National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for intrusion detection system

  1. Interior intrusion detection systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, J.R.; Matter, J.C. ); Dry, B. )

    1991-10-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing interior intrusion detection systems. Interior intrusion sensors are discussed according to their primary application: boundary-penetration detection, volumetric detection, and point protection. Information necessary for implementation of an effective interior intrusion detection system is presented, including principles of operation, performance characteristics and guidelines for design, procurement, installation, testing, and maintenance. A glossary of sensor data terms is included. 36 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Bro Intrusion Detection System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-01-25

    Bro is a Unix-based Network Intrusion Detection System (IDS). Bro monitors network traffic and detects intrusion attempts based on the traffic characteristics and content. Bro detects intrusions by comparing network traffic against rules describing events that are deemed troublesome. These rules might describe activities (e.g., certain hosts connecting to certain services), what activities are worth alerting (e.g., attempts to a given number of different hosts constitutes a "scan"), or signatures describing known attacks or accessmore » to known vulnerabilities. If Bro detects something of interest, it can be instructed to either issue a log entry or initiate the execution of an operating system command. Bro targets high-speed (Gbps), high-volume intrusion detection. By judiciously leveraging packet filtering techniques, Bro is able to achieve the performance necessary to do so while running on commercially available PC hardware, and thus can serve as a cost effective means of monitoring a site’s Internet connection.« less

  3. Characterizing and Improving Distributed Intrusion Detection Systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hurd, Steven A.; Proebstel, Elliot P.

    2007-11-01

    Due to ever-increasing quantities of information traversing networks, network administrators are developing greater reliance upon statistically sampled packet information as the source for their intrusion detection systems (IDS). Our research is aimed at understanding IDS performance when statistical packet sampling is used. Using the Snort IDS and a variety of data sets, we compared IDS results when an entire data set is used to the results when a statistically sampled subset of the data set is used. Generally speaking, IDS performance with statistically sampled information was shown to drop considerably even under fairly high sampling rates (such as 1:5). Characterizing and Improving Distributed Intrusion Detection Systems4AcknowledgementsThe authors wish to extend our gratitude to Matt Bishop and Chen-Nee Chuah of UC Davis for their guidance and support on this work. Our thanks are also extended to Jianning Mai of UC Davis and Tao Ye of Sprint Advanced Technology Labs for their generous assistance.We would also like to acknowledge our dataset sources, CRAWDAD and CAIDA, without which this work would not have been possible. Support for OC48 data collection is provided by DARPA, NSF, DHS, Cisco and CAIDA members.

  4. Configurable Middleware-Level Intrusion Detection for Embedded Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naess, Eivind; Frincke, Deborah A.; McKinnon, A. D.; Bakken, David E.

    2005-06-20

    Embedded systems have become integral parts of a diverse range of systems from automobiles to critical infrastructure applications such as gas and electric power distribution. Unfortunately, research on computer security in general and intrusion detection in particular, has not kept pace. Furthermore, embedded systems, by their very nature, are application specific and therefore frameworks for developing application-specific intrusion detection systems for distributed embedded systems must be researched, designed, and implemented. In this paper, we present a configurable middleware-based intrusion detection framework. In particular, this paper presents a system model and a concrete implementation of a highly configurable intrusion detection framework that is integrated into MicroQoSCORBA, a highly configurable middleware framework developed for embedded systems. By exploiting the application-specific logic available to a middleware framework (e.g., object interfaces and method signatures), our integrated framework is able to autogenerate application-specific intrusion detection systems. Next, a set of configurable intrusion detection mechanisms suitable for embedded systems is presented. A performance evaluation of these mechanisms, run on two hardware platforms, is presented at the end of the paper.

  5. A prototype implementation of a network-level intrusion detection system. Technical report number CS91-11

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heady, R.; Luger, G.F.; Maccabe, A.B.; Servilla, M.; Sturtevant, J.

    1991-05-15

    This paper presents the implementation of a prototype network level intrusion detection system. The prototype system monitors base level information in network packets (source, destination, packet size, time, and network protocol), learning the normal patterns and announcing anomalies as they occur. The goal of this research is to determine the applicability of current intrusion detection technology to the detection of network level intrusions. In particular, the authors are investigating the possibility of using this technology to detect and react to worm programs.

  6. Idaho National Laboratory Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Intrusion Detection System (SCADA IDS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jared Verba; Michael Milvich

    2008-05-01

    Current Intrusion Detection System (IDS) technology is not suited to be widely deployed inside a Supervisory, Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) environment. Anomaly- and signature-based IDS technologies have developed methods to cover information technology-based networks activity and protocols effectively. However, these IDS technologies do not include the fine protocol granularity required to ensure network security inside an environment with weak protocols lacking authentication and encryption. By implementing a more specific and more intelligent packet inspection mechanism, tailored traffic flow analysis, and unique packet tampering detection, IDS technology developed specifically for SCADA environments can be deployed with confidence in detecting malicious activity.

  7. Analysis and Evaluation of the Operability and Reliability of the Intrusion Detection and Assessment Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SENSITIVE DOE STD-1219-2016 May 2016 DOE STANDARD Analysis and Evaluation of the Operability and Reliability of the Intrusion Detection and Assessment Systems U.S. Department of Energy AREA SANS Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited DOE STD-1219-2016 This document has been reproduced directly from the best available copy. Available to DOE and DOE contractors from ES&H Technical Information Services, U.S. Department of Energy,

  8. Autonomous Rule Creation for Intrusion Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todd Vollmer; Jim Alves-Foss; Milos Manic

    2011-04-01

    Many computational intelligence techniques for anomaly based network intrusion detection can be found in literature. Translating a newly discovered intrusion recognition criteria into a distributable rule can be a human intensive effort. This paper explores a multi-modal genetic algorithm solution for autonomous rule creation. This algorithm focuses on the process of creating rules once an intrusion has been identified, rather than the evolution of rules to provide a solution for intrusion detection. The algorithm was demonstrated on anomalous ICMP network packets (input) and Snort rules (output of the algorithm). Output rules were sorted according to a fitness value and any duplicates were removed. The experimental results on ten test cases demonstrated a 100 percent rule alert rate. Out of 33,804 test packets 3 produced false positives. Each test case produced a minimum of three rule variations that could be used as candidates for a production system.

  9. Intrusion detection using secure signatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Trent Darnel; Haile, Jedediah

    2014-09-30

    A method and device for intrusion detection using secure signatures comprising capturing network data. A search hash value, value employing at least one one-way function, is generated from the captured network data using a first hash function. The presence of a search hash value match in a secure signature table comprising search hash values and an encrypted rule is determined. After determining a search hash value match, a decryption key is generated from the captured network data using a second hash function, a hash function different form the first hash function. One or more of the encrypted rules of the secure signatures table having a hash value equal to the generated search hash value are then decrypted using the generated decryption key. The one or more decrypted secure signature rules are then processed for a match and one or more user notifications are deployed if a match is identified.

  10. Cybersecurity Intrusion Detection and Security Monitoring for Field Area Networks

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Intrusion Detection and Security Monitoring for Field Area Networks Continuous security validation, intrusion detection, and situational awareness for advanced metering infrastructure and distribution automation Background Advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) and distribution automation (DA) field area networks (FANs) are among the largest, possibly most complex, networks operated by utilities in the United States. Exploitable vulnerabilities in AMI and DA systems may arise from weaknesses in

  11. Adaptive Intrusion Data System (AIDS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corlis, N. E.

    1980-05-01

    The adaptive intrusion data system (AIDS) was developed to collect data from intrusion alarm sensors as part of an evaluation system to improve sensor performance. AIDS is a unique data system which uses computer controlled data systems, video cameras and recorders, analog-to-digital conversion, environmental sensors, and digital recorders to collect sensor data. The data can be viewed either manually or with a special computerized data-reduction system which adds new data to a data base stored on a magnetic disc recorder. This report provides a synoptic account of the AIDS as it presently exists. Modifications to the purchased subsystems are described, and references are made to publications which describe the Sandia-designed subsystems.

  12. Seismic intrusion detector system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawk, Hervey L.; Hawley, James G.; Portlock, John M.; Scheibner, James E.

    1976-01-01

    A system for monitoring man-associated seismic movements within a control area including a geophone for generating an electrical signal in response to seismic movement, a bandpass amplifier and threshold detector for eliminating unwanted signals, pulse counting system for counting and storing the number of seismic movements within the area, and a monitoring system operable on command having a variable frequency oscillator generating an audio frequency signal proportional to the number of said seismic movements.

  13. Cybersecurity for Energy Delivery Systems 2010 Peer Review Presentations- Vulnerability and Intrusion Detection

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    National lab researchers, industry partners, and academia from the Cybersecurity for Energy Delivery Systems Program in the DOE's Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability held a 2-day...

  14. Distributed fiber optic moisture intrusion sensing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2003-06-24

    Method and system for monitoring and identifying moisture intrusion in soil such as is contained in landfills housing radioactive and/or hazardous waste. The invention utilizes the principle that moist or wet soil has a higher thermal conductance than dry soil. The invention employs optical time delay reflectometry in connection with a distributed temperature sensing system together with heating means in order to identify discrete areas within a volume of soil wherein temperature is lower. According to the invention an optical element and, optionally, a heating element may be included in a cable or other similar structure and arranged in a serpentine fashion within a volume of soil to achieve efficient temperature detection across a large area or three dimensional volume of soil. Remediation, moisture countermeasures, or other responsive action may then be coordinated based on the assumption that cooler regions within a soil volume may signal moisture intrusion where those regions are located.

  15. V-201: Cisco Intrusion Prevention System SSP Fragmented Traffic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    201: Cisco Intrusion Prevention System SSP Fragmented Traffic Denial of Service Vulnerability V-201: Cisco Intrusion Prevention System SSP Fragmented Traffic Denial of Service ...

  16. Sandia Network Intrusion Detection Assessment Version 1.0

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2002-09-20

    SNIDE Assess is a general-purpose software package for matching network event notifications from specialized sensors against on or more attack templattes. If a pattern of events matches an attack template, then SNIDE Assess can be configured to initate responses. SNIDE Assess provides a graphical user interface for configuring attack templates, and provides the required flexibility to define new event notification messages and responses. In general, SNIDE Assess is designed for event correlation for network intrusionmore » detection systems. This version of SNIDE Assess is configured specifically for detection of control plane intrusions on Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) networks. The SNIDE Assessment Engine is written in C. The SNIDE Assessment engine is a piece of the software that is responsible for receiving incoming messages from sensors, assimilating the information from the tripped sensors, and determining if the messages received constitute and intrusion, based on the rules specified by the system administrator. If it has been determined that a possible intrusion has occurred, the SNIDE Assessment engine will send a message to one or more response components to perform the action specified in the rule. The SNIDE Assessment engine is rule driven, that is, it's behavior is determined by specifying a set of text based rules. To provide flexibility, the definition of what constitutes an intrusion is left to the intrusion detection system administrator. a graphical rule editor is provided to allow the administrator to define what type of intrusions are to be monitored. The rules consist of combinations of sensors with boolean operators and filters. SNIDE Assessment rules can be made arbitrarily compled by using Operators and Filters. Operators allow for logic constructs to be created that combine incoming Sensor Notification events. When grouped together, they are referred to as solution sets. Each operator defnes on logic operation that is satisfied when a

  17. Intrusion Detecting Using Secure Signatures - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electricity Transmission Electricity Transmission Find More Like This Return to Search Intrusion Detecting Using Secure Signatures DOE Grant Recipients Idaho National Laboratory Contact GRANT About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary U.S. patent 8,850,583 issued on an invention from Idaho National Laboratory (INL) entitled, "Intrusion Detecting Using Secure Signatures ", which will reduce cyber security risks to our nation's energy infrastructure. The patent describes a novel

  18. Non-intrusive cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morrison, Edward F.; Bergman, John W.

    2001-05-22

    A readily replaceable heat exchange cooling jacket for applying fluid to a system conduit pipe. The cooling jacket comprises at least two members, separable into upper and lower portions. A chamber is formed between the conduit pipe and cooling jacket once the members are positioned about the pipe. The upper portion includes a fluid spray means positioned above the pipe and the bottom portion includes a fluid removal means. The heat exchange cooling jacket is adaptable with a drain tank, a heat exchanger, a pump and other standard equipment to provide a system for removing heat from a pipe. A method to remove heat from a pipe, includes the steps of enclosing a portion of the pipe with a jacket to form a chamber between an outside surface of the pipe and the cooling jacket; spraying cooling fluid at low pressure from an upper portion of the cooling jacket, allowing the fluid to flow downwardly by gravity along the surface of the pipe toward a bottom portion of the chamber; and removing the fluid at the bottom portion of the chamber.

  19. Nuclear-power-plant perimeter-intrusion alarm systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halsey, D.J.

    1982-04-01

    Timely intercept of an intruder requires the examination of perimeter barriers and sensors in terms of reliable detection, immediate assessment and prompt response provisions. Perimeter security equipment and operations must at the same time meet the requirements of the Code of Federal Regulations, 10 CFR 73.55 with some attention to the performance and testing figures of Nuclear Regulatory Guide 5.44, Revision 2, May 1980. A baseline system is defined which recommends a general approach to implementing perimeter security elements: barriers, lighting, intrusion detection, alarm assessment. The baseline approach emphasizes cost/effectiveness achieved by detector layering and logic processing of alarm signals to produce reliable alarms and low nuisance alarm rates. A cost benefit of layering along with video assessment is reduction in operating expense. The concept of layering is also shown to minimize testing costs where detectability performance as suggested by Regulatory Guide 5.44 is to be performed. Synthesis of the perimeter intrusion alarm system and limited testing of CCTV and Video Motion Detectors (VMD), were performed at E-Systems, Greenville Division, Greenville, Texas during 1981.

  20. Cyber-Intrusion Auto-Response Policy and Management System (CAPMS)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cyber-Intrusion Auto-Response Policy and Management System (CAPMS) A managed security system that integrates advanced cybersecurity algorithms with energy delivery systems to respond autonomously to cyber intrusions while sustaining critical energy delivery functions Background Cyber attacks are becoming more sophisticated every day. Electric utilities are faced with the challenge of detecting, analyzing, and responding to cyber incidents to protect public safety and preserve the integrity of

  1. Smart container UWB sensor system for situational awareness of intrusion alarms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Romero, Carlos E.; Haugen, Peter C.; Zumstein, James M.; Leach, Jr., Richard R.; Vigars, Mark L.

    2013-06-11

    An in-container monitoring sensor system is based on an UWB radar intrusion detector positioned in a container and having a range gate set to the farthest wall of the container from the detector. Multipath reflections within the container make every point on or in the container appear to be at the range gate, allowing intrusion detection anywhere in the container. The system also includes other sensors to provide false alarm discrimination, and may include other sensors to monitor other parameters, e.g. radiation. The sensor system also includes a control subsystem for controlling system operation. Communications and information extraction capability may also be included. A method of detecting intrusion into a container uses UWB radar, and may also include false alarm discrimination. A secure container has an UWB based monitoring system

  2. DETECTION OR WARNING SYSTEM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tillman, J.E.

    1953-10-20

    This patent application describes a sensitive detection or protective system capable of giving an alarm or warning upon the entrance or intrusion of any body into a defined area or zone protected by a radiation field of suitable direction or extent.

  3. V-201: Cisco Intrusion Prevention System SSP Fragmented Traffic Denial of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Service Vulnerability | Department of Energy 1: Cisco Intrusion Prevention System SSP Fragmented Traffic Denial of Service Vulnerability V-201: Cisco Intrusion Prevention System SSP Fragmented Traffic Denial of Service Vulnerability July 19, 2013 - 6:00am Addthis PROBLEM: Several vulnerabilities were reported in Cisco Intrusion Prevention System PLATFORM: Cisco ASA 5500-X Series Adaptive Security Appliances Cisco Intrusion Prevention System (IPS) 7.1 ABSTRACT: A vulnerability in the

  4. PLC backplane analyzer for field forensics and intrusion detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mulder, John; Schwartz, Moses Daniel; Berg, Michael; Van Houten, Jonathan Roger; Urrea, Jorge Mario; King, Michael Aaron; Clements, Abraham Anthony; Trent, Jason; Depoy, Jennifer M; Jacob, Joshua

    2015-05-12

    The various technologies presented herein relate to the determination of unexpected and/or malicious activity occurring between components communicatively coupled across a backplane. Control data, etc., can be intercepted at a backplane where the backplane facilitates communication between a controller and at least one device in an automation process. During interception of the control data, etc., a copy of the control data can be made, e.g., the original control data can be replicated to generate a copy of the original control data. The original control data can continue on to its destination, while the control data copy can be forwarded to an analyzer system to determine whether the control data contains a data anomaly. The content of the copy of the control data can be compared with a previously captured baseline data content, where the baseline data can be captured for a same operational state as the subsequently captured control data.

  5. Enforcing positivity in intrusive PC-UQ methods for reactive ODE systems

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Najm, Habib N.; Valorani, Mauro

    2014-04-12

    We explore the relation between the development of a non-negligible probability of negative states and the instability of numerical integration of the intrusive Galerkin ordinary differential equation system describing uncertain chemical ignition. To prevent this instability without resorting to either multi-element local polynomial chaos (PC) methods or increasing the order of the PC representation in time, we propose a procedure aimed at modifying the amplitude of the PC modes to bring the probability of negative state values below a user-defined threshold. This modification can be effectively described as a filtering procedure of the spectral PC coefficients, which is applied on-the-flymore » during the numerical integration when the current value of the probability of negative states exceeds the prescribed threshold. We demonstrate the filtering procedure using a simple model of an ignition process in a batch reactor. This is carried out by comparing different observables and error measures as obtained by non-intrusive Monte Carlo and Gauss-quadrature integration and the filtered intrusive procedure. Lastly, the filtering procedure has been shown to effectively stabilize divergent intrusive solutions, and also to improve the accuracy of stable intrusive solutions which are close to the stability limits.« less

  6. iSSH v. Auditd: Intrusion Detection in High Performance Computing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karns, David M.; Protin, Kathryn S.; Wolf, Justin G.

    2012-07-30

    The goal is to provide insight into intrusions in high performance computing, focusing on tracking intruders motions through the system. The current tools, such as pattern matching, do not provide sufficient tracking capabilities. We tested two tools: an instrumented version of SSH (iSSH) and Linux Auditing Framework (Auditd). First discussed is Instrumented Secure Shell (iSSH): a version of SSH developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The goal is to audit user activity within a computer system to increase security. Capabilities are: Keystroke logging, Records user names and authentication information, and Catching suspicious remote and local commands. Strengths for iSSH are: (1) Good for keystroke logging, making it easier to track malicious users by catching suspicious commands; (2) Works with Bro to send alerts; could be configured to send pages to systems administrators; and (3) Creates visibility into SSH sessions. Weaknesses are: (1) Relatively new, so not very well documented; and (2) No capabilities to see if files have been edited, moved, or copied within the system. Second we discuss Auditd, the user component of the Linux Auditing System. It creates logs of user behavior, and monitors systems calls and file accesses. Its goal is to improve system security by keeping track of users actions within the system. Strenghts of Auditd are: (1) Very thorough logs; (2) Wider variety of tracking abilities than iSSH; and (3) Older, so better documented. Weaknesses are: (1) Logs record everything, not just malicious behavior; (2) The size of the logs can lead to overflowing directories; and (3) This level of logging leads to a lot of false alarms. Auditd is better documented than iSSH, which would help administrators during set up and troubleshooting. iSSH has a cleaner notification system, but the logs are not as detailed as Auditd. From our performance testing: (1) File transfer speed using SCP is increased when using iSSH; and (2) Network benchmarks

  7. Calculation notes that support accident scenario and consequence development for the steam intrusion from interfacing systems accident

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, G.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-25

    This document supports the development and presentation of the following accident scenario in the TWRS Final Safety Analysis Report: Steam Intrusion from Interfacing Systems. The calculations needed to quantify the risk associated with this accident scenario are included within.

  8. Fuel washout detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colburn, Richard P.

    1985-01-01

    A system for detecting grossly failed reactor fuel by detection of particulate matter as accumulated on a filter.

  9. Portable modular detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brennan, James S. (Rodeo, CA); Singh, Anup (Danville, CA); Throckmorton, Daniel J. (Tracy, CA); Stamps, James F. (Livermore, CA)

    2009-10-13

    Disclosed herein are portable and modular detection devices and systems for detecting electromagnetic radiation, such as fluorescence, from an analyte which comprises at least one optical element removably attached to at least one alignment rail. Also disclosed are modular detection devices and systems having an integrated lock-in amplifier and spatial filter and assay methods using the portable and modular detection devices.

  10. Network Intrusion Detection and Visualization using Aggregations in a Cyber Security Data Warehouse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Czejdo, Bogdan; Ferragut, Erik M; Goodall, John R; Laska, Jason A

    2012-01-01

    The challenge of achieving situational understanding is a limiting factor in effective, timely, and adaptive cyber-security analysis. Anomaly detection fills a critical role in network assessment and trend analysis, both of which underlie the establishment of comprehensive situational understanding. To that end, we propose a cyber security data warehouse implemented as a hierarchical graph of aggregations that captures anomalies at multiple scales. Each node of our pro-posed graph is a summarization table of cyber event aggregations, and the edges are aggregation operators. The cyber security data warehouse enables domain experts to quickly traverse a multi-scale aggregation space systematically. We describe the architecture of a test bed system and a summary of results on the IEEE VAST 2012 Cyber Forensics data.

  11. Computationally Efficient Neural Network Intrusion Security Awareness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todd Vollmer; Milos Manic

    2009-08-01

    An enhanced version of an algorithm to provide anomaly based intrusion detection alerts for cyber security state awareness is detailed. A unique aspect is the training of an error back-propagation neural network with intrusion detection rule features to provide a recognition basis. Network packet details are subsequently provided to the trained network to produce a classification. This leverages rule knowledge sets to produce classifications for anomaly based systems. Several test cases executed on ICMP protocol revealed a 60% identification rate of true positives. This rate matched the previous work, but 70% less memory was used and the run time was reduced to less than 1 second from 37 seconds.

  12. Idaho Explosive Detection System

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Klinger, Jeff

    2013-05-28

    Learn how INL researchers are making the world safer by developing an explosives detection system that can inspect cargo. For more information about INL security research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

  13. Idaho Explosive Detection System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klinger, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Learn how INL researchers are making the world safer by developing an explosives detection system that can inspect cargo. For more information about INL security research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

  14. Photovoltaic System Fault Detection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photovoltaic System Fault Detection and Diagnostics using Laterally Primed Adaptive Resonance Theory Neural Network C. Birk Jones, Joshua S. Stein, Sigifredo Gonzalez, and Bruce H. King Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, 87185, U.S.A Abstract-Cost effective integration of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems requires increased reliability. This can be achieved with a robust fault detection and diagnostic (FDD) tool that auto- matically discovers faults. This paper introduces the Laterally

  15. Radiation detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Franks, Larry A.; Lutz, Stephen S.; Lyons, Peter B.

    1981-01-01

    A radiation detection system including a radiation-to-light converter and fiber optic wave guides to transmit the light to a remote location for processing. The system utilizes fluors particularly developed for use with optical fibers emitting at wavelengths greater than about 500 nm and having decay times less than about 10 ns.

  16. Portable pathogen detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colston, Billy W.; Everett, Matthew; Milanovich, Fred P.; Brown, Steve B.; Vendateswaran, Kodumudi; Simon, Jonathan N.

