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1

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid Electric Horsepower for Kentucky  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Hybrid Electric Hybrid Electric Horsepower for Kentucky Schools to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid Electric Horsepower for Kentucky Schools on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid Electric Horsepower for Kentucky Schools on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid Electric Horsepower for Kentucky Schools on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid Electric Horsepower for Kentucky Schools on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid Electric Horsepower for Kentucky Schools on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid Electric Horsepower for Kentucky Schools on AddThis.com... April 7, 2011 Hybrid Electric Horsepower for Kentucky Schools " The hybrid school bus project not only serves as a means to improve

2

Calculating Horsepower Requirements and Sizing Supply Pipelines for Irrigation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pumping costs are often one of the largest single expenses in irrigated agriculture. This publication explains how to lower pumping costs by calculating horsepower requirements and sizing supply pipelines correctly. Examples take the reader through a step-by-step process. A special section deals with selecting PVC pipe.

Fipps, Guy

1995-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

3

Economic Realities and Energy Efficient Polyphase Integral Horsepower Electric Motors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy efficient polyphase integral horsepower electric motors are currently being vigorously promoted as a profitable method of conserving energy in many industrial and commercial applications. While the goal to be attained is indeed laudable, and must be tenaciously pursued, the economic realities of investment payback on increased efficiency versus cost of change out, power factor, etc. must have a meaningful review before decision making. Actual savings on a discount cash flow basis must be documented. and validity of the claims for the energy efficient motor must be verified. This paper develops the procedures used by the chemical manufacturing divisions of the Union Carbide Corporation in developing a long range plan for evolution from a motor population of standard efficiency units to one of higher efficiency and increased reliability. It notes statistics publicized by the U.S. Department of Energy, Union Carbide's overall electric equipment efficiency review, their own efficiency testing of sample small electric motors, and a pilot program to determine the number of lightly loaded motors in plant location. It further depicts an economic appraisal on the payback of replacing a standard efficiency motor with a higher efficiency unit and an action plan for purchasing energy efficient motors while simultaneously securing optimization of other parameters.

Whittington, B. W.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Study on reduction of accessory-horsepower requirements. Third quarterly progress report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this study program is to minimize automotive accessory horsepower consumption, and thereby maximize overall vehicle fuel economy, by utilizing continuously variable speed drives or auxiliary power units (APUs) in a standard passenger automobile. As an aid to definitizing accessory performance, load requirements and fuel economy, a baseline vehicle has beeen established. This vehicle is a conventional intermediate size 5- or 6-passenger automobile with a 4.1 to 5.7 liter (250 to 350 cubic inch) displacement, spark ignition engine. Accessories to be considered are the alternator, power steering system, power brakes, air conditioner, cooling fan, water pump and emission control air pump. A program summary of major accomplishments is presented including: accessory drive devices analyses; vehicle computer model fuel economy analyses; improved accessory efficiency analysis; resized engine fuel economy analysis; accessory evaluation matrix completed; drive-systems trade-study completed and the prime concept presented; and variable-speed belt-drive concepts reviewed.

Not Available

1975-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

5

Design and development of Stirling engines for stationary power generation applications in the 500 to 3000 horsepower range. Volume 1. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

This project was Phase I of a multiphased program for the design and development of Stirling engines for stationary power generation applications in the 500 to 3000 horsepower range. Phase I comprised the conceptual design and associated cost estimates of a stationary Stirling engine capable of being fueled by a variety of heat sources, with emphasis on coal firing, followed by the preparation of a plan for implementing the design, fabrication and testing of a demonstration engine by 1985. The development and evaluation of conceptual designs have been separated into two broad categories: the A designs which represent the present state-of-the-art and which are demonstrable by 1985 with minimum technical risk; and the B designs which involve advanced technology and therefore would require significant research and development prior to demonstration and commercialization, but which may ultimately offer advantages in terms of lower cost, better performance, or higher reliability. The majority of the effort in Phase I was devoted to the A designs.

Not Available,

1980-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

6

Design and development of Stirling engines for stationary power generation applications in the 500 to 3000 horsepower range. First quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

This project is Phase I of a multi-phased program for the design and development of Stirling engines for stationary power generation applications in the 500 to 3000 horsepower range. Phase I comprises the conceptual design and associated cost estimates of a stationary Stirling engine capable of being fueled by a variety of heat sources, with emphasis on coal firing, followed by the preparation of a plan for implementing the design, fabrication and testing of a demonstration engine by 1985. The main effort in Phase I is the generation of state-of-the-art conceptual designs having greatest potential for prototype testing in 1985. The conceptual designs include a heat transport system for integrating the engine heater head with such energy sources as conventional oil/gas combustors, fluidized bed and other coal combustors, and combustors using coal-derived liquid fuels, and low/medium BTU gases. The heat transport systems being investigated include forced convection with gases or liquids, heat pipes, and direct firing. Currently, the leading choice for the solid fuel combustion system is the atmospheric fluidized bed, with low BTU gasification still a viable alternative. Both systems will continue to be evaluated further, but with greater emphasis on FBC. To date, there appears no clear choice among the heat pipe, forced convection gas loop, or direct firing as the prime candidate for the heat transport sub-system. Conceptual design and analysis will continue on all three sub-systems. Scale-up of United Stirling's P-75 engine to serve as the conceptual design of the 500 HP engine module is continuing. (LCL)

Not Available,

1980-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

7

Fractional oscillator process with two indices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We introduce a new fractional oscillator process which can be obtained as solution of a stochastic differential equation with two fractional orders. Basic properties such as fractal dimension and short range dependence of the process are studied by considering the asymptotic properties of its covariance function. The fluctuation--dissipation relation of the process is investigated. The fractional oscillator process can be regarded as one-dimensional fractional Euclidean Klein-Gordon field, which can be obtained by applying the Parisi-Wu stochastic quantization method to a nonlocal Euclidean action. The Casimir energy associated with the fractional field at positive temperature is calculated by using the zeta function regularization technique.

S. C. Lim; L. P. Teo

2008-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

8

Carbon Nanofiber Arrays Introduced as Artificial Local ...  

ORNL 2010-G00642/jcn UT-B IDs PFTT-200100978, PFTT-200201199, PFTT-200401482, PFTT-200401483 Carbon Nanofiber Arrays Introduced as Artificial Local ...

9

Introducing the National Library of Energy Beta  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Introducing the National Library of Energy Beta News In the News In Focus 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 Presentations & Testimony Recovery Act Contact Information...

10

Some Applications of the Fractional Poisson Probability Distribution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Physical and mathematical applications of fractional Poisson probability distribution have been presented. As a physical application, a new family of quantum coherent states has been introduced and studied. As mathematical applications, we have discovered and developed the fractional generalization of Bell polynomials, Bell numbers, and Stirling numbers. Appearance of fractional Bell polynomials is natural if one evaluates the diagonal matrix element of the evolution operator in the basis of newly introduced quantum coherent states. Fractional Stirling numbers of the second kind have been applied to evaluate skewness and kurtosis of the fractional Poisson probability distribution function. A new representation of Bernoulli numbers in terms of fractional Stirling numbers of the second kind has been obtained. A representation of Schlafli polynomials in terms of fractional Stirling numbers of the second kind has been found. A new representations of Mittag-Leffler function involving fractional Bell polynomials and fractional Stirling numbers of the second kind have been discovered. Fractional Stirling numbers of the first kind have been introduced and studied. Two new polynomial sequences associated with fractional Poisson probability distribution have been launched and explored. The relationship between new polynomials and the orthogonal Charlier polynomials has also been investigated. In the limit case when the fractional Poisson probability distribution becomes the Poisson probability distribution, all of the above listed developments and implementations turn into the well-known results of quantum optics, the theory of combinatorial numbers and the theory of orthogonal polynomials of discrete variable.

Nick Laskin

2008-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

11

Introducing: Project Open Data | Data.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Introducing: Project Open Data Introducing: Project Open Data Developer Data Web Services Source Code Challenges Semantic Web Blogs Let's Talk Developers You are here Data.gov » Communities » Developers » Blogs Introducing: Project Open Data Submitted by Anonymous on Tue, 05/21/2013 - 12:13pm Log in to vote 1 Originally posted on the White House blog by Todd Park and Steven VanRoekel on May 16, 2013 at 09:46 AM EDT Technology evolves rapidly, and it can be challenging for policy and its implementation to evolve at the same pace. Last week, President Obama launched the Administration's new Open Data Policy and Executive Order aimed at ensuring that data released by the government will be as accessible and useful as possible. To make sure this tech-focused policy can keep up with the speed of innovation, we created Project Open Data.

12

2013 Introduce a Girl to Engineering Day | Argonne National Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Introduce a Girl to Engineering Day Introduce a Girl to Engineering Day Introduce a Girl to Engineering Day 2013 1 of 26 Introduce a Girl to Engineering Day 2013 Introduce a Girl to Engineering Day 2013 1 of 26 Introduce a Girl to Engineering Day 2013 Introduce a Girl to Engineering Day 2013 2 of 26 Introduce a Girl to Engineering Day 2013 Introduce a Girl to Engineering Day 2013 3 of 26 Introduce a Girl to Engineering Day 2013 Introduce a Girl to Engineering Day 2013 4 of 26 Introduce a Girl to Engineering Day 2013 Introduce a Girl to Engineering Day 2013 5 of 26 Introduce a Girl to Engineering Day 2013 Introduce a Girl to Engineering Day 2013 6 of 26 Introduce a Girl to Engineering Day 2013 Introduce a Girl to Engineering Day 2013 7 of 26 Introduce a Girl to Engineering Day 2013 Introduce a Girl to Engineering Day 2013

13

Time fractional development of quantum systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, the effect of time fractionalization on the development of quantum systems is taken under consideration by making use of fractional calculus. In this context, a Mittag-Leffler function is introduced as an important mathematical tool in the generalization of the evolution operator. In order to investigate the time fractional evolution of the quantum (nano) systems, time fractional forms of motion are obtained for a Schroedinger equation and a Heisenberg equation. As an application of the concomitant formalism, the wave functions, energy eigenvalues, and probability densities of the potential well and harmonic oscillator are time fractionally obtained via the fractional derivative order {alpha}, which is a measure of the fractality of time. In the case {alpha}=1, where time becomes homogenous and continuous, traditional physical conclusions are recovered. Since energy and time are conjugate to each other, the fractional derivative order {alpha} is relevant to time. It is understood that the fractionalization of time gives rise to energy fluctuations of the quantum (nano) systems.

Ertik, Hueseyin; Demirhan, Dogan; Sirin, Hueseyin; Bueyuekkilic, Fevzi [Department of Physics, Science Faculty, Ege University, Bornova, Izmir 35100 (Turkey)

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

14

Introducing Challenger | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Introducing Challenger Quick Reference Guide System Overview Data Transfer Data Storage & File Systems Compiling and Linking Queueing and Running Jobs Debugging and Profiling Performance Tools and APIs IBM References Software and Libraries Tukey Eureka / Gadzooks Policies Documentation Feedback Please provide feedback to help guide us as we continue to build documentation for our new computing resource. [Feedback Form] Introducing Challenger The Blue Gene/P resource, Challenger, is the new home for the prod-devel job submission queue. Moving the prod-devel queue to Challenger clears the way for more capability jobs on Intrepid. Challenger shares the same environment as Intrepid and is intended for small, short, interactive debugging and test runs. Production jobs are not

15

Introducing Ergonomics in Two US Elementary Schools  

SciTech Connect

The increasing presence of computers and other forms of information and communications technology (ICT) in schools has raised concerns in the United States (US) and elsewhere. Children are using computers more than any other age group in the US. It is not known whether early intensive use of ICT predisposes children to future injury. Ergonomics is not included in state curriculum standards or requirements but can be supported by some of the existing standards. Some who believe that children are better off being educated early about ergonomics are taking action to bring ergonomics into elementary and secondary schools. This paper describes the process used to introduce ergonomics into two elementary schools in two different states by initiators with two different roles.

Bennett, C L; Tien, D

2003-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

16

Symmetric continued fractions  

SciTech Connect

Explicit formulae for continued fractions with symmetric patterns in their partial quotients are constructed in the field of formal power series. Similar to the work of Cohn in 1996, which generalized the so-called folding lemma to {kappa}-fold symmetry, the notion of {kappa}-duplicating symmetric continued fractions is investigated using a modification of the 1995 technique due to Clemens, Merrill and Roeder.

Panprasitwech, Oranit [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Laohakosol, Vichian [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Chaichana, Tuangrat [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

2010-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

17

The New Gold Standard: Environmental Management Introduces the...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

The New Gold Standard: Environmental Management Introduces the First LEED Gold Industrial Facility The New Gold Standard: Environmental Management Introduces the First LEED Gold...

18

Introduce a Girl to Engineering Day 2013 | Argonne National Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

visit Argonne's Educational Programs website. Introduce a Girl to Engineering Day 2013 1 of 26 Introduce a Girl to Engineering Day 2013 Students at Argonne's 2013...

19

A discrete fractional random transform  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose a discrete fractional random transform based on a generalization of the discrete fractional Fourier transform with an intrinsic randomness. Such discrete fractional random transform inheres excellent mathematical properties of the fractional Fourier transform along with some fantastic features of its own. As a primary application, the discrete fractional random transform has been used for image encryption and decryption.

Zhengjun Liu; Haifa Zhao; Shutian Liu

2006-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

20

Introduce a Girl to Engineering Day 2013 | Argonne National Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Introduce a Girl to Engineering Day 2013 Introduce a Girl to Engineering Day 2013 Introduce a Girl to Engineering Day 2013 1 of 26 Introduce a Girl to Engineering Day 2013 Students at Argonne's 2013 Introduce a Girl to Engineering Day. At the event, middle-schoolers meet Argonne women scientists and engineers and do science experiments. For more information, visit Argonne's Educational Programs website. Introduce a Girl to Engineering Day 2013 1 of 26 Introduce a Girl to Engineering Day 2013 Students at Argonne's 2013 Introduce a Girl to Engineering Day. At the event, middle-schoolers meet Argonne women scientists and engineers and do science experiments. For more information, visit Argonne's Educational Programs website. Introduce a Girl to Engineering Day 2013 2 of 26 Introduce a Girl to Engineering Day 2013

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "introduced fractional horsepower" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Clean fractionation of biomass  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) Alternative Feedstocks (AF) program is forging new links between the agricultural community and the chemicals industry through support of research and development (R & D) that uses `green` feedstocks to produce chemicals. The program promotes cost-effective industrial use of renewable biomass as feedstocks to manufacture high-volume chemical building blocks. Industrial commercialization of such processes would stimulate the agricultural sector by increasing the demand of agricultural and forestry commodities. New alternatives for American industry may lie in the nation`s forests and fields. The AF program is conducting ongoing research on a clean fractionation process. This project is designed to convert biomass into materials that can be used for chemical processes and products. Clean fractionation separates a single feedstock into individual components cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin.

Not Available

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Hydrolysis and fractionation of lignocellulosic biomass  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A multi-function process is described for the hydrolysis and fractionation of lignocellulosic biomass to separate hemicellulosic sugars from other biomass components such as extractives and proteins; a portion of the solubilized lignin; cellulose; glucose derived from cellulose; and insoluble lignin from said biomass comprising one or more of the following: optionally, as function 1, introducing a dilute acid of pH 1.0-5.0 into a continual shrinking bed reactor containing a lignocellulosic biomass material at a temperature of about 94 to about 160.degree. C. for a period of about 10 to about 120 minutes at a volumetric flow rate of about 1 to about 5 reactor volumes to effect solubilization of extractives, lignin, and protein by keeping the solid to liquid ratio constant throughout the solubilization process; as function 2, introducing a dilute acid of pH 1.0-5.0, either as virgin acid or an acidic stream from another function, into a continual shrinking bed reactor containing either fresh biomass or the partially fractionated lignocellulosic biomass material from function 1 at a temperature of about 94-220.degree. C. for a period of about 10 to about 60 minutes at a volumetric flow rate of about 1 to about 5 reactor volumes to effect solubilization of hemicellulosic sugars, semisoluble sugars and other compounds, and amorphous glucans by keeping the solid to liquid ratio constant throughout the solubilization process; as function 3, optionally, introducing a dilute acid of pH 1.0-5.0 either as virgin acid or an acidic stream from another function, into a continual shrinking bed reactor containing the partially fractionated lignocellulosic biomass material from function 2 at a temperature of about 180-280.degree. C. for a period of about 10 to about 60 minutes at a volumetric flow rate of 1 to about 5 reactor volumes to effect solubilization of cellulosic sugars by keeping the solid to liquid ratio constant throughout the solubilization process; and as function 4, optionally, introducing a dilute acid of pH 1.0-5.0 either as virgin acid or an acidic stream from another function, into a continual shrinking bed reactor containing the partially fractionated lignocellulosic biomass material from function 3 at a temperature of about 180-280.degree. C. for a period of about 10 to about 60 minutes at a volumetric flow rate of about 1 to about 5 reactor volumes to effect solubilization of cellulosic sugars by keeping the solid to liquid ratio constant throughout the solubilization process.

