National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for intrusion detection systems

  1. Interior intrusion detection systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, J.R.; Matter, J.C. ); Dry, B. )

    1991-10-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing interior intrusion detection systems. Interior intrusion sensors are discussed according to their primary application: boundary-penetration detection, volumetric detection, and point protection. Information necessary for implementation of an effective interior intrusion detection system is presented, including principles of operation, performance characteristics and guidelines for design, procurement, installation, testing, and maintenance. A glossary of sensor data terms is included. 36 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Bro Intrusion Detection System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-01-25

    Bro is a Unix-based Network Intrusion Detection System (IDS). Bro monitors network traffic and detects intrusion attempts based on the traffic characteristics and content. Bro detects intrusions by comparing network traffic against rules describing events that are deemed troublesome. These rules might describe activities (e.g., certain hosts connecting to certain services), what activities are worth alerting (e.g., attempts to a given number of different hosts constitutes a "scan"), or signatures describing known attacks or accessmore » to known vulnerabilities. If Bro detects something of interest, it can be instructed to either issue a log entry or initiate the execution of an operating system command. Bro targets high-speed (Gbps), high-volume intrusion detection. By judiciously leveraging packet filtering techniques, Bro is able to achieve the performance necessary to do so while running on commercially available PC hardware, and thus can serve as a cost effective means of monitoring a site’s Internet connection.« less

  3. Characterizing and Improving Distributed Intrusion Detection Systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hurd, Steven A.; Proebstel, Elliot P.

    2007-11-01

    Due to ever-increasing quantities of information traversing networks, network administrators are developing greater reliance upon statistically sampled packet information as the source for their intrusion detection systems (IDS). Our research is aimed at understanding IDS performance when statistical packet sampling is used. Using the Snort IDS and a variety of data sets, we compared IDS results when an entire data set is used to the results when a statistically sampled subset of the data set is used. Generally speaking, IDS performance with statistically sampled information was shown to drop considerably even under fairly high sampling rates (such as 1:5). Characterizing and Improving Distributed Intrusion Detection Systems4AcknowledgementsThe authors wish to extend our gratitude to Matt Bishop and Chen-Nee Chuah of UC Davis for their guidance and support on this work. Our thanks are also extended to Jianning Mai of UC Davis and Tao Ye of Sprint Advanced Technology Labs for their generous assistance.We would also like to acknowledge our dataset sources, CRAWDAD and CAIDA, without which this work would not have been possible. Support for OC48 data collection is provided by DARPA, NSF, DHS, Cisco and CAIDA members.

  4. A prototype implementation of a network-level intrusion detection system. Technical report number CS91-11

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heady, R.; Luger, G.F.; Maccabe, A.B.; Servilla, M.; Sturtevant, J.

    1991-05-15

    This paper presents the implementation of a prototype network level intrusion detection system. The prototype system monitors base level information in network packets (source, destination, packet size, time, and network protocol), learning the normal patterns and announcing anomalies as they occur. The goal of this research is to determine the applicability of current intrusion detection technology to the detection of network level intrusions. In particular, the authors are investigating the possibility of using this technology to detect and react to worm programs.

  5. Intrusion detection using secure signatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Trent Darnel; Haile, Jedediah

    2014-09-30

    A method and device for intrusion detection using secure signatures comprising capturing network data. A search hash value, value employing at least one one-way function, is generated from the captured network data using a first hash function. The presence of a search hash value match in a secure signature table comprising search hash values and an encrypted rule is determined. After determining a search hash value match, a decryption key is generated from the captured network data using a second hash function, a hash function different form the first hash function. One or more of the encrypted rules of the secure signatures table having a hash value equal to the generated search hash value are then decrypted using the generated decryption key. The one or more decrypted secure signature rules are then processed for a match and one or more user notifications are deployed if a match is identified.

  6. Adaptive Intrusion Data System (AIDS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corlis, N. E.

    1980-05-01

    The adaptive intrusion data system (AIDS) was developed to collect data from intrusion alarm sensors as part of an evaluation system to improve sensor performance. AIDS is a unique data system which uses computer controlled data systems, video cameras and recorders, analog-to-digital conversion, environmental sensors, and digital recorders to collect sensor data. The data can be viewed either manually or with a special computerized data-reduction system which adds new data to a data base stored on a magnetic disc recorder. This report provides a synoptic account of the AIDS as it presently exists. Modifications to the purchased subsystems are described, and references are made to publications which describe the Sandia-designed subsystems.

  7. Seismic intrusion detector system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawk, Hervey L.; Hawley, James G.; Portlock, John M.; Scheibner, James E.

    1976-01-01

    A system for monitoring man-associated seismic movements within a control area including a geophone for generating an electrical signal in response to seismic movement, a bandpass amplifier and threshold detector for eliminating unwanted signals, pulse counting system for counting and storing the number of seismic movements within the area, and a monitoring system operable on command having a variable frequency oscillator generating an audio frequency signal proportional to the number of said seismic movements.

  8. Cybersecurity for Energy Delivery Systems 2010 Peer Review Presentations- Vulnerability and Intrusion Detection

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    National lab researchers, industry partners, and academia from the Cybersecurity for Energy Delivery Systems Program in the DOE's Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability held a 2-day...

  9. Distributed fiber optic moisture intrusion sensing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2003-06-24

    Method and system for monitoring and identifying moisture intrusion in soil such as is contained in landfills housing radioactive and/or hazardous waste. The invention utilizes the principle that moist or wet soil has a higher thermal conductance than dry soil. The invention employs optical time delay reflectometry in connection with a distributed temperature sensing system together with heating means in order to identify discrete areas within a volume of soil wherein temperature is lower. According to the invention an optical element and, optionally, a heating element may be included in a cable or other similar structure and arranged in a serpentine fashion within a volume of soil to achieve efficient temperature detection across a large area or three dimensional volume of soil. Remediation, moisture countermeasures, or other responsive action may then be coordinated based on the assumption that cooler regions within a soil volume may signal moisture intrusion where those regions are located.

  10. Sandia Network Intrusion Detection Assessment Version 1.0

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2002-09-20

    SNIDE Assess is a general-purpose software package for matching network event notifications from specialized sensors against on or more attack templattes. If a pattern of events matches an attack template, then SNIDE Assess can be configured to initate responses. SNIDE Assess provides a graphical user interface for configuring attack templates, and provides the required flexibility to define new event notification messages and responses. In general, SNIDE Assess is designed for event correlation for network intrusionmore » detection systems. This version of SNIDE Assess is configured specifically for detection of control plane intrusions on Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) networks. The SNIDE Assessment Engine is written in C. The SNIDE Assessment engine is a piece of the software that is responsible for receiving incoming messages from sensors, assimilating the information from the tripped sensors, and determining if the messages received constitute and intrusion, based on the rules specified by the system administrator. If it has been determined that a possible intrusion has occurred, the SNIDE Assessment engine will send a message to one or more response components to perform the action specified in the rule. The SNIDE Assessment engine is rule driven, that is, it's behavior is determined by specifying a set of text based rules. To provide flexibility, the definition of what constitutes an intrusion is left to the intrusion detection system administrator. a graphical rule editor is provided to allow the administrator to define what type of intrusions are to be monitored. The rules consist of combinations of sensors with boolean operators and filters. SNIDE Assessment rules can be made arbitrarily compled by using Operators and Filters. Operators allow for logic constructs to be created that combine incoming Sensor Notification events. When grouped together, they are referred to as solution sets. Each operator defnes on logic operation that is satisfied when a complete solution set has been assembled. Operators are organized in a tree-like hierarchy to allow complex logic to be specified, and can be nestd to an arbitrary depth.« less

  11. Intrusion Detecting Using Secure Signatures - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electricity Transmission Electricity Transmission Find More Like This Return to Search Intrusion Detecting Using Secure Signatures DOE Grant Recipients Idaho National Laboratory Contact GRANT About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary U.S. patent 8,850,583 issued on an invention from Idaho National Laboratory (INL) entitled, "Intrusion Detecting Using Secure Signatures ", which will reduce cyber security risks to our nation's energy infrastructure. The patent describes a novel

  12. Non-intrusive cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morrison, Edward F. (Burnt Hills, NY); Bergman, John W. (Barrington, NH)

    2001-05-22

    A readily replaceable heat exchange cooling jacket for applying fluid to a system conduit pipe. The cooling jacket comprises at least two members, separable into upper and lower portions. A chamber is formed between the conduit pipe and cooling jacket once the members are positioned about the pipe. The upper portion includes a fluid spray means positioned above the pipe and the bottom portion includes a fluid removal means. The heat exchange cooling jacket is adaptable with a drain tank, a heat exchanger, a pump and other standard equipment to provide a system for removing heat from a pipe. A method to remove heat from a pipe, includes the steps of enclosing a portion of the pipe with a jacket to form a chamber between an outside surface of the pipe and the cooling jacket; spraying cooling fluid at low pressure from an upper portion of the cooling jacket, allowing the fluid to flow downwardly by gravity along the surface of the pipe toward a bottom portion of the chamber; and removing the fluid at the bottom portion of the chamber.

  13. Cybersecurity Intrusion Detection and Security Monitoring for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A formal investigation of security weaknesses will sample over-the-air traffic in a production system. The application of deep packet inspection and behavioral and statistical ...

  14. V-201: Cisco Intrusion Prevention System SSP Fragmented Traffic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    V-201: Cisco Intrusion Prevention System SSP Fragmented Traffic Denial of Service ... Adapters Interface Processor Vulnerability V-135: Cisco ASA Multiple Bugs Let Remote ...

  15. Nuclear-power-plant perimeter-intrusion alarm systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halsey, D.J.

    1982-04-01

    Timely intercept of an intruder requires the examination of perimeter barriers and sensors in terms of reliable detection, immediate assessment and prompt response provisions. Perimeter security equipment and operations must at the same time meet the requirements of the Code of Federal Regulations, 10 CFR 73.55 with some attention to the performance and testing figures of Nuclear Regulatory Guide 5.44, Revision 2, May 1980. A baseline system is defined which recommends a general approach to implementing perimeter security elements: barriers, lighting, intrusion detection, alarm assessment. The baseline approach emphasizes cost/effectiveness achieved by detector layering and logic processing of alarm signals to produce reliable alarms and low nuisance alarm rates. A cost benefit of layering along with video assessment is reduction in operating expense. The concept of layering is also shown to minimize testing costs where detectability performance as suggested by Regulatory Guide 5.44 is to be performed. Synthesis of the perimeter intrusion alarm system and limited testing of CCTV and Video Motion Detectors (VMD), were performed at E-Systems, Greenville Division, Greenville, Texas during 1981.

  16. Smart container UWB sensor system for situational awareness of intrusion alarms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Romero, Carlos E.; Haugen, Peter C.; Zumstein, James M.; Leach, Jr., Richard R.; Vigars, Mark L.

    2013-06-11

    An in-container monitoring sensor system is based on an UWB radar intrusion detector positioned in a container and having a range gate set to the farthest wall of the container from the detector. Multipath reflections within the container make every point on or in the container appear to be at the range gate, allowing intrusion detection anywhere in the container. The system also includes other sensors to provide false alarm discrimination, and may include other sensors to monitor other parameters, e.g. radiation. The sensor system also includes a control subsystem for controlling system operation. Communications and information extraction capability may also be included. A method of detecting intrusion into a container uses UWB radar, and may also include false alarm discrimination. A secure container has an UWB based monitoring system

  17. DETECTION OR WARNING SYSTEM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tillman, J.E.

    1953-10-20

    This patent application describes a sensitive detection or protective system capable of giving an alarm or warning upon the entrance or intrusion of any body into a defined area or zone protected by a radiation field of suitable direction or extent.

  18. V-201: Cisco Intrusion Prevention System SSP Fragmented Traffic Denial of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Service Vulnerability | Department of Energy 201: Cisco Intrusion Prevention System SSP Fragmented Traffic Denial of Service Vulnerability V-201: Cisco Intrusion Prevention System SSP Fragmented Traffic Denial of Service Vulnerability July 19, 2013 - 6:00am Addthis PROBLEM: Several vulnerabilities were reported in Cisco Intrusion Prevention System PLATFORM: Cisco ASA 5500-X Series Adaptive Security Appliances Cisco Intrusion Prevention System (IPS) 7.1 ABSTRACT: A vulnerability in the

  19. Cyber-Intrusion Auto-Response Policy and Management System (CAPMS...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cyber-Intrusion Auto-Response Policy and Management System (CAPMS) A managed security system ... as a full partner in grid operations workflow imulation dissemination of emerging ...

  20. PLC backplane analyzer for field forensics and intrusion detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mulder, John; Schwartz, Moses Daniel; Berg, Michael; Van Houten, Jonathan Roger; Urrea, Jorge Mario; King, Michael Aaron; Clements, Abraham Anthony; Trent, Jason; Depoy, Jennifer M; Jacob, Joshua

    2015-05-12

    The various technologies presented herein relate to the determination of unexpected and/or malicious activity occurring between components communicatively coupled across a backplane. Control data, etc., can be intercepted at a backplane where the backplane facilitates communication between a controller and at least one device in an automation process. During interception of the control data, etc., a copy of the control data can be made, e.g., the original control data can be replicated to generate a copy of the original control data. The original control data can continue on to its destination, while the control data copy can be forwarded to an analyzer system to determine whether the control data contains a data anomaly. The content of the copy of the control data can be compared with a previously captured baseline data content, where the baseline data can be captured for a same operational state as the subsequently captured control data.

  1. Enforcing positivity in intrusive PC-UQ methods for reactive ODE systems

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Najm, Habib N.; Valorani, Mauro

    2014-04-12

    We explore the relation between the development of a non-negligible probability of negative states and the instability of numerical integration of the intrusive Galerkin ordinary differential equation system describing uncertain chemical ignition. To prevent this instability without resorting to either multi-element local polynomial chaos (PC) methods or increasing the order of the PC representation in time, we propose a procedure aimed at modifying the amplitude of the PC modes to bring the probability of negative state values below a user-defined threshold. This modification can be effectively described as a filtering procedure of the spectral PC coefficients, which is applied on-the-flymore » during the numerical integration when the current value of the probability of negative states exceeds the prescribed threshold. We demonstrate the filtering procedure using a simple model of an ignition process in a batch reactor. This is carried out by comparing different observables and error measures as obtained by non-intrusive Monte Carlo and Gauss-quadrature integration and the filtered intrusive procedure. Lastly, the filtering procedure has been shown to effectively stabilize divergent intrusive solutions, and also to improve the accuracy of stable intrusive solutions which are close to the stability limits.« less

  2. Calculation notes that support accident scenario and consequence development for the steam intrusion from interfacing systems accident

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, G.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-25

    This document supports the development and presentation of the following accident scenario in the TWRS Final Safety Analysis Report: Steam Intrusion from Interfacing Systems. The calculations needed to quantify the risk associated with this accident scenario are included within.

  3. Network Intrusion Detection and Visualization using Aggregations in a Cyber Security Data Warehouse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Czejdo, Bogdan; Ferragut, Erik M; Goodall, John R; Laska, Jason A

    2012-01-01

    The challenge of achieving situational understanding is a limiting factor in effective, timely, and adaptive cyber-security analysis. Anomaly detection fills a critical role in network assessment and trend analysis, both of which underlie the establishment of comprehensive situational understanding. To that end, we propose a cyber security data warehouse implemented as a hierarchical graph of aggregations that captures anomalies at multiple scales. Each node of our pro-posed graph is a summarization table of cyber event aggregations, and the edges are aggregation operators. The cyber security data warehouse enables domain experts to quickly traverse a multi-scale aggregation space systematically. We describe the architecture of a test bed system and a summary of results on the IEEE VAST 2012 Cyber Forensics data.

  4. Computationally Efficient Neural Network Intrusion Security Awareness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todd Vollmer; Milos Manic

    2009-08-01

    An enhanced version of an algorithm to provide anomaly based intrusion detection alerts for cyber security state awareness is detailed. A unique aspect is the training of an error back-propagation neural network with intrusion detection rule features to provide a recognition basis. Network packet details are subsequently provided to the trained network to produce a classification. This leverages rule knowledge sets to produce classifications for anomaly based systems. Several test cases executed on ICMP protocol revealed a 60% identification rate of true positives. This rate matched the previous work, but 70% less memory was used and the run time was reduced to less than 1 second from 37 seconds.

  5. Portable modular detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brennan, James S. (Rodeo, CA); Singh, Anup (Danville, CA); Throckmorton, Daniel J. (Tracy, CA); Stamps, James F. (Livermore, CA)

    2009-10-13

    Disclosed herein are portable and modular detection devices and systems for detecting electromagnetic radiation, such as fluorescence, from an analyte which comprises at least one optical element removably attached to at least one alignment rail. Also disclosed are modular detection devices and systems having an integrated lock-in amplifier and spatial filter and assay methods using the portable and modular detection devices.

  6. Idaho Explosive Detection System

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Klinger, Jeff

    2013-05-28

    Learn how INL researchers are making the world safer by developing an explosives detection system that can inspect cargo. For more information about INL security research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

  7. Idaho Explosive Detection System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klinger, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Learn how INL researchers are making the world safer by developing an explosives detection system that can inspect cargo. For more information about INL security research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

  8. Photovoltaic System Fault Detection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photovoltaic System Fault Detection and Diagnostics using Laterally Primed Adaptive Resonance Theory Neural Network C. Birk Jones, Joshua S. Stein, Sigifredo Gonzalez, and Bruce H. King Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, 87185, U.S.A Abstract-Cost effective integration of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems requires increased reliability. This can be achieved with a robust fault detection and diagnostic (FDD) tool that auto- matically discovers faults. This paper introduces the Laterally

  9. Radiation detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Franks, Larry A.; Lutz, Stephen S.; Lyons, Peter B.

    1981-01-01

    A radiation detection system including a radiation-to-light converter and fiber optic wave guides to transmit the light to a remote location for processing. The system utilizes fluors particularly developed for use with optical fibers emitting at wavelengths greater than about 500 nm and having decay times less than about 10 ns.

  10. Portable pathogen detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colston, Billy W.; Everett, Matthew; Milanovich, Fred P.; Brown, Steve B.; Vendateswaran, Kodumudi; Simon, Jonathan N.

    2005-06-14

    A portable pathogen detection system that accomplishes on-site multiplex detection of targets in biological samples. The system includes: microbead specific reagents, incubation/mixing chambers, a disposable microbead capture substrate, and an optical measurement and decoding arrangement. The basis of this system is a highly flexible Liquid Array that utilizes optically encoded microbeads as the templates for biological assays. Target biological samples are optically labeled and captured on the microbeads, which are in turn captured on an ordered array or disordered array disposable capture substrate and then optically read.

  11. Solar system fault detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farrington, R.B.; Pruett, J.C. Jr.

    1984-05-14

    A fault detecting apparatus and method are provided for use with an active solar system. The apparatus provides an indication as to whether one or more predetermined faults have occurred in the solar system. The apparatus includes a plurality of sensors, each sensor being used in determining whether a predetermined condition is present. The outputs of the sensors are combined in a pre-established manner in accordance with the kind of predetermined faults to be detected. Indicators communicate with the outputs generated by combining the sensor outputs to give the user of the solar system and the apparatus an indication as to whether a predetermined fault has occurred. Upon detection and indication of any predetermined fault, the user can take appropriate corrective action so that the overall reliability and efficiency of the active solar system are increased.

  12. Solar system fault detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farrington, Robert B.; Pruett, Jr., James C.

    1986-01-01

    A fault detecting apparatus and method are provided for use with an active solar system. The apparatus provides an indication as to whether one or more predetermined faults have occurred in the solar system. The apparatus includes a plurality of sensors, each sensor being used in determining whether a predetermined condition is present. The outputs of the sensors are combined in a pre-established manner in accordance with the kind of predetermined faults to be detected. Indicators communicate with the outputs generated by combining the sensor outputs to give the user of the solar system and the apparatus an indication as to whether a predetermined fault has occurred. Upon detection and indication of any predetermined fault, the user can take appropriate corrective action so that the overall reliability and efficiency of the active solar system are increased.

  13. Acoustic emission intrusion detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carver, Donald W. (Knoxville, TN); Whittaker, Jerry W. (Knoxville, TN)

    1980-01-01

    An intrusion detector is provided for detecting a forcible entry into a secured structure while minimizing false alarms. The detector uses a piezoelectric crystal transducer to sense acoustic emissions. The transducer output is amplified by a selectable gain amplifier to control the sensitivity. The rectified output of the amplifier is applied to a Schmitt trigger circuit having a preselected threshold level to provide amplitude discrimination. Timing circuitry is provided which is activated by successive pulses from the Schmitt trigger which lie within a selected time frame for frequency discrimination. Detected signals having proper amplitude and frequency trigger an alarm within the first complete cycle time of a detected acoustical disturbance signal.

  14. Calculation notes that support accident scenario and consequence development for the steam intrusion from interfacing systems accident

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Vleet, R.J.; Ryan, G.W.; Crowe, R.D.; Lindberg, S.E., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-04

    This document supports the development and presentation of the following accident scenario in the TWRS Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR): Steam Intrusion From Interfacing Systems. The calculations needed to quantify the risk associated with this accident scenario are included in the following sections to aid in the understanding of this accident scenario. Information validation forms citing assumptions that were approved for use specifically in this analysis are included in Appendix A. Copies of these forms are also on file with TWRS Project Files. Calculations performed in this document, in general, are expressed in traditional (English) units to aid understanding of the accident scenario and related parameters.

  15. Radiation detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Melvin A.; Davies, Terence J.; Morton, III, John R.

    1976-01-01

    A radiation detection system which utilizes the generation of Cerenkov light in and the transmission of that light longitudinally through fiber optic wave guides in order to transmit intelligence relating to the radiation to a remote location. The wave guides are aligned with respect to charged particle radiation so that the Cerenkov light, which is generated at an angle to the radiation, is accepted by the fiber for transmission therethrough. The Cerenkov radiation is detected, recorded, and analyzed at the other end of the fiber.

  16. Arc fault detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jha, K.N.

    1999-05-18

    An arc fault detection system for use on ungrounded or high-resistance-grounded power distribution systems is provided which can be retrofitted outside electrical switchboard circuits having limited space constraints. The system includes a differential current relay that senses a current differential between current flowing from secondary windings located in a current transformer coupled to a power supply side of a switchboard, and a total current induced in secondary windings coupled to a load side of the switchboard. When such a current differential is experienced, a current travels through a operating coil of the differential current relay, which in turn opens an upstream circuit breaker located between the switchboard and a power supply to remove the supply of power to the switchboard. 1 fig.

  17. Arc fault detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jha, Kamal N.

    1999-01-01

    An arc fault detection system for use on ungrounded or high-resistance-grounded power distribution systems is provided which can be retrofitted outside electrical switchboard circuits having limited space constraints. The system includes a differential current relay that senses a current differential between current flowing from secondary windings located in a current transformer coupled to a power supply side of a switchboard, and a total current induced in secondary windings coupled to a load side of the switchboard. When such a current differential is experienced, a current travels through a operating coil of the differential current relay, which in turn opens an upstream circuit breaker located between the switchboard and a power supply to remove the supply of power to the switchboard.

  18. Intelligent Leak Detection System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-10-27

    apability of underground carbon dioxide storage to confine and sustain injected CO2 for a very long time is the main concern for geologic CO2 sequestration. If a leakage from a geological CO2 sequestration site occurs, it is crucial to find the approximate amount and the location of the leak in order to implement proper remediation activity. An overwhelming majority of research and development for storage site monitoring has been concentrated on atmospheric, surface or near surface monitoring of the sequestered CO2. This study aims to monitor the integrity of CO2 storage at the reservoir level. This work proposes developing in-situ CO2 Monitoring and Verification technology based on the implementation of Permanent Down-hole Gauges (PDG) or ?Smart Wells? along with Artificial Intelligence and Data Mining (AI&DM). The technology attempts to identify the characteristics of the CO2 leakage by de-convolving the pressure signals collected from Permanent Down-hole Gauges (PDG). Citronelle field, a saline aquifer reservoir, located in the U.S. was considered for this study. A reservoir simulation model for CO2 sequestration in the Citronelle field was developed and history matched. The presence of the PDGs were considered in the reservoir model at the injection well and an observation well. High frequency pressure data from sensors were collected based on different synthetic CO2 leakage scenarios in the model. Due to complexity of the pressure signal behaviors, a Machine Learning-based technology was introduced to build an Intelligent Leakage Detection System (ILDS). The ILDS was able to detect leakage characteristics in a short period of time (less than a day) demonstrating the capability of the system in quantifying leakage characteristics subject to complex rate behaviors. The performance of ILDS was examined under different conditions such as multiple well leakages, cap rock leakage, availability of an additional monitoring well, presence of pressure drift and noise in the pressure sensor and uncertainty in the reservoir model.

  19. Intelligent Leak Detection System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-10-27

    apability of underground carbon dioxide storage to confine and sustain injected CO2 for a very long time is the main concern for geologic CO2 sequestration. If a leakage from a geological CO2 sequestration site occurs, it is crucial to find the approximate amount and the location of the leak in order to implement proper remediation activity. An overwhelming majority of research and development for storage site monitoring has been concentrated on atmospheric, surface or nearmore » surface monitoring of the sequestered CO2. This study aims to monitor the integrity of CO2 storage at the reservoir level. This work proposes developing in-situ CO2 Monitoring and Verification technology based on the implementation of Permanent Down-hole Gauges (PDG) or “Smart Wells” along with Artificial Intelligence and Data Mining (AI&DM). The technology attempts to identify the characteristics of the CO2 leakage by de-convolving the pressure signals collected from Permanent Down-hole Gauges (PDG). Citronelle field, a saline aquifer reservoir, located in the U.S. was considered for this study. A reservoir simulation model for CO2 sequestration in the Citronelle field was developed and history matched. The presence of the PDGs were considered in the reservoir model at the injection well and an observation well. High frequency pressure data from sensors were collected based on different synthetic CO2 leakage scenarios in the model. Due to complexity of the pressure signal behaviors, a Machine Learning-based technology was introduced to build an Intelligent Leakage Detection System (ILDS). The ILDS was able to detect leakage characteristics in a short period of time (less than a day) demonstrating the capability of the system in quantifying leakage characteristics subject to complex rate behaviors. The performance of ILDS was examined under different conditions such as multiple well leakages, cap rock leakage, availability of an additional monitoring well, presence of pressure drift and noise in the pressure sensor and uncertainty in the reservoir model.« less

  20. Incipient fire detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brooks, Jr., William K.

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus for an incipient fire detection system that receives gaseous samples and measures the light absorption spectrum of the mixture of gases evolving from heated combustibles includes a detector for receiving gaseous samples and subjecting the samples to spectroscopy and determining wavelengths of absorption of the gaseous samples. The wavelengths of absorption of the gaseous samples are compared to predetermined absorption wavelengths. A warning signal is generated whenever the wavelengths of absorption of the gaseous samples correspond to the predetermined absorption wavelengths. The method includes receiving gaseous samples, subjecting the samples to light spectroscopy, determining wavelengths of absorption of the gaseous samples, comparing the wavelengths of absorption of the gaseous samples to predetermined absorption wavelengths and generating a warning signal whenever the wavelengths of absorption of the gaseous samples correspond to the predetermined absorption wavelengths. In an alternate embodiment, the apparatus includes a series of channels fluidically connected to a plurality of remote locations. A pump is connected to the channels for drawing gaseous samples into the channels. A detector is connected to the channels for receiving the drawn gaseous samples and subjecting the samples to spectroscopy. The wavelengths of absorption are determined and compared to predetermined absorption wavelengths is provided. A warning signal is generated whenever the wavelengths correspond.

  1. Hand held explosives detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conrad, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a sensitive hand-held explosives detection device capable of detecting the presence of extremely low quantities of high explosives molecules, and which is applicable to sampling vapors from personnel, baggage, cargo, etc., as part of an explosives detection system.

  2. Protein detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fruetel, Julie A.; Fiechtner, Gregory J.; Kliner, Dahv A. V.; McIlroy, Andrew

    2009-05-05

    The present embodiment describes a miniature, microfluidic, absorption-based sensor to detect proteins at sensitivities comparable to LIF but without the need for tagging. This instrument utilizes fiber-based evanescent-field cavity-ringdown spectroscopy, in combination with faceted prism microchannels. The combination of these techniques will increase the effective absorption path length by a factor of 10.sup.3 to 10.sup.4 (to .about.1-m), thereby providing unprecedented sensitivity using direct absorption. The coupling of high-sensitivity absorption with high-performance microfluidic separation will enable real-time sensing of biological agents in aqueous samples (including aerosol collector fluids) and will provide a general method with spectral fingerprint capability for detecting specific bio-agents.

  3. Particle detection systems and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Christopher L.; Makela, Mark F.

    2010-05-11

    Techniques, apparatus and systems for detecting particles such as muons and neutrons. In one implementation, a particle detection system employs a plurality of drift cells, which can be for example sealed gas-filled drift tubes, arranged on sides of a volume to be scanned to track incoming and outgoing charged particles, such as cosmic ray-produced muons. The drift cells can include a neutron sensitive medium to enable concurrent counting of neutrons. The system can selectively detect devices or materials, such as iron, lead, gold, uranium, plutonium, and/or tungsten, occupying the volume from multiple scattering of the charged particles passing through the volume and can concurrently detect any unshielded neutron sources occupying the volume from neutrons emitted therefrom. If necessary, the drift cells can be used to also detect gamma rays. The system can be employed to inspect occupied vehicles at border crossings for nuclear threat objects.

  4. Thermal neutron detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peurrung, Anthony J. (Richland, WA); Stromswold, David C. (West Richland, WA)

    2000-01-01

    According to the present invention, a system for measuring a thermal neutron emission from a neutron source, has a reflector/moderator proximate the neutron source that reflects and moderates neutrons from the neutron source. The reflector/moderator further directs thermal neutrons toward an unmoderated thermal neutron detector.

  5. Centrifugal unbalance detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cordaro, Joseph V.; Reeves, George; Mets, Michael

    2002-01-01

    A system consisting of an accelerometer sensor attached to a centrifuge enclosure for sensing vibrations and outputting a signal in the form of a sine wave with an amplitude and frequency that is passed through a pre-amp to convert it to a voltage signal, a low pass filter for removing extraneous noise, an A/D converter and a processor and algorithm for operating on the signal, whereby the algorithm interprets the amplitude and frequency associated with the signal and once an amplitude threshold has been exceeded the algorithm begins to count cycles during a predetermined time period and if a given number of complete cycles exceeds the frequency threshold during the predetermined time period, the system shuts down the centrifuge.

  6. Power line detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Latorre, V.R.; Watwood, D.B.

    1994-09-27

    A short-range, radio frequency (RF) transmitting-receiving system that provides both visual and audio warnings to the pilot of a helicopter or light aircraft of an up-coming power transmission line complex. Small, milliwatt-level narrowband transmitters, powered by the transmission line itself, are installed on top of selected transmission line support towers or within existing warning balls, and provide a continuous RF signal to approaching aircraft. The on-board receiver can be either a separate unit or a portion of the existing avionics, and can also share an existing antenna with another airborne system. Upon receipt of a warning signal, the receiver will trigger a visual and an audio alarm to alert the pilot to the potential power line hazard. 4 figs.

  7. Power line detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Latorre, Victor R.; Watwood, Donald B.

    1994-01-01

    A short-range, radio frequency (RF) transmitting-receiving system that provides both visual and audio warnings to the pilot of a helicopter or light aircraft of an up-coming power transmission line complex. Small, milliwatt-level narrowband transmitters, powered by the transmission line itself, are installed on top of selected transmission line support towers or within existing warning balls, and provide a continuous RF signal to approaching aircraft. The on-board receiver can be either a separate unit or a portion of the existing avionics, and can also share an existing antenna with another airborne system. Upon receipt of a warning signal, the receiver will trigger a visual and an audio alarm to alert the pilot to the potential power line hazard.

  8. Alert Confidence Fusion in Intrusion Detection Systems with Extended Dempster- Shafer Theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Dong; Frincke, Deborah A.

    2005-03-01

    Extend Dempster-Shafer Theory of Evidence to include differential weightings of alerts drawn from multiple sources. The intent is to support automated (and manual) response to threat by producing more realistic confidence ratings for IDS alerts than is currently available.

  9. The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dzenitis, J M; Makarewicz, A J

    2009-01-13

    We developed, tested, and now operate a civilian biological defense capability that continuously monitors the air for biological threat agents. The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) collects, prepares, reads, analyzes, and reports results of multiplexed immunoassays and multiplexed PCR assays using Luminex{copyright} xMAP technology and flow cytometer. The mission we conduct is particularly demanding: continuous monitoring, multiple threat agents, high sensitivity, challenging environments, and ultimately extremely low false positive rates. Here, we introduce the mission requirements and metrics, show the system engineering and analysis framework, and describe the progress to date including early development and current status.

  10. in High Performance Computing Computer System, Cluster, and Networking...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    iSSH v. Auditd: Intrusion Detection in High Performance Computing Computer System, Cluster, and Networking Summer Institute David Karns, New Mexico State University Katy Protin,...

  11. Nucleic acid detection system and method for detecting influenza

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cai, Hong; Song, Jian

    2015-03-17

    The invention provides a rapid, sensitive and specific nucleic acid detection system which utilizes isothermal nucleic acid amplification in combination with a lateral flow chromatographic device, or DNA dipstick, for DNA-hybridization detection. The system of the invention requires no complex instrumentation or electronic hardware, and provides a low cost nucleic acid detection system suitable for highly sensitive pathogen detection. Hybridization to single-stranded DNA amplification products using the system of the invention provides a sensitive and specific means by which assays can be multiplexed for the detection of multiple target sequences.

  12. Compensated intruder-detection systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McNeilly, David R.; Miller, William R.

    1984-01-01

    Intruder-detection systems in which intruder-induced signals are transmitted through a medium also receive spurious signals induced by changes in a climatic condition affecting the medium. To combat this, signals received from the detection medium are converted to a first signal. The system also provides a reference signal proportional to climate-induced changes in the medium. The first signal and the reference signal are combined for generating therefrom an output signal which is insensitive to the climatic changes in the medium. An alarm is energized if the output signal exceeds a preselected value. In one embodiment, an acoustic cable is coupled to a fence to generate a first electrical signal proportional to movements thereof. False alarms resulting from wind-induced movements of the fence (detection medium) are eliminated by providing an anemometer-driven voltage generator to provide a reference voltage proportional to the velocity of wind incident on the fence. An analog divider receives the first electrical signal and the reference signal as its numerator and denominator inputs, respectively, and generates therefrom an output signal which is insensitive to the wind-induced movements in the fence.

  13. Ionization detection system for aerosols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobs, Martin E.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved smoke-detection system of the ionization-chamber type. In the preferred embodiment, the system utilizes a conventional detector head comprising a measuring ionization chamber, a reference ionization chamber, and a normally non-conductive gas triode for discharging when a threshold concentration of airborne particulates is present in the measuring chamber. The improved system utilizes a measuring ionization chamber which is modified to minimize false alarms and reductions in sensitivity resulting from changes in ambient temperature. In the preferred form of the modification, an annular radiation shield is mounted about the usual radiation source provided to effect ionization in the measuring chamber. The shield is supported by a bimetallic strip which flexes in response to changes in ambient temperature, moving the shield relative to the source so as to vary the radiative area of the source in a manner offsetting temperature-induced variations in the sensitivity of the chamber.

  14. Pulsed helium ionization detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramsey, R.S.; Todd, R.A.

    1985-04-09

    A helium ionization detection system is provided which produces stable operation of a conventional helium ionization detector while providing improved sensitivity and linearity. Stability is improved by applying pulsed dc supply voltage across the ionization detector, thereby modifying the sampling of the detectors output current. A unique pulse generator is used to supply pulsed dc to the detector which has variable width and interval adjust features that allows up to 500 V to be applied in pulse widths ranging from about 150 nsec to about dc conditions.

  15. Pulsed helium ionization detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramsey, Roswitha S. (Knoxville, TN); Todd, Richard A. (Knoxville, TN)

    1987-01-01

    A helium ionization detection system is provided which produces stable operation of a conventional helium ionization detector while providing improved sensitivity and linearity. Stability is improved by applying pulsed dc supply voltage across the ionization detector, thereby modifying the sampling of the detectors output current. A unique pulse generator is used to supply pulsed dc to the detector which has variable width and interval adjust features that allows up to 500 V to be applied in pulse widths ranging from about 150 nsec to about dc conditions.

  16. Infrared trace element detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bien, F.; Bernstein, L.S.; Matthew, M.W.

    1988-11-15

    An infrared trace element detection system includes an optical cell into which the sample fluid to be examined is introduced and removed. Also introduced into the optical cell is a sample beam of infrared radiation in a first wavelength band which is significantly absorbed by the trace element and a second wavelength band which is not significantly absorbed by the trace element for passage through the optical cell through the sample fluid. The output intensities of the sample beam of radiation are selectively detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The intensities of a reference beam of the radiation are similarly detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The sensed output intensity of the sample beam in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other and similarly, the intensity of the reference beam of radiation in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other. The normalized sample beam intensity and normalized reference beam intensity are then compared to provide a signal from which the amount of trace element in the sample fluid can be determined. 11 figs.

  17. Explosives detection system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reber, Edward L.; Jewell, James K.; Rohde, Kenneth W.; Seabury, Edward H.; Blackwood, Larry G.; Edwards, Andrew J.; Derr, Kurt W.

    2007-12-11

    A method of detecting explosives in a vehicle includes providing a first rack on one side of the vehicle, the rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a second rack on another side of the vehicle, the second rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a control system, remote from the first and second racks, coupled to the neutron generators and gamma ray detectors; using the control system, causing the neutron generators to generate neutrons; and performing gamma ray spectroscopy on spectra read by the gamma ray detectors to look for a signature indicative of presence of an explosive. Various apparatus and other methods are also provided.

  18. Fact Sheet: Detection and Analysis of Threats to the Energy Sector (DATES)

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Detection and Analysis of Threats to the Energy Sector (DATES) A groundbreaking integrated capability in intrusion detection, security event management, and sector-wide threat analysis Detecting cyber attacks against digital control systems quickly and accurately is essential to energy sector security. Current intrusion detection systems (IDS) continuously scan control system communication paths and alert operators of suspicious network traffc. But existing IDS, often not tailored to the control

  19. Non-intrusive appliance monitor apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hart, G.W.; Kern, E.C. Jr.; Schweppe, F.C.

    1989-08-15

    A non-intrusive monitor of energy consumption of residential appliances is described in which sensors, coupled to the power circuits entering a residence, supply analog voltage and current signals which are converted to digital format and processed to detect changes in certain residential load parameters, i.e., admittance. Cluster analysis techniques are employed to group change measurements into certain categories, and logic is applied to identify individual appliances and the energy consumed by each. 9 figs.

  20. Non-intrusive appliance monitor apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hart, George W.; Kern, Jr., Edward C.; Schweppe, Fred C.

    1989-08-15

    A non-intrusive monitor of energy consumption of residential appliances is described in which sensors, coupled to the power circuits entering a residence, supply analog voltage and current signals which are converted to digital format and processed to detect changes in certain residential load parameters, i.e., admittance. Cluster analysis techniques are employed to group change measurements into certain categories, and logic is applied to identify individual appliances and the energy consumed by each.

  1. Discriminating ultrasonic proximity detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Annala, Wayne C. (Durango, CO)

    1989-01-01

    This invention uses an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver and a microprocessor to detect the presence of an object. In the reset mode the invention uses a plurality of echoes from each ultrasonic burst to create a reference table of the echo-burst-signature of the empty monitored environment. The invention then processes the reference table so that it only uses the most reliable data. In the detection mode the invention compares the echo-burst-signature of the present environment with the reference table, detecting an object if there is a consistent difference between the echo-burst-signature of the empty monitored environment recorded in the reference table and the echo-burst-signature of the present environment.

  2. Monitoring CO2 intrusion and associated geochemical transformations in a

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    shallow groundwater system using complex electrical methods (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Monitoring CO2 intrusion and associated geochemical transformations in a shallow groundwater system using complex electrical methods Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Monitoring CO2 intrusion and associated geochemical transformations in a shallow groundwater system using complex electrical methods Authors: Dafflon, B. ; Wu, Y. ; Hubbard, S. S. ; Birkholzer, J. T. ; Daley, T. M. ; Pugh,

  3. Monitoring CO2 intrusion and associated geochemical transformations in a

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    shallow groundwater system using complex electrical methods (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Monitoring CO2 intrusion and associated geochemical transformations in a shallow groundwater system using complex electrical methods Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Monitoring CO2 intrusion and associated geochemical transformations in a shallow groundwater system using complex electrical methods × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This

  4. Non-intrusive refrigerant charge indicator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mei, Viung C.; Chen, Fang C.; Kweller, Esher

    2005-03-22

    A non-intrusive refrigerant charge level indicator includes a structure for measuring at least one temperature at an outside surface of a two-phase refrigerant line section. The measured temperature can be used to determine the refrigerant charge status of an HVAC system, and can be converted to a pressure of the refrigerant in the line section and compared to a recommended pressure range to determine whether the system is under-charged, properly charged or over-charged. A non-intrusive method for assessing the refrigerant charge level in a system containing a refrigerant fluid includes the step of measuring a temperature at least one outside surface of a two-phase region of a refrigerant containing refrigerant line, wherein the temperature measured can be converted to a refrigerant pressure within the line section.

  5. ARM Installs Aircraft Detection Radar System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ARM Installs Aircraft Detection Radar System For improved safety in and around the ARM SGP CART site, the ARM Program recently purchased and installed an aircraft detection radar system at the central facility near Lamont, Oklahoma. The new system will enhance safety measures already in place at the central facility. The SGP CART site, especially the central facility, houses several instruments employing laser technology. These instruments are designed to be eye-safe and are not a hazard to

  6. DETECTION OF HISTORICAL PIPELINE LEAK PLUMES USING NON-INTRUSIVE SURFACE-BASED GEOPHYSICAL TECHNIQUES AT THE HANFORD NUCLEAR SITE WASHINGTON USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SKORSKA MB; FINK JB; RUCKER DF; LEVITT MT

    2010-12-02

    Historical records from the Department of Energy Hanford Nuclear Reservation (in eastern WA) indicate that ruptures in buried waste transfer pipelines were common between the 1940s and 1980s, which resulted in unplanned releases (UPRs) of tank: waste at numerous locations. A number of methods are commercially available for the detection of active or recent leaks, however, there are no methods available for the detection of leaks that occurred many years ago. Over the decades, leaks from the Hanford pipelines were detected by visual observation of fluid on the surface, mass balance calculations (where flow volumes were monitored), and incidental encounters with waste during excavation or drilling. Since these detection methods for historic leaks are so limited in resolution and effectiveness, it is likely that a significant number of pipeline leaks have not been detected. Therefore, a technology was needed to detect the specific location of unknown pipeline leaks so that characterization technologies can be used to identify any risks to groundwater caused by waste released into the vadose zone. A proof-of-concept electromagnetic geophysical survey was conducted at an UPR in order to image a historical leak from a waste transfer pipeline. The survey was designed to test an innovative electromagnetic geophysical technique that could be used to rapidly map the extent of historical leaks from pipelines within the Hanford Site complex. This proof-of-concept test included comprehensive testing and analysis of the transient electromagnetic method (TEM) and made use of supporting and confirmatory geophysical methods including ground penetrating radar, magnetics, and electrical resistivity characterization (ERC). The results for this initial proof-of-concept test were successful and greatly exceeded the expectations of the project team by providing excellent discrimination of soils contaminated with leaked waste despite the interference from an electrically conductive pipe.

  7. RADIATION DETECTING AND TELEMETERING SYSTEM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richards, H.K.

    1959-12-15

    A system is presented for measuring ionizing radiation at several remote stations and transmitting the measured information by radio to a central station. At each remote station a signal proportioned to the counting rate is applied across an electrical condenser made of ferroelectric material. The voltage across the condenser will vary as a function of the incident radiation and the capacitance of the condenser will vary accordingly. This change in capacitance is used to change the frequency of a crystalcontrolled oscillator. The output of the oscillator is coupled to an antenna for transmitting a signal proportional to the incident radiation.

  8. Automated macromolecular crystal detection system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christian, Allen T.; Segelke, Brent; Rupp, Bernard; Toppani, Dominique

    2007-06-05

    An automated macromolecular method and system for detecting crystals in two-dimensional images, such as light microscopy images obtained from an array of crystallization screens. Edges are detected from the images by identifying local maxima of a phase congruency-based function associated with each image. The detected edges are segmented into discrete line segments, which are subsequently geometrically evaluated with respect to each other to identify any crystal-like qualities such as, for example, parallel lines, facing each other, similarity in length, and relative proximity. And from the evaluation a determination is made as to whether crystals are present in each image.

  9. Statistical Fault Detection & Diagnosis Expert System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-12-18

    STATMON is an expert system that performs real-time fault detection and diagnosis of redundant sensors in any industrial process requiring high reliability. After a training period performed during normal operation, the expert system monitors the statistical properties of the incoming signals using a pattern recognition test. If the test determines that statistical properties of the signals have changed, the expert system performs a sequence of logical steps to determine which sensor or machine component hasmoredegraded.less

  10. Damage detection in initially nonlinear systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bornn, Luke; Farrar, Charles; Park, Gyuhae

    2009-01-01

    The primary goal of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) is to detect structural anomalies before they reach a critical level. Because of the potential life-safety and economic benefits, SHM has been widely studied over the past decade. In recent years there has been an effort to provide solid mathematical and physical underpinnings for these methods; however, most focus on systems that behave linearly in their undamaged state - a condition that often does not hold in complex 'real world' systems and systems for which monitoring begins mid-lifecycle. In this work, we highlight the inadequacy of linear-based methodology in handling initially nonlinear systems. We then show how the recently developed autoregressive support vector machine (AR-SVM) approach to time series modeling can be used for detecting damage in a system that exhibits initially nonlinear response. This process is applied to data acquired from a structure with induced nonlinearity tested in a laboratory environment.

  11. System for particle concentration and detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morales, Alfredo M.; Whaley, Josh A.; Zimmerman, Mark D.; Renzi, Ronald F.; Tran, Huu M.; Maurer, Scott M.; Munslow, William D.

    2013-03-19

    A new microfluidic system comprising an automated prototype insulator-based dielectrophoresis (iDEP) triggering microfluidic device for pathogen monitoring that can eventually be run outside the laboratory in a real world environment has been used to demonstrate the feasibility of automated trapping and detection of particles. The system broadly comprised an aerosol collector for collecting air-borne particles, an iDEP chip within which to temporarily trap the collected particles and a laser and fluorescence detector with which to induce a fluorescence signal and detect a change in that signal as particles are trapped within the iDEP chip.

  12. Spark discharge trace element detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adler-Golden, Steven; Bernstein, Lawrence S.; Bien, Fritz

    1988-01-01

    A spark discharge trace element detection system is provided which includes a spark chamber including a pair of electrodes for receiving a sample of gas to be analyzed at no greater than atmospheric pressure. A voltage is provided across the electrodes for generating a spark in the sample. The intensity of the emitted radiation in at least one primary selected narrow band of the radiation is detected. Each primary band corresponds to an element to be detected in the gas. The intensity of the emission in each detected primary band is integrated during the afterglow time interval of the spark emission and a signal representative of the integrated intensity of the emission in each selected primary bond is utilized to determine the concentration of the corresponding element in the gas.

  13. Spark discharge trace element detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adler-Golden, S.; Bernstein, L.S.; Bien, F.

    1988-08-23

    A spark discharge trace element detection system is provided which includes a spark chamber including a pair of electrodes for receiving a sample of gas to be analyzed at no greater than atmospheric pressure. A voltage is provided across the electrodes for generating a spark in the sample. The intensity of the emitted radiation in at least one primary selected narrow band of the radiation is detected. Each primary band corresponds to an element to be detected in the gas. The intensity of the emission in each detected primary band is integrated during the afterglow time interval of the spark emission and a signal representative of the integrated intensity of the emission in each selected primary bond is utilized to determine the concentration of the corresponding element in the gas. 12 figs.

  14. DCE Bio Detection System Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lind, Michael A.; Batishko, Charles R.; Morgen, Gerald P.; Owsley, Stanley L.; Dunham, Glen C.; Warner, Marvin G.; Willett, Jesse A.

    2007-12-01

    The DCE (DNA Capture Element) Bio-Detection System (Biohound) was conceived, designed, built and tested by PNNL under a MIPR for the US Air Force under the technical direction of Dr. Johnathan Kiel and his team at Brooks City Base in San Antonio Texas. The project was directed toward building a measurement device to take advantage of a unique aptamer based assay developed by the Air Force for detecting biological agents. The assay uses narrow band quantum dots fluorophores, high efficiency fluorescence quenchers, magnetic micro-beads beads and selected aptamers to perform high specificity, high sensitivity detection of targeted biological materials in minutes. This final report summarizes and documents the final configuration of the system delivered to the Air Force in December 2008

  15. Methods and systems for detection of radionuclides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coates, Jr., John T.; DeVol, Timothy A.

    2010-05-25

    Disclosed are materials and systems useful in determining the existence of radionuclides in an aqueous sample. The materials provide the dual function of both extraction and scintillation to the systems. The systems can be both portable and simple to use, and as such can beneficially be utilized to determine presence and optionally concentration of radionuclide contamination in an aqueous sample at any desired location and according to a relatively simple process without the necessity of complicated sample handling techniques. The disclosed systems include a one-step process, providing simultaneous extraction and detection capability, and a two-step process, providing a first extraction step that can be carried out in a remote field location, followed by a second detection step that can be carried out in a different location.