    2005-06-14

    A portable pathogen detection system that accomplishes on-site multiplex detection of targets in biological samples. The system includes: microbead specific reagents, incubation/mixing chambers, a disposable microbead capture substrate, and an optical measurement and decoding arrangement. The basis of this system is a highly flexible Liquid Array that utilizes optically encoded microbeads as the templates for biological assays. Target biological samples are optically labeled and captured on the microbeads, which are in turn captured on an ordered array or disordered array disposable capture substrate and then optically read.

  17. Solar system fault detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farrington, Robert B.; Pruett, Jr., James C.

    1986-01-01

    A fault detecting apparatus and method are provided for use with an active solar system. The apparatus provides an indication as to whether one or more predetermined faults have occurred in the solar system. The apparatus includes a plurality of sensors, each sensor being used in determining whether a predetermined condition is present. The outputs of the sensors are combined in a pre-established manner in accordance with the kind of predetermined faults to be detected. Indicators communicate with the outputs generated by combining the sensor outputs to give the user of the solar system and the apparatus an indication as to whether a predetermined fault has occurred. Upon detection and indication of any predetermined fault, the user can take appropriate corrective action so that the overall reliability and efficiency of the active solar system are increased.

  18. Solar system fault detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farrington, R.B.; Pruett, J.C. Jr.

    1984-05-14

    A fault detecting apparatus and method are provided for use with an active solar system. The apparatus provides an indication as to whether one or more predetermined faults have occurred in the solar system. The apparatus includes a plurality of sensors, each sensor being used in determining whether a predetermined condition is present. The outputs of the sensors are combined in a pre-established manner in accordance with the kind of predetermined faults to be detected. Indicators communicate with the outputs generated by combining the sensor outputs to give the user of the solar system and the apparatus an indication as to whether a predetermined fault has occurred. Upon detection and indication of any predetermined fault, the user can take appropriate corrective action so that the overall reliability and efficiency of the active solar system are increased.

  19. Acoustic emission intrusion detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carver, Donald W.; Whittaker, Jerry W.

    1980-01-01

    An intrusion detector is provided for detecting a forcible entry into a secured structure while minimizing false alarms. The detector uses a piezoelectric crystal transducer to sense acoustic emissions. The transducer output is amplified by a selectable gain amplifier to control the sensitivity. The rectified output of the amplifier is applied to a Schmitt trigger circuit having a preselected threshold level to provide amplitude discrimination. Timing circuitry is provided which is activated by successive pulses from the Schmitt trigger which lie within a selected time frame for frequency discrimination. Detected signals having proper amplitude and frequency trigger an alarm within the first complete cycle time of a detected acoustical disturbance signal.

  20. Radiation detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Melvin A.; Davies, Terence J.; Morton, III, John R.

    1976-01-01

    A radiation detection system which utilizes the generation of Cerenkov light in and the transmission of that light longitudinally through fiber optic wave guides in order to transmit intelligence relating to the radiation to a remote location. The wave guides are aligned with respect to charged particle radiation so that the Cerenkov light, which is generated at an angle to the radiation, is accepted by the fiber for transmission therethrough. The Cerenkov radiation is detected, recorded, and analyzed at the other end of the fiber.

  1. Calculation notes that support accident scenario and consequence development for the steam intrusion from interfacing systems accident

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Vleet, R.J.; Ryan, G.W.; Crowe, R.D.; Lindberg, S.E., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-04

    This document supports the development and presentation of the following accident scenario in the TWRS Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR): Steam Intrusion From Interfacing Systems. The calculations needed to quantify the risk associated with this accident scenario are included in the following sections to aid in the understanding of this accident scenario. Information validation forms citing assumptions that were approved for use specifically in this analysis are included in Appendix A. Copies of these forms are also on file with TWRS Project Files. Calculations performed in this document, in general, are expressed in traditional (English) units to aid understanding of the accident scenario and related parameters.

  2. Arc fault detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jha, Kamal N.

    1999-01-01

    An arc fault detection system for use on ungrounded or high-resistance-grounded power distribution systems is provided which can be retrofitted outside electrical switchboard circuits having limited space constraints. The system includes a differential current relay that senses a current differential between current flowing from secondary windings located in a current transformer coupled to a power supply side of a switchboard, and a total current induced in secondary windings coupled to a load side of the switchboard. When such a current differential is experienced, a current travels through a operating coil of the differential current relay, which in turn opens an upstream circuit breaker located between the switchboard and a power supply to remove the supply of power to the switchboard.

  3. Arc fault detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jha, K.N.

    1999-05-18

    An arc fault detection system for use on ungrounded or high-resistance-grounded power distribution systems is provided which can be retrofitted outside electrical switchboard circuits having limited space constraints. The system includes a differential current relay that senses a current differential between current flowing from secondary windings located in a current transformer coupled to a power supply side of a switchboard, and a total current induced in secondary windings coupled to a load side of the switchboard. When such a current differential is experienced, a current travels through a operating coil of the differential current relay, which in turn opens an upstream circuit breaker located between the switchboard and a power supply to remove the supply of power to the switchboard. 1 fig.

  4. Intelligent Leak Detection System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohaghegh, Shahab D.

    2014-10-27

    apability of underground carbon dioxide storage to confine and sustain injected CO2 for a very long time is the main concern for geologic CO2 sequestration. If a leakage from a geological CO2 sequestration site occurs, it is crucial to find the approximate amount and the location of the leak in order to implement proper remediation activity. An overwhelming majority of research and development for storage site monitoring has been concentrated on atmospheric, surface or near surface monitoring of the sequestered CO2. This study aims to monitor the integrity of CO2 storage at the reservoir level. This work proposes developing in-situ CO2 Monitoring and Verification technology based on the implementation of Permanent Down-hole Gauges (PDG) or “Smart Wells” along with Artificial Intelligence and Data Mining (AI&DM). The technology attempts to identify the characteristics of the CO2 leakage by de-convolving the pressure signals collected from Permanent Down-hole Gauges (PDG). Citronelle field, a saline aquifer reservoir, located in the U.S. was considered for this study. A reservoir simulation model for CO2 sequestration in the Citronelle field was developed and history matched. The presence of the PDGs were considered in the reservoir model at the injection well and an observation well. High frequency pressure data from sensors were collected based on different synthetic CO2 leakage scenarios in the model. Due to complexity of the pressure signal behaviors, a Machine Learning-based technology was introduced to build an Intelligent Leakage Detection System (ILDS). The ILDS was able to detect leakage characteristics in a short period of time (less than a day) demonstrating the capability of the system in quantifying leakage characteristics subject to complex rate behaviors. The performance of ILDS was examined under different conditions such as multiple well leakages, cap rock leakage, availability of an additional monitoring well, presence of pressure drift and noise

  5. Intelligent Leak Detection System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-10-27

    apability of underground carbon dioxide storage to confine and sustain injected CO2 for a very long time is the main concern for geologic CO2 sequestration. If a leakage from a geological CO2 sequestration site occurs, it is crucial to find the approximate amount and the location of the leak in order to implement proper remediation activity. An overwhelming majority of research and development for storage site monitoring has been concentrated on atmospheric, surface or nearmore » surface monitoring of the sequestered CO2. This study aims to monitor the integrity of CO2 storage at the reservoir level. This work proposes developing in-situ CO2 Monitoring and Verification technology based on the implementation of Permanent Down-hole Gauges (PDG) or “Smart Wells” along with Artificial Intelligence and Data Mining (AI&DM). The technology attempts to identify the characteristics of the CO2 leakage by de-convolving the pressure signals collected from Permanent Down-hole Gauges (PDG). Citronelle field, a saline aquifer reservoir, located in the U.S. was considered for this study. A reservoir simulation model for CO2 sequestration in the Citronelle field was developed and history matched. The presence of the PDGs were considered in the reservoir model at the injection well and an observation well. High frequency pressure data from sensors were collected based on different synthetic CO2 leakage scenarios in the model. Due to complexity of the pressure signal behaviors, a Machine Learning-based technology was introduced to build an Intelligent Leakage Detection System (ILDS). The ILDS was able to detect leakage characteristics in a short period of time (less than a day) demonstrating the capability of the system in quantifying leakage characteristics subject to complex rate behaviors. The performance of ILDS was examined under different conditions such as multiple well leakages, cap rock leakage, availability of an additional monitoring well, presence of pressure drift

  6. Incipient fire detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brooks, Jr., William K.

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus for an incipient fire detection system that receives gaseous samples and measures the light absorption spectrum of the mixture of gases evolving from heated combustibles includes a detector for receiving gaseous samples and subjecting the samples to spectroscopy and determining wavelengths of absorption of the gaseous samples. The wavelengths of absorption of the gaseous samples are compared to predetermined absorption wavelengths. A warning signal is generated whenever the wavelengths of absorption of the gaseous samples correspond to the predetermined absorption wavelengths. The method includes receiving gaseous samples, subjecting the samples to light spectroscopy, determining wavelengths of absorption of the gaseous samples, comparing the wavelengths of absorption of the gaseous samples to predetermined absorption wavelengths and generating a warning signal whenever the wavelengths of absorption of the gaseous samples correspond to the predetermined absorption wavelengths. In an alternate embodiment, the apparatus includes a series of channels fluidically connected to a plurality of remote locations. A pump is connected to the channels for drawing gaseous samples into the channels. A detector is connected to the channels for receiving the drawn gaseous samples and subjecting the samples to spectroscopy. The wavelengths of absorption are determined and compared to predetermined absorption wavelengths is provided. A warning signal is generated whenever the wavelengths correspond.

  7. Hand held explosives detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conrad, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a sensitive hand-held explosives detection device capable of detecting the presence of extremely low quantities of high explosives molecules, and which is applicable to sampling vapors from personnel, baggage, cargo, etc., as part of an explosives detection system.

  8. Protein detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fruetel, Julie A.; Fiechtner, Gregory J.; Kliner, Dahv A. V.; McIlroy, Andrew

    2009-05-05

    The present embodiment describes a miniature, microfluidic, absorption-based sensor to detect proteins at sensitivities comparable to LIF but without the need for tagging. This instrument utilizes fiber-based evanescent-field cavity-ringdown spectroscopy, in combination with faceted prism microchannels. The combination of these techniques will increase the effective absorption path length by a factor of 10.sup.3 to 10.sup.4 (to .about.1-m), thereby providing unprecedented sensitivity using direct absorption. The coupling of high-sensitivity absorption with high-performance microfluidic separation will enable real-time sensing of biological agents in aqueous samples (including aerosol collector fluids) and will provide a general method with spectral fingerprint capability for detecting specific bio-agents.

  9. Particle detection systems and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Christopher L.; Makela, Mark F.

    2010-05-11

    Techniques, apparatus and systems for detecting particles such as muons and neutrons. In one implementation, a particle detection system employs a plurality of drift cells, which can be for example sealed gas-filled drift tubes, arranged on sides of a volume to be scanned to track incoming and outgoing charged particles, such as cosmic ray-produced muons. The drift cells can include a neutron sensitive medium to enable concurrent counting of neutrons. The system can selectively detect devices or materials, such as iron, lead, gold, uranium, plutonium, and/or tungsten, occupying the volume from multiple scattering of the charged particles passing through the volume and can concurrently detect any unshielded neutron sources occupying the volume from neutrons emitted therefrom. If necessary, the drift cells can be used to also detect gamma rays. The system can be employed to inspect occupied vehicles at border crossings for nuclear threat objects.

  10. Thermal neutron detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peurrung, Anthony J. (Richland, WA); Stromswold, David C. (West Richland, WA)

    2000-01-01

    According to the present invention, a system for measuring a thermal neutron emission from a neutron source, has a reflector/moderator proximate the neutron source that reflects and moderates neutrons from the neutron source. The reflector/moderator further directs thermal neutrons toward an unmoderated thermal neutron detector.

  11. Power line detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Latorre, Victor R.; Watwood, Donald B.

    1994-01-01

    A short-range, radio frequency (RF) transmitting-receiving system that provides both visual and audio warnings to the pilot of a helicopter or light aircraft of an up-coming power transmission line complex. Small, milliwatt-level narrowband transmitters, powered by the transmission line itself, are installed on top of selected transmission line support towers or within existing warning balls, and provide a continuous RF signal to approaching aircraft. The on-board receiver can be either a separate unit or a portion of the existing avionics, and can also share an existing antenna with another airborne system. Upon receipt of a warning signal, the receiver will trigger a visual and an audio alarm to alert the pilot to the potential power line hazard.

  12. Power line detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Latorre, V.R.; Watwood, D.B.

    1994-09-27

    A short-range, radio frequency (RF) transmitting-receiving system that provides both visual and audio warnings to the pilot of a helicopter or light aircraft of an up-coming power transmission line complex. Small, milliwatt-level narrowband transmitters, powered by the transmission line itself, are installed on top of selected transmission line support towers or within existing warning balls, and provide a continuous RF signal to approaching aircraft. The on-board receiver can be either a separate unit or a portion of the existing avionics, and can also share an existing antenna with another airborne system. Upon receipt of a warning signal, the receiver will trigger a visual and an audio alarm to alert the pilot to the potential power line hazard. 4 figs.

  13. Centrifugal unbalance detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cordaro, Joseph V.; Reeves, George; Mets, Michael

    2002-01-01

    A system consisting of an accelerometer sensor attached to a centrifuge enclosure for sensing vibrations and outputting a signal in the form of a sine wave with an amplitude and frequency that is passed through a pre-amp to convert it to a voltage signal, a low pass filter for removing extraneous noise, an A/D converter and a processor and algorithm for operating on the signal, whereby the algorithm interprets the amplitude and frequency associated with the signal and once an amplitude threshold has been exceeded the algorithm begins to count cycles during a predetermined time period and if a given number of complete cycles exceeds the frequency threshold during the predetermined time period, the system shuts down the centrifuge.

  14. Alert Confidence Fusion in Intrusion Detection Systems with Extended Dempster- Shafer Theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Dong; Frincke, Deborah A.

    2005-03-01

    Extend Dempster-Shafer Theory of Evidence to include differential weightings of alerts drawn from multiple sources. The intent is to support automated (and manual) response to threat by producing more realistic confidence ratings for IDS alerts than is currently available.

  15. The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dzenitis, J M; Makarewicz, A J

    2009-01-13

    We developed, tested, and now operate a civilian biological defense capability that continuously monitors the air for biological threat agents. The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) collects, prepares, reads, analyzes, and reports results of multiplexed immunoassays and multiplexed PCR assays using Luminex{copyright} xMAP technology and flow cytometer. The mission we conduct is particularly demanding: continuous monitoring, multiple threat agents, high sensitivity, challenging environments, and ultimately extremely low false positive rates. Here, we introduce the mission requirements and metrics, show the system engineering and analysis framework, and describe the progress to date including early development and current status.

  16. Nucleic acid detection system and method for detecting influenza

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cai, Hong; Song, Jian

    2015-03-17

    The invention provides a rapid, sensitive and specific nucleic acid detection system which utilizes isothermal nucleic acid amplification in combination with a lateral flow chromatographic device, or DNA dipstick, for DNA-hybridization detection. The system of the invention requires no complex instrumentation or electronic hardware, and provides a low cost nucleic acid detection system suitable for highly sensitive pathogen detection. Hybridization to single-stranded DNA amplification products using the system of the invention provides a sensitive and specific means by which assays can be multiplexed for the detection of multiple target sequences.

  17. Compensated intruder-detection systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McNeilly, David R.; Miller, William R.

    1984-01-01

    Intruder-detection systems in which intruder-induced signals are transmitted through a medium also receive spurious signals induced by changes in a climatic condition affecting the medium. To combat this, signals received from the detection medium are converted to a first signal. The system also provides a reference signal proportional to climate-induced changes in the medium. The first signal and the reference signal are combined for generating therefrom an output signal which is insensitive to the climatic changes in the medium. An alarm is energized if the output signal exceeds a preselected value. In one embodiment, an acoustic cable is coupled to a fence to generate a first electrical signal proportional to movements thereof. False alarms resulting from wind-induced movements of the fence (detection medium) are eliminated by providing an anemometer-driven voltage generator to provide a reference voltage proportional to the velocity of wind incident on the fence. An analog divider receives the first electrical signal and the reference signal as its numerator and denominator inputs, respectively, and generates therefrom an output signal which is insensitive to the wind-induced movements in the fence.

  18. Ionization detection system for aerosols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobs, Martin E.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved smoke-detection system of the ionization-chamber type. In the preferred embodiment, the system utilizes a conventional detector head comprising a measuring ionization chamber, a reference ionization chamber, and a normally non-conductive gas triode for discharging when a threshold concentration of airborne particulates is present in the measuring chamber. The improved system utilizes a measuring ionization chamber which is modified to minimize false alarms and reductions in sensitivity resulting from changes in ambient temperature. In the preferred form of the modification, an annular radiation shield is mounted about the usual radiation source provided to effect ionization in the measuring chamber. The shield is supported by a bimetallic strip which flexes in response to changes in ambient temperature, moving the shield relative to the source so as to vary the radiative area of the source in a manner offsetting temperature-induced variations in the sensitivity of the chamber.

  19. in High Performance Computing Computer System, Cluster, and Networking...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    iSSH v. Auditd: Intrusion Detection in High Performance Computing Computer System, Cluster, and Networking Summer Institute David Karns, New Mexico State University Katy Protin,...

  20. Pulsed helium ionization detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramsey, R.S.; Todd, R.A.

    1985-04-09

    A helium ionization detection system is provided which produces stable operation of a conventional helium ionization detector while providing improved sensitivity and linearity. Stability is improved by applying pulsed dc supply voltage across the ionization detector, thereby modifying the sampling of the detectors output current. A unique pulse generator is used to supply pulsed dc to the detector which has variable width and interval adjust features that allows up to 500 V to be applied in pulse widths ranging from about 150 nsec to about dc conditions.

  1. Pulsed helium ionization detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramsey, Roswitha S. (Knoxville, TN); Todd, Richard A. (Knoxville, TN)

    1987-01-01

    A helium ionization detection system is provided which produces stable operation of a conventional helium ionization detector while providing improved sensitivity and linearity. Stability is improved by applying pulsed dc supply voltage across the ionization detector, thereby modifying the sampling of the detectors output current. A unique pulse generator is used to supply pulsed dc to the detector which has variable width and interval adjust features that allows up to 500 V to be applied in pulse widths ranging from about 150 nsec to about dc conditions.

  2. Infrared trace element detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bien, F.; Bernstein, L.S.; Matthew, M.W.

    1988-11-15

    An infrared trace element detection system includes an optical cell into which the sample fluid to be examined is introduced and removed. Also introduced into the optical cell is a sample beam of infrared radiation in a first wavelength band which is significantly absorbed by the trace element and a second wavelength band which is not significantly absorbed by the trace element for passage through the optical cell through the sample fluid. The output intensities of the sample beam of radiation are selectively detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The intensities of a reference beam of the radiation are similarly detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The sensed output intensity of the sample beam in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other and similarly, the intensity of the reference beam of radiation in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other. The normalized sample beam intensity and normalized reference beam intensity are then compared to provide a signal from which the amount of trace element in the sample fluid can be determined. 11 figs.

  3. Explosives detection system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reber, Edward L.; Jewell, James K.; Rohde, Kenneth W.; Seabury, Edward H.; Blackwood, Larry G.; Edwards, Andrew J.; Derr, Kurt W.

    2007-12-11

    A method of detecting explosives in a vehicle includes providing a first rack on one side of the vehicle, the rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a second rack on another side of the vehicle, the second rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a control system, remote from the first and second racks, coupled to the neutron generators and gamma ray detectors; using the control system, causing the neutron generators to generate neutrons; and performing gamma ray spectroscopy on spectra read by the gamma ray detectors to look for a signature indicative of presence of an explosive. Various apparatus and other methods are also provided.

  4. Discriminating ultrasonic proximity detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Annala, Wayne C.

    1989-01-01

    This invention uses an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver and a microprocessor to detect the presence of an object. In the reset mode the invention uses a plurality of echoes from each ultrasonic burst to create a reference table of the echo-burst-signature of the empty monitored environment. The invention then processes the reference table so that it only uses the most reliable data. In the detection mode the invention compares the echo-burst-signature of the present environment with the reference table, detecting an object if there is a consistent difference between the echo-burst-signature of the empty monitored environment recorded in the reference table and the echo-burst-signature of the present environment.

  5. Non-intrusive appliance monitor apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hart, G.W.; Kern, E.C. Jr.; Schweppe, F.C.

    1989-08-15

    A non-intrusive monitor of energy consumption of residential appliances is described in which sensors, coupled to the power circuits entering a residence, supply analog voltage and current signals which are converted to digital format and processed to detect changes in certain residential load parameters, i.e., admittance. Cluster analysis techniques are employed to group change measurements into certain categories, and logic is applied to identify individual appliances and the energy consumed by each. 9 figs.

  6. Non-intrusive appliance monitor apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hart, George W.; Kern, Jr., Edward C.; Schweppe, Fred C.

    1989-08-15

    A non-intrusive monitor of energy consumption of residential appliances is described in which sensors, coupled to the power circuits entering a residence, supply analog voltage and current signals which are converted to digital format and processed to detect changes in certain residential load parameters, i.e., admittance. Cluster analysis techniques are employed to group change measurements into certain categories, and logic is applied to identify individual appliances and the energy consumed by each.

  7. RADIATION DETECTING AND TELEMETERING SYSTEM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richards, H.K.

    1959-12-15

    A system is presented for measuring ionizing radiation at several remote stations and transmitting the measured information by radio to a central station. At each remote station a signal proportioned to the counting rate is applied across an electrical condenser made of ferroelectric material. The voltage across the condenser will vary as a function of the incident radiation and the capacitance of the condenser will vary accordingly. This change in capacitance is used to change the frequency of a crystalcontrolled oscillator. The output of the oscillator is coupled to an antenna for transmitting a signal proportional to the incident radiation.

  8. Non-intrusive refrigerant charge indicator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mei, Viung C.; Chen, Fang C.; Kweller, Esher

    2005-03-22

    A non-intrusive refrigerant charge level indicator includes a structure for measuring at least one temperature at an outside surface of a two-phase refrigerant line section. The measured temperature can be used to determine the refrigerant charge status of an HVAC system, and can be converted to a pressure of the refrigerant in the line section and compared to a recommended pressure range to determine whether the system is under-charged, properly charged or over-charged. A non-intrusive method for assessing the refrigerant charge level in a system containing a refrigerant fluid includes the step of measuring a temperature at least one outside surface of a two-phase region of a refrigerant containing refrigerant line, wherein the temperature measured can be converted to a refrigerant pressure within the line section.

  9. DETECTION OF HISTORICAL PIPELINE LEAK PLUMES USING NON-INTRUSIVE SURFACE-BASED GEOPHYSICAL TECHNIQUES AT THE HANFORD NUCLEAR SITE WASHINGTON USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SKORSKA MB; FINK JB; RUCKER DF; LEVITT MT

    2010-12-02

    Historical records from the Department of Energy Hanford Nuclear Reservation (in eastern WA) indicate that ruptures in buried waste transfer pipelines were common between the 1940s and 1980s, which resulted in unplanned releases (UPRs) of tank: waste at numerous locations. A number of methods are commercially available for the detection of active or recent leaks, however, there are no methods available for the detection of leaks that occurred many years ago. Over the decades, leaks from the Hanford pipelines were detected by visual observation of fluid on the surface, mass balance calculations (where flow volumes were monitored), and incidental encounters with waste during excavation or drilling. Since these detection methods for historic leaks are so limited in resolution and effectiveness, it is likely that a significant number of pipeline leaks have not been detected. Therefore, a technology was needed to detect the specific location of unknown pipeline leaks so that characterization technologies can be used to identify any risks to groundwater caused by waste released into the vadose zone. A proof-of-concept electromagnetic geophysical survey was conducted at an UPR in order to image a historical leak from a waste transfer pipeline. The survey was designed to test an innovative electromagnetic geophysical technique that could be used to rapidly map the extent of historical leaks from pipelines within the Hanford Site complex. This proof-of-concept test included comprehensive testing and analysis of the transient electromagnetic method (TEM) and made use of supporting and confirmatory geophysical methods including ground penetrating radar, magnetics, and electrical resistivity characterization (ERC). The results for this initial proof-of-concept test were successful and greatly exceeded the expectations of the project team by providing excellent discrimination of soils contaminated with leaked waste despite the interference from an electrically conductive pipe.