Torget, Robert W. (Littleton, CO); Padukone, Nandan (Denver, CO); Hatzis, Christos (Denver, CO); Wyman, Charles E. (Lakewood, CO)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Using Fractional Numbers of . . .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

One of the design parameters in closed queueing networks is Np, the number of customers of class p. It has been assumed that Np must be an integer. However, integer choices will usually not achieve the target throughput for each class simultaneously. We use Mean Value Analysis with the Schweitzer-Bard approximation and nonlinear programming to determine the value of Np needed to achieve the production targets exactly, although the values of Np may be fractional. We interpret these values to represent the average number of customers of each class in the network. We implement a control rule to achieve these averages and verify our approach through simulation.

Rajan Suri; Rahul Shinde; Mary Vernon

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Fractional channel multichannel analyzer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A multichannel analyzer incorporating the features of the present invention obtains the effect of fractional channels thus greatly reducing the number of actual channels necessary to record complex line spectra. This is accomplished by using an analog-to-digital converter in the asynchronous mode, i.e., the gate pulse from the pulse height-to-pulse width converter is not synchronized with the signal from a clock oscillator. This saves power and reduces the number of components required on the board to achieve the effect of radically expanding the number of channels without changing the circuit board. 9 figs.

Brackenbush, L.W.; Anderson, G.A.

1994-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

25

Introducing The National Library of Energy (Beta), New Search...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

February 15, 2013 Introducing The National Library of Energy (Beta), New Search Engine Facilitating Access to Department of Energy Information The Department of Energy (DOE) Office...

26

A Mixed Exponential Distribution Model for Retrieving Ground Flash Fraction from Satellite Lightning Imager Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Bayesian inversion method is introduced for retrieving the fraction of ground flashes in a set of flashes observed from a (low earth orbiting or geostationary) satellite lightning imager. The method employs a constrained mixed exponential ...

W. J. Koshak

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Image quality degradation and retrieval errors introduced by registration and interpolation of multispectral digital images  

SciTech Connect

Full utilization of multispectral data acquired by whiskbroom and pushbroom imagers requires that the individual channels be registered accurately. Poor registration introduces errors which can be significant, especially in high contrast areas such as boundaries between regions. We simulate the acquisition of multispectral imagery in order to estimate the errors that are introduced by co-registration of different channels and interpolation within the images. We compute the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) and image quality degradation brought about by fractional pixel shifting and calculate errors in retrieved quantities (surface temperature and water vapor) that occur as a result of interpolation. We also present a method which might be used to estimate sensor platform motion for accurate registration of images acquired by a pushbroom scanner.

Henderson, B.G.; Borel, C.C.; Theiler, J.P.; Smith, B.W.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

The fractional symmetric rigid rotor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Based on the Riemann fractional derivative the Casimir operators and multipletts for the fractional extension of the rotation group SO(n) are calculated algebraically. The spectrum of the corresponding fractional symmetric rigid rotor is discussed. It is shown, that the rotational, vibrational and $\\gamma$-unstable limits of the standard geometric collective models are particular limits of this spectrum. A comparison with the ground state band spectra of nuclei shows an agreement with experimental data better than 2%. The derived results indicate, that the fractional symmetric rigid rotor is an appropriate tool for a description of low energy nuclear excitations.

Richard Herrmann

2006-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

29

A Holographic Fractional Topological Insulator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We give a holographic realization of the recently proposed low energy effective action describing a fractional topological insulator. In particular we verify that the surface of this hypothetical material supports a fractional quantum Hall current corresponding to half that of a Laughlin state.

Carlos Hoyos-Badajoz; Kristan Jensen; Andreas Karch

2010-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

30

Clean Fractionation: Technology Available for Licensing  

an eicient biomass pretreatment processclean fractionation. Description . Clean fractionation is a process for upgrading biomass feedstocks for a

31

Safety analysis of the 700-horsepower combustion test facility  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the program reported herein was to provide a Safety Analysis of the 700 h.p. Combustion Test Facility located in Building 93 at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. Extensive safety related measures have been incorporated into the design, construction, and operation of the Combustion Test Facility. These include: nitrogen addition to the coal storage bin, slurry hopper, roller mill and pulverizer baghouse, use of low oxygen content combustion gas for coal conveying, an oxygen analyzer for the combustion gas, insulation on hot surfaces, proper classification of electrical equipment, process monitoring instrumentation and a planned remote television monitoring system. Analysis of the system considering these factors has resulted in the determination of overall probabilities of occurrence of hazards as shown in Table I. Implementation of the recommendations in this report will reduce these probabilities as indicated. The identified hazards include coal dust ignition by hot ductwork and equipment, loss of inerting within the coal conveying system leading to a coal dust fire, and ignition of hydrocarbon vapors or spilled oil, or slurry. The possibility of self-heating of coal was investigated. Implementation of the recommendations in this report will reduce the ignition probability to no more than 1 x 10/sup -6/ per event. In addition to fire and explosion hazards, there are potential exposures to materials which have been identified as hazardous to personal health, such as carbon monoxide, coal dust, hydrocarbon vapors, and oxygen deficient atmosphere, but past monitoring experience has not revealed any problem areas. The major environmental hazard is an oil spill. The facility has a comprehensive spill control plan.

Berkey, B.D.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Study on reduction of accessory horsepower requirements. Program summary report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this program was to define, evaluate and develop automotive accessory systems to minimize engine power consumption and significantly improve fuel economy. All tasks have been completed and the program objectives have been accomplished. Information is presented on each phase of the program which involved: conceptual design to recommended component improvement and accessory drive systems; performance and sizing analyses; detail design and specifications; fabrication, and performance testing; evaluation of integrated hybrid drive, improved accessories; and an advanced air conditioning concept.

Lefferts, C.H.

1977-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

33

Introducing the Department of Energy Quadrennial Technology Review |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Introducing the Department of Energy Quadrennial Technology Review Introducing the Department of Energy Quadrennial Technology Review Introducing the Department of Energy Quadrennial Technology Review April 7, 2011 - 4:33pm Addthis Former Under Secretary Koonin Former Under Secretary Koonin Director - NYU's Center for Urban Science & Progress and Former Under Secretary for Science Recently, Secretary Chu asked me to kick off a new process at the Department of Energy: a Quadrennial Technology Review (DOE-QTR). The goal of the DOE-QTR is to establish a context and robust framework for the Department's energy technology activities, including principles we can use to establish multi-year program plans. It will also offer high-level views of the technical status and potential of various energy technologies. Multi-year program plans would allow us to provide the

34

Introducing the Minorities in Energy Initiative | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Introducing the Minorities in Energy Initiative Introducing the Minorities in Energy Initiative Introducing the Minorities in Energy Initiative September 25, 2013 - 11:31am Addthis Watch scenes from the Minorities in Energy Initiative, and hear remarks from Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz, in the video above. | Video by Matty Greene. Erin R. Pierce Erin R. Pierce Digital Communications Specialist, Office of Public Affairs LEARN MORE More on the new Minorities in Energy Initiative via the Office of Economic Impact and Diversity blog. View President Obama's Hispanic Heritage Month Proclamation. For the United States to stay competitive in the global clean energy economy and effectively address the challenges of climate change, we need to draw upon all the talent available in this country. That's the key motivation behind the Minorities in Energy Initiative, a

35

Introducing The National Library of Energy (Beta), New Search Engine  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Introducing The National Library of Energy (Beta), New Search Engine Introducing The National Library of Energy (Beta), New Search Engine Facilitating Access to Department of Energy Information February 15, 2013 Introducing The National Library of Energy (Beta), New Search Engine Facilitating Access to Department of Energy Information The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) has launched the National Library of Energy (NLE), a virtual library and open government resource to advance energy literacy, innovation and security. The NLE search feature provides one-stop, easy access to information about DOE and its work in four broad mission areas - science and R&D results; energy and technology for industry and homeowners; energy market information and analysis; and nuclear security and environmental

36

Making STEM Personal: Introducing the Women @ Energy Series | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

STEM Personal: Introducing the Women @ Energy Series STEM Personal: Introducing the Women @ Energy Series Making STEM Personal: Introducing the Women @ Energy Series March 18, 2013 - 11:53am Addthis Graphic by Sarah Gerrity. Graphic by Sarah Gerrity. Dot Harris Dot Harris The Honorable Dot Harris, Director, Office of Economic Impact and Diversity Check Us Out on Pinterest Get inspired! Check out our Women @ Energy Pinboard . Occupations in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) are among the fastest growing job sectors - offering top paying positions and a host of opportunities. On top of all that, STEM jobs are passports to changing the world through innovation and discovery. In celebration of Women's History Month, we're launching a new feature

37

Aspects of superconductivity and fractionalization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Since their discovery in mid 80's, a complete theory of high temperature superconductors is yet to take its final shape. Theory of fractionalization attempts to explain the phenomenon by assuming that the electron is split ...

Raut, Dinesh V

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M&O 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the container that confines the fuel assemblies could provide an additional barrier for diminishing the total release fraction should the fuel rod cladding breach during an accident. This analysis, however, does not take credit for the additional barrier and establishes only the total release fractions for bare unconfined intact commercial SNF assemblies, which may be conservatively applied to confined intact commercial I SNF assemblies.

J. Schulz

2004-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

39

Unified Fractional Kinetic Equation and a Fractional Diffusion Equation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In earlier papers Saxena et al. (2002, 2003) derived the solutions of a number of fractional kinetic equations in terms of generalized Mittag-Leffler functions which extended the work of Haubold and Mathai (2000). The object of the present paper is to investigate the solution of a unified form of fractional kinetic equation in which the free term contains any integrable function f(t), which provides the unification and extension of the results given earlier recently by Saxena et al. (2002, 2003). The solution has been developed in terms of the Wright function in a closed form by the method of Laplace transform. Further we derive a closed-form solution of a fractional diffusion equation. The asymptotic expansion of the derived solution with respect to the space variable is also discussed. The results obtained are in a form suitable for numerical computation.

R. K. Saxena; A. M. Mathai; H. J. Haubold

2004-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

40

Introducing FRED, Enabling Unique Visualization and Manipulation of Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Introducing FRED, Enabling Unique Visualization and Manipulation of Energy Introducing FRED, Enabling Unique Visualization and Manipulation of Energy Data at Multiple Scales Home > Groups > OpenEI Community Central Sfederspiel's picture Submitted by Sfederspiel(5) Member 20 May, 2013 - 13:28 FRED Free Energy Data Map OpenEI Tool Visualization The U.S. Department of Energy, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and the Planetary Skin Institute recently released a new open platform hosted by OpenEI which enables state and local governments, agencies, corporations, and other energy analysts to effectively visualize energy use data and make energy data more useful for decision-making processes. The Free Energy Data (FRED) platform will contribute to the Energy Data Initiative to make energy data more transparent and adaptable for

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "introduced fractional horsepower" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Fractional reaction-diffusion equations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In a series of papers, Saxena, Mathai, and Haubold (2002, 2004a, 2004b) derived solutions of a number of fractional kinetic equations in terms of generalized Mittag-Leffler functions which provide the extension of the work of Haubold and Mathai (1995, 2000). The subject of the present paper is to investigate the solution of a fractional reaction-diffusion equation. The results derived are of general nature and include the results reported earlier by many authors, notably by Jespersen, Metzler, and Fogedby (1999) for anomalous diffusion and del-Castillo-Negrete, Carreras, and Lynch (2003) for reaction-diffusion systems with L\\'evy flights. The solution has been developed in terms of the H-function in a compact form with the help of Laplace and Fourier transforms. Most of the results obtained are in a form suitable for numerical computation.

R. K. Saxena; A. M. Mathai; H. J. Haubold

2006-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

42

Introducing a More Responsive Energy.gov | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

a More Responsive Energy.gov a More Responsive Energy.gov Introducing a More Responsive Energy.gov November 12, 2013 - 9:56am Addthis Energy.gov now provides a browsing experience tailored to the device you're using. Energy.gov now provides a browsing experience tailored to the device you're using. Rob Roberts Rob Roberts Director of Digital Strategy What does this mean for me? Energy.gov is now optimized to provide a better browsing experience for mobile environments, like tablets and smartphones. We've also made improvements to our database of tax credits, rebates and savings and increased the visibility of our popular Energy Saver content. Leave a comment about Energy.gov and how we can continue to improve. You may have noticed some changes to Energy.gov today, especially if you're looking at our site on a smartphone or a tablet. Over the weekend, we

43

Introducing djatoka: a reuse friendly, open source JPEG image server  

SciTech Connect

The ISO-standardized JPEG 2000 image format has started to attract significant attention. Support for the format is emerging in major consumer applications, and the cultural heritage community seriously considers it a viable format for digital preservation. So far, only commercial image servers with JPEG 2000 support have been available. They come with significant license fees and typically provide the customers with limited extensibility capabilities. Here, we introduce djatoka, an open source JPEG 2000 image server with an attractive basic feature set, and extensibility under control of the community of implementers. We describe djatoka, and point at demonstrations that feature digitized images of marvelous historical manuscripts from the collections of the British Library and the University of Ghent. We also caIl upon the community to engage in further development of djatoka.

Chute, Ryan M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Van De Sompel, Herbert [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Introducing an Online Cooling Tower Performance Analysis Tool  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cooling towers are used extensively for numerous industrial, residential, and commercial applications. Yet despite how common their uses, operators often do not know how to properly evaluate and optimize their performance. This is due to the complex and variable nature of all of the factors that can influence performance; fan speed, wind speed, sump temperature, heat load, ambient temperature, relative humidity, etc. This can be overwhelming for a regular operator resulting in many cooling towers being set to a default operating condition and forgotten. This paper will introduce a web-based cooling tower analysis tool being developed to help users understand and optimize operational efficiency. The calculations, evaluations, and models will be discussed in detail to highlight important design considerations and issues. This will include how the Merkel Theory, psychometric properties, tower types, and historical weather data are incorporated into the analysis.

Muller, M.R.; Muller, M.B.; Rao, P.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Strategic motive of introducing Internet channels in a supply chain  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Rapid advances of information technology in recent years have enabled both the manufacturers and the retailers to operate their own Internet channels. In this paper, we investigate the interaction between the capabilities of introducing the Internet channels, the pricing strategies, and the channel structure. We classify consumers into two segments: Grocery shoppers attach a higher utility from purchasing through the physical channel, whereas a priori Internet shoppers prefer purchasing online. We find that when the Internet shoppers are either highly profitable or fairly unimportant, the manufacturer prefers to facilitate the channel separation either through his own Internet channel or the retailers. In the intermediate region, however, the manufacturer encroaches the grocery shoppers and steals the demand from the retailers physical channel. With horizontal competition between retailers, a priori symmetric retailers may adopt different channel strategies as a stable market equilibrium. The manufacturer may willingly give up his Internet channel and leverage on the retailer competition. When the manufacturer sells through an online e-tailer, Internet shoppers may be induced to purchase through the physical channel. This reverse encroachment strategy emerges because selling through the e-tailer leads to a more severe double marginalization problem.