  16. Methods and systems for detecting abnormal digital traffic (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Methods and systems for detecting abnormal digital traffic Title: Methods and systems for detecting abnormal digital traffic Aspects of the present invention encompass methods and ...

  17. Intrusion detection and monitoring for wireless networks.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, Eric D.; Van Randwyk, Jamie A.; Lee, Erik J.; Stephano, Amanda; Tabriz, Parisa; Pelon, Kristen; McCoy, Damon (University of Colorado, Boulder); Lodato, Mark; Hemingway, Franklin; Custer, Ryan P.; Averin, Dimitry; Franklin, Jason; Kilman, Dominique Marie

    2005-11-01

    Wireless computer networks are increasing exponentially around the world. They are being implemented in both the unlicensed radio frequency (RF) spectrum (IEEE 802.11a/b/g) and the licensed spectrum (e.g., Firetide [1] and Motorola Canopy [2]). Wireless networks operating in the unlicensed spectrum are by far the most popular wireless computer networks in existence. The open (i.e., proprietary) nature of the IEEE 802.11 protocols and the availability of ''free'' RF spectrum have encouraged many producers of enterprise and common off-the-shelf (COTS) computer networking equipment to jump into the wireless arena. Competition between these companies has driven down the price of 802.11 wireless networking equipment and has improved user experiences with such equipment. The end result has been an increased adoption of the equipment by businesses and consumers, the establishment of the Wi-Fi Alliance [3], and widespread use of the Alliance's ''Wi-Fi'' moniker to describe these networks. Consumers use 802.11 equipment at home to reduce the burden of running wires in existing construction, facilitate the sharing of broadband Internet services with roommates or neighbors, and increase their range of ''connectedness''. Private businesses and government entities (at all levels) are deploying wireless networks to reduce wiring costs, increase employee mobility, enable non-employees to access the Internet, and create an added revenue stream to their existing business models (coffee houses, airports, hotels, etc.). Municipalities (Philadelphia; San Francisco; Grand Haven, MI) are deploying wireless networks so they can bring broadband Internet access to places lacking such access; offer limited-speed broadband access to impoverished communities; offer broadband in places, such as marinas and state parks, that are passed over by traditional broadband providers; and provide themselves with higher quality, more complete network coverage for use by emergency responders and other municipal agencies. In short, these Wi-Fi networks are being deployed everywhere. Much thought has been and is being put into evaluating cost-benefit analyses of wired vs. wireless networks and issues such as how to effectively cover an office building or municipality, how to efficiently manage a large network of wireless access points (APs), and how to save money by replacing an Internet service provider (ISP) with 802.11 technology. In comparison, very little thought and money are being focused on wireless security and monitoring for security purposes.

  18. Portable chemical detection system with intergrated preconcentrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baumann, Mark J.; Brusseau, Charles A.; Hannum, David W.; Linker, Kevin L.

    2005-12-27

    A portable system for the detection of chemical particles such as explosive residue utilizes a metal fiber substrate that may either be swiped over a subject or placed in a holder in a collection module which can shoot a jet of gas at the subject to dislodge residue, and then draw the air containing the residue into the substrate. The holder is then placed in a detection module, which resistively heats the substrate to evolve the particles, and provides a gas flow to move the particles to a miniature detector in the module.

  19. Method and system for detecting an explosive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reber, Edward L.; Rohde, Kenneth W.; Blackwood, Larry G.

    2010-12-07

    A method and system for detecting at least one explosive in a vehicle using a neutron generator and a plurality of NaI detectors. Spectra read from the detectors is calibrated by performing Gaussian peak fitting to define peak regions, locating a Na peak and an annihilation peak doublet, assigning a predetermined energy level to one peak in the doublet, and predicting a hydrogen peak location based on a location of at least one peak of the doublet. The spectra are gain shifted to a common calibration, summed for respective groups of NaI detectors, and nitrogen detection analysis performed on the summed spectra for each group.

  20. Statistical Fault Detection & Diagnosis Expert System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-12-18

    STATMON is an expert system that performs real-time fault detection and diagnosis of redundant sensors in any industrial process requiring high reliability. After a training period performed during normal operation, the expert system monitors the statistical properties of the incoming signals using a pattern recognition test. If the test determines that statistical properties of the signals have changed, the expert system performs a sequence of logical steps to determine which sensor or machine component hasmore » degraded.« less

  1. The synchronous active neutron detection assay system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pickrell, M.M.; Kendall, P.K.

    1994-08-01

    We have begun to develop a novel technique for active neutron assay of fissile material in spent nuclear fuel. This approach will exploit a 14-MeV neutron generator developed by Schlumberger. The technique, termed synchronous active neutron detection (SAND), follows a method used routinely in other branches of physics to detect very small signals in presence of large backgrounds. Synchronous detection instruments are widely available commercially and are termed ``lock-in`` amplifiers. We have implemented a digital lock-in amplifier in conjunction with the Schlumberger neutron generator to explore the possibility of synchronous detection with active neutrons. The Schlumberger system can operate at up to a 50% duty factor, in effect, a square wave of neutron yield. Results are preliminary but promising. The system is capable of resolving the fissile material contained in a small fraction of the fuel rods in a cold fuel assembly; it also appears resilient to background neutron interference. The interrogating neutrons appear to be non-thermal and penetrating. Work remains to fully explore relevant physics and optimize instrument design.

  2. System and method for detecting gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chow, Oscar Ken; Moulthrop, Lawrence Clinton; Dreier, Ken Wayne; Miller, Jacob Andrew

    2010-03-16

    A system to detect a presence of a specific gas in a mixture of gaseous byproducts comprising moisture vapor is disclosed. The system includes an electrochemical cell, a transport to deliver the mixture of gaseous byproducts from the electrochemical cell, a gas sensor in fluid communication with the transport, the sensor responsive to a presence of the specific gas to generate a signal corresponding to a concentration of the specific gas, and a membrane to prevent transmission of liquid moisture, the membrane disposed between the transport and the gas sensor.

  3. System and method for anomaly detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scherrer, Chad

    2010-06-15

    A system and method for detecting one or more anomalies in a plurality of observations is provided. In one illustrative embodiment, the observations are real-time network observations collected from a stream of network traffic. The method includes performing a discrete decomposition of the observations, and introducing derived variables to increase storage and query efficiencies. A mathematical model, such as a conditional independence model, is then generated from the formatted data. The formatted data is also used to construct frequency tables which maintain an accurate count of specific variable occurrence as indicated by the model generation process. The formatted data is then applied to the mathematical model to generate scored data. The scored data is then analyzed to detect anomalies.

  4. Drone Detection, Video Feed Interception and Pilot Locating System...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Drone Detection, Video Feed Interception and Pilot Locating System The invention provides the capability of detecting commercially available and custom homemade remotely operated...

  5. Systems and methods for detecting and processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Michael M. (Livermore, CA); Yoshimura, Ann S. (Tracy, CA)

    2006-03-28

    Embodiments of the present invention provides systems and method for detecting. Sensing modules are provided in communication with one or more detectors. In some embodiments, detectors are provided that are sensitive to chemical, biological, or radiological agents. Embodiments of sensing modules include processing capabilities to analyze, perform computations on, and/or run models to predict or interpret data received from one or more detectors. Embodiments of sensing modules form various network configurations with one another and/or with one or more data aggregation devices. Some embodiments of sensing modules include power management functionalities.

  6. Method and system for detecting explosives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reber, Edward L.; Jewell, James K.; Rohde, Kenneth W.; Seabury, Edward H.; Blackwood, Larry G.; Edwards, Andrew J.; Derr, Kurt W.

    2009-03-10

    A method of detecting explosives in a vehicle includes providing a first rack on one side of the vehicle, the rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a second rack on another side of the vehicle, the second rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a control system, remote from the first and second racks, coupled to the neutron generators and gamma ray detectors; using the control system, causing the neutron generators to generate neutrons; and performing gamma ray spectroscopy on spectra read by the gamma ray detectors to look for a signature indicative of presence of an explosive. Various apparatus and other methods are also provided.

  7. Human Portable Radiation Detection System Communications Package Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgen, Gerald P.; Peterson, William W.

    2009-06-11

    Testing and valuation of the Human Portable Radiation Detection System Communications Package for the US Coast Guard.

  8. Method and system for turbomachinery surge detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Faymon, David K.; Mays, Darrell C.; Xiong, Yufei

    2004-11-23

    A method and system for surge detection within a gas turbine engine, comprises: measuring the compressor discharge pressure (CDP) of the gas turbine over a period of time; determining a time derivative (CDP.sub.D ) of the measured (CDP) correcting the CDP.sub.D for altitude, (CDP.sub.DCOR); estimating a short-term average of CDP.sub.DCOR.sup.2 ; estimating a short-term average of CDP.sub.DCOR ; and determining a short-term variance of corrected CDP rate of change (CDP.sub.roc) based upon the short-term average of CDP.sub.DCOR and the short-term average of CDP.sub.DCOR.sup.2. The method and system then compares the short-term variance of corrected CDP rate of change with a pre-determined threshold (CDP.sub.proc) and signals an output when CDP.sub.roc >CDP.sub.proc. The method and system provides a signal of a surge within the gas turbine engine when CDP.sub.roc remains>CDP.sub.proc for pre-determined period of time.

  9. Liquid chromatography detection unit, system, and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derenzo, Stephen E.; Moses, William W.

    2015-10-27

    An embodiment of a liquid chromatography detection unit includes a fluid channel and a radiation detector. The radiation detector is operable to image a distribution of a radiolabeled compound as the distribution travels along the fluid channel. An embodiment of a liquid chromatography system includes an injector, a separation column, and a radiation detector. The injector is operable to inject a sample that includes a radiolabeled compound into a solvent stream. The position sensitive radiation detector is operable to image a distribution of the radiolabeled compound as the distribution travels along a fluid channel. An embodiment of a method of liquid chromatography includes injecting a sample that comprises radiolabeled compounds into a solvent. The radiolabeled compounds are then separated. A position sensitive radiation detector is employed to image distributions of the radiolabeled compounds as the radiolabeled compounds travel along a fluid channel.

  10. Liquid chromatography detection unit, system, and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derenzo, Stephen E; Moses, William W

    2015-11-06

    An embodiment of a liquid chromatography detection unit includes a fluid channel and a radiation detector. The radiation detector is operable to image a distribution of a radiolabeled compound as the distribution travels along the fluid channel. An embodiment of a liquid chromatography system includes an injector, a separation column, and a radiation detector. The injector is operable to inject a sample that includes a radiolabeled compound into a solvent stream. The position sensitive radiation detector is operable to image a distribution of the radiolabeled compound as the distribution travels along a fluid channel. An embodiment of a method of liquid chromatography includes injecting a sample that comprises radiolabeled compounds into a solvent. The radiolabeled compounds are then separated. A position sensitive radiation detector is employed to image distributions of the radiolabeled compounds as the radiolabeled compounds travel along a fluid channel.

  11. Systems and methods for detecting neutrons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bross, Alan D.; Mellott, Kerry L.; Pla-Dalmau, Anna

    2005-08-09

    Systems and methods for detecting neutrons. One or more neutron-sensitive scintillators can be configured from a plurality of nano-sized particles, dopants and an extruded plastic material, such as polystyrene. The nano-sized particles can be compounded into the extruded plastic material with at least one dopant that permits the plastic material to scintillate. One or more plastic light collectors can be associated with a neutron-sensitive scintillator, such that the plastic light collector includes a central hole thereof. A wavelength-shifting fiber can then be located within the hole. The wavelength shifting (WLS) fiber absorbs scintillation light having a wavelength thereof and re-emits the light at a longer wavelength.

  12. System for detecting special nuclear materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jandel, Marian; Rusev, Gencho Yordanov; Taddeucci, Terry Nicholas

    2015-07-14

    The present disclosure includes a radiological material detector having a convertor material that emits one or more photons in response to a capture of a neutron emitted by a radiological material; a photon detector arranged around the convertor material and that produces an electrical signal in response to a receipt of a photon; and a processor connected to the photon detector, the processor configured to determine the presence of a radiological material in response to a predetermined signature of the electrical signal produced at the photon detector. One or more detectors described herein can be integrated into a detection system that is suited for use in port monitoring, treaty compliance, and radiological material management activities.

  13. Methods, microfluidic devices, and systems for detection of an...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Methods, microfluidic devices, and systems for detection of an active enzymatic agent Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Methods, microfluidic devices, and systems for...

  14. Detection of contamination of municipal water distribution systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F.

    2012-01-17

    A system for the detection of contaminates of a fluid in a conduit. The conduit is part of a fluid distribution system. A chemical or biological sensor array is connected to the conduit. The sensor array produces an acoustic signal burst in the fluid upon detection of contaminates in the fluid. A supervisory control system connected to the fluid and operatively connected to the fluid distribution system signals the fluid distribution system upon detection of contaminates in the fluid.

  15. Distribution System Audits, Leak Detection, and Repair: Kirtland Air Force Base Leak Detection and Repair Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-01-14

    Water Best Management Practice #3 Fact Seet: Outlines how a leak detection and repair program helped Kirtland Air Force Base perform distribution system audits, leak detection, and repair to conserve water site-wide.

  16. Engine throttle valve position detecting system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamai, K.; Kikuchi, T.

    1987-03-31

    This patent describes an engine throttle valve position detecting system including: a throttle switch including a rotary detector member adapted to be rotated in accordance with the rotation of an engine throttle valve and having a guide portion including a section offset radially relative to the direction of rotation of the rotary detector member. A movable contact is movable by the rotation of the rotary detector member and a stationary contact disposed in opposed relationship to the movable contact. The stationary and movable contacts have opened and closed positions which are changed over at two different predetermined rotational positions of the rotary detector member; means for producing a signal related to the operation of the engine; means for comparing a temperature representative of the engine operating condition with a predetermined reference level; and judgment means operative, when the engine operating condition temperature is judged by the comparing means as being higher than predetermined reference level, to judge the position of the throttle valve based on one of the positions of the movable and stationary contacts and on the signal.

  17. Best Management Practice #3: Distribution System Audits, Leak Detection,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Repair | Department of Energy 3: Distribution System Audits, Leak Detection, and Repair Best Management Practice #3: Distribution System Audits, Leak Detection, and Repair A distribution system audit, or leak detection and repair program, may help federal facilities identify and reduce water losses and be better stewards of water as a resource. Overview Federal facilities in large campuses with expansive distribution systems can lose a significant amount of total water production and

  18. System and method for detecting cells or components thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Porter, Marc D.; Lipert, Robert J.; Doyle, Robert T.; Grubisha, Desiree S.; Rahman, Salma

    2009-01-06

    A system and method for detecting a detectably labeled cell or component thereof in a sample comprising one or more cells or components thereof, at least one cell or component thereof of which is detectably labeled with at least two detectable labels. In one embodiment, the method comprises: (i) introducing the sample into one or more flow cells of a flow cytometer, (ii) irradiating the sample with one or more light sources that are absorbed by the at least two detectable labels, the absorption of which is to be detected, and (iii) detecting simultaneously the absorption of light by the at least two detectable labels on the detectably labeled cell or component thereof with an array of photomultiplier tubes, which are operably linked to two or more filters that selectively transmit detectable emissions from the at least two detectable labels.

  19. Methods, microfluidic devices, and systems for detection of an active

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    enzymatic agent (Patent) | SciTech Connect Methods, microfluidic devices, and systems for detection of an active enzymatic agent Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Methods, microfluidic devices, and systems for detection of an active enzymatic agent Embodiments of the present invention provide methods, microfluidic devices, and systems for the detection of an active target agent in a fluid sample. A substrate molecule is used that contains a sequence which may cleave in the presence

  20. Active, Non-Intrusive Inspection Technologies for Homeland Defense

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James L. Jones

    2003-06-01

    Active, non-intrusive inspection or interrogation technologies have been used for 100 years - with the primary focus being radiographic imaging. During the last 50 years, various active interrogation systems have been investigated and most have revealed many unique and interesting capabilities and advantages that have already benefited the general public. Unfortunately, except for medical and specific industrial applications, these unique capabilities have not been widely adopted, largely due to the complexity of the technology, the overconfident reliance on passive detection systems to handle most challenges, and the unrealistic public concerns regarding radiation safety issues for a given active inspection deployment. The unique homeland security challenges facing the United States today are inviting more "out-of-the-box" solutions and are demanding the effective technological solutions that only active interrogation systems can provide. While revolutionary new solutions are always desired, these technology advancements are rare, and when found, usually take a long time to fully understand and implement for a given application. What's becoming more evident is that focusing on under-developed, but well-understood, active inspection technologies can provide many of the needed "out-of-the-box" solutions. This paper presents a brief historical overview of active interrogation. It identifies some of the major homeland defense challenges being confronted and the commercial and research technologies presently available and being pursued. Finally, the paper addresses the role of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory and its partner, the Idaho Accelerator Center at Idaho State University, in promoting and developing active inspection technologies for homeland defense.

  1. All row, planar fault detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles Jens; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian Edward

    2013-07-23

    An apparatus, program product and method for detecting nodal faults may simultaneously cause designated nodes of a cell to communicate with all nodes adjacent to each of the designated nodes. Furthermore, all nodes along the axes of the designated nodes are made to communicate with their adjacent nodes, and the communications are analyzed to determine if a node or connection is faulty.

  2. Development of an assisting detection system for early infarct diagnosis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sim, K. S.; Nia, M. E.; Ee, C. S.

    2015-04-24

    In this paper, a detection assisting system for early infarct detection is developed. This new developed method is used to assist the medical practitioners to diagnose infarct from computed tomography images of brain. Using this assisting system, the infarct could be diagnosed at earlier stages. The non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) brain images are the data set used for this system. Detection module extracts the pixel data from NCCT brain images, and produces the colourized version of images. The proposed method showed great potential in detecting infarct, and helps medical practitioners to make earlier and better diagnoses.

  3. NNSA, Argentina Transition Radiation Detection System | National Nuclear

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Security Administration Argentina Transition Radiation Detection System May 19, 2014 WASHINGTON, D.C. - The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and the Government of Argentina recently completed the transition of full responsibility for the radiation detection systems located at the Port of Buenos Aires and Port of Dock Sud at an official signing in Argentina's capital of Buenos Aires. This transition reflects the strong commitment of Argentina's government to deter, detect and

  4. Localized surface plasmon resonance mercury detection system and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    James, Jay; Lucas, Donald; Crosby, Jeffrey Scott; Koshland, Catherine P.

    2016-03-22

    A mercury detection system that includes a flow cell having a mercury sensor, a light source and a light detector is provided. The mercury sensor includes a transparent substrate and a submonolayer of mercury absorbing nanoparticles, e.g., gold nanoparticles, on a surface of the substrate. Methods of determining whether mercury is present in a sample using the mercury sensors are also provided. The subject mercury detection systems and methods find use in a variety of different applications, including mercury detecting applications.

  5. Upconverting nanoparticles for optimizing scintillator based detection systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kross, Brian; McKisson, John E; McKisson, John; Weisenberger, Andrew; Xi, Wenze; Zom, Carl

    2013-09-17

    An upconverting device for a scintillation detection system is provided. The detection system comprises a scintillator material, a sensor, a light transmission path between the scintillator material and the sensor, and a plurality of upconverting nanoparticles particles positioned in the light transmission path.

  6. Explosive simulants for testing explosive detection systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kury, John W.; Anderson, Brian L.

    1999-09-28

    Explosives simulants that include non-explosive components are disclosed that facilitate testing of equipment designed to remotely detect explosives. The simulants are non-explosive, non-hazardous materials that can be safely handled without any significant precautions. The simulants imitate real explosives in terms of mass density, effective atomic number, x-ray transmission properties, and physical form, including moldable plastics and emulsions/gels.

  7. Detection and quantification system for monitoring instruments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dzenitis, John M. (Danville, CA); Hertzog, Claudia K. (Houston, TX); Makarewicz, Anthony J. (Livermore, CA); Henderer, Bruce D. (Livermore, CA); Riot, Vincent J. (Oakland, CA)

    2008-08-12

    A method of detecting real events by obtaining a set of recent signal results, calculating measures of the noise or variation based on the set of recent signal results, calculating an expected baseline value based on the set of recent signal results, determining sample deviation, calculating an allowable deviation by multiplying the sample deviation by a threshold factor, setting an alarm threshold from the baseline value plus or minus the allowable deviation, and determining whether the signal results exceed the alarm threshold.

  8. Portable compton gamma-ray detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rowland, Mark S.; Oldaker, Mark E.

    2008-03-04

    A Compton scattered gamma-ray detector system. The system comprises a gamma-ray spectrometer and an annular array of individual scintillators. The scintillators are positioned so that they are arrayed around the gamma-ray spectrometer. The annular array of individual scintillators includes a first scintillator. A radiation shield is positioned around the first scintillator. A multi-channel analyzer is operatively connected to the gamma-ray spectrometer and the annular array of individual scintillators.

  9. Systems for detecting charged particles in object inspection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Christopher L.; Makela, Mark F.

    2013-08-20

    Techniques, apparatus and systems for detecting particles such as muons. In one implementation, a monitoring system has a cosmic ray-produced charged particle tracker with a plurality of drift cells. The drift cells, which can be for example aluminum drift tubes, can be arranged at least above and below a volume to be scanned to thereby track incoming and outgoing charged particles, such as cosmic ray-produced muons, while also detecting gamma rays. The system can selectively detect devices or materials, such as iron, lead, gold and/or tungsten, occupying the volume from multiple scattering of the charged particles passing through the volume and can also detect any radioactive sources occupying the volume from gamma rays emitted therefrom. If necessary, the drift tubes can be sealed to eliminate the need for a gas handling system. The system can be employed to inspect occupied vehicles at border crossings for nuclear threat objects.

  10. Transistor-based particle detection systems and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jain, Ankit; Nair, Pradeep R.; Alam, Muhammad Ashraful

    2015-06-09

    Transistor-based particle detection systems and methods may be configured to detect charged and non-charged particles. Such systems may include a supporting structure contacting a gate of a transistor and separating the gate from a dielectric of the transistor, and the transistor may have a near pull-in bias and a sub-threshold region bias to facilitate particle detection. The transistor may be configured to change current flow through the transistor in response to a change in stiffness of the gate caused by securing of a particle to the gate, and the transistor-based particle detection system may configured to detect the non-charged particle at least from the change in current flow.

  11. Occupancy change detection system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bruemmer, David J. [Idaho Falls, ID; Few, Douglas A. [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-09-01

    A robot platform includes perceptors, locomotors, and a system controller. The system controller executes instructions for producing an occupancy grid map of an environment around the robot, scanning the environment to generate a current obstacle map relative to a current robot position, and converting the current obstacle map to a current occupancy grid map. The instructions also include processing each grid cell in the occupancy grid map. Within the processing of each grid cell, the instructions include comparing each grid cell in the occupancy grid map to a corresponding grid cell in the current occupancy grid map. For grid cells with a difference, the instructions include defining a change vector for each changed grid cell, wherein the change vector includes a direction from the robot to the changed grid cell and a range from the robot to the changed grid cell.

  12. NNSA, Djibouti Transition Radiation Detection System | National Nuclear

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Security Administration NNSA, Djibouti Transition Radiation Detection System March 26, 2014 WASHINGTON, D.C. - The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) recently celebrated the transition of full responsibility to the government of Djibouti for the radiation detection system located at the Doraleh Container Terminal at the Port of Djibouti. The joint ceremony was held in Djibouti's capital to mark the event attended by senior officials from Djibouti, the U.S., and Ethiopia. This

  13. NNSA, Romania Launch Radiation Detection System at International Airport

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    near Bucharest | National Nuclear Security Administration NNSA, Romania Launch Radiation Detection System at International Airport near Bucharest July 22, 2015 Today, the U.S. Embassy in Bucharest, the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and Romania's Ministry of Internal Affairs celebrated the commencement of operations of the radiation detection system located at Henri Coandă International Airport near Bucharest. To mark the occasion, U.S. Embassy Chargé d'Affaires Duane

  14. Online Monitoring System for Performance Fault Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gioiosa, Roberto; Kestor, Gokcen; Kerbyson, Darren J.

    2014-05-19

    To achieve the exaFLOPS performance within a contain power budget, next supercomputers will feature hundreds of millions of components operating at low- and near-threshold voltage. As the probability that at least one of these components fails during the execution of an application approaches certainty, it seems unrealistic to expect that any run of a scientific application will not experience some performance faults. We believe that there is need of a new generation of light-weight performance and debugging tools that can be used online even during production runs of parallel applications and that can identify performance anomalies during the application execution. In this work we propose the design and implementation of a monitoring system that continuously inspects the evolution of run

  15. Methods and systems for remote detection of gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Timothy J

    2012-09-18

    Novel systems and methods for remotely detecting at least one constituent of a gas via infrared detection are provided. A system includes at least one extended source of broadband infrared radiation and a spectrally sensitive receiver positioned remotely from the source. The source and the receiver are oriented such that a surface of the source is in the field of view of the receiver. The source includes a heating component thermally coupled to the surface, and the heating component is configured to heat the surface to a temperature above ambient temperature. The receiver is operable to collect spectral infrared absorption data representative of a gas present between the source and the receiver. The invention advantageously overcomes significant difficulties associated with active infrared detection techniques known in the art, and provides an infrared detection technique with a much greater sensitivity than passive infrared detection techniques known in the art.

  16. Methods and systems for remote detection of gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Timothy J.

    2007-11-27

    Novel systems and methods for remotely detecting at least one constituent of a gas via infrared detection are provided. A system includes at least one extended source of broadband infrared radiation and a spectrally sensitive receiver positioned remotely from the source. The source and the receiver are oriented such that a surface of the source is in the field of view of the receiver. The source includes a heating component thermally coupled to the surface, and the heating component is configured to heat the surface to a temperature above ambient temperature. The receiver is operable to collect spectral infrared absorption data representative of a gas present between the source and the receiver. The invention advantageously overcomes significant difficulties associated with active infrared detection techniques known in the art, and provides an infrared detection technique with a much greater sensitivity than passive infrared detection techniques known in the art.

  17. Systems and methods for detection of blowout precursors in combustors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lieuwen, Tim C.; Nair, Suraj

    2006-08-15

    The present invention comprises systems and methods for detecting flame blowout precursors in combustors. The blowout precursor detection system comprises a combustor, a pressure measuring device, and blowout precursor detection unit. A combustion controller may also be used to control combustor parameters. The methods of the present invention comprise receiving pressure data measured by an acoustic pressure measuring device, performing one or a combination of spectral analysis, statistical analysis, and wavelet analysis on received pressure data, and determining the existence of a blowout precursor based on such analyses. The spectral analysis, statistical analysis, and wavelet analysis further comprise their respective sub-methods to determine the existence of blowout precursors.

  18. Host-Based Data Exfiltration Detection via System Call Sequences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beaver, Justin M; Jewell, Brian C

    2011-01-01

    The host-based detection of malicious data exfiltration activities is currently a sparse area of research and mostly limited to methods that analyze network traffic or signature based detection methods that target specific processes. In this paper we explore an alternative method to host-based detection that exploits sequences of system calls and new collection methods that allow us to catch these activities in real time. We show that system calls sequences can be found to reach a steady state across processes and users, and explore the viability of new methods as heuristics for profiling user behaviors.

  19. Detection of forced oscillations in power systems with multichannel methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Follum, James D.

    2015-09-30

    The increasing availability of high fidelity, geographically dispersed measurements in power systems improves the ability of researchers and engineers to study dynamic behaviors in the grid. One such behavior that is garnering increased attention is the presence of forced oscillations. Power system engineers are interested in forced oscillations because they are often symptomatic of the malfunction or misoperation of equipment. Though the resulting oscillation is not always large in amplitude, the root cause may be serious. In this report, multi-channel forced oscillation detection methods are developed. These methods leverage previously developed detection approaches based on the periodogram and spectral-coherence. Making use of geographically distributed channels of data is shown to improved detection performance and shorten the delay before an oscillation can be detected in the online environment. Results from simulated and measured power system data are presented.

  20. Non intrusive sensors -- An answer to annulus pressure monitoring in subsea wellhead equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adamek, F.C.; Jennings, C.; Aarskog, A.

    1995-12-01

    On offshore platform and jackup surface wellhead completions, there is the potential for leakage from the high pressure production tubing and casing strings into the low pressure outer casing string, or from poor cementing jobs. Historically, these completions maintain the capability of regularly monitoring wellhead annulus pressure so that appropriate action can be taken should a leak be detected. In the past, subsea completions have been oil producers, however, gas production, extreme reservoir pressures, and deeper waters are becoming common place. Although subsea wellhead technology and reliability have significantly improved with the introduction of the metal-to-metal sealing system, the potential for annulus pressure buildup still exists. Up to the present, the ability to monitor pressure beyond the first casing string has been virtually non-existent. This paper describes the design, development, testing, and application of non intrusive sensor technology for pressure measurement in subsea wellheads and production trees. The data and test results define and describe the phenomenon of ``inverse magnetostriction``. This phenomenon allows magnetic sensors to non intrusively penetrate three to four inches of steel in a subsea wellhead housing and measure annulus pressure from less than 30 psi to more than 15,000 psi. In addition, test data, charts, and graphs illustrate the sensor`s capability of differentiating between pressure, tension, compression, and bending stress imposed on the wellhead. The electronic interface description details how the data is obtained from the sensors, stored, and later transmitted to existing control systems or to the user interface at the surface via an ROV.

  1. System and method for detecting a faulty object in a system (Patent) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect System and method for detecting a faulty object in a system Citation Details In-Document Search Title: System and method for detecting a faulty object in a system A method (and system) for detecting at least one faulty object in a system including a plurality of objects in communication with each other in an n-dimensional architecture, includes probing a first plane of objects in the n-dimensional architecture and probing at least one other plane of objects in the

  2. System and method for detecting a faulty object in a system (Patent) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect System and method for detecting a faulty object in a system Citation Details In-Document Search Title: System and method for detecting a faulty object in a system A method (and system) for detecting at least one faulty object in a system including a plurality of objects in communication with each other in an n-dimensional architecture, includes probing a first plane of objects in the n-dimensional architecture and probing at least one other plane of objects in the

  3. Methods, systems and devices for detecting and locating ferromagnetic objects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roybal, Lyle Gene (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Kotter, Dale Kent (Shelley, ID) [Shelley, ID; Rohrbaugh, David Thomas (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Spencer, David Frazer (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-01-26

    Methods for detecting and locating ferromagnetic objects in a security screening system. One method includes a step of acquiring magnetic data that includes magnetic field gradients detected during a period of time. Another step includes representing the magnetic data as a function of the period of time. Another step includes converting the magnetic data to being represented as a function of frequency. Another method includes a step of sensing a magnetic field for a period of time. Another step includes detecting a gradient within the magnetic field during the period of time. Another step includes identifying a peak value of the gradient detected during the period of time. Another step includes identifying a portion of time within the period of time that represents when the peak value occurs. Another step includes configuring the portion of time over the period of time to represent a ratio.

  4. The synchronous active neutron detection system for spent fuel assay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pickrell, M.M.; Kendall, P.K.

    1994-10-01

    The authors have begun to develop a novel technique for active neutron assay of fissile material in spent nuclear fuel. This approach will exploit the unique operating features of a 14-MeV neutron generator developed by Schlumberger. This generator and a novel detection system will be applied to the direct measurement of the fissile material content in spent fuel in place of the indirect measures used at present. The technique they are investigating is termed synchronous active neutron detection (SAND). It closely follows a method that has been used routinely in other branches of physics to detect very small signals in the presence of large backgrounds. Synchronous detection instruments are widely available commercially and are termed {open_quotes}lock-in{close_quotes} amplifiers. The authors have implemented a digital lock-in amplifier in conjunction with the Schlumberger neutron generator to explore the possibility of synchronous detection with active neutrons. This approach is possible because the Schlumberger system can operate at up to a 50% duty factor, in effect, a square wave of neutron yield. The results to date are preliminary but quite promising. The system is capable of resolving the fissile material contained in a small fraction of the fuel rods in a cold fuel assembly. It also appears to be quite resilient to background neutron interference. The interrogating neutrons appear to be nonthermal and penetrating. Although a significant amount of work remains to fully explore the relevant physics and optimize the instrument design, the underlying concept appears sound.

  5. A bubble detection system for propellant filling pipeline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wen, Wen; Zong, Guanghua; Bi, Shusheng

    2014-06-15

    This paper proposes a bubble detection system based on the ultrasound transmission method, mainly for probing high-speed bubbles in the satellite propellant filling pipeline. First, three common ultrasonic detection methods are compared and the ultrasound transmission method is used in this paper. Then, the ultrasound beam in a vertical pipe is investigated, suggesting that the width of the beam used for detection is usually smaller than the internal diameter of the pipe, which means that when bubbles move close to the pipe wall, they may escape from being detected. A special device is designed to solve this problem. It can generate the spiral flow to force all the bubbles to ascend along the central line of the pipe. In the end, experiments are implemented to evaluate the performance of this system. Bubbles of five different sizes are generated and detected. Experiment results show that the sizes and quantity of bubbles can be estimated by this system. Also, the bubbles of different radii can be distinguished from each other. The numerical relationship between the ultrasound attenuation and the bubble radius is acquired and it can be utilized for estimating the unknown bubble size and measuring the total bubble volume.

  6. Review of Current Neutron Detection Systems for Emergency Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukhopadhyay, S.; Maurer, R.; Guss, P.; Kruschwitz, C.

    2014-09-01

    Neutron detectors are used in a myriad of applicationsfrom safeguarding special nuclear materials (SNM) to determining lattice spacing in soft materials. The transformational changes taking place in neutron detection and imaging techniques in the last few years are largely being driven by the global shortage of helium-3 (3He). This article reviews the status of neutron sensors used specifically for SNM detection in radiological emergency response. These neutron detectors must be highly efficient, be rugged, have fast electronics to measure neutron multiplicity, and be capable of measuring direction of the neutron sources and possibly image them with high spatial resolution. Neutron detection is an indirect physical process: neutrons react with nuclei in materials to initiate the release of one or more charged particles that produce electric signals that can be processed by the detection system. Therefore, neutron detection requires conversion materials as active elements of the detection system; these materials may include boron-10 (10B), lithium-6 (6Li), and gadollinium-157 (157Gd), to name a few, but the number of materials available for neutron detection is limited. However, in recent years, pulse-shape-discriminating plastic scintillators, scintillators made of helium-4 (4He) under high pressure, pillar and trench semiconductor diodes, and exotic semiconductor neutron detectors made from uranium oxide and other materials have widely expanded the parameter space in neutron detection methodology. In this article we will pay special attention to semiconductor-based neutron sensors. Modern micro-fabricated nanotubes covered inside with neutron converter materials and with very high aspect ratios for better charge transport will be discussed.

  7. Assessment of Radiation Background Variation for Moving Detection Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, James Christopher; Rennie, John Alan; Toevs, James Waldo; Wallace, Darrin J.; Abhold, Mark Edward

    2015-07-13

    The introduction points out that radiation backgrounds fluctuate across very short distances: factors include geology, soil composition, altitude, building structures, topography, and other manmade structures; and asphalt and concrete can vary significantly over short distances. Brief descriptions are given of the detection system, experimental setup, and background variation measurements. It is concluded that positive and negative gradients can greatly reduce the detection sensitivity of an MDS: negative gradients create opportunities for false negatives (nondetection), and positive gradients create a potentially unacceptable FAR (above 1%); the location of use for mobile detection is important to understand; spectroscopic systems provide more information for screening out false alarms and may be preferred for mobile use; and mobile monitor testing at LANL accounts for expected variations in the background.

  8. All-to-all sequenced fault detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles Jens; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian Edward

    2010-11-02

    An apparatus, program product and method enable nodal fault detection by sequencing communications between all system nodes. A master node may coordinate communications between two slave nodes before sequencing to and initiating communications between a new pair of slave nodes. The communications may be analyzed to determine the nodal fault.

  9. Sensor integration study for a shallow tunnel detection system.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yee, Mark L.; Abbott, Robert E.; Bonal, Nedra; Elbring, Gregory Jay; Senglaub, Michael E.

    2010-02-01

    During the past several years, there has been a growing recognition of the threats posed by the use of shallow tunnels against both international border security and the integrity of critical facilities. This has led to the development and testing of a variety of geophysical and surveillance techniques for the detection of these clandestine tunnels. The challenges of detection of these tunnels arising from the complexity of the near surface environment, the subtlety of the tunnel signatures themselves, and the frequent siting of these tunnels in urban environments with a high level of cultural noise, have time and again shown that any single technique is not robust enough to solve the tunnel detection problem in all cases. The question then arises as to how to best combine the multiple techniques currently available to create an integrated system that results in the best chance of detecting these tunnels in a variety of clutter environments and geologies. This study utilizes Taguchi analysis with simulated sensor detection performance to address this question. The analysis results show that ambient noise has the most effect on detection performance over the effects of tunnel characteristics and geological factors.

  10. Security system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baumann, Mark J.; Kuca, Michal; Aragon, Mona L.

    2016-02-02

    A security system includes a structure having a structural surface. The structure is sized to contain an asset therein and configured to provide a forceful breaching delay. The structure has an opening formed therein to permit predetermined access to the asset contained within the structure. The structure includes intrusion detection features within or associated with the structure that are activated in response to at least a partial breach of the structure.

  11. Lateral position detection and control for friction stir systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fleming, Paul; Lammlein, David; Cook, George E.; Wilkes, Don Mitchell; Strauss, Alvin M.; Delapp, David; Hartman, Daniel A.

    2010-12-14

    A friction stir system for processing at least a first workpiece includes a spindle actuator coupled to a rotary tool comprising a rotating member for contacting and processing the first workpiece. A detection system is provided for obtaining information related to a lateral alignment of the rotating member. The detection system comprises at least one sensor for measuring a force experienced by the rotary tool or a parameter related to the force experienced by the rotary tool during processing, wherein the sensor provides sensor signals. A signal processing system is coupled to receive and analyze the sensor signals and determine a lateral alignment of the rotating member relative to a selected lateral position, a selected path, or a direction to decrease a lateral distance relative to the selected lateral position or selected path. In one embodiment, the friction stir system can be embodied as a closed loop tracking system, such as a robot-based tracked friction stir welding (FSW) or friction stir processing (FSP) system.

  12. Neutron Interrogation System For Underwater Threat Detection And Identification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barzilov, Alexander P.; Novikov, Ivan S.; Womble, Phil C.

    2009-03-10

    Wartime and terrorist activities, training and munitions testing, dumping and accidents have generated significant munitions contamination in the coastal and inland waters in the United States and abroad. Although current methods provide information about the existence of the anomaly (for instance, metal objects) in the sea bottom, they fail to identify the nature of the found objects. Field experience indicates that often in excess of 90% of objects excavated during the course of munitions clean up are found to be non-hazardous items (false alarm). The technology to detect and identify waterborne or underwater threats is also vital for protection of critical infrastructures (ports, dams, locks, refineries, and LNG/LPG). We are proposing a compact neutron interrogation system, which will be used to confirm possible threats by determining the chemical composition of the suspicious underwater object. The system consists of an electronic d-T 14-MeV neutron generator, a gamma detector to detect the gamma signal from the irradiated object and a data acquisition system. The detected signal then is analyzed to quantify the chemical elements of interest and to identify explosives or chemical warfare agents.

  13. A Proactive Learning Framework for Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Contact NREL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Non-intrusive load ... Engineers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have developed software to ...

  14. Cybersecurity Intrusion Detection and Security Monitoring for Field Area Networks

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Flyers/Pamphlets Cybersecurity Flyers/Pamphlets The OCIO CSAT team has developed a variety of materials to enhance cybersecurity awareness. These materials are available for download to DOE organizations, and public and private institutions. PDF icon Cybersecurity Awareness Resource Listing PDF icon Password Security - Think About it and Take Action PDF icon Cybersecurity Training Opportunities PDF icon Supply Chain Risk Management PDF icon Internet Survivor Awareness Day Flyer PDF icon Don't be

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging of living systems by remote detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wemmer, David; Pines, Alexander; Bouchard, Louis; Xu, Shoujun; Harel, Elad; Budker, Dmitry; Lowery, Thomas; Ledbetter, Micah

    2013-10-29

    A novel approach to magnetic resonance imaging is disclosed. Blood flowing through a living system is prepolarized, and then encoded. The polarization can be achieved using permanent or superconducting magnets. The polarization may be carried out upstream of the region to be encoded or at the place of encoding. In the case of an MRI of a brain, polarization of flowing blood can be effected by placing a magnet over a section of the body such as the heart upstream of the head. Alternatively, polarization and encoding can be effected at the same location. Detection occurs at a remote location, using a separate detection device such as an optical atomic magnetometer, or an inductive Faraday coil. The detector may be placed on the surface of the skin next to a blood vessel such as a jugular vein carrying blood away from the encoded region.

  16. Non-intrusive ultrasonic liquid-in-line detector for small diameter tubes. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piper, T.C.

    1980-09-24

    An arrangement for detecting liquids in a line, using non-intrusive ultrasonic techniques is disclosed. In this arrangement, four piezoelectric crystals are arranged in pairs about a 0.078 inch o.d. pipe. An ultrasonic tone burst is transmitted along the pipe, between crystal pairs, and the amplitude of the received tone burst indicates the absence/presence of liquid in the pipe.

  17. Detect

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Detect Detect Scientists and engineers develop detection technologies for every conceivable type of explosive under a variety of scenarios. v Detection technologies for every conceivable type of explosive Los Alamos scientists and engineers develop detection technologies for every conceivable type of explosive under a variety of scenarios. Detection methods range from trace and signature characterization to bulk detection and new methods that address homemade or esoteric explosives. Los Alamos

  18. Trace detection of analytes using portable raman systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alam, M. Kathleen; Hotchkiss, Peter J.; Martin, Laura E.; Jones, David Alexander

    2015-11-24

    Apparatuses and methods for in situ detection of a trace amount of an analyte are disclosed herein. In a general embodiment, the present disclosure provides a surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) insert including a passageway therethrough, where the passageway has a SERS surface positioned therein. The SERS surface is configured to adsorb molecules of an analyte of interest. A concentrated sample is caused to flow over the SERS surface. The SERS insert is then provided to a portable Raman spectroscopy system, where it is analyzed for the analyte of interest.

  19. Methods and systems for detecting abnormal digital traffic

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goranson, Craig A [Kennewick, WA; Burnette, John R [Kennewick, WA

    2011-03-22

    Aspects of the present invention encompass methods and systems for detecting abnormal digital traffic by assigning characterizations of network behaviors according to knowledge nodes and calculating a confidence value based on the characterizations from at least one knowledge node and on weighting factors associated with the knowledge nodes. The knowledge nodes include a characterization model based on prior network information. At least one of the knowledge nodes should not be based on fixed thresholds or signatures. The confidence value includes a quantification of the degree of confidence that the network behaviors constitute abnormal network traffic.

  20. Image change detection systems, methods, and articles of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, James L.; Lassahn, Gordon D.; Lancaster, Gregory D.

    2010-01-05

    Aspects of the invention relate to image change detection systems, methods, and articles of manufacture. According to one aspect, a method of identifying differences between a plurality of images is described. The method includes loading a source image and a target image into memory of a computer, constructing source and target edge images from the source and target images to enable processing of multiband images, displaying the source and target images on a display device of the computer, aligning the source and target edge images, switching displaying of the source image and the target image on the display device, to enable identification of differences between the source image and the target image.

  1. Long distance high power optical laser fiber break detection and continuity monitoring systems and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rinzler, Charles C.; Gray, William C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2016-02-23

    A monitoring and detection system for use on high power laser systems, long distance high power laser systems and tools for performing high power laser operations. In particular, the monitoring and detection systems provide break detection and continuity protection for performing high power laser operations on, and in, remote and difficult to access locations.

  2. System and method for detection of dispersed broadband signals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Qian, S.; Dunham, M.E.

    1999-06-08

    A system and method for detecting the presence of dispersed broadband signals in real time are disclosed. The present invention utilizes a bank of matched filters for detecting the received dispersed broadband signals. Each matched filter uses a respective robust time template that has been designed to approximate the dispersed broadband signals of interest, and each time template varies across a spectrum of possible dispersed broadband signal time templates. The received dispersed broadband signal x(t) is received by each of the matched filters, and if one or more matches occurs, then the received data is determined to have signal data of interest. This signal data can then be analyzed and/or transmitted to Earth for analysis, as desired. The system and method of the present invention will prove extremely useful in many fields, including satellite communications, plasma physics, and interstellar research. The varying time templates used in the bank of matched filters are determined as follows. The robust time domain template is assumed to take the form w(t)=A(t)cos[l brace]2[phi](t)[r brace]. Since the instantaneous frequency f(t) is known to be equal to the derivative of the phase [phi](t), the trajectory of a joint time-frequency representation of x(t) is used as an approximation of [phi][prime](t). 10 figs.

  3. System and method for detection of dispersed broadband signals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Qian, Shie; Dunham, Mark E.

    1999-06-08

    A system and method for detecting the presence of dispersed broadband signals in real time. The present invention utilizes a bank of matched filters for detecting the received dispersed broadband signals. Each matched filter uses a respective robust time template that has been designed to approximate the dispersed broadband signals of interest, and each time template varies across a spectrum of possible dispersed broadband signal time templates. The received dispersed broadband signal x(t) is received by each of the matched filters, and if one or more matches occurs, then the received data is determined to have signal data of interest. This signal data can then be analyzed and/or transmitted to Earth for analysis, as desired. The system and method of the present invention will prove extremely useful in many fields, including satellite communications, plasma physics, and interstellar research. The varying time templates used in the bank of matched filters are determined as follows. The robust time domain template is assumed to take the form w(t)=A(t)cos{2.phi.(t)}. Since the instantaneous frequency f(t) is known to be equal to the derivative of the phase .phi.(t), the trajectory of a joint time-frequency representation of x(t) is used as an approximation of .phi.'(t).

  4. Autonomous navigation system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bruemmer, David J. [Idaho Falls, ID; Few, Douglas A. [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-09-08

    A robot platform includes perceptors, locomotors, and a system controller, which executes instructions for autonomously navigating a robot. The instructions repeat, on each iteration through an event timing loop, the acts of defining an event horizon based on the robot's current velocity, detecting a range to obstacles around the robot, testing for an event horizon intrusion by determining if any range to the obstacles is within the event horizon, and adjusting rotational and translational velocity of the robot accordingly. If the event horizon intrusion occurs, rotational velocity is modified by a proportion of the current rotational velocity reduced by a proportion of the range to the nearest obstacle and translational velocity is modified by a proportion of the range to the nearest obstacle. If no event horizon intrusion occurs, translational velocity is set as a ratio of a speed factor relative to a maximum speed.

  5. System and method for detecting a faulty object in a system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gunnels, John A.; Gustavson, Fred Gehrung; Engle, Robert Daniel

    2010-12-14

    A method (and system) for detecting at least one faulty object in a system including a plurality of objects in communication with each other in an n-dimensional architecture, includes probing a first plane of objects in the n-dimensional architecture and probing at least one other plane of objects in the n-dimensional architecture which would result in identifying a faulty object in the system.

  6. System and method for detecting a faulty object in a system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gunnels, John A.; Gustavson, Fred Gehrung; Engle, Robert Daniel

    2009-03-17

    A method (and system) for detecting at least one faulty object in a system including a plurality of objects in communication with each other in an n-dimensional architecture, includes probing a first plane of objects in the n-dimensional architecture and probing at least one other plane of objects in the n-dimensional architecture which would result in identifying a faulty object in the system.

  7. A Multi-Layer Phoswich Radioxenon Detection System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David M. Hamby

    2008-07-14

    Laboratory radioactive sources were used to characterize the phoswich detector. The CaF{sub 2} scintillator has a low light-yield and slow decay time, thus produces very small signals due to low-energy gamma rays or X-rays. Therefore, detection of 30 keV X-rays (from the xenon radioisotopes) using this layer and discriminating its very small signals from electronic noise was a challenging task. Several solutions were considered and experimentally evaluated. We found that the best solution would be extending the fast triangular filter from 10 taps to 30 taps. This will extend the peaking time of this filter from 25 nsec to 75 nsec. The digital filter is implemented in FPGA on our DPP2.0 and is used to trigger the detection system. Functionality of the new filter in capturing and discriminating 30 keV X-rays was confirmed by using a {sup 133}Ba gamma-ray source. Development of the DPP GUI software has continued with the addition of two new panels to display histograms of beta/gamma and beta/x-ray coincidence events. This includes coincidence events from a single channel, as well as two-channel, coincidence event. A pileup rejection algorithm has been implemented in the FPGA code, and controls to adjust its sensitivity have been added to the GUI. Work has begun on a new prototype system to develop a USB host interface between the PC and the FPGA to end reliance on Opal Kelly prototyping boards; the hardware for this system has been completely assembled, and the PC-side software is currently in development.

  8. Spreader-Bar Radiation Detection System Enhancements: A Modeling and Simulation Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ely, James H.; Ashbaker, Eric D.; Batdorf, Michael T.; Baciak, James E.; Hensley, Walter K.; Jarman, Kenneth D.; Robinson, Sean M.; Sandness, Gerald A.; Schweppe, John E.

    2012-11-13

    This report provides the modeling and simulation results of the investigation of enhanced spreader bar radiation detection systems.