  10. Integrated Security System | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Integrated Security System Integrated Security System A security platform providing multi-layer intrusion detection and security management for a networked energy control systems architecture Integrated Security System (1.49 MB) More Documents & Publications Cybersecurity for Energy Delivery Systems 2010 Peer Review Presentations - Vulnerability and Intrusion Detection Protecting Intelligent Distributed Power Grids Against Cyber Attacks - May 2008 Impacts of IPv6 on Infrastructure Control

  11. Automated macromolecular crystal detection system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christian, Allen T.; Segelke, Brent; Rupp, Bernard; Toppani, Dominique

    2007-06-05

    An automated macromolecular method and system for detecting crystals in two-dimensional images, such as light microscopy images obtained from an array of crystallization screens. Edges are detected from the images by identifying local maxima of a phase congruency-based function associated with each image. The detected edges are segmented into discrete line segments, which are subsequently geometrically evaluated with respect to each other to identify any crystal-like qualities such as, for example, parallel lines, facing each other, similarity in length, and relative proximity. And from the evaluation a determination is made as to whether crystals are present in each image.

  12. Gas intrusion into SPR caverns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinkebein, T.E.; Bauer, S.J.; Ehgartner, B.L.; Linn, J.K.; Neal, J.T.; Todd, J.L.; Kuhlman, P.S.; Gniady, C.T.; Giles, H.N.

    1995-12-01

    The conditions and occurrence of gas in crude oil stored in Strategic Petroleum Reserve, SPR, caverns is characterized in this report. Many caverns in the SPR show that gas has intruded into the oil from the surrounding salt dome. Historical evidence and the analyses presented here suggest that gas will continue to intrude into many SPR caverns in the future. In considering why only some caverns contain gas, it is concluded that the naturally occurring spatial variability in salt permeability can explain the range of gas content measured in SPR caverns. Further, it is not possible to make a one-to-one correlation between specific geologic phenomena and the occurrence of gas in salt caverns. However, gas is concluded to be petrogenic in origin. Consequently, attempts have been made to associate the occurrence of gas with salt inhomogeneities including anomalies and other structural features. Two scenarios for actual gas intrusion into caverns were investigated for consistency with existing information. These scenarios are gas release during leaching and gas permeation through salt. Of these mechanisms, the greater consistency comes from the belief that gas permeates to caverns through the salt. A review of historical operating data for five Bryan Mound caverns loosely supports the hypothesis that higher operating pressures reduce gas intrusion into caverns. This conclusion supports a permeability intrusion mechanism. Further, it provides justification for operating the caverns near maximum operating pressure to minimize gas intrusion. Historical gas intrusion rates and estimates of future gas intrusion are given for all caverns.

  13. Statistical Fault Detection & Diagnosis Expert System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-12-18

    STATMON is an expert system that performs real-time fault detection and diagnosis of redundant sensors in any industrial process requiring high reliability. After a training period performed during normal operation, the expert system monitors the statistical properties of the incoming signals using a pattern recognition test. If the test determines that statistical properties of the signals have changed, the expert system performs a sequence of logical steps to determine which sensor or machine component hasmoredegraded.less

  14. Damage detection in initially nonlinear systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bornn, Luke; Farrar, Charles; Park, Gyuhae

    2009-01-01

    The primary goal of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) is to detect structural anomalies before they reach a critical level. Because of the potential life-safety and economic benefits, SHM has been widely studied over the past decade. In recent years there has been an effort to provide solid mathematical and physical underpinnings for these methods; however, most focus on systems that behave linearly in their undamaged state - a condition that often does not hold in complex 'real world' systems and systems for which monitoring begins mid-lifecycle. In this work, we highlight the inadequacy of linear-based methodology in handling initially nonlinear systems. We then show how the recently developed autoregressive support vector machine (AR-SVM) approach to time series modeling can be used for detecting damage in a system that exhibits initially nonlinear response. This process is applied to data acquired from a structure with induced nonlinearity tested in a laboratory environment.

  15. System for particle concentration and detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morales, Alfredo M.; Whaley, Josh A.; Zimmerman, Mark D.; Renzi, Ronald F.; Tran, Huu M.; Maurer, Scott M.; Munslow, William D.

    2013-03-19

    A new microfluidic system comprising an automated prototype insulator-based dielectrophoresis (iDEP) triggering microfluidic device for pathogen monitoring that can eventually be run outside the laboratory in a real world environment has been used to demonstrate the feasibility of automated trapping and detection of particles. The system broadly comprised an aerosol collector for collecting air-borne particles, an iDEP chip within which to temporarily trap the collected particles and a laser and fluorescence detector with which to induce a fluorescence signal and detect a change in that signal as particles are trapped within the iDEP chip.

  16. Spark discharge trace element detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adler-Golden, Steven; Bernstein, Lawrence S.; Bien, Fritz

    1988-01-01

    A spark discharge trace element detection system is provided which includes a spark chamber including a pair of electrodes for receiving a sample of gas to be analyzed at no greater than atmospheric pressure. A voltage is provided across the electrodes for generating a spark in the sample. The intensity of the emitted radiation in at least one primary selected narrow band of the radiation is detected. Each primary band corresponds to an element to be detected in the gas. The intensity of the emission in each detected primary band is integrated during the afterglow time interval of the spark emission and a signal representative of the integrated intensity of the emission in each selected primary bond is utilized to determine the concentration of the corresponding element in the gas.

  17. Spark discharge trace element detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adler-Golden, S.; Bernstein, L.S.; Bien, F.

    1988-08-23

    A spark discharge trace element detection system is provided which includes a spark chamber including a pair of electrodes for receiving a sample of gas to be analyzed at no greater than atmospheric pressure. A voltage is provided across the electrodes for generating a spark in the sample. The intensity of the emitted radiation in at least one primary selected narrow band of the radiation is detected. Each primary band corresponds to an element to be detected in the gas. The intensity of the emission in each detected primary band is integrated during the afterglow time interval of the spark emission and a signal representative of the integrated intensity of the emission in each selected primary bond is utilized to determine the concentration of the corresponding element in the gas. 12 figs.

  18. DCE Bio Detection System Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lind, Michael A.; Batishko, Charles R.; Morgen, Gerald P.; Owsley, Stanley L.; Dunham, Glen C.; Warner, Marvin G.; Willett, Jesse A.

    2007-12-01

    The DCE (DNA Capture Element) Bio-Detection System (Biohound) was conceived, designed, built and tested by PNNL under a MIPR for the US Air Force under the technical direction of Dr. Johnathan Kiel and his team at Brooks City Base in San Antonio Texas. The project was directed toward building a measurement device to take advantage of a unique aptamer based assay developed by the Air Force for detecting biological agents. The assay uses narrow band quantum dots fluorophores, high efficiency fluorescence quenchers, magnetic micro-beads beads and selected aptamers to perform high specificity, high sensitivity detection of targeted biological materials in minutes. This final report summarizes and documents the final configuration of the system delivered to the Air Force in December 2008

  19. Methods and systems for detection of radionuclides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coates, Jr., John T.; DeVol, Timothy A.

    2010-05-25

    Disclosed are materials and systems useful in determining the existence of radionuclides in an aqueous sample. The materials provide the dual function of both extraction and scintillation to the systems. The systems can be both portable and simple to use, and as such can beneficially be utilized to determine presence and optionally concentration of radionuclide contamination in an aqueous sample at any desired location and according to a relatively simple process without the necessity of complicated sample handling techniques. The disclosed systems include a one-step process, providing simultaneous extraction and detection capability, and a two-step process, providing a first extraction step that can be carried out in a remote field location, followed by a second detection step that can be carried out in a different location.

  20. The Nuclear Detonation Detection System on the GPS satellites...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The Nuclear Detonation Detection System on the GPS satellites Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Nuclear Detonation Detection System on the GPS satellites You are ...

  1. Methods and systems for detecting abnormal digital traffic (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Methods and systems for detecting abnormal digital traffic Title: Methods and systems for detecting abnormal digital traffic Aspects of the present invention encompass methods and ...

  2. Portable chemical detection system with intergrated preconcentrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baumann, Mark J.; Brusseau, Charles A.; Hannum, David W.; Linker, Kevin L.

    2005-12-27

    A portable system for the detection of chemical particles such as explosive residue utilizes a metal fiber substrate that may either be swiped over a subject or placed in a holder in a collection module which can shoot a jet of gas at the subject to dislodge residue, and then draw the air containing the residue into the substrate. The holder is then placed in a detection module, which resistively heats the substrate to evolve the particles, and provides a gas flow to move the particles to a miniature detector in the module.

  3. Method and system for detecting an explosive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reber, Edward L.; Rohde, Kenneth W.; Blackwood, Larry G.

    2010-12-07

    A method and system for detecting at least one explosive in a vehicle using a neutron generator and a plurality of NaI detectors. Spectra read from the detectors is calibrated by performing Gaussian peak fitting to define peak regions, locating a Na peak and an annihilation peak doublet, assigning a predetermined energy level to one peak in the doublet, and predicting a hydrogen peak location based on a location of at least one peak of the doublet. The spectra are gain shifted to a common calibration, summed for respective groups of NaI detectors, and nitrogen detection analysis performed on the summed spectra for each group.

  4. Statistical Fault Detection & Diagnosis Expert System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-12-18

    STATMON is an expert system that performs real-time fault detection and diagnosis of redundant sensors in any industrial process requiring high reliability. After a training period performed during normal operation, the expert system monitors the statistical properties of the incoming signals using a pattern recognition test. If the test determines that statistical properties of the signals have changed, the expert system performs a sequence of logical steps to determine which sensor or machine component hasmore » degraded.« less

  5. The synchronous active neutron detection assay system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pickrell, M.M.; Kendall, P.K.

    1994-08-01

    We have begun to develop a novel technique for active neutron assay of fissile material in spent nuclear fuel. This approach will exploit a 14-MeV neutron generator developed by Schlumberger. The technique, termed synchronous active neutron detection (SAND), follows a method used routinely in other branches of physics to detect very small signals in presence of large backgrounds. Synchronous detection instruments are widely available commercially and are termed ``lock-in`` amplifiers. We have implemented a digital lock-in amplifier in conjunction with the Schlumberger neutron generator to explore the possibility of synchronous detection with active neutrons. The Schlumberger system can operate at up to a 50% duty factor, in effect, a square wave of neutron yield. Results are preliminary but promising. The system is capable of resolving the fissile material contained in a small fraction of the fuel rods in a cold fuel assembly; it also appears resilient to background neutron interference. The interrogating neutrons appear to be non-thermal and penetrating. Work remains to fully explore relevant physics and optimize instrument design.

  6. Intrusion detection and monitoring for wireless networks.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, Eric D.; Van Randwyk, Jamie A.; Lee, Erik J.; Stephano, Amanda; Tabriz, Parisa; Pelon, Kristen; McCoy, Damon (University of Colorado, Boulder); Lodato, Mark; Hemingway, Franklin; Custer, Ryan P.; Averin, Dimitry; Franklin, Jason; Kilman, Dominique Marie

    2005-11-01

    Wireless computer networks are increasing exponentially around the world. They are being implemented in both the unlicensed radio frequency (RF) spectrum (IEEE 802.11a/b/g) and the licensed spectrum (e.g., Firetide [1] and Motorola Canopy [2]). Wireless networks operating in the unlicensed spectrum are by far the most popular wireless computer networks in existence. The open (i.e., proprietary) nature of the IEEE 802.11 protocols and the availability of ''free'' RF spectrum have encouraged many producers of enterprise and common off-the-shelf (COTS) computer networking equipment to jump into the wireless arena. Competition between these companies has driven down the price of 802.11 wireless networking equipment and has improved user experiences with such equipment. The end result has been an increased adoption of the equipment by businesses and consumers, the establishment of the Wi-Fi Alliance [3], and widespread use of the Alliance's ''Wi-Fi'' moniker to describe these networks. Consumers use 802.11 equipment at home to reduce the burden of running wires in existing construction, facilitate the sharing of broadband Internet services with roommates or neighbors, and increase their range of ''connectedness''. Private businesses and government entities (at all levels) are deploying wireless networks to reduce wiring costs, increase employee mobility, enable non-employees to access the Internet, and create an added revenue stream to their existing business models (coffee houses, airports, hotels, etc.). Municipalities (Philadelphia; San Francisco; Grand Haven, MI) are deploying wireless networks so they can bring broadband Internet access to places lacking such access; offer limited-speed broadband access to impoverished communities; offer broadband in places, such as marinas and state parks, that are passed over by traditional broadband providers; and provide themselves with higher quality, more complete network coverage for use by emergency responders and other municipal agencies. In short, these Wi-Fi networks are being deployed everywhere. Much thought has been and is being put into evaluating cost-benefit analyses of wired vs. wireless networks and issues such as how to effectively cover an office building or municipality, how to efficiently manage a large network of wireless access points (APs), and how to save money by replacing an Internet service provider (ISP) with 802.11 technology. In comparison, very little thought and money are being focused on wireless security and monitoring for security purposes.

  7. Cybersecurity Intrusion Detection and Security Monitoring for...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... (R&D) program, which aims to enhance the reliability and resilience of the nation's energy infrastructure by reducing the risk of energy disruptions due to cyber attacks. ...

  8. System and method for detecting gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chow, Oscar Ken; Moulthrop, Lawrence Clinton; Dreier, Ken Wayne; Miller, Jacob Andrew

    2010-03-16

    A system to detect a presence of a specific gas in a mixture of gaseous byproducts comprising moisture vapor is disclosed. The system includes an electrochemical cell, a transport to deliver the mixture of gaseous byproducts from the electrochemical cell, a gas sensor in fluid communication with the transport, the sensor responsive to a presence of the specific gas to generate a signal corresponding to a concentration of the specific gas, and a membrane to prevent transmission of liquid moisture, the membrane disposed between the transport and the gas sensor.

  9. Drone Detection, Video Feed Interception and Pilot Locating System...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Drone Detection, Video Feed Interception and Pilot Locating System The invention provides the capability of detecting commercially available and custom homemade remotely operated...

  10. System and method for anomaly detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scherrer, Chad

    2010-06-15

    A system and method for detecting one or more anomalies in a plurality of observations is provided. In one illustrative embodiment, the observations are real-time network observations collected from a stream of network traffic. The method includes performing a discrete decomposition of the observations, and introducing derived variables to increase storage and query efficiencies. A mathematical model, such as a conditional independence model, is then generated from the formatted data. The formatted data is also used to construct frequency tables which maintain an accurate count of specific variable occurrence as indicated by the model generation process. The formatted data is then applied to the mathematical model to generate scored data. The scored data is then analyzed to detect anomalies.

  11. Systems and methods for detecting and processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Michael M.; Yoshimura, Ann S.

    2006-03-28

    Embodiments of the present invention provides systems and method for detecting. Sensing modules are provided in communication with one or more detectors. In some embodiments, detectors are provided that are sensitive to chemical, biological, or radiological agents. Embodiments of sensing modules include processing capabilities to analyze, perform computations on, and/or run models to predict or interpret data received from one or more detectors. Embodiments of sensing modules form various network configurations with one another and/or with one or more data aggregation devices. Some embodiments of sensing modules include power management functionalities.

  12. Simulation Model of Mobile Detection Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edmunds, T; Faissol, D; Yao, Y

    2009-01-27

    In this paper, we consider a mobile source that we attempt to detect with man-portable, vehicle-mounted or boat-mounted radiation detectors. The source is assumed to transit an area populated with these mobile detectors, and the objective is to detect the source before it reaches a perimeter. We describe a simulation model developed to estimate the probability that one of the mobile detectors will come in to close proximity of the moving source and detect it. We illustrate with a maritime simulation example. Our simulation takes place in a 10 km by 5 km rectangular bay patrolled by boats equipped with 2-inch x 4-inch x 16-inch NaI detectors. Boats to be inspected enter the bay and randomly proceed to one of seven harbors on the shore. A source-bearing boat enters the mouth of the bay and proceeds to a pier on the opposite side. We wish to determine the probability that the source is detected and its range from target when detected. Patrol boats select the nearest in-bound boat for inspection and initiate an intercept course. Once within an operational range for the detection system, a detection algorithm is started. If the patrol boat confirms the source is not present, it selects the next nearest boat for inspection. Each run of the simulation ends either when a patrol successfully detects a source or when the source reaches its target. Several statistical detection algorithms have been implemented in the simulation model. First, a simple k-sigma algorithm, which alarms with the counts in a time window exceeds the mean background plus k times the standard deviation of background, is available to the user. The time window used is optimized with respect to the signal-to-background ratio for that range and relative speed. Second, a sequential probability ratio test [Wald 1947] is available, and configured in this simulation with a target false positive probability of 0.001 and false negative probability of 0.1. This test is utilized when the mobile detector maintains

  13. Method and system for detecting explosives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reber, Edward L.; Jewell, James K.; Rohde, Kenneth W.; Seabury, Edward H.; Blackwood, Larry G.; Edwards, Andrew J.; Derr, Kurt W.

    2009-03-10

    A method of detecting explosives in a vehicle includes providing a first rack on one side of the vehicle, the rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a second rack on another side of the vehicle, the second rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a control system, remote from the first and second racks, coupled to the neutron generators and gamma ray detectors; using the control system, causing the neutron generators to generate neutrons; and performing gamma ray spectroscopy on spectra read by the gamma ray detectors to look for a signature indicative of presence of an explosive. Various apparatus and other methods are also provided.

  14. Human Portable Radiation Detection System Communications Package Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgen, Gerald P.; Peterson, William W.

    2009-06-11

    Testing and valuation of the Human Portable Radiation Detection System Communications Package for the US Coast Guard.

  15. Method and system for turbomachinery surge detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Faymon, David K.; Mays, Darrell C.; Xiong, Yufei

    2004-11-23

    A method and system for surge detection within a gas turbine engine, comprises: measuring the compressor discharge pressure (CDP) of the gas turbine over a period of time; determining a time derivative (CDP.sub.D ) of the measured (CDP) correcting the CDP.sub.D for altitude, (CDP.sub.DCOR); estimating a short-term average of CDP.sub.DCOR.sup.2 ; estimating a short-term average of CDP.sub.DCOR ; and determining a short-term variance of corrected CDP rate of change (CDP.sub.roc) based upon the short-term average of CDP.sub.DCOR and the short-term average of CDP.sub.DCOR.sup.2. The method and system then compares the short-term variance of corrected CDP rate of change with a pre-determined threshold (CDP.sub.proc) and signals an output when CDP.sub.roc >CDP.sub.proc. The method and system provides a signal of a surge within the gas turbine engine when CDP.sub.roc remains>CDP.sub.proc for pre-determined period of time.

  16. System for detecting special nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jandel, Marian; Rusev, Gencho Yordanov; Taddeucci, Terry Nicholas

    2015-07-14

    The present disclosure includes a radiological material detector having a convertor material that emits one or more photons in response to a capture of a neutron emitted by a radiological material; a photon detector arranged around the convertor material and that produces an electrical signal in response to a receipt of a photon; and a processor connected to the photon detector, the processor configured to determine the presence of a radiological material in response to a predetermined signature of the electrical signal produced at the photon detector. One or more detectors described herein can be integrated into a detection system that is suited for use in port monitoring, treaty compliance, and radiological material management activities.

  17. Systems and methods for detecting neutrons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bross, Alan D.; Mellott, Kerry L.; Pla-Dalmau, Anna

    2005-08-09

    Systems and methods for detecting neutrons. One or more neutron-sensitive scintillators can be configured from a plurality of nano-sized particles, dopants and an extruded plastic material, such as polystyrene. The nano-sized particles can be compounded into the extruded plastic material with at least one dopant that permits the plastic material to scintillate. One or more plastic light collectors can be associated with a neutron-sensitive scintillator, such that the plastic light collector includes a central hole thereof. A wavelength-shifting fiber can then be located within the hole. The wavelength shifting (WLS) fiber absorbs scintillation light having a wavelength thereof and re-emits the light at a longer wavelength.

  18. Liquid chromatography detection unit, system, and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derenzo, Stephen E.; Moses, William W.

    2015-10-27

    An embodiment of a liquid chromatography detection unit includes a fluid channel and a radiation detector. The radiation detector is operable to image a distribution of a radiolabeled compound as the distribution travels along the fluid channel. An embodiment of a liquid chromatography system includes an injector, a separation column, and a radiation detector. The injector is operable to inject a sample that includes a radiolabeled compound into a solvent stream. The position sensitive radiation detector is operable to image a distribution of the radiolabeled compound as the distribution travels along a fluid channel. An embodiment of a method of liquid chromatography includes injecting a sample that comprises radiolabeled compounds into a solvent. The radiolabeled compounds are then separated. A position sensitive radiation detector is employed to image distributions of the radiolabeled compounds as the radiolabeled compounds travel along a fluid channel.

  19. Liquid chromatography detection unit, system, and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derenzo, Stephen E; Moses, William W

    2015-11-06

    An embodiment of a liquid chromatography detection unit includes a fluid channel and a radiation detector. The radiation detector is operable to image a distribution of a radiolabeled compound as the distribution travels along the fluid channel. An embodiment of a liquid chromatography system includes an injector, a separation column, and a radiation detector. The injector is operable to inject a sample that includes a radiolabeled compound into a solvent stream. The position sensitive radiation detector is operable to image a distribution of the radiolabeled compound as the distribution travels along a fluid channel. An embodiment of a method of liquid chromatography includes injecting a sample that comprises radiolabeled compounds into a solvent. The radiolabeled compounds are then separated. A position sensitive radiation detector is employed to image distributions of the radiolabeled compounds as the radiolabeled compounds travel along a fluid channel.

  20. Methods, microfluidic devices, and systems for detection of an...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Methods, microfluidic devices, and systems for detection of an active enzymatic agent Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Methods, microfluidic devices, and systems for...

  1. Detection of contamination of municipal water distribution systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F.

    2012-01-17

    A system for the detection of contaminates of a fluid in a conduit. The conduit is part of a fluid distribution system. A chemical or biological sensor array is connected to the conduit. The sensor array produces an acoustic signal burst in the fluid upon detection of contaminates in the fluid. A supervisory control system connected to the fluid and operatively connected to the fluid distribution system signals the fluid distribution system upon detection of contaminates in the fluid.

  2. Distribution System Audits, Leak Detection, and Repair: Kirtland Air Force Base Leak Detection and Repair Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-01-14

    Water Best Management Practice #3 Fact Seet: Outlines how a leak detection and repair program helped Kirtland Air Force Base perform distribution system audits, leak detection, and repair to conserve water site-wide.

  3. Engine throttle valve position detecting system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamai, K.; Kikuchi, T.

