean Coal Crosscutting Research Plant Optimization Technologies Plant ... which has not been used in pulverized coal-fired power generation plants. ...

  3. Revision of species inventory checklists for Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, N.T. )

    1990-10-01

    This report revises and updates the 1974 report by W. C. Martin and W. L. Wagner, Biological Survey of Kirtland Air Force Base (East). The biological communities of Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) are described with respect to the Biome classification system of Brown (1982), and a standardized system of habitat types is proposed based on biome and soil type. The potential occurrence of state or federally endangered species is discussed. No species listed as endangered or threatened is known to occur on KAFB, although five are identified as potentially occurring. Updated lists of amphibians, reptiles, breeding birds, mammals, and plants are presented. 18 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  4. Apple latent spherical virus vectors for reliable and effective virus-induced gene silencing among a broad range of plants including tobacco, tomato, Arabidopsis thaliana, cucurbits, and legumes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Igarashi, Aki; Yamagata, Kousuke; Sugai, Tomokazu; Takahashi, Yukari; Sugawara, Emiko; Tamura, Akihiro; Yaegashi, Hajime; Yamagishi, Noriko; Takahashi, Tsubasa; Isogai, Masamichi; Takahashi, Hideki; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2009-04-10

    Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) vectors were evaluated for virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of endogenous genes among a broad range of plant species. ALSV vectors carrying partial sequences of a subunit of magnesium chelatase (SU) and phytoene desaturase (PDS) genes induced highly uniform knockout phenotypes typical of SU and PDS inhibition on model plants such as tobacco and Arabidopsis thaliana, and economically important crops such as tomato, legume, and cucurbit species. The silencing phenotypes persisted throughout plant growth in these plants. In addition, ALSV vectors could be successfully used to silence a meristem gene, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and disease resistant N gene in tobacco and RCY1 gene in A. thaliana. As ALSV infects most host plants symptomlessly and effectively induces stable VIGS for long periods, the ALSV vector is a valuable tool to determine the functions of interested genes among a broad range of plant species.

  5. Non-invasive in situ plasma monitoring of reactive gases using the floating harmonic method for inductively coupled plasma etching application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, J. H.; Kim, M. J.; Yoon, Y. S.

    2013-04-15

    The floating harmonic method was developed for in situ plasma diagnostics of allowing real time measurement of electron temperature (T{sub e}) and ion flux (J{sub ion}) without contamination of the probe from surface modification by reactive species. In this study, this novel non-invasive diagnostic system was studied to characterize inductively coupled plasma of reactive gases monitoring T{sub e} and J{sub ion} for investigating the optimum plasma etching conditions and controlling of the real-time plasma surface reaction in the range of 200-900 W source power, 10-100 W bias power, and 3-15 mTorr chamber pressure, respectively.

  6. Elevated carbon dioxide is predicted to promote coexistence among competing species in a trait-based model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali, Ashehad A.; Medlyn, Belinda E.; Aubier, Thomas G.; Crous, Kristine Y.; Reich, Peter B.

    2015-10-06

    Differential species responses to atmospheric CO2 concentration (Ca) could lead to quantitative changes in competition among species and community composition, with flow-on effects for ecosystem function. However, there has been little theoretical analysis of how elevated Ca (eCa) will affect plant competition, or how composition of plant communities might change. Such theoretical analysis is needed for developing testable hypotheses to frame experimental research. Here, we investigated theoretically how plant competition might change under eCa by implementing two alternative competition theories, resource use theory and resource capture theory, in a plant carbon and nitrogen cycling model. The model makes several novel predictions for the impact of eCa on plant community composition. Using resource use theory, the model predicts that eCa is unlikely to change species dominance in competition, but is likely to increase coexistence among species. Using resource capture theory, the model predicts that eCa may increase community evenness. Collectively, both theories suggest that eCa will favor coexistence and hence that species diversity should increase with eCa. Our theoretical analysis leads to a novel hypothesis for the impact of eCa on plant community composition. In this study, the hypothesis has potential to help guide the design and interpretation of eCa experiments.