  9. Protein- protein interaction detection system using fluorescent protein microdomains

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2010-02-23

    The invention provides a protein labeling and interaction detection system based on engineered fragments of fluorescent and chromophoric proteins that require fused interacting polypeptides to drive the association of the fragments, and further are soluble and stable, and do not change the solubility of polypeptides to which they are fused. In one embodiment, a test protein X is fused to a sixteen amino acid fragment of GFP (.beta.-strand 10, amino acids 198-214), engineered to not perturb fusion protein solubility. A second test protein Y is fused to a sixteen amino acid fragment of GFP (.beta.-strand 11, amino acids 215-230), engineered to not perturb fusion protein solubility. When X and Y interact, they bring the GFP strands into proximity, and are detected by complementation with a third GFP fragment consisting of GFP amino acids 1-198 (strands 1-9). When GFP strands 10 and 11 are held together by interaction of protein X and Y, they spontaneous association with GFP strands 1-9, resulting in structural complementation, folding, and concomitant GFP fluorescence.

  10. Systems and methods for detecting x-rays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bross, Alan D.; Mellott, Kerry L.; Pla-Dalmau, Anna

    2006-05-02

    Systems and methods for detecting x-rays are disclosed herein. One or more x-ray-sensitive scintillators can be configured from a plurality of heavy element nano-sized particles and a plastic material, such as polystyrene. As will be explained in greater detail herein, the heavy element nano-sized particles (e.g., PbWO4) can be compounded into the plastic material with at least one dopant that permits the plastic material to scintillate. X-rays interact with the heavy element nano-sized particles to produce electrons that can deposit energy in the x-ray sensitive scintillator, which in turn can produce light.

  11. Expert judgment on markers to deter inadvertent human intrusion into the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trauth, K.M.; Hora, S.C.; Guzowski, R.V.

    1993-11-01

    The expert panel identified basic principles to guide current and future marker development efforts: (1) the site must be marked, (2) message(s) must be truthful and informative, (3) multiple components within a marker system, (4) multiple means of communication (e.g., language, pictographs, scientific diagrams), (5) multiple levels of complexity within individual messages on individual marker system elements, (6) use of materials with little recycle value, and (7) international effort to maintain knowledge of the locations and contents of nuclear waste repositories. The efficacy of the markers in deterring inadvertent human intrusion was estimated to decrease with time, with the probability function varying with the mode of intrusion (who is intruding and for what purpose) and the level of technological development of the society. The development of a permanent, passive marker system capable of surviving and remaining interpretable for 10,000 years will require further study prior to implementation.

  12. Comparison of enclosed space detection system with conventional methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kercel, S.W.; Baylor, V.M.; Labaj, L.E.

    1997-09-01

    Enclosed Space Detection System (ESDS) is a fast, inexpensive, and reliable device for detecting human occupants hidden in vehicles. Operation requires less than two minutes. ESDS is used to foil attempts at smuggling illegal aliens, terrorists, and escaping prisoners. It is being tested at nuclear weapons facilities and has been operated at several prisons and international border crossings. ESDS is the first practical electronic alternative to physical searches of vehicles for hidden passengers. At critical checkpoints, a thorough physical search of a single fully loaded truck requires a team of from two to six people, and may take as long as eight hours. Despite this level of security, experience has shown that the search can occasionally be foiled. Due to the enormous time and expense of thorough physical searches of vehicles, they are seldom conducted at any but the most critical of locations, simply leaving many sites vulnerable to crime and terrorism. Prior to the development of the ESDS, the only other effective alternative to physical search was the use of specially-trained canines, which can be vastly superior to the physical search in both time and accuracy. However, as discussed in this paper, canine inspection is not really a competitive substitute for ESDS because canine reliability (80% at most) is not as high as that of the ESDS (99%+), while the costs, training requirements, and operator skill needed are significantly higher with canines than with the ESDS. In addition, the ESDS has straightforward self-diagnostic tests to ensure the system is operating correctly; such tests are not currently available with either canine or human inspectors. ESDS offers an attractive supplement or alternative to meet current security requirements for vehicle searches at portals at government, nuclear, industrial, and other facilities where concealed persons may pose a threat either by entering or leaving.

  13. Robotic guarded motion system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bruemmer, David J. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2010-02-23

    A robot platform includes perceptors, locomotors, and a system controller. The system controller executes instructions for repeating, on each iteration through an event timing loop, the acts of defining an event horizon, detecting a range to obstacles around the robot, and testing for an event horizon intrusion. Defining the event horizon includes determining a distance from the robot that is proportional to a current velocity of the robot and testing for the event horizon intrusion includes determining if any range to the obstacles is within the event horizon. Finally, on each iteration through the event timing loop, the method includes reducing the current velocity of the robot in proportion to a loop period of the event timing loop if the event horizon intrusion occurs.

  14. detection

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    of 25 Million Grant to Improve Technological Capabilities for Detecting Nuclear Proliferation http:www.nnsa.energy.govmediaroompressreleasesncstateconsortium

  15. Design of a physical security perimeter fencing system.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mack, Thomas Kimball; Ross, Michael P.; Lin, Han Wei

    2010-10-01

    Design of a physical security perimeter fencing system requires that security designers provide effective detection, delay, and response functionalities with minimal nuisance alarms. In addition, the designers must take into considerations the security fence system life cycle cost (equipment and grounds maintenance), complexity of the terrain, safety, and environmental conditions (location of where the security fence will be installed). Often, these factors drive the security designers to design a perimeter intrusion detection and assessment system (PIDAS) that includes: (1) larger than desired footprint, (2) one or more animal control fences to minimize the nuisance alarm rate (NAR), and (3) clear zones and an isolation zone to facilitate intrusion detection and assessment by keeping the fence lines clear of vegetation, trash, and other objects that could impede the security system's performance. This paper presents a two-tier PIDAS design that focuses on effective performance specifically in high probability of detection and low NAR that minimizes cost and the footprint of the system.

  16. CV-1b: Magmatic - Intrusive | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone in New Zealand. A cross section view of the Taupo Volcanic Zone in New Zealand (ref: Book: North New Zealand) According to Moeck and Beardsmore, magmatic-intrusive...

  17. Episodic dike intrusions in the northwestern Sierra Nevada, California:

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Implications for multistage evolution of a Jurassic arc terrane (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Episodic dike intrusions in the northwestern Sierra Nevada, California: Implications for multistage evolution of a Jurassic arc terrane Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Episodic dike intrusions in the northwestern Sierra Nevada, California: Implications for multistage evolution of a Jurassic arc terrane In the northwestern Sierra Nevada, California, volcanic and

  18. Potential for radionuclide redistribution due to biotic intrusion:

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Aboveground biomass study at the Los Alamos National Laboratory for the closure of Material Disposal Area G (Conference) | SciTech Connect Potential for radionuclide redistribution due to biotic intrusion: Aboveground biomass study at the Los Alamos National Laboratory for the closure of Material Disposal Area G Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Potential for radionuclide redistribution due to biotic intrusion: Aboveground biomass study at the Los Alamos National Laboratory for the

  19. Technical specifications manual for the MARK-1 pulsed ionizing radiation detection system. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawrence, R.S.; Harker, Y.D.; Jones, J.L.; Hoggan, J.M.

    1993-03-01

    The MARK-1 detection system was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for the US Department of Energy Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation. The completely portable system was designed for the detection and analysis of intense photon emissions from pulsed ionizing radiation sources. This manual presents the technical design specifications for the MARK-1 detection system and was written primarily to assist the support or service technician in the service, calibration, and repair of the system. The manual presents the general detection system theory, the MARK-1 component design specifications, the acquisition and control software, the data processing sequence, and the system calibration procedure. A second manual entitled: Volume 2: Operations Manual for the MARK-1 Pulsed Ionizing Radiation Detection System (USDOE Report WINCO-1108, September 1992) provides a general operational description of the MARK-1 detection system. The Operations Manual was written primarily to assist the field operator in system operations and analysis of the data.

  20. Nuisance Source Population Modeling for Radiation Detection System Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sokkappa, P; Lange, D; Nelson, K; Wheeler, R

    2009-10-05

    A major challenge facing the prospective deployment of radiation detection systems for homeland security applications is the discrimination of radiological or nuclear 'threat sources' from radioactive, but benign, 'nuisance sources'. Common examples of such nuisance sources include naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), medical patients who have received radioactive drugs for either diagnostics or treatment, and industrial sources. A sensitive detector that cannot distinguish between 'threat' and 'benign' classes will generate false positives which, if sufficiently frequent, will preclude it from being operationally deployed. In this report, we describe a first-principles physics-based modeling approach that is used to approximate the physical properties and corresponding gamma ray spectral signatures of real nuisance sources. Specific models are proposed for the three nuisance source classes - NORM, medical and industrial. The models can be validated against measured data - that is, energy spectra generated with the model can be compared to actual nuisance source data. We show by example how this is done for NORM and medical sources, using data sets obtained from spectroscopic detector deployments for cargo container screening and urban area traffic screening, respectively. In addition to capturing the range of radioactive signatures of individual nuisance sources, a nuisance source population model must generate sources with a frequency of occurrence consistent with that found in actual movement of goods and people. Measured radiation detection data can indicate these frequencies, but, at present, such data are available only for a very limited set of locations and time periods. In this report, we make more general estimates of frequencies for NORM and medical sources using a range of data sources such as shipping manifests and medical treatment statistics. We also identify potential data sources for industrial source frequencies, but leave the task of estimating these frequencies for future work. Modeling of nuisance source populations is only useful if it helps in understanding detector system performance in real operational environments. Examples of previous studies in which nuisance source models played a key role are briefly discussed. These include screening of in-bound urban traffic and monitoring of shipping containers in transit to U.S. ports.

  1. detection

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    of 25 Million Grant to Improve Technological Capabilities for Detecting Nuclear Proliferation http:nnsa.energy.govmediaroompressreleasesncstateconsortium

  2. Real-time system for imaging and object detection with a multistatic GPR array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paglieroni, David W; Beer, N Reginald; Bond, Steven W; Top, Philip L; Chambers, David H; Mast, Jeffrey E; Donetti, John G; Mason, Blake C; Jones, Steven M

    2014-10-07

    A method and system for detecting the presence of subsurface objects within a medium is provided. In some embodiments, the imaging and detection system operates in a multistatic mode to collect radar return signals generated by an array of transceiver antenna pairs that is positioned across the surface and that travels down the surface. The imaging and detection system pre-processes the return signal to suppress certain undesirable effects. The imaging and detection system then generates synthetic aperture radar images from real aperture radar images generated from the pre-processed return signal. The imaging and detection system then post-processes the synthetic aperture radar images to improve detection of subsurface objects. The imaging and detection system identifies peaks in the energy levels of the post-processed image frame, which indicates the presence of a subsurface object.

  3. NNSA Transitions Radiation Detection System at Port of Laem Chabang...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... NNSA scientists find more effective ways to detect nuclear explosions near and far NNSA Deputy Administrator Creedon Travels to China NNSA Delivers Annual Reports to Congress on ...

  4. PV Systems Reliability Final Technical Report: Ground Fault Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lavrova, Olga; Flicker, Jack David; Johnson, Jay

    2016-01-01

    We have examined ground faults in PhotoVoltaic (PV) arrays and the efficacy of fuse, current detection (RCD), current sense monitoring/relays (CSM), isolation/insulation (Riso) monitoring, and Ground Fault Detection and Isolation (GFID) using simulations based on a Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis SPICE ground fault circuit model, experimental ground faults installed on real arrays, and theoretical equations.

  5. System and method for automated object detection in an image

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kenyon, Garrett T.; Brumby, Steven P.; George, John S.; Paiton, Dylan M.; Schultz, Peter F.

    2015-10-06

    A contour/shape detection model may use relatively simple and efficient kernels to detect target edges in an object within an image or video. A co-occurrence probability may be calculated for two or more edge features in an image or video using an object definition. Edge features may be differentiated between in response to measured contextual support, and prominent edge features may be extracted based on the measured contextual support. The object may then be identified based on the extracted prominent edge features.

  6. Method and apparatus for continuous fluid leak monitoring and detection in analytical instruments and instrument systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weitz, Karl K.; Moore, Ronald J.

    2010-07-13

    A method and device are disclosed that provide for detection of fluid leaks in analytical instruments and instrument systems. The leak detection device includes a collection tube, a fluid absorbing material, and a circuit that electrically couples to an indicator device. When assembled, the leak detection device detects and monitors for fluid leaks, providing a preselected response in conjunction with the indicator device when contacted by a fluid.

  7. OPNET/Simulink Based Testbed for Disturbance Detection in the Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sadi, Mohammad A. H.; Dasgupta, Dipankar; Ali, Mohammad Hassan; Abercrombie, Robert K

    2015-01-01

    The important backbone of the smart grid is the cyber/information infrastructure, which is primarily used to communicate with different grid components. A smart grid is a complex cyber physical system containing a numerous and variety number of sources, devices, controllers and loads. Therefore, the smart grid is vulnerable to grid related disturbances. For such dynamic system, disturbance and intrusion detection is a paramount issue. This paper presents a Simulink and Opnet based co-simulated platform to carry out a cyber-intrusion in cyber network for modern power systems and the smart grid. The IEEE 30 bus power system model is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the simulated testbed. The experiments were performed by disturbing the circuit breakers reclosing time through a cyber-attack. Different disturbance situations in the considered test system are considered and the results indicate the effectiveness of the proposed co-simulated scheme.

  8. Standard terminal panel and UPS (uninterruptible power supply) design for exterior intrusion detectors and data collection applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolfenbarger, F.M.

    1989-01-01

    Need for standardization has been discussed for years by many government agencies. In the past, every perimeter site upgrade resulted in the design, specification, procurement, and fabrication of a unique power and signal junction box. To save design and specification cost, a standard terminal panel and uninterruptible power supply (UPS) design for an exterior intrusion sensor detection system was developed for a security system within the Sandia National Laboratories complex at Albuquerque, New Mexico. In facilitating this requirement a design was sought that could easily be modified for other government or commercial applications and one that could easily be fabricated in the shop. Also of primary importance was the need for lightning protection for both the communications and voltage sources. A 12V dc UPS with a current capacity of up to 4 amperes complements the standard terminal design and allows uninterrupted sensor operation for a number of hours should the primary ac source be interrupted. This report encompasses the features of the designs. The designs are also being used and continuously evaluated in Sandia's Area III exterior test field. 7 figs.

  9. Circuitry, systems and methods for detecting magnetic fields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotter, Dale K. [Shelley, ID; Spencer, David F. [Idaho Falls, ID; Roybal, Lyle G. [Idaho Falls, ID; Rohrbaugh, David T. [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-09-14

    Circuitry for detecting magnetic fields includes a first magnetoresistive sensor and a second magnetoresistive sensor configured to form a gradiometer. The circuitry includes a digital signal processor and a first feedback loop coupled between the first magnetoresistive sensor and the digital signal processor. A second feedback loop which is discrete from the first feedback loop is coupled between the second magnetoresistive sensor and the digital signal processor.

  10. Systems and methods for detecting a flame in a fuel nozzle of a gas turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Storey, James Michael; Lipinski, John; Mestroni, Julio Enrique; Williamson, David Lee; Marshall, Jason Randolph; Krull, Anthony

    2013-05-07

    A system may detect a flame about a fuel nozzle of a gas turbine. The gas turbine may have a compressor and a combustor. The system may include a first pressure sensor, a second pressure sensor, and a transducer. The first pressure sensor may detect a first pressure upstream of the fuel nozzle. The second pressure sensor may detect a second pressure downstream of the fuel nozzle. The transducer may be operable to detect a pressure difference between the first pressure sensor and the second pressure sensor.

  11. Evaluation of Hanford Single-Shell Waste Tanks Suspected of Water Intrusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feero, Amie J.; Washenfelder, Dennis J.; Johnson, Jeremy M.; Schofield, John S.

    2013-11-14

    Intrusions evaluations for twelve single-shell tanks were completed in 2013. The evaluations consisted of remote visual inspections, data analysis, and calculations of estimated intrusion rates. The observation of an intrusion or the preponderance of evidence confirmed that six of the twelve tanks evaluated had intrusions. These tanks were tanks 241-A-103, BX-101, BX-103, BX-110, BY-102, and SX-106.

  12. Radiation detection system for portable gamma-ray spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rowland, Mark S.; Howard, Douglas E.; Wong, James L.; Jessup, James L.; Bianchini, Greg M.; Miller, Wayne O.

    2006-06-20

    A portable gamma ray detection apparatus having a gamma ray detector encapsulated by a compact isolation structure having at least two volumetrically-nested enclosures where at least one is a thermal shield. The enclosures are suspension-mounted to each other to successively encapsulate the detector without structural penetrations through the thermal shields. A low power cooler is also provided capable of cooling the detector to cryogenic temperatures without consuming cryogens, due to the heat load reduction by the isolation structure and the reduction in the power requirements of the cooler. The apparatus also includes a lightweight portable power source for supplying power to the apparatus, including to the cooler and the processing means, and reducing the weight of the apparatus to enable handheld operation or toting on a user's person.

  13. Power System Extreme Event Detection: The VulnerabilityFrontier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lesieutre, Bernard C.; Pinar, Ali; Roy, Sandip

    2007-10-17

    In this work we apply graph theoretic tools to provide aclose bound on a frontier relating the number of line outages in a gridto the power disrupted by the outages. This frontier describes theboundary of a space relating the possible severity of a disturbance interms of power disruption, from zero to some maximum on the boundary, tothe number line outages involved in the event. We present the usefulnessof this analysis with a complete analysis of a 30 bus system, and presentresults for larger systems.

  14. Systems and methods of detecting force and stress using tetrapod nanocrystal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choi, Charina L.; Koski, Kristie J.; Sivasankar, Sanjeevi; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2013-08-20

    Systems and methods of detecting force on the nanoscale including methods for detecting force using a tetrapod nanocrystal by exposing the tetrapod nanocrystal to light, which produces a luminescent response by the tetrapod nanocrystal. The method continues with detecting a difference in the luminescent response by the tetrapod nanocrystal relative to a base luminescent response that indicates a force between a first and second medium or stresses or strains experienced within a material. Such systems and methods find use with biological systems to measure forces in biological events or interactions.

  15. PERFORMANCE OF A NOVEL FAST TRANSIENTS DETECTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clarke, Nathan

    2013-03-01

    We investigate the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of a new incoherent dedispersion algorithm optimized for FPGA-based architectures intended for deployment on the Australian SKA Pathfinder and other Square Kilometre Array precursors for fast transients surveys. Unlike conventional CPU- and GPU-optimized incoherent dedispersion algorithms, this algorithm has the freedom to maximize the S/N by way of programmable dispersion profiles that enable the inclusion of different numbers of time samples per spectral channel. This allows, for example, more samples to be summed at lower frequencies where intra-channel dispersion smearing is larger, or it could even be used to optimize the dedispersion sum for steep spectrum sources. Our analysis takes into account the intrinsic pulse width, scatter broadening, spectral index and dispersion measure of the signal, and the system's frequency range, spectral and temporal resolution, and number of trial dedispersions. We show that the system achieves better than 80% of the optimal S/N where the temporal resolution and the intra-channel smearing time are smaller than a quarter of the average width of the pulse across the system's frequency band (after including scatter smearing). Coarse temporal resolutions suffer a {Delta}t {sup -1/2} decay in S/N, and coarse spectral resolutions cause a {Delta}{nu}{sup -1/2} decay in S/N, where {Delta}t and {Delta}{nu} are the temporal and spectral resolutions of the system, respectively. We show how the system's S/N compares with that of matched filter and boxcar filter detectors. We further present a new algorithm for selecting trial dispersion measures for a survey that maintains a given minimum S/N performance across a range of dispersion measures.

  16. Flammable Gas Detection for the D-Zero Gas System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spires, L.D.; Foglesong, J.; /Fermilab

    1991-02-11

    The use of flammable gas and high voltage in detector systems is common in many experiments at Fermilab. To mitigate the hazards associated with these systems, Fermilab Engineering Standard SD-45B (Ref. 1) was adopted. Since this note is meant to be a guide and not a mandatory standard, each experiment is reviewed for compliance with SD-45B by the flammable gas safety subcommittee. Currently, there are only two types of flammable gas in use, ethane (Appendix A) and methane (Appendix B). The worst flammable-gas case is C2H6 (ethane), which has an estimated flow rate that is 73% of the CH4 (methane) flow but a heat of combustion (in kcal/g-mole) that is 173% of that of methane. In the worst case, if ethane were to spew through its restricting orifice into its gas line at 0 psig and then through a catastrophic leak into Room 215 (TRD) or Room 511 (CDC/FDCNTX), the time that would be required to build up a greater than Class 1 inventory (0.4kg H2 equivalent) would be 5.2 hours (Ref. 2). Therefore a worst-case flammable gas leak would have to go undetected for over 5 hours in order to transform a either mixing room to an environment with a Risk Class greater than Class 1. The mixing systems, gas lines, and detectors themselves will be thoroughly leak checked prior to active service. All vessels that are part of the mixing systems will be protected from overpressure by safety valves vented outside the building. Both the input and output of all detector volumes are protected from overpressure in the same way. The volume immediately outside the central tracking detectors is continuously purged by nitrogen from boiloff from the main nitrogen dewar at the site. However, if flammable gas were to build up in the mixing rooms or particular detector areas, no matter how unlikely, flammable gas detectors that are part of the interlock chain of each gas mixing system will shut down the appropriate system. This includes shutting off the output of flammable gas manifolds within the gas shed. Similarly, if a fire were to break out anywhere in the D-ZERO Hall, fire sensors would stop the output of all flammable gas manifolds within the gas shed, by unpowering electrically controlled solenoid valves that are normally closed in the event of a power failure. Fire sensor contacts have not yet been installed.

  17. High-speed and high-fidelity system and method for collecting network traffic

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weigle, Eric H.

    2010-08-24

    A system is provided for the high-speed and high-fidelity collection of network traffic. The system can collect traffic at gigabit-per-second (Gbps) speeds, scale to terabit-per-second (Tbps) speeds, and support additional functions such as real-time network intrusion detection. The present system uses a dedicated operating system for traffic collection to maximize efficiency, scalability, and performance. A scalable infrastructure and apparatus for the present system is provided by splitting the work performed on one host onto multiple hosts. The present system simultaneously addresses the issues of scalability, performance, cost, and adaptability with respect to network monitoring, collection, and other network tasks. In addition to high-speed and high-fidelity network collection, the present system provides a flexible infrastructure to perform virtually any function at high speeds such as real-time network intrusion detection and wide-area network emulation for research purposes.

  18. Design and evaluation of the ReKon : an integrated detection and assessment perimeter system.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dabling, Jeffrey Glenn; Andersen, Jason Jann; McLaughlin, James O.

    2013-02-01

    Kontek Industries (Kannapolis, NC) and their subsidiary, Stonewater Control Systems (Kannapolis, NC), have entered into a cooperative research and development agreement with Sandia to jointly develop and evaluate an integrated perimeter security system solution, one that couples access delay with detection and assessment. This novel perimeter solution was designed to be configurable for use at facilities ranging from high-security military sites to commercial power plants, to petro/chemical facilities of various kinds. A prototype section of the perimeter has been produced and installed at the Sandia Test and Evaluation Center in Albuquerque, NM. This prototype system integrated fiber optic break sensors, active infrared sensors, fence disturbance sensors, video motion detection, and ground sensors. This report documents the design, testing, and performance evaluation of the developed ReKon system. The ability of the system to properly detect pedestrian or vehicle attempts to bypass, breach, or otherwise defeat the system is characterized, as well as the Nuisance Alarm Rate.

  19. Imaging System With Confocally Self-Detecting Laser.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Webb, Robert H.; Rogomentich, Fran J.

    1996-10-08

    The invention relates to a confocal laser imaging system and method. The system includes a laser source, a beam splitter, focusing elements, and a photosensitive detector. The laser source projects a laser beam along a first optical path at an object to be imaged, and modulates the intensity of the projected laser beam in response to light reflected from the object. A beam splitter directs a portion of the projected laser beam onto a photodetector. The photodetector monitors the intensity of laser output. The laser source can be an electrically scannable array, with a lens or objective assembly for focusing light generated by the array onto the object of interest. As the array is energized, its laser beams scan over the object, and light reflected at each point is returned by the lens to the element of the array from which it originated. A single photosensitive detector element can generate an intensity-representative signal for all lasers of the array. The intensity-representative signal from the photosensitive detector can be processed to provide an image of the object of interest.

  20. Statistically qualified neuro-analytic failure detection method and system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vilim, Richard B.; Garcia, Humberto E.; Chen, Frederick W.

    2002-03-02

    An apparatus and method for monitoring a process involve development and application of a statistically qualified neuro-analytic (SQNA) model to accurately and reliably identify process change. The development of the SQNA model is accomplished in two stages: deterministic model adaption and stochastic model modification of the deterministic model adaptation. Deterministic model adaption involves formulating an analytic model of the process representing known process characteristics, augmenting the analytic model with a neural network that captures unknown process characteristics, and training the resulting neuro-analytic model by adjusting the neural network weights according to a unique scaled equation error minimization technique. Stochastic model modification involves qualifying any remaining uncertainty in the trained neuro-analytic model by formulating a likelihood function, given an error propagation equation, for computing the probability that the neuro-analytic model generates measured process output. Preferably, the developed SQNA model is validated using known sequential probability ratio tests and applied to the process as an on-line monitoring system. Illustrative of the method and apparatus, the method is applied to a peristaltic pump system.

  1. Ultrasonic imaging system for in-process fabric defect detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheen, Shuh-Haw; Chien, Hual-Te; Lawrence, William P.; Raptis, Apostolos C.

    1997-01-01

    An ultrasonic method and system are provided for monitoring a fabric to identify a defect. A plurality of ultrasonic transmitters generate ultrasonic waves relative to the fabric. An ultrasonic receiver means responsive to the generated ultrasonic waves from the transmitters receives ultrasonic waves coupled through the fabric and generates a signal. An integrated peak value of the generated signal is applied to a digital signal processor and is digitized. The digitized signal is processed to identify a defect in the fabric. The digitized signal processing includes a median value filtering step to filter out high frequency noise. Then a mean value and standard deviation of the median value filtered signal is calculated. The calculated mean value and standard deviation are compared with predetermined threshold values to identify a defect in the fabric.

  2. August 18, 2015 Webinar- Probabilistic Analysis of Inadvertent Intrusion and the International Atomic Energy Agency Human Intrusion in the Context of Disposal of Radioactive Waste (HIDRA) Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    P&RA CoP Webinar - August 18, 2015 - Probabilistic Analysis of Inadvertent Intrusion and the International Atomic Energy Agency Human Intrusion in the Context of Disposal of Radioactive Waste (HIDRA) Project, by Dr. Paul Black (Neptune) and Mr. Roger Seitz (Savannah River National Laboratory), August 18, 2015, 1:30 – 3:00 pm Eastern Daylight Time.

  3. Improving Cyber-Security of Smart Grid Systems via Anomaly Detection and Linguistic Domain Knowledge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ondrej Linda; Todd Vollmer; Milos Manic

    2012-08-01

    The planned large scale deployment of smart grid network devices will generate a large amount of information exchanged over various types of communication networks. The implementation of these critical systems will require appropriate cyber-security measures. A network anomaly detection solution is considered in this work. In common network architectures multiple communications streams are simultaneously present, making it difficult to build an anomaly detection solution for the entire system. In addition, common anomaly detection algorithms require specification of a sensitivity threshold, which inevitably leads to a tradeoff between false positives and false negatives rates. In order to alleviate these issues, this paper proposes a novel anomaly detection architecture. The designed system applies the previously developed network security cyber-sensor method to individual selected communication streams allowing for learning accurate normal network behavior models. Furthermore, the developed system dynamically adjusts the sensitivity threshold of each anomaly detection algorithm based on domain knowledge about the specific network system. It is proposed to model this domain knowledge using Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Logic rules, which linguistically describe the relationship between various features of the network communication and the possibility of a cyber attack. The proposed method was tested on experimental smart grid system demonstrating enhanced cyber-security.

  4. Design study and comparative evaluation of JSFR failed fuel detection system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aizawa, K.; Chikazawa, Y.; Ishikawa, N.; Kubo, S.; Okazaki, H.; Mito, M.; Tozawa, K.; Hayashi, M.

    2012-07-01

    A conceptual design study of an advanced sodium-cooled fast reactor JSFR has progressed in the 'Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development (FaCT) 'project in Japan. JSFR has two failed fuel detection systems in the core. One is a failed fuel detection (FFD) system which continuously monitors a fission product from failed fuel subassembly. The other is a failed fuel detection and location (FFDL) system which locates when it receives signals from FFD. The FFD system consists of a FFD-DN which detects delayed neutron (DN) in sodium and a FFD-CG which detects fission products in the cover gas of the reactor vessel. In this study, requirements to the FFD-DN and the FFD-DN design to meet the requirements were investigated for the commercial and demonstration JSFR. In the commercial JSFR, a sampling type FFD which collects sodium from the reactor vessel by sampling lines for DN detectors was adopted. The performances have been investigated and confirmed by a fluid analysis in the reactor upper plenum. In the demonstration JSFR, the performance of DN detectors installed on the primary cold-leg piping has been confirmed. For the FFDL systems, experiences in the previous fast reactors and the R and D of FFDL system for JSFR were investigated. This study focuses on the Selector-Valve and the Tagging-Gas FFDL systems. Operation experiences of the Selector-valve FFDL system were accumulated in PFR and Phenix. Tagging-gas system experiences were accumulated in EBR-II and FFTF. The feasibility of both FFDL systems for JSFR was evaluated. (authors)

  5. Fault Detection and Isolation in Low-Voltage DC Distribution System -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Electricity Transmission Electricity Transmission Building Energy Efficiency Building Energy Efficiency Find More Like This Return to Search Fault Detection and Isolation in Low-Voltage DC Distribution System University of Colorado Contact CU About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication CU2941D-3222D (DC Microgrid) Marketing Summary.pdf (172 KB) Conceptual diagram of a DC distribution system Conceptual diagram of a DC distribution system Technology

  6. Method and apparatus for detecting timing errors in a system oscillator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gliebe, Ronald J.; Kramer, William R.

    1993-01-01

    A method of detecting timing errors in a system oscillator for an electronic device, such as a power supply, includes the step of comparing a system oscillator signal with a delayed generated signal and generating a signal representative of the timing error when the system oscillator signal is not identical to the delayed signal. An LED indicates to an operator that a timing error has occurred. A hardware circuit implements the above-identified method.

  7. Method and apparatus for operating a powertrain system upon detecting a stuck-closed clutch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hansen, R. Anthony

    2014-02-18

    A powertrain system includes a multi-mode transmission having a plurality of torque machines. A method for controlling the powertrain system includes identifying all presently applied clutches including commanded applied clutches and the stuck-closed clutch upon detecting one of the torque-transfer clutches is in a stuck-closed condition. A closed-loop control system is employed to control operation of the multi-mode transmission accounting for all the presently applied clutches.

  8. Improving Control System Cyber-State Awareness using Known Secure Sensor Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ondrej Linda; Milos Manic; Miles McQueen

    2012-09-01

    AbstractThis paper presents design and simulation of a low cost and low false alarm rate method for improved cyber-state awareness of critical control systems - the Known Secure Sensor Measurements (KSSM) method. The KSSM concept relies on physical measurements to detect malicious falsification of the control systems state. The KSSM method can be incrementally integrated with already installed control systems for enhanced resilience. This paper reviews the previously developed theoretical KSSM concept and then describes a simulation of the KSSM system. A simulated control system network is integrated with the KSSM components. The effectiveness of detection of various intrusion scenarios is demonstrated on several control system network topologies.

  9. An analysis of weep holes as a product detection device for underground compensated LPG storage systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarica, C.; Demir, H.M.; Brill, J.P.

    1996-09-01

    Weep holes have been used widely to detect the presence of Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG) in brine for underground compensated storage systems. When the brine level drops below the weep hole, LPG product enters the brine production system causing an increase in both tubing head pressure and flow rate. To prevent cavern overfill, a cavern shutdown is initiated upon detection of LPG in the surface brine system by pressure or flow instruments at the tubing head. In this study, we have investigated the multiphase flow characteristics of weep hole LPG detection systems to correctly estimate the operating limits. A simple and easy to use model has been developed to predict the tubing head pressure and flow rate increases. The model can be used to implement safer and more efficient operation procedures for underground compensated LPG storage systems. The model predictions for a typical field case are presented. An analysis of weep holes as product detection devices for LPG storage reservoirs has been carried out. It was found that the increases in pressure and flow rates at the tubing head change as a function of injection flow rate of the product. Therefore, a thorough consideration of cavern operating parameters is necessary to evaluate the use constant pressure and flow rate values to initiate emergency shut down of the cavern.

  10. Method and apparatus for providing pulse pile-up correction in charge quantizing radiation detection systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Britton, Jr., Charles L.; Wintenberg, Alan L.

    1993-01-01

    A radiation detection method and system for continuously correcting the quantization of detected charge during pulse pile-up conditions. Charge pulses from a radiation detector responsive to the energy of detected radiation events are converted to voltage pulses of predetermined shape whose peak amplitudes are proportional to the quantity of charge of each corresponding detected event by means of a charge-sensitive preamplifier. These peak amplitudes are sampled and stored sequentially in accordance with their respective times of occurrence. Based on the stored peak amplitudes and times of occurrence, a correction factor is generated which represents the fraction of a previous pulses influence on a preceding pulse peak amplitude. This correction factor is subtracted from the following pulse amplitude in a summing amplifier whose output then represents the corrected charge quantity measurement.

  11. Radiation sensitive devices and systems for detection of radioactive materials and related methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotter, Dale K

    2014-12-02

    Radiation sensitive devices include a substrate comprising a radiation sensitive material and a plurality of resonance elements coupled to the substrate. Each resonance element is configured to resonate responsive to non-ionizing incident radiation. Systems for detecting radiation from a special nuclear material include a radiation sensitive device and a sensor located remotely from the radiation sensitive device and configured to measure an output signal from the radiation sensitive device. In such systems, the radiation sensitive device includes a radiation sensitive material and a plurality of resonance elements positioned on the radiation sensitive material. Methods for detecting a presence of a special nuclear material include positioning a radiation sensitive device in a location where special nuclear materials are to be detected and remotely interrogating the radiation sensitive device with a sensor.

  12. Methods, systems and devices for detecting threatening objects and for classifying magnetic data

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotter, Dale K.; Roybal, Lyle G.; Rohrbaugh, David T.; Spencer, David F.

    2012-01-24

    A method for detecting threatening objects in a security screening system. The method includes a step of classifying unique features of magnetic data as representing a threatening object. Another step includes acquiring magnetic data. Another step includes determining if the acquired magnetic data comprises a unique feature.

  13. Neutron interrogation system using high gamma ray signature to detect contraband special nuclear materials in cargo

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slaughter, Dennis R.; Pohl, Bertram A.; Dougan, Arden D.; Bernstein, Adam; Prussin, Stanley G.; Norman, Eric B.

    2008-04-15

    A system for inspecting cargo for the presence of special nuclear material. The cargo is irradiated with neutrons. The neutrons produce fission products in the special nuclear material which generate gamma rays. The gamma rays are detecting indicating the presence of the special nuclear material.

  14. Addressing the Challenges of Anomaly Detection for Cyber Physical Energy Grid Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferragut, Erik M; Laska, Jason A; Melin, Alexander M; Czejdo, Bogdan

    2013-01-01

    The consolidation of cyber communications networks and physical control systems within the energy smart grid introduces a number of new risks. Unfortunately, these risks are largely unknown and poorly understood, yet include very high impact losses from attack and component failures. One important aspect of risk management is the detection of anomalies and changes. However, anomaly detection within cyber security remains a difficult, open problem, with special challenges in dealing with false alert rates and heterogeneous data. Furthermore, the integration of cyber and physical dynamics is often intractable. And, because of their broad scope, energy grid cyber-physical systems must be analyzed at multiple scales, from individual components, up to network level dynamics. We describe an improved approach to anomaly detection that combines three important aspects. First, system dynamics are modeled using a reduced order model for greater computational tractability. Second, a probabilistic and principled approach to anomaly detection is adopted that allows for regulation of false alerts and comparison of anomalies across heterogeneous data sources. Third, a hierarchy of aggregations are constructed to support interactive and automated analyses of anomalies at multiple scales.

  15. Radiation detection method and system using the sequential probability ratio test

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Karl E.; Valentine, John D.; Beauchamp, Brock R.

    2007-07-17

    A method and system using the Sequential Probability Ratio Test to enhance the detection of an elevated level of radiation, by determining whether a set of observations are consistent with a specified model within a given bounds of statistical significance. In particular, the SPRT is used in the present invention to maximize the range of detection, by providing processing mechanisms for estimating the dynamic background radiation, adjusting the models to reflect the amount of background knowledge at the current point in time, analyzing the current sample using the models to determine statistical significance, and determining when the sample has returned to the expected background conditions.

  16. Systems and methods for selective detection and imaging in coherent Raman microscopy by spectral excitation shaping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney; Freudiger, Christian; Min, Wei

    2016-03-15

    A microscopy imaging system is disclosed that includes a light source system, a spectral shaper, a modulator system, an optics system, an optical detector and a processor. The light source system is for providing a first train of pulses and a second train of pulses. The spectral shaper is for spectrally modifying an optical property of at least some frequency components of the broadband range of frequency components such that the broadband range of frequency components is shaped producing a shaped first train of pulses to specifically probe a spectral feature of interest from a sample, and to reduce information from features that are not of interest from the sample. The modulator system is for modulating a property of at least one of the shaped first train of pulses and the second train of pulses at a modulation frequency. The optical detector is for detecting an integrated intensity of substantially all optical frequency components of a train of pulses of interest transmitted or reflected through the common focal volume. The processor is for detecting a modulation at the modulation frequency of the integrated intensity of substantially all of the optical frequency components of the train of pulses of interest due to the non-linear interaction of the shaped first train of pulses with the second train of pulses as modulated in the common focal volume, and for providing an output signal for a pixel of an image for the microscopy imaging system.

  17. Portable microfluidic raman system for rapid, label-free early disease signature detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Meiye; Davis, Ryan Wesley; Hatch, Anson

    2015-09-01

    In the early stages of infection, patients develop non-specific or no symptoms at all. While waiting for identification of the infectious agent, precious window of opportunity for early intervention is lost. The standard diagnostics require affinity reagents and sufficient pathogen titers to reach the limit of detection. In the event of a disease outbreak, triaging the at-risk population rapidly and reliably for quarantine and countermeasure is more important than the identification of the pathogen by name. To expand Sandia's portfolio of Biological threat management capabilities, we will utilize Raman spectrometry to analyze immune subsets in whole blood to rapidly distinguish infected from non-infected, and bacterial from viral infection, for the purpose of triage during an emergency outbreak. The goal of this one year LDRD is to determine whether Raman spectroscopy can provide label-free detection of early disease signatures, and define a miniaturized Raman detection system meeting requirements for low- resource settings.

  18. Method Apparatus And System For Detecting Seismic Waves In A Borehole

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    West, Phillip B. (Idaho Falls, ID); Sumstine, Roger L. (St. George, UT)

    2006-03-14

    A method, apparatus and system for detecting seismic waves. A sensing apparatus is deployed within a bore hole and may include a source magnet for inducing a magnetic field within a casing of the borehole. An electrical coil is disposed within the magnetic field to sense a change in the magnetic field due to a displacement of the casing. The electrical coil is configured to remain substantially stationary relative to the well bore and its casing along a specified axis such that displacement of the casing induces a change within the magnetic field which may then be sensed by the electrical coil. Additional electrical coils may be similarly utilized to detect changes in the same or other associated magnetic fields along other specified axes. The additional sensor coils may be oriented substantially orthogonally relative to one another so as to detect seismic waves along multiple orthogonal axes in three dimensional space.

  19. Final work plan : supplemental upward vapor intrusion investigation at the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility in Hanover, Kansas.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-12-15

    The Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC), an agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), operated a grain storage facility at the northeastern edge of the city of Hanover, Kansas, from 1950 until the early 1970s. During this time, commercial grain fumigants containing carbon tetrachloride were in common use by the grain storage industry to preserve grain in their facilities. In February 1998, trace to low levels of carbon tetrachloride (below the maximum contaminant level [MCL] of 5.0 {micro}g/L) were detected in two private wells near the former grain storage facility at Hanover, as part of a statewide USDA private well sampling program that was implemented by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) near former CCC/USDA facilities. In 2007, the CCC/USDA conducted near-surface soil sampling at 61 locations and also sampled indoor air at nine residences on or adjacent to its former Hanover facility to address the residents concerns regarding vapor intrusion. Low levels of carbon tetrachloride were detected at four of the nine homes. The results were submitted to the KDHE in October 2007 (Argonne 2007). On the basis of the results, the KDHE requested sub-slab sampling and/or indoor air sampling (KDHE 2007). This Work Plan describes, in detail, the proposed additional scope of work requested by the KDHE and has been developed as a supplement to the comprehensive site investigation work plan that is pending (Argonne 2008). Indoor air samples collected previously from four homes at Hanover were shown to contain the carbon tetrachloride at low concentrations (Table 2.1). It cannot be concluded from these previous data that the source of the detected carbon tetrachloride is vapor intrusion attributable to former grain storage operations of the CCC/USDA at Hanover. The technical objective of the vapor intrusion investigation described here is to assess the risk to human health due to the potential for upward migration of carbon tetrachloride and chloroform into four homes located on or adjacent to the former CCC/USDA facility. The technical objective will be accomplished by collecting sub-slab vapor samples. The preliminary data collected during the July 2007 investigation did not fully address the source of or migration pathway for the carbon tetrachloride detected in the four homes. The scope of work proposed here will generate additional data needed to help evaluate whether the source of the detected carbon tetrachloride is vapor intrusion attributable to activities of the CCC/USDA. The additional vapor sampling at Hanover will be performed, on behalf of the CCC/USDA, by the Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory and H&P Mobile Geochemistry of San Diego (http://www.handpmg.com). Argonne is a nonprofit, multidisciplinary research center operated by UChicago Argonne, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The CCC/USDA has entered into an interagency agreement with DOE, under which Argonne provides technical assistance to the CCC/USDA with environmental site characterization and remediation at its former grain storage facilities. The professional staff members of H&P Mobile Geochemistry are nationally leading experts in soil gas sampling and vapor intrusion investigations.

  20. A Tutorial on Detection and Characterization of Special Behavior in Large Electric Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauer, John F.; DeSteese, John G.

    2004-08-20

    The objective of this document is to report results in the detection and characterization of special behavior in large electric power systems. Such behavior is usually dynamic in nature, but not always. This is also true for the underlying sources of special behavior. At the device level, a source of special behavior might be an automatic control system, a dynamic load, or even a manual control system that is operated according to some sharply defined policy. Other possible sources include passive system conditions, such as the state of a switched device or the amount of power carried on some critical line. Detection and characterization are based upon “signature information” that is extracted from the behavior observed. Characterization elements include the signature information itself, the nature of the behavior and its likely causes, and the associated implications for the system or for the public at large. With sufficient data and processing, this characterization may directly identify a particular condition or device at a specific location. Such conclusive results cannot always be done from just one observation, however. Information environments that are very sparse may require multiple observations, comparative model studies, and even direct testing of the system.

  1. Hot spot detection system for vanes or blades of a combustion turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Twerdochlib, M.

    1999-02-02

    This invention includes a detection system that can determine if a turbine component, such as a turbine vane or blade, has exceeded a critical temperature, such as a melting point, along any point along the entire surface of the vane or blade. This system can be employed in a conventional combustion turbine having a compressor, a combustor and a turbine section. Included within this system is a chemical coating disposed along the entire interior surface of a vane or blade and a closed loop cooling system that circulates a coolant through the interior of the vane or blade. If the temperature of the vane or blade exceeds a critical temperature, the chemical coating will be expelled from the vane or blade into the coolant. Since while traversing the closed loop cooling system the coolant passes through a detector, the presence of the chemical coating in the coolant will be sensed by the system. If the chemical coating is detected, this indicates that the vane or blade has exceeded a critical temperature. 5 figs.

  2. Hot spot detection system for vanes or blades of a combustion turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Twerdochlib, Michael

    1999-01-01

    This invention includes a detection system that can determine if a turbine component, such as a turbine vane or blade, has exceeded a critical temperature, such as a melting point, along any point along the entire surface of the vane or blade. This system can be employed in a conventional combustion turbine having a compressor, a combustor and a turbine section. Included within this system is a chemical coating disposed along the entire interior surface of a vane or blade and a closed loop cooling system that circulates a coolant through the interior of the vane or blade. If the temperature of the vane or blade exceeds a critical temperature, the chemical coating will be expelled from the vane or blade into the coolant. Since while traversing the closed loop cooling system the coolant passes through a detector, the presence of the chemical coating in the coolant will be sensed by the system. If the chemical coating is detected, this indicates that the vane or blade has exceeded a critical temperature.

  3. System and method for bearing fault detection using stator current noise cancellation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhou, Wei; Lu, Bin; Habetler, Thomas G.; Harley, Ronald G.; Theisen, Peter J.

    2010-08-17

    A system and method for detecting incipient mechanical motor faults by way of current noise cancellation is disclosed. The system includes a controller configured to detect indicia of incipient mechanical motor faults. The controller further includes a processor programmed to receive a baseline set of current data from an operating motor and define a noise component in the baseline set of current data. The processor is also programmed to repeatedly receive real-time operating current data from the operating motor and remove the noise component from the operating current data in real-time to isolate any fault components present in the operating current data. The processor is then programmed to generate a fault index for the operating current data based on any isolated fault components.

  4. System and method for motor fault detection using stator current noise cancellation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhou, Wei; Lu, Bin; Nowak, Michael P.; Dimino, Steven A.

    2010-12-07

    A system and method for detecting incipient mechanical motor faults by way of current noise cancellation is disclosed. The system includes a controller configured to detect indicia of incipient mechanical motor faults. The controller further includes a processor programmed to receive a baseline set of current data from an operating motor and define a noise component in the baseline set of current data. The processor is also programmed to acquire at least on additional set of real-time operating current data from the motor during operation, redefine the noise component present in each additional set of real-time operating current data, and remove the noise component from the operating current data in real-time to isolate any fault components present in the operating current data. The processor is then programmed to generate a fault index for the operating current data based on any isolated fault components.

  5. Systems and methods for detecting nuclear radiation in the presence of backgrounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bross, Alan D.; Mellott, Kerry L.; Pla-Dalmau, Anna

    2005-06-21

    Systems and methods for the simultaneous detection and identification of radiation species, including neutrons, gammas/x-rays and minimum ionizing particles (MIPs). A plurality of rectangular and/or triangularly shaped radiation sensitive scintillators can be configured from a plurality of nano-sized particles, dopants and an extruded plastic material. A wavelength-shifting fiber can then be located within a central hole of each extruded scintillator, wherein the wavelength-shifting fiber absorbs scintillation light and re-emits the light at a longer wavelength, thereby piping the light to a photodetector whose response to the light indicates the presence of radiation The resulting method and system can simultaneously detect neutrons, gamma rays, x-rays and cosmic rays (MIPs) and identify each.

  6. Hand-held, mechanically cooled, radiation detection system for gamma-ray spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burks, Morgan Thomas; Eckels, Joel Del

    2010-06-08

    In one embodiment, a radiation detection system is provided including a radiation detector and a first enclosure encapsulating the radiation detector, the first enclosure including a low-emissivity infra-red (IR) reflective coating used to thermally isolate the radiation detector. Additionally, a second enclosure encapsulating the first enclosure is included, the first enclosure being suspension mounted to the second enclosure. Further, a cooler capable of cooling the radiation detector is included. Still yet, a first cooling interface positioned on the second enclosure is included for coupling the cooler and the first enclosure. Furthermore, a second cooling interface positioned on the second enclosure and capable of coupling the first enclosure to a cooler separate from the radiation detection system is included. Other embodiments are also presented.

  7. 3D cloud detection and tracking system for solar forecast using multiple sky imagers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, Zhenzhou; Yu, Dantong; Huang, Dong; Heiser, John; Yoo, Shinjae; Kalb, Paul

    2015-06-23

    We propose a system for forecasting short-term solar irradiance based on multiple total sky imagers (TSIs). The system utilizes a novel method of identifying and tracking clouds in three-dimensional space and an innovative pipeline for forecasting surface solar irradiance based on the image features of clouds. First, we develop a supervised classifier to detect clouds at the pixel level and output cloud mask. In the next step, we design intelligent algorithms to estimate the block-wise base height and motion of each cloud layer based on images from multiple TSIs. Thus, this information is then applied to stitch images together into larger views, which are then used for solar forecasting. We examine the system’s ability to track clouds under various cloud conditions and investigate different irradiance forecast models at various sites. We confirm that this system can 1) robustly detect clouds and track layers, and 2) extract the significant global and local features for obtaining stable irradiance forecasts with short forecast horizons from the obtained images. Finally, we vet our forecasting system at the 32-megawatt Long Island Solar Farm (LISF). Compared with the persistent model, our system achieves at least a 26% improvement for all irradiance forecasts between one and fifteen minutes.