    1987-03-31

    This patent describes an engine throttle valve position detecting system including: a throttle switch including a rotary detector member adapted to be rotated in accordance with the rotation of an engine throttle valve and having a guide portion including a section offset radially relative to the direction of rotation of the rotary detector member. A movable contact is movable by the rotation of the rotary detector member and a stationary contact disposed in opposed relationship to the movable contact. The stationary and movable contacts have opened and closed positions which are changed over at two different predetermined rotational positions of the rotary detector member; means for producing a signal related to the operation of the engine; means for comparing a temperature representative of the engine operating condition with a predetermined reference level; and judgment means operative, when the engine operating condition temperature is judged by the comparing means as being higher than predetermined reference level, to judge the position of the throttle valve based on one of the positions of the movable and stationary contacts and on the signal.

  4. System and method for detecting cells or components thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Porter, Marc D.; Lipert, Robert J.; Doyle, Robert T.; Grubisha, Desiree S.; Rahman, Salma

    2009-01-06

    A system and method for detecting a detectably labeled cell or component thereof in a sample comprising one or more cells or components thereof, at least one cell or component thereof of which is detectably labeled with at least two detectable labels. In one embodiment, the method comprises: (i) introducing the sample into one or more flow cells of a flow cytometer, (ii) irradiating the sample with one or more light sources that are absorbed by the at least two detectable labels, the absorption of which is to be detected, and (iii) detecting simultaneously the absorption of light by the at least two detectable labels on the detectably labeled cell or component thereof with an array of photomultiplier tubes, which are operably linked to two or more filters that selectively transmit detectable emissions from the at least two detectable labels.

  5. Episodic dike intrusions in the northwestern Sierra Nevada, California...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Episodic dike intrusions in the northwestern Sierra Nevada, California: ... Title: Episodic dike intrusions in the northwestern Sierra Nevada, California: ...

  6. Monitoring CO2 intrusion and associated geochemical transformations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Monitoring CO2 intrusion and associated geochemical transformations in a shallow ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Monitoring CO2 intrusion and associated ...

  7. Potential for radionuclide redistribution due to biotic intrusion...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Potential for radionuclide redistribution due to biotic intrusion: Aboveground biomass ... due to biotic intrusion: Aboveground biomass study at the Los Alamos National ...

  8. All row, planar fault detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles Jens; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian Edward

    2013-07-23

    An apparatus, program product and method for detecting nodal faults may simultaneously cause designated nodes of a cell to communicate with all nodes adjacent to each of the designated nodes. Furthermore, all nodes along the axes of the designated nodes are made to communicate with their adjacent nodes, and the communications are analyzed to determine if a node or connection is faulty.

  9. Development of an assisting detection system for early infarct diagnosis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sim, K. S.; Nia, M. E.; Ee, C. S.

    2015-04-24

    In this paper, a detection assisting system for early infarct detection is developed. This new developed method is used to assist the medical practitioners to diagnose infarct from computed tomography images of brain. Using this assisting system, the infarct could be diagnosed at earlier stages. The non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) brain images are the data set used for this system. Detection module extracts the pixel data from NCCT brain images, and produces the colourized version of images. The proposed method showed great potential in detecting infarct, and helps medical practitioners to make earlier and better diagnoses.

  10. Localized surface plasmon resonance mercury detection system and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    James, Jay; Lucas, Donald; Crosby, Jeffrey Scott; Koshland, Catherine P.

    2016-03-22

    A mercury detection system that includes a flow cell having a mercury sensor, a light source and a light detector is provided. The mercury sensor includes a transparent substrate and a submonolayer of mercury absorbing nanoparticles, e.g., gold nanoparticles, on a surface of the substrate. Methods of determining whether mercury is present in a sample using the mercury sensors are also provided. The subject mercury detection systems and methods find use in a variety of different applications, including mercury detecting applications.

  11. Upconverting nanoparticles for optimizing scintillator based detection systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kross, Brian; McKisson, John E; McKisson, John; Weisenberger, Andrew; Xi, Wenze; Zom, Carl

    2013-09-17

    An upconverting device for a scintillation detection system is provided. The detection system comprises a scintillator material, a sensor, a light transmission path between the scintillator material and the sensor, and a plurality of upconverting nanoparticles particles positioned in the light transmission path.

  12. Detection and quantification system for monitoring instruments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dzenitis, John M.; Hertzog, Claudia K.; Makarewicz, Anthony J.; Henderer, Bruce D.; Riot, Vincent J.

    2008-08-12

    A method of detecting real events by obtaining a set of recent signal results, calculating measures of the noise or variation based on the set of recent signal results, calculating an expected baseline value based on the set of recent signal results, determining sample deviation, calculating an allowable deviation by multiplying the sample deviation by a threshold factor, setting an alarm threshold from the baseline value plus or minus the allowable deviation, and determining whether the signal results exceed the alarm threshold.

  13. Explosive simulants for testing explosive detection systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kury, John W.; Anderson, Brian L.

    1999-09-28

    Explosives simulants that include non-explosive components are disclosed that facilitate testing of equipment designed to remotely detect explosives. The simulants are non-explosive, non-hazardous materials that can be safely handled without any significant precautions. The simulants imitate real explosives in terms of mass density, effective atomic number, x-ray transmission properties, and physical form, including moldable plastics and emulsions/gels.

  14. Active, Non-Intrusive Inspection Technologies for Homeland Defense

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James L. Jones

    2003-06-01

    Active, non-intrusive inspection or interrogation technologies have been used for 100 years - with the primary focus being radiographic imaging. During the last 50 years, various active interrogation systems have been investigated and most have revealed many unique and interesting capabilities and advantages that have already benefited the general public. Unfortunately, except for medical and specific industrial applications, these unique capabilities have not been widely adopted, largely due to the complexity of the technology, the overconfident reliance on passive detection systems to handle most challenges, and the unrealistic public concerns regarding radiation safety issues for a given active inspection deployment. The unique homeland security challenges facing the United States today are inviting more "out-of-the-box" solutions and are demanding the effective technological solutions that only active interrogation systems can provide. While revolutionary new solutions are always desired, these technology advancements are rare, and when found, usually take a long time to fully understand and implement for a given application. What's becoming more evident is that focusing on under-developed, but well-understood, active inspection technologies can provide many of the needed "out-of-the-box" solutions. This paper presents a brief historical overview of active interrogation. It identifies some of the major homeland defense challenges being confronted and the commercial and research technologies presently available and being pursued. Finally, the paper addresses the role of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory and its partner, the Idaho Accelerator Center at Idaho State University, in promoting and developing active inspection technologies for homeland defense.

  15. Portable compton gamma-ray detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rowland, Mark S.; Oldaker, Mark E.

    2008-03-04

    A Compton scattered gamma-ray detector system. The system comprises a gamma-ray spectrometer and an annular array of individual scintillators. The scintillators are positioned so that they are arrayed around the gamma-ray spectrometer. The annular array of individual scintillators includes a first scintillator. A radiation shield is positioned around the first scintillator. A multi-channel analyzer is operatively connected to the gamma-ray spectrometer and the annular array of individual scintillators.

  16. Systems for detecting charged particles in object inspection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Christopher L.; Makela, Mark F.

    2013-08-20

    Techniques, apparatus and systems for detecting particles such as muons. In one implementation, a monitoring system has a cosmic ray-produced charged particle tracker with a plurality of drift cells. The drift cells, which can be for example aluminum drift tubes, can be arranged at least above and below a volume to be scanned to thereby track incoming and outgoing charged particles, such as cosmic ray-produced muons, while also detecting gamma rays. The system can selectively detect devices or materials, such as iron, lead, gold and/or tungsten, occupying the volume from multiple scattering of the charged particles passing through the volume and can also detect any radioactive sources occupying the volume from gamma rays emitted therefrom. If necessary, the drift tubes can be sealed to eliminate the need for a gas handling system. The system can be employed to inspect occupied vehicles at border crossings for nuclear threat objects.

  17. Transistor-based particle detection systems and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jain, Ankit; Nair, Pradeep R.; Alam, Muhammad Ashraful

    2015-06-09

    Transistor-based particle detection systems and methods may be configured to detect charged and non-charged particles. Such systems may include a supporting structure contacting a gate of a transistor and separating the gate from a dielectric of the transistor, and the transistor may have a near pull-in bias and a sub-threshold region bias to facilitate particle detection. The transistor may be configured to change current flow through the transistor in response to a change in stiffness of the gate caused by securing of a particle to the gate, and the transistor-based particle detection system may configured to detect the non-charged particle at least from the change in current flow.

  18. Occupancy change detection system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bruemmer, David J. [Idaho Falls, ID; Few, Douglas A. [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-09-01

    A robot platform includes perceptors, locomotors, and a system controller. The system controller executes instructions for producing an occupancy grid map of an environment around the robot, scanning the environment to generate a current obstacle map relative to a current robot position, and converting the current obstacle map to a current occupancy grid map. The instructions also include processing each grid cell in the occupancy grid map. Within the processing of each grid cell, the instructions include comparing each grid cell in the occupancy grid map to a corresponding grid cell in the current occupancy grid map. For grid cells with a difference, the instructions include defining a change vector for each changed grid cell, wherein the change vector includes a direction from the robot to the changed grid cell and a range from the robot to the changed grid cell.

  19. NNSA Transfers Responsibility for Radiation Detection System to China

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Customs | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) Transfers Responsibility for Radiation Detection System to China Customs January 13, 2015 SHANGHAI, CHINA - Today, the Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) Principal Assistant Deputy Administrator for Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation (DNN), David Huizenga, participated in a ceremony commemorating the transition of a radiation detection system at the Port of Yangshan to the General Administration of Customs of China (GACC). This

  20. NNSA, Romania Launch Radiation Detection System at International Airport

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    near Bucharest | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) NNSA, Romania Launch Radiation Detection System at International Airport near Bucharest July 22, 2015 Today, the U.S. Embassy in Bucharest, the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and Romania's Ministry of Internal Affairs celebrated the commencement of operations of the radiation detection system located at Henri Coandă International Airport near Bucharest. To mark the occasion, U.S. Embassy Chargé d'Affaires

  1. Online Monitoring System for Performance Fault Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gioiosa, Roberto; Kestor, Gokcen; Kerbyson, Darren J.

    2014-05-19

    To achieve the exaFLOPS performance within a contain power budget, next supercomputers will feature hundreds of millions of components operating at low- and near-threshold voltage. As the probability that at least one of these components fails during the execution of an application approaches certainty, it seems unrealistic to expect that any run of a scientific application will not experience some performance faults. We believe that there is need of a new generation of light-weight performance and debugging tools that can be used online even during production runs of parallel applications and that can identify performance anomalies during the application execution. In this work we propose the design and implementation of a monitoring system that continuously inspects the evolution of run

  2. Methods and systems for remote detection of gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Timothy J.

    2007-11-27

    Novel systems and methods for remotely detecting at least one constituent of a gas via infrared detection are provided. A system includes at least one extended source of broadband infrared radiation and a spectrally sensitive receiver positioned remotely from the source. The source and the receiver are oriented such that a surface of the source is in the field of view of the receiver. The source includes a heating component thermally coupled to the surface, and the heating component is configured to heat the surface to a temperature above ambient temperature. The receiver is operable to collect spectral infrared absorption data representative of a gas present between the source and the receiver. The invention advantageously overcomes significant difficulties associated with active infrared detection techniques known in the art, and provides an infrared detection technique with a much greater sensitivity than passive infrared detection techniques known in the art.

  3. Methods and systems for remote detection of gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Timothy J

    2012-09-18

    Novel systems and methods for remotely detecting at least one constituent of a gas via infrared detection are provided. A system includes at least one extended source of broadband infrared radiation and a spectrally sensitive receiver positioned remotely from the source. The source and the receiver are oriented such that a surface of the source is in the field of view of the receiver. The source includes a heating component thermally coupled to the surface, and the heating component is configured to heat the surface to a temperature above ambient temperature. The receiver is operable to collect spectral infrared absorption data representative of a gas present between the source and the receiver. The invention advantageously overcomes significant difficulties associated with active infrared detection techniques known in the art, and provides an infrared detection technique with a much greater sensitivity than passive infrared detection techniques known in the art.

  4. Systems and methods for detection of blowout precursors in combustors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lieuwen, Tim C.; Nair, Suraj

    2006-08-15

    The present invention comprises systems and methods for detecting flame blowout precursors in combustors. The blowout precursor detection system comprises a combustor, a pressure measuring device, and blowout precursor detection unit. A combustion controller may also be used to control combustor parameters. The methods of the present invention comprise receiving pressure data measured by an acoustic pressure measuring device, performing one or a combination of spectral analysis, statistical analysis, and wavelet analysis on received pressure data, and determining the existence of a blowout precursor based on such analyses. The spectral analysis, statistical analysis, and wavelet analysis further comprise their respective sub-methods to determine the existence of blowout precursors.

  5. Host-Based Data Exfiltration Detection via System Call Sequences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beaver, Justin M; Jewell, Brian C

    2011-01-01

    The host-based detection of malicious data exfiltration activities is currently a sparse area of research and mostly limited to methods that analyze network traffic or signature based detection methods that target specific processes. In this paper we explore an alternative method to host-based detection that exploits sequences of system calls and new collection methods that allow us to catch these activities in real time. We show that system calls sequences can be found to reach a steady state across processes and users, and explore the viability of new methods as heuristics for profiling user behaviors.

  6. Portable reconfigurable detection and assessment system; MODAS update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blattman, D.A. )

    1991-01-01

    Rapidly changing geopolitical issues throughout the world have made the ability to effectively respond to political, military, terrorist and peace-keeping requirements increasingly important. Recent Middle East events indicate a continuing escalation in these activities. These activities are defining the requirements for a rapidly deployable, portable, real-time detection and assessment operational security system that is reconfigurable to site specific threats. This paper describes such a system Mobile Operational Detection and Assessment system (MODAS); a commercially-off-the shelf (COTS) integrated and reconfigurable hardware/software system solution for the ever-changing geopolitical security issues of the Nineties.

  7. Detection of forced oscillations in power systems with multichannel methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Follum, James D.

    2015-09-30

    The increasing availability of high fidelity, geographically dispersed measurements in power systems improves the ability of researchers and engineers to study dynamic behaviors in the grid. One such behavior that is garnering increased attention is the presence of forced oscillations. Power system engineers are interested in forced oscillations because they are often symptomatic of the malfunction or misoperation of equipment. Though the resulting oscillation is not always large in amplitude, the root cause may be serious. In this report, multi-channel forced oscillation detection methods are developed. These methods leverage previously developed detection approaches based on the periodogram and spectral-coherence. Making use of geographically distributed channels of data is shown to improved detection performance and shorten the delay before an oscillation can be detected in the online environment. Results from simulated and measured power system data are presented.

  8. The waveform correlation event detection system global prototype software design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beiriger, J.I.; Moore, S.G.; Trujillo, J.R.; Young, C.J.

    1997-12-01

    The WCEDS prototype software system was developed to investigate the usefulness of waveform correlation methods for CTBT monitoring. The WCEDS prototype performs global seismic event detection and has been used in numerous experiments. This report documents the software system design, presenting an overview of the system operation, describing the system functions, tracing the information flow through the system, discussing the software structures, and describing the subsystem services and interactions. The effectiveness of the software design in meeting project objectives is considered, as well as opportunities for code refuse and lessons learned from the development process. The report concludes with recommendations for modifications and additions envisioned for regional waveform-correlation-based detector.

  9. Methods, systems and devices for detecting and locating ferromagnetic objects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roybal, Lyle Gene [Idaho Falls, ID; Kotter, Dale Kent [Shelley, ID; Rohrbaugh, David Thomas [Idaho Falls, ID; Spencer, David Frazer [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-01-26

    Methods for detecting and locating ferromagnetic objects in a security screening system. One method includes a step of acquiring magnetic data that includes magnetic field gradients detected during a period of time. Another step includes representing the magnetic data as a function of the period of time. Another step includes converting the magnetic data to being represented as a function of frequency. Another method includes a step of sensing a magnetic field for a period of time. Another step includes detecting a gradient within the magnetic field during the period of time. Another step includes identifying a peak value of the gradient detected during the period of time. Another step includes identifying a portion of time within the period of time that represents when the peak value occurs. Another step includes configuring the portion of time over the period of time to represent a ratio.

  10. The synchronous active neutron detection system for spent fuel assay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pickrell, M.M.; Kendall, P.K.

    1994-10-01

    The authors have begun to develop a novel technique for active neutron assay of fissile material in spent nuclear fuel. This approach will exploit the unique operating features of a 14-MeV neutron generator developed by Schlumberger. This generator and a novel detection system will be applied to the direct measurement of the fissile material content in spent fuel in place of the indirect measures used at present. The technique they are investigating is termed synchronous active neutron detection (SAND). It closely follows a method that has been used routinely in other branches of physics to detect very small signals in the presence of large backgrounds. Synchronous detection instruments are widely available commercially and are termed {open_quotes}lock-in{close_quotes} amplifiers. The authors have implemented a digital lock-in amplifier in conjunction with the Schlumberger neutron generator to explore the possibility of synchronous detection with active neutrons. This approach is possible because the Schlumberger system can operate at up to a 50% duty factor, in effect, a square wave of neutron yield. The results to date are preliminary but quite promising. The system is capable of resolving the fissile material contained in a small fraction of the fuel rods in a cold fuel assembly. It also appears to be quite resilient to background neutron interference. The interrogating neutrons appear to be nonthermal and penetrating. Although a significant amount of work remains to fully explore the relevant physics and optimize the instrument design, the underlying concept appears sound.

  11. A bubble detection system for propellant filling pipeline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wen, Wen; Zong, Guanghua; Bi, Shusheng

    2014-06-15

    This paper proposes a bubble detection system based on the ultrasound transmission method, mainly for probing high-speed bubbles in the satellite propellant filling pipeline. First, three common ultrasonic detection methods are compared and the ultrasound transmission method is used in this paper. Then, the ultrasound beam in a vertical pipe is investigated, suggesting that the width of the beam used for detection is usually smaller than the internal diameter of the pipe, which means that when bubbles move close to the pipe wall, they may escape from being detected. A special device is designed to solve this problem. It can generate the spiral flow to force all the bubbles to ascend along the central line of the pipe. In the end, experiments are implemented to evaluate the performance of this system. Bubbles of five different sizes are generated and detected. Experiment results show that the sizes and quantity of bubbles can be estimated by this system. Also, the bubbles of different radii can be distinguished from each other. The numerical relationship between the ultrasound attenuation and the bubble radius is acquired and it can be utilized for estimating the unknown bubble size and measuring the total bubble volume.

  12. Review of current neutron detection systems for emergency response

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Maurer, Richard; Guss, Paul; Kruschwitz, Craig

    2014-09-05

    Neutron detectors are utilized in a myriad of applications—from safeguarding special nuclear materials (SNM) to determining lattice spacing in soft materials. The transformational changes taking place in neutron detection and imaging techniques in the last few years are largely being driven by the global shortage of helium-3 (3He). This article reviews the status of neutron sensors used specifically for SNM detection in radiological emergency response. These neutron detectors must be highly efficient, be rugged, have fast electronics to measure neutron multiplicity, and be capable of measuring direction of the neutron sources and possibly image them with high spatial resolution. Neutronmore » detection is an indirect physical process: neutrons react with nuclei in materials to initiate the release of one or more charged particles that produce electric signals that can be processed by the detection system. Therefore, neutron detection requires conversion materials as active elements of the detection system; these materials may include boron-10 (10B), lithium-6 (6Li), and gadollinium-157 (157Gd), to name a few, but the number of materials available for neutron detection is limited. However, in recent years, pulse-shape-discriminating plastic scintillators, scintillators made of helium-4 (4He) under high pressure, pillar and trench semiconductor diodes, and exotic semiconductor neutron detectors made from uranium oxide and other materials have widely expanded the parameter space in neutron detection methodology. In this article we will pay special attention to semiconductor-based neutron sensors. Finally, modern microfabricated nanotubes covered inside with neutron converter materials and with very high aspect ratios for better charge transport will be discussed.« less

  13. Review of current neutron detection systems for emergency response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Maurer, Richard; Guss, Paul; Kruschwitz, Craig

    2014-09-05

    Neutron detectors are utilized in a myriad of applications—from safeguarding special nuclear materials (SNM) to determining lattice spacing in soft materials. The transformational changes taking place in neutron detection and imaging techniques in the last few years are largely being driven by the global shortage of helium-3 (3He). This article reviews the status of neutron sensors used specifically for SNM detection in radiological emergency response. These neutron detectors must be highly efficient, be rugged, have fast electronics to measure neutron multiplicity, and be capable of measuring direction of the neutron sources and possibly image them with high spatial resolution. Neutron detection is an indirect physical process: neutrons react with nuclei in materials to initiate the release of one or more charged particles that produce electric signals that can be processed by the detection system. Therefore, neutron detection requires conversion materials as active elements of the detection system; these materials may include boron-10 (10B), lithium-6 (6Li), and gadollinium-157 (157Gd), to name a few, but the number of materials available for neutron detection is limited. However, in recent years, pulse-shape-discriminating plastic scintillators, scintillators made of helium-4 (4He) under high pressure, pillar and trench semiconductor diodes, and exotic semiconductor neutron detectors made from uranium oxide and other materials have widely expanded the parameter space in neutron detection methodology. In this article we will pay special attention to semiconductor-based neutron sensors. Finally, modern microfabricated nanotubes covered inside with neutron converter materials and with very high aspect ratios for better charge transport will be discussed.

  14. Assessment of Radiation Background Variation for Moving Detection Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, James Christopher; Rennie, John Alan; Toevs, James Waldo; Wallace, Darrin J.; Abhold, Mark Edward

    2015-07-13

    The introduction points out that radiation backgrounds fluctuate across very short distances: factors include geology, soil composition, altitude, building structures, topography, and other manmade structures; and asphalt and concrete can vary significantly over short distances. Brief descriptions are given of the detection system, experimental setup, and background variation measurements. It is concluded that positive and negative gradients can greatly reduce the detection sensitivity of an MDS: negative gradients create opportunities for false negatives (nondetection), and positive gradients create a potentially unacceptable FAR (above 1%); the location of use for mobile detection is important to understand; spectroscopic systems provide more information for screening out false alarms and may be preferred for mobile use; and mobile monitor testing at LANL accounts for expected variations in the background.

  15. All-to-all sequenced fault detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles Jens; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian Edward

    2010-11-02

    An apparatus, program product and method enable nodal fault detection by sequencing communications between all system nodes. A master node may coordinate communications between two slave nodes before sequencing to and initiating communications between a new pair of slave nodes. The communications may be analyzed to determine the nodal fault.

  16. Non intrusive sensors -- An answer to annulus pressure monitoring in subsea wellhead equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adamek, F.C.; Jennings, C.; Aarskog, A.

    1995-12-01

    On offshore platform and jackup surface wellhead completions, there is the potential for leakage from the high pressure production tubing and casing strings into the low pressure outer casing string, or from poor cementing jobs. Historically, these completions maintain the capability of regularly monitoring wellhead annulus pressure so that appropriate action can be taken should a leak be detected. In the past, subsea completions have been oil producers, however, gas production, extreme reservoir pressures, and deeper waters are becoming common place. Although subsea wellhead technology and reliability have significantly improved with the introduction of the metal-to-metal sealing system, the potential for annulus pressure buildup still exists. Up to the present, the ability to monitor pressure beyond the first casing string has been virtually non-existent. This paper describes the design, development, testing, and application of non intrusive sensor technology for pressure measurement in subsea wellheads and production trees. The data and test results define and describe the phenomenon of ``inverse magnetostriction``. This phenomenon allows magnetic sensors to non intrusively penetrate three to four inches of steel in a subsea wellhead housing and measure annulus pressure from less than 30 psi to more than 15,000 psi. In addition, test data, charts, and graphs illustrate the sensor`s capability of differentiating between pressure, tension, compression, and bending stress imposed on the wellhead. The electronic interface description details how the data is obtained from the sensors, stored, and later transmitted to existing control systems or to the user interface at the surface via an ROV.