Lu Hsiao; Ying-ju Chen

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

UC Berkeley computer science Subject: Introducing sequential behavior in Fleet  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This memo started as a presentation of one idea for introducing sequentiality into an instruction issue mechanism for Fleet. The idea was the concept of a logical clock. Even though the idea was far from polished, I decided it was valuable to record the idea and possibly sharpen it during the writing process. As I was writing the memo, I was following my train of thought, got stuck a number of times, and ended up wring a memo that describes a whole collection of unpolished ideas. I still believe the exercise was worth undertaking, not only for the sheer benefits of what is recorded in this memo but for the benefit of at least five more memos that got started while I was writing this memo. BASE MODEL: A POOL OF CONCURRENT INSTRUCTIONS Figure 1 shows an abstract view of Fleet processor architecture. Note that the core elements of Fleet remain in the picture: Ships are connected via a switch fabric, where each ship serves as both a source of data and a destination for data. The switch fabric enables data transfer between ships. That is, each move instruction that the instruction issue unit releases into the switch fabric transfers data between a source ship and a destination ship. Note that execution of an instruction is limited to the data transfer itself. Any data transformation that may happen inside a ship is a part of operation of the ship. As a result of such an operation, a new data item may be available at the ships source port. One can say that data transformation takes place as a side effect of data movement. _____________________________________________________________________________ This document is a product of a collaboration between Sun Microsystems and the University of California at Berkeley. The ideas contained herein are freely available for any academic purpose.

Igor Benko

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Introducing Intellectual Property in an Undergraduate Chemistry Curriculum  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: An exercise that introduces undergraduate chemistry majors to concepts associated with intellectual property is outlined. The assignment includes an introduction to the terminology associated with starting a company based on intellectual property and to nondisclosure agreements. After this, the students write a draft patent application. With over 150,000 United States patents issued annually, the role of intellectual property is prominent and becoming increasingly important in current corporations and in the formation of new businesses, as well as in government and academic settings. Discussion Intellectual Property or the idea of owning an idea is at the root of our industrialized society [16]. Holding a patent on the synthetic route to an anticancer drug, a large-scale synthetic polymer process, or the logic behind a successful software package can make a small company an investors dream. Large corporations can prosper or wither with the intellectual property they develop and own. Negotiations between nations (i.e., the U.S. and China) often involve intellectual-property rights to patents and copyrights. Despite the fact that approximately 160,000 United States Patents are issued every year, chemistry majors routinely go through undergraduate curriculums with no exposure to the basic ideas behind intellectual property. The author has had two different experiences with patent applications. The first came at Los Alamos National Laboratory where an idea and results were provided to the inhouse patent attorneys. The next contact with patents was twoand-a-half years later when a copy of the patent arrived in the

Thomas J. Manning; Leri Atwater; Anna Leigh Mcrae; Mike Anderson; John S. Beatty; Mary Watson

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Fractionally total colouring Gn,p  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We study the fractional total chromatic number of G"n","p as p varies from 0 to 1. We also present an algorithm that computes the fractional total chromatic number of a random graph in polynomial expected time. Keywords: Fractional total colouring, Graph colouring, Random graphs

Conor Meagher; Bruce Reed

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Aqueous fractionation of biomass based on novel carbohydrate hydrolysis kinetics  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A multi-function process for hydrolysis and fractionation of lignocellulosic biomass to separate hemicellulosic sugars from other biomass components comprising extractives and proteins; a portion of a solubilized lignin; cellulose; glucose derived from cellulose; and insoluble lignin from said biomass comprising: a) introducing either solid fresh biomass or partially fractioned lignocellulosic biomass material with entrained acid or water into a reactor and heating to a temperature of up to about 185.degree. C.-205.degree. C. b) allowing the reaction to proceed to a point where about 60% of the hemicellulose has been hydrolyzed in the case of water or complete dissolution in case of acid; c) adding a dilute acid liquid at a pH below about 5 at a temperature of up to about 205.degree. C. for a period ranging from about 5 to about 10 minutes; to hydrolyze the remaining 40% of hemicellulose if water is used. d) quenching the reaction at a temperature of up to about 140.degree. C. to quench all degradation and hydrolysis reactions; and e) introducing into said reaction chamber and simultaneously removing from said reaction chamber, a volumetric flow rate of dilute acid at a temperature of up to about 140.degree. C. to wash out the majority of the solubilized biomass components, to obtain improved hemicellosic sugar yields.

Torget, Robert W. (Littleton, CO)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Continued fraction as a discrete nonlinear transform  

SciTech Connect

The connection between a Taylor series and a continued fraction involves a nonlinear relation between the Taylor coefficients [l brace][ital a][sub [ital n

Bender, C.M. (Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States)); Milton, K.A. (Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States))

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Accelerator dynamics of a fractional kicked rotor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is shown that the Weyl fractional derivative can quantize an open system. A fractional kicked rotor is studied in the framework of the fractional Schrodinger equation. The system is described by the non-Hermitian Hamiltonian by virtue of the Weyl fractional derivative. Violation of space symmetry leads to acceleration of the orbital momentum. Quantum localization saturates this acceleration, such that the average value of the orbital momentum can be a direct current and the system behaves like a ratchet. The classical counterpart is a nonlinear kicked rotor with absorbing boundary conditions.

A. Iomin

2006-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

52

Hydrolysis and fractionation of lignocellulosic biomass ...  

A multi-function process is described for the hydrolysis and fractionation of lignocellulosic biomass to separate hemicellulosic sugars from other bio ...

53

Void Fraction Instrument operation and maintenance manual  

SciTech Connect

This Operations and Maintenance Manual (O&MM) addresses riser installation, equipment and personnel hazards, operating instructions, calibration, maintenance, removal, and other pertinent information necessary to safely operate and store the Void Fraction Instrument. Final decontamination and decommissioning of the Void Fraction Instrument are not covered in this document.

Borgonovi, G.; Stokes, T.I.; Pearce, K.L.; Martin, J.D.; Gimera, M.; Graves, D.B.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Airborne release fractions/rates and respirable fractions for nonreactor nuclear facilities. Volume 2, Appendices  

SciTech Connect

This document contains compiled data from the DOE Handbook on Airborne Release Fractions/Rates and Respirable Fractions for Nonreactor Nuclear facilities. Source data and example facilities utilized, such as the Plutonium Recovery Facility, are included.

Not Available

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Renewal-type Limit Theorem for Continued Fractions with Even Partial Quotients  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We prove the existence of the limiting distribution for the sequence of denominators generated by continued fraction expansions with even partial quotients, which were introduced by F. Schweiger and studied also by C. Kraaikamp and A. Lopes. Our main result is proven following the strategy used by Ya. Sinai and C. Ulcigrai in their proof of a similar renewal-type theorem for Euclidean continued fraction expansions and the Gauss map. The main steps in our proof are the construction of a natural extension of a Gauss-like map and the proof of mixing of a related special flow.

Cellarosi, Francesco

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Introducing arguments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Verbal arguments can be divided into two different types: those that are true arguments of the verb and those that are "additional" in the sense that there is evidence that they do not belong to the basic argument structure ...

Pylkknen, Mariliina, 1973-

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Edge Excitations in Fractional Chern Insulators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent theoretical works have demonstrated the realization of fractional quantum anomalous Hall states (also called fractional Chern insulators) in topological flat band lattice models without an external magnetic field. Such newly proposed lattice systems play a vital role to obtain a large class of fractional topological phases. Here we report the exact numerical studies of edge excitations for such systems in a disk geometry loaded with hard-core bosons, which will serve as a more viable experimental probe for such topologically ordered states. We find convincing numerical evidence of a series of edge excitations characterized by the chiral Luttinger liquid theory for the bosonic fractional Chern insulators in both the honeycomb disk Haldane model and the kagom\\'{e}-lattice disk model. We further verify these current-carrying chiral edge states by inserting a central flux to test their compressibility.

Wei-Wei Luo; Wen-Chao Chen; Yi-Fei Wang; Chang-De Gong

2013-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

58

Bio-oil fractionation and condensation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of fractionating bio-oil vapors which involves providing bio-oil vapors comprising bio-oil constituents is described. The bio-oil vapors are cooled in a first stage which comprises a condenser having passages for the bio-oil separated by a heat conducting wall from passages for a coolant. The coolant in the condenser of the first stage is maintained at a substantially constant temperature, set at a temperature in the range of 75 to 100.degree. C., to condense a first liquid fraction of liquefied bio-oil constituents in the condenser of the first stage. The first liquid fraction of liquified bio-oil constituents from the condenser in the first stage is collected. Also described are steps for subsequently recovering further liquid fractions of liquefied bio-oil constituents. Particular compositions of bio-oil condensation products are also described.

Brown, Robert C; Jones, Samuel T; Pollard, Anthony

2013-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

59

QUANTIFICATION OF PHASE FRACTION AND AMORPHOUS ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Results for a sample consisting of nearly equal mass fractions of Al2O3, CaF2, and ZnO, along with values reported by the other round-robin ...

2001-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

60

Maximizing Tumor Immunity With Fractionated Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: Technologic advances have led to increased clinical use of higher-sized fractions of radiation dose and higher total doses. How these modify the pathways involved in tumor cell death, normal tissue response, and signaling to the immune system has been inadequately explored. Here we ask how radiation dose and fraction size affect antitumor immunity, the suppression thereof, and how this might relate to tumor control. Methods and Materials: Mice bearing B16-OVA murine melanoma were treated with up to 15 Gy radiation given in various-size fractions, and tumor growth followed. The tumor-specific immune response in the spleen was assessed by interferon-{gamma} enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay with ovalbumin (OVA) as the surrogate tumor antigen and the contribution of regulatory T cells (Tregs) determined by the proportion of CD4{sup +}CD25{sup hi}Foxp3{sup +} T cells. Results: After single doses, tumor control increased with the size of radiation dose, as did the number of tumor-reactive T cells. This was offset at the highest dose by an increase in Treg representation. Fractionated treatment with medium-size radiation doses of 7.5 Gy/fraction gave the best tumor control and tumor immunity while maintaining low Treg numbers. Conclusions: Radiation can be an immune adjuvant, but the response varies with the size of dose per fraction. The ultimate challenge is to optimally integrate cancer immunotherapy into radiation therapy.

Schaue, Doerthe, E-mail: dschaue@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ratikan, Josephine A.; Iwamoto, Keisuke S.; McBride, William H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "introduced fractional horsepower" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

On sampling fractions and electron shower shapes  

SciTech Connect

We study the usage of various definitions of sampling fractions in understanding electron shower shapes in a sampling multilayer electromagnetic calorimeter. We show that the sampling fractions obtained by the conventional definition (I) of (average observed energy in layer)/(average deposited energy in layer) will not give the best energy resolution for the calorimeter. The reason for this is shown to be the presence of layer by layer correlations in an electromagnetic shower. The best resolution is obtained by minimizing the deviation from the total input energy using a least squares algorithm. The 'sampling fractions' obtained by this method (II) are shown to give the best resolution for overall energy. We further show that the method (II) sampling fractions are obtained by summing the columns of a non-local {lambda} tensor that incorporates the correlations. We establish that the sampling fractions (II) cannot be used to predict the layer by layer energies and that one needs to employ the full {lambda} tensor for this purpose. This effect is again a result of the correlations.

Peryshkin, Alexander; Raja, Rajendran; /Fermilab

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Introducing a Girl to Engineering - A Day at Argonne National Lab |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Introducing a Girl to Engineering - A Day at Argonne National Lab Introducing a Girl to Engineering - A Day at Argonne National Lab Introducing a Girl to Engineering - A Day at Argonne National Lab February 25, 2013 - 2:51pm Addthis Participants of the 2013 Introduce a Girl to Engineering Day gather at Argonne National Laboratory with Director Dot Harris. Participants of the 2013 Introduce a Girl to Engineering Day gather at Argonne National Laboratory with Director Dot Harris. Dot Harris Dot Harris The Honorable Dot Harris, Director, Office of Economic Impact and Diversity Did you know that while women comprise 48 percent of the U.S. workforce, they hold only 24 percent of STEM jobs? STEM, or science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, is critical for the mission of the Energy Department in securing our clean energy future - and it's critical for the

63

Carbon isotope fractionation in protoplanetary disks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the gas-phase and grain-surface chemistry in the inner 30 AU of a typical protoplanetary disk using a new model which calculates the gas temperature by solving the gas heating and cooling balance and which has an improved treatment of the UV radiation field. We discuss inner-disk chemistry in general, obtaining excellent agreement with recent observations which have probed the material in the inner regions of protoplanetary disks. We also apply our model to study the isotopic fractionation of carbon. Results show that the fractionation ratio, 12C/13C, of the system varies with radius and height in the disk. Different behaviour is seen in the fractionation of different species. We compare our results with 12C/13C ratios in the Solar System comets, and find a stark contrast, indicative of reprocessing.

Woods, Paul M

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Carbon isotope fractionation in protoplanetary disks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the gas-phase and grain-surface chemistry in the inner 30 AU of a typical protoplanetary disk using a new model which calculates the gas temperature by solving the gas heating and cooling balance and which has an improved treatment of the UV radiation field. We discuss inner-disk chemistry in general, obtaining excellent agreement with recent observations which have probed the material in the inner regions of protoplanetary disks. We also apply our model to study the isotopic fractionation of carbon. Results show that the fractionation ratio, 12C/13C, of the system varies with radius and height in the disk. Different behaviour is seen in the fractionation of different species. We compare our results with 12C/13C ratios in the Solar System comets, and find a stark contrast, indicative of reprocessing.

Paul M. Woods; Karen Willacy

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Fractional Quantization of the Hall Effect  

DOE R&D Accomplishments (OSTI)

The Fractional Quantum Hall Effect is caused by the condensation of a two-dimensional electron gas in a strong magnetic field into a new type of macroscopic ground state, the elementary excitations of which are fermions of charge 1/m, where m is an odd integer. A mathematical description is presented.

Laughlin, R. B.

1984-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

66

Void fraction instrument acceptance test procedure  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This acceptance test procedure (ATP) was written to test the void fraction instrument (VFI) and verify that the unit is ready for field service. The procedure verifies that the mechanical and electrical features (not specifically addressed in the software ATP) and software alarms are operating as designed.

Pearce, K.L.

1994-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

67

Photo of the Week: Women in STEM Introducing Girls to Engineering |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Women in STEM Introducing Girls to Engineering Women in STEM Introducing Girls to Engineering Photo of the Week: Women in STEM Introducing Girls to Engineering March 4, 2013 - 11:51am Addthis This Friday, March 8, marks International Women's Day, and the recognition of women's achievements all over the world. At the Energy Department and each of the National Laboratories, some of the nation's top women scientists and engineers attend events to urge girls to open their minds to careers in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM). In this Febraury 2012 photo, a group of eighth grade girls were invited to Argonne National Laboratory to participate in events during the annual Introduce a Girl to Engineering Day. Division director Amanda Petford-Long and other Argonne mentors are pictured observing a trial run of race cars built by the eighth grade students. | Photo courtesy of George Joch/Argonne National Laboratory.

68

Y-12 hosts 'Introduce a Girl to Engineering' event | National Nuclear  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

'Introduce a Girl to Engineering' event | National Nuclear 'Introduce a Girl to Engineering' event | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home > NNSA Blog > Y-12 hosts 'Introduce a Girl to Engineering' event Y-12 hosts 'Introduce a Girl to Engineering' event Posted By Office of Public Affairs NNSA Blog Michelle Foster of Y-12 Facilities, Infrastructure and Services,

69

Y-12 hosts Introduce a Girl to Engineering event | National Nuclear...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Follow this link to skip to the main content Facebook Flickr RSS Twitter YouTube Y-12 hosts Introduce a Girl to Engineering event | National Nuclear Security Administration Our...

70

Correcting Airborne Temperature Data for Lags Introduced by Instruments with Two-Time-Constant Responses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Airborne resistance wire temperature sensors can introduce a time lag before ambient air temperature changes are registered. It has been found that a second-order linear response system adequately describes the behavior of the Rosemount non-...

G. W. Inverarity

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

INTRODUCING THE NEXT-GENERATION ADVANCED BASELINE IMAGER ON GOES-R  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), designated to be one of the instruments on a future Geo-stationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) series, will introduce a new era for U.S. geostationary environmental remote sensing. ABI is slated ...