  8. 3D cloud detection and tracking system for solar forecast using multiple sky imagers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Peng, Zhenzhou; Yu, Dantong; Huang, Dong; Heiser, John; Yoo, Shinjae; Kalb, Paul

    2015-06-23

    We propose a system for forecasting short-term solar irradiance based on multiple total sky imagers (TSIs). The system utilizes a novel method of identifying and tracking clouds in three-dimensional space and an innovative pipeline for forecasting surface solar irradiance based on the image features of clouds. First, we develop a supervised classifier to detect clouds at the pixel level and output cloud mask. In the next step, we design intelligent algorithms to estimate the block-wise base height and motion of each cloud layer based on images from multiple TSIs. Thus, this information is then applied to stitch images together intomore » larger views, which are then used for solar forecasting. We examine the system’s ability to track clouds under various cloud conditions and investigate different irradiance forecast models at various sites. We confirm that this system can 1) robustly detect clouds and track layers, and 2) extract the significant global and local features for obtaining stable irradiance forecasts with short forecast horizons from the obtained images. Finally, we vet our forecasting system at the 32-megawatt Long Island Solar Farm (LISF). Compared with the persistent model, our system achieves at least a 26% improvement for all irradiance forecasts between one and fifteen minutes.« less

  9. Method of remote powering and detecting multiple UWB passive tags in an RFID system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dowla, Farid U.; Nekoogar, Faranak; Benzel, David M.; Dallum, Gregory E.; Spiridon, Alex

    2012-05-29

    A new Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), tracking, powering apparatus/system and method using coded Ultra-wideband (UWB) signaling is introduced. The proposed hardware and techniques disclosed herein utilize a plurality of passive UWB transponders in a field of an RFID-radar system. The radar system itself enables multiple passive tags to be remotely powered (activated) at about the same time frame via predetermined frequency UWB pulsed formats. Once such tags are in an activated state, an UWB radar transmits specific "interrogating codes" to put predetermined tags in an awakened status. Such predetermined tags can then communicate by a unique "response code" so as to be detected by an UWB system using radar methods.

  10. Methods, media, and systems for detecting attack on a digital processing device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stolfo, Salvatore J.; Li, Wei-Jen; Keromylis, Angelos D.; Androulaki, Elli

    2014-07-22

    Methods, media, and systems for detecting attack are provided. In some embodiments, the methods include: comparing at least part of a document to a static detection model; determining whether attacking code is included in the document based on the comparison of the document to the static detection model; executing at least part of the document; determining whether attacking code is included in the document based on the execution of the at least part of the document; and if attacking code is determined to be included in the document based on at least one of the comparison of the document to the static detection model and the execution of the at least part of the document, reporting the presence of an attack. In some embodiments, the methods include: selecting a data segment in at least one portion of an electronic document; determining whether the arbitrarily selected data segment can be altered without causing the electronic document to result in an error when processed by a corresponding program; in response to determining that the arbitrarily selected data segment can be altered, arbitrarily altering the data segment in the at least one portion of the electronic document to produce an altered electronic document; and determining whether the corresponding program produces an error state when the altered electronic document is processed by the corresponding program.

  11. Near-Surface CO2 Monitoring And Analysis To Detect Hidden Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewicki, Jennifer L.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2005-01-19

    ''Hidden'' geothermal systems are systems devoid of obvious surface hydrothermal manifestations. Emissions of moderate-to-low solubility gases may be one of the primary near-surface signals from these systems. We investigate the potential for CO2 detection and monitoring below and above ground in the near-surface environment as an approach to exploration targeting hidden geothermal systems. We focus on CO2 because it is the dominant noncondensible gas species in most geothermal systems and has moderate solubility in water. We carried out numerical simulations of a CO2 migration scenario to calculate the magnitude of expected fluxes and concentrations. Our results show that CO2 concentrations can reach high levels in the shallow subsurface even for relatively low geothermal source CO2 fluxes. However, once CO2 seeps out of the ground into the atmospheric surface layer, winds are effective at dispersing CO2 seepage. In natural ecological systems in the absence of geothermal gas emissions, near-surface CO2 fluxes and concentrations are predominantly controlled by CO2 uptake by photosynthesis, production by root respiration, microbial decomposition of soil/subsoil organic matter, groundwater degassing, and exchange with the atmosphere. Available technologies for monitoring CO2 in the near-surface environment include the infrared gas analyzer, the accumulation chamber method, the eddy covariance method, hyperspectral imaging, and light detection and ranging. To meet the challenge of detecting potentially small-magnitude geothermal CO2 emissions within the natural background variability of CO2, we propose an approach that integrates available detection and monitoring techniques with statistical analysis and modeling strategies. The proposed monitoring plan initially focuses on rapid, economical, reliable measurements of CO2 subsurface concentrations and surface fluxes and statistical analysis of the collected data. Based on this analysis, are as with a high probability of containing geothermal CO2 anomalies can be further sampled and analyzed using more expensive chemical and isotopic methods. Integrated analysis of all measurements will determine definitively if CO2 derived from a deep geothermal source is present, and if so, the spatial extent of the anomaly. The suitability of further geophysical measurements, installation of deep wells, and geochemical analyses of deep fluids can then be determined based on the results of the near surface CO2 monitoring program.

  12. Detection system for high-resolution gamma radiation spectroscopy with neutron time-of-flight filtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dioszegi, Istvan; Salwen, Cynthia; Vanier, Peter

    2014-12-30

    A .gamma.-radiation detection system that includes at least one semiconductor detector such as HPGe-Detector, a position-sensitive .alpha.-Detector, a TOF Controller, and a Digitizer/Integrator. The Digitizer/Integrator starts to process the energy signals of a .gamma.-radiation sent from the HPGe-Detector instantly when the HPGe-Detector detects the .gamma.-radiation. Subsequently, it is determined whether a coincidence exists between the .alpha.-particles and .gamma.-radiation signal, based on a determination of the time-of-flight of neutrons obtained from the .alpha.-Detector and the HPGe-Detector. If it is determined that the time-of-flight falls within a predetermined coincidence window, the Digitizer/Integrator is allowed to continue and complete the energy signal processing. If, however, there is no coincidence, the Digitizer/Integrator is instructed to be clear and reset its operation instantly.

  13. Optical methods and systems for detecting a constituent in a gas containing oxygen in harsh environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carpenter, Michael A. (Scotia, NY); Sirinakis, George (Bronx, NY)

    2011-01-04

    A method for detecting a gas phase constituent such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, hydrogen, or hydrocarbons in a gas comprising oxygen such as air, includes providing a sensing material or film having a metal embedded in a catalytically active matrix such as gold embedded in a yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) matrix. The method may include annealing the sensing material at about 900.degree. C., exposing the sensing material and gas to a temperature above 400.degree. C., projecting light onto the sensing material, and detecting a change in the absorption spectrum of the sensing material due to the exposure of the sensing material to the gas in air at the temperature which causes a chemical reaction in the sensing material compared to the absorption spectrum of the sensing material in the absence of the gas. Systems employing such a method are also disclosed.

  14. Sensing system for detection and control of deposition on pendant tubes in recovery and power boilers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kychakoff, George; Afromowitz, Martin A; Hugle, Richard E

    2005-06-21

    A system for detection and control of deposition on pendant tubes in recovery and power boilers includes one or more deposit monitoring sensors operating in infrared regions and about 4 or 8.7 microns and directly producing images of the interior of the boiler. An image pre-processing circuit (95) in which a 2-D image formed by the video data input is captured, and includes a low pass filter for performing noise filtering of said video input. An image segmentation module (105) for separating the image of the recovery boiler interior into background, pendant tubes, and deposition. An image-understanding unit (115) matches derived regions to a 3-D model of said boiler. It derives a 3-D structure the deposition on pendant tubes in the boiler and provides the information about deposits to the plant distributed control system (130) for more efficient operation of the plant pendant tube cleaning and operating systems.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF DEPOSIT DETECTION SYSTEM IN PIPELINES OF THE STEELWORKS USING CS-137 GAMMA-RAY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Won-Joon; Lee, Seung-Hee; Jeong, Hee-Dong

    2008-02-28

    The deposit is built up in the pipeline of the steelworks by the chemical reaction among COG (coke oven gas), BFG (blast furnace gas), moisture, and steel in the high temperature environment and obstructs the smooth gas flow. In this study a gamma-ray system is developed to detect the deposit accumulated in pipelines and calculate the accumulation rate with respect to the cross section area of pipes. Cs-137 is used as the gamma-ray source and the system is designed to apply to pipes of various diameters. This system also includes the DB for storage and display of the measurement results so that it can be used for the efficient management of the pipelines.

  16. Methods, microfluidic devices, and systems for detection of an active enzymatic agent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sommer, Gregory J; Hatch, Anson V; Singh, Anup K; Wang, Ying-Chih

    2014-10-28

    Embodiments of the present invention provide methods, microfluidic devices, and systems for the detection of an active target agent in a fluid sample. A substrate molecule is used that contains a sequence which may cleave in the presence of an active target agent. A SNAP25 sequence is described, for example, that may be cleaved in the presence of Botulinum Neurotoxin. The substrate molecule includes a reporter moiety. The substrate molecule is exposed to the sample, and resulting reaction products separated using electrophoretic separation. The elution time of the reporter moiety may be utilized to identify the presence or absence of the active target agent.

  17. Detection of preferential particle orientation in the atmosphere. Development of an alternative polarization lidar system

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Geier, Manfred; Arienti, Marco

    2014-07-19

    Increasing interest in polarimetric characterization of atmospheric aerosols has led to the development of complete sample-measuring (Mueller) polarimeters that are capable of measuring the entire backscattering phase matrix of a probed volume. The Mueller polarimeters consist of several moving parts, which limit measurement rates and complicate data analysis. In this paper, we present the concept of a less complex polarization lidar setup for detection of preferential orientation of atmospheric particulates. On the basis of theoretical considerations of data inversion stability and propagation of measurement uncertainties, an optimum optical configuration is established for two modes of operation (with either a linearmore » or a circular polarized incident laser beam). We discovered that the conceptualized setup falls in the category of incomplete sample-measuring polarimeters and uses four detection channels for simultaneous measurement of the backscattered light. Likewise, the expected performance characteristics are discussed through an example of a typical aerosol with a small fraction of particles oriented in a preferred direction. As a result, the theoretical analysis suggests that achievable accuracies in backscatter cross-sections and depolarization ratios are similar to those with conventional two-channel configurations, while in addition preferential orientation can be detected with the proposed four-channel system for a wide range of conditions.« less

  18. Detection of preferential particle orientation in the atmosphere. Development of an alternative polarization lidar system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geier, Manfred; Arienti, Marco

    2014-07-19

    Increasing interest in polarimetric characterization of atmospheric aerosols has led to the development of complete sample-measuring (Mueller) polarimeters that are capable of measuring the entire backscattering phase matrix of a probed volume. The Mueller polarimeters consist of several moving parts, which limit measurement rates and complicate data analysis. In this paper, we present the concept of a less complex polarization lidar setup for detection of preferential orientation of atmospheric particulates. On the basis of theoretical considerations of data inversion stability and propagation of measurement uncertainties, an optimum optical configuration is established for two modes of operation (with either a linear or a circular polarized incident laser beam). We discovered that the conceptualized setup falls in the category of incomplete sample-measuring polarimeters and uses four detection channels for simultaneous measurement of the backscattered light. Likewise, the expected performance characteristics are discussed through an example of a typical aerosol with a small fraction of particles oriented in a preferred direction. As a result, the theoretical analysis suggests that achievable accuracies in backscatter cross-sections and depolarization ratios are similar to those with conventional two-channel configurations, while in addition preferential orientation can be detected with the proposed four-channel system for a wide range of conditions.

  19. System for detecting and limiting electrical ground faults within electrical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaubatz, Donald C.

    1990-01-01

    An electrical ground fault detection and limitation system for employment with a nuclear reactor utilizing a liquid metal coolant. Elongate electromagnetic pumps submerged within the liquid metal coolant and electrical support equipment experiencing an insulation breakdown occasion the development of electrical ground fault current. Without some form of detection and control, these currents may build to damaging power levels to expose the pump drive components to liquid metal coolant such as sodium with resultant undesirable secondary effects. Such electrical ground fault currents are detected and controlled through the employment of an isolated power input to the pumps and with the use of a ground fault control conductor providing a direct return path from the affected components to the power source. By incorporating a resistance arrangement with the ground fault control conductor, the amount of fault current permitted to flow may be regulated to the extent that the reactor may remain in operation until maintenance may be performed, notwithstanding the existence of the fault. Monitors such as synchronous demodulators may be employed to identify and evaluate fault currents for each phase of a polyphase power, and control input to the submerged pump and associated support equipment.

  20. Method, apparatus and system for low-energy beta particle detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Akers, Douglas W.; Drigert, Mark W.

    2012-09-25

    An apparatus, method, and system relating to radiation detection of low-energy beta particles are disclosed. An embodiment includes a radiation detector with a first scintillator and a second scintillator operably coupled to each other. The first scintillator and the second scintillator are each structured to generate a light pulse responsive to interaction with beta particles. The first scintillator is structured to experience full energy deposition of low-energy beta particles, and permit a higher-energy beta particle to pass therethrough and interact with the second scintillator. The radiation detector further includes a light-to-electrical converter operably coupled to the second scintillator and configured to convert light pulses generated by the first scintillator and the second scintillator into electrical signals. The first scintillator and the second scintillator have at least one mutually different characteristic to enable an electronic system to determine whether a given light pulse is generated in the first scintillator or the second scintillator.

  1. Ion mobility spectrometer, spectrometer analyte detection and identification verification system, and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atkinson, David A.

    2002-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for ion mobility spectrometry and analyte detection and identification verification system are disclosed. The apparatus is configured to be used in an ion mobility spectrometer and includes a plurality of reactant reservoirs configured to contain a plurality of reactants which can be reacted with the sample to form adducts having varying ion mobilities. A carrier fluid, such as air or nitrogen, is used to carry the sample into the spectrometer. The plurality of reactants are configured to be selectively added to the carrier stream by use inlet and outlet manifolds in communication with the reagent reservoirs, the reservoirs being selectively isolatable by valves. The invention further includes a spectrometer having the reagent system described. In the method, a first reactant is used with the sample. Following a positive result, a second reactant is used to determine whether a predicted response occurs. The occurrence of the second predicted response tends to verify the existence of a component of interest within the sample. A third reactant can also be used to provide further verification of the existence of a component of interest. A library can be established of known responses of compounds of interest with various reactants and the results of a specific multi-reactant survey of a sample can be compared against the library to determine whether a component detected in the sample is likely to be a specific component of interest.

  2. Sensing system for detection and control of deposition on pendant tubes in recovery and power boilers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kychakoff, George; Afromowitz, Martin A.; Hogle, Richard E.

    2008-10-14

    A system for detection and control of deposition on pendant tubes in recovery and power boilers includes one or more deposit monitoring sensors operating in infrared regions of about 4 or 8.7 microns and directly producing images of the interior of the boiler, or producing feeding signals to a data processing system for information to enable a distributed control system by which the boilers are operated to operate said boilers more efficiently. The data processing system includes an image pre-processing circuit in which a 2-D image formed by the video data input is captured, and includes a low pass filter for performing noise filtering of said video input. It also includes an image compensation system for array compensation to correct for pixel variation and dead cells, etc., and for correcting geometric distortion. An image segmentation module receives a cleaned image from the image pre-processing circuit for separating the image of the recovery boiler interior into background, pendant tubes, and deposition. It also accomplishes thresholding/clustering on gray scale/texture and makes morphological transforms to smooth regions, and identifies regions by connected components. An image-understanding unit receives a segmented image sent from the image segmentation module and matches derived regions to a 3-D model of said boiler. It derives a 3-D structure the deposition on pendant tubes in the boiler and provides the information about deposits to the plant distributed control system for more efficient operation of the plant pendant tube cleaning and operating systems.

  3. Detection and response to unauthorized access to a communication device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Rhett; Gordon, Colin

    2015-09-08

    A communication gateway consistent with the present disclosure may detect unauthorized physical or electronic access and implement security actions in response thereto. A communication gateway may provide a communication path to an intelligent electronic device (IED) using an IED communications port configured to communicate with the IED. The communication gateway may include a physical intrusion detection port and a network port. The communication gateway may further include control logic configured to evaluate physical intrusion detection signal. The control logic may be configured to determine that the physical intrusion detection signal is indicative of an attempt to obtain unauthorized access to one of the communication gateway, the IED, and a device in communication with the gateway; and take a security action based upon the determination that the indication is indicative of the attempt to gain unauthorized access.

  4. Effective detective quantum efficiency for two mammography systems: Measurement and comparison against established metrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salvagnini, Elena; Bosmans, Hilde; Marshall, Nicholas W.; Struelens, Lara

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: The aim of this paper was to illustrate the value of the new metric effective detective quantum efficiency (eDQE) in relation to more established measures in the optimization process of two digital mammography systems. The following metrics were included for comparison against eDQE: detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of the detector, signal difference to noise ratio (SdNR), and detectability index (d′) calculated using a standard nonprewhitened observer with eye filter.Methods: The two systems investigated were the Siemens MAMMOMAT Inspiration and the Hologic Selenia Dimensions. The presampling modulation transfer function (MTF) required for the eDQE was measured using two geometries: a geometry containing scattered radiation and a low scatter geometry. The eDQE, SdNR, and d′ were measured for poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) thicknesses of 20, 40, 60, and 70 mm, with and without the antiscatter grid and for a selection of clinically relevant target/filter (T/F) combinations. Figures of merit (FOMs) were then formed from SdNR and d′ using the mean glandular dose as the factor to express detriment. Detector DQE was measured at energies covering the range of typical clinically used spectra.Results: The MTF measured in the presence of scattered radiation showed a large drop at low spatial frequency compared to the low scatter method and led to a corresponding reduction in eDQE. The eDQE for the Siemens system at 1 mm{sup −1} ranged between 0.15 and 0.27, depending on T/F and grid setting. For the Hologic system, eDQE at 1 mm{sup −1} varied from 0.15 to 0.32, again depending on T/F and grid setting. The eDQE results for both systems showed that the grid increased the system efficiency for PMMA thicknesses of 40 mm and above but showed only small sensitivity to T/F setting. While results of the SdNR and d′ based FOMs confirmed the eDQE grid position results, they were also more specific in terms of T/F selection. For the Siemens system at 20 mm PMMA, the FOMs indicated Mo/Mo (grid out) as optimal while W/Rh (grid in) was the optimal configuration at 40, 60, and 70 mm PMMA. For the Hologic, the FOMs pointed to W/Rh (grid in) at 20 and 40 mm of PMMA while W/Ag (grid in) gave the highest FOM at 60 and 70 mm PMMA. Finally, DQE at 1 mm{sup −1} averaged for the four beam qualities studied was 0.44 ± 0.02 and 0.55 ± 0.03 for the Siemens and Hologic detectors, respectively, indicating only a small influence of energy on detector DQE.Conclusions: Both the DQE and eDQE data showed only a small sensitivity to T/F setting for these two systems. The eDQE showed clear preferences in terms of scatter reduction, being highest for the grid-in geometry for PMMA thicknesses of 40 mm and above. The SdNR and d′ based figures of merit, which contain additional weighting for contrast and dose, pointed to specific T/F settings for both systems.

  5. Method for detecting sophisticated cyber attacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potok, Thomas E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2008-11-18

    A method of analyzing computer intrusion detection information that looks beyond known attacks and abnormal access patterns to the critical information that an intruder may want to access. Unique target identifiers and type of work performed by the networked targets is added to audit log records. Analysis using vector space modeling, dissimilarity matrix comparison, and clustering of the event records is then performed.

  6. A PHOTOMETRIC SYSTEM FOR DETECTION OF WATER AND METHANE ICES ON KUIPER BELT OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trujillo, Chadwick A.; Sheppard, Scott S.; Schaller, Emily L. E-mail: sheppard@dtm.ciw.edu

    2011-04-01

    We present a new near-infrared photometric system for detection of water ice and methane ice in the solar system. The system consists of two medium-band filters in the K-band region of the near-infrared, which are sensitive to water ice and methane ice, plus continuum observations in the J band and Y band. The primary purpose of this system is to distinguish between three basic types of Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs)-those rich in water ice, those rich in methane ice, and those with little absorbance. In this work, we present proof-of-concept observations of 51 KBOs using our filter system, 21 of which have never been observed in the near-infrared spectroscopically. We show that our custom photometric system is consistent with previous spectroscopic observations while reducing telescope observing time by a factor of {approx}3. We use our filters to identify Haumea collisional family members, which are thought to be collisional remnants of a much larger body and are characterized by large fractions of water ice on their surfaces. We add 2009 YE{sub 7} to the Haumea collisional family based on our water ice band observations (J - H{sub 2}O = -1.03 {+-} 0.27) which indicate a high amount of water ice absorption, our calculated proper orbital elements, and the neutral optical colors we measured, V - R = 0.38 {+-} 0.04, which are all consistent with the rest of the Haumea family. We identify several objects dynamically similar to Haumea as being distinct from the Haumea family as they do not have water ice on their surfaces. In addition, we find that only the largest KBOs have methane ice, and Haumea itself has significantly less water ice absorption than the smaller Haumea family members. We find no evidence for other families in the Kuiper Belt.

  7. Sandia Network Intrusion Detection Q.2931 Sensor Version 1.0

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2002-09-20

    This program was developed to read, plot and translate data taken by another program (Monogrow) and make the data readable for processing by other programs like "EXCEL", or any program which requires ASCII data files.

  8. Multi-sensor system for the detection and characterization of unexploded ordnance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morrison, Frank H.; Gasperikova, Erika

    2011-08-16

    To fully characterize the inductive response of an isolated conductive object, such as buried unexploded ordinance, one needs to measure its response to stimulation by primary magnetic fields in three linearly independent (e.g., approximately orthogonal) directions. In one embodiment this is achieved by measuring the response to magnetic fields of three independent transmitters arranged to have magnetic fields that are linearly independent. According to the apparatus and methods employing the system of this invention, multiple transmitters and receivers of known relative position and orientation on a single platform are used. In a preferred embodiment, matched sets of receiver pairs connected in gradient mode are positioned adjacent to closely spaced pairs of transmitting coils, such that a minor displacement of one or both of the receiver coil pairs relative to the paired transmitting coils will not affect the detected secondary signals emitted by a buried metallic object.

  9. Method and system for early detection of incipient faults in electric motors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parlos, Alexander G; Kim, Kyusung

    2003-07-08

    A method and system for early detection of incipient faults in an electric motor are disclosed. First, current and voltage values for one or more phases of the electric motor are measured during motor operations. A set of current predictions is then determined via a neural network-based current predictor based on the measured voltage values and an estimate of motor speed values of the electric motor. Next, a set of residuals is generated by combining the set of current predictions with the measured current values. A set of fault indicators is subsequently computed from the set of residuals and the measured current values. Finally, a determination is made as to whether or not there is an incipient electrical, mechanical, and/or electromechanical fault occurring based on the comparison result of the set of fault indicators and a set of predetermined baseline values.

  10. Systems for low frequency seismic and infrasound detection of geo-pressure transition zones

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shook, G. Michael; LeRoy, Samuel D.; Benzing, William M.

    2007-10-16

    Methods for determining the existence and characteristics of a gradational pressurized zone within a subterranean formation are disclosed. One embodiment involves employing an attenuation relationship between a seismic response signal and increasing wavelet wavelength, which relationship may be used to detect a gradational pressurized zone and/or determine characteristics thereof. In another embodiment, a method for analyzing data contained within a response signal for signal characteristics that may change in relation to the distance between an input signal source and the gradational pressurized zone is disclosed. In a further embodiment, the relationship between response signal wavelet frequency and comparative amplitude may be used to estimate an optimal wavelet wavelength or range of wavelengths used for data processing or input signal selection. Systems for seismic exploration and data analysis for practicing the above-mentioned method embodiments are also disclosed.

  11. Methods and systems for low frequency seismic and infrasound detection of geo-pressure transition zones

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shook, G. Michael; LeRoy, Samuel D.; Benzing, William M.

    2006-07-18

    Methods for determining the existence and characteristics of a gradational pressurized zone within a subterranean formation are disclosed. One embodiment involves employing an attenuation relationship between a seismic response signal and increasing wavelet wavelength, which relationship may be used to detect a gradational pressurized zone and/or determine characteristics thereof. In another embodiment, a method for analyzing data contained within a response signal for signal characteristics that may change in relation to the distance between an input signal source and the gradational pressurized zone is disclosed. In a further embodiment, the relationship between response signal wavelet frequency and comparative amplitude may be used to estimate an optimal wavelet wavelength or range of wavelengths used for data processing or input signal selection. Systems for seismic exploration and data analysis for practicing the above-mentioned method embodiments are also disclosed.

  12. Physics-based, Bayesian sequential detection method and system for radioactive contraband

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Candy, James V; Axelrod, Michael C; Breitfeller, Eric F; Chambers, David H; Guidry, Brian L; Manatt, Douglas R; Meyer, Alan W; Sale, Kenneth E

    2014-03-18

    A distributed sequential method and system for detecting and identifying radioactive contraband from highly uncertain (noisy) low-count, radionuclide measurements, i.e. an event mode sequence (EMS), using a statistical approach based on Bayesian inference and physics-model-based signal processing based on the representation of a radionuclide as a monoenergetic decomposition of monoenergetic sources. For a given photon event of the EMS, the appropriate monoenergy processing channel is determined using a confidence interval condition-based discriminator for the energy amplitude and interarrival time and parameter estimates are used to update a measured probability density function estimate for a target radionuclide. A sequential likelihood ratio test is then used to determine one of two threshold conditions signifying that the EMS is either identified as the target radionuclide or not, and if not, then repeating the process for the next sequential photon event of the EMS until one of the two threshold conditions is satisfied.

  13. Electrical signature analysis applications for non-intrusive automotive alternator diagnostics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayers, C.W.

    1996-03-01

    Automotive alternators are designed to supply power for automobile engine ignition systems as well as charge the storage battery. This product is used in a large market where consumers are concerned with acoustic noise and vibration that comes from the unit. as well as overall quality and dependability. Alternators and generators in general are used in industries other than automotive, such as transportation and airline industries and in military applications. Their manufacturers are interested in pursuing state-of-the-art methods to achieve higher quality and reduced costs. Preliminary investigations of non-intrusive diagnostic techniques utilizing the inherent voltage signals of alternators have been performed with promising results. These techniques are based on time and frequency domain analyses of specially conditioned signals taken from several alternators under various test conditions. This paper discusses investigations that show correlations of the alternator output voltage to airborne noise production. In addition these signals provide insight into internal magnetic characteristics that relate to design and/or assembly problems.

  14. Strategies for Detecting Hidden Geothermal Systems by Near-Surface Gas Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewicki, Jennifer L.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2004-12-15

    ''Hidden'' geothermal systems are those systems above which hydrothermal surface features (e.g., hot springs, fumaroles, elevated ground temperatures, hydrothermal alteration) are lacking. Emissions of moderate to low solubility gases (e.g., CO2, CH4, He) may be one of the primary near-surface signals from these systems. Detection of anomalous gas emissions related to hidden geothermal systems may therefore be an important tool to discover new geothermal resources. This study investigates the potential for CO2 detection and monitoring in the subsurface and above ground in the near-surface environment to serve as a tool to discover hidden geothermal systems. We focus the investigation on CO2 due to (1) its abundance in geothermal systems, (2) its moderate solubility in water, and (3) the wide range of technologies available to monitor CO2 in the near-surface environment. However, monitoring in the near-surface environment for CO2 derived from hidden geothermal reservoirs is complicated by the large variation in CO2 fluxes and concentrations arising from natural biological and hydrologic processes. In the near-surface environment, the flow and transport of CO2 at high concentrations will be controlled by its high density, low viscosity, and high solubility in water relative to air. Numerical simulations of CO2 migration show that CO2 concentrations can reach very high levels in the shallow subsurface even for relatively low geothermal source CO2 fluxes. However, once CO2 seeps out of the ground into the atmospheric surface layer, surface winds are effective at dispersing CO2 seepage. In natural ecological systems in the absence of geothermal gas emissions, near-surface CO2 fluxes and concentrations are primarily controlled by CO2 uptake by photosynthesis, production by root respiration, and microbial decomposition of soil/subsoil organic matter, groundwater degassing, and exchange with the atmosphere. Available technologies for monitoring CO2 in the near-surface environment include (1) the infrared gas analyzer (IRGA) for measurement of concentrations at point locations, (2) the accumulation chamber (AC) method for measuring soil CO2 fluxes at point locations, (3) the eddy covariance (EC) method for measuring net CO2 flux over a given area, (4) hyperspectral imaging of vegetative stress resulting from elevated CO2 concentrations, and (5) light detection and ranging (LIDAR) that can measure CO2 concentrations over an integrated path. Technologies currently in developmental stages that have the potential to be used for CO2 monitoring include tunable lasers for long distance integrated concentration measurements and micro-electronic mechanical systems (MEMS) that can make widespread point measurements. To address the challenge of detecting potentially small-magnitude geothermal CO2 emissions within the natural background variability of CO2, we propose an approach that integrates available detection and monitoring methodologies with statistical analysis and modeling strategies. Within the area targeted for geothermal exploration, point measurements of soil CO2 fluxes and concentrations using the AC method and a portable IRGA, respectively, and measurements of net surface flux using EC should be made. Also, the natural spatial and temporal variability of surface CO2 fluxes and subsurface CO2 concentrations should be quantified within a background area with similar geologic, climatic, and ecosystem characteristics to the area targeted for geothermal exploration. Statistical analyses of data collected from both areas should be used to guide sampling strategy, discern spatial patterns that may be indicative of geothermal CO2 emissions, and assess the presence (or absence) of geothermal CO2 within the natural background variability with a desired confidence level. Once measured CO2 concentrations and fluxes have been determined to be of anomalous geothermal origin with high confidence, more expensive vertical subsurface gas sampling and chemical and isotopic analyses can be undertaken. Integrated analysis of all measurements will determine definitively if CO2 derived from a deep geothermal source is present, and if so, the spatial extent of the anomaly. The appropriateness of further geophysical measurements, installation of deep wells, and geochemical analyses of deep fluids can then be decided based on the results of the near surface CO2 monitoring program.

  15. Detecting extrasolar moons akin to solar system satellites with an orbital sampling effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heller, Ren

    2014-05-20

    Despite years of high accuracy observations, none of the available theoretical techniques has yet allowed the confirmation of a moon beyond the solar system. Methods are currently limited to masses about an order of magnitude higher than the mass of any moon in the solar system. I here present a new method sensitive to exomoons similar to the known moons. Due to the projection of transiting exomoon orbits onto the celestial plane, satellites appear more often at larger separations from their planet. After about a dozen randomly sampled observations, a photometric orbital sampling effect (OSE) starts to appear in the phase-folded transit light curve, indicative of the moons' radii and planetary distances. Two additional outcomes of the OSE emerge in the planet's transit timing variations (TTV-OSE) and transit duration variations (TDV-OSE), both of which permit measurements of a moon's mass. The OSE is the first effect that permits characterization of multi-satellite systems. I derive and apply analytical OSE descriptions to simulated transit observations of the Kepler space telescope assuming white noise only. Moons as small as Ganymede may be detectable in the available data, with M stars being their most promising hosts. Exomoons with the ten-fold mass of Ganymede and a similar composition (about 0.86 Earth radii in radius) can most likely be found in the available Kepler data of K stars, including moons in the stellar habitable zone. A future survey with Kepler-class photometry, such as Plato 2.0, and a permanent monitoring of a single field of view over five years or more will very likely discover extrasolar moons via their OSEs.

  16. System and method for constructing filters for detecting signals whose frequency content varies with time

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Qian, S.; Dunham, M.E.

    1996-11-12

    A system and method are disclosed for constructing a bank of filters which detect the presence of signals whose frequency content varies with time. The present invention includes a novel system and method for developing one or more time templates designed to match the received signals of interest and the bank of matched filters use the one or more time templates to detect the received signals. Each matched filter compares the received signal x(t) with a respective, unique time template that has been designed to approximate a form of the signals of interest. The robust time domain template is assumed to be of the order of w(t)=A(t)cos(2{pi}{phi}(t)) and the present invention uses the trajectory of a joint time-frequency representation of x(t) as an approximation of the instantaneous frequency function {phi}{prime}(t). First, numerous data samples of the received signal x(t) are collected. A joint time frequency representation is then applied to represent the signal, preferably using the time frequency distribution series. The joint time-frequency transformation represents the analyzed signal energy at time t and frequency f, P(t,f), which is a three-dimensional plot of time vs. frequency vs. signal energy. Then P(t,f) is reduced to a multivalued function f(t), a two dimensional plot of time vs. frequency, using a thresholding process. Curve fitting steps are then performed on the time/frequency plot, preferably using Levenberg-Marquardt curve fitting techniques, to derive a general instantaneous frequency function {phi}{prime}(t) which best fits the multivalued function f(t). Integrating {phi}{prime}(t) along t yields {phi}{prime}(t), which is then inserted into the form of the time template equation. A suitable amplitude A(t) is also preferably determined. Once the time template has been determined, one or more filters are developed which each use a version or form of the time template. 7 figs.

  17. System and method for constructing filters for detecting signals whose frequency content varies with time

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Qian, Shie; Dunham, Mark E.

    1996-01-01

    A system and method for constructing a bank of filters which detect the presence of signals whose frequency content varies with time. The present invention includes a novel system and method for developing one or more time templates designed to match the received signals of interest and the bank of matched filters use the one or more time templates to detect the received signals. Each matched filter compares the received signal x(t) with a respective, unique time template that has been designed to approximate a form of the signals of interest. The robust time domain template is assumed to be of the order of w(t)=A(t)cos{2.pi..phi.(t)} and the present invention uses the trajectory of a joint time-frequency representation of x(t) as an approximation of the instantaneous frequency function {.phi.'(t). First, numerous data samples of the received signal x(t) are collected. A joint time frequency representation is then applied to represent the signal, preferably using the time frequency distribution series (also known as the Gabor spectrogram). The joint time-frequency transformation represents the analyzed signal energy at time t and frequency .function., P(t,f), which is a three-dimensional plot of time vs. frequency vs. signal energy. Then P(t,f) is reduced to a multivalued function f(t), a two dimensional plot of time vs. frequency, using a thresholding process. Curve fitting steps are then performed on the time/frequency plot, preferably using Levenberg-Marquardt curve fitting techniques, to derive a general instantaneous frequency function .phi.'(t) which best fits the multivalued function f(t), a trajectory of the joint time-frequency domain representation of x(t). Integrating .phi.'(t) along t yields .phi.(t), which is then inserted into the form of the time template equation. A suitable amplitude A(t) is also preferably determined. Once the time template has been determined, one or more filters are developed which each use a version or form of the time template.

  18. High resolution biomedical imaging system with direct detection of x-rays via a charge coupled device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atac, M.; McKay, T.A.

    1998-04-21

    An imaging system is provided for direct detection of x-rays from an irradiated biological tissue. The imaging system includes an energy source for emitting x-rays toward the biological tissue and a charge coupled device (CCD) located immediately adjacent the biological tissue and arranged transverse to the direction of irradiation along which the x-rays travel. The CCD directly receives and detects the x-rays after passing through the biological tissue. The CCD is divided into a matrix of cells, each of which individually stores a count of x-rays directly detected by the cell. The imaging system further includes a pattern generator electrically coupled to the CCD for reading a count from each cell. A display device is provided for displaying an image representative of the count read by the pattern generator from the cells of the CCD. 13 figs.

  19. High resolution biomedical imaging system with direct detection of x-rays via a charge coupled device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atac, Muzaffer; McKay, Timothy A.

    1998-01-01

    An imaging system is provided for direct detection of x-rays from an irradiated biological tissue. The imaging system includes an energy source for emitting x-rays toward the biological tissue and a charge coupled device (CCD) located immediately adjacent the biological tissue and arranged transverse to the direction of irradiation along which the x-rays travel. The CCD directly receives and detects the x-rays after passing through the biological tissue. The CCD is divided into a matrix of cells, each of which individually stores a count of x-rays directly detected by the cell. The imaging system further includes a pattern generator electrically coupled to the CCD for reading a count from each cell. A display device is provided for displaying an image representative of the count read by the pattern generator from the cells of the CCD.

  20. Stragegies to Detect Hidden Geothermal Systems Based on Monitoringand Analysis of CO2 in the Near-Surface Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewicki, Jennifer L.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2005-03-29

    We investigate the potential for CO2 monitoring in thenear-surface environment as an approach to exploration for hiddengeothermal systems. Numerical simulations of CO2 migration from a modelhidden geothermal system show that CO2 concentrations can reach highlevels in the shallow subsurface even for relatively low CO2 fluxes.Therefore, subsurface measurements offer an advantage over above-groundmeasurements which are affected by winds that rapidly disperse CO2. Tomeet the challenge of detecting geothermal CO2 emissions within thenatural background variability of CO2, we propose an approach thatintegrates available detection and monitoring techniques with statisticalanalysis and modeling.

  1. A comparison of portable and permanent landfill liner leak detection systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, S.B.; White, C.C.; Barker, R.D.

    1999-07-01

    Monitoring of the integrity of electrically non-conductive geomembrane liners installed at waste sites using electrical geophysical techniques has been carried out for a number of years using above-liner leak location surveys and, more recently, below-liner monitoring systems. The authors compare the theoretical response of both types of survey to a hole in a liner and then compare with measurements made in the field. The theoretical leak response indicates that above-liner surveys are sensitive to leaks over a greater area, though both responses result in comparable leak detectability. However, field data suggest that in practice, measurements made on a sparse grid below the liner have the greater sensitivity to certain leaks. This may be due to the differing leak geometries and background conditions present above and below the liner. The results indicate that a sparse below-liner monitoring grid, with its long-term monitoring capabilities, combined with above-liner surveys to pinpoint leaks accurately offer a successful approach to ensuring liner integrity throughout the lifetime of a lined waste site.

  2. Fiber optic sensor system for detecting movement or position of a rotating wheel bearing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veeser, Lynn R.; Rodriguez, Patrick J.; Forman, Peter R.; Monahan, Russell E.; Adler, Jonathan M.

    1997-01-01

    An improved fiber optic sensor system and integrated sensor bearing assembly for detecting movement or position of a rotating wheel bearing having a multi-pole tone ring which produces an alternating magnetic field indicative of movement and position of the rotating member. A magneto-optical material, such as a bismuth garnet iron (B.I.G.) crystal, having discrete magnetic domains is positioned in the vicinity of the tone ring so that the domains align themselves to the magnetic field generated by the tone ring. A single fiber optic cable, preferably single mode fiber, carries light generated by a source of light to the B.I.G. crystal. The light passes through the B.I.G. crystal and is refracted at domain boundaries in the crystal. The intensity of the refracted light is indicative of the amount of alignment of the domains and therefore the strength of the magnetic field. The refracted light is carried by the fiber optic cable to an optic receiver where the intensity is measured and an electrical signal is generated and sent to a controller indicating the frequency of the changes in light intensity and therefore the rotational speed of the rotating wheel bearing.

  3. Apparatus for detecting a magnetic anomaly contiguous to remote location by squid gradiometer and magnetometer systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Overton, Jr., William C.; Steyert, Jr., William A.

    1984-01-01

    A superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetic detection apparatus detects magnetic fields, signals, and anomalies at remote locations. Two remotely rotatable SQUID gradiometers may be housed in a cryogenic environment to search for and locate unambiguously magnetic anomalies. The SQUID magnetic detection apparatus can be used to determine the azimuth of a hydrofracture by first flooding the hydrofracture with a ferrofluid to create an artificial magnetic anomaly therein.

  4. Systems and methods for neutron detection using scintillator nano-materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Letant, Sonia Edith; Wang, Tzu-Fang

    2016-03-08

    In one embodiment, a neutron detector includes a three dimensional matrix, having nanocomposite materials and a substantially transparent film material for suspending the nanocomposite materials, a detector coupled to the three dimensional matrix adapted for detecting a change in the nanocomposite materials, and an analyzer coupled to the detector adapted for analyzing the change detected by the detector. In another embodiment, a method for detecting neutrons includes receiving radiation from a source, converting neutrons in the radiation into alpha particles using converter material, converting the alpha particles into photons using quantum dot emitters, detecting the photons, and analyzing the photons to determine neutrons in the radiation.

  5. Oil and gas exploration system and method for detecting trace amounts of hydrocarbon gases in the atmosphere

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wamsley, Paula R.; Weimer, Carl S.; Nelson, Loren D.; O'Brien, Martin J.

    2003-01-01

    An oil and gas exploration system and method for land and airborne operations, the system and method used for locating subsurface hydrocarbon deposits based upon a remote detection of trace amounts of gases in the atmosphere. The detection of one or more target gases in the atmosphere is used to indicate a possible subsurface oil and gas deposit. By mapping a plurality of gas targets over a selected survey area, the survey area can be analyzed for measurable concentration anomalies. The anomalies are interpreted along with other exploration data to evaluate the value of an underground deposit. The system includes a differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system with a spectroscopic grade laser light and a light detector. The laser light is continuously tunable in a mid-infrared range, 2 to 5 micrometers, for choosing appropriate wavelengths to measure different gases and avoid absorption bands of interference gases. The laser light has sufficient optical energy to measure atmospheric concentrations of a gas over a path as long as a mile and greater. The detection of the gas is based on optical absorption measurements at specific wavelengths in the open atmosphere. Light that is detected using the light detector contains an absorption signature acquired as the light travels through the atmosphere from the laser source and back to the light detector. The absorption signature of each gas is processed and then analyzed to determine if a potential anomaly exists.

  6. Precursors to cold fusion phenomenon and the detection of energetic charged particles in deuterium/solid systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, S.Y.; Wang, K.L.; Feng, Y.Y.; Chang, L.; Luo, C.M.; Hu, R.Y.; Zhou, P.L.; Mo, D.W.; Zhu, Y.F.; Song, C.L.; Chen, Y.T.; Yao, M.Y.; Ren, C.; Chen, Q.K.; Li, X.Z. )

    1991-11-01

    A precursor to the cold fusion phenomenon in deuterium/solid systems is sought in order to solve the problem of reproducibility. The results of the first experiments are discussed. Electromagnetic radiation and energetic charged particles have been detected. In this paper it is shown that the surface condition has an important effect on this phenomenon.

  7. Chemical and biological warfare: Detection and warning systems. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the detection, identification, verification, and warning systems of chemical and biological warfare agents. Citations discuss agents sampling, monitoring, and assessment. Techniques include chromotography, biosensing, chemical analysis, and DNA probes. Land pollution, soil tests, and skin protection are examined. (Contains a minimum of 244 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. Chemical and biological warfare: Detection and warning systems. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the detection, identification, verification, and warning systems of chemical and biological warfare agents. Citations discuss agents sampling, monitoring, and assessment. Techniques include chromotography, biosensing, chemical analysis, and DNA probes. Land pollution, soil tests, and skin protection are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  9. Systems and methods for the detection of low-level harmful substances in a large volume of fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carpenter, Michael V.; Roybal, Lyle G.; Lindquist, Alan; Gallardo, Vincente

    2016-03-15

    A method and device for the detection of low-level harmful substances in a large volume of fluid comprising using a concentrator system to produce a retentate and analyzing the retentate for the presence of at least one harmful substance. The concentrator system performs a method comprising pumping at least 10 liters of fluid from a sample source through a filter. While pumping, the concentrator system diverts retentate from the filter into a container. The concentrator system also recirculates at least part of the retentate in the container again through the filter. The concentrator system controls the speed of the pump with a control system thereby maintaining a fluid pressure less than 25 psi during the pumping of the fluid; monitors the quantity of retentate within the container with a control system, and maintains a reduced volume level of retentate and a target volume of retentate.

  10. Method of analyzing multiple sample simultaneously by detecting absorption and systems for use in such a method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeung, Edward S.; Gong, Xiaoyi

    2004-09-07

    The present invention provides a method of analyzing multiple samples simultaneously by absorption detection. The method comprises: (i) providing a planar array of multiple containers, each of which contains a sample comprising at least one absorbing species, (ii) irradiating the planar array of multiple containers with a light source and (iii) detecting absorption of light with a detetion means that is in line with the light source at a distance of at leaat about 10 times a cross-sectional distance of a container in the planar array of multiple containers. The absorption of light by a sample indicates the presence of an absorbing species in it. The method can further comprise: (iv) measuring the amount of absorption of light detected in (iii) indicating the amount of the absorbing species in the sample. Also provided by the present invention is a system for use in the abov metho.The system comprises; (i) a light source comrnpising or consisting essentially of at leaat one wavelength of light, the absorption of which is to be detected, (ii) a planar array of multiple containers, and (iii) a detection means that is in line with the light source and is positioned in line with and parallel to the planar array of multiple contiainers at a distance of at least about 10 times a cross-sectional distance of a container.

  11. The Anopheles punctulatus complex: DNA probes for identifying the Australian species using isotopic, chromogenic, and chemiluminescence detection systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, L.; Cooper, R.D.; Burkot, T.R. )

    1991-07-01

    Isotopic and enzyme-labeled species-specific DNA probes were made for the three known members of the Anopheles punctulatus complex of mosquitoes in Australia (Anopheles farauti Nos. 1, 2, and 3). Species-specific probes were selected by screening total genomic libraries made from the DNA of individual species with 32P-labeled DNA of homologous and heterologous mosquito species. The 32P-labeled probes for A. farauti Nos. 1 and 2 can detect less than 0.2 ng of DNA while the 32P-labeled probe for A. farauti No. 3 has a sensitivity of 1.25 ng of DNA. Probes were then enzyme labeled for chromogenic and chemiluminescence detection and compared to isotopic detection using 32P-labeled probes. Sequences of the probe repeat regions are presented. Species identifications can be made from dot blots or squashes of freshly killed mosquitoes or mosquitoes stored frozen, dried, and held at room temperature or fixed in isopropanol or ethanol with isotopic, chromogenic, or chemiluminescence detection systems. The use of nonisotopic detection systems will enable laboratories with minimal facilities to identify important regional vectors.

  12. DETECTABILITY OF EARTH-LIKE PLANETS IN CIRCUMSTELLAR HABITABLE ZONES OF BINARY STAR SYSTEMS WITH SUN-LIKE COMPONENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eggl, Siegfried; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke; Haghighipour, Nader

    2013-02-20

    Given the considerable percentage of stars that are members of binaries or stellar multiples in the solar neighborhood, it is expected that many of these binaries host planets, possibly even habitable ones. The discovery of a terrestrial planet in the {alpha} Centauri system supports this notion. Due to the potentially strong gravitational interaction that an Earth-like planet may experience in such systems, classical approaches to determining habitable zones (HZ), especially in close S-type binary systems, can be rather inaccurate. Recent progress in this field, however, allows us to identify regions around the star permitting permanent habitability. While the discovery of {alpha} Cen Bb has shown that terrestrial planets can be detected in solar-type binary stars using current observational facilities, it remains to be shown whether this is also the case for Earth analogs in HZs. We provide analytical expressions for the maximum and rms values of radial velocity and astrometric signals, as well as transit probabilities of terrestrial planets in such systems, showing that the dynamical interaction of the second star with the planet may indeed facilitate the planets' detection. As an example, we discuss the detectability of additional Earth-like planets in the averaged, extended, and permanent HZs around both stars of the {alpha} Centauri system.

  13. Compact Detection System for High Sensitivity Hydrogen Profiling of Materials by Nuclear Reaction Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marble, Daniel Keith; Urban, Ben; Pacheco, Jose

    2009-03-10

    Hydrogen is a ubiquitous contaminant that is known to have dramatic effects on the electrical, chemical, and mechanical properties of many types of materials in even minute quantities. Thus, the detection of hydrogen in materials is of major importance. Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) is a powerful technique for nondestructive profiling hydrogen in materials. However, NRA has found only limited use in many applications because of poor sensitivity due to cosmic ray background (CSRB). Most attempts to eliminate CSRB to achieve ppm detection levels using higher energy nuclear reactions or tons of passive shielding are not compatible with commercial ion beam analysis space and equipment requirements Zimmerman, et al. have previously reported upon a coincidence detector that meets IBA space requirements and reduces the cosmic ray background, but the detector suffers from lower detection efficiency and small sample size. We have replaced the BGO well detector in the Zimmerman coincidence detection scheme with a larger Nal well detector and used faster timing electronics to produce a detector that can handle larger samples with higher detection efficiency, and still eliminate cosmic ray background.

  14. Systems and methods of monitoring acoustic pressure to detect a flame condition in a gas turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Krull, Anthony Wayne; Healy, Timothy Andrew , Yilmaz, Ertan

    2011-05-17

    A method may detect a flashback condition in a fuel nozzle of a combustor. The method may include obtaining a current acoustic pressure signal from the combustor, analyzing the current acoustic pressure signal to determine current operating frequency information for the combustor, and indicating that the flashback condition exists based at least in part on the current operating frequency information.

  15. Opportunities for Decay Counting of Environmental Radioisotopes Using Ultra-low-background Detection Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Runkle, Robert C.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Bailey, Vanessa L.; Bonicalzi, Ricco; Moran, James J.; Seifert, Allen; Warren, Glen A.

    2012-08-01

    Executive Summary We present results from a scoping study whose intent was to define challenge measurements to be pursued on the Ultra-Sensitive Nuclear Measurements Initiative. Potential challenge measurements using new radiation detection technology in the shallow underground laboratory that would have substantial impact in environmental science were the focus of this study.

  16. System for detecting operating errors in a variable valve timing engine using pressure sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiles, Matthew A.; Marriot, Craig D

    2013-07-02

    A method and control module includes a pressure sensor data comparison module that compares measured pressure volume signal segments to ideal pressure volume segments. A valve actuation hardware remedy module performs a hardware remedy in response to comparing the measured pressure volume signal segments to the ideal pressure volume segments when a valve actuation hardware failure is detected.

  17. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Won, I.L.; Keiswetter, D.

    1995-12-31

    Ground-based surveys place personnel at risk due to the proximity of buried unexploded ordnance (UXO) items or by exposure to radioactive materials and hazardous chemicals. The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This non-intrusive system will provide stand-off capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak geophysical anomalies can be detected. The Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System (GAUSS) is designed to detect and locate small-scale anomalies at hazardous sites using magnetic and electromagnetic survey techniques. The system consists of a remotely-piloted, radio-controlled, model helicopter (RCH) with flight computer, light-weight geophysical sensors, an electronic positioning system, a data telemetry system, and a computer base-station. The report describes GAUSS and its test results.