  17. Sensor integration study for a shallow tunnel detection system.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yee, Mark L.; Abbott, Robert E.; Bonal, Nedra; Elbring, Gregory Jay; Senglaub, Michael E.

    2010-02-01

    During the past several years, there has been a growing recognition of the threats posed by the use of shallow tunnels against both international border security and the integrity of critical facilities. This has led to the development and testing of a variety of geophysical and surveillance techniques for the detection of these clandestine tunnels. The challenges of detection of these tunnels arising from the complexity of the near surface environment, the subtlety of the tunnel signatures themselves, and the frequent siting of these tunnels in urban environments with a high level of cultural noise, have time and again shown that any single technique is not robust enough to solve the tunnel detection problem in all cases. The question then arises as to how to best combine the multiple techniques currently available to create an integrated system that results in the best chance of detecting these tunnels in a variety of clutter environments and geologies. This study utilizes Taguchi analysis with simulated sensor detection performance to address this question. The analysis results show that ambient noise has the most effect on detection performance over the effects of tunnel characteristics and geological factors.

  18. Lateral position detection and control for friction stir systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fleming, Paul; Lammlein, David; Cook, George E.; Wilkes, Don Mitchell; Strauss, Alvin M.; Delapp, David; Hartman, Daniel A.

    2010-12-14

    A friction stir system for processing at least a first workpiece includes a spindle actuator coupled to a rotary tool comprising a rotating member for contacting and processing the first workpiece. A detection system is provided for obtaining information related to a lateral alignment of the rotating member. The detection system comprises at least one sensor for measuring a force experienced by the rotary tool or a parameter related to the force experienced by the rotary tool during processing, wherein the sensor provides sensor signals. A signal processing system is coupled to receive and analyze the sensor signals and determine a lateral alignment of the rotating member relative to a selected lateral position, a selected path, or a direction to decrease a lateral distance relative to the selected lateral position or selected path. In one embodiment, the friction stir system can be embodied as a closed loop tracking system, such as a robot-based tracked friction stir welding (FSW) or friction stir processing (FSP) system.

  19. Security system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baumann, Mark J.; Kuca, Michal; Aragon, Mona L.

    2016-02-02

    A security system includes a structure having a structural surface. The structure is sized to contain an asset therein and configured to provide a forceful breaching delay. The structure has an opening formed therein to permit predetermined access to the asset contained within the structure. The structure includes intrusion detection features within or associated with the structure that are activated in response to at least a partial breach of the structure.

  20. Neutron Interrogation System For Underwater Threat Detection And Identification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barzilov, Alexander P.; Novikov, Ivan S.; Womble, Phil C.

    2009-03-10

    Wartime and terrorist activities, training and munitions testing, dumping and accidents have generated significant munitions contamination in the coastal and inland waters in the United States and abroad. Although current methods provide information about the existence of the anomaly (for instance, metal objects) in the sea bottom, they fail to identify the nature of the found objects. Field experience indicates that often in excess of 90% of objects excavated during the course of munitions clean up are found to be non-hazardous items (false alarm). The technology to detect and identify waterborne or underwater threats is also vital for protection of critical infrastructures (ports, dams, locks, refineries, and LNG/LPG). We are proposing a compact neutron interrogation system, which will be used to confirm possible threats by determining the chemical composition of the suspicious underwater object. The system consists of an electronic d-T 14-MeV neutron generator, a gamma detector to detect the gamma signal from the irradiated object and a data acquisition system. The detected signal then is analyzed to quantify the chemical elements of interest and to identify explosives or chemical warfare agents.

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging of living systems by remote detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wemmer, David; Pines, Alexander; Bouchard, Louis; Xu, Shoujun; Harel, Elad; Budker, Dmitry; Lowery, Thomas; Ledbetter, Micah

    2013-10-29

    A novel approach to magnetic resonance imaging is disclosed. Blood flowing through a living system is prepolarized, and then encoded. The polarization can be achieved using permanent or superconducting magnets. The polarization may be carried out upstream of the region to be encoded or at the place of encoding. In the case of an MRI of a brain, polarization of flowing blood can be effected by placing a magnet over a section of the body such as the heart upstream of the head. Alternatively, polarization and encoding can be effected at the same location. Detection occurs at a remote location, using a separate detection device such as an optical atomic magnetometer, or an inductive Faraday coil. The detector may be placed on the surface of the skin next to a blood vessel such as a jugular vein carrying blood away from the encoded region.

  2. Methods and systems for detecting abnormal digital traffic

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goranson, Craig A [Kennewick, WA; Burnette, John R [Kennewick, WA

    2011-03-22

    Aspects of the present invention encompass methods and systems for detecting abnormal digital traffic by assigning characterizations of network behaviors according to knowledge nodes and calculating a confidence value based on the characterizations from at least one knowledge node and on weighting factors associated with the knowledge nodes. The knowledge nodes include a characterization model based on prior network information. At least one of the knowledge nodes should not be based on fixed thresholds or signatures. The confidence value includes a quantification of the degree of confidence that the network behaviors constitute abnormal network traffic.

  3. Trace detection of analytes using portable raman systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alam, M. Kathleen; Hotchkiss, Peter J.; Martin, Laura E.; Jones, David Alexander

    2015-11-24

    Apparatuses and methods for in situ detection of a trace amount of an analyte are disclosed herein. In a general embodiment, the present disclosure provides a surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) insert including a passageway therethrough, where the passageway has a SERS surface positioned therein. The SERS surface is configured to adsorb molecules of an analyte of interest. A concentrated sample is caused to flow over the SERS surface. The SERS insert is then provided to a portable Raman spectroscopy system, where it is analyzed for the analyte of interest.

  4. Image change detection systems, methods, and articles of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, James L.; Lassahn, Gordon D.; Lancaster, Gregory D.

    2010-01-05

    Aspects of the invention relate to image change detection systems, methods, and articles of manufacture. According to one aspect, a method of identifying differences between a plurality of images is described. The method includes loading a source image and a target image into memory of a computer, constructing source and target edge images from the source and target images to enable processing of multiband images, displaying the source and target images on a display device of the computer, aligning the source and target edge images, switching displaying of the source image and the target image on the display device, to enable identification of differences between the source image and the target image.

  5. Long distance high power optical laser fiber break detection and continuity monitoring systems and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rinzler, Charles C.; Gray, William C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2016-02-23

    A monitoring and detection system for use on high power laser systems, long distance high power laser systems and tools for performing high power laser operations. In particular, the monitoring and detection systems provide break detection and continuity protection for performing high power laser operations on, and in, remote and difficult to access locations.

  6. System and method for detection of dispersed broadband signals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Qian, Shie; Dunham, Mark E.

    1999-06-08

    A system and method for detecting the presence of dispersed broadband signals in real time. The present invention utilizes a bank of matched filters for detecting the received dispersed broadband signals. Each matched filter uses a respective robust time template that has been designed to approximate the dispersed broadband signals of interest, and each time template varies across a spectrum of possible dispersed broadband signal time templates. The received dispersed broadband signal x(t) is received by each of the matched filters, and if one or more matches occurs, then the received data is determined to have signal data of interest. This signal data can then be analyzed and/or transmitted to Earth for analysis, as desired. The system and method of the present invention will prove extremely useful in many fields, including satellite communications, plasma physics, and interstellar research. The varying time templates used in the bank of matched filters are determined as follows. The robust time domain template is assumed to take the form w(t)=A(t)cos{2.phi.(t)}. Since the instantaneous frequency f(t) is known to be equal to the derivative of the phase .phi.(t), the trajectory of a joint time-frequency representation of x(t) is used as an approximation of .phi.'(t).

  7. System and method for detection of dispersed broadband signals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Qian, S.; Dunham, M.E.

    1999-06-08

    A system and method for detecting the presence of dispersed broadband signals in real time are disclosed. The present invention utilizes a bank of matched filters for detecting the received dispersed broadband signals. Each matched filter uses a respective robust time template that has been designed to approximate the dispersed broadband signals of interest, and each time template varies across a spectrum of possible dispersed broadband signal time templates. The received dispersed broadband signal x(t) is received by each of the matched filters, and if one or more matches occurs, then the received data is determined to have signal data of interest. This signal data can then be analyzed and/or transmitted to Earth for analysis, as desired. The system and method of the present invention will prove extremely useful in many fields, including satellite communications, plasma physics, and interstellar research. The varying time templates used in the bank of matched filters are determined as follows. The robust time domain template is assumed to take the form w(t)=A(t)cos[l brace]2[phi](t)[r brace]. Since the instantaneous frequency f(t) is known to be equal to the derivative of the phase [phi](t), the trajectory of a joint time-frequency representation of x(t) is used as an approximation of [phi][prime](t). 10 figs.

  8. Non-intrusive ultrasonic liquid-in-line detector for small diameter tubes. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piper, T.C.

    1980-09-24

    An arrangement for detecting liquids in a line, using non-intrusive ultrasonic techniques is disclosed. In this arrangement, four piezoelectric crystals are arranged in pairs about a 0.078 inch o.d. pipe. An ultrasonic tone burst is transmitted along the pipe, between crystal pairs, and the amplitude of the received tone burst indicates the absence/presence of liquid in the pipe.

  9. System and method for detecting a faulty object in a system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gunnels, John A.; Gustavson, Fred Gehrung; Engle, Robert Daniel

    2010-12-14

    A method (and system) for detecting at least one faulty object in a system including a plurality of objects in communication with each other in an n-dimensional architecture, includes probing a first plane of objects in the n-dimensional architecture and probing at least one other plane of objects in the n-dimensional architecture which would result in identifying a faulty object in the system.

  10. System and method for detecting a faulty object in a system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gunnels, John A.; Gustavson, Fred Gehrung; Engle, Robert Daniel

    2009-03-17

    A method (and system) for detecting at least one faulty object in a system including a plurality of objects in communication with each other in an n-dimensional architecture, includes probing a first plane of objects in the n-dimensional architecture and probing at least one other plane of objects in the n-dimensional architecture which would result in identifying a faulty object in the system.

  11. A Multi-Layer Phoswich Radioxenon Detection System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David M. Hamby

    2008-07-14

    Laboratory radioactive sources were used to characterize the phoswich detector. The CaF{sub 2} scintillator has a low light-yield and slow decay time, thus produces very small signals due to low-energy gamma rays or X-rays. Therefore, detection of 30 keV X-rays (from the xenon radioisotopes) using this layer and discriminating its very small signals from electronic noise was a challenging task. Several solutions were considered and experimentally evaluated. We found that the best solution would be extending the fast triangular filter from 10 taps to 30 taps. This will extend the peaking time of this filter from 25 nsec to 75 nsec. The digital filter is implemented in FPGA on our DPP2.0 and is used to trigger the detection system. Functionality of the new filter in capturing and discriminating 30 keV X-rays was confirmed by using a {sup 133}Ba gamma-ray source. Development of the DPP GUI software has continued with the addition of two new panels to display histograms of beta/gamma and beta/x-ray coincidence events. This includes coincidence events from a single channel, as well as two-channel, coincidence event. A pileup rejection algorithm has been implemented in the FPGA code, and controls to adjust its sensitivity have been added to the GUI. Work has begun on a new prototype system to develop a USB host interface between the PC and the FPGA to end reliance on Opal Kelly prototyping boards; the hardware for this system has been completely assembled, and the PC-side software is currently in development.

  12. 'Known Secure Sensor Measurements' for Critical Infrastructure Systems: Detecting Falsification of System State

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miles McQueen; Annarita Giani

    2011-09-01

    This paper describes a first investigation on a low cost and low false alarm, reliable mechanism for detecting manipulation of critical physical processes and falsification of system state. We call this novel mechanism Known Secure Sensor Measurements (KSSM). The method moves beyond analysis of network traffic and host based state information, in fact it uses physical measurements of the process being controlled to detect falsification of state. KSSM is intended to be incorporated into the design of new, resilient, cost effective critical infrastructure control systems. It can also be included in incremental upgrades of already in- stalled systems for enhanced resilience. KSSM is based on known secure physical measurements for assessing the likelihood of an attack and will demonstrate a practical approach to creating, transmitting, and using the known secure measurements for detection.

  13. Spreader-Bar Radiation Detection System Enhancements: A Modeling and Simulation Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ely, James H.; Ashbaker, Eric D.; Batdorf, Michael T.; Baciak, James E.; Hensley, Walter K.; Jarman, Kenneth D.; Robinson, Sean M.; Sandness, Gerald A.; Schweppe, John E.

    2012-11-13

    This report provides the modeling and simulation results of the investigation of enhanced spreader bar radiation detection systems.

  14. Protein- protein interaction detection system using fluorescent protein microdomains

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2010-02-23

    The invention provides a protein labeling and interaction detection system based on engineered fragments of fluorescent and chromophoric proteins that require fused interacting polypeptides to drive the association of the fragments, and further are soluble and stable, and do not change the solubility of polypeptides to which they are fused. In one embodiment, a test protein X is fused to a sixteen amino acid fragment of GFP (.beta.-strand 10, amino acids 198-214), engineered to not perturb fusion protein solubility. A second test protein Y is fused to a sixteen amino acid fragment of GFP (.beta.-strand 11, amino acids 215-230), engineered to not perturb fusion protein solubility. When X and Y interact, they bring the GFP strands into proximity, and are detected by complementation with a third GFP fragment consisting of GFP amino acids 1-198 (strands 1-9). When GFP strands 10 and 11 are held together by interaction of protein X and Y, they spontaneous association with GFP strands 1-9, resulting in structural complementation, folding, and concomitant GFP fluorescence.

  15. Cable Damage Detection System and Algorithms Using Time Domain Reflectometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, G A; Robbins, C L; Wade, K A; Souza, P R

    2009-03-24

    This report describes the hardware system and the set of algorithms we have developed for detecting damage in cables for the Advanced Development and Process Technologies (ADAPT) Program. This program is part of the W80 Life Extension Program (LEP). The system could be generalized for application to other systems in the future. Critical cables can undergo various types of damage (e.g. short circuits, open circuits, punctures, compression) that manifest as changes in the dielectric/impedance properties of the cables. For our specific problem, only one end of the cable is accessible, and no exemplars of actual damage are available. This work addresses the detection of dielectric/impedance anomalies in transient time domain reflectometry (TDR) measurements on the cables. The approach is to interrogate the cable using time domain reflectometry (TDR) techniques, in which a known pulse is inserted into the cable, and reflections from the cable are measured. The key operating principle is that any important cable damage will manifest itself as an electrical impedance discontinuity that can be measured in the TDR response signal. Machine learning classification algorithms are effectively eliminated from consideration, because only a small number of cables is available for testing; so a sufficient sample size is not attainable. Nonetheless, a key requirement is to achieve very high probability of detection and very low probability of false alarm. The approach is to compare TDR signals from possibly damaged cables to signals or an empirical model derived from reference cables that are known to be undamaged. This requires that the TDR signals are reasonably repeatable from test to test on the same cable, and from cable to cable. Empirical studies show that the repeatability issue is the 'long pole in the tent' for damage detection, because it is has been difficult to achieve reasonable repeatability. This one factor dominated the project. The two-step model-based approach is

  16. Systems and methods for detecting x-rays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bross, Alan D.; Mellott, Kerry L.; Pla-Dalmau, Anna

    2006-05-02

    Systems and methods for detecting x-rays are disclosed herein. One or more x-ray-sensitive scintillators can be configured from a plurality of heavy element nano-sized particles and a plastic material, such as polystyrene. As will be explained in greater detail herein, the heavy element nano-sized particles (e.g., PbWO4) can be compounded into the plastic material with at least one dopant that permits the plastic material to scintillate. X-rays interact with the heavy element nano-sized particles to produce electrons that can deposit energy in the x-ray sensitive scintillator, which in turn can produce light.

  17. Photon Detection System Designs for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whittington, Denver

    2015-11-19

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) will be a premier facility for exploring long-standing questions about the boundaries of the standard model. Acting in concert with the liquid argon time projection chambers underpinning the far detector design, the DUNE photon detection system will capture ultraviolet scintillation light in order to provide valuable timing information for event reconstruction. To maximize the active area while maintaining a small photocathode coverage, the experiment will utilize a design based on plastic light guides coated with a wavelength-shifting compound, along with silicon photomultipliers, to collect and record scintillation light from liquid argon. This report presents recent preliminary performance measurements of this baseline design and several alternative designs which promise significant improvements in sensitivity to low-energy interactions.

  18. Autonomous navigation system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bruemmer, David J. [Idaho Falls, ID; Few, Douglas A. [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-09-08

    A robot platform includes perceptors, locomotors, and a system controller, which executes instructions for autonomously navigating a robot. The instructions repeat, on each iteration through an event timing loop, the acts of defining an event horizon based on the robot's current velocity, detecting a range to obstacles around the robot, testing for an event horizon intrusion by determining if any range to the obstacles is within the event horizon, and adjusting rotational and translational velocity of the robot accordingly. If the event horizon intrusion occurs, rotational velocity is modified by a proportion of the current rotational velocity reduced by a proportion of the range to the nearest obstacle and translational velocity is modified by a proportion of the range to the nearest obstacle. If no event horizon intrusion occurs, translational velocity is set as a ratio of a speed factor relative to a maximum speed.

  19. Comparison of enclosed space detection system with conventional methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kercel, S.W.; Baylor, V.M.; Labaj, L.E.

    1997-09-01

    Enclosed Space Detection System (ESDS) is a fast, inexpensive, and reliable device for detecting human occupants hidden in vehicles. Operation requires less than two minutes. ESDS is used to foil attempts at smuggling illegal aliens, terrorists, and escaping prisoners. It is being tested at nuclear weapons facilities and has been operated at several prisons and international border crossings. ESDS is the first practical electronic alternative to physical searches of vehicles for hidden passengers. At critical checkpoints, a thorough physical search of a single fully loaded truck requires a team of from two to six people, and may take as long as eight hours. Despite this level of security, experience has shown that the search can occasionally be foiled. Due to the enormous time and expense of thorough physical searches of vehicles, they are seldom conducted at any but the most critical of locations, simply leaving many sites vulnerable to crime and terrorism. Prior to the development of the ESDS, the only other effective alternative to physical search was the use of specially-trained canines, which can be vastly superior to the physical search in both time and accuracy. However, as discussed in this paper, canine inspection is not really a competitive substitute for ESDS because canine reliability (80% at most) is not as high as that of the ESDS (99%+), while the costs, training requirements, and operator skill needed are significantly higher with canines than with the ESDS. In addition, the ESDS has straightforward self-diagnostic tests to ensure the system is operating correctly; such tests are not currently available with either canine or human inspectors. ESDS offers an attractive supplement or alternative to meet current security requirements for vehicle searches at portals at government, nuclear, industrial, and other facilities where concealed persons may pose a threat either by entering or leaving.

  20. detection

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    of 25 Million Grant to Improve Technological Capabilities for Detecting Nuclear Proliferation http:www.nnsa.energy.govmediaroompressreleasesncstateconsortium

  1. Robotic guarded motion system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bruemmer, David J.

    2010-02-23

    A robot platform includes perceptors, locomotors, and a system controller. The system controller executes instructions for repeating, on each iteration through an event timing loop, the acts of defining an event horizon, detecting a range to obstacles around the robot, and testing for an event horizon intrusion. Defining the event horizon includes determining a distance from the robot that is proportional to a current velocity of the robot and testing for the event horizon intrusion includes determining if any range to the obstacles is within the event horizon. Finally, on each iteration through the event timing loop, the method includes reducing the current velocity of the robot in proportion to a loop period of the event timing loop if the event horizon intrusion occurs.

  2. Technoeconomic analysis of renewable hydrogen production, storage, and detection systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mann, M.K.; Spath, P.L.; Kadam, K.

    1996-10-01

    Technical and economic feasibility studies of different degrees of completeness and detail have been performed on several projects being funded by the Department of Energy`s Hydrogen Program. Work this year focused on projects at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, although analyses of projects at other institutions are underway or planned. Highly detailed analyses were completed on a fiber optic hydrogen leak detector and a process to produce hydrogen from biomass via pyrolysis followed by steam reforming of the pyrolysis oil. Less detailed economic assessments of solar and biologically-based hydrogen production processes have been performed and focused on the steps that need to be taken to improve the competitive position of these technologies. Sensitivity analyses were conducted on all analyses to reveal the degree to which the cost results are affected by market changes and technological advances. For hydrogen storage by carbon nanotubes, a survey of the competing storage technologies was made in order to set a baseline for cost goals. A determination of the likelihood of commercialization was made for nearly all systems examined. Hydrogen from biomass via pyrolysis and steam reforming was found to have significant economic potential if a coproduct option could be co-commercialized. Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production may have economic potential, but only if low-cost cells can be modified to split water and to avoid surface oxidation. The use of bacteria to convert the carbon monoxide in biomass syngas to hydrogen was found to be slightly more expensive than the high end of currently commercial hydrogen, although there are significant opportunities to reduce costs. Finally, the cost of installing a fiber-optic chemochromic hydrogen detection system in passenger vehicles was found to be very low and competitive with alternative sensor systems.

  3. Technical specifications manual for the MARK-1 pulsed ionizing radiation detection system. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawrence, R.S.; Harker, Y.D.; Jones, J.L.; Hoggan, J.M.

    1993-03-01

    The MARK-1 detection system was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for the US Department of Energy Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation. The completely portable system was designed for the detection and analysis of intense photon emissions from pulsed ionizing radiation sources. This manual presents the technical design specifications for the MARK-1 detection system and was written primarily to assist the support or service technician in the service, calibration, and repair of the system. The manual presents the general detection system theory, the MARK-1 component design specifications, the acquisition and control software, the data processing sequence, and the system calibration procedure. A second manual entitled: Volume 2: Operations Manual for the MARK-1 Pulsed Ionizing Radiation Detection System (USDOE Report WINCO-1108, September 1992) provides a general operational description of the MARK-1 detection system. The Operations Manual was written primarily to assist the field operator in system operations and analysis of the data.

  4. Nuisance Source Population Modeling for Radiation Detection System Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sokkappa, P; Lange, D; Nelson, K; Wheeler, R

    2009-10-05

    A major challenge facing the prospective deployment of radiation detection systems for homeland security applications is the discrimination of radiological or nuclear 'threat sources' from radioactive, but benign, 'nuisance sources'. Common examples of such nuisance sources include naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), medical patients who have received radioactive drugs for either diagnostics or treatment, and industrial sources. A sensitive detector that cannot distinguish between 'threat' and 'benign' classes will generate false positives which, if sufficiently frequent, will preclude it from being operationally deployed. In this report, we describe a first-principles physics-based modeling approach that is used to approximate the physical properties and corresponding gamma ray spectral signatures of real nuisance sources. Specific models are proposed for the three nuisance source classes - NORM, medical and industrial. The models can be validated against measured data - that is, energy spectra generated with the model can be compared to actual nuisance source data. We show by example how this is done for NORM and medical sources, using data sets obtained from spectroscopic detector deployments for cargo container screening and urban area traffic screening, respectively. In addition to capturing the range of radioactive signatures of individual nuisance sources, a nuisance source population model must generate sources with a frequency of occurrence consistent with that found in actual movement of goods and people. Measured radiation detection data can indicate these frequencies, but, at present, such data are available only for a very limited set of locations and time periods. In this report, we make more general estimates of frequencies for NORM and medical sources using a range of data sources such as shipping manifests and medical treatment statistics. We also identify potential data sources for industrial source frequencies, but leave the task of

  5. Design of a physical security perimeter fencing system.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mack, Thomas Kimball; Ross, Michael P.; Lin, Han Wei

    2010-10-01

    Design of a physical security perimeter fencing system requires that security designers provide effective detection, delay, and response functionalities with minimal nuisance alarms. In addition, the designers must take into considerations the security fence system life cycle cost (equipment and grounds maintenance), complexity of the terrain, safety, and environmental conditions (location of where the security fence will be installed). Often, these factors drive the security designers to design a perimeter intrusion detection and assessment system (PIDAS) that includes: (1) larger than desired footprint, (2) one or more animal control fences to minimize the nuisance alarm rate (NAR), and (3) clear zones and an isolation zone to facilitate intrusion detection and assessment by keeping the fence lines clear of vegetation, trash, and other objects that could impede the security system's performance. This paper presents a two-tier PIDAS design that focuses on effective performance specifically in high probability of detection and low NAR that minimizes cost and the footprint of the system.