Timothy J. Schmit; Mathew M. Gunshor; W. Paul Menzel; James J. Gurka; Jun Li; A. Scott Bachmeier

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

A Lyapunov approach to the stability of fractional differential equations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lyapunov stability of fractional differential equations is addressed in this paper. The key concept is the frequency distributed fractional integrator model, which is the basis for a global state space model of FDEs. Two approaches are presented: the ... Keywords: Fractional differential equations, Fractional integrator, Lyapunov stability, Nonlinear FDEs, State space models

J. C. Trigeassou; N. Maamri; J. Sabatier; A. Oustaloup

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Global attractors for parabolic problems in fractional power spaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Keywords: cooperative systems, fractional power spaces, global attractors, reaction-diffusion equations, thin domains

Alexandre Nolasco De Carvalho; Jos Gaspar Ruas-Filho

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Clean Fractionation: Technology Available for Licensing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Clean Fractionation Clean Fractionation National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Offi ce of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. NREL/FS-7A1-43959 * October 2008 Printed with a renewable-source ink on paper containing at least 50% wastepaper, including 10% postconsumer waste. You'll find more technologies available for licensing on the NREL Technology Transfer Web site at www.nrel.gov/technologytransfer/. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future Biorefinery production costs are driven Insolubles Wash Cellulose pulp Lignocellulosic feedstock Solubles

75

Methods And Apparatus For Acoustic Fiber Fractionation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods and apparatus for acoustic fiber fractionation using a plane ultrasonic wave field interacting with water suspended fibers circulating in a channel flow using acoustic radiation forces to separate fibers into two or more fractions based on fiber radius, with applications of the separation concept in the pulp and paper industry. The continuous process relies on the use of a wall-mounted, rectangular cross-section piezoelectric ceramic transducer to selectively deflect flowing fibers as they penetrate the ultrasonic field. The described embodiment uses a transducer frequency of approximately 150 kHz. Depending upon the amount of dissolved gas in water, separation is obtained using a standing or a traveling wave field.

Brodeur, Pierre (Smyrna, GA)

1999-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

76

AHP gives NGL fractionation energy savings  

SciTech Connect

Absorption heat pumping (AHP) offers a highly economic and widely applicable avenue to process heat integration and heat recovery in natural gas liquid (NGL) fractionation plants. Economically priced equipment is now available for any required capacity rating. Installations are increasing. In conventional heat pumping, heat at a low temperature is supplied to an evaporator, causing a liquid to boil at low pressure. This low pressure vapor is compressed. The high pressure vapor condenses, giving up latent heat at a high temperature. The difference between the heat supply temperature and heat delivery temperature is the ''lift'' furnished by the heat pump. Existing NGL fractionation plants offer highly economic opportunities for retrofit AHP applications. Designers of new plants can exploit AHP technology to further economic advantage.

Davidson, W.F.; Erickson, D.C.

1985-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

77

Radiotherapy Dose Fractionation under Parameter Uncertainty  

SciTech Connect

In radiotherapy, radiation is directed to damage a tumor while avoiding surrounding healthy tissue. Tradeoffs ensue because dose cannot be exactly shaped to the tumor. It is particularly important to ensure that sensitive biological structures near the tumor are not damaged more than a certain amount. Biological tissue is known to have a nonlinear response to incident radiation. The linear quadratic dose response model, which requires the specification of two clinically and experimentally observed response coefficients, is commonly used to model this effect. This model yields an optimization problem giving two different types of optimal dose sequences (fractionation schedules). Which fractionation schedule is preferred depends on the response coefficients. These coefficients are uncertainly known and may differ from patient to patient. Because of this not only the expected outcomes but also the uncertainty around these outcomes are important, and it might not be prudent to select the strategy with the best expected outcome.

Davison, Matt [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Department of Statistical and Actuarial Science, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Ivey School of Business, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Kim, Daero [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Keller, Harald [Department Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

2011-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

78

Pyrolysis of shale oil residual fractions  

SciTech Connect

The freezing point of JP-5, the Navy jet fuel, has been related to the n-alkane content, specifically n-hexadecane. In general, jet fuels from shale oil have the highest n-alkanes. The formation of n-alkanes in the jet fuel distillation range can be explained if large n-alkanes are present in the crude oil source. Quantities of large n-alkanes are insufficient, however, to explain the amounts found - up to 37% n-alkanes in the jet fuel range. Other possible precursors to small straight chain molecules are substituted cyclic compounds. Attack in the side chain obviously afford a path to an n-alkane. Aromatic hydrocarbons, esters, acids, amines, and ethers also have the potential to form n-alkanes if an unbranched alkyl chain is present in the molecule. Investigations showed that the best yield of the JP-5 cut comes at different times for the various fractions, but a time in the 60 to 120 min range would appear to be the optimum time for good yield at 450/sup 0/C. The longer time would be preferred with respect to lower potential n-alkane yield. None of the fractions gave n-alkane yields approaching the 37% amount found in the Shale-I JP-5. A temperature different than the 450/sup 0/C used here might affect the conversion percentage. Further the combined saturate, aromatic, and polar fractions may interact under pyrolysis conditions to give higher potential n-alkane yields than the fractions stressed independently.

Hazlett, R.N.; Beal, E.; Vetter, T.; Sonntag, R.; Moniz, W.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Fractional Quantum Hall States in Graphene  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We quantum mechanically analyze the fractional quantum Hall effect in graphene. This will be done by building the corresponding states in terms of a potential governing the interactions and discussing other issues. More precisely, we consider a system of particles in the presence of an external magnetic field and take into account of a specific interaction that captures the basic features of the Laughlin series \

Ahmed Jellal; Bellati Malika

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

80

Six Impossible Things: Fractional Charge From Laughlin's Wave Function  

SciTech Connect

The Laughlin's wave function is found to be the zero-energy ground state of a {delta}-function Hamiltonian. The finite negative value of the ground state energy which is 91 per cent of Wigner value, can be obtained only when Coulomb correlations are introduced. The Laughlin's wave function is of short range and it overlaps with that of the exact wave functions of small (number of electrons 2 or 5) systems. (i) It is impossible to obtain fractional charge from Laughlin's wave function. (ii) It is impossible to prove that the Laughlin's wave function gives the ground state of the Coulomb Hamiltonian. (iii) It is impossible to have particle-hole symmetry in the Laughlin's wave function. (iv) It is impossible to derive the value of m in the Laughlin's wave function. The value of m in {psi}{sub m} can not be proved to be 3 or 5. (v) It is impossible to prove that the Laughlin's state is incompressible because the compressible states are also likely. (vi) It is impossible for the Laughlin's wave function to have spin. This effort is directed to explain the experimental data of quantum Hall effect in GaAs/AlGaAs.

Shrivastava, Keshav N. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia)

2010-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "introduced fractional horsepower" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Solutions of the Fractional Reaction Equation and the Fractional Diffusion Equation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In view of the role of reaction equations in physical problems, the authors derive the explicit solution of a fractional reaction equation of general character, that unifies and extends earlier results. Further, an alternative shorter method based on a result developed by the authors is given to derive the solution of a fractional diffusion equation. Fox functions and Mittag-Leffler functions are used for closed-form representations of the solutions of the respective differential equations.

R. K. Saxena; A. M. Mathai; H. J. Haubold

2010-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

82

Iron isotopic fractionation during continental weathering  

SciTech Connect

The biological activity on continents and the oxygen content of the atmosphere determine the chemical pathways through which Fe is processed at the Earth's surface. Experiments have shown that the relevant chemical pathways fractionate Fe isotopes. Measurements of soils, streams, and deep-sea clay indicate that the {sup 56}Fe/{sup 54}Fe ratio ({delta}{sup 56}Fe relative to igneous rocks) varies from +1{per_thousand} for weathering residues like soils and clays, to -3{per_thousand} for dissolved Fe in streams. These measurements confirm that weathering processes produce substantial fractionation of Fe isotopes in the modern oxidizing Earth surface environment. The results imply that biologically-mediated processes, which preferentially mobilize light Fe isotopes, are critical to Fe chemistry in weathering environments, and that the {delta}{sup 56}Fe of marine dissolved Fe should be variable and negative. Diagenetic reduction of Fe in marine sediments may also be a significant component of the global Fe isotope cycle. Iron isotopes provide a tracer for the influence of biological activity and oxygen in weathering processes through Earth history. Iron isotopic fractionation during weathering may have been smaller or absent in an oxygen-poor environment such as that of the early Precambrian Earth.

Fantle, Matthew S.; DePaolo, Donald J.

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Measurement of tau lepton branching fractions  

SciTech Connect

We present {tau}{sup {minus}} lepton branching fraction measurements based on data from the TPC/Two-Gamma detector at PEP. Using a sample of{tau}{sup {minus}} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}}K{sup {minus}}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup {minus}} events, we examine the resonance structure of the K{sup {minus}}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup {minus}} system and obtain the first measurements of branching fractions for {tau}{sup {minus}} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}}K{sub 1}{sup {minus}}(1270) and {tau}{sup {minus}} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}}K{sub 1}{sup {minus}}(1400). We also describe a complete set of branching fraction measurements in which all the decays of the {tau}{sup {minus}} lepton are separated into classes defined by the identities of the charged particles and an estimate of the number of neutrals. This is the first such global measurement with decay classes defined by the four possible charged particle species, e, {mu}, {pi}, and K.

Nicol, N.A.

1993-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

84

Global Discovery introduced at AAAS 2006 | OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Global Discovery introduced at AAAS 2006 Global Discovery introduced at AAAS 2006 Office of Scientific & Technical Information NEWS MEDIA CONTACT: Cathey Daniels, (865) 576-9539 FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE February 17, 2006 Global Discovery introduced at AAAS 2006 Oak Ridge, TN - The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information, a component of the Office of Science, is looking at new ways to disseminate science information. As tools and technologies rapidly become more sophisticated, OSTI is conducting applied research on a number of challenges related to this vision aimed at turning local discovery into Global Discovery. The benefits for researchers, for citizens, and for the U.S. economy could prove far-reaching as OSTI, through its Innovations in Scientific Knowledge and

85

Global Discovery introduced at AAAS 2006 | OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Global Discovery introduced at AAAS 2006 Global Discovery introduced at AAAS 2006 The Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) was a key participant in the symposium, Global Discovery on the Internet, at the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) 2006 Annual Meeting Feb. 16-20 in St. Louis, MO. The symposium introduced Global Discovery, which promises to increase the pace of science by searching all scientific communities at once for data, information, or methodological advances. "Imagine a Google-like search capability that returns results across the whole of science, giving scientists information on research they didn't even know existed," said Dr. Walter Warnick, director. "Except that this search would go further than traditional search engines. Rather than

86

Optimizing injected solvent fraction in stratified reservoirs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Waterflooding has become standard practice for extending the productive life of many solution gas drive reservoirs, but has the disadvantage of leaving a substantial residual oil volume in the reservoir. Solvent flooding has been offered as a method whereby oil may be completely displaced from the reservoir, leaving no residual volume. Field results have demonstrated that solvent floods suffer from early solvent breakthrough and considerable oil by-passing owing to high solvent mobility. The injection of both water and solvent has been demonstrated to offer advantages. Water partially mitigates both the adverse mobility and high cost of solvent floods, while solvent mobilizes oil which would be left in the reservoir by water alone. The process is equally applicable to reservoirs currently at residual oil saturation (tertiary floods) and to reservoirs at maximum oil saturation (secondary floods). In stratified reservoirs high permeability layers may be preferentially swept by solvent floods, while low permeability layers may be scarcely swept at all. Presence or absence of transverse communication between layers can modify overall sweep efficiency. This work is a study of water-solvent injection in stratified reservoirs based on computer simulation results. Fractional oil recovery as a function of injected solvent fraction, permeability contrast between layers, initial oil saturation, and presence or absence of transverse communication between strata has been determined. Results are presented as a series of optimization curves. Permeability contrast between layers is shown to be the dominant control on fractional oil recovery. Transverse communicating reservoirs are shown to require a higher solvent-water ratio in order to attain recoveries comparable to transverse noncommunicating reservoirs. In actual field projects, water and solvent are injected alternately as discrete slugs. This process is known as "WAG" for "water-alternating-gas". In the simulations used in this study, continuous water-solvent injection at a fixed fraction rather than true WAG was employed. It is demonstrated that the two methods give equivalent results. In summary, this work is the first comprehensive study of the behavior of stratified reservoirs undergoing water-solvent injection.

Moon, Gary Michael

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Motility fractionation of bacteria by centrifugation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Centrifugation is a widespread laboratory technique used to separate mixtures into fractions characterized by a specific size, weight or density. We demonstrate that centrifugation can be also used to separate swimming cells having different motility. To do this we study self-propelled bacteria under the influence of an external centrifugal field. Using dynamic image correlation spectroscopy we measure the spatially resolved motility of bacteria after centrifugation. A significant gradient in swimming-speeds is observed for increasing centrifugal speeds. Our results can be reproduced by a model that treats bacteria as "hot" colloidal particles having a diffusion coefficient that depends on the swimming speed.

Claudio Maggi; Alessia Lepore; Jacopo Solari; Alessandro Rizzo; Roberto Di Leonardo

2013-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

88

Polyfunctional catalyst for processiing benzene fractions  

SciTech Connect

A by-product of the coke industry is a raw benzene fraction benzene- 1 which may serve as for catalytic processes. The paper reports a study on the influence of the composition and temperatures on the activity and selectivity of NiO-V{sub 2}O{sub 6}-MoO{sub 3}/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts and the corresponding binary and tertiary subsystems are studied by a pulse method in model reactions; the hydrodealkylating of toluene and the hydrodesulfurizing of thioprhene. The optimal catalyst composition is established. The new catalyst is compared with industrial catalysts.

G. Byakov; B.D. Zubitskii; B.G. Tryasunov; I.Ya. Petrov [Kuznetsk Basin State Technical University, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

89

Void fraction system computer software design description  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This document describes the software that controls the void fraction instrument. The format of the document may differ from typical Software Design Reports because it was created with a graphical programming language. Hardware is described in Section 2. The purpose of this document is describe the software, so the hardware description is brief. Software is described in Section 3. LabVIEW was used to develop the viscometer software, so Section 3 begins with an introduction to LabVIEW. This is followed by a description of the main program. Finally each Westinghouse developed subVI (sub program) is discussed.

Gimera, M.

1995-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

90

Introducing mobility into CSP B Steve Schneider, Helen Treharne, and Beeta Vajar  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AVoCS 2007 Introducing mobility into CSP B Steve Schneider, Helen Treharne, and Beeta Vajar Department of Computing University of Surrey Guildford, Surrey, UK Abstract CSP B is a combination of CSP, the semantic foundation for pi |B is cumbersome for reasoning about systems, and a CSP based approach may

Schneider, Steve

91

Web Intelligence and Agent Systems: An International Journal 0 (2012) 10 1 Introducing Web Intelligence for  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Web Intelligence and Agent Systems: An International Journal 0 (2012) 1­0 1 IOS Press Introducing Web Intelligence for Communities Laurent Vercouter a , Pierre Maret b a LITIS Laboratory, MIU team.maret@univ-st-etienne.fr 1. Introduction The field of Web Intelligence has grown quickly in the last decade as a crossroads

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

92

Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) was introduced in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Part IV Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy #12;#12;Shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) was introduced in the fundamentals of shock wave generation and delivery. That is, lithotriptors have changed in form and mode, an acoustic shock wave. This pressure pulse, or shock wave, is responsible for breaking stones. However

Cleveland, Robin

93

Process for stabilization of coal liquid fractions  

SciTech Connect

Coal liquid fractions to be used as fuels are stabilized against gum formation and viscosity increases during storage, permitting the fuel to be burned as is, without further expensive treatments to remove gums or gum-forming materials. Stabilization is accomplished by addition of cyclohexanol or other simple inexpensive secondary and tertiary alcohols, secondary and tertiary amines, and ketones to such coal liquids at levels of 5-25% by weight with respect to the coal liquid being treated. Cyclohexanol is a particularly effective and cost-efficient stabilizer. Other stabilizers are isopropanol, diphenylmethanol, tertiary butanol, dipropylamine, triethylamine, diphenylamine, ethylmethylketone, cyclohexanone, methylphenylketone, and benzophenone. Experimental data indicate that stabilization is achieved by breaking hydrogen bonds between phenols in the coal liquid, thereby preventing or retarding oxidative coupling. In addition, it has been found that coal liquid fractions stabilized according to the invention can be mixed with petroleum-derived liquid fuels to produce mixtures in which gum deposition is prevented or reduced relative to similar mixtures not containing stabilizer.