  18. Non-intrusive ultrasonic liquid-in-line detector for small diameter tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piper, Thomas C.

    1982-01-01

    An arrangement for deleting liquid in a line, using non-intrusive ultrasonic techniques is disclosed. In this arrangement, four piezoelectric crystals are arranged in pairs about a 0.072 inch o.d. pipe. An ultrasonic tone burst is transmitted along the pipe, between crystal pairs, and the amplitude of the received tone burst indicates the absence/presence of liquid in the pipe.

  19. System and method for the detection of anomalies in an image

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prasad, Lakshman; Swaminarayan, Sriram

    2013-09-03

    Preferred aspects of the present invention can include receiving a digital image at a processor; segmenting the digital image into a hierarchy of feature layers comprising one or more fine-scale features defining a foreground object embedded in one or more coarser-scale features defining a background to the one or more fine-scale features in the segmentation hierarchy; detecting a first fine-scale foreground feature as an anomaly with respect to a first background feature within which it is embedded; and constructing an anomalous feature layer by synthesizing spatially contiguous anomalous fine-scale features. Additional preferred aspects of the present invention can include detecting non-pervasive changes between sets of images in response at least in part to one or more difference images between the sets of images.

  20. A Cabled Acoustic Telemetry System for Detecting and Tracking Juvenile Salmon: Part 2. Three-Dimensional Tracking and Passage Outcomes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Zhiqun; Weiland, Mark A.; Fu, Tao; Seim, Thomas A.; Lamarche, Brian L.; Choi, Eric Y.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Eppard, Matthew B.

    2011-05-26

    In Part 1 of this paper [1], we presented the engineering design and instrumentation of the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) cabled system, a nonproprietary technology developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, to meet the needs for monitoring the survival of juvenile salmonids through the 31 dams in the Federal Columbia River Power System. Here in Part 2, we describe how the JSATS cabled system was employed as a reference sensor network for detecting and tracking juvenile salmon. Time-of-arrival data for valid detections on four hydrophones were used to solve for the three-dimensional (3D) position of fish surgically implanted with JSATS acoustic transmitters. Validation tests demonstrated high accuracy of 3D tracking up to 100 m from the John Day Dam spillway. The along-dam component, used for assigning the route of fish passage, had the highest accuracy; the median errors ranged from 0.06 to 0.22 m, and root mean square errors ranged from 0.05 to 0.56 m at distances up to 100 m. For the case study at John Day Dam during 2008, the range for 3D tracking was more than 100 m upstream of the dam face where hydrophones were deployed, and detection and tracking probabilities of fish tagged with JSATS acoustic transmitters were higher than 98%. JSATS cabled systems have been successfully deployed on several major dams to acquire information for salmon protection and for development of more fish-friendly hydroelectric facilities.

  1. Uniaxial creep as a control on mercury intrusion capillary pressure in consolidating rock salt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dewers, Thomas; Heath, Jason E.; Leigh, Christi D.

    2015-09-01

    The nature of geologic disposal of nuclear waste in salt formations requires validated and verified two - phase flow models of transport of brine and gas through intact, damaged, and consolidating crushed salt. Such models exist in oth er realms of subsurface engineering for other lithologic classes (oil and gas, carbon sequestration etc. for clastics and carbonates) but have never been experimentally validated and parameterized for salt repository scenarios or performance assessment. Mo dels for waste release scenarios in salt back - fill require phenomenological expressions for capillary pressure and relative permeability that are expected to change with degree of consolidation, and require experimental measurement to parameterize and vali date. This report describes a preliminary assessment of the influence of consolidation (i.e. volume strain or porosity) on capillary entry pressure in two phase systems using mercury injection capillary pressure (MICP). This is to both determine the potent ial usefulness of the mercury intrusion porosimetry method, but also to enable a better experimental design for these tests. Salt consolidation experiments are performed using novel titanium oedometers, or uniaxial compression cells often used in soil mech anics, using sieved run - of - mine salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) as starting material. Twelve tests are performed with various starting amounts of brine pore saturation, with axial stresses up to 6.2 MPa (%7E900 psi) and temperatures to 90 o C. This corresponds to UFD Work Package 15SN08180211 milestone "FY:15 Transport Properties of Run - of - Mine Salt Backfill - Unconsolidated to Consolidated". Samples exposed to uniaxial compression undergo time - dependent consolidation, or creep, to various deg rees. Creep volume strain - time relations obey simple log - time behavior through the range of porosities (%7E50 to 2% as measured); creep strain rate increases with temperature and applied stress as expected. Mercury porosimetry is used to determine characteri stic capillary pressure curves from a series of consolidation tests and show characteristic saturation - capillary pressure curves that follow the common van Genuchten (1978, 1980) formulation at low stresses. Higher capillary pressure data are suspect due t o the large potential for sample damage, including fluid inclusion decrepitation and pore collapse. Data are supportive of use of the Leverett "J" function (Leverett, 1941) to use for scaling characteristic curves at different degrees of consolidation, but better permeability determinations are needed to support this hypothesis. Recommendations for further and refined testing are made with the goal of developing a self - consistent set of constitutive laws for granular salt consolidation and multiphase (brin e - air) flow.

  2. Anomaly Detection for Resilient Control Systems Using Fuzzy-Neural Data Fusion Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ondrej Linda; Milos Manic; Timothy R. McJunkin

    2011-08-01

    Resilient control systems in critical infrastructures require increased cyber-security and state-awareness. One of the necessary conditions for achieving the desired high level of resiliency is timely reporting and understanding of the status and behavioral trends of the control system. This paper describes the design and development of a neural-network based data-fusion system for increased state-awareness of resilient control systems. The proposed system consists of a dedicated data-fusion engine for each component of the control system. Each data-fusion engine implements three-layered alarm system consisting of: (1) conventional threshold-based alarms, (2) anomalous behavior detector using self-organizing maps, and (3) prediction error based alarms using neural network based signal forecasting. The proposed system was integrated with a model of the Idaho National Laboratory Hytest facility, which is a testing facility for hybrid energy systems. Experimental results demonstrate that the implemented data fusion system provides timely plant performance monitoring and cyber-state reporting.

  3. A dual neutron/gamma source for the Fissmat Inspection for Nuclear Detection (FIND) system.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doyle, Barney Lee; King, Michael; Rossi, Paolo; McDaniel, Floyd Del; Morse, Daniel Henry; Antolak, Arlyn J.; Provencio, Paula Polyak; Raber, Thomas N.

    2008-12-01

    Shielded special nuclear material (SNM) is very difficult to detect and new technologies are needed to clear alarms and verify the presence of SNM. High-energy photons and neutrons can be used to actively interrogate for heavily shielded SNM, such as highly enriched uranium (HEU), since neutrons can penetrate gamma-ray shielding and gamma-rays can penetrate neutron shielding. Both source particles then induce unique detectable signals from fission. In this LDRD, we explored a new type of interrogation source that uses low-energy proton- or deuteron-induced nuclear reactions to generate high fluxes of mono-energetic gammas or neutrons. Accelerator-based experiments, computational studies, and prototype source tests were performed to obtain a better understanding of (1) the flux requirements, (2) fission-induced signals, background, and interferences, and (3) operational performance of the source. The results of this research led to the development and testing of an axial-type gamma tube source and the design/construction of a high power coaxial-type gamma generator based on the {sup 11}B(p,{gamma}){sup 12}C nuclear reaction.

  4. High-speed atomic force microscope based on an astigmatic detection system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liao, H.-S.; Chen, Y.-H.; Hwu, E.-T.; Chang, C.-S.; Hwang, I.-S.; Ding, R.-F.; Huang, H.-F.; Wang, W.-M.; Huang, K.-Y.

    2014-10-15

    High-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM) enables visualizing dynamic behaviors of biological molecules under physiological conditions at a temporal resolution of 1s or shorter. A small cantilever with a high resonance frequency is crucial in increasing the scan speed. However, detecting mechanical resonances of small cantilevers is technically challenging. In this study, we constructed an atomic force microscope using a digital versatile disc (DVD) pickup head to detect cantilever deflections. In addition, a flexure-guided scanner and a sinusoidal scan method were implemented. In this work, we imaged a grating sample in air by using a regular cantilever and a small cantilever with a resonance frequency of 5.5 MHz. Poor tracking was seen at the scan rate of 50 line/s when a cantilever for regular AFM imaging was used. Using a small cantilever at the scan rate of 100 line/s revealed no significant degradation in the topographic images. The results indicate that a smaller cantilever can achieve a higher scan rate and superior force sensitivity. This work shows the potential for using a DVD pickup head in future HS-AFM technology.

  5. Detection and Characterization of Natural and Induced Fractures for the Development of Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objectives: Combine geophysical methods for reservoir and fracture characterization with rock physics measurements made under in-situ conditions (up to 350⁰C) for development of geothermal systems.

  6. HST/COS detection of deuterated molecular hydrogen in a damped Ly? system at z = 0.18

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oliveira, Cristina M.; Sembach, Kenneth R.; Tumlinson, Jason; Thom, Christopher [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); O'Meara, John, E-mail: oliveira@stsci.edu [Saint Michael's College, Colchester, VT 05439 (United States)

    2014-03-01

    We report on the detection of deuterated molecular hydrogen, HD, at z = 0.18. HD and H{sub 2} are detected in HST/COS data of a low-metallicity (Z ? 0.07 Z {sub ?}) damped Ly? (DLA) system at z = 0.18562 toward QSO B012028, with log N(H I) = 20.50 0.10. Four absorption components are clearly resolved in H{sub 2}, while two components are resolved in HD; the bulk of the molecular hydrogen is associated with the components traced by HD. We find total column densities log N(HD) = 14.82 0.15 and log N(H{sub 2}) = 20.00 0.10. This system has a high molecular fraction, f(H{sub 2}) = 0.39 0.10, and a low HD-to-H{sub 2} ratio, log (HD/2H{sub 2}) = 5.5 0.2 dex. The excitation temperature, T {sub 01} = 65 2 K, in the component containing the bulk of the molecular gas is lower than in other DLAs. These properties are unlike those in other higher redshift DLA systems known to contain HD, but are consistent with what is observed in dense clouds in the Milky Way.

  7. Performance of the moving voxel image reconstruction (MVIR) method in the fixed site detection system (FSDS) prototype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Estep, Robert J.

    2012-05-31

    We have developed a dynamic image reconstruction method called MVIR (Moving Voxel Image Reconstruction) for lane detection in multilane portal monitor systems. MVIR was evaluated for use in the Fixed Site Detection System, a prototype three-lane portal monitor system for EZ-pass toll plazas. As a baseline, we compared MVIR with a static image reconstruction method in analyzing the same real and simulated data sets. Performance was judged by the distributions of image intensities for source and no-source vehicles over many trials as a function of source strength. We found that MVIR produced significantly better results in all cases. The performance difference was greatest at low count rates, where source/no-source distributions were well separated with the MVIR method, allowing reliable source vehicle identification with a low probability of false positive identifications. Static reconstruction of the same data produced overlapping distributions that made source vehicle identification unreliable. The performance of the static method was acceptable at high count rates. Both algorithms reliably identified two strong sources passing through at nearly the same time.

  8. Method and apparatus for detecting combustion instability in continuous combustion systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, Kelly J.; Thornton, Jimmy D.; Richards, George A.; Straub, Douglas L.

    2006-08-29

    An apparatus and method to sense the onset of combustion stability is presented. An electrode is positioned in a turbine combustion chamber such that the electrode is exposed to gases in the combustion chamber. A control module applies a voltage potential to the electrode and detects a combustion ionization signal and determines if there is an oscillation in the combustion ionization signal indicative of the occurrence of combustion stability or the onset of combustion instability. A second electrode held in a coplanar but spaced apart manner by an insulating member from the electrode provides a combustion ionization signal to the control module when the first electrode fails. The control module broadcasts a notice if the parameters indicate the combustion process is at the onset of combustion instability or broadcasts an alarm signal if the parameters indicate the combustion process is unstable.

  9. E-Smart System for In-Situ Detection of Environmental Contaminants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Leffler

    2000-03-01

    A team of industrial, academic, and government organizations participated in the development of the Environmental Systems Management, Analysis and Reporting Network (E-SMART). E-SMART integrates diverse monitoring and control technologies by means of a modular, ''building block'' design approach to allow for flexible system configuration. The E-SMART network treats each smart device-whether a sensor, sampler, or actuator- as a black box that obeys the standard communication protocols and electrical interfaces for the network. This approach allows multiple vendors to produce different sensors which meet the same functional specification and which can be interchanged on the network without affecting operation. The project further developed and advanced the E-SMART standardized network protocol to include new sensors, sampling systems, and graphical user interfaces. Specifically, the E-SMART team developed the following three system elements: (1) Base technology for a new class of smart , highly sensitive, chemically-specific, in-situ, multichannel microsensors utilizing integrated optical interferometry technology, (2) A set of additional E-SMART-compatible sensors adapted from commercial off-the-shelf technologies, and (3) A Data Management and Analysis System (DMAS), including network management components and the user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI) for data evaluation and visualization.

  10. Application of a model-based fault detection system to nuclear plant signals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gross, K.C.; Singer, R.M.; Wegerich, S.W.; Herzog, J.P.; VanAlstine, R.; Bockhorst, F.

    1997-05-01

    To assure the continued safe and reliable operation of a nuclear power station, it is essential that accurate online information on the current state of the entire system be available to the operators. Such information is needed to determine the operability of safety and control systems, the condition of active components, the necessity of preventative maintenance, and the status of sensory systems. To this end, ANL has developed a new Multivariate State Estimation Technique (MSET) which utilizes advanced pattern recognition methods to enhance sensor and component operational validation for commercial nuclear reactors. Operational data from the Crystal River-3 (CR-3) nuclear power plant are used to illustrate the high sensitivity, accuracy, and the rapid response time of MSET for annunciation of a variety of signal disturbances.

  11. An Assessment of Remote Visual Testing System Capabilities for the Detection of Service Induced Cracking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Michael T.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2005-09-01

    Remote visual testing is typically employed to ascertain the condition of materials in components that are inaccessible for direct examination. In the power and petrochemical industries, remote visual testing is used to assess whether service-related degradation is being manifested that, if left unchecked, may eventually impair the structural reliability of a component. Several codes and standards require that visual examinations be periodically conducted. Many of these inspections must be performed remotely due to harsh environments or design geometries of the subject components. This paper describes the attributes and limitations of remote visual testing, performance demonstration standards for camera systems, typical dimensions for service-induced cracking phenomena, and an assessment of the reliability of remote video camera systems at finding cracks. Because many forms of service-induced cracks have very small crack opening dimensions, the reliability of remote visual testing may not be adequate to ensure component integrity, given the capabilities of current camera systems and application practices.

  12. Aptamer- and nucleic acid enzyme-based systems for simultaneous detection of multiple analytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Yi; Liu, Juewen

    2011-11-15

    The present invention provides aptamer- and nucleic acid enzyme-based systems for simultaneously determining the presence and optionally the concentration of multiple analytes in a sample. Methods of utilizing the system and kits that include the sensor components are also provided. The system includes a first reactive polynucleotide that reacts to a first analyte; a second reactive polynucleotide that reacts to a second analyte; a third polynucleotide; a fourth polynucleotide; a first particle, coupled to the third polynucleotide; a second particle, coupled to the fourth polynucleotide; and at least one quencher, for quenching emissions of the first and second quantum dots, coupled to the first and second reactive polynucleotides. The first particle includes a quantum dot having a first emission wavelength. The second particle includes a second quantum dot having a second emission wavelength different from the first emission wavelength. The third polynucleotide and the fourth polynucleotide are different.

  13. Detection and Analysis of Threats to the Energy Sector: DATES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alfonso Valdes

    2010-03-31

    This report summarizes Detection and Analysis of Threats to the Energy Sector (DATES), a project sponsored by the United States Department of Energy and performed by a team led by SRI International, with collaboration from Sandia National Laboratories, ArcSight, Inc., and Invensys Process Systems. DATES sought to advance the state of the practice in intrusion detection and situational awareness with respect to cyber attacks in energy systems. This was achieved through adaptation of detection algorithms for process systems as well as development of novel anomaly detection techniques suited for such systems into a detection suite. These detection components, together with third-party commercial security systems, were interfaced with the commercial Security Information Event Management (SIEM) solution from ArcSight. The efficacy of the integrated solution was demonstrated on two testbeds, one based on a Distributed Control System (DCS) from Invensys, and the other based on the Virtual Control System Environment (VCSE) from Sandia. These achievements advance the DOE Cybersecurity Roadmap [DOE2006] goals in the area of security monitoring. The project ran from October 2007 until March 2010, with the final six months focused on experimentation. In the validation phase, team members from SRI and Sandia coupled the two test environments and carried out a number of distributed and cross-site attacks against various points in one or both testbeds. Alert messages from the distributed, heterogeneous detection components were correlated using the ArcSight SIEM platform, providing within-site and cross-site views of the attacks. In particular, the team demonstrated detection and visualization of network zone traversal and denial-of-service attacks. These capabilities were presented to the DistribuTech Conference and Exhibition in March 2010. The project was hampered by interruption of funding due to continuing resolution issues and agreement on cost share for four months in 2008. This resulted in delays in finalizing agreements with commercial partners, and in particular the Invensys testbed was not installed until December 2008 (as opposed to the March 2008 plan). The project resulted in a number of conference presentations and publications, and was well received when presented at industry forums. In spite of some interest on the part of the utility sector, we were unfortunately not able to engage a utility for a full-scale pilot deployment.

  14. Nuclear reactor with internal thimble-type delayed neutron detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, Kenny C.; Poloncsik, John; Lambert, John D. B.

    1990-01-01

    This invention teaches improved apparatus for the method of detecting a breach in cladded fuel used in a nuclear reactor. The detector apparatus is located in the primary heat exchanger which conveys part of the reactor coolant past at least three separate delayed-neutron detectors mounted in this heat exchanger. The detectors are spaced apart such that the coolant flow time from the core to each detector is different, and these differences are known. The delayed-neutron activity at the detectors is a function of the delay time after the reaction in the fuel until the coolant carrying the delayed-neutron emitter passes the respective detector. This time delay is broken down into separate components including an isotopic holdup time required for the emitter to move through the fuel from the reaction to the coolant at the breach, and two transit times required for the emitter now in the coolant to flow from the breach to the detector loop and then via the loop to the detector. At least two of these time components are determined during calibrated operation of the reactor. Thereafter during normal reactor operation, repeated comparisons are made by the method of regression approximation of the third time component for the best-fit line correlating measured delayed-neutron activity against activity that is approximated according to specific equations. The equations use these time-delay components and known parameter values of the fuel and of the part and emitting daughter isotopes.

  15. Method to improve cancerous lesion detection sensitivity in a dedicated dual-head scintimammography system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kieper, Douglas Arthur; Majewski, Stanislaw; Welch, Benjamin L.

    2012-07-03

    An improved method for enhancing the contrast between background and lesion areas of a breast undergoing dual-head scintimammographic examination comprising: 1) acquiring a pair of digital images from a pair of small FOV or mini gamma cameras compressing the breast under examination from opposing sides; 2) inverting one of the pair of images to align or co-register with the other of the images to obtain co-registered pixel values; 3) normalizing the pair of images pixel-by-pixel by dividing pixel values from each of the two acquired images and the co-registered image by the average count per pixel in the entire breast area of the corresponding detector; and 4) multiplying the number of counts in each pixel by the value obtained in step 3 to produce a normalization enhanced two dimensional contrast map. This enhanced (increased contrast) contrast map enhances the visibility of minor local increases (uptakes) of activity over the background and therefore improves lesion detection sensitivity, especially of small lesions.

  16. Method to improve cancerous lesion detection sensitivity in a dedicated dual-head scintimammography system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kieper, Douglas Arthur; Majewski, Stanislaw; Welch, Benjamin L.

    2008-10-28

    An improved method for enhancing the contrast between background and lesion areas of a breast undergoing dual-head scintimammographic examination comprising: 1) acquiring a pair of digital images from a pair of small FOV or mini gamma cameras compressing the breast under examination from opposing sides; 2) inverting one of the pair of images to align or co-register with the other of the images to obtain co-registered pixel values; 3) normalizing the pair of images pixel-by-pixel by dividing pixel values from each of the two acquired images and the co-registered image by the average count per pixel in the entire breast area of the corresponding detector; and 4) multiplying the number of counts in each pixel by the value obtained in step 3 to produce a normalization enhanced two dimensional contrast map. This enhanced (increased contrast) contrast map enhances the visibility of minor local increases (uptakes) of activity over the background and therefore improves lesion detection sensitivity, especially of small lesions.

  17. Method to improve reliability of a fuel cell system using low performance cell detection at low power operation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choi, Tayoung; Ganapathy, Sriram; Jung, Jaehak; Savage, David R.; Lakshmanan, Balasubramanian; Vecasey, Pamela M.

    2013-04-16

    A system and method for detecting a low performing cell in a fuel cell stack using measured cell voltages. The method includes determining that the fuel cell stack is running, the stack coolant temperature is above a certain temperature and the stack current density is within a relatively low power range. The method further includes calculating the average cell voltage, and determining whether the difference between the average cell voltage and the minimum cell voltage is greater than a predetermined threshold. If the difference between the average cell voltage and the minimum cell voltage is greater than the predetermined threshold and the minimum cell voltage is less than another predetermined threshold, then the method increments a low performing cell timer. A ratio of the low performing cell timer and a system run timer is calculated to identify a low performing cell.

  18. Low-Intrusion Techniques and Sensitive Information Management for Warhead Counting and Verification: FY2011 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jarman, Kenneth D.; Robinson, Sean M.; McDonald, Benjamin S.; Gilbert, Andrew J.; Misner, Alex C.; Pitts, W. Karl; White, Timothy A.; Seifert, Allen; Miller, Erin A.

    2011-09-01

    Future arms control treaties may push nuclear weapons limits to unprecedented low levels and may entail precise counting of warheads as well as distinguishing between strategic and tactical nuclear weapons. Such advances will require assessment of form and function to confidently verify the presence or absence of nuclear warheads and/or their components. Imaging with penetrating radiation can provide such an assessment and could thus play a unique role in inspection scenarios. Yet many imaging capabilities have been viewed as too intrusive from the perspective of revealing weapon design details, and the potential for the release of sensitive information poses challenges in verification settings. A widely held perception is that verification through radiography requires images of sufficient quality that an expert (e.g., a trained inspector or an image-matching algorithm) can verify the presence or absence of components of a device. The concept of information barriers (IBs) has been established to prevent access to relevant weapon-design information by inspectors (or algorithms), and has, to date, limited the usefulness of radiographic inspection. The challenge of this project is to demonstrate that radiographic information can be used behind an IB to improve the capabilities of treaty-verification weapons-inspection systems.

  19. M-dwarf rapid rotators and the detection of relatively young multiple M-star systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rappaport, S.; Joss, M.; Sanchis-Ojeda, R. E-mail: mattjoss@mit.edu; and others

    2014-06-20

    We have searched the Kepler light curves of ?3900 M-star targets for evidence of periodicities that indicate, by means of the effects of starspots, rapid stellar rotation. Several analysis techniques, including Fourier transforms, inspection of folded light curves, 'sonograms', and phase tracking of individual modulation cycles, were applied in order to distinguish the periodicities due to rapid rotation from those due to stellar pulsations, eclipsing binaries, or transiting planets. We find 178 Kepler M-star targets with rotation periods, P {sub rot}, of <2 days, and 110 with P {sub rot} < 1 day. Some 30 of the 178 systems exhibit two or more independent short periods within the same Kepler photometric aperture, while several have 3 or more short periods. Adaptive optics imaging and modeling of the Kepler pixel response function for a subset of our sample support the conclusion that the targets with multiple periods are highly likely to be relatively young physical binary, triple, and even quadruple M star systems. We explore in detail the one object with four incommensurate periods all less than 1.2 days, and show that two of the periods arise from one of a close pair of stars, while the other two arise from the second star, which itself is probably a visual binary. If most of these M-star systems with multiple periods turn out to be bound M stars, this could prove a valuable way discovering young hierarchical M-star systems; the same approach may also be applicable to G and K stars. The ?5% occurrence rate of rapid rotation among the ?3900 M star targets is consistent with spin evolution models that include an initial contraction phase followed by magnetic braking, wherein a typical M star can spend several hundred Myr before spinning down to periods longer than 2 days.

  20. Radiation detection system using semiconductor detector with differential carrier trapping and mobility

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whited, Richard C. (Santa Barbara, CA)

    1981-01-01

    A system for obtaining improved resolution in relatively thick semiconductor radiation detectors, such as HgI.sub.2, which exhibit significant hole trapping. Two amplifiers are used: the first measures the charge collected and the second the contribution of the electrons to the charge collected. The outputs of the two amplifiers are utilized to unfold the total charge generated within the detector in response to a radiation event.

  1. Development of Integrated Online Monitoring Systems for Detection of Diversion at Natural Uranium Conversion Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dewji, Shaheen A; Lee, Denise L; Croft, Stephen; McElroy, Robert Dennis; Hertel, Nolan; Chapman, Jeffrey Allen; Cleveland, Steven L

    2013-01-01

    Recent work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has focused on some source term modeling of uranyl nitrate (UN) as part of a comprehensive validation effort employing gamma-ray detector instrumentation for the detection of diversion from declared conversion activities. Conversion, the process by which natural uranium ore (yellowcake) is purified and converted through a series of chemical processes into uranium hexafluoride gas (UF6), has historically been excluded from the nuclear safeguards requirements of the 235U-based nuclear fuel cycle. The undeclared diversion of this product material could potentially provide feedstock for a clandestine weapons program for state or non-state entities. Given the changing global political environment and the increased availability of dual-use nuclear technology, the International Atomic Energy Agency has evolved its policies to emphasize safeguarding this potential feedstock material in response to dynamic and evolving potential diversion pathways. To meet the demand for instrumentation testing at conversion facilities, ORNL developed the Uranyl Nitrate Calibration Loop Equipment (UNCLE) facility to simulate the full-scale operating conditions of a purified uranium-bearing aqueous stream exiting the solvent extraction process in a natural uranium conversion plant. This work investigates gamma-ray signatures of UN circulating in the UNCLE facility and evaluates detector instrumentation sensitivity to UN for safeguards applications. These detector validation activities include assessing detector responses to the UN gamma-ray signatures for spectrometers based on sodium iodide, lanthanum bromide, and germanium detectors. The results of measurements under static and dynamic operating conditions at concentrations ranging from 10-90g U/L of naturally enriched UN will be presented. A range of gamma-ray lines was examined and self-attenuation factors were calculated, in addition to attenuation for transmission measurement of density, concentration and enrichment. A detailed uncertainty analysis will be presented providing insights into instrumentation limitations to spoofing.

  2. Systematic measurement of fast neutron background fluctuations in an urban area using a mobile detection system

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Iyengar, Anagha; Beach, Matthew; Newby, Robert J.; Fabris, Lorenzo; Heilbronn, Lawrence H.; Hayward, Jason P.

    2015-11-12

    Neutron background measurements using a mobile trailer-based system were conducted in Knoxville, Tennessee. The 0.5 m2 system consisting of 8 EJ-301 liquid scintillation detectors was used to collect neutron background measurements in order to better understand the systematic background variations that depend solely on the street-level measurement position in a local, downtown area. Data was collected along 5 different streets in the downtown Knoxville area, and the measurements were found to be repeatable. Using 10-min measurements, fractional uncertainty in each measured data point was <2%. Compared with fast neutron background count rates measured away from downtown Knoxville, a reduction inmore » background count rates ranging from 10-50% was observed in the downtown area, sometimes varying substantially over distances of tens of meters. These reductions are attributed to the shielding of adjacent buildings, quantified in part here by the metric angle-of-open-sky. The adjacent buildings may serve to shield cosmic ray neutron flux.« less

  3. Systematic measurement of fast neutron background fluctuations in an urban area using a mobile detection system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iyengar, Anagha; Beach, Matthew; Newby, Robert J.; Fabris, Lorenzo; Heilbronn, Lawrence H.; Hayward, Jason P.

    2015-11-12

    Neutron background measurements using a mobile trailer-based system were conducted in Knoxville, Tennessee. The 0.5 m2 system consisting of 8 EJ-301 liquid scintillation detectors was used to collect neutron background measurements in order to better understand the systematic background variations that depend solely on the street-level measurement position in a local, downtown area. Data was collected along 5 different streets in the downtown Knoxville area, and the measurements were found to be repeatable. Using 10-min measurements, fractional uncertainty in each measured data point was <2%. Compared with fast neutron background count rates measured away from downtown Knoxville, a reduction in background count rates ranging from 10-50% was observed in the downtown area, sometimes varying substantially over distances of tens of meters. These reductions are attributed to the shielding of adjacent buildings, quantified in part here by the metric angle-of-open-sky. The adjacent buildings may serve to shield cosmic ray neutron flux.

  4. Systematic Fast Neutron Background Measurement Fluctuations in an Urban Area Using a Mobile Detection System

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Iyengar, Anagha S; Beach, Matthew R; Newby, Jason; Fabris, Lorenzo; Heilbronn, Lawrence; Hayward, J P

    2014-01-01

    Neutron background measurements using a mobile trailer-based system were conducted in Knoxville, Tennessee. The 0.5 m2 system consisting of 8 EJ-301 liquid scintillation detectors was used to collect neutron background measurements in order to better understand the systematic background variations that depend solely on the street-level measurement position in a local, downtown area. Data was collected along 5 different streets in the downtown Knoxville area, and the measurements were found to be repeatable. Using 10 min measurements, fractional uncertainty in each measured data point was <2%. Compared with fast neutron background count rates measured away from downtown Knoxville, a reductionmore » in background count rates ranging from 10-50% was observed in the downtown area, sometimes varying substantially over distances of tens of meters. These reductions are attributed to the shielding of adjacent buildings, quantified in part here by the metric angle-of-open-sky. The adjacent buildings may serve to shield cosmic ray neutron flux.« less

  5. Uniform Laser Excitation And Detection In Capillary Array Electrophoresis System And Method.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Qingbo; Zhou, Songsan; Liu, Changsheng

    2003-10-07

    A capillary electrophoresis system comprises capillaries positioned in parallel to each other forming a plane. The capillaries are configured to allow samples to migrate. A light source is configured to illuminate the capillaries and the samples therein. This causes the samples to emit light. A lens is configured to receive the light emitted by the samples and positioned directly over a first group of the capillaries and obliquely over a second group of the capillaries. The light source is further configured to illuminate the second group of capillaries more than the first group of the capillaries such that amount of light received by the lens from the first group of capillaries is substantially identical to amount of light received from the second group of capillaries when an identical amount of the samples is migrating through the first and second group capillaries.

  6. Real-Time Detection Method And System For Identifying Individual Aerosol Particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gard, Eric Evan; Fergenson, David Philip

    2005-10-25

    A method and system of identifying individual aerosol particles in real time. Sample aerosol particles are compared against and identified with substantially matching known particle types by producing positive and negative test spectra of an individual aerosol particle using a bipolar single particle mass spectrometer. Each test spectrum is compared to spectra of the same respective polarity in a database of predetermined positive and negative spectra for known particle types and a set of substantially matching spectra is obtained. Finally the identity of the individual aerosol particle is determined from the set of substantially matching spectra by determining a best matching one of the known particle types having both a substantially matching positive spectrum and a substantially matching negative spectrum associated with the best matching known particle type.

  7. Physics based model for online fault detection in autonomous cryogenic loading system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kashani, Ali; Ponizhovskaya, Ekaterina; Luchinsky, Dmitry; Smelyanskiy, Vadim; Patterson-Hine, Anna; Sass, Jared; Brown, Barbara

    2014-01-29

    We report the progress in the development of the chilldown model for a rapid cryogenic loading system developed at NASA-Kennedy Space Center. The nontrivial characteristic feature of the analyzed chilldown regime is its active control by dump valves. The two-phase flow model of the chilldown is approximated as one-dimensional homogeneous fluid flow with no slip condition for the interphase velocity. The model is built using commercial SINDA/FLUINT software. The results of numerical predictions are in good agreement with the experimental time traces. The obtained results pave the way to the application of the SINDA/FLUINT model as a verification tool for the design and algorithm development required for autonomous loading operation.

  8. Real-time detection method and system for identifying individual aerosol particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gard, Eric E. (San Francisco, CA); Coffee, Keith R. (Patterson, CA); Frank, Matthias (Oakland, CA); Tobias, Herbert J. (Kensington, CA); Fergenson, David P. (Alamo, CA); Madden, Norm (Livermore, CA); Riot, Vincent J. (Berkeley, CA); Steele, Paul T. (Livermore, CA); Woods, Bruce W. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-08-21

    An improved method and system of identifying individual aerosol particles in real time. Sample aerosol particles are collimated, tracked, and screened to determine which ones qualify for mass spectrometric analysis based on predetermined qualification or selection criteria. Screening techniques include one or more of determining particle size, shape, symmetry, and fluorescence. Only qualifying particles passing all screening criteria are subject to desorption/ionization and single particle mass spectrometry to produce corresponding test spectra, which is used to determine the identities of each of the qualifying aerosol particles by comparing the test spectra against predetermined spectra for known particle types. In this manner, activation cycling of a particle ablation laser of a single particle mass spectrometer is reduced.

  9. Update on intrusive characterization of mixed contact-handled transuranic waste at Argonne-West

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dwight, C.C.; Jensen, B.A.; Bryngelson, C.D.; Duncan, D.S.

    1997-02-03

    Argonne National Laboratory and Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company have jointly participated in the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Transuranic Waste Characterization Program since 1990. Intrusive examinations have been conducted in the Waste Characterization Area, located at Argonne-West in Idaho Falls, Idaho, on over 200 drums of mixed contact-handled transuranic waste. This is double the number of drums characterized since the last update at the 1995 Waste Management Conference. These examinations have provided waste characterization information that supports performance assessment of WIPP and that supports Lockheed`s compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Operating philosophies and corresponding regulatory permits have been broadened to provide greater flexibility and capability for waste characterization, such as the provision for minor treatments like absorption, neutralization, stabilization, and amalgamation. This paper provides an update on Argonne`s intrusive characterization permits, procedures, results, and lessons learned. Other DOE sites that must deal with mixed contact-handled transuranic waste have initiated detailed planning for characterization of their own waste. The information presented herein could aid these other storage and generator sites in further development of their characterization efforts.

  10. Optimization of Design and Manufacturing Process of Metal Foam Filled Anti-Intrusion Bars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Villa, Andrea; Mussi, Valerio; Strano, Matteo

    2011-05-04

    The role of an anti-intrusion bar for automotive use is to absorb the kinetic energy of the colliding bodies that is partially converted into internal work of the bodies involved in the crash. The aim of this paper is to investigate the performances of a new kind of anti-intrusion bars for automotive use, filled with metallic foams. The reason for using a cellular material as a filler deals with its capacity to absorb energy during plastic deformation, while being lightweight. The study is the evolution of a previous paper presented by the authors at Esaform 2010 and will present new results and findings. It is conducted by evaluating some key technical issues of the manufacturing problem and by conducting experimental and numerical analyses. The evaluation of materials and shapes of the closed sections to be filled is made in the perspective of a car manufacturer (production costs, weight reduction, space availability in a car door, etc.). Experimentally, foams are produced starting from an industrial aluminium precursor with a TiH{sub 2} blowing agent. Bars are tested in three point bending, in order to evaluate their performances in terms of force-displacement response and other specific performance parameters. In order to understand the role of interface between the inner surface of the tube and the external surface of the foam, different kinds of interface are tested.

  11. Secure Data Transfer Guidance for Industrial Control and SCADA Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahan, Robert E.; Fluckiger, Jerry D.; Clements, Samuel L.; Tews, Cody W.; Burnette, John R.; Goranson, Craig A.; Kirkham, Harold

    2011-09-01

    This document was developed to provide guidance for the implementation of secure data transfer in a complex computational infrastructure representative of the electric power and oil and natural gas enterprises and the control systems they implement. For the past 20 years the cyber security community has focused on preventative measures intended to keep systems secure by providing a hard outer shell that is difficult to penetrate. Over time, the hard exterior, soft interior focus changed to focus on defense-in-depth adding multiple layers of protection, introducing intrusion detection systems, more effective incident response and cleanup, and many other security measures. Despite much larger expenditures and more layers of defense, successful attacks have only increased in number and severity. Consequently, it is time to re-focus the conventional approach to cyber security. While it is still important to implement measures to keep intruders out, a new protection paradigm is warranted that is aimed at discovering attempted or real compromises as early as possible. Put simply, organizations should take as fact that they have been, are now, or will be compromised. These compromises may be intended to steal information for financial gain as in the theft of intellectual property or credentials that lead to the theft of financial resources, or to lie silent until instructed to cause physical or electronic damage and/or denial of services. This change in outlook has been recently confirmed by the National Security Agency [19]. The discovery of attempted and actual compromises requires an increased focus on monitoring events by manual and/or automated log monitoring, detecting unauthorized changes to a system's hardware and/or software, detecting intrusions, and/or discovering the exfiltration of sensitive information and/or attempts to send inappropriate commands to ICS/SCADA (Industrial Control System/Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) systems.

  12. System and method for ultrafast optical signal detecting via a synchronously coupled anamorphic light pulse encoded laterally

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heebner, John E.

    2010-08-03

    In one general embodiment, a method for ultrafast optical signal detecting is provided. In operation, a first optical input signal is propagated through a first wave guiding layer of a waveguide. Additionally, a second optical input signal is propagated through a second wave guiding layer of the waveguide. Furthermore, an optical control signal is applied to a top of the waveguide, the optical control signal being oriented diagonally relative to the top of the waveguide such that the application is used to influence at least a portion of the first optical input signal propagating through the first wave guiding layer of the waveguide. In addition, the first and the second optical input signals output from the waveguide are combined. Further, the combined optical signals output from the waveguide are detected. In another general embodiment, a system for ultrafast optical signal recording is provided comprising a waveguide including a plurality of wave guiding layers, an optical control source positioned to propagate an optical control signal towards the waveguide in a diagonal orientation relative to a top of the waveguide, at least one optical input source positioned to input an optical input signal into at least a first and a second wave guiding layer of the waveguide, and a detector for detecting at least one interference pattern output from the waveguide, where at least one of the interference patterns results from a combination of the optical input signals input into the first and the second wave guiding layer. Furthermore, propagation of the optical control signal is used to influence at least a portion of the optical input signal propagating through the first wave guiding layer of the waveguide.

  13. Monitoring CO 2 sequestration into deep saline aquifer and associated salt intrusion using coupled multiphase flow modeling and time lapse electrical resistivity tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chuan Lu; CHI Zhang; Hai Hanag; Timothy C. Johnson

    2014-04-01

    Successful geological storage and sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) require efficient monitoring of the migration of CO2 plume during and after large-scale injection in order to verify the containment of the injected CO2 within the target formation and to evaluate potential leakage risk. Field studies have shown that surface and cross-borehole electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) can be a useful tool in imaging and characterizing solute transport in heterogeneous subsurface. In this synthetic study, we have coupled a 3-D multiphase flow model with a parallel 3-D time-lapse ERT inversion code to explore the feasibility of using time-lapse ERT for simultaneously monitoring the migration of CO2 plume in deep saline formation and potential brine intrusion into shallow fresh water aquifer. Direct comparisons of the inverted CO2 plumes resulting from ERT with multiphase flow simulation results indicate the ERT could be used to delineate the migration of CO2 plume. Detailed comparisons on the locations, sizes and shapes of CO2 plume and intruded brine plumes suggest that ERT inversion tends to underestimate the area review of the CO2 plume, but overestimate the thickness and total volume of the CO2 plume. The total volume of intruded brine plumes is overestimated as well. However, all discrepancies remain within reasonable ranges. Our study suggests that time-lapse ERT is a useful monitoring tool in characterizing the movement of injected CO2 into deep saline aquifer and detecting potential brine intrusion under large-scale field injection conditions.

  14. Method and apparatus for distributed intrusion protection system for ultra high bandwidth networks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goranson, Craig A.; Burnette, John R.; Greitzer, Frank L.; McMillan, Bryan H.

    2013-10-15

    A method for providing security to a network having a data stream with a plurality of portions of data, each having differing levels of sensitivity. The data stream is interrogated to determine the presence of predetermined characteristics associated with at least one of the portions of data within the data stream. At least one of the portions of data is then characterized, based upon the portion of data exhibiting a predetermined combination of characteristics, wherein the predetermined combination of characteristics is related to the sensitivity of the portion of data. The portions of the data stream are then distributed into a plurality of different channels, each of the channels associated with different level of sensitivity.

  15. Development of a System for Rapid Detection of Contaminants in Water Supplies Using Magnetic Resonance and Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowery, Thomas J; Neely, Lori; Chepin, James; Wellman, Parris; Toso, Ken; Murray, Paul; Audeh, Mark; Demas, Vasiliki; Palazzolo, Robert; Min, Michael; Phung, Nu; Blanco, Matt; Raphel, Jordan; O'Neil, Troy

    2010-09-14

    To keep the water supply safe and to ensure a swift and accurate response to a water supply contamination event, rapid and robust methods for microbial testing are necessary. Current technologies are complex, lengthy and costly and there is a need for rapid, reliable, and precise approaches that can readily address this fundamental security and safety issue. T2 Biosystems is focused on providing solutions to this problem by making breakthroughs in nanotechnology and biosensor techniques that address the current technical restrictions facing rapid, molecular analysis in complex samples. In order to apply the T2 Biosystems nucleic acid detection procedure to the analysis of nucleic acid targets in unprocessed water samples, Bacillus thuringeinsis was selected as a model organism and local river water was selected as the sample matrix. The initial assay reagent formulation was conceived with a manual magnetic resonance reader, was optimized using a high throughput system, and transferred back to the MR reader for potential field use. The final assay employing the designed and manufactured instruments was capable of detecting 10 CFU/mL of B. thuringiensis directly within the environmental water sample within 90 minutes. Further, discrimination of two closely related species of Bacilli was accomplished using the methods of this project; greater than 3-fold discrimination between B. cereus and B. thuringiensis at a concentrations spanning 10 CFU/mL to 10{sup 5} CFU/mL was observed.

  16. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE DETECTION OF THE DOUBLE PULSAR SYSTEM J07373039 IN THE FAR-ULTRAVIOLET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durant, Martin; Kargaltsev, Oleg; Pavlov, George G. E-mail: kargaltsev@email.gwu.edu

    2014-03-01

    We report on detection of the double pulsar system J07373039 in the far-UV with the Advanced Camera for Surveys/Solar-blind Channel detector aboard Hubble Space Telescope. We measured the energy flux F = (4.6 1.0) 10{sup 17}ergcm{sup 2} s{sup 1} in the 1250-1550 band, which corresponds to the extinction-corrected luminosity L ? 1.5 10{sup 28}ergs{sup 1} for the distance d = 1.1kpc and a plausible reddening E(B V) = 0.1. If the detected emission comes from the entire surface of one of the neutron stars with a 13km radius, the surface blackbody temperature is in the range T ? (2-5) 10{sup 5}K for a reasonable range of interstellar extinction. Such a temperature requires an internal heating mechanism to operate in old neutron stars, or, less likely, it might be explained by heating of the surface of the less energetic Pulsar B by the relativistic wind of Pulsar A. If the far-ultraviolet emission is non-thermal (e.g., produced in the magnetosphere of Pulsar A), its spectrum exhibits a break between the UV and X-rays.

  17. QSO ABSORPTION SYSTEMS DETECTED IN Ne VIII: HIGH-METALLICITY CLOUDS WITH A LARGE EFFECTIVE CROSS SECTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meiring, J. D.; Tripp, T. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)] [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Werk, J. K.; Prochaska, J. X. [University of California Observatories-Lick Observatory, UC Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)] [University of California Observatories-Lick Observatory, UC Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Howk, J. C. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Jenkins, E. B. [Princeton University Observatory, Peyton Hall, Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)] [Princeton University Observatory, Peyton Hall, Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Lehner, N.; Sembach, K. R. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)] [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2013-04-10

    Using high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ultraviolet spectra of the z{sub em} = 0.9754 quasar PG1148+549 obtained with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on the Hubble Space Telescope, we study the physical conditions and abundances of Ne VIII+O VI absorption line systems at z{sub abs} = 0.68381, 0.70152, 0.72478. In addition to Ne VIII and O VI, absorption lines from multiple ionization stages of oxygen (O II, O III, O IV) are detected and are well aligned with the more highly ionized species. We show that these absorbers are multiphase systems including hot gas (T Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 5.7} K) that produces Ne VIII and O VI, and the gas metallicity of the cool phase ranges from Z = 0.3 Z{sub Sun} to supersolar. The cool ( Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 4} K) phases have densities n{sub H} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -4} cm{sup -3} and small sizes (<4 kpc); these cool clouds are likely to expand and dissipate, and the Ne VIII may be within a transition layer between the cool gas and a surrounding, much hotter medium. The Ne VIII redshift density, dN/dz{approx}7{sup +7}{sub -3}, requires a large number of these clouds for every L > 0.1 L* galaxy and a large effective absorption cross section ({approx}> 100 kpc), and indeed, we find a star-forming {approx}L {sup *} galaxy at the redshift of the z{sub abs} = 0.72478 system, at an impact parameter of 217 kpc. Multiphase absorbers like these Ne VIII systems are likely to be an important reservoir of baryons and metals in the circumgalactic media of galaxies.

  18. Row fault detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles Jens; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian Edward

    2010-02-23

    An apparatus and program product check for nodal faults in a row of nodes by causing each node in the row to concurrently communicate with its adjacent neighbor nodes in the row. The communications are analyzed to determine a presence of a faulty node or connection.

  19. Row fault detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles Jens; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian Edward

    2008-10-14

    An apparatus, program product and method checks for nodal faults in a row of nodes by causing each node in the row to concurrently communicate with its adjacent neighbor nodes in the row. The communications are analyzed to determine a presence of a faulty node or connection.

  20. Bisectional fault detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles Jens; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian Edward

    2008-11-11

    An apparatus, program product and method logically divides a group of nodes and causes node pairs comprising a node from each section to communicate. Results from the communications may be analyzed to determine performance characteristics, such as bandwidth and proper connectivity.

  1. Bisectional fault detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles Jens; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian Edward

    2012-02-14

    An apparatus, program product and method logically divide a group of nodes and causes node pairs comprising a node from each section to communicate. Results from the communications may be analyzed to determine performance characteristics, such as bandwidth and proper connectivity.

  2. Row fault detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles Jens; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian Edward

    2012-02-07

    An apparatus, program product and method check for nodal faults in a row of nodes by causing each node in the row to concurrently communicate with its adjacent neighbor nodes in the row. The communications are analyzed to determine a presence of a faulty node or connection.

  3. Bisectional fault detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles Jens; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian Edward

    2009-08-04

    An apparatus and program product logically divide a group of nodes and causes node pairs comprising a node from each section to communicate. Results from the communications may be analyzed to determine performance characteristics, such as bandwidth and proper connectivity.

  4. Radiation detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Riedel, Richard A.; Wintenberg, Alan L.; Clonts, Lloyd G.; Cooper, Ronald G.

    2012-02-14

    A preamplifier circuit for processing a signal provided by a radiation detector includes a transimpedance amplifier coupled to receive a current signal from a detector and generate a voltage signal at its output. A second amplification stage has an input coupled to an output of the transimpedance amplifier for providing an amplified voltage signal. Detector electronics include a preamplifier circuit having a first and second transimpedance amplifier coupled to receive a current signal from a first and second location on a detector, respectively, and generate a first and second voltage signal at respective outputs. A second amplification stage has an input coupled to an output of the transimpedance amplifiers for amplifying the first and said second voltage signals to provide first and second amplified voltage signals. A differential output stage is coupled to the second amplification stage for receiving the first and second amplified voltage signals and providing a pair of outputs from each of the first and second amplified voltage signals. Read out circuitry has an input coupled to receive both of the pair of outputs, the read out circuitry having structure for processing each of the pair of outputs, and providing a single digital output having a time-stamp therefrom.

  5. Fission gas detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colburn, Richard P. (Pasco, WA)

    1985-01-01

    A device for collecting fission gas released by a failed fuel rod which device uses a filter to pass coolant but which filter blocks fission gas bubbles which cannot pass through the filter due to the surface tension of the bubble.

  6. Apparatus and method for detecting a magnetic anomaly contiguous to remote location by SQUID gradiometer and magnetometer systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Overton, W.C. Jr.; Steyert, W.A. Jr.

    1981-05-22

    A superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetic detection apparatus detects magnetic fields, signals, and anomalies at remote locations. Two remotely rotatable SQUID gradiometers may be housed in a cryogenic environment to search for and locate unambiguously magnetic anomalies. The SQUID magnetic detection apparatus can be used to determine the azimuth of a hydrofracture by first flooding the hydrofracture with a ferrofluid to create an artificial magnetic anomaly therein.

  7. System and method of reducing motion-induced noise in the optical detection of an ultrasound signal in a moving body of material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Habeger, Jr., Charles C.; LaFond, Emmanuel F.; Brodeur, Pierre; Gerhardstein, Joseph P.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides a system and method to reduce motion-induced noise in the detection of ultrasonic signals in a moving sheet or body of material. An ultrasonic signal is generated in a sheet of material and a detection laser beam is moved along the surface of the material. By moving the detection laser in the same direction as the direction of movement of the sheet of material the amount of noise induced in the detection of the ultrasonic signal is reduced. The scanner is moved at approximately the same speed as the moving material. The system and method may be used for many applications, such in a paper making process or steel making process. The detection laser may be directed by a scanner. The movement of the scanner is synchronized with the anticipated arrival of the ultrasonic signal under the scanner. A photodetector may be used to determine when a ultrasonic pulse has been directed to the moving sheet of material so that the scanner may be synchronized the anticipated arrival of the ultrasonic signal.