  6. detection

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    of 25 Million Grant to Improve Technological Capabilities for Detecting Nuclear Proliferation http:nnsa.energy.govmediaroompressreleasesncstateconsortium

  7. Detect

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    coherent Raman scattering Standoff detection of physical and chemical signatures from manufacturing and concealed deployment Standoff high-selectivity spectroscopy of ...

  8. Expert judgment on markers to deter inadvertent human intrusion into the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trauth, K.M.; Hora, S.C.; Guzowski, R.V.

    1993-11-01

    The expert panel identified basic principles to guide current and future marker development efforts: (1) the site must be marked, (2) message(s) must be truthful and informative, (3) multiple components within a marker system, (4) multiple means of communication (e.g., language, pictographs, scientific diagrams), (5) multiple levels of complexity within individual messages on individual marker system elements, (6) use of materials with little recycle value, and (7) international effort to maintain knowledge of the locations and contents of nuclear waste repositories. The efficacy of the markers in deterring inadvertent human intrusion was estimated to decrease with time, with the probability function varying with the mode of intrusion (who is intruding and for what purpose) and the level of technological development of the society. The development of a permanent, passive marker system capable of surviving and remaining interpretable for 10,000 years will require further study prior to implementation.

  9. Prototype explosives-detection system based on nuclear-resonance absorption in nitrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgado, R.E.; Arnone, G.; Cappiello, C.C.; Gardner, S.D.; Hollas, C.L.; Ussery, L.E.; White, J.M.; Zahrt, J.D.; Krauss, R.A.

    1994-06-01

    A prototype explosives-detection system (EDS) that was developed for experimental evaluation of a nuclear-resonance absorption technique is described. The major subsystems are a proton accelerator and beam transport, high-temperature proton target, an airline-luggage tomographic inspection station, and an image-processing/detection-alarm subsystem. The detection system performance, based on a limited experimental test, is reported.

  10. Real-time system for imaging and object detection with a multistatic GPR array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paglieroni, David W; Beer, N Reginald; Bond, Steven W; Top, Philip L; Chambers, David H; Mast, Jeffrey E; Donetti, John G; Mason, Blake C; Jones, Steven M

    2014-10-07

    A method and system for detecting the presence of subsurface objects within a medium is provided. In some embodiments, the imaging and detection system operates in a multistatic mode to collect radar return signals generated by an array of transceiver antenna pairs that is positioned across the surface and that travels down the surface. The imaging and detection system pre-processes the return signal to suppress certain undesirable effects. The imaging and detection system then generates synthetic aperture radar images from real aperture radar images generated from the pre-processed return signal. The imaging and detection system then post-processes the synthetic aperture radar images to improve detection of subsurface objects. The imaging and detection system identifies peaks in the energy levels of the post-processed image frame, which indicates the presence of a subsurface object.

  11. PV Systems Reliability Final Technical Report: Ground Fault Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lavrova, Olga; Flicker, Jack David; Johnson, Jay

    2016-01-01

    We have examined ground faults in PhotoVoltaic (PV) arrays and the efficacy of fuse, current detection (RCD), current sense monitoring/relays (CSM), isolation/insulation (Riso) monitoring, and Ground Fault Detection and Isolation (GFID) using simulations based on a Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis SPICE ground fault circuit model, experimental ground faults installed on real arrays, and theoretical equations.

  12. CV-1b: Magmatic - Intrusive | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone in New Zealand. A cross section view of the Taupo Volcanic Zone in New Zealand (ref: Book: North New Zealand) According to Moeck and Beardsmore, magmatic-intrusive...

  13. Methods, microfluidic devices, and systems for detection of an...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for the detection of an active target agent in a fluid sample. A substrate molecule is used that contains a sequence which may cleave in the presence of an active target agent. ...

  14. A practical system for the detection of laser pointers on large...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    National Laboratories Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 42 ENGINEERING; DETECTION; LASERS; DISPLAY DEVICES; MAN-MACHINE SYSTEMS

  15. Best Management Practice #3: Distribution System Audits, Leak Detection, and Repair

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A distribution system audit, or leak detection and repair program, may help federal facilities identify and reduce water losses and be better stewards of water as a resource.

  16. Method of detecting system function by measuring frequency response

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morrison, John L.; Morrison, William H.

    2008-07-01

    Real time battery impedance spectrum is acquired using one time record, Compensated Synchronous Detection (CSD). This parallel method enables battery diagnostics. The excitation current to a test battery is a sum of equal amplitude sin waves of a few frequencies spread over range of interest. The time profile of this signal has duration that is a few periods of the lowest frequency. The voltage response of the battery, average deleted, is the impedance of the battery in the time domain. Since the excitation frequencies are known, synchronous detection processes the time record and each component, both magnitude and phase, is obtained. For compensation, the components, except the one of interest, are reassembled in the time domain. The resulting signal is subtracted from the original signal and the component of interest is synchronously detected. This process is repeated for each component.

  17. System and method for automated object detection in an image

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kenyon, Garrett T.; Brumby, Steven P.; George, John S.; Paiton, Dylan M.; Schultz, Peter F.

    2015-10-06

    A contour/shape detection model may use relatively simple and efficient kernels to detect target edges in an object within an image or video. A co-occurrence probability may be calculated for two or more edge features in an image or video using an object definition. Edge features may be differentiated between in response to measured contextual support, and prominent edge features may be extracted based on the measured contextual support. The object may then be identified based on the extracted prominent edge features.

  18. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Won, I.J.; Keiswetter, D.

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This non-intrusive system will provide {open_quotes}stand-off{close_quotes} capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. This system permits rapid geophysical characterization of hazardous environmental sites. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak geophysical anomalies can be detected.

  19. Pickless event detection and location: The waveform correlation event detection system (WCEDS) revisited

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arrowsmith, Stephen John; Young, Christopher J.; Ballard, Sanford; Slinkard, Megan Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The standard paradigm for seismic event monitoring breaks the event detection problem down into a series of processing stages that can be categorized at the highest level into station-level processing and network-level processing algorithms (e.g., Le Bras and Wuster (2002)). At the station-level, waveforms are typically processed to detect signals and identify phases, which may subsequently be updated based on network processing. At the network-level, phase picks are associated to form events, which are subsequently located. Furthermore, waveforms are typically directly exploited only at the station-level, while network-level operations rely on earth models to associate and locate the events that generated the phase picks.

  20. Pickless event detection and location: The waveform correlation event detection system (WCEDS) revisited

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Arrowsmith, Stephen John; Young, Christopher J.; Ballard, Sanford; Slinkard, Megan Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The standard paradigm for seismic event monitoring breaks the event detection problem down into a series of processing stages that can be categorized at the highest level into station-level processing and network-level processing algorithms (e.g., Le Bras and Wuster (2002)). At the station-level, waveforms are typically processed to detect signals and identify phases, which may subsequently be updated based on network processing. At the network-level, phase picks are associated to form events, which are subsequently located. Furthermore, waveforms are typically directly exploited only at the station-level, while network-level operations rely on earth models to associate and locate the events thatmore » generated the phase picks.« less

  1. Method and apparatus for continuous fluid leak monitoring and detection in analytical instruments and instrument systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weitz, Karl K.; Moore, Ronald J.

    2010-07-13

    A method and device are disclosed that provide for detection of fluid leaks in analytical instruments and instrument systems. The leak detection device includes a collection tube, a fluid absorbing material, and a circuit that electrically couples to an indicator device. When assembled, the leak detection device detects and monitors for fluid leaks, providing a preselected response in conjunction with the indicator device when contacted by a fluid.

  2. OPNET/Simulink Based Testbed for Disturbance Detection in the Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sadi, Mohammad A. H.; Dasgupta, Dipankar; Ali, Mohammad Hassan; Abercrombie, Robert K

    2015-01-01

    The important backbone of the smart grid is the cyber/information infrastructure, which is primarily used to communicate with different grid components. A smart grid is a complex cyber physical system containing a numerous and variety number of sources, devices, controllers and loads. Therefore, the smart grid is vulnerable to grid related disturbances. For such dynamic system, disturbance and intrusion detection is a paramount issue. This paper presents a Simulink and Opnet based co-simulated platform to carry out a cyber-intrusion in cyber network for modern power systems and the smart grid. The IEEE 30 bus power system model is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the simulated testbed. The experiments were performed by disturbing the circuit breakers reclosing time through a cyber-attack. Different disturbance situations in the considered test system are considered and the results indicate the effectiveness of the proposed co-simulated scheme.

  3. Circuitry, systems and methods for detecting magnetic fields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotter, Dale K. [Shelley, ID; Spencer, David F. [Idaho Falls, ID; Roybal, Lyle G. [Idaho Falls, ID; Rohrbaugh, David T. [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-09-14

    Circuitry for detecting magnetic fields includes a first magnetoresistive sensor and a second magnetoresistive sensor configured to form a gradiometer. The circuitry includes a digital signal processor and a first feedback loop coupled between the first magnetoresistive sensor and the digital signal processor. A second feedback loop which is discrete from the first feedback loop is coupled between the second magnetoresistive sensor and the digital signal processor.

  4. Flight Testing of an Advanced Airborne Natural Gas Leak Detection System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dawn Lenz; Raymond T. Lines; Darryl Murdock; Jeffrey Owen; Steven Stearns; Michael Stoogenke

    2005-10-01

    ITT Industries Space Systems Division (Space Systems) has developed an airborne natural gas leak detection system designed to detect, image, quantify, and precisely locate leaks from natural gas transmission pipelines. This system is called the Airborne Natural Gas Emission Lidar (ANGEL) system. The ANGEL system uses a highly sensitive differential absorption Lidar technology to remotely detect pipeline leaks. The ANGEL System is operated from a fixed wing aircraft and includes automatic scanning, pointing system, and pilot guidance systems. During a pipeline inspection, the ANGEL system aircraft flies at an elevation of 1000 feet above the ground at speeds of between 100 and 150 mph. Under this contract with DOE/NETL, Space Systems was funded to integrate the ANGEL sensor into a test aircraft and conduct a series of flight tests over a variety of test targets including simulated natural gas pipeline leaks. Following early tests in upstate New York in the summer of 2004, the ANGEL system was deployed to Casper, Wyoming to participate in a set of DOE-sponsored field tests at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC). At RMOTC the Space Systems team completed integration of the system and flew an operational system for the first time. The ANGEL system flew 2 missions/day for the duration for the 5-day test. Over the course of the week the ANGEL System detected leaks ranging from 100 to 5,000 scfh.

  5. Systems and methods for detecting a flame in a fuel nozzle of a gas turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Storey, James Michael; Lipinski, John; Mestroni, Julio Enrique; Williamson, David Lee; Marshall, Jason Randolph; Krull, Anthony

    2013-05-07

    A system may detect a flame about a fuel nozzle of a gas turbine. The gas turbine may have a compressor and a combustor. The system may include a first pressure sensor, a second pressure sensor, and a transducer. The first pressure sensor may detect a first pressure upstream of the fuel nozzle. The second pressure sensor may detect a second pressure downstream of the fuel nozzle. The transducer may be operable to detect a pressure difference between the first pressure sensor and the second pressure sensor.

  6. Standard terminal panel and UPS (uninterruptible power supply) design for exterior intrusion detectors and data collection applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolfenbarger, F.M.

    1989-01-01

    Need for standardization has been discussed for years by many government agencies. In the past, every perimeter site upgrade resulted in the design, specification, procurement, and fabrication of a unique power and signal junction box. To save design and specification cost, a standard terminal panel and uninterruptible power supply (UPS) design for an exterior intrusion sensor detection system was developed for a security system within the Sandia National Laboratories complex at Albuquerque, New Mexico. In facilitating this requirement a design was sought that could easily be modified for other government or commercial applications and one that could easily be fabricated in the shop. Also of primary importance was the need for lightning protection for both the communications and voltage sources. A 12V dc UPS with a current capacity of up to 4 amperes complements the standard terminal design and allows uninterrupted sensor operation for a number of hours should the primary ac source be interrupted. This report encompasses the features of the designs. The designs are also being used and continuously evaluated in Sandia's Area III exterior test field. 7 figs.

  7. Radiation detection system for portable gamma-ray spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rowland, Mark S.; Howard, Douglas E.; Wong, James L.; Jessup, James L.; Bianchini, Greg M.; Miller, Wayne O.

    2006-06-20

    A portable gamma ray detection apparatus having a gamma ray detector encapsulated by a compact isolation structure having at least two volumetrically-nested enclosures where at least one is a thermal shield. The enclosures are suspension-mounted to each other to successively encapsulate the detector without structural penetrations through the thermal shields. A low power cooler is also provided capable of cooling the detector to cryogenic temperatures without consuming cryogens, due to the heat load reduction by the isolation structure and the reduction in the power requirements of the cooler. The apparatus also includes a lightweight portable power source for supplying power to the apparatus, including to the cooler and the processing means, and reducing the weight of the apparatus to enable handheld operation or toting on a user's person.

  8. HC-NIDS: signatures and simulations for detecting cyber-attacks aiming to cause damage against cyber-physical energy systems

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-12-01

    Physical device safety is typically implemented locally using embedded controllers, while operations safety is primarily performed in control centers. Safe operations can be enhanced by correct design of device-level control algorithms, and protocols, procedures and operator training at the control-room level, but all can fail. Moreover, these elements exchange data and issue commands via vulnerable communication layers. In order to secure these gaps and enhance operational safety, we believe monitoring of command sequences must bemore » combined with an awareness of physical device limitations and automata models that capture safety mechanisms. One way of doing this is by leveraging specification-based intrusion detection to monitor for physical constraint violations. The method can also verify that physical infrastructure state is consistent with monitoring information and control commands exchanged between field devices and control centers. This additional security layer enhances protection from both outsider attacks and insider mistakes. We implemented specification-based SCADA command analyzers using physical constraint algorithms directly in the Bro framework and Broccoli APIs for three separate scenarios: a water heater, an automated distribution system, and an over-current protection scheme. To accomplish this, we added low-level analyzers capable of examining control system-specific protocol packets for both Modbus TCP and DNP3, and also higher-level analyzers able to interpret device command and data streams within the context of each device’s physical capabilities and present operational state. Thus the software that we are making available includes the Bro/Broccoli scripts for these three scenarios, as well as simulators, written in C, of those scenarios that generate sample traffic that is monitored by the Bro/Broccoli scripts. In addition, we have also implemented systems to directly pull cyber-physical information from the OSIsoft PI historian

  9. Systems and methods of detecting force and stress using tetrapod nanocrystal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choi, Charina L.; Koski, Kristie J.; Sivasankar, Sanjeevi; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2013-08-20

    Systems and methods of detecting force on the nanoscale including methods for detecting force using a tetrapod nanocrystal by exposing the tetrapod nanocrystal to light, which produces a luminescent response by the tetrapod nanocrystal. The method continues with detecting a difference in the luminescent response by the tetrapod nanocrystal relative to a base luminescent response that indicates a force between a first and second medium or stresses or strains experienced within a material. Such systems and methods find use with biological systems to measure forces in biological events or interactions.

  10. Power System Extreme Event Detection: The VulnerabilityFrontier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lesieutre, Bernard C.; Pinar, Ali; Roy, Sandip

    2007-10-17

    In this work we apply graph theoretic tools to provide aclose bound on a frontier relating the number of line outages in a gridto the power disrupted by the outages. This frontier describes theboundary of a space relating the possible severity of a disturbance interms of power disruption, from zero to some maximum on the boundary, tothe number line outages involved in the event. We present the usefulnessof this analysis with a complete analysis of a 30 bus system, and presentresults for larger systems.

  11. PERFORMANCE OF A NOVEL FAST TRANSIENTS DETECTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clarke, Nathan

    2013-03-01

    We investigate the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of a new incoherent dedispersion algorithm optimized for FPGA-based architectures intended for deployment on the Australian SKA Pathfinder and other Square Kilometre Array precursors for fast transients surveys. Unlike conventional CPU- and GPU-optimized incoherent dedispersion algorithms, this algorithm has the freedom to maximize the S/N by way of programmable dispersion profiles that enable the inclusion of different numbers of time samples per spectral channel. This allows, for example, more samples to be summed at lower frequencies where intra-channel dispersion smearing is larger, or it could even be used to optimize the dedispersion sum for steep spectrum sources. Our analysis takes into account the intrinsic pulse width, scatter broadening, spectral index and dispersion measure of the signal, and the system's frequency range, spectral and temporal resolution, and number of trial dedispersions. We show that the system achieves better than 80% of the optimal S/N where the temporal resolution and the intra-channel smearing time are smaller than a quarter of the average width of the pulse across the system's frequency band (after including scatter smearing). Coarse temporal resolutions suffer a {Delta}t {sup -1/2} decay in S/N, and coarse spectral resolutions cause a {Delta}{nu}{sup -1/2} decay in S/N, where {Delta}t and {Delta}{nu} are the temporal and spectral resolutions of the system, respectively. We show how the system's S/N compares with that of matched filter and boxcar filter detectors. We further present a new algorithm for selecting trial dispersion measures for a survey that maintains a given minimum S/N performance across a range of dispersion measures.

  12. Code System to Detect Recurring Loss of Special Nuclear Materials.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2001-08-23

    Version 00 NRCPAGE is used in safeguards applications to detect a recurring loss of special nuclear material by frequent evaluation (sequential analysis) of accountability data. Standard sequential testing procedures are traditionally based on sequences of independent and normally distributed measurements. This same approach can be applied to materials balance (MB) data. Here, the term materials balance has a meaning similar to inventory difference and represents a materials loss indicator localized in time and space. However,more » distinct Mbs cannot be reasonably treated as statistically independent and may not always be reasonably treated as normally distributed. Furthermore, the covariance structure associated with a given MB sequence is not known and must be estimated. Nonindependence is treated by converting the MB sequence to the innovation sequence, sometimes called the ITMUF sequence or the sequence of MUF residuals, which are statistically independent and amenable to sequential test procedures. A one-sided page's test, effective for a wide range of recurring loss scenarios, is applied to the standardized innovation sequence. The program can be easily modified to suit particular needs; the models for the assumption of multivariate normality for MBs when computing the innovation sequence or the test procedure can be changed as can the input/output format, dimensioning, local error checking, and simulation work. Input files can be sequentially constructed using local text editors to update existing files. Output files can be read by graphics, report writer, or other stand-alone utility routines.« less

  13. Flammable Gas Detection for the D-Zero Gas System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spires, L.D.; Foglesong, J.; /Fermilab

    1991-02-11

    The use of flammable gas and high voltage in detector systems is common in many experiments at Fermilab. To mitigate the hazards associated with these systems, Fermilab Engineering Standard SD-45B (Ref. 1) was adopted. Since this note is meant to be a guide and not a mandatory standard, each experiment is reviewed for compliance with SD-45B by the flammable gas safety subcommittee. Currently, there are only two types of flammable gas in use, ethane (Appendix A) and methane (Appendix B). The worst flammable-gas case is C2H6 (ethane), which has an estimated flow rate that is 73% of the CH4 (methane) flow but a heat of combustion (in kcal/g-mole) that is 173% of that of methane. In the worst case, if ethane were to spew through its restricting orifice into its gas line at 0 psig and then through a catastrophic leak into Room 215 (TRD) or Room 511 (CDC/FDCNTX), the time that would be required to build up a greater than Class 1 inventory (0.4kg H2 equivalent) would be 5.2 hours (Ref. 2). Therefore a worst-case flammable gas leak would have to go undetected for over 5 hours in order to transform a either mixing room to an environment with a Risk Class greater than Class 1. The mixing systems, gas lines, and detectors themselves will be thoroughly leak checked prior to active service. All vessels that are part of the mixing systems will be protected from overpressure by safety valves vented outside the building. Both the input and output of all detector volumes are protected from overpressure in the same way. The volume immediately outside the central tracking detectors is continuously purged by nitrogen from boiloff from the main nitrogen dewar at the site. However, if flammable gas were to build up in the mixing rooms or particular detector areas, no matter how unlikely, flammable gas detectors that are part of the interlock chain of each gas mixing system will shut down the appropriate system. This includes shutting off the output of flammable gas manifolds within the

  14. Design and evaluation of the ReKon : an integrated detection and assessment perimeter system.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dabling, Jeffrey Glenn; Andersen, Jason Jann; McLaughlin, James O.

    2013-02-01

    Kontek Industries (Kannapolis, NC) and their subsidiary, Stonewater Control Systems (Kannapolis, NC), have entered into a cooperative research and development agreement with Sandia to jointly develop and evaluate an integrated perimeter security system solution, one that couples access delay with detection and assessment. This novel perimeter solution was designed to be configurable for use at facilities ranging from high-security military sites to commercial power plants, to petro/chemical facilities of various kinds. A prototype section of the perimeter has been produced and installed at the Sandia Test and Evaluation Center in Albuquerque, NM. This prototype system integrated fiber optic break sensors, active infrared sensors, fence disturbance sensors, video motion detection, and ground sensors. This report documents the design, testing, and performance evaluation of the developed ReKon system. The ability of the system to properly detect pedestrian or vehicle attempts to bypass, breach, or otherwise defeat the system is characterized, as well as the Nuisance Alarm Rate.

  15. State of the Art for Autonomous Detection Systems using Genomic Sequencing

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect State of the Art for Autonomous Detection Systems using Genomic Sequencing Citation Details In-Document Search Title: State of the Art for Autonomous Detection Systems using Genomic Sequencing Authors: Detter, John C. [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2013-07-09 OSTI Identifier: 1087610 Report Number(s): LA-UR-13-25114 DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: DHS

  16. NNSA Transitions Radiation Detection System at Port of Laem Chabang to

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Thailand | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) Transitions Radiation Detection System at Port of Laem Chabang to Thailand March 06, 2014 LAEM CHABANG, Thailand - The U.S. Embassy in Thailand, the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), the Customs Department of the Kingdom of Thailand, the Port Authority of Thailand, and the Thai Office of Atoms for Peace (OAP) held a transition ceremony yesterday to celebrate the official transfer of the radiation detection system

  17. Statistically qualified neuro-analytic failure detection method and system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vilim, Richard B.; Garcia, Humberto E.; Chen, Frederick W.