Davies, Geoffrey (Boston, MA); El-Toukhy, Ahmed (Alexandria, EG)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Fractionating Recalcitrant Lignocellulose at Modest Reaction Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Effectively releasing the locked polysaccharides from recalcitrant lignocellulose to fermentable sugars is among the greatest technical and economic barriers to the realization of lignocellulose biorefineries because leading lignocellulose pre-treatment technologies suffer from low sugar yields, and/or severe reaction conditions, and/or high cellulase use, narrow substrate applicability, and high capital investment, etc. A new lignocellulose pre-treatment featuring modest reaction conditions (50 C and atmospheric pressure) was demonstrated to fractionate lignocellulose to amorphous cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and acetic acid by using a non-volatile cellulose solvent (concentrated phosphoric acid), a highly volatile organic solvent (acetone), and water. The highest sugar yields after enzymatic hydrolysis were attributed to no sugar degradation during the fractionation and the highest enzymatic cellulose digestibility ({approx}97% in 24 h) during the hydrolysis step at the enzyme loading of 15 filter paper units of cellulase and 60 IU of beta-glucosidase per gram of glucan. Isolation of high-value lignocellulose components (lignin, acetic acid, and hemicellulose) would greatly increase potential revenues of a lignocellulose biorefinery.

Zhang, Y.-H. Percival [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Ding, Shi-You [National Energy Renewable Laboratory; Mielenz, Jonathan R [ORNL; Cui, Jing-Biao [Dartmouth College; Elander, Richard T. [Dartmouth College; Laser, Mark [Dartmouth College; Himmel, Michael [ORNL; McMillan, James R. [National Energy Renewable Laboratory; Lynd, L. [Dartmouth College

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Tank SY-101 void fraction instrument functional design criteria  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This document presents the functional design criteria for design, analysis, fabrication, testing, and installation of a void fraction instrument for Tank SY-101. This instrument will measure the void fraction in the waste in Tank SY-101 at various elevations.

McWethy, L.M.

1994-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

96

5.3.3.4. Fractional factorial designs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Full factorial experiments can require many runs, The ASQC (1983) Glossary & Tables for Statistical Quality Control defines fractional factorial ...

2013-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

97

Study on reduction of accessory horsepower requirements. Fourth quarterly progress report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The program objective is to evolve and define an accessory drive system that will minimize system power consumption of driven accessories on an internal combustion engine in a passenger automobile. The initial three program phases established concept feasibility, determined potential fuel savings, and selected a drive system design for concept mechanization. During this quarter the major program accomplishments were: selection of candidate belt-drive concepts; completion of Phase III baseline vehicle drive systems physical and operational envelopes; completion of analysis for a mechanically controlled direct-operated belt drive with input programming; and completion of design layout and analysis for a hydromechanically controlled, servo-operated belt drive with output-speed sensing. (LLL)

Not Available

1975-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

98

Figure ES3. Sales-Weighted Horsepower and On-Road Fuel Mileage for ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Home > Households, Buildings & Industry >Transportation Surveys > Household Vehicles Energy Use > Figure ES3

99

Study on reduction of accessory horsepower requirements. Eleventh quarterly progress report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Progress in a program for optimizing automotive accessory systems to achieve greater vehicle fuel economy and improved accessory performance is reported. The major technical accomplishments during this reporting period were: all candidate advanced air conditioning concepts were evaluated; advanced air conditioning and hybrid accessory drive component trade-studies were completed; improved alternator, water pump and power steering system concepts were evaluated; the vehicle integrated accessory systems trade-study was completed; and the technical summary report for the Phase V Automotive Accessory Systems Optimization Program was initiated. (LCL)

Not Available

1977-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

100

Self-similarity in financial markets: A fractionally integrated approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study discussed the self-similar processes using the fractionally integrated methodology in three selected global financial equity markets. Under the heavy-tailed assumption, the symmetric and asymmetric fractionally integrated time varying volatility ... Keywords: Econophysics, Financial time series, Fractionally integrated model, Long memory process, Self-similarity

Chin Wen Cheong

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "introduced fractional horsepower" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

The present invention relates to automated methods of introducing multiple nucleic acid sequences into one or more target cells.  

SciTech Connect

The present invention relates to automated methods of introducing multiple nucleic acid sequences into one or more target cells.

Church, George M. (Brookline, MA); Wang, Harris H. (Cambridge, MA); Isaacs, Farren J. (Brookline, MA)

2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

102

Fundamentals of Biomass Pretreatment by Fractionation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fundamentals of Biomass Pretreatment by Fractionation Poulomi Sannigrahi 1,2 and Arthur J. Ragauskas 1,2,3 1 BioEnergy Science Center, Oak Ridge, USA 2 Institute of Paper Science and Technology, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, USA 3 School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, USA 10.1 Introduction With the rise in global energy demand and environmental concerns about the use of fossil fuels, the need for rapid development of alternative fuels from sustainable, non-food sources is now well acknowledged. The effective utilization of low-cost high-volume agricultural and forest biomass for the production of transporta- tion fuels and bio-based materials will play a vital role in addressing this concern [1]. The processing of lignocellulosic biomass, especially from mixed agricultural and forest sources with varying composition,

103

Fractional cut: Improved recursive bisection placement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we present improvements to recursive bisection based placement. In contrast to prior work, our horizontal cut lines are not restricted to row boundaries; this avoids a narrow region problem. To support these new cut line positions, a dynamic programming based legalization algorithm has been developed. The combination of these has improved the stability and lowered the wire lengths produced by our Feng Shui placement tool. On benchmarks derived from industry partitioning examples, our results are close to those of the annealing based tool Dragon, while taking only a fraction of the run time. On synthetic benchmarks, our wire lengths are nearly 23 % better than those of Dragon. For both benchmark suites, our results are substantially better than those of the recursive bisection based tool Capo and the analytic placement tool Kraftwerk. 1.

Ameya Agnihotri; Mehmet Can; Yildiz Ateen; Khatkhate Ajita; Mathur Satoshi; Ono Patrick; H. Madden

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

ABJ Fractional Brane from ABJM Wilson Loop  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a new Fermi gas formalism for the ABJ matrix model. This formulation takes a form that identifies the effect of the fractional M2-brane in the ABJ matrix model as that of a composite Wilson loop operator in the corresponding ABJM matrix model. Using this formalism, we study the phase dependence of the ABJ partition function numerically and find a simple rule for it. We further compute first few exact values at some coupling constants. Fitting these exact values against the expected form of the grand potential we can write down the grand potential with exact coefficients. The results at various coupling constants enable us to conjecture an explicit form of the grand potential for general coupling constants. This matches with a natural generalization of the perturbative sum, worldsheet instantons and bound states from the ABJM matrix model, but contains a minor difference in the membrane instantons.

Sho Matsumoto; Sanefumi Moriyama

2013-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

105

Fractional diffusion modeling of ion channel gating  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An anomalous diffusion model for ion channel gating is put forward. This modeling scheme is able to describe the non-exponential, power-law like gating behavior of residence time intervals in several types of ion channels. Our scheme presents a generalization of the discrete diffusion model by Millhauser, Salpeter and Oswald [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 1503 (1988)] to the case of a continuous, anomalously slow conformational diffusion. The corresponding generalization is derived from a continuous time random walk composed of nearest neighbor jumps which in the scaling limit results in a fractional diffusion equation. The studied model contains three parameters only: the mean residence time, a characteristic time of conformational diffusion, and the index of subdiffusion. A tractable analytical expression for the characteristic function of the residence time distribution (RTD) is obtained. In the limiting case of normal diffusion a prior result of Goychuk and Hanggi [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 3552 (20...

Goychuk, I; Goychuk, Igor; Hanggi, Peter

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

ASES Wind Division Webinar: Introducing WindLease: Making Wind Energy Affordable  

Wind Powering America (EERE)

Introducing WindLease(tm): Making Wind Energy Affordable Introducing WindLease(tm): Making Wind Energy Affordable August 1, 2013 Coordinator: Welcome and thank you for standing by. At this time all participants are on a listen-only mode until the question and answer session of today's conference. At that time if you would like to ask a question press *1 on your touchtone phone. I would like to inform all parties that this call is being recorded. If you have any objections please disconnect at this time. I would now like to turn the call over to Ms. Samantha Rooney, thank you ma'am you may begin. Karin Sinclair: Actually this is Karin Sinclair, thank you. So this is Karin Sinclair, I'm the chair of the ASES Wind Division. I want to welcome you all to this webinar, which is our series of webinars that we put on, we try to do them bi-monthly.

107

Introduce a Girl to Engineering Day (IGED) at Argonne National Lab -  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Introduce a Girl to Engineering Day (IGED) Introduce a Girl to Engineering Day (IGED) Search Go Home Postdocs Students Student Outreach Resources for Schools U.S.-based International (English) International (Other) Events IGED 2013 Science Careers in Search of Women Girls, choose a career in Nuclear Science and Technology! Argonne Nuclear Engineers tell why they chose a Nuclear Career Resources Contact Us Recent Events Science Careers in Search of Women, Apr. 18, 2013 Junior Girl Scout Workshop 'Atomic Fission Fun with the American Nuclear Society', Jan. 26, 2013 Getting to know nuclear energy: the past, the present & the future - free public lecture (Nov. 15, 2012, Argonne National Laboratory) On January 26, 2013, Argonne staff members participated in the Junior Girl Scout Workshop 'Atomic Fission Fun with the American Nuclear Society'

108

Introducing SAM (Sun and Aureole Measurement), a New, Ground-based  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Introducing SAM (Sun and Aureole Measurement), a New, Ground-based Introducing SAM (Sun and Aureole Measurement), a New, Ground-based Capability for Measuring Cloud Optical Properties DeVore, John Visidyne, Inc. Stair, A Visidyne McClatchey, Robert McClatchey Associates Category: Instruments Visidyne has developed a new, ground-based capability for the remote measurement of cloud and aerosol optical properties. Named SAM, for Sun and Aureole Measurement, this system makes precise measurements of the radiance profile of the solar disk and aureole. The radiance of the solar disk affords a definitive measure of the column optical depth when corrected for forward scattering. The aureole profile is a measure of the forward scattering properties of the particles in the column and can be used to correct the optical depth. The aureole profile can also be used to derive

109

Effects of introducing collaborative technology on communications in a distributed safety-critical system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Communication and collaborative decision-making are critical activities in safety-critical systems such as marine transportation. As a result, new group technologies have been introduced to enhance communication and decision-making in these settings. ... Keywords: Automation, Case study, Communication, Decision support systems, Group decision support systems, Group support systems, Lean media, Marine transportation, Rich technology environment, Safety-critical system, Saint Lawrence Seaway, Technology impact, Technology introduction, Vessel traffic systems

Sudhendar Hanumantharao; Martha Grabowski

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Vegetation component of geothermal EIS studies: Introduced plants, ecosystem stability, and geothermal development  

SciTech Connect

This paper contributes new information about the impacts from introduced plant invasions on the native Hawaiian vegetation as consequences of land disturbance and geothermal development activities. In this regard, most geothermal development is expected to act as another recurring source of physical disturbance which favors the spread and maintenance of introduced organisms throughout the region. Where geothermal exploration and development activities extend beyond existing agricultural and residential development, they will become the initial or sole source of disturbance to the naturalized vegetation of the area. Kilauea has a unique ecosystem adapted to the dynamics of a volcanically active landscape. The characteristics of this ecosystem need to be realized in order to understand the major threats to the ecosystem and to evaluate the effects of and mitigation for geothermal development in Puna. The native Puna vegetation is well adapted to disturbances associated with volcanic eruption, but it is ill-adapted to compete with alien plant species in secondary disturbances produced by human activities. Introduced plant and animal species have become a major threat to the continued presence of the native biota in the Puna region of reference.

NONE

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Fractional Calculus in Hydrologic Modeling: A Numerical Perspective  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fractional derivatives can be viewed either as a handy extension of classical calculus or, more deeply, as mathematical operators defined by natural phenomena. This follows the view that the diffusion equation is defined as the governing equation of a Brownian motion. In this paper, we emphasize that fractional derivatives come from the governing equations of stable Levy motion, and that fractional integration is the corresponding inverse operator. Fractional integration, and its multi-dimensional extensions derived in this way, are intimately tied to fractional Brownian (and Levy) motions and noises. By following these general principles, we discuss the Eulerian and Lagrangian numerical solutions to fractional partial differential equations, and Eulerian methods for stochastic integrals. These numerical approximations illuminate the essential nature of the fractional calculus.

David A. Benson; Mark M. Meerschaert; Jordan Revielle

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Airborne Release Fractions/Rates and Respirable Fractions for Nonreactor Nuclear Facilities, Volume 1  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

TS NOT MEASUREMENT SENSITIVE DOE-HDBK-3010-94 December 1994 Reaffirmed 2013 DOE HANDBOOK AIRBORNE RELEASE FRACTIONS/RATES AND RESPIRABLE FRACTIONS FOR NONREACTOR NUCLEAR FACILITIES Volume I - Analysis of Experimental Data U.S. Department of Energy AREA SAFT Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This document has been reproduced directly from the best available copy. Available to DOE and DOE contractors from the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, P.O. Box 62, Oak Ridge, TN 37831; (615) 576-8401. Available to the public from the U.S. Department of Commerce, Technology Administration, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161; (703) 487-4650.

113

Airborne Release Fractions/Rates and Respirable Fractions for Nonreactor Nuclear Facilities, Volume II  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

TS NOT MEASUREMENT SENSITIVE DOE-HDBK-3010-94 December 1994 Reaffirmed 2013 DOE HANDBOOK AIRBORNE RELEASE FRACTIONS/RATES AND RESPIRABLE FRACTIONS FOR NONREACTOR NUCLEAR FACILITIES Volume II - Appendices U.S. Department of Energy AREA SAFT Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This document has been reproduced directly from the best available copy. Available to DOE and DOE contractors from the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, P.O. Box 62, Oak Ridge, TN 37831; (615) 576-8401. Available to the public from the U.S. Department of Commerce, Technology Administration, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161; (703) 487-4650. Order No. DE95004711 DOE-HDBK-3010-94

114

Fractionalization of Interstitials in Curved Colloidal Crystals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Understanding the out-of equilibrium behaviour of point defects in crystals, yields insights into the nature and fragility of the ordered state, as well as being of great practical importance. In some rare cases defects are spontaneously healed - a one-dimensional crystal formed by a line of identical charged particles, for example, can accommodate an interstitial (extra particle) by a re-adjusting all particle positions to even out the spacing. In sharp contrast, particles organized into a perfect hexagonal crystal in the plane cannot accommodate an interstitial by a simple re-adjustment of the particle spacing - the interstitial remains instead trapped between lattice sites and diffuses by hopping, leaving the crystal permanently defected. Here we report on the behavior of interstitials in colloidal crystals on curved surfaces. Using optical tweezers operated independently of three dimensional imaging, we insert a colloidal interstitial in a lattice of similar particles on flat and curved (positively and negatively) oil-glycerol interfaces and image the ensuing dynamics. We find that, unlike in flat space, the curved crystals self-heal through a collective rearrangement that re-distributes the increased density associated with the interstitial. The self-healing process can be interpreted in terms of an out of equilibrium interaction of topological defects with each other and with the underlying curvature. Our observations suggest the existence of "particle fractionalization" on curved surface crystals.

William T. M. Irvine; Mark J. Bowick; Paul M. Chaikin

2013-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

115

Power-law Spatial Dispersion from Fractional Liouville Equation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A microscopic model in the framework of fractional kinetics to describe spatial dispersion of power-law type is suggested. The Liouville equation with the Caputo fractional derivatives is used to obtain the power-law dependence of the absolute permittivity on the wave vector. The fractional differential equations for electrostatic potential in the media with power-law spatial dispersion are derived. The particular solutions of these equations for the electric potential of point charge in this media are considered.

Vasily E. Tarasov

2013-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

116

Quantitative Determination of Twin Volume Fraction in TWIP Steels ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

By using a newly developed low-accelerating-voltage high-resolution EBSD technique, the nanotwin volume fraction can be quantitatively determined, leading...