  8. A CAD system for nodule detection in low-dose lung CTs based on region growing and a new active contour model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bellotti, R.; De Carlo, F.; Gargano, G.; Tangaro, S.; Cascio, D.; Catanzariti, E.; Cerello, P.; Cheran, S. C.; Delogu, P.; De Mitri, I.; Fulcheri, C.; Grosso, D.; Retico, A.; Squarcia, S.; Tommasi, E.; Golosio, Bruno

    2007-12-15

    A computer-aided detection (CAD) system for the selection of lung nodules in computer tomography (CT) images is presented. The system is based on region growing (RG) algorithms and a new active contour model (ACM), implementing a local convex hull, able to draw the correct contour of the lung parenchyma and to include the pleural nodules. The CAD consists of three steps: (1) the lung parenchymal volume is segmented by means of a RG algorithm; the pleural nodules are included through the new ACM technique; (2) a RG algorithm is iteratively applied to the previously segmented volume in order to detect the candidate nodules; (3) a double-threshold cut and a neural network are applied to reduce the false positives (FPs). After having set the parameters on a clinical CT, the system works on whole scans, without the need for any manual selection. The CT database was recorded at the Pisa center of the ITALUNG-CT trial, the first Italian randomized controlled trial for the screening of the lung cancer. The detection rate of the system is 88.5% with 6.6 FPs/CT on 15 CT scans (about 4700 sectional images) with 26 nodules: 15 internal and 11 pleural. A reduction to 2.47 FPs/CT is achieved at 80% efficiency.

  9. Spectroscopic detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woskov, Paul P. (Bedford, MA); Hadidi, Kamal (Cambridge, MA)

    2003-01-01

    In embodiments, spectroscopic monitor monitors modulated light signals to detect low levels of contaminants and other compounds in the presence of background interference. The monitor uses a spectrometer that includes a transmissive modulator capable of causing different frequency ranges to move onto and off of the detector. The different ranges can include those with the desired signal and those selected to subtract background contributions from those with the desired signal. Embodiments of the system are particularly useful for monitoring metal concentrations in combustion effluent.

  10. Detecting and Blocking Network Attacks at Ultra High Speeds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paxson, Vern

    2010-11-29

    Stateful, in-depth, in-line traffic analysis for intrusion detection and prevention has grown increasingly more difficult as the data rates of modern networks rise. One point in the design space for high-performance network analysis - pursued by a number of commercial products - is the use of sophisticated custom hardware. For very high-speed processing, such systems often cast the entire analysis process in ASICs. This project pursued a different architectural approach, which we term Shunting. Shunting marries a conceptually quite simple hardware device with an Intrusion Prevention System (IPS) running on commodity PC hardware. The overall design goal is was to keep the hardware both cheap and readily scalable to future higher speeds, yet also retain the unparalleled flexibility that running the main IPS analysis in a full general-computing environment provides. The Shunting architecture we developed uses a simple in-line hardware element that maintains several large state tables indexed by packet header fields, including IP/TCP flags, source and destination IP addresses, and connection tuples. The tables yield decision values the element makes on a packet-by-packet basis: forward the packet, drop it, or divert ('shunt') it through the IPS (the default). By manipulating table entries, the IPS can, on a fine-grained basis: (i) specify the traffic it wishes to examine, (ii) directly block malicious traffic, and (iii) 'cut through' traffic streams once it has had an opportunity to 'vet' them, or (iv) skip over large items within a stream before proceeding to further analyze it. For the Shunting architecture to yield benefits, it needs to operate in an environment for which the monitored network traffic has the property that - after proper vetting - much of it can be safely skipped. This property does not universally hold. For example, if a bank needs to examine all Web traffic involving its servers for regulatory compliance, then a monitor in front of one of the bank's server farms cannot safely omit a subset of the traffic from analysis. In this environment, Shunting cannot realize its main performance benefits, and the monitoring task likely calls for using custom hardware instead. However, in many other environments we find Shunting holds promise for delivering major performance gains. This arises due to the the widely documented 'heavy tail' nature of most forms of network traffic, which we might express as 'a few of the connections carry just about all the bytes.' The key additional insight is '... and very often for these few large connections, the very beginning of the connection contains nearly all the information of interest from a security analysis perspective.' We argue that this second claim holds because it is at the beginning of connections that authentication exchanges occur, data or file names and types are specified, request and reply status codes conveyed, and encryption is negotiated. Once these occur, we have seen most of the interesting facets of the dialog. Certainly the remainder of the connection might also yield some grist for analysis, but this is generally less likely, and thus if we want to lower analysis load at as small a loss as possible of information relevant to security analysis, we might best do so by skipping the bulk of large connections. In a different context, the 'Time Machine' work by Kornexl and colleagues likewise shows that in some environments we can realize major reductions in the volume of network traffic processed, by limiting the processing to the first 10-20 KB of each connection. As a concrete example, consider an IPS that monitors SSH traffic. When a new SSH connection arrives and the Shunt fails to find an entry for it in any of its tables (per-address, per-port, per-connection), it executes the default action of diverting the connection through the IPS. The IPS analyzes the beginning of the connection in this fashion. As long as it is satisified with the dialog, it reinjects the packets forwarded to it so that the connection can continue. If the connection successfully negotiates encryption, the IPS can no longer profitably analyze it, so it downloads a per-connection table entry to the Shunt specifying that the action for the connection in the future is 'forward.' For heavy-tailed connections, this means a very large majority of the connection's packets will now pass through the Shunt device without burdening the IPS with any further analysis load. On the other hand, if the IPS is dissatisfied with some element of the initial dialog, it downloads a 'drop' entry to terminate the connection. Note that by providing for reinjection, we can promote an intrusion detection system into an intrusion prevention system, one that does not merely detect attacks but can block them before they complete. Reinjection also allows the IPS to normalize traffic to remove ambiguities that attackers can leverage to evade the IPS.

  11. Use of the UNCLE Facility to Assess Integrated Online Monitoring Systems for Detection of Diversions at Uranium Conversion Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dewji, Shaheen A; Chapman, Jeffrey Allen; Lee, Denise L; Rauch, Eric; Hertel, Nolan

    2011-01-01

    Historically, the approach to safeguarding nuclear material in the front end of the fuel cycle was implemented only at the stage when UF6 was declared as feedstock for enrichment plants. Recent International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) circulars and policy papers have sought to implement safeguards when any purified aqueous uranium solution or uranium oxides suitable for isotopic enrichment or fuel fabrication exist. Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed the Uranyl Nitrate Calibration Loop Equipment (UNCLE) facility to simulate the full-scale operating conditions for a purified uranium-bearing aqueous stream exiting the solvent extraction process conducted in a natural uranium conversion plant (NUCP) operating at 6000 MTU/year. Monitoring instruments, including the 3He passive neutron detector developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Endress+Hauser Promass 83F Coriolis meter, have been tested at UNCLE and field tested at Springfields. The field trials demonstrated the need to perform full-scale equipment testing under controlled conditions prior to field deployment of operations and safeguards monitoring at additional plants. Currently, UNCLE is testing neutron-based monitoring for detection of noncompliant activities; however, gamma-ray source term monitoring is currently being explored complementary to the neutron detector in order to detect undeclared activities in a more timely manner. The preliminary results of gamma-ray source term modeling and monitoring at UNCLE are being analyzed as part of a comprehensive source term and detector benchmarking effort. Based on neutron source term detection capabilities, alternative gamma-based detection and monitoring methods will be proposed to more effectively monitor NUCP operations in verifying or detecting deviations from declared conversion activities.

  12. Array for detecting microbes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andersen, Gary L.; DeSantis, Todd D.

    2014-07-08

    The present embodiments relate to an array system for detecting and identifying biomolecules and organisms. More specifically, the present embodiments relate to an array system comprising a microarray configured to simultaneously detect a plurality of organisms in a sample at a high confidence level.

  13. Simulated Performance of Algorithms for the Localization of Radioactive Sources from a Position Sensitive Radiation Detecting System (COCAE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karafasoulis, K.; Zachariadou, K.; Seferlis, S.; Kaissas, I.; Potiriadis, C.; Lambropoulos, C.; Loukas, D.

    2011-12-13

    Simulation studies are presented regarding the performance of algorithms that localize point-like radioactive sources detected by a position sensitive portable radiation instrument (COCAE). The source direction is estimated by using the List Mode Maximum Likelihood Expectation Maximization (LM-ML-EM) imaging algorithm. Furthermore, the source-to-detector distance is evaluated by three different algorithms based on the photo-peak count information of each detecting layer, the quality of the reconstructed source image, and the triangulation method. These algorithms have been tested on a large number of simulated photons over a wide energy range (from 200 keV to 2 MeV) emitted by point-like radioactive sources located at different orientations and source-to-detector distances.

  14. Evaluation of Manual Ultrasonic Examinations Applied to Detect Flaws in Primary System Dissimilar Metal Welds at North Anna Power Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Michael T.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2012-06-01

    During a recent inservice inspection (ISI) of a dissimilar metal weld (DMW) in an inlet (hot leg) steam generator nozzle at North Anna Power Station Unit 1, several axially oriented flaws went undetected by the licensee's manual ultrasonic testing (UT) technique. The flaws were subsequently detected as a result of outside diameter (OD) surface machining in preparation for a full structural weld overlay. The machining operation uncovered the existence of two through-wall flaws, based on the observance of primary water leaking from the DMW. Further ultrasonic tests were then performed, and a total of five axially oriented flaws, classified as primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC), were detected in varied locations around the weld circumference.

  15. An interactive ontology-driven information system for simulating background radiation and generating scenarios for testing special nuclear materials detection algorithms

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sorokine, Alexandre; Schlicher, Bob G; Ward, Richard C; Wright, Michael C; Kruse, Kara L

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an original approach to generating scenarios for the purpose of testing the algorithms used to detect special nuclear materials (SNM) that incorporates the use of ontologies. Separating the signal of SNM from the background requires sophisticated algorithms. To assist in developing such algorithms, there is a need for scenarios that capture a very wide range of variables affecting the detection process, depending on the type of detector being used. To provide such a cpability, we developed an ontology-driven information system (ODIS) for generating scenarios that can be used in creating scenarios for testing of algorithms for SNMmore » detection. The ontology-driven scenario generator (ODSG) is an ODIS based on information supplied by subject matter experts and other documentation. The details of the creation of the ontology, the development of the ontology-driven information system, and the design of the web user interface (UI) are presented along with specific examples of scenarios generated using the ODSG. We demonstrate that the paradigm behind the ODSG is capable of addressing the problem of semantic complexity at both the user and developer levels. Compared to traditional approaches, an ODIS provides benefits such as faithful representation of the users' domain conceptualization, simplified management of very large and semantically diverse datasets, and the ability to handle frequent changes to the application and the UI. The approach makes possible the generation of a much larger number of specific scenarios based on limited user-supplied information« less

  16. An interactive ontology-driven information system for simulating background radiation and generating scenarios for testing special nuclear materials detection algorithms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorokine, Alexandre; Schlicher, Bob G; Ward, Richard C; Wright, Michael C; Kruse, Kara L

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an original approach to generating scenarios for the purpose of testing the algorithms used to detect special nuclear materials (SNM) that incorporates the use of ontologies. Separating the signal of SNM from the background requires sophisticated algorithms. To assist in developing such algorithms, there is a need for scenarios that capture a very wide range of variables affecting the detection process, depending on the type of detector being used. To provide such a cpability, we developed an ontology-driven information system (ODIS) for generating scenarios that can be used in creating scenarios for testing of algorithms for SNM detection. The ontology-driven scenario generator (ODSG) is an ODIS based on information supplied by subject matter experts and other documentation. The details of the creation of the ontology, the development of the ontology-driven information system, and the design of the web user interface (UI) are presented along with specific examples of scenarios generated using the ODSG. We demonstrate that the paradigm behind the ODSG is capable of addressing the problem of semantic complexity at both the user and developer levels. Compared to traditional approaches, an ODIS provides benefits such as faithful representation of the users' domain conceptualization, simplified management of very large and semantically diverse datasets, and the ability to handle frequent changes to the application and the UI. The approach makes possible the generation of a much larger number of specific scenarios based on limited user-supplied information

  17. Method and system for detecting polygon boundaries of structures in images as particle tracks through fields of corners and pixel gradients

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paglieroni, David W.; Manay, Siddharth

    2011-12-20

    A stochastic method and system for detecting polygon structures in images, by detecting a set of best matching corners of predetermined acuteness .alpha. of a polygon model from a set of similarity scores based on GDM features of corners, and tracking polygon boundaries as particle tracks using a sequential Monte Carlo approach. The tracking involves initializing polygon boundary tracking by selecting pairs of corners from the set of best matching corners to define a first side of a corresponding polygon boundary; tracking all intermediate sides of the polygon boundaries using a particle filter, and terminating polygon boundary tracking by determining the last side of the tracked polygon boundaries to close the polygon boundaries. The particle tracks are then blended to determine polygon matches, which may be made available, such as to a user, for ranking and inspection.

  18. Fiber-Optic Defect and Damage Locator System for Wind Turbine Blades

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Vahid Sotoudeh; Dr. Richard J. Black; Dr. Behzad Moslehi; Mr. Aleks Plavsic

    2010-10-30

    IFOS in collaboration with Auburn University demonstrated the feasibility of a Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) integrated sensor system capable of providing real time in-situ defect detection, localization and quantification of damage. In addition, the system is capable of validating wind turbine blade structural models, using recent advances in non-contact, non-destructive dynamic testing of composite structures. This new generation method makes it possible to analyze wind turbine blades not only non-destructively, but also without physically contacting or implanting intrusive electrical elements and transducers into the structure. Phase I successfully demonstrated the feasibility of the technology with the construction of a 1.5 kHz sensor interrogator and preliminary instrumentation and testing of both composite material coupons and a wind turbine blade.

  19. Management of the baseline shift using a new and simple method for respiratory-gated radiation therapy: Detectability and effectiveness of a flexible monitoring system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tachibana, Hidenobu; Kitamura, Nozomi; Ito, Yasushi; Kawai, Daisuke; Nakajima, Masaru; Tsuda, Akihisa; Shiizuka, Hisao

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: In respiratory-gated radiation therapy, a baseline shift decreases the accuracy of target coverage and organs at risk (OAR) sparing. The effectiveness of audio-feedback and audio-visual feedback in correcting the baseline shift in the breathing pattern of the patient has been demonstrated previously. However, the baseline shift derived from the intrafraction motion of the patient's body cannot be corrected by these methods. In the present study, the authors designed and developed a simple and flexible system. Methods: The system consisted of a web camera and a computer running our in-house software. The in-house software was adapted to template matching and also to no preimage processing. The system was capable of monitoring the baseline shift in the intrafraction motion of the patient's body. Another marker box was used to monitor the baseline shift due to the flexible setups required of a marker box for gated signals. The system accuracy was evaluated by employing a respiratory motion phantom and was found to be within AAPM Task Group 142 tolerance (positional accuracy <2 mm and temporal accuracy <100 ms) for respiratory-gated radiation therapy. Additionally, the effectiveness of this flexible and independent system in gated treatment was investigated in healthy volunteers, in terms of the results from the differences in the baseline shift detectable between the marker positions, which the authors evaluated statistically. Results: The movement of the marker on the sternum [1.599 {+-} 0.622 mm (1 SD)] was substantially decreased as compared with the abdomen [6.547 {+-} 0.962 mm (1 SD)]. Additionally, in all of the volunteers, the baseline shifts for the sternum [-0.136 {+-} 0.868 (2 SD)] were in better agreement with the nominal baseline shifts than was the case for the abdomen [-0.722 {+-} 1.56 mm (2 SD)]. The baseline shifts could be accurately measured and detected using the monitoring system, which could acquire the movement of the marker on the sternum. The baseline shift-monitoring system with the displacement-based methods for highly accurate respiratory-gated treatments should be used to make most of the displacement-based gating methods. Conclusions: The advent of intensity modulated radiation therapy and volumetric modulated radiation therapy facilitates margin reduction for the planning target volumes and the OARs, but highly accurate irradiation is needed to achieve target coverage and OAR sparing with a small margin. The baseline shifts can affect treatment not only with the respiratory gating system but also without the system. Our system can manage the baseline shift and also enables treatment irradiation to be undertaken with high accuracy.

  20. Finite Energy and Bounded Attacks on Control System Sensor Signals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Djouadi, Seddik M; Melin, Alexander M; Ferragut, Erik M; Laska, Jason A

    2014-01-01

    Control system networks are increasingly being connected to enterprise level networks. These connections leave critical industrial controls systems vulnerable to cyber-attacks. Most of the effort in protecting these cyber-physical systems (CPS) has been in securing the networks using information security techniques and protection and reliability concerns at the control system level against random hardware and software failures. However, besides these failures the inability of information security techniques to protect against all intrusions means that the control system must be resilient to various signal attacks for which new analysis and detection methods need to be developed. In this paper, sensor signal attacks are analyzed for observer-based controlled systems. The threat surface for sensor signal attacks is subdivided into denial of service, finite energy, and bounded attacks. In particular, the error signals between states of attack free systems and systems subject to these attacks are quantified. Optimal sensor and actuator signal attacks for the finite and infinite horizon linear quadratic (LQ) control in terms of maximizing the corresponding cost functions are computed. The closed-loop system under optimal signal attacks are provided. Illustrative numerical examples are provided together with an application to a power network with distributed LQ controllers.

  1. Systems and methods for detecting an image of an object by use of an X-ray beam having a polychromatic distribution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parham, Christopher; Zhong, Zhong; Pisano, Etta; Connor, Dean; Chapman, Leroy D.

    2010-06-22

    Systems and methods for detecting an image of an object using an X-ray beam having a polychromatic energy distribution are disclosed. According to one aspect, a method can include detecting an image of an object. The method can include generating a first X-ray beam having a polychromatic energy distribution. Further, the method can include positioning a single monochromator crystal in a predetermined position to directly intercept the first X-ray beam such that a second X-ray beam having a predetermined energy level is produced. Further, an object can be positioned in the path of the second X-ray beam for transmission of the second X-ray beam through the object and emission from the object as a transmitted X-ray beam. The transmitted X-ray beam can be directed at an angle of incidence upon a crystal analyzer. Further, an image of the object can be detected from a beam diffracted from the analyzer crystal.

  2. Systems and methods for detecting an image of an object using multi-beam imaging from an X-ray beam having a polychromatic distribution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parham, Christopher A; Zhong, Zhong; Pisano, Etta; Connor, Jr., Dean M

    2015-03-03

    Systems and methods for detecting an image of an object using a multi-beam imaging system from an x-ray beam having a polychromatic energy distribution are disclosed. According to one aspect, a method can include generating a first X-ray beam having a polychromatic energy distribution. Further, the method can include positioning a plurality of monochromator crystals in a predetermined position to directly intercept the first X-ray beam such that a plurality of second X-ray beams having predetermined energy levels are produced. Further, an object can be positioned in the path of the second X-ray beams for transmission of the second X-ray beams through the object and emission from the object as transmitted X-ray beams. The transmitted X-ray beams can each be directed at an angle of incidence upon one or more crystal analyzers. Further, an image of the object can be detected from the beams diffracted from the analyzer crystals.

  3. Optical absorption measurement system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draggoo, Vaughn G.; Morton, Richard G.; Sawicki, Richard H.; Bissinger, Horst D.

    1989-01-01

    The system of the present invention contemplates a non-intrusive method for measuring the temperature rise of optical elements under high laser power optical loading to determine the absorption coefficient. The method comprises irradiating the optical element with a high average power laser beam, viewing the optical element with an infrared camera to determine the temperature across the optical element and calculating the absorption of the optical element from the temperature.

  4. Imaging, object detection, and change detection with a polarized multistatic GPR array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beer, N. Reginald; Paglieroni, David W.

    2015-07-21

    A polarized detection system performs imaging, object detection, and change detection factoring in the orientation of an object relative to the orientation of transceivers. The polarized detection system may operate on one of several modes of operation based on whether the imaging, object detection, or change detection is performed separately for each transceiver orientation. In combined change mode, the polarized detection system performs imaging, object detection, and change detection separately for each transceiver orientation, and then combines changes across polarizations. In combined object mode, the polarized detection system performs imaging and object detection separately for each transceiver orientation, and then combines objects across polarizations and performs change detection on the result. In combined image mode, the polarized detection system performs imaging separately for each transceiver orientation, and then combines images across polarizations and performs object detection followed by change detection on the result.

  5. detonation detection

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Satellite Carrying NNSA-provided Nuclear Detonation Detection Sensors http:www.nnsa.energy.govmediaroompressreleasesafsatellite

  6. detonation detection

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    7%2A en US Air Force Launches Satellite Carrying NNSA-provided Nuclear Detonation Detection Sensors http:nnsa.energy.govmediaroompressreleasesafsatellite

  7. INDUSTRIAL CONTROL SYSTEM CYBER SECURITY: QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS RELEVANT TO NUCLEAR FACILITIES, SAFEGUARDS AND SECURITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert S. Anderson; Mark Schanfein; Trond Bjornard; Paul Moskowitz

    2011-07-01

    Typical questions surrounding industrial control system (ICS) cyber security always lead back to: What could a cyber attack do to my system(s) and; how much should I worry about it? These two leading questions represent only a fraction of questions asked when discussing cyber security as it applies to any program, company, business, or organization. The intent of this paper is to open a dialog of important pertinent questions and answers that managers of nuclear facilities engaged in nuclear facility security and safeguards should examine, i.e., what questions should be asked; and how do the answers affect an organization's ability to effectively safeguard and secure nuclear material. When a cyber intrusion is reported, what does that mean? Can an intrusion be detected or go un-noticed? Are nuclear security or safeguards systems potentially vulnerable? What about the digital systems employed in process monitoring, and international safeguards? Organizations expend considerable efforts to ensure that their facilities can maintain continuity of operations against physical threats. However, cyber threats particularly on ICSs may not be well known or understood, and often do not receive adequate attention. With the disclosure of the Stuxnet virus that has recently attacked nuclear infrastructure, many organizations have recognized the need for an urgent interest in cyber attacks and defenses against them. Several questions arise including discussions about the insider threat, adequate cyber protections, program readiness, encryption, and many more. These questions, among others, are discussed so as to raise the awareness and shed light on ways to protect nuclear facilities and materials against such attacks.

  8. Microsoft Word - Top_10_vuln_2006_16mar2006_ss.doc

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... at all levels. (CIP-007) Implement a network-intrusion detection system to identify malicious network traffic, scan systems for weak passwords, and separate networks physically. ...

  9. Detection Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    topological singularities from a discretized complex scalar field (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Detecting vortices in superconductors: Extracting one-dimensional topological singularities from a discretized complex scalar field Title: Detecting vortices in superconductors: Extracting one-dimensional topological singularities from a discretized complex scalar field Authors: Phillips, Carolyn L. ; Peterka, Tom ; Karpeyev, Dmitry ; Glatz, Andreas Publication Date: 2015-02-20 OSTI Identifier:

  10. Cell boundary fault detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles Jens; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian Edward

    2011-04-19

    An apparatus and program product determine a nodal fault along the boundary, or face, of a computing cell. Nodes on adjacent cell boundaries communicate with each other, and the communications are analyzed to determine if a node or connection is faulty.

  11. Cell boundary fault detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles Jens; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian Edward

    2009-05-05

    A method determines a nodal fault along the boundary, or face, of a computing cell. Nodes on adjacent cell boundaries communicate with each other, and the communications are analyzed to determine if a node or connection is faulty.

  12. Design Support of an Above Cap-rock Early Detection Monitoring System using Simulated Leakage Scenarios at the FutureGen2.0 Site

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Williams, Mark D.; USA, Richland Washington; Vermuel, Vince R.; USA, Richland Washington; Oostrom, Mart; USA, Richland Washington; Porse, Sean L.; USA, Richland Washington; Thorne, Paul D.; USA, Richland Washington; et al

    2014-12-31

    The FutureGen 2.0 Project will design and build a first-of-its-kind, near-zero emissions coal-fueled power plant with carbon capture and storage (CCS). To assess storage site performance and meet the regulatory requirements of the Class VI Underground Injection Control (UIC) Program for CO2 Geologic Sequestration, the FutureGen 2.0 project will implement a suite of monitoring technologies designed to evaluate CO2 mass balance and detect any unforeseen loss in CO2 containment. The monitoring program will include direct monitoring of the reservoir, and early-leak-detection monitoring directly above the primary confining zone. This preliminary modeling study described here focuses on hypothetical leakage scenarios intomore » the first permeable unit above the primary confining zone (Ironton Sandstone) and is used to support assessment of early-leak detection capabilities. Future updates of the model will be used to assess potential impacts on the lowermost underground source of drinking water (Saint Peter Sandstone) for a range of theoretical leakage scenarios. This preliminary modeling evaluation considers both pressure response and geochemical signals in the overlying Ironton Sandstone. This model is independent of the FutureGen 2.0 reservoir model in that it does not simulate caprock discontinuities, faults, or failure scenarios. Instead this modeling effort is based on theoretical, volumetric-rate based leakage scenarios. The scenarios include leakage of 1% of the total injected CO2 mass, but spread out over different time periods (20, 100, and 500 years) with each case yielding a different mass flux (i.e., smaller mass fluxes for longer duration leakage cases]. A brine leakage scenario using a volumetric leakage similar to the 20 year 1% CO2 case was also considered. A framework for the comparison of the various cases was developed based on the exceedance of selected pressure and geochemical thresholds at different distances from the point of leakage and at different vertical positions within the Ironton Sandstone. These preliminary results, and results from an updated models that incorporate additional site-specific characterization data, support development/refinement of the monitoring system design.« less

  13. Non-intrusive beam power monitor for high power pulsed or continuous wave lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawsey, Robert A.; Scudiere, Matthew B.

    1993-01-01

    A system and method for monitoring the output of a laser is provided in which the output of a photodiode disposed in the cavity of the laser is used to provide a correlated indication of the laser power. The photodiode is disposed out of the laser beam to view the extraneous light generated in the laser cavity whose intensity has been found to be a direct correlation of the laser beam output power level. Further, the system provides means for monitoring the phase of the laser output beam relative to a modulated control signal through the photodiode monitor.

  14. Attribute and topology based change detection in a constellation of previously detected objects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paglieroni, David W.; Beer, Reginald N.

    2016-01-19

    A system that applies attribute and topology based change detection to networks of objects that were detected on previous scans of a structure, roadway, or area of interest. The attributes capture properties or characteristics of the previously detected objects, such as location, time of detection, size, elongation, orientation, etc. The topology of the network of previously detected objects is maintained in a constellation database that stores attributes of previously detected objects and implicitly captures the geometrical structure of the network. A change detection system detects change by comparing the attributes and topology of new objects detected on the latest scan to the constellation database of previously detected objects.

  15. Cascaded-systems analyses and the detective quantum efficiency of single-Z x-ray detectors including photoelectric, coherent and incoherent interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yun, Seungman; Tanguay, Jesse; Cunningham, Ian A.; Kim, Ho Kyung

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: Theoretical models of the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of x-ray detectors are an important step in new detector development by providing an understanding of performance limitations and benchmarks. Previous cascaded-systems analysis (CSA) models accounted for photoelectric interactions only. This paper describes an extension of the CSA approach to incorporate coherent and incoherent interactions, important for low-Z detectors such as silicon and selenium. Methods: A parallel-cascade approach is used to describe the three types of x-ray interactions. The description of incoherent scatter required developing expressions for signal and noise transfer through an 'energy-labeled reabsorption' process where the parameters describing reabsorption are random functions of the scatter photon energy. The description of coherent scatter requires the use of scatter form factors that may not be accurate for some crystalline detector materials. The model includes the effects of scatter reabsorption and escape, charge collection, secondary quantum sinks, noise aliasing, and additive noise. Model results are validated by Monte Carlo calculations for Si and Se detectors assuming free-atom atomic form factors. Results: The new signal and noise transfer expressions were validated by showing agreement with Monte Carlo results. Coherent and incoherent scatter can degrade the DQE of Si and sometimes Se detectors depending on detector thickness and incident-photon energy. Incoherent scatter can produce a substantial low-frequency drop in the modulation transfer function and DQE. Conclusions: A generally useful CSA model of the DQE is described that is believed valid for any single-Z material up to 10 cycles/mm at both mammographic and radiographic energies within the limitations of Fourier-based linear-systems models and the use of coherent-scatter form factors. The model describes a substantial low-frequency drop in the DQE of Si systems due to incoherent scatter above 20-40 keV.

  16. A Physical Protection Systems Test Bed for International Counter-Trafficking System Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stinson, Brad J; Kuhn, Michael J; Donaldson, Terrence L; Richardson, Dave; Rowe, Nathan C; Younkin, James R; Pickett, Chris A

    2011-01-01

    Physical protection systems have a widespread impact on the nuclear industry in areas such as nuclear safeguards, arms control, and trafficking of illicit goods (e.g., nuclear materials) across international borders around the world. Many challenges must be overcome in design and deployment of foreign border security systems such as lack of infrastructure, extreme environmental conditions, limited knowledge of terrain, insider threats, and occasional cultural resistance. Successful security systems, whether it be a system designed to secure a single facility or a whole border security system, rely on the entire integrated system composed of multiple subsystems. This test bed is composed of many unique sensors and subsystems, including wireless unattended ground sensors, a buried fiber-optic acoustic sensor, a lossy coaxial distributed sensor, wireless links, pan-tilt-zoom cameras, mobile power generation systems, unmanned aerial vehicles, and fiber-optic-fence intrusion detection systems. A Common Operating Picture software architecture is utilized to integrate a number of these subsystems. We are currently performance testing each system for border security and perimeter security applications by examining metrics such as probability of sense and a qualitative understanding of the sensor s vulnerability of defeat. The testing process includes different soil conditions for buried sensors (e.g., dry, wet, and frozen) and an array of different tests including walking, running, stealth detection, and vehicle detection. Also, long term sustainability of systems is tested including performance differences due to seasonal variations (e.g. summer versus winter, while raining, in foggy conditions). The capabilities of the test bed are discussed. Performance testing results, both at the individual component level and integrated into a larger system for a specific deployment (in situ), help illustrate the usefulness and need for integrated testing facilities to carry out this mission. The test bed provides access to grassy fields, wooded areas, and a large waterway three distinct testing environments. The infrastructure supporting deployment of systems at the test bed includes grid power, renewable power systems, climate controlled enclosures, high bandwidth wireless links, and a fiber optic communications backbone. With over 10 acres of dedicated area and direct waterway access, the test bed is well suited for long term test and evaluation of physical protection and security systems targeting a wide range of applications.

  17. Evaluating Impacts of CO2 Intrusion into an Unconsolidated Aquifer. I. Experimental Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawter, Amanda R.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Wang, Guohui; Shao, Hongbo; Brown, Christopher F.

    2015-08-04

    Capture and deep subsurface sequestration of CO2 has been identified as a potential mitigation technique for rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Sequestered CO2 represents a potential risk to overlying aquifers if the CO2 leaks from the deep storage reservoir. Batch and column experiments combined with wet chemical extractions were conducted to evaluate these risks to groundwater quality and to understand effects of CO2 leakage on aquifer chemistry and mineralogy. Sediments from the High Plains aquifer in Kansas, a confined sandstone aquifer, were used to study time-dependent release of major, minor and trace elements when exposed to CO2 gas. Results showed that Ca, Ba, Si, Mg, Sr, Na, and K increased either instantaneously or followed nonlinear increasing trends with time, indicating dissolution and/or desorption reactions controlled their release. Other elements, such as Mn and Fe, were also released from all sediments, creating a potential for redox reactions to occur. Results from acid extractions confirmed sediments had appreciable amounts of contaminants that may potentially be released into the aqueous phase. However, results from the batch and column experiments demonstrated that only a few trace elements (e.g., As, Cu, Cr, Pb) were released, indicating the risk of groundwater quality degradation due to exposure to leakage of sequestered CO2 is low. Concentrations of Mo were consistently higher in the control experiments (absence of CO2) and were below detection in the presence of CO2 indicating a possible benefit of CO2 in groundwater aquifers. These investigations will provide useful information to support site selection, risk assessment, and public education efforts associated with geological CO2 storage and sequestration.

  18. Fingerprint detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Saunders, George C. (Rt. 1, Box 428B, Espanola, NM 87532)

    1992-01-01

    A method for detection and visualization of latent fingerprints is provided and includes contacting a substrate containing a latent print thereon with a colloidal metal composition for time sufficient to allow reaction of said colloidal metal composition with said latent print, and preserving or recording the observable print. Further, the method for detection and visualization of latent fingerprints can include contacting the metal composition-latent print reaction product with a secondary metal-containing solution for time sufficient to allow precipitation of said secondary metal thereby enhancing the visibility of the latent print, and preserving or recording the observable print.

  19. Evaluating impacts of CO2 gas intrusion into a confined sandstone aquifer: Experimental results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qafoku, Nikolla; Lawter, Amanda R.; Shao, Hongbo; Wang, Guohui; Brown, Christopher F.

    2014-12-31

    Deep subsurface storage and sequestration of CO2 has been identified as a potential mitigation technique for rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Sequestered CO2 represents a potential risk to overlying aquifers if the CO2 leaks from the deep storage reservoir. Experimental and modeling work is required to evaluate potential risks to groundwater quality and develop a systematic understanding of how CO2 leakage may cause important changes in aquifer chemistry and mineralogy by promoting dissolution/precipitation, adsorption/desorption, and redox reactions. Sediments from the High Plains aquifer in Kansas, United States, were used in this investigation, which is part of the National Risk Assessment Partnership Program sponsored by the US Department of Energy. This aquifer was selected to be representative of consolidated sand and gravel/sandstone aquifers overlying potential CO2 sequestration repositories within the continental US. In this paper, we present results from batch experiments conducted at room temperature and atmospheric pressure with four High Plains aquifer sediments. Batch experiments simulate sudden, fast, and short-lived releases of the CO2 gas as would occur in the case of well failure during injection. Time-dependent release of major, minor, and trace elements were determined by analyzing the contacting solutions. Characterization studies demonstrated that the High Plains aquifer sediments were abundant in quartz and feldspars, and contained about 15 to 20 wt% montmorillonite and up to 5 wt% micas. Some of the High Plains aquifer sediments contained no calcite, while others had up to about 7 wt% calcite. The strong acid extraction tests confirmed that in addition to the usual elements present in most soils, rocks, and sediments, the High Plains aquifer sediments had appreciable amounts of As, Cd, Pb, Cu, and occasionally Zn, which potentially may be mobilized from the solid to the aqueous phase during or after exposure to CO2. However, the results from the batch experiments showed that the High Plains sediments mobilized only low concentrations of trace elements (potential contaminants), which were detected occasionally in the aqueous phase during these experiments. Importantly, these occurrences were more frequent in the calcite-free sediment. Results from these investigations provide useful information to support site selection, risk assessment, and public education efforts associated with geological CO2 storage and sequestration.

  20. Evaluating Impacts of CO2 Gas Intrusion Into a Confined Sandstone aquifer: Experimental Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qafoku, Nikolla; Lawter, Amanda R.; Shao, Hongbo; Wang, Guohui; Brown, Christopher F.

    2014-12-31

    Deep subsurface storage and sequestration of CO2 has been identified as a potential mitigation technique for rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Sequestered CO2 represents a potential risk to overlying aquifers if the CO2 leaks from the deep storage reservoir. Experimental and modeling work is required to evaluate potential risks to groundwater quality and develop a systematic understanding of how CO2 leakage may cause important changes in aquifer chemistry and mineralogy by promoting dissolution/precipitation, adsorption/desorption, and redox reactions. Sediments from the High Plains aquifer in Kansas, United States, were used in this investigation, which is part of the National Risk Assessment Partnership Program sponsored by the US Department of Energy. This aquifer was selected to be representative of consolidated sand and gravel/sandstone aquifers overlying potential CO2 sequestration repositories within the continental US. In this paper, we present results from batch experiments conducted at room temperature and atmospheric pressure with four High Plains aquifer sediments. Batch experiments simulate sudden, fast, and short-lived releases of the CO2 gas as would occur in the case of well failure during injection. Time-dependent release of major, minor, and trace elements were determined by analyzing the contacting solutions. Characterization studies demonstrated that the High Plains aquifer sediments were abundant in quartz and feldspars, and contained about 15 to 20 wt% montmorillonite and up to 5 wt% micas. Some of the High Plains aquifer sediments contained no calcite, while others had up to about 7 wt% calcite. The strong acid extraction tests confirmed that in addition to the usual elements present in most soils, rocks, and sediments, the High Plains aquifer sediments had appreciable amounts of As, Cd, Pb, Cu, and occasionally Zn, which potentially may be mobilized from the solid to the aqueous phase during or after exposure to CO2. However, the results from the batch experiments showed that the High Plains sediments mobilized only low concentrations of trace elements (potential contaminants), which were detected occasionally in the aqueous phase during these experiments. Importantly, these occurrences were more frequent in the calcite-free sediment. Results from these investigations provide useful information to support site selection, risk assessment, and public education efforts associated with geological CO2 storage and sequestration.

  1. Evaluating Impacts of CO2 Gas Intrusion Into a Confined Sandstone aquifer: Experimental Results

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Qafoku, Nikolla; Lawter, Amanda R.; Shao, Hongbo; Wang, Guohui; Brown, Christopher F.

    2014-12-31

    Deep subsurface storage and sequestration of CO2 has been identified as a potential mitigation technique for rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Sequestered CO2 represents a potential risk to overlying aquifers if the CO2 leaks from the deep storage reservoir. Experimental and modeling work is required to evaluate potential risks to groundwater quality and develop a systematic understanding of how CO2 leakage may cause important changes in aquifer chemistry and mineralogy by promoting dissolution/precipitation, adsorption/desorption, and redox reactions. Sediments from the High Plains aquifer in Kansas, United States, were used in this investigation, which is part of the National Risk Assessment Partnershipmore » Program sponsored by the US Department of Energy. This aquifer was selected to be representative of consolidated sand and gravel/sandstone aquifers overlying potential CO2 sequestration repositories within the continental US. In this paper, we present results from batch experiments conducted at room temperature and atmospheric pressure with four High Plains aquifer sediments. Batch experiments simulate sudden, fast, and short-lived releases of the CO2 gas as would occur in the case of well failure during injection. Time-dependent release of major, minor, and trace elements were determined by analyzing the contacting solutions. Characterization studies demonstrated that the High Plains aquifer sediments were abundant in quartz and feldspars, and contained about 15 to 20 wt% montmorillonite and up to 5 wt% micas. Some of the High Plains aquifer sediments contained no calcite, while others had up to about 7 wt% calcite. The strong acid extraction tests confirmed that in addition to the usual elements present in most soils, rocks, and sediments, the High Plains aquifer sediments had appreciable amounts of As, Cd, Pb, Cu, and occasionally Zn, which potentially may be mobilized from the solid to the aqueous phase during or after exposure to CO2. However, the results from the batch experiments showed that the High Plains sediments mobilized only low concentrations of trace elements (potential contaminants), which were detected occasionally in the aqueous phase during these experiments. Importantly, these occurrences were more frequent in the calcite-free sediment. Results from these investigations provide useful information to support site selection, risk assessment, and public education efforts associated with geological CO2 storage and sequestration.« less

  2. Detection device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jay E.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a detection device comprising: (1) an entrance chamber, (2) a central chamber, and (3) an exit chamber. The central chamber includes an ionizing gas, anode, and means for connecting the anode with an external power supply and pulse counter.

  3. Detection device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, J.E.

    1981-02-27

    The present invention is directed to a detection device comprising: (1) an entrance chamber; (2) a central chamber; and (3) an exit chamber. The central chamber includes an ionizing gas, anode, and means for connecting the anode with an external power supply and pulse counter.

  4. Detection Apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, H.L.

    1950-12-05

    This invention concerns a sensitive apparatus for detecting and counting neutrons, particularly neutrons liberated in an alpha, neutron reaction. The apparatus includes an improved ionization chamber structure together with an improved combination alpha-particle source and holder for the material under test.

  5. Tunnel and Subsurface Void Detection and Range to Target Measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillip B. West

    2009-06-01

    Engineers and technicians at the Idaho National Laboratory invented, designed, built and tested a device capable of detecting and measuring the distance to, an underground void, or tunnel. Preliminary tests demonstrated positive detection of, and range to, a void thru as much as 30 meters of top-soil earth. Device uses acoustic driving point impedance principles pioneered by the Laboratory for well-bore physical properties logging. Data receipts recorded by the device indicates constructive-destructive interference patterns characteristic of acoustic wave reflection from a downward step-change in impedance mismatch. Prototype tests demonstrated that interference patterns in receipt waves could depict the patterns indicative of specific distances. A tool with this capability can quickly (in seconds) indicate the presence and depth/distance of a void or tunnel. Using such a device, border security and military personnel can identify threats of intrusion or weapons caches in most all soil conditions including moist and rocky.

  6. February | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    ... String searching is at the core of many security and network applications such as search engines, intrusion detection systems, virus scanners and spam filters. PNNL researchers are ...

  7. Considerations Related To Human Intrusion In The Context Of Disposal Of Radioactive Waste-The IAEA HIDRA Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seitz, Roger; Kumano, Yumiko; Bailey, Lucy; Markley, Chris; Andersson, Eva; Beuth, Thomas

    2014-01-09

    The principal approaches for management of radioactive waste are commonly termed ‘delay and decay’, ‘concentrate and contain’ and ‘dilute and disperse’. Containing the waste and isolating it from the human environment, by burying it, is considered to increase safety and is generally accepted as the preferred approach for managing radioactive waste. However, this approach results in concentrated sources of radioactive waste contained in one location, which can pose hazards should the facility be disrupted by human action in the future. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) agree that some form of inadvertent human intrusion (HI) needs to be considered to address the potential consequences in the case of loss of institutional control and loss of memory of the disposal facility. Requirements are reflected in national regulations governing radioactive waste disposal. However, in practice, these requirements are often different from country to country, which is then reflected in the actual implementation of HI as part of a safety case. The IAEA project on HI in the context of Disposal of RadioActive waste (HIDRA) has been started to identify potential areas for improved consistency in consideration of HI. The expected outcome is to provide recommendations on how to address human actions in the safety case in the future, and how the safety case may be used to demonstrate robustness and optimize siting, design and waste acceptance criteria within the context of a safety case.

  8. Chlorofluorocarbon leak detection technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munday, E.B.

    1990-12-01

    There are about 590 large coolant systems located at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) and the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) leaking nearly 800,000 lb of R-114 refrigerant annually (1989 estimate). A program is now under way to reduce the leakage to 325,000 lb/year -- an average loss of 551 lb/year (0.063 lb/h) per coolant system, some of which are as large as 800 ft. This report investigates leak detection technologies that can be used to locate leaks in the coolant systems. Included are descriptions, minimum leak detection rate levels, advantages, disadvantages, and vendor information on the following technologies: bubbling solutions; colorimetric leak testing; dyes; halogen leak detectors (coronea discharge detectors; halide torch detectors, and heated anode detectors); laser imaging; mass spectroscopy; organic vapor analyzers; odorants; pressure decay methods; solid-state electrolytic-cell gas sensors; thermal conductivity leak detectors; and ultrasonic leak detectors.

  9. Relating to ion detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore

    2001-01-01

    The apparatus and method provide a technique for improving detection of alpha and/or beta emitting sources on items or in locations using indirect means. The emission forms generate ions in a medium surrounding the item or location and the medium is then moved to a detecting location where the ions are discharged to give a measure of the emission levels. To increase the level of ions generated and render the system particularly applicable for narrow pipes and other forms of conduits, the medium pressure is increased above atmospheric pressure. STATEMENT REGARDING FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT

  10. Using Semantic Web Technologies to Develop Intrinsically Resilient Energy Control Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheldon, Frederick T; Huang, Jingshan; Fetzer, Daniel T; Morris, Thomas H; Jonathan, Kirsch; Goose, Stuart; Wei, Dong; Dang, Jiangbo; Manz, David

    2012-01-01

    To preserve critical energy control functions while under attack, it is necessary to perform comprehensive analysis on root causes and impacts of cyber intrusions without sacrificing the availability of energy delivery. We propose to design an intrinsically resilient energy control system where we extensively utilize Semantic Web technologies, which play critical roles in knowledge representation and acquisition. While our ultimate goal is to ensure availability/resiliency of energy delivery functions and the capability to assess root causes and impacts of cyber intrusions, the focus of this paper is to demonstrate a proof of concept of how Semantic Web technologies can significantly contribute to resilient energy control systems.

  11. Buried object detection in GPR images

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paglieroni, David W; Chambers, David H; Bond, Steven W; Beer, W. Reginald

    2014-04-29

    A method and system for detecting the presence of subsurface objects within a medium is provided. In some embodiments, the imaging and detection system operates in a multistatic mode to collect radar return signals generated by an array of transceiver antenna pairs that is positioned across the surface and that travels down the surface. The imaging and detection system pre-processes the return signal to suppress certain undesirable effects. The imaging and detection system then generates synthetic aperture radar images from real aperture radar images generated from the pre-processed return signal. The imaging and detection system then post-processes the synthetic aperture radar images to improve detection of subsurface objects. The imaging and detection system identifies peaks in the energy levels of the post-processed image frame, which indicates the presence of a subsurface object.

  12. Smoke detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warmack, Robert J Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A.; Frank, Steven Shane

    2015-11-05

    Various apparatus and methods for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a method of training a classifier for a smoke detector comprises inputting sensor data from a plurality of tests into a processor. The sensor data is processed to generate derived signal data corresponding to the test data for respective tests. The derived signal data is assigned into categories comprising at least one fire group and at least one non-fire group. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) training is performed by the processor. The derived signal data and the assigned categories for the derived signal data are inputs to the LDA training. The output of the LDA training is stored in a computer readable medium, such as in a smoke detector that uses LDA to determine, based on the training, whether present conditions indicate the existence of a fire.

  13. Smoke detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A.; Frank, Steven Shane

    2015-10-27

    Various apparatus and methods for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a method of training a classifier for a smoke detector comprises inputting sensor data from a plurality of tests into a processor. The sensor data is processed to generate derived signal data corresponding to the test data for respective tests. The derived signal data is assigned into categories comprising at least one fire group and at least one non-fire group. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) training is performed by the processor. The derived signal data and the assigned categories for the derived signal data are inputs to the LDA training. The output of the LDA training is stored in a computer readable medium, such as in a smoke detector that uses LDA to determine, based on the training, whether present conditions indicate the existence of a fire.

  14. Radon detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.

    1994-01-25

    A detector for atmospheric radon using a long range alpha detector as its sensing element is described. An electrostatic filter removes ions from ambient air, while allowing radon atoms to pass into a decay cavity. Here, radon atoms are allowed to decay, creating air ions. These air ions are drawn by a fan through a second electrostatic filter which can be activated or deactivated, and into the long range alpha detector. With the second electrostatic filter activated, no air ions are allowed to pass, and the signal output from the long range alpha detector consists of only the electronic background. With the second electrostatic filter deactivated, air ions and cosmic rays will be detected. The cosmic ray contribution can be minimized by shielding. 3 figures.

  15. Radon detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Allander, Krag S.; Bounds, John A.

    1994-01-01

    A detector for atmospheric radon using a long range alpha detector as its sensing element. An electrostatic filter removes ions from ambient air, while allowing radon atoms to pass into a decay cavity. Here, radon atoms are allowed to decay, creating air ions. These air ions are drawn by a fan through a second electrostatic filter which can be activated or deactivated, and into the long range alpha detector. With the second electrostatic filter activated, no air ions are allowed to pass, and the signal output from the long range alpha detector consists of only the electronic background. With the second electrostatic filter deactivated, air ions and cosmic rays will be detected. The cosmic ray contribution can be minimized by shielding.

  16. Fraud Detection in Healthcare

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandola, Varun; Schryver, Jack C; Sukumar, Sreenivas R

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the problem of fraud detection in healthcare in this chapter. Given the recent scrutiny of the ineciencies in the US healthcare system, identifying fraud has been on the forefront of the eorts towards reducing the healthcare costs. In this chapter we will focus on understanding the issue of healthcare fraud in detail, and review methods that have been proposed in the literature to combat this issue using data driven approach.

  17. Predicting and Detecting Emerging Cyberattack Patterns Using StreamWorks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chin, George; Choudhury, Sutanay; Feo, John T.; Holder, Larry

    2014-06-30

    The number and sophistication of cyberattacks on industries and governments have dramatically grown in recent years. To counter this movement, new advanced tools and techniques are needed to detect cyberattacks in their early stages such that defensive actions may be taken to avert or mitigate potential damage. From a cybersecurity analysis perspective, detecting cyberattacks may be cast as a problem of identifying patterns in computer network traffic. Logically and intuitively, these patterns may take on the form of a directed graph that conveys how an attack or intrusion propagates through the computers of a network. Such cyberattack graphs could provide cybersecurity analysts with powerful conceptual representations that are natural to express and analyze. We have been researching and developing graph-centric approaches and algorithms for dynamic cyberattack detection. The advanced dynamic graph algorithms we are developing will be packaged into a streaming network analysis framework known as StreamWorks. With StreamWorks, a scientist or analyst may detect and identify precursor events and patterns as they emerge in complex networks. This analysis framework is intended to be used in a dynamic environment where network data is streamed in and is appended to a large-scale dynamic graph. Specific graphical query patterns are decomposed and collected into a graph query library. The individual decomposed subpatterns in the library are continuously and efficiently matched against the dynamic graph as it evolves to identify and detect early, partial subgraph patterns. The scalable emerging subgraph pattern algorithms will match on both structural and semantic network properties.