    2002-03-02

    An apparatus and method for monitoring a process involve development and application of a statistically qualified neuro-analytic (SQNA) model to accurately and reliably identify process change. The development of the SQNA model is accomplished in two stages: deterministic model adaption and stochastic model modification of the deterministic model adaptation. Deterministic model adaption involves formulating an analytic model of the process representing known process characteristics, augmenting the analytic model with a neural network that captures unknown process characteristics, and training the resulting neuro-analytic model by adjusting the neural network weights according to a unique scaled equation error minimization technique. Stochastic model modification involves qualifying any remaining uncertainty in the trained neuro-analytic model by formulating a likelihood function, given an error propagation equation, for computing the probability that the neuro-analytic model generates measured process output. Preferably, the developed SQNA model is validated using known sequential probability ratio tests and applied to the process as an on-line monitoring system. Illustrative of the method and apparatus, the method is applied to a peristaltic pump system.

  18. Imaging System With Confocally Self-Detecting Laser.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Webb, Robert H.; Rogomentich, Fran J.

    1996-10-08

    The invention relates to a confocal laser imaging system and method. The system includes a laser source, a beam splitter, focusing elements, and a photosensitive detector. The laser source projects a laser beam along a first optical path at an object to be imaged, and modulates the intensity of the projected laser beam in response to light reflected from the object. A beam splitter directs a portion of the projected laser beam onto a photodetector. The photodetector monitors the intensity of laser output. The laser source can be an electrically scannable array, with a lens or objective assembly for focusing light generated by the array onto the object of interest. As the array is energized, its laser beams scan over the object, and light reflected at each point is returned by the lens to the element of the array from which it originated. A single photosensitive detector element can generate an intensity-representative signal for all lasers of the array. The intensity-representative signal from the photosensitive detector can be processed to provide an image of the object of interest.

  19. Evaluation of Hanford Single-Shell Waste Tanks Suspected of Water Intrusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feero, Amie J.; Washenfelder, Dennis J.; Johnson, Jeremy M.; Schofield, John S.

    2013-11-14

    Intrusions evaluations for twelve single-shell tanks were completed in 2013. The evaluations consisted of remote visual inspections, data analysis, and calculations of estimated intrusion rates. The observation of an intrusion or the preponderance of evidence confirmed that six of the twelve tanks evaluated had intrusions. These tanks were tanks 241-A-103, BX-101, BX-103, BX-110, BY-102, and SX-106.

  20. Ultrasonic imaging system for in-process fabric defect detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheen, Shuh-Haw; Chien, Hual-Te; Lawrence, William P.; Raptis, Apostolos C.

    1997-01-01

    An ultrasonic method and system are provided for monitoring a fabric to identify a defect. A plurality of ultrasonic transmitters generate ultrasonic waves relative to the fabric. An ultrasonic receiver means responsive to the generated ultrasonic waves from the transmitters receives ultrasonic waves coupled through the fabric and generates a signal. An integrated peak value of the generated signal is applied to a digital signal processor and is digitized. The digitized signal is processed to identify a defect in the fabric. The digitized signal processing includes a median value filtering step to filter out high frequency noise. Then a mean value and standard deviation of the median value filtered signal is calculated. The calculated mean value and standard deviation are compared with predetermined threshold values to identify a defect in the fabric.

  1. Effectiveness of fire-detection systems in light-water-reactor facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiNenno, P.J.; Dungan, K.W.

    1981-08-01

    This report presents a critical review of methods for evaluating fire detection system capabilities. These capabilities must include some measurement of success. The problem of evaluating the effectiveness in terms of probability of success or certainty of success of fire detection systems must be answered either to enable the correct selection of system when a need is identified, or to assess the acceptability of an existing system in meeting an identified need. These methods are complementary to a hazards analysis, which identifies the need, but can be quite independent in their development and use.

  2. High-speed and high-fidelity system and method for collecting network traffic

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weigle, Eric H.

    2010-08-24

    A system is provided for the high-speed and high-fidelity collection of network traffic. The system can collect traffic at gigabit-per-second (Gbps) speeds, scale to terabit-per-second (Tbps) speeds, and support additional functions such as real-time network intrusion detection. The present system uses a dedicated operating system for traffic collection to maximize efficiency, scalability, and performance. A scalable infrastructure and apparatus for the present system is provided by splitting the work performed on one host onto multiple hosts. The present system simultaneously addresses the issues of scalability, performance, cost, and adaptability with respect to network monitoring, collection, and other network tasks. In addition to high-speed and high-fidelity network collection, the present system provides a flexible infrastructure to perform virtually any function at high speeds such as real-time network intrusion detection and wide-area network emulation for research purposes.

  3. Improving Cyber-Security of Smart Grid Systems via Anomaly Detection and Linguistic Domain Knowledge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ondrej Linda; Todd Vollmer; Milos Manic

    2012-08-01

    The planned large scale deployment of smart grid network devices will generate a large amount of information exchanged over various types of communication networks. The implementation of these critical systems will require appropriate cyber-security measures. A network anomaly detection solution is considered in this work. In common network architectures multiple communications streams are simultaneously present, making it difficult to build an anomaly detection solution for the entire system. In addition, common anomaly detection algorithms require specification of a sensitivity threshold, which inevitably leads to a tradeoff between false positives and false negatives rates. In order to alleviate these issues, this paper proposes a novel anomaly detection architecture. The designed system applies the previously developed network security cyber-sensor method to individual selected communication streams allowing for learning accurate normal network behavior models. Furthermore, the developed system dynamically adjusts the sensitivity threshold of each anomaly detection algorithm based on domain knowledge about the specific network system. It is proposed to model this domain knowledge using Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Logic rules, which linguistically describe the relationship between various features of the network communication and the possibility of a cyber attack. The proposed method was tested on experimental smart grid system demonstrating enhanced cyber-security.

  4. Rule based decision support system for single-line fault detection in a delta-delta connected distribution system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Momoh, J.A.; Dias, L.G.; Thor, T. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Laird, D. )

    1994-05-01

    Single-line fault detection, faulted feeder identification, fault type classification, fault location and fault impedance estimation, continue to pose a problem to delta-delta connected distribution systems such as the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) which has over 1,500 feeder circuits at the 4.8kV voltage level. This paper describes a rule based decision support (RBDS) system application to single-line fault detection in a delta-delta connected distribution system. The RBDS system is built from knowledge acquired through exhaustive simulation based on non-arcing type fault situations. It is primarily designed to detect the presence of a fault, identify the faulted feeder, the faulted phase and classify the fault type. It is also designed to gauge the proximity of the fault to the substation and to assess the fault impedance. A fault in the distribution system, upon identification, triggers an alarm with explanatory facility leading to the fault. The RBDS system was tested with different sets of simulated data and proved successful in most cases. Additional tests will be done using field data made available by LADWP. The RBDS system module is a prototype integrated fault detection scheme to be installed in a LADWP distribution substation.

  5. An Automatic Impact-based Delamination Detection System for Concrete Bridge Decks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Gang; Harichandran, Ronald S.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep

    2012-01-02

    Delamination of concrete bridge decks is a commonly observed distress in corrosive environments. In traditional acoustic inspection methods, delamination is assessed by the "hollowness" of the sound created by impacting the bridge deck with a hammer or bar or by dragging a chain where the signals are often contaminated by ambient traffic noise and the detection is highly subjective. In the proposed method, a modified version of independent component analysis (ICA) is used to filter the traffic noise. To eliminate subjectivity, Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC) are used as features for detection and the delamination is detected by a radial basis function (RBF) neural network. Results from both experimental and field data suggest that the proposed methods id noise robust and has satisfactory performance. The methods can also detect the delamination of repair patches and concrete below the repair patches. The algorithms were incorporated into an automatic impact-bases delamination detection (AIDD) system for field application.

  6. Design study and comparative evaluation of JSFR failed fuel detection system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aizawa, K.; Chikazawa, Y.; Ishikawa, N.; Kubo, S.; Okazaki, H.; Mito, M.; Tozawa, K.; Hayashi, M.

    2012-07-01

    A conceptual design study of an advanced sodium-cooled fast reactor JSFR has progressed in the 'Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development (FaCT) 'project in Japan. JSFR has two failed fuel detection systems in the core. One is a failed fuel detection (FFD) system which continuously monitors a fission product from failed fuel subassembly. The other is a failed fuel detection and location (FFDL) system which locates when it receives signals from FFD. The FFD system consists of a FFD-DN which detects delayed neutron (DN) in sodium and a FFD-CG which detects fission products in the cover gas of the reactor vessel. In this study, requirements to the FFD-DN and the FFD-DN design to meet the requirements were investigated for the commercial and demonstration JSFR. In the commercial JSFR, a sampling type FFD which collects sodium from the reactor vessel by sampling lines for DN detectors was adopted. The performances have been investigated and confirmed by a fluid analysis in the reactor upper plenum. In the demonstration JSFR, the performance of DN detectors installed on the primary cold-leg piping has been confirmed. For the FFDL systems, experiences in the previous fast reactors and the R and D of FFDL system for JSFR were investigated. This study focuses on the Selector-Valve and the Tagging-Gas FFDL systems. Operation experiences of the Selector-valve FFDL system were accumulated in PFR and Phenix. Tagging-gas system experiences were accumulated in EBR-II and FFTF. The feasibility of both FFDL systems for JSFR was evaluated. (authors)

  7. Method and apparatus for detecting timing errors in a system oscillator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gliebe, Ronald J.; Kramer, William R.

    1993-01-01

    A method of detecting timing errors in a system oscillator for an electronic device, such as a power supply, includes the step of comparing a system oscillator signal with a delayed generated signal and generating a signal representative of the timing error when the system oscillator signal is not identical to the delayed signal. An LED indicates to an operator that a timing error has occurred. A hardware circuit implements the above-identified method.

  8. Method and apparatus for operating a powertrain system upon detecting a stuck-closed clutch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hansen, R. Anthony

    2014-02-18

    A powertrain system includes a multi-mode transmission having a plurality of torque machines. A method for controlling the powertrain system includes identifying all presently applied clutches including commanded applied clutches and the stuck-closed clutch upon detecting one of the torque-transfer clutches is in a stuck-closed condition. A closed-loop control system is employed to control operation of the multi-mode transmission accounting for all the presently applied clutches.

  9. RoboHound:developing sample collection and preconcentration hardware for a remote trace explosives detection system.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, David J.; Denning, David J.; Hobart, Clinton G.; Lenz, Michael C.; Anderson, Robert J.; Carlson, Dennis L.; Hunter, John Anthony; Gladwell, T. Scott; Mitchell, Mary-Anne; Hannum, David W.; Baumann, Mark J.

    2005-09-01

    The RoboHound{trademark} Project was a three-year, multiphase project at Sandia National Laboratories to build and refine a working prototype trace explosive detection system as a tool for a commercial robot. The RoboHound system was envisioned to be a tool for emergency responders to test suspicious items (i.e., packages or vehicles) for explosives while maintaining a safe distance. The project investigated combining Sandia's expertise in trace explosives detection with a wheeled robotic platform that could be programmed to interrogate suspicious items remotely for the presence of explosives. All of the RoboHound field tests were successful, especially with regards to the ability to collect and detect trace samples of RDX. The project has gone from remote sampling with human intervention to a fully automatic system that requires no human intervention until the robot returns from a sortie. A proposal is being made for additional work leading towards commercialization.

  10. Detection and mitigating rod drive control system degradation in Westinghouse PWRs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunther, W.; Sullivan, K.

    1990-01-01

    A study of the effects of aging on the Westinghouse Control Rod Drive (CRD) System was performed as part of the US NRC's Nuclear Plant aging Research (NPAR) Program. For the study, the CRD system boundary includes the power and logic cabinets associated with the manual control rod movement, and the control rod mechanism itself. The aging-related degradation of the interconnecting cables and connectors and the rod position indicating system also were considered. This paper presents the results of that study pertaining to the electrical and instrumentation portions of the CRD system including ways to detect and mitigate system degradation.

  11. August 18, 2015 Webinar- Probabilistic Analysis of Inadvertent Intrusion and the International Atomic Energy Agency Human Intrusion in the Context of Disposal of Radioactive Waste (HIDRA) Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    P&RA CoP Webinar - August 18, 2015 - Probabilistic Analysis of Inadvertent Intrusion and the International Atomic Energy Agency Human Intrusion in the Context of Disposal of Radioactive Waste (HIDRA) Project, by Dr. Paul Black (Neptune) and Mr. Roger Seitz (Savannah River National Laboratory), August 18, 2015, 1:30 – 3:00 pm Eastern Daylight Time.

  12. An analysis of weep holes as a product detection device for underground compensated LPG storage systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarica, C.; Demir, H.M.; Brill, J.P.

    1996-09-01

    Weep holes have been used widely to detect the presence of Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG) in brine for underground compensated storage systems. When the brine level drops below the weep hole, LPG product enters the brine production system causing an increase in both tubing head pressure and flow rate. To prevent cavern overfill, a cavern shutdown is initiated upon detection of LPG in the surface brine system by pressure or flow instruments at the tubing head. In this study, we have investigated the multiphase flow characteristics of weep hole LPG detection systems to correctly estimate the operating limits. A simple and easy to use model has been developed to predict the tubing head pressure and flow rate increases. The model can be used to implement safer and more efficient operation procedures for underground compensated LPG storage systems. The model predictions for a typical field case are presented. An analysis of weep holes as product detection devices for LPG storage reservoirs has been carried out. It was found that the increases in pressure and flow rates at the tubing head change as a function of injection flow rate of the product. Therefore, a thorough consideration of cavern operating parameters is necessary to evaluate the use constant pressure and flow rate values to initiate emergency shut down of the cavern.

  13. Method and apparatus for providing pulse pile-up correction in charge quantizing radiation detection systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Britton, Jr., Charles L.; Wintenberg, Alan L.

    1993-01-01

    A radiation detection method and system for continuously correcting the quantization of detected charge during pulse pile-up conditions. Charge pulses from a radiation detector responsive to the energy of detected radiation events are converted to voltage pulses of predetermined shape whose peak amplitudes are proportional to the quantity of charge of each corresponding detected event by means of a charge-sensitive preamplifier. These peak amplitudes are sampled and stored sequentially in accordance with their respective times of occurrence. Based on the stored peak amplitudes and times of occurrence, a correction factor is generated which represents the fraction of a previous pulses influence on a preceding pulse peak amplitude. This correction factor is subtracted from the following pulse amplitude in a summing amplifier whose output then represents the corrected charge quantity measurement.

  14. Radiation sensitive devices and systems for detection of radioactive materials and related methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotter, Dale K

    2014-12-02

    Radiation sensitive devices include a substrate comprising a radiation sensitive material and a plurality of resonance elements coupled to the substrate. Each resonance element is configured to resonate responsive to non-ionizing incident radiation. Systems for detecting radiation from a special nuclear material include a radiation sensitive device and a sensor located remotely from the radiation sensitive device and configured to measure an output signal from the radiation sensitive device. In such systems, the radiation sensitive device includes a radiation sensitive material and a plurality of resonance elements positioned on the radiation sensitive material. Methods for detecting a presence of a special nuclear material include positioning a radiation sensitive device in a location where special nuclear materials are to be detected and remotely interrogating the radiation sensitive device with a sensor.

  15. Improving Control System Cyber-State Awareness using Known Secure Sensor Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ondrej Linda; Milos Manic; Miles McQueen

    2012-09-01

    Abstract—This paper presents design and simulation of a low cost and low false alarm rate method for improved cyber-state awareness of critical control systems - the Known Secure Sensor Measurements (KSSM) method. The KSSM concept relies on physical measurements to detect malicious falsification of the control systems state. The KSSM method can be incrementally integrated with already installed control systems for enhanced resilience. This paper reviews the previously developed theoretical KSSM concept and then describes a simulation of the KSSM system. A simulated control system network is integrated with the KSSM components. The effectiveness of detection of various intrusion scenarios is demonstrated on several control system network topologies.

  16. Volttron Implementation: Automated Fault Detection and Diagnosis for AHU-VAV Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Volttron Implementation: Automated Fault Detection and Diagnosis for AHU-VAV Systems 1 Volttron Workshop 23 July 2015 Arlington, VA Adam Regnier Jin Wen, Ph.D. Building Science & Engineering Group Drexel University Philadelphia, PA Outline/Agenda o Platform overview o Drivers o Database o Agents 4. Why Volttron? o Benefits for research & for industry 5. Going Forward Overview/Agenda 1. Introduction o Faults in AHU-VAV Systems 2. Diagnostics o Methods & Requirements 3. Volttron

  17. Methods, systems and devices for detecting threatening objects and for classifying magnetic data

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotter, Dale K.; Roybal, Lyle G.; Rohrbaugh, David T.; Spencer, David F.

    2012-01-24

    A method for detecting threatening objects in a security screening system. The method includes a step of classifying unique features of magnetic data as representing a threatening object. Another step includes acquiring magnetic data. Another step includes determining if the acquired magnetic data comprises a unique feature.

  18. Neutron interrogation system using high gamma ray signature to detect contraband special nuclear materials in cargo

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slaughter, Dennis R.; Pohl, Bertram A.; Dougan, Arden D.; Bernstein, Adam; Prussin, Stanley G.; Norman, Eric B.

    2008-04-15

    A system for inspecting cargo for the presence of special nuclear material. The cargo is irradiated with neutrons. The neutrons produce fission products in the special nuclear material which generate gamma rays. The gamma rays are detecting indicating the presence of the special nuclear material.

  19. Detection and Analysis of Threatsto the Energy Sector (DATES) May 2008 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Detection and Analysis of Threatsto the Energy Sector (DATES) May 2008 Detection and Analysis of Threatsto the Energy Sector (DATES) May 2008 A groundbreaking integrated capability in intrusion detection, security event management, and sector-wide threat analysis. The two-year DATES project is a groundbreaking effort to develop the first integrated intrusion detection, security incident/event management (SIEM), and large-scale threat analysis capability for the energy

  20. Addressing the Challenges of Anomaly Detection for Cyber Physical Energy Grid Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferragut, Erik M; Laska, Jason A; Melin, Alexander M; Czejdo, Bogdan

    2013-01-01

    The consolidation of cyber communications networks and physical control systems within the energy smart grid introduces a number of new risks. Unfortunately, these risks are largely unknown and poorly understood, yet include very high impact losses from attack and component failures. One important aspect of risk management is the detection of anomalies and changes. However, anomaly detection within cyber security remains a difficult, open problem, with special challenges in dealing with false alert rates and heterogeneous data. Furthermore, the integration of cyber and physical dynamics is often intractable. And, because of their broad scope, energy grid cyber-physical systems must be analyzed at multiple scales, from individual components, up to network level dynamics. We describe an improved approach to anomaly detection that combines three important aspects. First, system dynamics are modeled using a reduced order model for greater computational tractability. Second, a probabilistic and principled approach to anomaly detection is adopted that allows for regulation of false alerts and comparison of anomalies across heterogeneous data sources. Third, a hierarchy of aggregations are constructed to support interactive and automated analyses of anomalies at multiple scales.

  1. Radiation detection method and system using the sequential probability ratio test

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Karl E.; Valentine, John D.; Beauchamp, Brock R.

    2007-07-17

    A method and system using the Sequential Probability Ratio Test to enhance the detection of an elevated level of radiation, by determining whether a set of observations are consistent with a specified model within a given bounds of statistical significance. In particular, the SPRT is used in the present invention to maximize the range of detection, by providing processing mechanisms for estimating the dynamic background radiation, adjusting the models to reflect the amount of background knowledge at the current point in time, analyzing the current sample using the models to determine statistical significance, and determining when the sample has returned to the expected background conditions.

  2. System and method for detecting a faulty object in a system ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    architecture which would result in identifying a faulty object in the system. ... Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Word Cloud ...

  3. 3D cloud detection and tracking system for solar forecast using multiple sky imagers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, Zhenzhou; Yu, Dantong; Huang, Dong; Heiser, John; Yoo, Shinjae; Kalb, Paul

    2015-06-23

    We propose a system for forecasting short-term solar irradiance based on multiple total sky imagers (TSIs). The system utilizes a novel method of identifying and tracking clouds in three-dimensional space and an innovative pipeline for forecasting surface solar irradiance based on the image features of clouds. First, we develop a supervised classifier to detect clouds at the pixel level and output cloud mask. In the next step, we design intelligent algorithms to estimate the block-wise base height and motion of each cloud layer based on images from multiple TSIs. Thus, this information is then applied to stitch images together into larger views, which are then used for solar forecasting. We examine the systems ability to track clouds under various cloud conditions and investigate different irradiance forecast models at various sites. We confirm that this system can 1) robustly detect clouds and track layers, and 2) extract the significant global and local features for obtaining stable irradiance forecasts with short forecast horizons from the obtained images. Finally, we vet our forecasting system at the 32-megawatt Long Island Solar Farm (LISF). Compared with the persistent model, our system achieves at least a 26% improvement for all irradiance forecasts between one and fifteen minutes.

  4. Systems and methods for selective detection and imaging in coherent Raman microscopy by spectral excitation shaping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney; Freudiger, Christian; Min, Wei

    2016-03-15

    A microscopy imaging system is disclosed that includes a light source system, a spectral shaper, a modulator system, an optics system, an optical detector and a processor. The light source system is for providing a first train of pulses and a second train of pulses. The spectral shaper is for spectrally modifying an optical property of at least some frequency components of the broadband range of frequency components such that the broadband range of frequency components is shaped producing a shaped first train of pulses to specifically probe a spectral feature of interest from a sample, and to reduce information from features that are not of interest from the sample. The modulator system is for modulating a property of at least one of the shaped first train of pulses and the second train of pulses at a modulation frequency. The optical detector is for detecting an integrated intensity of substantially all optical frequency components of a train of pulses of interest transmitted or reflected through the common focal volume. The processor is for detecting a modulation at the modulation frequency of the integrated intensity of substantially all of the optical frequency components of the train of pulses of interest due to the non-linear interaction of the shaped first train of pulses with the second train of pulses as modulated in the common focal volume, and for providing an output signal for a pixel of an image for the microscopy imaging system.

  5. Portable microfluidic raman system for rapid, label-free early disease signature detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Meiye; Davis, Ryan Wesley; Hatch, Anson

    2015-09-01

    In the early stages of infection, patients develop non-specific or no symptoms at all. While waiting for identification of the infectious agent, precious window of opportunity for early intervention is lost. The standard diagnostics require affinity reagents and sufficient pathogen titers to reach the limit of detection. In the event of a disease outbreak, triaging the at-risk population rapidly and reliably for quarantine and countermeasure is more important than the identification of the pathogen by name. To expand Sandia's portfolio of Biological threat management capabilities, we will utilize Raman spectrometry to analyze immune subsets in whole blood to rapidly distinguish infected from non-infected, and bacterial from viral infection, for the purpose of triage during an emergency outbreak. The goal of this one year LDRD is to determine whether Raman spectroscopy can provide label-free detection of early disease signatures, and define a miniaturized Raman detection system meeting requirements for low- resource settings.

  6. Method Apparatus And System For Detecting Seismic Waves In A Borehole

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    West, Phillip B.; Sumstine, Roger L.

    2006-03-14

    A method, apparatus and system for detecting seismic waves. A sensing apparatus is deployed within a bore hole and may include a source magnet for inducing a magnetic field within a casing of the borehole. An electrical coil is disposed within the magnetic field to sense a change in the magnetic field due to a displacement of the casing. The electrical coil is configured to remain substantially stationary relative to the well bore and its casing along a specified axis such that displacement of the casing induces a change within the magnetic field which may then be sensed by the electrical coil. Additional electrical coils may be similarly utilized to detect changes in the same or other associated magnetic fields along other specified axes. The additional sensor coils may be oriented substantially orthogonally relative to one another so as to detect seismic waves along multiple orthogonal axes in three dimensional space.