117

Long-Range Transport and Global Fractionation of Persistent Organic...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Long-Range Transport and Global Fractionation of Persistent Organic Pollutants: Insights from Multimedia Modeling Studies Speaker(s): Martin Scheringer Date: July 10, 2003 -...

118

EIA-800 WEEKLY REFINERY AND FRACTIONATOR REPORT INSTRUCTIONS  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

EIA-800, Weekly Refinery and Fractionator Report Page 3 Crude Oil (Code 050) Report all refinery input of domestic and foreign crude oil (including ...

119

Study of the Relationship between Twin Boundary Fraction and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The twin boundary fraction, given as multiples of random distribution (MRD), ... Strain Gradient and Degradation in Magnetic Properties: Focus Transformer Steel.

120

Introducing students to the culture of physics: Explicating elements of the hidden curriculum  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

When we teach physics to prospective scientists and engineers we are teaching more than the "facts" of physics - more, even, than the methods and concepts of physics. We are introducing them to a complex culture - a mode of thinking and the cultural code of behavior of a community of practicing scientists. This culture has components that are often part of our hidden curriculum: epistemology - how we decide that we know something; ontology - how we parse the observable world into categories, objects, and concepts; and discourse - how we hold a conversation in order to generate new knowledge and understanding. Underlying all of this is intuition - a culturally created sense of meaning. To explicitly identify teach our hidden curriculum we must pay attention to students' intuition and perception of physics, not just to their reasoning.

Redish, Edward F

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "introduced fractional horsepower" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

1 EXERCISE III.2 A LABORATORY COURSE IN MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY INTRODUCING MOLECULAR MODELING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: A laboratory course in medicinal chemistry introducing molecular modeling. Molecular modeling is an important and useful tool in drug design and for predicting biological activity in library compounds. A wide variety of computer programs and methods have been developed to visualize the 3D geometry and to calculate the physicochemical properties of drugs. In this paper, we describe a practical approach to molecular modeling as a powerful tool to study structureactivity relationship in drugs such as antibacterials, hormones, and cholinergic and adrenergic agents. Early in the course, the students learn how to draw 3D structures and to use them to perform conformational and molecular analyses. Thus, they may compare drugs with similar pharmacological activities by superimposing their structures and evaluating geometry and physical properties.

Ivone Carvalho; Mnica T. Pupo; urea D. L. Borges; Lilian S. C. Bernardes

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Israeli manufacturer introduces solar heating for home use in Greece and Turkey  

SciTech Connect

Miromit Ltd. of Tel Aviv, Israel's principal developer and producer of solar heating equipment, said to be the world's large manufacturer in the field, recently announced the completion of a marketing agreement with major heating companies in Greece and Turkey which are introducing solar energy for hot water heating in their countries. Both of these countries will benefit from continuous Miromit research and development in new Sun heating applications, including central hot water installations for apartment buildings and solar-heating systems for swimming pools, sport halls, and agricultural and industrial buildings. Israeli solar equipment has been installed in a research model apartment building at the Goddard Space Flight Center of NASA in Green Belt, Md. (MCW)

1976-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

The discrete fractional random cosine and sine transforms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Based on the discrete fractional random transform (DFRNT), we present the discrete fractional random cosine and sine transforms (DFRNCT and DFRNST). We demonstrate that the DFRNCT and DFRNST can be regarded as special kinds of DFRNT and thus their mathematical properties are inherited from the DFRNT. Numeral results of DFRNCT and DFRNST for one and two dimensional functions have been given.

Zhengjun Liu; Qing Guo; Shutian Liu

2006-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

124

Fractional dynamics and MDS visualization of earthquake phenomena  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper analyses earthquake data in the perspective of dynamical systems and fractional calculus (FC). This new standpoint uses Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) as a powerful clustering and visualization tool. FC extends the concepts of integrals and ... Keywords: Correlation indices, Fractional calculus, Multidimensional scaling, Seismic events

AntNio M. Lopes, J. A. Tenreiro Machado, C. M. A. Pinto, A. M. S. F. Galhano

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

A Note Basis Properties for Fractional Hydrogen Atom Equation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, spectral analysis of fractional Sturm Liouville problem defined on (0,1], having the singularity of type at zero and research the fundamental properties of the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues for the operator. We show that the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the problem are real and orthogonal, respectively. Furthermore,we give some important theorems and lemmas for fractional hydrogen atom equation.

E. Bas; F. Metin

2013-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

126

Robert B. Laughlin and the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Robert B. Laughlin and the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect Robert B. Laughlin and the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect Resources with Additional Information Robert B. Laughlin Photo Courtesy of LLNL Robert B. Laughlin shared the 1998 Nobel Prize in Physics with Horst L. Störmer and Daniel C. Tsui for 'their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations'. ' ... [I]n 1982 ... Störmer and Tsui discovered the effect. In 1983, Laughlin, then at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, provided the theoretical explanation of the effect in terms of fractionally charged particles. It was a "confluence of things from engineering that prepared me for understanding the fractional quantum Hall effect and coming up with an explanation," Laughlin said during a television interview at Stanford. ...

127

Fractional Gaussian noise criterion for correlations characterization: a random-matrix-theory inspired perspective  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We introduce a particular construction of an autocorrelation matrix of a time series and its analysis based on the random-matrix theory ideas that is capable of unveiling the type of correlations information which is inaccessible to the straight analysis of the autocorrelation function. Exploiting the well-studied hierarchy of the fractional Gaussian noise (fGn), an \\emph{in situ} criterion for the sake of a quantitative comparison with the autocorrelation data is offered. We illustrate the applicability of our method by two paradigmatic examples from the orthodox context of the stock markets and the turbulence. Quite strikingly, a remarkable agreement with the fGn is achieved notwithstanding the non-Gaussianity in returns of the stock market. In the latter context, on the contrary, a significant deviation from an fGn is observed despite a Gaussian distribution of the velocity profile of the turbulence.

Tayeb Jamali; Hamed Saberi; G. R. Jafari

2013-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

128

FrAT2.4 Introducing Back-up to Active Compressor Surge Control System ?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: A novel method for introducing a back-up system to an active compressor surge control system is presented in this paper. Active surge control is a promising method for extending the compressor map towards and into the unstable area at low mass flow by stabilizing the surge phenomenon. The method also has potential for allowing operation at higher efficiencies. However, a failure in the active surge control system may endanger the compressor by entering deep surge as the compressor is allowed to operate in the stabilized surge area. We propose the use of a back-up system applied to the active system to keep the compressor safe should the active system fail. This paper present an active compressor surge control system with piston actuation combined with a blow off system as the back-up. Performance of the combined system is evaluated by simulating the system in situations where the piston is saturated or jammed. The combination results in a system with increased performance by taking advantage of both systems.

Nur Uddin; Jan Tommy Gravdahl

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Improved control strategies correct main fractionator operating problems  

SciTech Connect

Heat and mass balance control of refinery main fractionators can be improved through simple process design changes. Metering flows of internal reflux streams improves unit operability and controllability. Modifying the process system design to measure small internal reflux flow is another inexpensive way to control main fractionators. Three case histories show how simple design changes in refinery main fractionators can solve advanced control problems, thus changing product yields and improving refinery economics. The three cases are a delayed coker, a crude unit, and a FCC unit.

Golden, S.W. [Process Consulting Services Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)

1995-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

130

Brownian motion and anomalous diffusion revisited via a fractional Langevin equation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we revisit the Brownian motion on the basis of {the fractional Langevin equation which turns out to be a particular case of the generalized Langevin equation introduced by Kubo in 1966. The importance of our approach is to model the Brownian motion more realistically than the usual one based on the classical Langevin equation, in that it takes into account also the retarding effects due to hydrodynamic back-flow, i.e. the added mass and the Basset memory drag. We provide the analytical expressions of the correlation functions (both for the random force and the particle velocity) and of the mean squared particle displacement. The random force has been shown to be represented by a superposition of the usual white noise with a "fractional" noise. The velocity correlation function is no longer expressed by a simple exponential but exhibits a slower decay, proportional to t^{-3/2} for long times, which indeed is more realistic. Finally, the mean squared displacement is shown to maintain, for sufficiently long times, the linear behaviour which is typical of normal diffusion, with the same diffusion coefficient of the classical case. However, the Basset history force induces a retarding effect in the establishing of the linear behaviour, which in some cases could appear as a manifestation of anomalous diffusion to be correctly interpreted in experimental measurements.

Francesco Mainardi; Antonio Mura; Francesco Tampieri

2010-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

131

Brownian motion and anomalous diffusion revisited via a fractional Langevin equation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we revisit the Brownian motion on the basis of {the fractional Langevin equation which turns out to be a particular case of the generalized Langevin equation introduced by Kubo in 1966. The importance of our approach is to model the Brownian motion more realistically than the usual one based on the classical Langevin equation, in that it takes into account also the retarding effects due to hydrodynamic back-flow, i.e. the added mass and the Basset memory drag. We provide the analytical expressions of the correlation functions (both for the random force and the particle velocity) and of the mean squared particle displacement. The random force has been shown to be represented by a superposition of the usual white noise with a "fractional" noise. The velocity correlation function is no longer expressed by a simple exponential but exhibits a slower decay, proportional to t^{-3/2} for long times, which indeed is more realistic. Finally, the mean squared displacement is shown to maintain, for sufficie...

Mainardi, Francesco; Tampieri, Francesco

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Imaging fractional incompressible stripes in integer quantum Hall systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Transport experiments provide conflicting evidence on the possible existence of fractional order within integer quantum Hall systems. In fact integer edge states sometimes behave as monolithic objects with no inner structure, while other experiments clearly highlight the role of fractional substructures. Recently developed low-temperature scanning probe techniques offer today an opportunity for a deeper-than-ever investigation of spatial features of such edge systems. Here we use scanning gate microscopy and demonstrate that fractional features were unambiguously observed in every integer quantum Hall constriction studied. We present also an experimental estimate of the width of the fractional incompressible stripes corresponding to filling factors 1/3, 2/5, 3/5, and 2/3. Our results compare well with predictions of the edge-reconstruction theory.

Nicola Paradiso; Stefan Heun; Stefano Roddaro; Lucia Sorba; Fabio Beltram; Giorgio Biasiol; L. N. Pfeiffer; K. W. West

2012-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

133

Dynamic optimization of fractionation schedules in radiation therapy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, we investigate the improvement in treatment effectiveness when dynamically optimizing the fractionation scheme in radiation therapy. In the first part of the thesis, we consider delivering a different dose ...

Ramakrishnan, Jagdish

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Mercury Isotope Fractionation by Environmental Transport and Transformation Processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

isotope fractionation in fossil hydrothermal systems. Geology,isotopes: Evaporation, chemical diffusion and Soret diffusion. Chemical Geology,isotope records of atmospheric and riverine pollution from two major European heavy metal refineries. Chemical Geology,

Koster van Groos, Paul Gijsbert

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Thomson scattering diagnostic for the measurement of ion species fraction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Simultaneous Thomson scattering measurements of collective electron-plasma and ion-acoustic fluctuations have been utilized to determine ion species fraction from laser produced CH plasmas. The CH{sub 2} foil is heated with 10 laser beams, 500 J per beam, at the Omega Laser facility. Thomson scattering measurements are made 4 mm from the foil surface using a 30 J 2{omega} probe laser with a 1 ns pulse length. Using a series of target shots the plasma evolution is measured from 2.5 ns to 9 ns after the rise of the heater beams. Measuring the electron density and temperature from the electron-plasma fluctuations constrains the fit of the two-ion species theoretical form factor for the ion feature such that the ion temperature, plasma flow velocity and ion species fraction are determined. The ion species fraction is determined to an accuracy of {+-}0.06 in species fraction.

Ross, J S; Park, H S; Amendt, A; Divol, L; Kugland, N L; Rozmus, W; Glenzer, S H

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Estimating Rainfall in the Tropics Using the Fractional Time Raining  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relationship between the fractional time raining and tropical rainfall amount is investigated using raingage data and a point process model of tropical rainfall. Both the strength and the nature of the relationship are dependent upon the ...

Mark L. Morrissey; Witold F. Krajewski; Michael J. McPhaden

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

The fractional volatility model: An agent-based interpretation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Based on criteria of mathematical simplicity and consistency with empirical market data, a model with volatility driven by fractional noise has been constructed which provides a fairly accurate mathematical parametrization of the data. Here, some features of the model are discussed and, using agent-based models, one tries to find which agent strategies and (or) properties of the financial institutions might be responsible for the features of the fractional volatility model.

Mendes, R Vilela

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Solids Fraction Measurement with a Reflective Fiber Optic Probe  

SciTech Connect

A method has been developed to extract solids fraction information from a reflective fiber optic probe. The commercially available reflective fiber optic probe was designed to measure axial particle velocity (both up and down directions). However, the reflected light intensity measured is related to particle size and particle concentration. A light reflection model is used to relate the reflected light intensity to solids fraction. In this model we assume that the reflected light intensity is a fixed fraction, K1, of the total light intensity lost in penetration of a solid layer. Also, the solids fraction is related to particle concentration, N, in the light path, by N = K2 (1- ?), where (1-?) is the solids fraction. The parameters K1 and K2 are determined through a calibration and curve fitting procedure. This paper describes this procedure and the steps taken to derive the values of K1 and K2. It is proposed that the reflective fiber optic can be used for real time measurement of solids fraction in a circulating fluid bed.

Seachman, S.M.; Yue, P.C.; Ludlow, J.C.; Shadle, L.J.

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Fractionation of Boron Isotopes in Icelandic Hydrothermal Systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Boron isotope ratios have been determined in a variety of different geothermal waters from hydrothermal systems across Iceland. Isotope ratios from the high temperature meteoric water recharged systems reflect the isotope ratio of the host rocks without any apparent fractionation. Seawater recharged geothermal systems exhibit more positive {delta}{sup 11}B values than the meteoric water recharged geothermal systems. Water/rock ratios can be assessed from boron isotope ratios in the saline hydrothermal systems. Low temperature hydrothermal systems also exhibit more positive {delta}{sup 11}B than the high temperature systems, indicating fractionation of boron due to adsorption of the lighter isotope onto secondary minerals. Fractionation of boron in carbonate deposits may indicate the level of equilibrium attained within the systems.

Aggarwal, J.K.; Palmer, M.R.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Bulk-edge correspondence in fractional Chern insulators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It has been recently realized that strong interactions in topological Bloch bands give rise to the appearance of novel states of matter. Here we study connections between these systems -- fractional Chern insulators and the fractional quantum Hall states -- via generalization of a gauge-fixed Wannier-Qi construction in the cylinder geometry. Our setup offers a number of important advantages compared to the earlier exact diagonalization studies on a torus. Most notably, it gives access to edge states and to a single-cut orbital entanglement spectrum, hence to the physics of bulk-edge correspondence. It is also readily implemented in the state-of-the-art density matrix renormalisation group method that allows for numerical simulations of significantly larger systems. We demonstrate our general approach on examples of flat-band models on ruby and kagome lattices at bosonic filling fractions $\

Zhao Liu; D. L. Kovrizhin; Emil J. Bergholtz

2013-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "introduced fractional horsepower" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Simulation and Visualization of Chaos in a Driven Nonlinear Pendulum: An Aid to Introducing Chaotic Systems in Physics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The presence of physical systems whose characteristics change in a seemingly erratic manner gives rise to the study of chaotic systems. The characteristics of these systems are due to their hypersensitivity to changes in initial conditions. In order to understand chaotic systems, some sort of simulation and visualization is pertinent. Consequently, in this work, we have simulated and graphically visualized chaos in a driven nonlinear pendulum as a means of introducing chaotic systems. The visualized results obtained which highlight the hypersensitivity of the pendulum to initial conditions can be used to effectively introduce the physics of chaotic system. The simulation and visualization programme is written in Python codes.