  18. Cyber Security Audit and Attack Detection Toolkit: National SCADA...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cyber Security Audit and Attack Detection Toolkit: National SCADA Test Bed May 2008 This project of the cyber security audit and attack detection toolkit is adding control system ...

  19. Detection and Characterization of Natural and Induced Fractures...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Detection and Characterization of Natural and Induced Fractures for the Development of Enhanced Geothermal Systems Detection and Characterization of Natural and Induced Fractures for ...

  20. Indirect detection of radiation sources through direct detection of radiolysis products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farmer, Joseph C.; Fischer, Larry E.; Felter, Thomas E.

    2010-04-20

    A system for indirectly detecting a radiation source by directly detecting radiolytic products. The radiation source emits radiation and the radiation produces the radiolytic products. A fluid is positioned to receive the radiation from the radiation source. When the fluid is irradiated, radiolytic products are produced. By directly detecting the radiolytic products, the radiation source is detected.

  1. Final Assessment of Manual Ultrasonic Examinations Applied to Detect Flaws in Primary System Dissimilar Metal Welds at North Anna Power Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Michael T.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Crawford, Susan L.; Prowant, Matthew S.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2014-03-24

    PNNL conducted a technical assessment of the NDE issues and protocols that led to missed detections of several axially oriented flaws in a steam generator primary inlet dissimilar metal weld at North Anna Power Station, Unit 1 (NAPS-1). This particular component design exhibits a significant outside-diameter (OD) taper that is not included as a blind performance demonstration mock-up within the industrys Performance Demonstration Initiative, administered by EPRI. For this reason, the licensee engaged EPRI to assist in the development of a technical justification to support the basis for a site-specific qualification. The service-induced flaws at NAPS-1 were eventually detected as a result of OD surface machining in preparation for a full structural weld overlay. The machining operation uncovered the existence of two through-wall flaws, based on the observance of primary water leaking from the dissimilar metal weld. A total of five axially oriented flaws were detected in varied locations around the weld circumference. The field volumetric examination that was conducted at NAPS-1 was a non-encoded, real-time manual ultrasonic examination. PNNL conducted both an initial assessment, and subsequently, a more rigorous technical evaluation (reported here), which has identified an array of NDE issues that may have led to the subject missed detections. These evaluations were performed through technical reviews and discussions with NRC staff, EPRI NDE Center personnel, industry and ISI vendor personnel, and ultrasonic transducer manufacturers, and laboratory tests, to better understand the underlying issues at North Anna.

  2. New Screening System Detects Algae with Increased H2 Production (Fact Sheet), NREL Highlights in Science, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL's high-throughput screen facilitates the selection of novel H 2 -producing algae. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have developed a powerful method for screening through million-member algal libraries for strains with increased hydro- gen production. The screen uses H 2 -sensing bacteria that fluoresce when hydrogen is detected and is used as an agar overlay on top of growing algal colonies. The screen was first verified by comparing algal strains that

  3. Four-dimensional electrical conductivity monitoring of stage-driven river water intrusion: Accounting for water table effects using a transient mesh boundary and conditional inversion constraints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Timothy C.; Versteeg, Roelof; Thomle, Jonathan N.; Hammond, Glenn E.; Chen, Xingyuan; Zachara, John M.

    2015-08-01

    This paper describes and demonstrates two methods of providing a-priori information to a surface-based time-lapse three-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) problem for monitoring stage-driven river bank storage along the Columbia River in the state of Washington, USA. First, a transient warping mesh boundary is implemented that conforms to the known location of the water table boundary through time, thereby enabling the inversion to place a sharp bulk-conductivity contrast at that boundary without penalty. Second, because river water specific conductance is less than groundwater specific conductance, a non-linear inequality constraint is used to allow only negative transient changes in bulk conductivity to occur within the saturated zone during periods of elevated river stage with respect to baseline conditions. Whereas time-lapse imaging results using traditional smoothness constraints are unable to delineate river bank storage, the water table and inequality constraints provide the inversion with the additional information necessary to resolve the spatial extent of river water intrusion through time. A surface based ERT array of 352 electrodes was used to autonomously produce four images per day of changes in bulk conductivity associated with river water intrusion over an area of approximately 300 m2 from April through October of 2013. Results are validated by comparing changes in bulk conductivity time series with corresponding changes in fluid specific conductance at several inland monitoring wells.

  4. radiation detection | National Nuclear Security Administration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NNSA Deputy Administrator Creedon Travels to China NNSA keeps the promises borne out of ... NNSA Transfers Responsibility for Radiation Detection System to China Customs NNSA, ...

  5. Magnetic particle detection in unshielded environment using orthogonal fluxgate gradiometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elrefai, Ahmed L. Sasada, Ichiro

    2015-05-07

    A new detection system for magnetic particles, which can operate in an unshielded environment, is developed using a fundamental mode orthogonal fluxgate gradiometer. The proposed detection system offers the advantages of cost, size, and weight reduction as compared to contamination detection systems using superconducting quantum interference device sensor. The detection system can be used to detect metallic contamination in foods or lithium ion battery production lines. The system has been investigated numerically to optimize various design parameters of the system. Experimental setup has been developed to evaluate some of the numerically predicted results. Steel balls were successfully detected down to the diameter of 50 ?m.

  6. Slow speed object detection for haul trucks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-09-15

    Caterpillar integrates radar technology with its current camera based system. Caterpillar has developed the Integrated Object Detection System, a slow speed object detection system for mining haul trucks. Object detection is a system that aids the truck operator's awareness of their surroundings. The system consists of a color touch screen display along with medium- and short-range radar as well as cameras, harnesses and mounting hardware. It is integrated into the truck's Work Area Vision System (WAVS). After field testing in 2007, system commercialization began in 2008. Prototype systems are in operation in Australia, Utah and Arizona and the Integrated Object Detection System will be available in the fourth quarter of 2009 and on production trucks 785C, 789C, 793D and 797B. The article is adapted from a presentation by Mark Richards of Caterpillar to the Haulage & Loading 2009 conference, May, held in Phoenix, AZ. 1 fig., 5 photos.

  7. Summary of Natural Resources that Potentially Influence Human Intrusion at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2007-06-01

    In 1993, Raytheon Services Nevada completed a review of natural resource literature and other sources to identify potentially exploitable resources and potential future land uses near the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada, that could lead to future inadvertent human intrusion and subsequent release of radionuclides to the accessible environment. National Security Technologies, LLC, revised the original limited-distribution document to conform to current editorial standards and U.S. Department of Energy requirements for public release. The researchers examined the potential for future development of sand, gravel, mineral, petroleum, water resources, and rural land uses, such as agriculture, grazing, and hunting. The study was part of the performance assessment for Greater Confinement Disposal boreholes. Sand and gravel are not considered exploitable site resources because the materials are common throughout the area and the quality at the Area 5 RWMS is not ideal for typical commercial uses. Site information also indicates a very low mineral potential for the area. None of the 23 mining districts in southern Nye County report occurrences of economic mineral deposits in unconsolidated alluvium. The potential for oil and natural gas is low for southern Nye County. No occurrences of coal, tar sand, or oil shale on the NTS are reported in available literature. Several potential future uses of water were considered. Agricultural irrigation is impractical due to poor soils and existing water supply regulations. Use of water for geothermal energy development is unlikely because temperatures are too low for typical commercial applications using current technology. Human consumption of water has the most potential for cause of intrusion. The economics of future water needs may create a demand for the development of deep carbonate aquifers in the region. However, the Area 5 RWMS is not an optimal location for extraction of groundwater from the deep carbonate aquifer. Grazing and hunting are unlikely to be potential causes for inadvertent human intrusion into waste areas because of vegetation characteristics and lack of significant game animal populations.

  8. Flaw detection and evaluation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilks, Robert S.; Sturges, Jr., Robert H.

    1983-01-01

    The invention provides a method of and apparatus for optically inspecting nuclear fuel pellets for surface flaws. The inspection system includes a prism and lens arrangement for scanning the surface of each pellet as the same is rotated. The resulting scan produces data indicative of the extent and shape of each flaw which is employed to generate a flaw quality index for each detected flaw. The flaw quality indexes from all flaws are summed and compared with an acceptable surface quality index. The result of the comparison is utilized to control the acceptance or rejection of the pellet.

  9. Nucleic acid detection methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, C.L.; Yaar, R.; Szafranski, P.; Cantor, C.R.

    1998-05-19

    The invention relates to methods for rapidly determining the sequence and/or length a target sequence. The target sequence may be a series of known or unknown repeat sequences which are hybridized to an array of probes. The hybridized array is digested with a single-strand nuclease and free 3{prime}-hydroxyl groups extended with a nucleic acid polymerase. Nuclease cleaved heteroduplexes can be easily distinguish from nuclease uncleaved heteroduplexes by differential labeling. Probes and target can be differentially labeled with detectable labels. Matched target can be detected by cleaving resulting loops from the hybridized target and creating free 3-hydroxyl groups. These groups are recognized and extended by polymerases added into the reaction system which also adds or releases one label into solution. Analysis of the resulting products using either solid phase or solution. These methods can be used to detect characteristic nucleic acid sequences, to determine target sequence and to screen for genetic defects and disorders. Assays can be conducted on solid surfaces allowing for multiple reactions to be conducted in parallel and, if desired, automated. 18 figs.

  10. Nucleic Acid Detection Methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Cassandra L.; Yaar, Ron; Szafranski, Przemyslaw; Cantor, Charles R.

    1998-05-19

    The invention relates to methods for rapidly determining the sequence and/or length a target sequence. The target sequence may be a series of known or unknown repeat sequences which are hybridized to an array of probes. The hybridized array is digested with a single-strand nuclease and free 3'-hydroxyl groups extended with a nucleic acid polymerase. Nuclease cleaved heteroduplexes can be easily distinguish from nuclease uncleaved heteroduplexes by differential labeling. Probes and target can be differentially labeled with detectable labels. Matched target can be detected by cleaving resulting loops from the hybridized target and creating free 3-hydroxyl groups. These groups are recognized and extended by polymerases added into the reaction system which also adds or releases one label into solution. Analysis of the resulting products using either solid phase or solution. These methods can be used to detect characteristic nucleic acid sequences, to determine target sequence and to screen for genetic defects and disorders. Assays can be conducted on solid surfaces allowing for multiple reactions to be conducted in parallel and, if desired, automated.

  11. Extended Research on Detection of Deception Using Volatile Organic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Language: English Subject: 98 NUCLEAR DISARMAMENT, SAFEGUARDS, AND PHYSICAL PROTECTION; CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM; DETECTION; ORGANIC COMPOUNDS; TESTING; VOLATILE MATTER deception, ...

  12. How to Detect Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    How to Detect Radiation How to Survey Measurement Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of Radiation Exposure Managing Radiation Emergencies Procedure Demonstration Detection How to Detect Radiation Radiation cannot be detected by human senses. A variety of instruments are available for detecting and measuring radiation. Examples of radiation survey meters: photos of survey meters alphacounter1.JPG (28857 bytes) This probe is used for the detection of alpha radiation. The most common type of

  13. A Multi-Layer Phoswich Radioxenon Detection System (7th Qtr Report), Reporting Period 10/01/07 - 12/31/07

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David M. Hamby

    2008-01-29

    Description of activities conducted this report period: (1) Electronics Development--To improve the overall performance of the two-channel digital pulse processor (DPP2), the PCB has been redesigned and the new printed board is now under assembly. The system is enhanced with two new fast ADCs from Analog Devices (AD9230-250), each with a sampling rate of 250 MHz and a resolution of 12 bits. The data bus uses a high performance Low Voltage Differential Signaling (LVDS) standard. The offset and gain of each channel are separately controlled digitally by the GUI software. (2) GUI Software Development--A GUI is being developed using the Python programming language. All functions from the preceding MATLAB code have been re-implemented including basic waveform readout, pulse shape discrimination, and plotting of energy spectra. In addition, the GUI can be used to control sampling runs based on the number of pulses captured, either in real or live time. Calibration coefficients and pulse shape discrimination boundaries can be changed on the fly so that the detector may be characterized experimentally. Plots generated by the GUI can be exported as graphic data. At present, the software has only been tested using one channel, pending availability of the new DPP board (DPP2). However, the functions have been written to allow easy expansion to two channels. (3) Light Collection Modeling--The XEPHWICH design has been modeled to determine its light capture efficiency. Research in the 7th quarter includes additional simulations representing significant increase in data resolution, well over an order of magnitude greater than previous simulations. The final data set represents approximately 11 billion visible photons divided equally among 110 thousand data points. A laboratory experiment is being designed and executed to experimentally determine light capture efficiency as a function of position within the scintillators. (4) Radioxenon Fission Source--We have designed and constructed a fission chamber to be used for the collection of radioxenon gases following neutron bombardment of HEU in the Oregon State University TRIGA reactor. The aluminum housing and all vacuum fittings have been assembled, awaiting an HEU transfer from PNNL. Students have worked closely with PNNL and OSU Radiation Safety personnel to facilitate transfer of the HEU. The OSU TRIGA Reactor Operations Committee has approved the experiment. (5) Spectral (beta) Recognition--Spectral identification by a neural network developed in our laboratory was compared to that of solvers of a linear system of equations. Data indicate that our neural network is capable of identifying three beta emission sources ({sup 14}C, {sup 36}Cl, and {sup 99}Tc) simultaneously with reliability to within 3%.

  14. Advancing Explosives Detection Capabilities: Vapor Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atkinson, David

    2012-10-15

    A new, PNNL-developed method provides direct, real-time detection of trace amounts of explosives such as RDX, PETN and C-4. The method selectively ionizes a sample before passing the sample through a mass spectrometer to detect explosive vapors. The method could be used at airports to improve aviation security.

  15. Advancing Explosives Detection Capabilities: Vapor Detection

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Atkinson, David

    2014-07-24

    A new, PNNL-developed method provides direct, real-time detection of trace amounts of explosives such as RDX, PETN and C-4. The method selectively ionizes a sample before passing the sample through a mass spectrometer to detect explosive vapors. The method could be used at airports to improve aviation security.

  16. Malware detection and analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Ken; Lloyd, Levi; Crussell, Jonathan; Sanders, Benjamin; Erickson, Jeremy Lee; Fritz, David Jakob

    2016-03-22

    Embodiments of the invention describe systems and methods for malicious software detection and analysis. A binary executable comprising obfuscated malware on a host device may be received, and incident data indicating a time when the binary executable was received and identifying processes operating on the host device may be recorded. The binary executable is analyzed via a scalable plurality of execution environments, including one or more non-virtual execution environments and one or more virtual execution environments, to generate runtime data and deobfuscation data attributable to the binary executable. At least some of the runtime data and deobfuscation data attributable to the binary executable is stored in a shared database, while at least some of the incident data is stored in a private, non-shared database.

  17. Weld failure detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pennell, William E.; Sutton, Jr., Harry G.

    1981-01-01

    Method and apparatus for detecting failure in a welded connection, particrly applicable to not readily accessible welds such as those joining components within the reactor vessel of a nuclear reactor system. A preselected tag gas is sealed within a chamber which extends through selected portions of the base metal and weld deposit. In the event of a failure, such as development of a crack extending from the chamber to an outer surface, the tag gas is released. The environment about the welded area is directed to an analyzer which, in the event of presence of the tag gas, evidences the failure. A trigger gas can be included with the tag gas to actuate the analyzer.

  18. Digital quadrature phase detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, J.A.; Johnson, J.A.

    1992-05-26

    A system for detecting the phase of a frequency or phase modulated signal that includes digital quadrature sampling of the frequency or phase modulated signal at two times that are one quarter of a cycle of a reference signal apart, determination of the arctangent of the ratio of a first sampling of the frequency or phase modulated signal to the second sampling of the frequency or phase modulated signal, and a determination of quadrant in which the phase determination is increased by 2[pi] when the quadrant changes from the first quadrant to the fourth quadrant and decreased by 2[pi] when the quadrant changes from the fourth quadrant to the first quadrant whereby the absolute phase of the frequency or phase modulated signal can be determined using an arbitrary reference convention. 6 figs.

  19. Target detection portal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Linker, Kevin L. (Albuquerque, NM); Brusseau, Charles A. (Tijeras, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A portal apparatus for screening persons or objects for the presence of trace amounts of target substances such as explosives, narcotics, radioactive materials, and certain chemical materials. The portal apparatus can have a one-sided exhaust for an exhaust stream, an interior wall configuration with a concave-shape across a horizontal cross-section for each of two facing sides to result in improved airflow and reduced washout relative to a configuration with substantially flat parallel sides; air curtains to reduce washout; ionizing sprays to collect particles bound by static forces, as well as gas jet nozzles to dislodge particles bound by adhesion to the screened person or object. The portal apparatus can be included in a detection system with a preconcentrator and a detector.

  20. Digital quadrature phase detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, James A.; Johnson, John A.

    1992-01-01

    A system for detecting the phase of a frequency of phase modulated signal that includes digital quadrature sampling of the frequency or phase modulated signal at two times that are one quarter of a cycle of a reference signal apart, determination of the arctangent of the ratio of a first sampling of the frequency or phase modulated signal to the second sampling of the frequency or phase modulated signal, and a determination of quadrant in which the phase determination is increased by 2.pi. when the quadrant changes from the first quadrant to the fourth quadrant and decreased by 2.pi. when the quadrant changes from the fourth quadrant to the first quadrant whereby the absolute phase of the frequency or phase modulated signal can be determined using an arbitrary reference convention.

  1. Detection of gas leakage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornberg, Steven M; Brown, Jason

    2015-02-17

    A method of detecting leaks and measuring volumes as well as a device, the Power-free Pump Module (PPM), provides a self-contained leak test and volume measurement apparatus that requires no external sources of electrical power during leak testing or volume measurement. The PPM is a portable, pneumatically-controlled instrument capable of generating a vacuum, calibrating volumes, and performing quantitative leak tests on a closed test system or device, all without the use of alternating current (AC) power. Capabilities include the ability is to provide a modest vacuum (less than 10 Torr) using a venturi pump, perform a pressure rise leak test, measure the gas's absolute pressure, and perform volume measurements. All operations are performed through a simple rotary control valve which controls pneumatically-operated manifold valves.

  2. Detection of gas leakage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thornberg, Steven; Brown, Jason

    2012-06-19

    A method of detecting leaks and measuring volumes as well as an apparatus, the Power-free Pump Module (PPM), that is a self-contained leak test and volume measurement apparatus that requires no external sources of electrical power during leak testing or volume measurement, where the invention is a portable, pneumatically-controlled instrument capable of generating a vacuum, calibrating volumes, and performing quantitative leak tests on a closed test system or device, all without the use of alternating current (AC) power. Capabilities include the ability is to provide a modest vacuum (less than 10 Torr), perform a pressure rise leak test, measure the gas's absolute pressure, and perform volume measurements. All operations are performed through a simple rotary control valve which controls pneumatically-operated manifold valves.

  3. Research Project on CO2 Geological Storage and Groundwater Resources: Water Quality Effects Caused by CO2 Intrusion into Shallow Groundwater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birkholzer, Jens; Apps, John; Zheng, Liange; Zhang, Yingqi; Xu, Tianfu; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2008-10-01

    One promising approach to reduce greenhouse gas emissions is injecting CO{sub 2} into suitable geologic formations, typically depleted oil/gas reservoirs or saline formations at depth larger than 800 m. Proper site selection and management of CO{sub 2} storage projects will ensure that the risks to human health and the environment are low. However, a risk remains that CO{sub 2} could migrate from a deep storage formation, e.g. via local high-permeability pathways such as permeable faults or degraded wells, and arrive in shallow groundwater resources. The ingress of CO{sub 2} is by itself not typically a concern to the water quality of an underground source of drinking water (USDW), but it will change the geochemical conditions in the aquifer and will cause secondary effects mainly induced by changes in pH, in particular the mobilization of hazardous inorganic constituents present in the aquifer minerals. Identification and assessment of these potential effects is necessary to analyze risks associated with geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. This report describes a systematic evaluation of the possible water quality changes in response to CO{sub 2} intrusion into aquifers currently used as sources of potable water in the United States. Our goal was to develop a general understanding of the potential vulnerability of United States potable groundwater resources in the event of CO{sub 2} leakage. This goal was achieved in two main tasks, the first to develop a comprehensive geochemical model representing typical conditions in many freshwater aquifers (Section 3), the second to conduct a systematic reactive-transport modeling study to quantify the effect of CO{sub 2} intrusion into shallow aquifers (Section 4). Via reactive-transport modeling, the amount of hazardous constituents potentially mobilized by the ingress of CO{sub 2} was determined, the fate and migration of these constituents in the groundwater was predicted, and the likelihood that drinking water standards might be exceeded was evaluated. A variety of scenarios and aquifer conditions was considered in a sensitivity evaluation. The scenarios and conditions simulated in Section 4, in particular those describing the geochemistry and mineralogy of potable aquifers, were selected based on the comprehensive geochemical model developed in Section 3.

  4. Leak detection on an ethylene pipeline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamande, A.; Condacse, V.; Modisette, J.

    1995-12-31

    A model-based leak detection system has been in operation on the Solvay et Cie ethylene pipeline from Antwerp to Jemeppe on Sambre since 1989. The leak detection system, which is the commercial product PLDS of Modisette Associations, Inc., was originally installed by the supplier. Since 1991, all system maintenance and configuration changes have been done by Solvay et Cie personnel. Many leak tests have been performed, and adjustments have been made in the configuration and the automatic tuning parameters. The leak detection system is currently able to detect leaks of 2 tonnes/hour in 11 minutes with accurate location. Larger leaks are detected in about 2 minutes. Leaks between 0.5 and 1 tonne per hour are detected after several hours. (The nominal mass flow in the pipeline is 15 tonnes/hour, with large fluctuations.) Leaks smaller than 0.5 tonnes per hour are not detected, with the alarm thresholds set at levels to avoid false alarms. The major inaccuracies of the leak detection system appear to be associated with the ethylene temperatures.

  5. Colorimetric detection of uranium in water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeVol, Timothy A.; Hixon, Amy E.; DiPrete, David P.

    2012-03-13

    Disclosed are methods, materials and systems that can be used to determine qualitatively or quantitatively the level of uranium contamination in water samples. Beneficially, disclosed systems are relatively simple and cost-effective. For example, disclosed systems can be utilized by consumers having little or no training in chemical analysis techniques. Methods generally include a concentration step and a complexation step. Uranium concentration can be carried out according to an extraction chromatographic process and complexation can chemically bind uranium with a detectable substance such that the formed substance is visually detectable. Methods can detect uranium contamination down to levels even below the MCL as established by the EPA.

  6. Revolution in Detection Affairs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stern W.

    2013-11-02

    The detection of nuclear or radioactive materials for homeland or national security purposes is inherently difficult. This is one reason detection efforts must be seen as just one part of an overall nuclear defense strategy which includes, inter alia, material security, detection, interdiction, consequence management and recovery. Nevertheless, one could argue that there has been a revolution in detection affairs in the past several decades as the innovative application of new technology has changed the character and conduct of detection operations. This revolution will likely be most effectively reinforced in the coming decades with the networking of detectors and innovative application of anomaly detection algorithms.

  7. Cellular telephone-based radiation detection instrument

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Craig, William W.; Labov, Simon E.

    2011-06-14

    A network of radiation detection instruments, each having a small solid state radiation sensor module integrated into a cellular phone for providing radiation detection data and analysis directly to a user. The sensor module includes a solid-state crystal bonded to an ASIC readout providing a low cost, low power, light weight compact instrument to detect and measure radiation energies in the local ambient radiation field. In particular, the photon energy, time of event, and location of the detection instrument at the time of detection is recorded for real time transmission to a central data collection/analysis system. The collected data from the entire network of radiation detection instruments are combined by intelligent correlation/analysis algorithms which map the background radiation and detect, identify and track radiation anomalies in the region.

  8. Nonlinear nanomechanical oscillators for ultrasensitive inertial detection

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Patent) | SciTech Connect Patent: Nonlinear nanomechanical oscillators for ultrasensitive inertial detection Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nonlinear nanomechanical oscillators for ultrasensitive inertial detection A system for ultrasensitive mass and/or force detection of this invention includes a mechanical oscillator driven to oscillate in a nonlinear regime. The mechanical oscillator includes a piezoelectric base with at least one cantilever resonator etched into the

  9. Nuclear Detonation Detection | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Nuclear Detonation Detection NNSA builds the nation's operational sensors that monitor the entire planet from space to detect and report surface, atmospheric, or space nuclear detonations; produces and updates the regional geophysical datasets enabling operation of the nation's ground-based seismic monitoring networks to detect and report underground detonations; and conducts research and development on nuclear detonation forensics, improvements in satellite operational systems to meet future

  10. Interactive Activity Detection Tools

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Activity Detection Tools Interactive Activity Detection Tools Tools for detecting specified activities in video data provide a key intelligence capability. High numbers of false alarms, however, reduce tool effectiveness and analyst patience. User feedback reduces false alarms * This project will reduce the number of false alarms generated by activity detection tools (including single vehicle start / stop, multi-vehicle meetings and coordinated driving patterns) by exploiting user feedback in a

  11. Data acquisition system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shapiro, Stephen L.; Mani, Sudhindra; Atlas, Eugene L.; Cords, Dieter H. W.; Holbrook, Britt

    1997-01-01

    A data acquisition circuit for a particle detection system that allows for time tagging of particles detected by the system. The particle detection system screens out background noise and discriminate between hits from scattered and unscattered particles. The detection system can also be adapted to detect a wide variety of particle types. The detection system utilizes a particle detection pixel array, each pixel containing a back-biased PIN diode, and a data acquisition pixel array. Each pixel in the particle detection pixel array is in electrical contact with a pixel in the data acquisition pixel array. In response to a particle hit, the affected PIN diodes generate a current, which is detected by the corresponding data acquisition pixels. This current is integrated to produce a voltage across a capacitor, the voltage being related to the amount of energy deposited in the pixel by the particle. The current is also used to trigger a read of the pixel hit by the particle.

  12. Detection system for a gas chromatograph

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hayes, John M.; Small, Gerald J.

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus are described for the quantitative analysis of vaporizable compounds, and in particular of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons which may be induced to fluoresce. The sample to be analyzed is injected into a gas chromatography column and is eluted through a narrow orifice into a vacuum chamber. The free expansion of the eluted sample into the vacuum chamber creates a supersonic molecular beam in which the sample molecules are cooled to the extent that the excited vibrational and rotational levels are substantially depopulated. The cooled molecules, when induced to fluoresce by laser excitation, give greatly simplified spectra suitable for analytical purposes. The laser induced fluorimetry provides great selectivity, and the gas chromatograph provides quantitative transfer of the sample to the molecular beam.

  13. Miniature Integrated Nuclear Detection System (MINDS) | Princeton...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PPPL News Quest Princeton Journal Watch Blog PPPL Experts Research at Princeton Events Research Education Organization Contact Us News Room News Archive American Fusion News...

  14. NNSA Transfers Responsibility for Radiation Detection System...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    application of nuclear science. NNSA maintains and enhances the safety, security, reliability and performance of the U.S. nuclear weapons stockpile without nuclear testing; works ...

  15. Multi-directional fault detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles Jens; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian Edward

    2009-03-17

    An apparatus, program product and method checks for nodal faults in a group of nodes comprising a center node and all adjacent nodes. The center node concurrently communicates with the immediately adjacent nodes in three dimensions. The communications are analyzed to determine a presence of a faulty node or connection.

  16. Multi-directional fault detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles Jens; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian Edward

    2010-11-23

    An apparatus, program product and method checks for nodal faults in a group of nodes comprising a center node and all adjacent nodes. The center node concurrently communicates with the immediately adjacent nodes in three dimensions. The communications are analyzed to determine a presence of a faulty node or connection.

  17. Multi-directional fault detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles Jens; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian Edward

    2010-06-29

    An apparatus, program product and method checks for nodal faults in a group of nodes comprising a center node and all adjacent nodes. The center node concurrently communicates with the immediately adjacent nodes in three dimensions. The communications are analyzed to determine a presence of a faulty node or connection.

  18. Flow cytometer acquisition and detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Casstevens, Martin K.; Burzynski, Ryszard; Weibel, John; Kachynski, Alexander

    2010-05-04

    A flow cytometer has a flow cell through which a sample flows and at least one laser emitting an excitation beam for illuminating a corresponding interrogation region in the flow cell. Scattered and fluorescence light from each interrogation region is collected by one or more input fibers for that region, and the input fiber(s) are fed to a dispersion module for that interrogation region that disperses the incoming light into different spectral regions. The dispersed light is conveyed, such as by a plurality of output fibers, to one or more photosensitive detectors. Thus, time multiplexed light signals may be delivered to a detector whereby several unique light signals can be measured by a single detector.

  19. Radionuclide detection devices and associated methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mann, Nicholas R. (Rigby, ID); Lister, Tedd E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Tranter, Troy J. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-03-08

    Radionuclide detection devices comprise a fluid cell comprising a flow channel for a fluid stream. A radionuclide collector is positioned within the flow channel and configured to concentrate one or more radionuclides from the fluid stream onto at least a portion of the radionuclide collector. A scintillator for generating scintillation pulses responsive to an occurrence of a decay event is positioned proximate at least a portion of the radionuclide collector and adjacent to a detection system for detecting the scintillation pulses. Methods of selectively detecting a radionuclide are also provided.

  20. Long Range Neutron Detection: A Progress Report (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    As designed, our l-square-meter moderator-free detection system is expected to be superior to conventional moderate-and-capture detection for some applications. less Authors: AJ ...

  1. Detection of a concealed object

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keller, Paul E [Richland, WA; Hall, Thomas E [Kennewick, WA; McMakin, Douglas L [Richland, WA

    2010-11-16

    Disclosed are systems, methods, devices, and apparatus to determine if a clothed individual is carrying a suspicious, concealed object. This determination includes establishing data corresponding to an image of the individual through interrogation with electromagnetic radiation in the 200 MHz to 1 THz range. In one form, image data corresponding to intensity of reflected radiation and differential depth of the reflecting surface is received and processed to detect the suspicious, concealed object.

  2. Detection of a concealed object

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keller, Paul E. (Richland, WA); Hall, Thomas E. (Kennewick, WA); McMakin, Douglas L. (Richland, WA)

    2008-04-29

    Disclosed are systems, methods, devices, and apparatus to determine if a clothed individual is carrying a suspicious, concealed object. This determination includes establishing data corresponding to an image of the individual through interrogation with electromagnetic radiation in the 200 MHz to 1 THz range. In one form, image data corresponding to intensity of reflected radiation and differential depth of the reflecting surface is received and processed to detect the suspicious, concealed object.

  3. Evaluating Impacts of CO2 and CH4 Gas Intrusion into an Unconsolidated Aquifer: Fate of As and Cd

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawter, Amanda R.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Shao, Hongbo; Bacon, Diana H.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2015-07-10

    Abstract The sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in deep underground reservoirs has been identified as an important strategy to decrease atmospheric CO2 levels and mitigate global warming, but potential risks on overlying aquifers currently lack a complete evaluation. In addition to CO2, other gases such as methane (CH4) may be present in storage reservoirs. This paper explores for the first time the combined effect of leaking CO2 and CH4 gasses on the fate of major, minor and trace elements in an aquifer overlying a potential sequestration site. Emphasis is placed on the fate of arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) released from the sediments or present as soluble constituents in the leaking brine. Results from macroscopic batch and column experiments show that the presence of CH4 (at a concentration of 1 % in the mixture CO2/CH4) does not have a significant effect on solution pH or the concentrations of most major elements (such as Ca, Ba, and Mg). However, the concentrations of Mn, Mo, Si and Na are inconsistently affected by the presence of CH4 (i.e., in at least one sediment tested in this study). Cd is not released from the sediments and spiked Cd is mostly removed from the aqueous phase most likely via adsorption. The fate of sediment associated As [mainly sorbed arsenite or As(III) in minerals] and spiked As [i.e., As5+] is complex. Possible mechanisms that control the As behavior in this system are discussed in this paper. Results are significant for CO2 sequestration risk evaluation and site selection and demonstrate the importance of evaluating reservoir brine and gas stream composition during site selection to ensure the safest site is being chosen.

  4. Magnetic particle detection in unshielded environment using orthogonal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    fluxgate gradiometer (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Magnetic particle detection in unshielded environment using orthogonal fluxgate gradiometer Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Magnetic particle detection in unshielded environment using orthogonal fluxgate gradiometer A new detection system for magnetic particles, which can operate in an unshielded environment, is developed using a fundamental mode orthogonal fluxgate gradiometer. The proposed detection system offers the

  5. Spot test kit for explosives detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pagoria, Philip F; Whipple, Richard E; Nunes, Peter J; Eckels, Joel Del; Reynolds, John G; Miles, Robin R; Chiarappa-Zucca, Marina L

    2014-03-11

    An explosion tester system comprising a body, a lateral flow membrane swab unit adapted to be removeably connected to the body, a first explosives detecting reagent, a first reagent holder and dispenser operatively connected to the body, the first reagent holder and dispenser containing the first explosives detecting reagent and positioned to deliver the first explosives detecting reagent to the lateral flow membrane swab unit when the lateral flow membrane swab unit is connected to the body, a second explosives detecting reagent, and a second reagent holder and dispenser operatively connected to the body, the second reagent holder and dispenser containing the second explosives detecting reagent and positioned to deliver the second explosives detecting reagent to the lateral flow membrane swab unit when the lateral flow membrane swab unit is connected to the body.

  6. Sulfide chemiluminescence detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spurlin, Stanford R. (Ames, IA); Yeung, Edward S. (Ames, IA)

    1985-01-01

    A method of chemiluminescently determining a sulfide which is either hydrogen sulfide or methyl mercaptan by reacting the sulfide with chlorine dioxide at low pressure and under conditions which allow a longer reaction time in emission of a single photon for every two sulfide containing species, and thereafter, chemiluminescently detecting and determining the sulfide. The invention also relates not only to the detection method, but the novel chemical reaction and a specifically designed chemiluminescence detection cell for the reaction.

  7. Sulfide chemiluminescence detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spurlin, S.R.; Yeung, E.S.

    1985-11-26

    A method is described for chemiluminescently determining a sulfide which is either hydrogen sulfide or methyl mercaptan by reacting the sulfide with chlorine dioxide at low pressure and under conditions which allow a longer reaction time in emission of a single photon for every two sulfide containing species, and thereafter, chemiluminescently detecting and determining the sulfide. The invention also relates not only to the detection method, but the novel chemical reaction and a specifically designed chemiluminescence detection cell for the reaction. 4 figs.

  8. Fast Neutron Detection Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKigney, Edward A.; Stange, Sy

    2014-03-17

    These slides present a summary of previous work, conclusions, and anticipated schedule for the conclusion of our fast neutron detection evaluation.

  9. Neutron detection apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kopp, Manfred K.; Valentine, Kenneth H.

    1983-01-01

    An atomic fission counting apparatus used for neutron detection is provided with spirally curved electrode plates uniformly spaced apart in a circular array and coated with fissile material.

  10. Lean blowoff detection sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thornton, Jimmy; Straub, Douglas L.; Chorpening, Benjamin T.; Huckaby, David

    2007-04-03

    Apparatus and method for detecting incipient lean blowoff conditions in a lean premixed combustion nozzle of a gas turbine. A sensor near the flame detects the concentration of hydrocarbon ions and/or electrons produced by combustion and the concentration monitored as a function of time are used to indicate incipient lean blowoff conditions.

  11. Detection and Analysis of Threatsto the Energy Sector (DATES...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DATES will provide control system operators with enhanced incident detection and alerting tools through rigorous monitoring of threats at the network, host, and device levels. ...

  12. Optically Detected Magnetic Resonance Studies on π-conjugated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resonance Studies on -conjugated semiconductor systems Citation Details In-Document ...2 electroluminescence-detected magnetic resonance (ELDMR) was observed in Alq3 devices. ...

  13. Analog detection for cavity lifetime spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zare, Richard N.; Harb, Charles C.; Paldus, Barbara A.; Spence, Thomas G.

    2001-05-15

    An analog detection system for determining a ring-down rate or decay rate 1/.tau. of an exponentially decaying ring-down beam issuing from a lifetime or ring-down cavity during a ring-down phase. Alternatively, the analog detection system determines a build-up rate of an exponentially growing beam issuing from the cavity during a ring-up phase. The analog system can be employed in continuous wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CW CRDS) and pulsed CRDS (P CRDS) arrangements utilizing any type of ring-down cavity including ring-cavities and linear cavities.

  14. Analog detection for cavity lifetime spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zare, Richard N.; Harb, Charles C.; Paldus, Barbara A.; Spence, Thomas G.

    2003-01-01

    An analog detection system for determining a ring-down rate or decay rate 1/.tau. of an exponentially decaying ring-down beam issuing from a lifetime or ring-down cavity during a ring-down phase. Alternatively, the analog detection system determines a build-up rate of an exponentially growing beam issuing from the cavity during a ring-up phase. The analog system can be employed in continuous wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CW CRDS) and pulsed CRDS (P CRDS) arrangements utilizing any type of ring-down cavity including ring-cavities and linear cavities.

  15. Model for the heat source of the Cerro Prieto magma-hydrothermal system, Baja California, Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elders, W.A.; Bird, D.K.; Williams, A.E.; Schiffman, P.; Cox, B.

    1981-01-01

    Earlier studies at Cerro Prieto led to the development of a qualitative model for fluid flow in the geothermal system before it was drilled and perturbed by production. Current efforts are directed towards numerical modeling of heat and mass transfer in the system in this undisturbed state. This one-dimensional model assumes that the heat source was a single basalt/gabbro intrusion which provided heat to the system as it cooled. After compilation of various information of the physical properties of the reservoir, the enthalpy contained in two 1 cm thick sections across the reservoir orthogonal to each other was calculated. Various shapes, sizes and depths for the intrusion were considered as initial conditions and boundary conditions for the calculations of heat transfer. A family of numerical models which so far gives the best matches to the conditions observed in the field today have in common a funnel-shaped intrusion with a top 4 km wide emplaced at a depth of 5 km some 30,000 to 50,000 years ago, providing heat to the geothermal system.

  16. GPU Accelerated Event Detection Algorithm

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2011-05-25

    Smart grid external require new algorithmic approaches as well as parallel formulations. One of the critical components is the prediction of changes and detection of anomalies within the power grid. The state-of-the-art algorithms are not suited to handle the demands of streaming data analysis. (i) need for events detection algorithms that can scale with the size of data, (ii) need for algorithms that can not only handle multi dimensional nature of the data, but alsomore » model both spatial and temporal dependencies in the data, which, for the most part, are highly nonlinear, (iii) need for algorithms that can operate in an online fashion with streaming data. The GAEDA code is a new online anomaly detection techniques that take into account spatial, temporal, multi-dimensional aspects of the data set. The basic idea behind the proposed approach is to (a) to convert a multi-dimensional sequence into a univariate time series that captures the changes between successive windows extracted from the original sequence using singular value decomposition (SVD), and then (b) to apply known anomaly detection techniques for univariate time series. A key challenge for the proposed approach is to make the algorithm scalable to huge datasets by adopting techniques from perturbation theory, incremental SVD analysis. We used recent advances in tensor decomposition techniques which reduce computational complexity to monitor the change between successive windows and detect anomalies in the same manner as described above. Therefore we propose to develop the parallel solutions on many core systems such as GPUs, because these algorithms involve lot of numerical operations and are highly data-parallelizable.« less

  17. Object detection with a multistatic array using singular value decomposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hallquist, Aaron T.; Chambers, David H.

    2014-07-01

    A method and system for detecting the presence of subsurface objects within a medium is provided. In some embodiments, the detection system operates in a multistatic mode to collect radar return signals generated by an array of transceiver antenna pairs that is positioned across a surface and that travels down the surface. The detection system converts the return signals from a time domain to a frequency domain, resulting in frequency return signals. The detection system then performs a singular value decomposition for each frequency to identify singular values for each frequency. The detection system then detects the presence of a subsurface object based on a comparison of the identified singular values to expected singular values when no subsurface object is present.

  18. Laser-based Sensors for Chemical Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, Tanya L.; Phillips, Mark C.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Schiffern, John T.; Cannon, Bret D.

    2010-05-10

    Stand-off detection of hazardous materials ensures that the responder is located at a safe distance from the suspected source. Remote detection and identification of hazardous materials can be accomplished using a highly sensitive and portable device, at significant distances downwind from the source or the threat. Optical sensing methods, in particular infrared absorption spectroscopy combined with quantum cascade lasers (QCLs), are highly suited for the detection of chemical substances since they enable rapid detection and are amenable for autonomous operation in a compact and rugged package. This talk will discuss the sensor systems developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and will discuss the progress to reduce the size and power while maintaining sensitivity to enable stand-off detection of multiple chemicals.

  19. Leak detection aid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steeper, Timothy J.

    1989-01-01

    A leak detection apparatus and method for detecting leaks across an O-ring sealing a flanged surface to a mating surface is an improvement in a flanged surface comprising a shallow groove following O-ring in communication with an entrance and exit port intersecting the shallow groove for injecting and withdrawing, respectively, a leak detection fluid, such as helium. A small quantity of helium injected into the entrance port will flow to the shallow groove, past the O-ring and to the exit port.

  20. Composition for detecting uranyl

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baylor, Lewis C.; Stephens, Susan M.

    1995-01-01

    A composition for detecting the presence and concentration of a substance such as uranyl, comprising an organohalide covalently bonded to an indicator for said substance. The composition has at least one active OH site for forming a complex with the substance to be detected. The composition is made by reacting equimolar amounts of the indicator and the organohalide in a polar organic solvent. The absorbance spectrum of the composition-uranyl complex is shifted with respect to the absorbance spectrum of the indicator-uranyl complex, to provide better spectral resolution for detecting uranyl.

  1. Leak detection aid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steeper, T.J.

    1989-12-26

    A leak detection apparatus and method for detecting leaks across an O-ring sealing a flanged surface to a mating surface is an improvement in a flanged surface comprising a shallow groove following O-ring in communication with an entrance and exit port intersecting the shallow groove for injecting and withdrawing, respectively, a leak detection fluid, such as helium. A small quantity of helium injected into the entrance port will flow to the shallow groove, past the O-ring and to the exit port. 2 figs.

  2. Tampering detection system using quantum-mechanical systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Humble, Travis S.; Bennink, Ryan S.; Grice, Warren P.

    2011-12-13

    The use of quantum-mechanically entangled photons for monitoring the integrity of a physical border or a communication link is described. The no-cloning principle of quantum information science is used as protection against an intruder's ability to spoof a sensor receiver using a `classical` intercept-resend attack. Correlated measurement outcomes from polarization-entangled photons are used to protect against quantum intercept-resend attacks, i.e., attacks using quantum teleportation.

  3. Cyber Security Audit and Attack Detection Toolkit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, Dale

    2012-05-31

    This goal of this project was to develop cyber security audit and attack detection tools for industrial control systems (ICS). Digital Bond developed and released a tool named Bandolier that audits ICS components commonly used in the energy sector against an optimal security configuration. The Portaledge Project developed a capability for the PI Historian, the most widely used Historian in the energy sector, to aggregate security events and detect cyber attacks.

  4. Detecting persons concealed in a vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tucker, Jr., Raymond W.

    2005-03-29

    An improved method for detecting the presence of humans or animals concealed within in a vehicle uses a combination of the continuous wavelet transform and a ratio-based energy calculation to determine whether the motion detected using seismic sensors placed on the vehicle is due to the presence of a heartbeat within the vehicle or is the result of motion caused by external factors such as the wind. The method performs well in the presence of light to moderate ambient wind levels, producing far fewer false alarm indications. The new method significantly improves the range of ambient environmental conditions under which human presence detection systems can reliably operate.

  5. Bolt failure detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sutton, Jr., Harry G.

    1984-01-01

    Bolts of a liquid metal fast breeder reactor, each bolt provided with an internal chamber filled with a specific, unique radioactive tag gas. Detection of the tag gas is indicative of a crack in an identifiable bolt.

  6. Detection of counterfeit currency

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burns, Donald A.

    1998-01-01

    A method of detecting counterfeit currency by contacting the currency to be tested with near infrared beams in the spectrum below 1250 namometers, measuring reflectance of the near infrared beams and comparing the reflectance values with those from genuine currency.

  7. Energy Detectives (3 Activities)

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    Students explore the classroom as they look and feel for signs of energy. They record the ways they use energy throughout a typical day in an energy detective journal.

  8. Explosive Detection Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2000-10-26

    To standardize and accelerate implementation of the Department of Energy (DOE) explosive detection program. DOE N 251.40, dated 5/3/01, extends this directive until 12/31/01.

  9. Distributed road assessment system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beer, N. Reginald; Paglieroni, David W

    2014-03-25

    A system that detects damage on or below the surface of a paved structure or pavement is provided. A distributed road assessment system includes road assessment pods and a road assessment server. Each road assessment pod includes a ground-penetrating radar antenna array and a detection system that detects road damage from the return signals as the vehicle on which the pod is mounted travels down a road. Each road assessment pod transmits to the road assessment server occurrence information describing each occurrence of road damage that is newly detected on a current scan of a road. The road assessment server maintains a road damage database of occurrence information describing the previously detected occurrences of road damage. After the road assessment server receives occurrence information for newly detected occurrences of road damage for a portion of a road, the road assessment server determines which newly detected occurrences correspond to which previously detected occurrences of road damage.

  10. Renewable Surface Biosensors With Optical Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruckner-Lea, Cynthia J.; Ackerman, Eric J.; Dockendorff, Brian P.; Holman, David A.; Grate, Jay W.

    2001-12-01

    One major challenge in the development of biosensors is the limited lifetime of a chemically selective surface that includes biomolecules. Renewable surface biosensors address this issue by using fresh aliquots of derivatized microbeads for each analysis. The analyte detection can then occur on the microbeads, or downstream from the microbeads. In this paper, we will describe two types of renewable surface biosensors. The first renewable biosensor system includes on-column optical detection for monitoring the binding of biomolecules onto protein or DNA-derivatized Sepharose beads. The second renewable biosensor system includes detection downstream from the microparticles and is based on the use of derivatized magnetic particles for selective binding. The magnetic particles are fluidically captured and released in a sequential injection system to allow the automation of an Enzyme Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay.

  11. Renewable Surface Biosensors with Optical Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.; Ackerman, Eric J.; Dockendorff, Brian P.; Holman, David A.; Grate, Jay W.

    2001-04-30

    One major challenge in the development of biosensors is the limited lifetime of a chemically selective surface that includes biomolecules. Renewable surface biosensors address this issue by using fresh aliquots of derivatized microbeads for each analysis. The analyte detection can then occur on the microbeads, or downstream from the microbeads. In this paper, we will describe two types of renewable surface biosensors. The first renewable biosensor system includes on-column optical detection for monitoring the binding of biomolecules onto protein or DNA-derivatized Sepharose beads. The second renewable biosensor system includes detection downstream from the microparticles and is based on the use of derivatized magnetic particles for selective binding. The magnetic particles are fluidically captured and released in a sequential injection system to allow the automation of an Enzyme Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay.

  12. Determination of TCAP (Thermal Cycling Absorption Process) Raffinate Purity

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy May 2008 Detection and Analysis of Threatsto the Energy Sector (DATES) May 2008 A groundbreaking integrated capability in intrusion detection, security event management, and sector-wide threat analysis. The two-year DATES project is a groundbreaking effort to develop the first integrated intrusion detection, security incident/event management (SIEM), and large-scale threat analysis capability for the energy sector. DATES will provide control system operators with

  13. Design of an Unattended Environmental Aerosol Sampling and Analysis System for Gaseous Centrifuge Enrichment Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Munley, John T.; Alexander, M. L.

    2011-07-19

    The resources of the IAEA continue to be challenged by the rapid, worldwide expansion of nuclear energy production. Gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) represent an especially formidable dilemma to the application of safeguard measures, as the size and enrichment capacity of GCEPs continue to escalate. During the early part of the 1990's, the IAEA began to lay the foundation to strengthen and make cost-effective its future safeguard regime. Measures under Part II of 'Programme 93+2' specifically sanctioned access to nuclear fuel production facilities and environmental sampling by IAEA inspectors. Today, the Additional Protocol grants inspection and environmental sample collection authority to IAEA inspectors at GCEPs during announced and low frequency unannounced (LFUA) inspections. During inspections, IAEA inspectors collect environmental swipe samples that are then shipped offsite to an analytical laboratory for enrichment assay. This approach has proven to be an effective deterrence to GCEP misuse, but this method has never achieved the timeliness of detection goals set forth by IAEA. Furthermore it is questionable whether the IAEA will have the resources to even maintain pace with the expansive production capacity of the modern GCEP, let alone improve the timeliness in reaching current safeguards conclusions. New safeguards propositions, outside of familiar mainstream safeguard measures, may therefore be required that counteract the changing landscape of nuclear energy fuel production. A new concept is proposed that offers rapid, cost effective GCEP misuse detection, without increasing LFUA inspection access or introducing intrusive access demands on GCEP operations. Our approach is based on continuous onsite aerosol collection and laser enrichment analysis. This approach mitigates many of the constraints imposed by the LFUA protocol, reduces the demand for onsite sample collection and offsite analysis, and overcomes current limitations associated with the in-facility misuse detection devices. Onsite environmental sample collection offers the ability to collect fleeting uranium hexafluoride emissions before they are lost to the ventilation system or before they disperse throughout the facility, to become deposited onto surfaces that are contaminated with background and historical production material. Onsite aerosol sample collection, combined with enrichment analysis, provides the unique ability to quickly detect stepwise enrichment level changes within the facility, leading to a significant strengthening of facility misuse deterence. We report in this paper our study of several GCEP environmental sample release scenarios and simulation results of a newly designed aerosol collection and particle capture system that is fully integrated with the Laser Ablation, Absorbance Ratio Spectrometry (LAARS) uranium particle enrichment analysis instrument that was developed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  14. Control Systems Cyber Security Standards Support Activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Evans

    2009-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security’s Control Systems Security Program (CSSP) is working with industry to secure critical infrastructure sectors from cyber intrusions that could compromise control systems. This document describes CSSP’s current activities with industry organizations in developing cyber security standards for control systems. In addition, it summarizes the standards work being conducted by organizations within the sector and provides a brief listing of sector meetings and conferences that might be of interest for each sector. Control systems cyber security standards are part of a rapidly changing environment. The participation of CSSP in the development effort for these standards has provided consistency in the technical content of the standards while ensuring that information developed by CSSP is included.