  7. Pinellas Plant Environmental Baseline Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1997-06-01

    The Pinellas Plant has been part of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) nuclear weapons complex since the plant opened in 1957. In March 1995, the DOE sold the Pinellas Plant to the Pinellas County Industry Council (PCIC). DOE has leased back a large portion of the plant site to facilitate transition to alternate use and safe shutdown. The current mission is to achieve a safe transition of the facility from defense production and prepare the site for alternative uses as a community resource for economic development. Toward that effort, the Pinellas Plant Environmental Baseline Report (EBR) discusses the current and past environmental conditions of the plant site. Information for the EBR is obtained from plant records. Historical process and chemical usage information for each area is reviewed during area characterizations.

  8. The unseen iceberg: Plant roots in arctic tundra

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Iversen, Colleen M; Sloan, Victoria L; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Euskirchen, Eugenie S; McGuire, A. David; Norby, Richard J; Walker, Anthony P; Warren, Jeffrey; Wullschleger, Stan D

    2015-01-01

    Arctic tundra is characterized by short-statured plant communities underlain by carbon (C)-rich soils and permafrost. Ecosystem C and nutrient cycles in tundra are driven by complex interactions between plants and their environment. However, root dynamics are one of the least understood aspects of plant growth in the Arctic. We synthesized available literature on tundra roots and discussed their representation in terrestrial biosphere models. Belowground biomass in tundra ecosystems can be an order of magnitude larger than aboveground biomass. Data on root production and turnover in tundra is sparse, limiting our understanding of the controls over root dynamics in these systems.more » Roots are shallowly distributed in the thin layer of soil that thaws each year, and are often found in the organic horizon at the soil surface. Species-specific differences in root distribution, mycorrhizal colonization, and resource partitioning may affect plant species competition under changing climatic conditions. Model representation of belowground processes has increased in complexity over recent years, but data are desperately needed to fill the gaps in model treatment of tundra roots. Future research should focus on estimates of root production and lifespan, and interactions between roots and the surrounding soil across the diversity of tundra ecosystems in the Arctic.« less

  9. The unseen iceberg: Plant roots in arctic tundra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iversen, Colleen M; Sloan, Victoria L; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Euskirchen, Eugenie S; McGuire, A. David; Norby, Richard J; Walker, Anthony P; Warren, Jeffrey; Wullschleger, Stan D

    2015-01-01

    Arctic tundra is characterized by short-statured plant communities underlain by carbon (C)-rich soils and permafrost. Ecosystem C and nutrient cycles in tundra are driven by complex interactions between plants and their environment. However, root dynamics are one of the least understood aspects of plant growth in the Arctic. We synthesized available literature on tundra roots and discussed their representation in terrestrial biosphere models. Belowground biomass in tundra ecosystems can be an order of magnitude larger than aboveground biomass. Data on root production and turnover in tundra is sparse, limiting our understanding of the controls over root dynamics in these systems. Roots are shallowly distributed in the thin layer of soil that thaws each year, and are often found in the organic horizon at the soil surface. Species-specific differences in root distribution, mycorrhizal colonization, and resource partitioning may affect plant species competition under changing climatic conditions. Model representation of belowground processes has increased in complexity over recent years, but data are desperately needed to fill the gaps in model treatment of tundra roots. Future research should focus on estimates of root production and lifespan, and interactions between roots and the surrounding soil across the diversity of tundra ecosystems in the Arctic.

  10. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2/25/16 WIPP Home Page About WIPP Contact Us Search About WIPP The nation's only deep geologic repository for nuclear waste The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a deep geologic repository for permanent disposal of a specific type of waste that is the byproduct of the nation's nuclear defense program. CH and RH Waste WIPP is the nation's only repository for the disposal of nuclear waste known as transuranic, or TRU, waste. It consists of clothing, tools,