Louis Ehwerhemuepha; Godfrey E. Akpojotor

2013-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

142

Fractional extensions of some boundary value problems in oil strata  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the present paper, we solve three boundary value problems related to the temperature field in oil strata -- the fractional extensions of the incomplete lumped formulation and lumped formulation in the linear case and the fractional generalization of the incomplete lumped formulation in the radial case. By using the Caputo differintegral operator and the Laplace transform, the solutions are obtained in integral forms where the integrand is expressed in terms of the convolution of some auxiliary functions of Wright function type. A generalization of the Laplace transform convolution theorem, known as Efros' theorem is widely used.

Garg, Mridula

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Effective Field Theory of Fractional Quantized Hall Nematics  

SciTech Connect

We present a Landau-Ginzburg theory for a fractional quantized Hall nematic state and the transition to it from an isotropic fractional quantum Hall state. This justifies Lifshitz-Chern-Simons theory - which is shown to be its dual - on a more microscopic basis and enables us to compute a ground state wave function in the symmetry-broken phase. In such a state of matter, the Hall resistance remains quantized while the longitudinal DC resistivity due to thermally-excited quasiparticles is anisotropic. We interpret recent experiments at Landau level filling factor {nu} = 7/3 in terms of our theory.

Mulligan, Michael; /MIT, LNS; Nayak, Chetan; /Station Q, UCSB; Kachru, Shamit; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

2012-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

144

Separation of carbon nanotubes into chirally enriched fractions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A mixture of single-walled carbon nanotubes ("SWNTs") is separated into fractions of enriched chirality by preparing an aqueous suspension of a mixture of SWNTs and a surfactant, injecting a portion of the suspension on a column of separation medium having a density gradient, and centrifuging the column. In some embodiments, salt is added prior to centrifugation. In other embodiments, the centrifugation is performed at a temperature below room temperature. Fractions separate as colored bands in the column. The diameter of the separated SWNTs decreases with increasing density along the gradient of the column. The colored bands can be withdrawn separately from the column.

Doorn, Stephen K. (Los Alamos, NM); Niyogi, Sandip (Los Alamos, NM)

2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

145

Kinetic Isotopic Fractionation During Diffusion of Ionic Speciesin Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Experiments specifically designed to measure the ratio of the diffusivities of ions dissolved in water were used to determine D{sub Li}/D{sub K}, D{sub 7{sub Li}}/D{sub 6{sub Li}}, D{sub 25{sub Mg}}/D{sub 24{sub Mg}}, D{sub 26{sub Mg}}/D{sub 25{sub Mg}}, and D{sub 37{sub Cl}}/D{sub 35{sub Cl}}. The measured ratio of the diffusion coefficients for Li and K in water (D{sub Li}/D{sub K} = 0.6) is in good agreement with published data, providing evidence that the experimental design being used resolves the relative mobility of ions with adequate precision to also be used for determining the fractionation of isotopes by diffusion in water. In the case of Li we found measurable isotopic fractionation associated with the diffusion of dissolved LiCl (D{sub 7{sub Li}}/D{sub 6{sub Li}} = 0.99772 {+-} 0.00026). This difference in the diffusion coefficient of {sup 7}Li compared to {sup 6}Li is significantly less than reported in an earlier study, a difference we attribute to the fact that in the earlier study Li diffused through a membrane separating the water reservoirs. Our experiments involving Mg diffusing in water found no measurable isotopic fractionation (D{sub 25{sub Mg}}/D{sub 24{sub Mg}} = 1.00003 {+-} 0.00006). Cl isotopes were fractionated during diffusion in water (D{sub 37{sub Cl}}/D{sub 35{sub Cl}} = 0.99857 {+-} 0.00080) whether or not the co-diffuser (Li or Mg) was isotopically fractionated. The isotopic fractionation associated with the diffusion of ions in water is much smaller than values we found previously for the isotopic fractionation of Li and Ca isotopes by diffusion in molten silicate liquids. A major distinction between water and silicate liquids is that water, being a polar liquid, surrounds dissolved ions with hydration shells, which very likely play an important but still poorly understood role in reducing isotopic fractionation associated with diffusion.

Richter, Frank M.; Mendybaev, Ruslan A.; Christensen, John; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Williams, Ross W.; Sturchio, Neil C.; Beloso Jr.,Abelardo D.

2005-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

146

Practical Guide to Vegetable Oil ProcessingChapter 10 Winterization and Fractionation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Practical Guide to Vegetable Oil Processing Chapter 10 Winterization and Fractionation Processing eChapters Processing Press Downloadable pdf of Chapter 10 Winterization and Fractionation from the book ...

147

A Method for Introducing Nonuniform Grids into the FDTD Solution of the Transmission-Line Equations Based on the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Method for Introducing Nonuniform Grids into the FDTD Solution of the Transmission-Line Equations, a nonuniformly spaced grid can be mapped onto a uniformly spaced grid where a standard set of FDTD update system transformation, a nonuniformly spaced grid can be mapped onto a uniformly spaced grid where a (2,p

148

Abstract--Market based contracting introduces increased competition in the power industry, and creates a need for  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

electric market. Deregulation exposes GENCOs to risks and uncertainties. Electric energy sales by a GENCO? The framework for the analysis is a simplified day-ahead auction where the market is cleared one day in advance1 Abstract-- Market based contracting introduces increased competition in the power industry

Berleant, Daniel

149

I.TclBasics Part I introduces the basics of Tcl. Everyone should read Chapter 1, which  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 P A R T I.TclBasics I Tcl Basics Part I introduces the basics of Tcl. Everyone should read Chapter 1, which describes the fundamental properties of the language. Tcl is really quite simple, so misconceptions that come from using other lan- guages. Chapter 2 is a short introduction to running Tcl and Tk

Chen, Yuanzhu Peter

150

Microsoft Project: Essentials for Beginners This course aims to help you manage projects, both small and large, by introducing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

materials Costs Constraints and deadlines Project monitoring Printing Course Format: This is a oneMicrosoft Project: Essentials for Beginners Overview: This course aims to help you manage projects, both small and large, by introducing you to Microsoft Project 2007. The course covers the important

Frean, Marcus

151

Abstract --The paper introduces a concept for integration of substation IED data, primarily coming from digital protective  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract -- The paper introduces a concept for integration of substation IED data, primarily coming from digital protective relays (DPRs) and digital fault recorders (DFRs) . Modern substations similar to that of DFRs. In some recent substation designs there are cases where DFR function is replaced

Kezunovic, Mladen

152

Overview for the Biofuels Unit This set of three laboratory experiments introduces students to biofuels. These labs,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Overview for the Biofuels Unit This set of three laboratory experiments introduces students to biofuels. These labs, which can be run in three consecutive weeks, give students the opportunity to explore the chemical properties of biofuels from three different perspectives. During the first week students

153

EEE 565 Solar Cells Course Objective: To introduce the basic concepts of the operation of photovoltaic devices, the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

solar cell technologies, and how they are integrated into solar cell systems. Topics: 1) PhotovoltaicEEE 565 Solar Cells Fall 2012 Course Objective: To introduce the basic concepts of the operation of photovoltaic devices, the major technologies, and the impact of materials and device structure

Zhang, Junshan

154

Airborne release fractions/rates and respirable fractions for nonreactor nuclear facilities. Volume 1, Analysis of experimental data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This handbook contains (1) a systematic compilation of airborne release and respirable fraction experimental data for nonreactor nuclear facilities, (2) assessments of the data, and (3) values derived from assessing the data that may be used in safety analyses when the data are applicable. To assist in consistent and effective use of this information, the handbook provides: identification of a consequence determination methodology in which the information can be used; discussion of the applicability of the information and its general technical limits; identification of specific accident phenomena of interest for which the information is applicable; and examples of use of the consequence determination methodology and airborne release and respirable fraction information.

Not Available

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Optical transformation from chirplet to fractional Fourier transformation kernel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We find a new integration transformation which can convert a chirplet function to fractional Fourier transformation kernel, this new transformation is invertible and obeys Parseval theorem. Under this transformation a new relationship between a phase space function and its Weyl-Wigner quantum correspondence operator is revealed.

Hong-yi Fan; Li-yun Hu

2009-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

156

Optical transformation from chirplet to fractional Fourier transformation kernel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We find a new integration transformation which can convert a chirplet function to fractional Fourier transformation kernel, this new transformation is invertible and obeys Parseval theorem. Under this transformation a new relationship between a phase space function and its Weyl-Wigner quantum correspondence operator is revealed.

Fan, Hong-yi

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Dynamic frequency allocation in fractional frequency reused OFDMA networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper proposes a dynamic fractional frequency reused cell architecture that simplifies the problem of subcarrier allocation with frequency reuse in multicell OFDMA networks. The architecture divides the cell surface into two overlapping geographical ... Keywords: 3G, cellular networks, cross-layer adaptation, data networks, mobile communication systems, opportunistic scheduling, wireless communication

Syed Hussain Ali; Victor C. M. Leung

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Linear Stochastic Fractional Programming with Sum-of-Probabilistic ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

theory and solution methods for various types of fractional programs. ... many industries including airlines, energy, manufacturing and telecommunications. .... model is used by hospital administrators in the State of Texas to decide on relative ... matrix. The i th deterministic constraint for (2.2) is obtained from [7-11] as. ?. = n.

159

Anaerobic digestion of the liquid fraction of dairy manure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors tested several solid liquid separation systems suitable for processing dairy manure prior to anaerobic digestion. None of the systems tried have completely satisfied the requirements. Evaluated effects of separation on biogas production. Unseparated dairy manure produced more biogas than the liquid fraction.

Haugen, V.; Dahlberg, S.; Lindley, J.A.

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Process for removing polymer-forming impurities from naphtha fraction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Polymer precursor materials are vaporized without polymerization or are removed from a raw naphtha fraction by passing the raw naphtha to a vaporization zone and vaporizing the naphtha in the presence of a wash oil while stripping with hot hydrogen to prevent polymer deposits in the equipment. 2 figs.

Kowalczyk, D.C.; Bricklemyer, B.A.; Svoboda, J.J.

1983-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "introduced fractional horsepower" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Process for removing polymer-forming impurities from naphtha fraction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Polymer precursor materials are vaporized without polymerization or are removed from a raw naphtha fraction by passing the raw naphtha to a vaporization zone (24) and vaporizing the naphtha in the presence of a wash oil while stripping with hot hydrogen to prevent polymer deposits in the equipment.

Kowalczyk, Dennis C. (Pittsburgh, PA); Bricklemyer, Bruce A. (Avonmore, PA); Svoboda, Joseph J. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Examination of sharing fractions for prices and quantities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

When the Household Model of Energy (HOME) and Commercial Sector Energy Model (CSEM) are run as modules in the Intermediate Future Forecasting System (IFFS), the interfacing variables (prices and consumption of fuels) have to be adjusted to their aggregated regional levels. Both HOME and CSEM operate at a level of 4 Census Regions whereas IFFS uses 10 federal Regions. This makes it necessary to aggregate the prices provided by IFFS to the 4 Census Regions and to disaggregate the sectoral consumption values calculated by HOME and CSEM to the 10 federal Regions. An examination of the historical fractions for consumption levels and prices by fuels and sectors (residential and commercial) was performed to substantiate the assumption that changes of these fractions over time are not significant. This assumption is presently employed in both HOME and CSEM. The fractions which are presently used were calculated for each fuel based on the consumption data for the year 1980. These fractions, once evaluated, are used for sharing both prices and consumption throughout the forecasting period.

Meyer, M.

1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

FRACTIONATION OF LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS FOR FUEL-GRADE ETHANOL PRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect

PureVision Technology, Inc. (PureVision) of Fort Lupton, Colorado is developing a process for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fuel-grade ethanol and specialty chemicals in order to enhance national energy security, rural economies, and environmental quality. Lignocellulosic-containing plants are those types of biomass that include wood, agricultural residues, and paper wastes. Lignocellulose is composed of the biopolymers cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Cellulose, a polymer of glucose, is the component in lignocellulose that has potential for the production of fuel-grade ethanol by direct fermentation of the glucose. However, enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose and raw cellulose into glucose is hindered by the presence of lignin. The cellulase enzyme, which hydrolyzes cellulose to glucose, becomes irreversibly bound to lignin. This requires using the enzyme in reagent quantities rather than in catalytic concentration. The extensive use of this enzyme is expensive and adversely affects the economics of ethanol production. PureVision has approached this problem by developing a biomass fractionator to pretreat the lignocellulose to yield a highly pure cellulose fraction. The biomass fractionator is based on sequentially treating the biomass with hot water, hot alkaline solutions, and polishing the cellulose fraction with a wet alkaline oxidation step. In September 2001 PureVision and Western Research Institute (WRI) initiated a jointly sponsored research project with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate their pretreatment technology, develop an understanding of the chemistry, and provide the data required to design and fabricate a one- to two-ton/day pilot-scale unit. The efforts during the first year of this program completed the design, fabrication, and shakedown of a bench-scale reactor system and evaluated the fractionation of corn stover. The results from the evaluation of corn stover have shown that water hydrolysis prior to alkaline hydrolysis may be beneficial in removing hemicellulose and lignin from the feedstock. In addition, alkaline hydrolysis has been shown to remove a significant portion of the hemicellulose and lignin. The resulting cellulose can be exposed to a finishing step with wet alkaline oxidation to remove the remaining lignin. The final product is a highly pure cellulose fraction containing less than 1% of the native lignin with an overall yield in excess of 85% of the native cellulose. This report summarizes the results from the first year's effort to move the technology to commercialization.

F.D. Guffey; R.C. Wingerson

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Silicon Isotopic Fractionation of CAI-like Vacuum Evaporation Residues  

SciTech Connect

Calcium-, aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are often enriched in the heavy isotopes of magnesium and silicon relative to bulk solar system materials. It is likely that these isotopic enrichments resulted from evaporative mass loss of magnesium and silicon from early solar system condensates while they were molten during one or more high-temperature reheating events. Quantitative interpretation of these enrichments requires laboratory determinations of the evaporation kinetics and associated isotopic fractionation effects for these elements. The experimental data for the kinetics of evaporation of magnesium and silicon and the evaporative isotopic fractionation of magnesium is reasonably complete for Type B CAI liquids (Richter et al., 2002, 2007a). However, the isotopic fractionation factor for silicon evaporating from such liquids has not been as extensively studied. Here we report new ion microprobe silicon isotopic measurements of residual glass from partial evaporation of Type B CAI liquids into vacuum. The silicon isotopic fractionation is reported as a kinetic fractionation factor, {alpha}{sub Si}, corresponding to the ratio of the silicon isotopic composition of the evaporation flux to that of the residual silicate liquid. For CAI-like melts, we find that {alpha}{sub Si} = 0.98985 {+-} 0.00044 (2{sigma}) for {sup 29}Si/{sup 28}Si with no resolvable variation with temperature over the temperature range of the experiments, 1600-1900 C. This value is different from what has been reported for evaporation of liquid Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} (Davis et al., 1990) and of a melt with CI chondritic proportions of the major elements (Wang et al., 2001). There appears to be some compositional control on {alpha}{sub Si}, whereas no compositional effects have been reported for {alpha}{sub Mg}. We use the values of {alpha}Si and {alpha}Mg, to calculate the chemical compositions of the unevaporated precursors of a number of isotopically fractionated CAIs from CV chondrites whose chemical compositions and magnesium and silicon isotopic compositions have been previously measured.

Knight, K; Kita, N; Mendybaev, R; Richter, F; Davis, A; Valley, J

2009-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

165

the Fractional Flotation of Flotation Column Particles Opportunity  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Enhancing Selectivity and Recovery in Enhancing Selectivity and Recovery in the Fractional Flotation of Flotation Column Particles Opportunity Although research is currently inactive on the patented technology "Method for Enhancing Selectivity and Recovery in the Fractional Flotation of Flotation Column Particles," the technology is available for licensing from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Disclosed in this patent is a method of particle separation from a feed stream comprised of particles of varying hydrophobicity by injecting the feed stream directly into the froth zone of a vertical flotation column in the presence of a counter-current reflux stream. The current invention allows the height of the feed stream injection and the reflux ratio to be

166

Magic Doping Fractions in High-Temperature Superconductors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report hole-doping dependence of the in-plane resistivity {rho}{sub ab} in a cuprate superconductor La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4}, carefully examined using a series of high-quality single crystals. Our detailed measurements find a tendency towards charge ordering at particular rational hole doping fractions of 1/16, 3/32, 1/8, and 3/16. This observation appears to suggest a specific form of charge order and is most consistent with the recent theoretical prediction of the checkerboard-type ordering of the Cooper pairs at rational doping fractions x = (2m + 1)/2{sup n}, with integers m and n.