  15. System and method for underwater radiography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunter, James; Keck, Danny Lee; Sims, Jr., James Rae; Watson, Scott Avery

    2015-01-20

    A system for subsea imaging comprises a first plate having an inner surface, an outer surface, and a cavity formed in the inner surface. In addition, the system comprises a phosphor imaging plate disposed in the cavity. Further, the system comprises a second plate having an inner surface facing the inner surface of the first plate and an outer surface facing away from the outer surface of the first plate. Still further, the system comprises a seal member disposed between the inner surface of the first plate and the inner surface of the second plate. The seal member extends around the perimeter of the cavity and is configured to seal the phosphor imaging plate and the cavity from intrusion water.

  16. Commercial Grade Item (CGI) Dedication for Leak Detection Relays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KOCH, M.R.

    1999-10-26

    This Test Plan provides a test method to dedicate the leak detection relays used on the new Pumping and Instrumentation Control (PIC) skids. The new skids are fabricated on-site. The leak detection system is a safety class system per the Authorization Basis.

  17. Temperature differential detection device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Girling, Peter M.

    1986-01-01

    A temperature differential detection device for detecting the temperature differential between predetermined portions of a container wall is disclosed as comprising a Wheatstone bridge circuit for detecting resistance imbalance with a first circuit branch having a first elongated wire element mounted in thermal contact with a predetermined portion of the container wall, a second circuit branch having a second elongated wire element mounted in thermal contact with a second predetermined portion of a container wall with the wire elements having a predetermined temperature-resistant coefficient, an indicator interconnected between the first and second branches remote from the container wall for detecting and indicating resistance imbalance between the first and second wire elements, and connector leads for electrically connecting the wire elements to the remote indicator in order to maintain the respective resistance value relationship between the first and second wire elements. The indicator is calibrated to indicate the detected resistance imbalance in terms of a temperature differential between the first and second wall portions.

  18. Temperature differential detection device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Girling, P.M.

    1986-04-22

    A temperature differential detection device for detecting the temperature differential between predetermined portions of a container wall is disclosed as comprising a Wheatstone bridge circuit for detecting resistance imbalance with a first circuit branch having a first elongated wire element mounted in thermal contact with a predetermined portion of the container wall, a second circuit branch having a second elongated wire element mounted in thermal contact with a second predetermined portion of a container wall with the wire elements having a predetermined temperature-resistant coefficient, an indicator interconnected between the first and second branches remote from the container wall for detecting and indicating resistance imbalance between the first and second wire elements, and connector leads for electrically connecting the wire elements to the remote indicator in order to maintain the respective resistance value relationship between the first and second wire elements. The indicator is calibrated to indicate the detected resistance imbalance in terms of a temperature differential between the first and second wall portions. 2 figs.

  19. Nonlinear nanomechanical oscillators for ultrasensitive inertial detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Datskos, Panagiotis George; Lavrik, Nickolay V

    2013-08-13

    A system for ultrasensitive mass and/or force detection of this invention includes a mechanical oscillator driven to oscillate in a nonlinear regime. The mechanical oscillator includes a piezoelectric base with at least one cantilever resonator etched into the piezoelectric base. The cantilever resonator is preferably a nonlinear resonator which is driven to oscillate with a frequency and an amplitude. The system of this invention detects an amplitude collapse of the cantilever resonator at a bifurcation frequency as the cantilever resonator stimulated over a frequency range. As mass and/or force is introduced to the cantilever resonator, the bifurcation frequency shifts along a frequency axis in proportion to the added mass.

  20. Alternative Neutron Detection Testing Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Erikson, Luke E.; Kernan, Warnick J.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Stromswold, David C.; Woodring, Mitchell L.

    2010-04-08

    Radiation portal monitors used for interdiction of illicit materials at borders include highly sensitive neutron detection systems. The main reason for having neutron detection capability is to detect fission neutrons from plutonium. Most currently deployed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) use neutron detectors based upon 3He-filled gas proportional counters, which are the most common large area neutron detector. This type of neutron detector is used in the TSA and other RPMs installed in international locations and in the Ludlum and Science Applications International Corporation RPMs deployed primarily for domestic applications. There is a declining supply of 3He in the world and, thus, methods to reduce the use of this gas in RPMs with minimal changes to the current system designs and sensitivity to cargo-borne neutrons are being investigated. Four technologies have been identified as being currently commercially available, potential alternative neutron detectors to replace the use of 3He in RPMs. These technologies are: 1) Boron trifluoride-filled proportional counters, 2) Boron-lined proportional counters, 3) Lithium-loaded glass fibers, and 4) Coated wavelength-shifting plastic fibers. Reported here is a summary of the testing carried out at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on these technologies to date, as well as measurements on 3He tubes at various pressures. Details on these measurements are available in the referenced reports. Sponsors of these tests include the Department of Energy (DOE), Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and the Department of Defense (DoD), as well as internal Pacific Northwest National Laboratory funds.

  1. Composition for detecting uranyl

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baylor, L.C.; Stephens, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention relates to an indicator composition for use in spectrophotometric detection of a substance in a solution, and a method for making the composition. Useful indicators are sensitive to the particular substance being measured, but are unaffected by the fluid and other chemical species that may be present in the fluid. Optical indicators are used to measure the uranium concentration of process solutions in facilities for extracting uranium from ores, production of nuclear fuels, and reprocessing of irradiated fuels. The composition comprises an organohalide covalently bonded to an indicator for the substance, in such a manner that the product is itself an indicator that provides increased spectral resolution for detecting the substance. The indicator is preferably arsenazo III and the organohalide is preferably cyanuric chloride. These form a composition that is ideally suited for detecting uranyl.

  2. Nucleic acid detection kits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Mast, Andrea L.; Brow, Mary Ann; Kwiatkowski, Robert W.; Vavra, Stephanie H.

    2005-03-29

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of nucleic acid from various viruses in a sample.

  3. Void detecting device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nakamoto, Koichiro; Ohyama, Nobumi; Adachi, Kiyoshi; Kuwahara, Hajime

    1979-01-01

    A detector to be inserted into a flowing conductive fluid, e.g. sodium coolant in a nuclear reactor, comprising at least one exciting coil to receive an a-c signal applied thereto and two detecting coils located in the proximity of the exciting coil. The difference and/or the sum of the output signals of the detecting coils is computed to produce a flow velocity signal and/or a temperature-responsive signal for the fluid. Such flow velocity signal or temperature signal is rectified synchronously by a signal the phase of which is shifted substantially .+-. 90.degree. with respect to the flow velocity signal or temperature signal, thereby enabling the device to detect voids in the flowing fluid without adverse effects from flow velocity variations or flow disturbances occurring in the fluid.

  4. Error detection method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, Eric J.

    2013-06-11

    An apparatus, program product, and method that run an algorithm on a hardware based processor, generate a hardware error as a result of running the algorithm, generate an algorithm output for the algorithm, compare the algorithm output to another output for the algorithm, and detect the hardware error from the comparison. The algorithm is designed to cause the hardware based processor to heat to a degree that increases the likelihood of hardware errors to manifest, and the hardware error is observable in the algorithm output. As such, electronic components may be sufficiently heated and/or sufficiently stressed to create better conditions for generating hardware errors, and the output of the algorithm may be compared at the end of the run to detect a hardware error that occurred anywhere during the run that may otherwise not be detected by traditional methodologies (e.g., due to cooling, insufficient heat and/or stress, etc.).

  5. Detection of neutrinos

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischbach, Ephraim; Jenkins, Jere

    2014-02-04

    A flux detection apparatus can include a radioactive sample having a decay rate capable of changing in response to interaction with a first particle or a field, and a detector associated with the radioactive sample. The detector is responsive to a second particle or radiation formed by decay of the radioactive sample. The rate of decay of the radioactive sample can be correlated to flux of the first particle or the field. Detection of the first particle or the field can provide an early warning for an impending solar event.

  6. Detection of solar events

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischbach, Ephraim; Jenkins, Jere

    2013-08-27

    A flux detection apparatus can include a radioactive sample having a decay rate capable of changing in response to interaction with a first particle or a field, and a detector associated with the radioactive sample. The detector is responsive to a second particle or radiation formed by decay of the radioactive sample. The rate of decay of the radioactive sample can be correlated to flux of the first particle or the field. Detection of the first particle or the field can provide an early warning for an impending solar event.

  7. Real time viability detection of bacterial spores

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vanderberg, Laura A.; Herdendorf, Timothy J.; Obiso, Richard J.

    2003-07-29

    This invention relates to a process for detecting the presence of viable bacterial spores in a sample and to a spore detection system, the process including placing a sample in a germination medium for a period of time sufficient for commitment of any present viable bacterial spores to occur, mixing the sample with a solution of a lanthanide capable of forming a fluorescent complex with dipicolinic acid, and, measuring the sample for the presence of dipicolinic acid, and the system including a germination chamber having inlets from a sample chamber, a germinant chamber and a bleach chamber, the germination chamber further including an outlet through a filtering means, the outlet connected to a detection chamber, the detection chamber having an inlet from a fluorescence promoting metal chamber and the detection chamber including a spectral excitation source and a means of measuring emission spectra from a sample, the detection chamber further connected to a waste chamber. A germination reaction mixture useful for promoting commitment of any viable bacterial spores in a sample including a combination of L-alanine, L-asparagine and D-glucose is also described.

  8. Permeation absorption sampler with multiple detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zaromb, Solomon

    1990-01-01

    A system for detecting analytes in air or aqueous systems includes a permeation absorption preconcentrator sampler for the analytes and analyte detectors. The preconcentrator has an inner fluid-permeable container into which a charge of analyte-sorbing liquid is intermittently injected, and a fluid-impermeable outer container. The sample is passed through the outer container and around the inner container for trapping and preconcentrating the analyte in the sorbing liquid. The analyte can be detected photometrically by injecting with the sorbing material a reagent which reacts with the analyte to produce a characteristic color or fluorescence which is detected by illuminating the contents of the inner container with a light source and measuring the absorbed or emitted light, or by producing a characteristic chemiluminescence which can be detected by a suitable light sensor. The analyte can also be detected amperometrically. Multiple inner containers may be provided into which a plurality of sorbing liquids are respectively introduced for simultaneously detecting different analytes. Baffles may be provided in the outer container. A calibration technique is disclosed.

  9. PLANETARY CONSTRUCTION ZONES IN OCCULTATION: DISCOVERY OF AN EXTRASOLAR RING SYSTEM TRANSITING A YOUNG SUN-LIKE STAR AND FUTURE PROSPECTS FOR DETECTING ECLIPSES BY CIRCUMSECONDARY AND CIRCUMPLANETARY DISKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mamajek, Eric E.; Quillen, Alice C.; Pecaut, Mark J.; Moolekamp, Fred; Scott, Erin L.; Kenworthy, Matthew A.; Cameron, Andrew Collier; Parley, Neil R.

    2012-03-15

    The large relative sizes of circumstellar and circumplanetary disks imply that they might be seen in eclipse in stellar light curves. We estimate that a survey of {approx}10{sup 4} young ({approx}10 million year old) post-accretion pre-main-sequence stars monitored for {approx}10 years should yield at least a few deep eclipses from circumplanetary disks and disks surrounding low-mass companion stars. We present photometric and spectroscopic data for a pre-main-sequence K5 star (1SWASP J140747.93-394542.6 = ASAS J140748-3945.7), a newly discovered {approx}0.9 M{sub Sun} member of the {approx}16 Myr old Upper Centaurus-Lupus subgroup of Sco-Cen at a kinematic distance of 128 {+-} 13 pc. This star exhibited a remarkably long, deep, and complex eclipse event centered on 2007 April 29 (as discovered in Super Wide Angle Search for Planets (SuperWASP) photometry, and with portions of the dimming confirmed by All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) data). At least five multi-day dimming events of >0.5 mag are identified, with a >3.3 mag deep eclipse bracketed by two pairs of {approx}1 mag eclipses symmetrically occurring {+-}12 days and {+-}26 days before and after. Hence, significant dimming of the star was taking place on and off over at least a {approx}54 day period in 2007, and a strong >1 mag dimming event occurring over a {approx}12 day span. We place a firm lower limit on the period of 850 days (i.e., the orbital radius of the eclipser must be >1.7 AU and orbital velocity must be <22 km s{sup -1}). The shape of the light curve is similar to the lopsided eclipses of the Be star EE Cep. We suspect that this new star is being eclipsed by a low-mass object orbited by a dense inner disk, further girded by at least three dusty rings of optical depths near unity. Between these rings are at least two annuli of near-zero optical depth (i.e., gaps), possibly cleared out by planets or moons, depending on the nature of the secondary. For possible periods in the range 2.33-200 yr, the estimated total ring mass is {approx}8-0.4 M{sub Moon} (if the rings have optical opacity similar to Saturn's rings), and the edge of the outermost detected ring has orbital radius {approx}0.4-0.09 AU. In the new era of time-domain astronomy opened by surveys like SuperWASP, ASAS, etc., and soon to be revolutionized by Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, discovering and characterizing eclipses by circumplanetary and circumsecondary disks will provide us with observational constraints on the conditions that spawn satellite systems around gas giant planets and planetary systems around stars.

  10. Network Randomization and Dynamic Defense for Critical Infrastructure Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chavez, Adrian R.; Martin, Mitchell Tyler; Hamlet, Jason; Stout, William M.S.; Lee, Erik

    2015-04-01

    Critical Infrastructure control systems continue to foster predictable communication paths, static configurations, and unpatched systems that allow easy access to our nation's most critical assets. This makes them attractive targets for cyber intrusion. We seek to address these attack vectors by automatically randomizing network settings, randomizing applications on the end devices themselves, and dynamically defending these systems against active attacks. Applying these protective measures will convert control systems into moving targets that proactively defend themselves against attack. Sandia National Laboratories has led this effort by gathering operational and technical requirements from Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) and performing research and development to create a proof-of-concept solution. Our proof-of-concept has been tested in a laboratory environment with over 300 nodes. The vision of this project is to enhance control system security by converting existing control systems into moving targets and building these security measures into future systems while meeting the unique constraints that control systems face.

  11. Nitrogen dioxide detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinha, Dipen N.; Agnew, Stephen F.; Christensen, William H.

    1993-01-01

    Method and apparatus for detecting the presence of gaseous nitrogen dioxide and determining the amount of gas which is present. Though polystyrene is normally an insulator, it becomes electrically conductive in the presence of nitrogen dioxide. Conductance or resistance of a polystyrene sensing element is related to the concentration of nitrogen dioxide at the sensing element.

  12. Detection of counterfeit currency

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burns, D.A.

    1998-05-26

    A method is disclosed of detecting counterfeit currency by contacting the currency to be tested with near infrared beams in the spectrum below 1,250 nanometers, measuring reflectance of the near infrared beams and comparing the reflectance values with those from genuine currency. 18 figs.

  13. RADIATION DETECTOR SYSTEM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gundlach, J.C.; Kelley, G.G.

    1958-02-25

    This patent relates to radiation detection devices and presents a unique detection system especialiy desirable for portable type instruments using a Geiger-Mueller for a high voltage battery, thereby reducing the size and weight of the instrument, by arranging a one-shot multivibrator to recharge a capacitance applying operating potential to tho Geiger-Mueller tube each time a nuclear particle is detected. When detection occurs, the multivibrator further delivers a pulse to an appropriate indicator doing away with the necessity for the pulse amplifier conventionally intermediate between the detector and indicator in pulse detection systems.

  14. TOWARD HIGHLY SECURE AND AUTONOMIC COMPUTING SYSTEMS: A HIERARCHICAL APPROACH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Hsien-Hsin S

    2010-05-11

    The overall objective of this research project is to develop novel architectural techniques as well as system software to achieve a highly secure and intrusion-tolerant computing system. Such system will be autonomous, self-adapting, introspective, with self-healing capability under the circumstances of improper operations, abnormal workloads, and malicious attacks. The scope of this research includes: (1) System-wide, unified introspection techniques for autonomic systems, (2) Secure information-flow microarchitecture, (3) Memory-centric security architecture, (4) Authentication control and its implication to security, (5) Digital right management, (5) Microarchitectural denial-of-service attacks on shared resources. During the period of the project, we developed several architectural techniques and system software for achieving a robust, secure, and reliable computing system toward our goal.

  15. Air monitoring and detection of chemical and biological agents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leonelli, J.; Althouse, M.L.

    1999-06-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of SPIE`s remote sensing symposium which was held November 2--3, 1998 in Boston, Massachusetts. Topics of discussion include the following: system simulations, atmospheric modeling, and performance prediction studies of chemical warfare remote sensing technologies; ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence and aerosol detection methods for remote sensing of biological warfare agents; passive detection methods for remote detection of chemical warfare agents; and lidar-based system performance assessments, demonstrations, and new concepts for chemical warfare/biological warfare detection.

  16. Radiation Detection Computational Benchmark Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaver, Mark W.; Casella, Andrew M.; Wittman, Richard S.; McDonald, Ben S.

    2013-09-24

    Modeling forms an important component of radiation detection development, allowing for testing of new detector designs, evaluation of existing equipment against a wide variety of potential threat sources, and assessing operation performance of radiation detection systems. This can, however, result in large and complex scenarios which are time consuming to model. A variety of approaches to radiation transport modeling exist with complementary strengths and weaknesses for different problems. This variety of approaches, and the development of promising new tools (such as ORNL’s ADVANTG) which combine benefits of multiple approaches, illustrates the need for a means of evaluating or comparing different techniques for radiation detection problems. This report presents a set of 9 benchmark problems for comparing different types of radiation transport calculations, identifying appropriate tools for classes of problems, and testing and guiding the development of new methods. The benchmarks were drawn primarily from existing or previous calculations with a preference for scenarios which include experimental data, or otherwise have results with a high level of confidence, are non-sensitive, and represent problem sets of interest to NA-22. From a technical perspective, the benchmarks were chosen to span a range of difficulty and to include gamma transport, neutron transport, or both and represent different important physical processes and a range of sensitivity to angular or energy fidelity. Following benchmark identification, existing information about geometry, measurements, and previous calculations were assembled. Monte Carlo results (MCNP decks) were reviewed or created and re-run in order to attain accurate computational times and to verify agreement with experimental data, when present. Benchmark information was then conveyed to ORNL in order to guide testing and development of hybrid calculations. The results of those ADVANTG calculations were then sent to PNNL for compilation. This is a report describing the details of the selected Benchmarks and results from various transport codes.

  17. Modular optical detector system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horn, Brent A.; Renzi, Ronald F.

    2006-02-14

    A modular optical detector system. The detector system is designed to detect the presence of molecules or molecular species by inducing fluorescence with exciting radiation and detecting the emitted fluorescence. Because the system is capable of accurately detecting and measuring picomolar concentrations it is ideally suited for use with microchemical analysis systems generally and capillary chromatographic systems in particular. By employing a modular design, the detector system provides both the ability to replace various elements of the detector system without requiring extensive realignment or recalibration of the components as well as minimal user interaction with the system. In addition, the modular concept provides for the use and addition of a wide variety of components, including optical elements (lenses and filters), light sources, and detection means, to fit particular needs.

  18. Solar neutrino detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miramonti, Lino

    2009-04-30

    More than 40 years ago, neutrinos where conceived as a way to test the validity of the solar models which tell us that stars are powered by nuclear fusion reactions. The first measurement of the neutrino flux, in 1968 in the Homestake mine in South Dakota, detected only one third of the expected value, originating what has been known as the Solar Neutrino Problem. Different experiments were built in order to understand the origin of this discrepancy. Now we know that neutrinos undergo oscillation phenomenon changing their nature traveling from the core of the Sun to our detectors. In the work the 40 year long saga of the neutrino detection is presented; from the first proposals to test the solar models to last real time measurements of the low energy part of the neutrino spectrum.

  19. Cell Phone Detection Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratt, Richard M.; Bunch, Kyle J.; Puzycki, David J.; Slaugh, Ryan W.; Good, Morris S.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2007-10-01

    A team composed of Rick Pratt, Dave Puczyki, Kyle Bunch, Ryan Slaugh, Morris Good, and Doug McMakin teamed together to attempt to exploit cellular telephone features and detect if a person was carrying a cellular telephone into a Limited Area. The cell phones electromagnetic properties were measured, analyzed, and tested in over 10 different ways to determine if an exploitable signature exists. The method that appears to have the most potential for success without adding an external tag is to measure the RF spectrum, not in the cell phone band, but between 240 and 400MHz. Figures 1- 7 show the detected signal levels from cell phones from three different manufacturers.

  20. Smart Microfabricated Preconcentrator (and Other Micro Analytical Detection

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Components&Systems). (Conference) | SciTech Connect Smart Microfabricated Preconcentrator (and Other Micro Analytical Detection Components&Systems). Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Smart Microfabricated Preconcentrator (and Other Micro Analytical Detection Components&Systems). Abstract not provided. Authors: Manginell, Ronald Paul Publication Date: 2011-06-01 OSTI Identifier: 1107226 Report Number(s): SAND2011-4365C 465761 DOE Contract Number: AC04-94AL85000 Resource

  1. Method for detecting biomolecules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huo, Qisheng; Liu, Jun

    2008-08-12

    A method for detecting and measuring the concentration of biomolecules in solution, utilizing a conducting electrode in contact with a solution containing target biomolecules, with a film with controllable pore size distribution characteristics applied to at least one surface of the conducting electrode. The film is functionalized with probe molecules that chemically interact with the target biomolecules at the film surface, blocking indicator molecules present in solution from diffusing from the solution to the electrode, thereby changing the electrochemical response of the electrode

  2. Aspects of leak detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chivers, T.C.

    1997-04-01

    A requirement of a Leak before Break safety case is that the leakage from the through wall crack be detected prior to any growth leading to unacceptable failure. This paper sets out to review some recent developments in this field. It does not set out to be a comprehensive guide to all of the methods available. The discussion concentrates on acoustic emission and how the techniques can be qualified and deployed on operational plant.

  3. Biomolecular detection device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huo, Qisheng; Liu, Jun

    2008-10-21

    A device for detecting and measuring the concentration of biomolecules in solution, utilizing a conducting electrode in contact with a solution containing target biomolecules, with a film with controllable pore size distribution characteristics applied to at least one surface of the conducting electrode. The film is functionalized with probe molecules that chemically interact with the target biomolecules at the film surface, blocking indicator molecules present in solution from diffusing from the solution to the electrode, thereby changing the electrochemical response of the electrode.

  4. Sequential detection of web defects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eichel, Paul H.; Sleefe, Gerard E.; Stalker, K. Terry; Yee, Amy A.

    2001-01-01

    A system for detecting defects on a moving web having a sequential series of identical frames uses an imaging device to form a real-time camera image of a frame and a comparitor to comparing elements of the camera image with corresponding elements of an image of an exemplar frame. The comparitor provides an acceptable indication if the pair of elements are determined to be statistically identical; and a defective indication if the pair of elements are determined to be statistically not identical. If the pair of elements is neither acceptable nor defective, the comparitor recursively compares the element of said exemplar frame with corresponding elements of other frames on said web until one of the acceptable or defective indications occur.

  5. Statistical fingerprinting for malware detection and classification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prowell, Stacy J.; Rathgeb, Christopher T.

    2015-09-15

    A system detects malware in a computing architecture with an unknown pedigree. The system includes a first computing device having a known pedigree and operating free of malware. The first computing device executes a series of instrumented functions that, when executed, provide a statistical baseline that is representative of the time it takes the software application to run on a computing device having a known pedigree. A second computing device executes a second series of instrumented functions that, when executed, provides an actual time that is representative of the time the known software application runs on the second computing device. The system detects malware when there is a difference in execution times between the first and the second computing devices.

  6. Revolution in nuclear detection affairs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stern, Warren M.

    2014-05-09

    The detection of nuclear or radioactive materials for homeland or national security purposes is inherently difficult. This is one reason detection efforts must be seen as just one part of an overall nuclear defense strategy which includes, inter alia, material security, detection, interdiction, consequence management and recovery. Nevertheless, one could argue that there has been a revolution in detection affairs in the past several decades as the innovative application of new technology has changed the character and conduct of detection operations. This revolution will likely be most effectively reinforced in the coming decades with the networking of detectors and innovative application of anomaly detection algorithms.

  7. Cellular telephone-based wide-area radiation detection network

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Craig, William W.; Labov, Simon E.

    2009-06-09

    A network of radiation detection instruments, each having a small solid state radiation sensor module integrated into a cellular phone for providing radiation detection data and analysis directly to a user. The sensor module includes a solid-state crystal bonded to an ASIC readout providing a low cost, low power, light weight compact instrument to detect and measure radiation energies in the local ambient radiation field. In particular, the photon energy, time of event, and location of the detection instrument at the time of detection is recorded for real time transmission to a central data collection/analysis system. The collected data from the entire network of radiation detection instruments are combined by intelligent correlation/analysis algorithms which map the background radiation and detect, identify and track radiation anomalies in the region.

  8. Nucleic acid detection compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann; Dahlberg, James L.

    2008-08-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  9. Nucleic acid detection assays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann; Dahlberg, James E.

    2005-04-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  10. Opaque cloud detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roskovensky, John K.

    2009-01-20

    A method of detecting clouds in a digital image comprising, for an area of the digital image, determining a reflectance value in at least three discrete electromagnetic spectrum bands, computing a first ratio of one reflectance value minus another reflectance value and the same two values added together, computing a second ratio of one reflectance value and another reflectance value, choosing one of the reflectance values, and concluding that an opaque cloud exists in the area if the results of each of the two computing steps and the choosing step fall within three corresponding predetermined ranges.

  11. Electrical leakage detection circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wild, Arthur

    2006-09-05

    A method is provided for detecting electrical leakage between a power supply and a frame of a vehicle or machine. The disclosed method includes coupling a first capacitor between a frame and a first terminal of a power supply for a predetermined period of time. The current flowing between the frame and the first capacitor is limited to a predetermined current limit. It is determined whether the voltage across the first capacitor exceeds a threshold voltage. A first output signal is provided when the voltage across the capacitor exceeds the threshold voltage.

  12. Quality monitored distributed voting system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skogmo, David

    1997-01-01

    A quality monitoring system can detect certain system faults and fraud attempts in a distributed voting system. The system uses decoy voters to cast predetermined check ballots. Absent check ballots can indicate system faults. Altered check ballots can indicate attempts at counterfeiting votes. The system can also cast check ballots at predetermined times to provide another check on the distributed voting system.

  13. Quality monitored distributed voting system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skogmo, D.

    1997-03-18

    A quality monitoring system can detect certain system faults and fraud attempts in a distributed voting system. The system uses decoy voters to cast predetermined check ballots. Absent check ballots can indicate system faults. Altered check ballots can indicate attempts at counterfeiting votes. The system can also cast check ballots at predetermined times to provide another check on the distributed voting system. 6 figs.

  14. Probe for contamination detection in recyclable materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taleyarkhan, Rusi

    2003-08-05

    A neutron detection system for detection of contaminants contained within a bulk material during recycling includes at least one neutron generator for neutron bombardment of the bulk material, and at least one gamma ray detector for detection of gamma rays emitted by contaminants within the bulk material. A structure for analyzing gamma ray data is communicably connected to the gamma ray detector, the structure for analyzing gamma ray data adapted. The identity and concentration of contaminants in a bulk material can also be determined. By scanning the neutron beam, discrete locations within the bulk material having contaminants can be identified. A method for recycling bulk material having unknown levels of contaminants includes the steps of providing at least one neutron generator, at least one gamma ray detector, and structure for analyzing gamma ray data, irradiating the bulk material with neutrons, and then determining the presence of at least one contaminant in the bulk material from gamma rays emitted from the bulk material.

  15. Structural damage detection using the holder exponent.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrar, C. R.; Do, N. B.; Green, S. R.; Schwartz, T. A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper implements a damage detection strategy that identifies damage sensitive features associated with nonlinearities. Some rion-linezlrities result from discontinuities introduced into the data by certain types of darnage. These discontinuities may also result from noise in the measured dynamic response data or can be caused by random excitation of the system. The Holder Exponent, which is a measure of the degree to which a signal is differentiable, is used to detect the discontinuities. By studying the Holder bponent as a function af time, a statistical model is developed that classifies changes in the Holder Exponent that are associated with clamage-induced discontinuities. The results show that for certain cases, the Holder Exponent is an effective technique to detect damage.

  16. HIGH RESOLUTION RESISTIVITY LEAK DETECTION DATA PROCESSING & EVALUATION MEHTODS & REQUIREMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SCHOFIELD JS

    2007-10-04

    This document has two purposes: {sm_bullet} Describe how data generated by High Resolution REsistivity (HRR) leak detection (LD) systems deployed during single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval operations are processed and evaluated. {sm_bullet} Provide the basic review requirements for HRR data when Hrr is deployed as a leak detection method during SST waste retrievals.

  17. Method for detection of extremely low concentration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andresen, Brian D.; Miller, Fred S.

    2002-01-01

    An ultratrace detector system for hand-held gas chromatography having high sensitivity, for example, to emissions generated during production of weapons, biological compounds, drugs, etc. The detector system is insensitive to water, air, helium, argon, oxygen, and CO.sub.2. The detector system is basically composed of a hand-held capillary gas chromatography (GC), an insulated heated redox-chamber, a detection chamber, and a vapor trap. For example, the detector system may use gas phase redox reactions and spectral absorption of mercury vapor. The gas chromatograph initially separates compounds that percolate through a bed of heated mercuric oxide (HgO) in a silica--or other metal--aerogel material which acts as an insulator. Compounds easily oxidized by HgO liberate atomic mercury that subsequently pass through a detection chamber which includes a detector cell, such as quartz, that is illuminated with a 254 nm ultra-violet (UV) mercury discharge lamp which generates the exact mercury absorption bands that are used to detect the liberated mercury atoms. Atomic mercury strongly absorbs 254 nm energy is therefore a specific signal for reducing compounds eluting from the capillary GC, whereafter the atomic mercury is trapped for example, in a silicon-aerogel trap.

  18. Electronic system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robison, G H; Dickson, J F

    1960-11-15

    An electronic system is designed for indicating the occurrence of a plurality of electrically detectable events within predetermined time intervals. The system comprises separate input means electrically associated with the events under observation an electronic channel associated with each input means, including control means and indicating means; timing means adapted to apply a signal from the input means after a predetermined time to the control means to deactivate each of the channels; and means for resetting the system to its initial condition after the observation of each group of events. (D.L.C.)

  19. Portable outgas detection apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haney, Steven Julian; Malinowski, Michael E.

    2004-05-11

    A portable device for detecting surface outgas contaminants of an article includes: (i) a portable housing that has a chamber which is in communication with a port that is adapted to be sealably attached to a surface of the article; (ii) a mass spectrometer that is coupled to the chamber for analyzing gaseous materials in the chamber; and (iii) means for generating a vacuum within the chamber thereby drawing outgas contaminants from the surface of the article into the chamber for analysis by the mass spectrometer. By performing a mass spectrometric analysis of the surface of interest and comparing the data with mass spectrometric data ascertained with the device from a clean surface, the type and amount of outgas contaminants, if any, can be determined.

  20. Waveguide disturbance detection method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Korneev, Valeri A.; Nihei, Kurt T.; Myer, Larry R.

    2000-01-01

    A method for detection of a disturbance in a waveguide comprising transmitting a wavefield having symmetric and antisymmetric components from a horizontally and/or vertically polarized source and/or pressure source disposed symmetrically with respect to the longitudinal central axis of the waveguide at one end of the waveguide, recording the horizontal and/or vertical component or a pressure of the wavefield with a vertical array of receivers disposed at the opposite end of the waveguide, separating the wavenumber transform of the wavefield into the symmetric and antisymmetric components, integrating the symmetric and antisymmetric components over a broad frequency range, and comparing the magnitude of the symmetric components and the antisymmetric components to an expected magnitude for the symmetric components and the antisymmetric components for a waveguide of uniform thickness and properties thereby determining whether or not a disturbance is present inside the waveguide.

  1. Contraband Detection with Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence: Feasibility and Impact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruet, J; Lange, D

    2007-01-03

    In this report they show that cargo interrogation systems developed to thwart trafficking of illicit nuclear materials could also be powerful tools in the larger fight against contraband smuggling. In particular, in addition to detecting special nuclear materials, cargo scanning systems that exploit nuclear resonance fluorescence to detect specific isotopes can be used to help find: chemical weapons; some drugs as well as some chemicals regulated under the controlled substances act; precious metals; materials regulated under export control laws; and commonly trafficked fluorocarbons.

  2. Service water system failures and degradations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lam, P.; Leeds, E.

    1989-01-01

    The Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has completed a comprehensive review and evaluation of service water system failures and degradations observed in operating events in light water reactors from 1980 to 1987. The review and evaluation focused on the identification of causes of system failures and degradations, the adequacy of corrective actions implemented and planned, and the safety significance of the operating events. The results of this review and evaluation indicate that service water system failures and degradations have significant safety implications. These system failures and degradations are attributable to a great variety of causes and have adverse impact on a large number of safety-related systems and components that are required to mitigate reactor accidents. Specifically, the causes of failures and degradations include various fouling mechanisms (sediment deposition, biofouling, corrosion and erosion, pipe coating failure, calcium carbonate, foreign material and debris intrusion); single failures and other design deficiencies; flooding; multiple equipment failures; personnel and procedural errors; and seismic deficiencies. Systems and components adversely impacted by a service water system failure or degradation include the component cooling water system, emergency diesel generators, emergency core-cooling system pumps and heat exchangers, the residual heat removal system, containment spray and fan coolers, control room chillers, and reactor building cooling units.

  3. Detection of contraband using microwave radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toth, Richard P.; Loubriel, Guillermo M.; Bacon, Larry D.; Watson, Robert D.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method and system for using microwave radiation to detect contraband hidden inside of a non-metallic container, such as a pneumatic vehicle tire. The method relies on the attenuation, retardation, time delay, or phase shift of microwave radiation as it passes through the container plus the contraband. The method is non-invasive, non-destructive, low power, and does not require physical contact with the container.

  4. Detection and Classification of Buried Metallic Objects UX-1225

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrison, Frank; Smith, Torquil; Becker, Alex; Gasperikova, Erika

    2005-03-31

    In summary the technical objectives of this project were: (1) To develop and demonstrate a methodology for the quantitative evaluation of existing active electromagnetic (AEM) systems and for the design of new systems. (2) To implement a new methodology for optimizing an AEM system for detecting and classifying UXO of a given class in a specified geologic setting and in a given noise environment. (3) To design and build a prototype of an active EM system for detecting and characterizing a metallic object in the ground.

  5. REMOTE DETECTION OF INTERNAL PIPELINE CORROSION USING FLUIDIZED SENSORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narasi Sridhar; Garth Tormoen; Ashok Sabata

    2005-10-31

    Pipelines present a unique challenge to monitoring because of the great geographical distances they cover, their burial depth, their age, and the need to keep the product flowing without much interruption. Most other engineering structures that require monitoring do not pose such combined challenges. In this regard, a pipeline system can be considered analogous to the blood vessels in the human body. The human body has an extensive ''pipeline'' through which blood and other fluids are transported. The brain can generally sense damage to the system at any location and alert the body to provide temporary repair, unless the damage is severe. This is accomplished through a vast network of fixed and floating sensors combined with a vast and extremely complex communication/decision making system. The project described in this report mimics the distributed sensor system of our body, albeit in a much more rudimentary fashion. Internal corrosion is an important factor in pipeline integrity management. At present, the methods to assess internal corrosion in pipelines all have certain limitations. In-line inspection tools are costly and cannot be used in all pipelines. Because there is a significant time interval between inspections, any impact due to upsets in pipeline operations can be missed. Internal Corrosion Direct Assessment (ICDA) is a procedure that can be used to identify locations of possible internal corrosion. However, the uncertainties in the procedure require excavation and location of damage using more detailed inspection tools. Non-intrusive monitoring techniques can be used to monitor internal corrosion, but these tools also require pipeline excavation and are limited in the spatial extent of corrosion they can examine. Therefore, a floating sensor system that can deposit at locations of water accumulation and communicate the corrosion information to an external location is needed. To accomplish this, the project is divided into four main tasks related to wireless data transmission, corrosion sensor development, sensor system motion and delivery, and consideration of other pipeline operations issues. In the first year of the program, focus was on sensor development and wireless data transmission. The second year of the program, which was discontinued due to funding shortfall, would have focused on further wireless transmission development, packaging of sensor on wireless, and other operational issues. Because, the second year funding has been discontinued, recommendations are made for future studies.

  6. Spectroscopic Detection of Pathogens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ALAM,M. KATHLEEN; TIMLIN,JERILYN A.; MARTIN,LAURA E.; HJELLE,DRIAN; LYONS,RICK; GARRISON,KRISTIN

    2000-11-01

    The goal of this LDRD Research project was to provide a preliminary examination of the use of infrared spectroscopy as a tool to detect the changes in cell cultures upon activation by an infectious agent. Due to a late arrival of funding, only 5 months were available to transfer and setup equipment at UTTM,develop cell culture lines, test methods of in-situ activation and collect kinetic data from activated cells. Using attenuated total reflectance (ATR) as a sampling method, live cell cultures were examined prior to and after activation. Spectroscopic data were collected from cells immediately after activation in situ and, in many cases for five successive hours. Additional data were collected from cells activated within a test tube (pre-activated), in both transmission mode as well as in ATR mode. Changes in the infrared data were apparent in the transmission data collected from the pre-activated cells as well in some of the pre-activated ATR data. Changes in the in-situ activated spectral data were only occasionally present due to (1) the limited time cells were studied and (2) incomplete activation. Comparison of preliminary data to infrared bands reported in the literature suggests the primary changes seen are due an increase in ribonucleic acid (RNA) production. This work will be continued as part of a 3 year DARPA grant.

  7. Fault Detection and Load Distribution for the Wind Farm Challenge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borchehrsen, Anders B.; Larsen, Jesper A.; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2014-08-24

    In this paper a fault detection system and a fault tolerant controller for a wind farm model. The wind farm model used is the one proposed as a public challenge. In the model three types of faults are introduced to a wind farm consisting of nine turbines. A fault detection system designed, by taking advantage of the fact that within a wind farm several wind turbines will be operating under all most identical conditions. The turbines are then grouped, and then turbines within each group are used to generate residuals for turbines in the group. The generated residuals are then evaluated using dynamical cumulative sum. The designed fault detection system is cable of detecting all three fault types occurring in the model. But there is room for improving the fault detection in some areas. To take advantage of the fault detection system a fault tolerant controller for the wind farm has been designed. The fault tolerant controller is a dispatch controller which is estimating the possible power at each individual turbine and then setting the reference accordingly. The fault tolerant controller has been compared to a reference controller. And the comparison shows that the fault tolerant controller performance better in all measures. The fault detection and a fault tolerant controller has been designed, and based on the simulated results the overall performance of the wind farm is improved on all measures. Thereby this is a step towards improving the overall performance of current and future wind farms.

  8. DN detection during SLSF tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braid, T.H.; Harper, H.A.; Wilson, R.E.; Baldwin, R.D.; Gilbert, D.M.; Baxter, D.E.; Gillins, R.L.; Jeffries, G.L.

    1982-01-01

    During two tests in the Sodium Loop Safety Facility (W2 and P4), two systems were operated to detect delayed neutrons from exposed fuel. One monitored directly the sodium in the in-pile loop with a transit delay from the flux region of approx.2 seconds; the other conducted a sample stream of sodium to external detectors with a transit delay which could be varied from approx.10 to approx. 40 seconds. Detectors of a wide range of sensitivity were operated in pulse and current mode; DN signals varying from <1 mm/sup 2/ recoil to many grams of molten fuel could be recorded reliably without saturation. During the W2 and P4 tests a continuous DN record was made. Massive fuel failure signals were observed during reactor transients in both tests, including events interpreted as fuel melting and exposure of large areas. The steady signal from the blockage in P4 was studied as a function of reactor power and sodium temperature.

  9. Detecting fission from special nuclear material sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rowland, Mark S.; Snyderman, Neal J.

    2012-06-05

    A neutron detector system for discriminating fissile material from non-fissile material wherein a digital data acquisition unit collects data at high rate, and in real-time processes large volumes of data directly into information that a first responder can use to discriminate materials. The system comprises counting neutrons from the unknown source and detecting excess grouped neutrons to identify fission in the unknown source. The system includes a graphing component that displays the plot of the neutron distribution from the unknown source over a Poisson distribution and a plot of neutrons due to background or environmental sources. The system further includes a known neutron source placed in proximity to the unknown source to actively interrogate the unknown source in order to accentuate differences in neutron emission from the unknown source from Poisson distributions and/or environmental sources.

  10. Luminescent MOFs for Mycotoxin Detection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Luminescent MOFs for Mycotoxin Detection Luminescent MOFs for Mycotoxin Detection Print Thursday, 04 February 2016 16:26 Mycotoxins-toxic chemical products produced by fungi-contaminate 25% of global food crops, leading to the loss of 1 billion metric tons of food products annually. Although current mycotoxin detection methods are effective, they are also expensive and require complex sample preparation. Researchers from Rutgers University, Northern Illinois University, and the Advanced Light

  11. Flashback detection sensor for lean premix fuel nozzles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thornton, Jimmy Dean; Richards, George Alan; Straub, Douglas L.; Liese, Eric Arnold; Trader, Jr., John Lee; Fasching, George Edward

    2002-08-06

    A sensor for detecting the flame occurring during a flashback condition in the fuel nozzle of a lean premix combustion system is presented. The sensor comprises an electrically isolated flashback detection electrode and a guard electrode, both of which generate electrical fields extending to the walls of the combustion chamber and to the walls of the fuel nozzle. The sensor is positioned on the fuel nozzle center body at a location proximate the entrance to the combustion chamber of the gas turbine combustion system. The sensor provides 360.degree. detection of a flashback inside the fuel nozzle, by detecting the current conducted by the flame within a time frame that will prevent damage to the gas turbine combustion system caused by the flashback condition.

  12. Method for detecting an element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blackwood, Larry G.; Reber, Edward L.; Rohde, Kenneth W.

    2007-02-06

    A method for detecting an element is disclosed and which includes the steps of providing a gamma-ray spectrum which depicts, at least in part, a test region having boundaries, and which has a small amount of the element to be detected; providing a calculation which detects the small amount of the element to be detected; and providing a moving window and performing the calculation within the moving window, and over a range of possible window boundaries within the test region to determine the location of the optimal test region within the gamma-ray spectrum.

  13. Detection of biological molecules using chemical amplification and optical sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Antwerp, William Peter; Mastrototaro, John Joseph

    2000-01-01

    Methods are provided for the determination of the concentration of biological levels of polyhydroxylated compounds, particularly glucose. The methods utilize an amplification system that is an analyte transducer immobilized in a polymeric matrix, where the system is implantable and biocompatible. Upon interrogation by an optical system, the amplification system produces a signal capable of detection external to the skin of the patient. Quantitation of the analyte of interest is achieved by measurement of the emitted signal.

  14. Detection of biological molecules using chemical amplification and optical sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Antwerp, William Peter; Mastrototaro, John Joseph

    2004-10-12

    Methods are provided for the determination of the concentration of biological levels of polyhydroxylated compounds, particularly glucose. The methods utilize an amplification system that is an analyte transducer immobilized in a polymeric matrix, where the system is implantable and biocompatible. Upon interrogation by an optical system, the amplification system produces a signal capable of detection external to the skin of the patient. Quantitation of the analyte of interest is achieved by measurement of the emitted signal.

  15. MPI Runtime Error Detection with MUST: Advances in Deadlock Detection

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hilbrich, Tobias; Protze, Joachim; Schulz, Martin; de Supinski, Bronis R.; Müller, Matthias S.

    2013-01-01

    The widely used Message Passing Interface (MPI) is complex and rich. As a result, application developers require automated tools to avoid and to detect MPI programming errors. We present the Marmot Umpire Scalable Tool (MUST) that detects such errors with significantly increased scalability. We present improvements to our graph-based deadlock detection approach for MPI, which cover future MPI extensions. Our enhancements also check complex MPI constructs that no previous graph-based detection approach handled correctly. Finally, we present optimizations for the processing of MPI operations that reduce runtime deadlock detection overheads. Existing approaches often require 𝒪( p ) analysis timemore » per MPI operation, for p processes. We empirically observe that our improvements lead to sub-linear or better analysis time per operation for a wide range of real world applications.« less

  16. ELECTRONIC SYSTEM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robison, G.H. et al.

    1960-11-15

    An electronic system is described for indicating the occurrence of a plurality of electrically detectable events within predetermined time intervals. It is comprised of separate input means electrically associated with the events under observation: an electronic channel associated with each input means including control means and indicating means; timing means associated with each of the input means and the control means and adapted to derive a signal from the input means and apply it after a predetermined time to the control means to effect deactivation of each of the channels; and means for resetting the system to its initial condition after observation of each group of events.

  17. Detection and treatment of chemical weapons and/or biological pathogens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mariella Jr., Raymond P.

    2004-09-07

    A system for detection and treatment of chemical weapons and/or biological pathogens uses a detector system, an electrostatic precipitator or scrubber, a circulation system, and a control. The precipitator or scrubber is activated in response to a signal from the detector upon the detection of chemical weapons and/or biological pathogens.

  18. Blind Geothermal System Exploration in Active Volcanic Environments; Multi-phase Geophysical and Geochemical Surveys in Overt and Subtle Volcanic Systems, Hawai’i and Maui

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fercho, Steven; Owens, Lara; Walsh, Patrick; Drakos, Peter; Martini, Brigette; Lewicki, Jennifer L.; Kennedy, Burton M.

    2015-08-01

    Suites of new geophysical and geochemical exploration surveys were conducted to provide evidence for geothermal resource at the Haleakala Southwest Rift Zone (HSWRZ) on Maui Island, Hawai’i. Ground-based gravity (~400 stations) coupled with heli-bourne magnetics (~1500 line kilometers) define both deep and shallow fractures/faults, while also delineating potentially widespread subsurface hydrothermal alteration on the lower flanks (below approximately 1800 feet a.s.l.). Multi-level, upward continuation calculations and 2-D gravity and magnetic modeling provide information on source depths, but lack of lithologic information leaves ambiguity in the estimates. Additionally, several well-defined gravity lows (possibly vent zones) lie coincident with magnetic highs suggesting the presence of dike intrusions at depth which may represent a potentially young source of heat. Soil CO2 fluxes were measured along transects across geophysically-defined faults and fractures as well as young cinder cones along the HSWRZ. This survey generally did not detect CO2 levels above background, with the exception of a weak anomalous flux signal over one young cinder cone. The general lack of observed CO2 flux signals on the HSWRZ is likely due to a combination of lower magmatic CO2 fluxes and relatively high biogenic surface CO2 fluxes which mix with the magmatic signal. Similar surveys at the Puna geothermal field on the Kilauea Lower East Rift Zone (KLERZ) also showed a lack of surface CO2 flux signals, however aqueous geochemistry indicated contribution of magmatic CO2 and He to shallow groundwater here. As magma has been intercepted in geothermal drilling at the Puna field, the lack of measured surface CO2 flux indicative of upflow of magmatic fluids here is likely due to effective “scrubbing” by high groundwater and a mature hydrothermal system. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations, δ13C compositions and 3He/4He values were sampled at Maui from several shallow groundwater samples indicating only minor additions of magmatic CO2 and He to the groundwater system, although much less than observed near Puna. The much reduced DIC and He abundances at Maui, along with a lack of hotsprings and hydrothermal alteration, as observed near Puna, does not strongly support a deeper hydrothermal system within the HSWRZ.

  19. Polymerase chain reaction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benett, William J.; Richards, James B.; Stratton, Paul L.; Hadley, Dean R.; Milanovich, Fred P.; Belgrader, Phil; Meyer, Peter L.

    2004-03-02

    A portable polymerase chain reaction DNA amplification and detection system includes one or more chamber modules. Each module supports a duplex assay of a biological sample. Each module has two parallel interrogation ports with a linear optical system. The system is capable of being handheld.

  20. Improved Microseismicity Detection During Newberry EGS Stimulations

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Templeton, Dennise

    Effective enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) require optimal fracture networks for efficient heat transfer between hot rock and fluid. Microseismic mapping is a key tool used to infer the subsurface fracture geometry. Traditional earthquake detection and location techniques are often employed to identify microearthquakes in geothermal regions. However, most commonly used algorithms may miss events if the seismic signal of an earthquake is small relative to the background noise level or if a microearthquake occurs within the coda of a larger event. Consequently, we have developed a set of algorithms that provide improved microearthquake detection. Our objective is to investigate the microseismicity at the DOE Newberry EGS site to better image the active regions of the underground fracture network during and immediately after the EGS stimulation. Detection of more microearthquakes during EGS stimulations will allow for better seismic delineation of the active regions of the underground fracture system. This improved knowledge of the reservoir network will improve our understanding of subsurface conditions, and allow improvement of the stimulation strategy that will optimize heat extraction and maximize economic return.