  7. Hot spot detection system for vanes or blades of a combustion turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Twerdochlib, Michael

    1999-01-01

    This invention includes a detection system that can determine if a turbine component, such as a turbine vane or blade, has exceeded a critical temperature, such as a melting point, along any point along the entire surface of the vane or blade. This system can be employed in a conventional combustion turbine having a compressor, a combustor and a turbine section. Included within this system is a chemical coating disposed along the entire interior surface of a vane or blade and a closed loop cooling system that circulates a coolant through the interior of the vane or blade. If the temperature of the vane or blade exceeds a critical temperature, the chemical coating will be expelled from the vane or blade into the coolant. Since while traversing the closed loop cooling system the coolant passes through a detector, the presence of the chemical coating in the coolant will be sensed by the system. If the chemical coating is detected, this indicates that the vane or blade has exceeded a critical temperature.

  8. Hot spot detection system for vanes or blades of a combustion turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Twerdochlib, M.

    1999-02-02

    This invention includes a detection system that can determine if a turbine component, such as a turbine vane or blade, has exceeded a critical temperature, such as a melting point, along any point along the entire surface of the vane or blade. This system can be employed in a conventional combustion turbine having a compressor, a combustor and a turbine section. Included within this system is a chemical coating disposed along the entire interior surface of a vane or blade and a closed loop cooling system that circulates a coolant through the interior of the vane or blade. If the temperature of the vane or blade exceeds a critical temperature, the chemical coating will be expelled from the vane or blade into the coolant. Since while traversing the closed loop cooling system the coolant passes through a detector, the presence of the chemical coating in the coolant will be sensed by the system. If the chemical coating is detected, this indicates that the vane or blade has exceeded a critical temperature. 5 figs.

  9. A Tutorial on Detection and Characterization of Special Behavior in Large Electric Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauer, John F.; DeSteese, John G.

    2004-08-20

    The objective of this document is to report results in the detection and characterization of special behavior in large electric power systems. Such behavior is usually dynamic in nature, but not always. This is also true for the underlying sources of special behavior. At the device level, a source of special behavior might be an automatic control system, a dynamic load, or even a manual control system that is operated according to some sharply defined policy. Other possible sources include passive system conditions, such as the state of a switched device or the amount of power carried on some critical line. Detection and characterization are based upon “signature information” that is extracted from the behavior observed. Characterization elements include the signature information itself, the nature of the behavior and its likely causes, and the associated implications for the system or for the public at large. With sufficient data and processing, this characterization may directly identify a particular condition or device at a specific location. Such conclusive results cannot always be done from just one observation, however. Information environments that are very sparse may require multiple observations, comparative model studies, and even direct testing of the system.

  10. Hand-held, mechanically cooled, radiation detection system for gamma-ray spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burks, Morgan Thomas; Eckels, Joel Del

    2010-06-08

    In one embodiment, a radiation detection system is provided including a radiation detector and a first enclosure encapsulating the radiation detector, the first enclosure including a low-emissivity infra-red (IR) reflective coating used to thermally isolate the radiation detector. Additionally, a second enclosure encapsulating the first enclosure is included, the first enclosure being suspension mounted to the second enclosure. Further, a cooler capable of cooling the radiation detector is included. Still yet, a first cooling interface positioned on the second enclosure is included for coupling the cooler and the first enclosure. Furthermore, a second cooling interface positioned on the second enclosure and capable of coupling the first enclosure to a cooler separate from the radiation detection system is included. Other embodiments are also presented.

  11. System and method for motor fault detection using stator current noise cancellation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhou, Wei; Lu, Bin; Nowak, Michael P.; Dimino, Steven A.

    2010-12-07

    A system and method for detecting incipient mechanical motor faults by way of current noise cancellation is disclosed. The system includes a controller configured to detect indicia of incipient mechanical motor faults. The controller further includes a processor programmed to receive a baseline set of current data from an operating motor and define a noise component in the baseline set of current data. The processor is also programmed to acquire at least on additional set of real-time operating current data from the motor during operation, redefine the noise component present in each additional set of real-time operating current data, and remove the noise component from the operating current data in real-time to isolate any fault components present in the operating current data. The processor is then programmed to generate a fault index for the operating current data based on any isolated fault components.

  12. System and method for bearing fault detection using stator current noise cancellation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhou, Wei; Lu, Bin; Habetler, Thomas G.; Harley, Ronald G.; Theisen, Peter J.

    2010-08-17

    A system and method for detecting incipient mechanical motor faults by way of current noise cancellation is disclosed. The system includes a controller configured to detect indicia of incipient mechanical motor faults. The controller further includes a processor programmed to receive a baseline set of current data from an operating motor and define a noise component in the baseline set of current data. The processor is also programmed to repeatedly receive real-time operating current data from the operating motor and remove the noise component from the operating current data in real-time to isolate any fault components present in the operating current data. The processor is then programmed to generate a fault index for the operating current data based on any isolated fault components.

  13. Systems and methods for detecting nuclear radiation in the presence of backgrounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bross, Alan D.; Mellott, Kerry L.; Pla-Dalmau, Anna

    2005-06-21

    Systems and methods for the simultaneous detection and identification of radiation species, including neutrons, gammas/x-rays and minimum ionizing particles (MIPs). A plurality of rectangular and/or triangularly shaped radiation sensitive scintillators can be configured from a plurality of nano-sized particles, dopants and an extruded plastic material. A wavelength-shifting fiber can then be located within a central hole of each extruded scintillator, wherein the wavelength-shifting fiber absorbs scintillation light and re-emits the light at a longer wavelength, thereby piping the light to a photodetector whose response to the light indicates the presence of radiation The resulting method and system can simultaneously detect neutrons, gamma rays, x-rays and cosmic rays (MIPs) and identify each.

  14. 3D cloud detection and tracking system for solar forecast using multiple sky imagers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, Zhenzhou; Yu, Dantong; Huang, Dong; Heiser, John; Yoo, Shinjae; Kalb, Paul

    2015-06-23

    We propose a system for forecasting short-term solar irradiance based on multiple total sky imagers (TSIs). The system utilizes a novel method of identifying and tracking clouds in three-dimensional space and an innovative pipeline for forecasting surface solar irradiance based on the image features of clouds. First, we develop a supervised classifier to detect clouds at the pixel level and output cloud mask. In the next step, we design intelligent algorithms to estimate the block-wise base height and motion of each cloud layer based on images from multiple TSIs. Thus, this information is then applied to stitch images together into larger views, which are then used for solar forecasting. We examine the system’s ability to track clouds under various cloud conditions and investigate different irradiance forecast models at various sites. We confirm that this system can 1) robustly detect clouds and track layers, and 2) extract the significant global and local features for obtaining stable irradiance forecasts with short forecast horizons from the obtained images. Finally, we vet our forecasting system at the 32-megawatt Long Island Solar Farm (LISF). Compared with the persistent model, our system achieves at least a 26% improvement for all irradiance forecasts between one and fifteen minutes.

  15. 3D cloud detection and tracking system for solar forecast using multiple sky imagers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Peng, Zhenzhou; Yu, Dantong; Huang, Dong; Heiser, John; Yoo, Shinjae; Kalb, Paul

    2015-06-23

    We propose a system for forecasting short-term solar irradiance based on multiple total sky imagers (TSIs). The system utilizes a novel method of identifying and tracking clouds in three-dimensional space and an innovative pipeline for forecasting surface solar irradiance based on the image features of clouds. First, we develop a supervised classifier to detect clouds at the pixel level and output cloud mask. In the next step, we design intelligent algorithms to estimate the block-wise base height and motion of each cloud layer based on images from multiple TSIs. Thus, this information is then applied to stitch images together intomore » larger views, which are then used for solar forecasting. We examine the system’s ability to track clouds under various cloud conditions and investigate different irradiance forecast models at various sites. We confirm that this system can 1) robustly detect clouds and track layers, and 2) extract the significant global and local features for obtaining stable irradiance forecasts with short forecast horizons from the obtained images. Finally, we vet our forecasting system at the 32-megawatt Long Island Solar Farm (LISF). Compared with the persistent model, our system achieves at least a 26% improvement for all irradiance forecasts between one and fifteen minutes.« less

  16. Method of remote powering and detecting multiple UWB passive tags in an RFID system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dowla, Farid U.; Nekoogar, Faranak; Benzel, David M.; Dallum, Gregory E.; Spiridon, Alex

    2012-05-29

    A new Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), tracking, powering apparatus/system and method using coded Ultra-wideband (UWB) signaling is introduced. The proposed hardware and techniques disclosed herein utilize a plurality of passive UWB transponders in a field of an RFID-radar system. The radar system itself enables multiple passive tags to be remotely powered (activated) at about the same time frame via predetermined frequency UWB pulsed formats. Once such tags are in an activated state, an UWB radar transmits specific "interrogating codes" to put predetermined tags in an awakened status. Such predetermined tags can then communicate by a unique "response code" so as to be detected by an UWB system using radar methods.

  17. Methods, media, and systems for detecting attack on a digital processing device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stolfo, Salvatore J.; Li, Wei-Jen; Keromylis, Angelos D.; Androulaki, Elli

    2014-07-22

    Methods, media, and systems for detecting attack are provided. In some embodiments, the methods include: comparing at least part of a document to a static detection model; determining whether attacking code is included in the document based on the comparison of the document to the static detection model; executing at least part of the document; determining whether attacking code is included in the document based on the execution of the at least part of the document; and if attacking code is determined to be included in the document based on at least one of the comparison of the document to the static detection model and the execution of the at least part of the document, reporting the presence of an attack. In some embodiments, the methods include: selecting a data segment in at least one portion of an electronic document; determining whether the arbitrarily selected data segment can be altered without causing the electronic document to result in an error when processed by a corresponding program; in response to determining that the arbitrarily selected data segment can be altered, arbitrarily altering the data segment in the at least one portion of the electronic document to produce an altered electronic document; and determining whether the corresponding program produces an error state when the altered electronic document is processed by the corresponding program.

  18. Final work plan : supplemental upward vapor intrusion investigation at the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility in Hanover, Kansas.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-12-15

    The Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC), an agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), operated a grain storage facility at the northeastern edge of the city of Hanover, Kansas, from 1950 until the early 1970s. During this time, commercial grain fumigants containing carbon tetrachloride were in common use by the grain storage industry to preserve grain in their facilities. In February 1998, trace to low levels of carbon tetrachloride (below the maximum contaminant level [MCL] of 5.0 {micro}g/L) were detected in two private wells near the former grain storage facility at Hanover, as part of a statewide USDA private well sampling program that was implemented by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) near former CCC/USDA facilities. In 2007, the CCC/USDA conducted near-surface soil sampling at 61 locations and also sampled indoor air at nine residences on or adjacent to its former Hanover facility to address the residents concerns regarding vapor intrusion. Low levels of carbon tetrachloride were detected at four of the nine homes. The results were submitted to the KDHE in October 2007 (Argonne 2007). On the basis of the results, the KDHE requested sub-slab sampling and/or indoor air sampling (KDHE 2007). This Work Plan describes, in detail, the proposed additional scope of work requested by the KDHE and has been developed as a supplement to the comprehensive site investigation work plan that is pending (Argonne 2008). Indoor air samples collected previously from four homes at Hanover were shown to contain the carbon tetrachloride at low concentrations (Table 2.1). It cannot be concluded from these previous data that the source of the detected carbon tetrachloride is vapor intrusion attributable to former grain storage operations of the CCC/USDA at Hanover. The technical objective of the vapor intrusion investigation described here is to assess the risk to human health due to the potential for upward migration of carbon tetrachloride and

  19. Near-Surface CO2 Monitoring And Analysis To Detect Hidden Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewicki, Jennifer L.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2005-01-19

    ''Hidden'' geothermal systems are systems devoid of obvious surface hydrothermal manifestations. Emissions of moderate-to-low solubility gases may be one of the primary near-surface signals from these systems. We investigate the potential for CO2 detection and monitoring below and above ground in the near-surface environment as an approach to exploration targeting hidden geothermal systems. We focus on CO2 because it is the dominant noncondensible gas species in most geothermal systems and has moderate solubility in water. We carried out numerical simulations of a CO2 migration scenario to calculate the magnitude of expected fluxes and concentrations. Our results show that CO2 concentrations can reach high levels in the shallow subsurface even for relatively low geothermal source CO2 fluxes. However, once CO2 seeps out of the ground into the atmospheric surface layer, winds are effective at dispersing CO2 seepage. In natural ecological systems in the absence of geothermal gas emissions, near-surface CO2 fluxes and concentrations are predominantly controlled by CO2 uptake by photosynthesis, production by root respiration, microbial decomposition of soil/subsoil organic matter, groundwater degassing, and exchange with the atmosphere. Available technologies for monitoring CO2 in the near-surface environment include the infrared gas analyzer, the accumulation chamber method, the eddy covariance method, hyperspectral imaging, and light detection and ranging. To meet the challenge of detecting potentially small-magnitude geothermal CO2 emissions within the natural background variability of CO2, we propose an approach that integrates available detection and monitoring techniques with statistical analysis and modeling strategies. The proposed monitoring plan initially focuses on rapid, economical, reliable measurements of CO2 subsurface concentrations and surface fluxes and statistical analysis of the collected data. Based on this analysis, are as with a high probability

  20. Fiber optic/cone penetrometer system for subsurface heavy metals detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saggese, S.; Greenwell, R.

    1995-10-01

    The objective of this project is to develop an integrated fiber optic sensor/cone penetrometer system to analyze the heavy metals content of the subsurface. This site characterization tool will use an optical fiber cable assembly which delivers high power laser energy to vaporize and excite a sample in-situ and return the emission spectrum from the plasma produced for chemical analysis. The chemical analysis technique, often referred to as laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), has recently shown to be an effective method for the quantitative analysis of contaminants soils. By integrating the fiber optic sensor with the cone penetrometer, we anticipate that the resultant system will enable in-situ, low cost, high resolution, real-time subsurface characterization of numerous heavy metal soil contaminants simultaneously. There are several challenges associated with the integration of the LIBS sensor and cone penetrometer. One challenge is to design an effective means of optically accessing the soil via the fiber probe in the penetrometer. A second challenge is to develop the fiber probe system such that the resultant emission signal is adequate for quantitative analysis. Laboratory techniques typically use free space delivery of the laser to the sample. The high laser powers used in the laboratory cannot be used with optical fibers, therefore, the effectiveness of the LIBS system at the laser powers acceptable to fiber delivery must be evaluated. The primary objectives for this project are: (1) Establish that a fiber optic LIBS technique can be used to detect heavy metals to the required concentration levels; (2) Design and fabricate a fiber optic probe for integration with the penetrometer system for the analysis of heavy metals in soil samples; (3) Design, fabricate, and test an integrated fiber/penetrometer system; (4) Fabricate a rugged, field deployable laser source and detection hardware system; and (6) Demonstrate the prototype in field deployments.

  1. Detection system for high-resolution gamma radiation spectroscopy with neutron time-of-flight filtering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dioszegi, Istvan; Salwen, Cynthia; Vanier, Peter

    2014-12-30

    A .gamma.-radiation detection system that includes at least one semiconductor detector such as HPGe-Detector, a position-sensitive .alpha.-Detector, a TOF Controller, and a Digitizer/Integrator. The Digitizer/Integrator starts to process the energy signals of a .gamma.-radiation sent from the HPGe-Detector instantly when the HPGe-Detector detects the .gamma.-radiation. Subsequently, it is determined whether a coincidence exists between the .alpha.-particles and .gamma.-radiation signal, based on a determination of the time-of-flight of neutrons obtained from the .alpha.-Detector and the HPGe-Detector. If it is determined that the time-of-flight falls within a predetermined coincidence window, the Digitizer/Integrator is allowed to continue and complete the energy signal processing. If, however, there is no coincidence, the Digitizer/Integrator is instructed to be clear and reset its operation instantly.

  2. Optical methods and systems for detecting a constituent in a gas containing oxygen in harsh environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carpenter, Michael A.; Sirinakis, George

    2011-01-04

    A method for detecting a gas phase constituent such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, hydrogen, or hydrocarbons in a gas comprising oxygen such as air, includes providing a sensing material or film having a metal embedded in a catalytically active matrix such as gold embedded in a yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) matrix. The method may include annealing the sensing material at about 900.degree. C., exposing the sensing material and gas to a temperature above 400.degree. C., projecting light onto the sensing material, and detecting a change in the absorption spectrum of the sensing material due to the exposure of the sensing material to the gas in air at the temperature which causes a chemical reaction in the sensing material compared to the absorption spectrum of the sensing material in the absence of the gas. Systems employing such a method are also disclosed.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF DEPOSIT DETECTION SYSTEM IN PIPELINES OF THE STEELWORKS USING CS-137 GAMMA-RAY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Won-Joon; Lee, Seung-Hee; Jeong, Hee-Dong

    2008-02-28

    The deposit is built up in the pipeline of the steelworks by the chemical reaction among COG (coke oven gas), BFG (blast furnace gas), moisture, and steel in the high temperature environment and obstructs the smooth gas flow. In this study a gamma-ray system is developed to detect the deposit accumulated in pipelines and calculate the accumulation rate with respect to the cross section area of pipes. Cs-137 is used as the gamma-ray source and the system is designed to apply to pipes of various diameters. This system also includes the DB for storage and display of the measurement results so that it can be used for the efficient management of the pipelines.

  4. Sensing system for detection and control of deposition on pendant tubes in recovery and power boilers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kychakoff, George; Afromowitz, Martin A; Hugle, Richard E

    2005-06-21

    A system for detection and control of deposition on pendant tubes in recovery and power boilers includes one or more deposit monitoring sensors operating in infrared regions and about 4 or 8.7 microns and directly producing images of the interior of the boiler. An image pre-processing circuit (95) in which a 2-D image formed by the video data input is captured, and includes a low pass filter for performing noise filtering of said video input. An image segmentation module (105) for separating the image of the recovery boiler interior into background, pendant tubes, and deposition. An image-understanding unit (115) matches derived regions to a 3-D model of said boiler. It derives a 3-D structure the deposition on pendant tubes in the boiler and provides the information about deposits to the plant distributed control system (130) for more efficient operation of the plant pendant tube cleaning and operating systems.

  5. Environmental assessment of the thermal neutron activation explosive detection system for concourse use at US airports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, C.G.

    1990-08-01

    This document is an environmental assessment of a system designed to detect the presence of explosives in checked airline baggage or cargo. The system is meant to be installed at the concourse or lobby ticketing areas of US commercial airports and uses a sealed radioactive source of californium-252 to irradiate baggage items. The major impact of the use of this system arises from direct exposure of the public to scattered or leakage radiation from the source and to induced radioactivity in baggage items. Under normal operation and the most likely accident scenarios, the environmental impacts that would be created by the proposed licensing action would not be significant. 44 refs., 19 figs., 18 tabs.

  6. Methods, microfluidic devices, and systems for detection of an active enzymatic agent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sommer, Gregory J; Hatch, Anson V; Singh, Anup K; Wang, Ying-Chih

    2014-10-28

    Embodiments of the present invention provide methods, microfluidic devices, and systems for the detection of an active target agent in a fluid sample. A substrate molecule is used that contains a sequence which may cleave in the presence of an active target agent. A SNAP25 sequence is described, for example, that may be cleaved in the presence of Botulinum Neurotoxin. The substrate molecule includes a reporter moiety. The substrate molecule is exposed to the sample, and resulting reaction products separated using electrophoretic separation. The elution time of the reporter moiety may be utilized to identify the presence or absence of the active target agent.

  7. Reliability considerations of electronics components for the deep underwater muon and neutrino detection system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leskovar, B.

    1980-02-01

    The reliability of some electronics components for the Deep Underwater Muon and Neutrino Detection (DUMAND) System is discussed. An introductory overview of engineering concepts and technique for reliability assessment is given. Component reliability is discussed in the contest of major factors causing failures, particularly with respect to physical and chemical causes, process technology and testing, and screening procedures. Failure rates are presented for discrete devices and for integrated circuits as well as for basic electronics components. Furthermore, the military reliability specifications and standards for semiconductor devices are reviewed.

  8. Detection of preferential particle orientation in the atmosphere. Development of an alternative polarization lidar system

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Geier, Manfred; Arienti, Marco

    2014-07-19

    Increasing interest in polarimetric characterization of atmospheric aerosols has led to the development of complete sample-measuring (Mueller) polarimeters that are capable of measuring the entire backscattering phase matrix of a probed volume. The Mueller polarimeters consist of several moving parts, which limit measurement rates and complicate data analysis. In this paper, we present the concept of a less complex polarization lidar setup for detection of preferential orientation of atmospheric particulates. On the basis of theoretical considerations of data inversion stability and propagation of measurement uncertainties, an optimum optical configuration is established for two modes of operation (with either a linearmore » or a circular polarized incident laser beam). We discovered that the conceptualized setup falls in the category of incomplete sample-measuring polarimeters and uses four detection channels for simultaneous measurement of the backscattered light. Likewise, the expected performance characteristics are discussed through an example of a typical aerosol with a small fraction of particles oriented in a preferred direction. As a result, the theoretical analysis suggests that achievable accuracies in backscatter cross-sections and depolarization ratios are similar to those with conventional two-channel configurations, while in addition preferential orientation can be detected with the proposed four-channel system for a wide range of conditions.« less

  9. System for detecting and limiting electrical ground faults within electrical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaubatz, Donald C.

    1990-01-01

    An electrical ground fault detection and limitation system for employment with a nuclear reactor utilizing a liquid metal coolant. Elongate electromagnetic pumps submerged within the liquid metal coolant and electrical support equipment experiencing an insulation breakdown occasion the development of electrical ground fault current. Without some form of detection and control, these currents may build to damaging power levels to expose the pump drive components to liquid metal coolant such as sodium with resultant undesirable secondary effects. Such electrical ground fault currents are detected and controlled through the employment of an isolated power input to the pumps and with the use of a ground fault control conductor providing a direct return path from the affected components to the power source. By incorporating a resistance arrangement with the ground fault control conductor, the amount of fault current permitted to flow may be regulated to the extent that the reactor may remain in operation until maintenance may be performed, notwithstanding the existence of the fault. Monitors such as synchronous demodulators may be employed to identify and evaluate fault currents for each phase of a polyphase power, and control input to the submerged pump and associated support equipment.

  10. Detection of preferential particle orientation in the atmosphere. Development of an alternative polarization lidar system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geier, Manfred; Arienti, Marco

    2014-07-19

    Increasing interest in polarimetric characterization of atmospheric aerosols has led to the development of complete sample-measuring (Mueller) polarimeters that are capable of measuring the entire backscattering phase matrix of a probed volume. The Mueller polarimeters consist of several moving parts, which limit measurement rates and complicate data analysis. In this paper, we present the concept of a less complex polarization lidar setup for detection of preferential orientation of atmospheric particulates. On the basis of theoretical considerations of data inversion stability and propagation of measurement uncertainties, an optimum optical configuration is established for two modes of operation (with either a linear or a circular polarized incident laser beam). We discovered that the conceptualized setup falls in the category of incomplete sample-measuring polarimeters and uses four detection channels for simultaneous measurement of the backscattered light. Likewise, the expected performance characteristics are discussed through an example of a typical aerosol with a small fraction of particles oriented in a preferred direction. As a result, the theoretical analysis suggests that achievable accuracies in backscatter cross-sections and depolarization ratios are similar to those with conventional two-channel configurations, while in addition preferential orientation can be detected with the proposed four-channel system for a wide range of conditions.