Komiya, Seiki; /CRIEPI, Tokyo; Chen, Han-Dong; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Ando, Yoichi; /CRIEPI, Tokyo

2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

167

Method and apparatus for probing relative volume fractions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A relative volume fraction probe particularly for use in a multiphase fluid system includes two parallel conductive paths defining there between a sample zone within the system. A generating unit generates time varying electrical signals which are inserted into one of the two parallel conductive paths. A time domain reflectometer receives the time varying electrical signals returned by the second of the two parallel conductive paths and, responsive thereto, outputs a curve of impedance versus distance. An analysis unit then calculates the area under the curve, subtracts the calculated area from an area produced when the sample zone consists entirely of material of a first fluid phase, and divides this calculated difference by the difference between an area produced when the sample zone consists entirely of material of the first fluid phase and an area produced when the sample zone consists entirely of material of a second fluid phase. The result is the volume fraction.

Jandrasits, W.G.; Kikta, T.J.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

168

A fractional dispersion model for overland solute transport  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using the kinematic-wave overland flow equation and a fractional dispersion-advection equation, a process-oriented, physically-based model is developed for overland solute transport. Two scenarios, one consisting of downslope and the other of upslope rainstorm movements, are considered for numerical computations. Under these conditions, the hydrograph displays a long-tailed distribution due to the variation in flow velocity in both time and distance. The solute transport exhibits a complex behavior. Pollutographs are characterized by a steep rising limb, with a peak, and a long, stretched receding limb; whereas the solute concentration distributions feature a rapid receding limb followed by a long stretched rising limb. Downslope moving storms cause much higher peak in both hydrographs and pollutographs than do upslope moving storms. Both hydrographs and the pollutographs predicted by the fractional dispersion model are in good agreement with the data measured experimentally using a soil flume and a moving rainfall simulator.

Deng, Zhi-Qiang; de Lima, M. Isabel P.; Singh, Vijay P.; de Lima, Jo??o L. M. P.

2006-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

169

Measurement of the B -> D(*)D(*)K Branching Fractions  

SciTech Connect

The authors present a measurement of the branching fractions of the 22 decay channels of the B{sup 0} and B{sup +} mesons to {bar D}{sup (*)}D{sup (*)}K, where the D{sup (*)} and {bar D}{sup (*)} mesons are fully reconstructed. Summing the 10 neutral modes and the 12 charged modes, the branching fractions are found to be {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {bar D}{sup (*)}D{sup (*)}K) = (3.68 {+-} 0.10 {+-} 0.24)% and {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} {bar D}{sup (*)}D{sup (*)}K) = (4.05 {+-} 0.11 {+-} 0.28)%, where the first uncertainties are statistical and the second systematic. The results are based on 429 fb{sup -1} of data containing 471 x 10{sup 6} B{bar B} pairs collected at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance with the BABAR detector at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory.

Sanchez, P.del Amo

2010-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

170

Branching Fraction Measurement of B to omega l nu decays  

SciTech Connect

We present a measurement of the B{sup +} {yields} {omega}{ell}{sup +}{nu} branching fraction based on a sample of 467 million B{bar B} pairs recorded by the BABAR detector at the SLAC PEP-II e{sup +}e{sup -} collider. We observe 1041 {+-} 133 signal decays, corresponding to a branching fraction of {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} {omega}{ell}{sup +}{nu}) = (1.15 {+-} 0.15 {+-} 0.12) x 10{sup -4}, where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic. The dependence of the decay rate on q{sup 2}, the momentum transfer squared to the lepton system, is compared to QCD predictions of the form factors based on a quark model and light-cone sum rules.

Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; /Annecy, LAPP; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; /Barcelona U., ECM; Palano, A.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; /Bergen U.; Brown, D.N.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; /Ruhr U., Bochum; Asgeirsson, D.J.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T.S.; McKenna, J.A.; So, R.Y.; /British Columbia U.; Khan, A.; /Brunel U.; Blinov, V.E.; /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UC, Riverside /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Indian Inst. Tech., Guwahati /Harvard U. /Harvey Mudd Coll. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa State U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Manchester U., Comp. Sci. Dept. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT /McGill U. /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U.; /more authors..

2012-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

171

Topological Flat Band Models and Fractional Chern Insulators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Topological insulators and their intriguing edge states can be understood in a single-particle picture and can as such be exhaustively classified. Interactions significantly complicate this picture and can lead to entirely new insulating phases, with an altogether much richer and less explored phenomenology. Most saliently, lattice generalizations of fractional quantum Hall states, dubbed fractional Chern insulators, have recently been predicted to be stabilized by interactions within nearly dispersionless bands with non-zero Chern number, $C$. Contrary to their continuum analogues, these states do not require an external magnetic field and may potentially persist even at room temperature, which make these systems very attractive for possible applications such as topological quantum computation. This review recapitulates the basics of tight-binding models hosting nearly flat bands with non-trivial topology, $C\

Emil J. Bergholtz; Zhao Liu

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Measurement of the B -> Dbar(*)D(*)K branching fractions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a measurement of the branching fractions of the 22 decay channels of the B0 and B+ mesons to Dbar(*)D(*)K, where the D(*) and Dbar(*) mesons are fully reconstructed. Summing the 10 neutral modes and the 12 charged modes, the branching fractions are found to be B(B0 -> Dbar(*)D(*)K) = (3.68 +- 0.10 +- 0.24)% and B(B+ -> Dbar(*)D(*)K) = (4.05 +- 0.11 +- 0.28)%, where the first uncertainties are statistical and the second systematic. The results are based on 429 fb^-1 of data containing 471.10^6 BBbar pairs collected at the Y(4S) resonance with the BaBar detector at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory.

Sanchez, P del Amo

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Fractional dynamics in the L\\'evy quantum kicked rotor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the quantum kicked rotor in resonance subjected to momentum measurements with a L\\'evy waiting time distribution. We find that the system has a sub-ballistic behavior. We obtain an analytical expression for the exponent of the power law of the variance as a function of the characteristic parameter of the L\\'evy distribution and connect this anomalous diffusion with a fractional dynamics.

Romanelli, Alejandro

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Fractional dynamics in the Lvy quantum kicked rotor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the quantum kicked rotor in resonance subjected to momentum measurements with a L\\'evy waiting time distribution. We find that the system has a sub-ballistic behavior. We obtain an analytical expression for the exponent of the power law of the variance as a function of the characteristic parameter of the L\\'evy distribution and connect this anomalous diffusion with a fractional dynamics.

Alejandro Romanelli

2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

175

Gas phase fractionation method using porous ceramic membrane  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Flaw-free porous ceramic membranes fabricated from metal sols and coated onto a porous support are advantageously used in gas phase fractionation methods. Mean pore diameters of less than 40 .ANG., preferably 5-20 .ANG. and most preferably about 15 .ANG., are permeable at lower pressures than existing membranes. Condensation of gases in small pores and non-Knudsen membrane transport mechanisms are employed to facilitate and increase membrane permeability and permselectivity.

Peterson, Reid A. (Madison, WI); Hill, Jr., Charles G. (Madison, WI); Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

RECOVERY OF Pu VALUES BY FLUORINATION AND FRACTIONATION  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is presented for the concentration and recovery of plutonium by fluorination and fractionation. A metallic mass containing uranium and plutonium is heated to 250 C and contacted with a stream of elemental fluorine. After fluorination of the metallic mass, the rcaction products are withdrawn and subjected to a distillation treatment to separate the fluorination products of uranium and to obtain a residue containing the fluorination products of plutonium.

Brown, H.S.; Webster, D.S.

1959-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

177

Sensor for measuring the atomic fraction in highly dissociated hydrogen  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Atomic hydrogen is a very important constituent for processes ranging from cleaning oxide from GaAs and annealing amorphous silicon to the deposition of diamond. Because the usual techniques for measuring atomic fraction are either expensive and cumbersome to use, or unsuitable for application to highly dissociated hydrogen, a specially designed sensor was developed. Sensor design is based on a diffusion tube with noncatalytic walls, having one end open to the atom source and a catalytic closure at the other end. The sensor is simple and inexpensive to fabricate, and determining atom density is straightforward. Sensor design also inhibits thermal runaway, which occurs when atom density is high enough to impart enough recombination energy to the non-catalytic surface to substantially raise its temperature. While recombination coefficients for such surfaces are very low near room temperature, they increase nearly exponentially with temperature unless actively cooled. With the use of a straightforward calibration scheme to determine the variation in species fraction along the diffusion tube, the atomic fraction at the tube opening is determined. Design strategy, implementation considerations, and calibration method are presented. In addition, data obtained from an atomic hydrogen source are compared to relevant published data.

Gardner, W.L.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

178

Quantum mechanics in fractional and other anomalous spacetimes  

SciTech Connect

We formulate quantum mechanics in spacetimes with real-order fractional geometry and more general factorizable measures. In spacetimes where coordinates and momenta span the whole real line, Heisenberg's principle is proven and the wave-functions minimizing the uncertainty are found. In spite of the fact that ordinary time and spatial translations are broken and the dynamics is not unitary, the theory is in one-to-one correspondence with a unitary one, thus allowing us to employ standard tools of analysis. These features are illustrated in the examples of the free particle and the harmonic oscillator. While fractional (and the more general anomalous-spacetime) free models are formally indistinguishable from ordinary ones at the classical level, at the quantum level they differ both in the Hilbert space and for a topological term fixing the classical action in the path integral formulation. Thus, all non-unitarity in fractional quantum dynamics is encoded in a contribution depending only on the initial and final states.

Calcagni, Gianluca [Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Golm (Germany); Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Nardelli, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Universita Cattolica, via Musei 41, 25121 Brescia (Italy); INFN Gruppo Collegato di Trento, Universita di Trento, 38100 Povo (Trento) (Italy); Scalisi, Marco [Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Golm (Germany); Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

179

Fractionation of reformate: A new variant of gasoline production technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Novo-Ufa Petroleum Refinery is the largest domestic producer of the unique high-octane unleaded automotive gasolines AI-93 and AI-95 and the aviation gasolines B-91/115 and B-92. The base component for these gasolines is obtained by catalytic reforming of wide-cut naphtha; this basic component is usually blended with certain other components that are expensive and in short supply: toluene, xylenes, and alkylate. For example, the unleaded gasoline AI-93 has been prepared by blending reformate, alkylate, and toluene in a 65:20:15 weight ratio; AI-95 gasoline by blending alkylate and xylenes in an 80:20 weight ratio; and B-91/115 gasoline by compounding a reformate obtained with light straight-run feed, plus alkylate and toluene, in a 55:35:10 weight ratio. Toluene and xylenes have been obtained by process schemes that include the following consecutive processes: redistillation of straight-run naphtha cuts to segregate the required narrow fraction; catalytic reforming (Platforming) of the narrow toluene-xylene straight-run fraction; azeotropic distillation of the reformate to recover toluene and xylenes. A new technology based on the use of reformate fractions is proposed.

Karakuts, V.N.; Tanatarov, M.A.; Telyashev, G.G. [and others

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Technology evaluation of the Stirling engine for stationary power generation in the 500 to 2000 horsepower range  

SciTech Connect

Results are presented of a study undertaken to assess the potential and development status of the Stirling engine and recommendations are made for a possible program to develop 500 to 2000 hp stationary Stirling engines for commercial introduction by the late 1980's. Information is included on the operation, performance, historical development, and design of Stirling engines; requirements and characteristics of associated combustion systems; economics; technology advances needed; and the technological risks involved in developing Stirling engines for stationary power generation. (LCL)

Hogland, L.C.; Percival, W.H.

1978-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "introduced fractional horsepower" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Design and development of Stirling engines for stationary power generation applications in the 500 to 3000 horsepower range  

SciTech Connect

Initial work in a project on the design and development of Stirling engines for stationary integrated energy systems is reported. Information is included on a market assessment, design methodology, evaluation of engine thermodynamic performance, and preliminary system design. It is concluded that Stirling engines employing clean fossil fuels cannot compete with diesel engines. However, combustion technology exists for the successful burning of coal-derived fuels in a large stationary stirling engine. High thermal efficiency is predicted for such an engine and further development work is recommended. (LCL)

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Let me introduce myself  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Page 1. Opening Statement by Burton Squires For the Election Assistance Commission (EAC) Technical Guidelines Development ...

2010-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

183

Transport in the spatially tempered, fractional Fokker-Planck equation  

SciTech Connect

A study of truncated Levy flights in super-diffusive transport in the presence of an external potential is presented. The study is based on the spatially tempered, fractional Fokker-Planck (TFFP) equation in which the fractional diffusion operator is replaced by a tempered fractional diffusion (TFD) operator. We focus on harmonic (quadratic) potentials and periodic potentials with broken spatial symmetry. The main objective is to study the dependence of the steady-state probability density function (PDF), and the current (in the case of periodic potentials) on the level of tempering, lambda, and on the order of the fractional derivative in space, alpha. An expansion of the TFD operator for large lambda is presented, and the corresponding equation for the coarse grained PDF is obtained. The steady-state PDF solution of the TFFP equation for a harmonic potential is computed numerically. In the limit lambda -> infinity, the PDF approaches the expected Boltzmann distribution. However, nontrivial departures from this distribution are observed for finite (lambda > 0) truncations, and alpha not equal 2. In the study of periodic potentials, we use two complementary numerical methods: a finite-difference scheme based on the Grunwald-Letnikov discretization of the truncated fractional derivatives and a Fourier-based spectral method. In the limit lambda -> infinity, the PDFs converges to the Boltzmann distribution and the current vanishes. However, for alpha not equal 2, the PDF deviates from the Boltzmann distribution and a finite non-equilibrium ratchet current appears for any lambda > 0. The current is observed to converge exponentially in time to the steady-state value. The steady-state current exhibits algebraical decay with lambda, as J similar to lambda(-zeta), for alpha >= 1.75. However, for alpha <= 1.5, the steady-state current decays exponentially with lambda, as J similar to e(-xi lambda). In the presence of an asymmetry in the TFD operator, the tempering can lead to a current reversal. A detailed numerical study is presented on the dependence of the current on lambda and the physical parameters of the system.

Kullberg, A. [University of California, Los Angeles; Del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego B [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

DOE-HDBK-3010-94; Airborne Release Fractions/Rates and Respirable Fractions for Nonreactor Nuclear Facilities, Volume II  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

3010-94 3010-94 December 1994 DOE HANDBOOK AIRBORNE RELEASE FRACTIONS/RATES AND RESPIRABLE FRACTIONS FOR NONREACTOR NUCLEAR FACILITIES Volume II - Appendices U.S. Department of Energy AREA SAFT Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This document has been reproduced directly from the best available copy. Available to DOE and DOE contractors from the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, P.O. Box 62, Oak Ridge, TN 37831; (615) 576-8401. Available to the public from the U.S. Department of Commerce, Technology Administration, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161; (703) 487-4650. Order No. DE95004711 DOE-HDBK-3010-94 Page i VOLUME II: APPENDICES APPENDIX A

185

Field-Flow Fractionation of Carbon Nanotubes and Related Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the grant period, we carried out FFF studies of carbonaceous soot, single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes, carbon nano-onions and polyoxometallates. FFF alone does not provide enough information to fully characterize samples, so our suite of characterization techniques grew to include light scattering (especially Photon Correlation Spectroscopy), scanning and transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and spectroscopic methods. We developed convenient techniques to deposit and examine minute FFF fractions by electron microscopy. In collaboration with Arthur Cammers (University of Kentucky), we used Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (Fl-FFF) to monitor the solution-phase growth of keplerates, a class of polyoxometallate (POM) nanoparticles. We monitored the evolution of Mo-POM nanostructures over the course of weeks by by using flow field-flow fractionation and corroborated the nanoparticle structures by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Total molybdenum in the solution and precipitate phases was monitored by using inductively coupled plasma analyses, and total Mo-POM concentration by following the UV-visible spectra of the solution phase. We observe crystallization-driven formation of (Mo132) keplerate and solution phase-driven evolution of structurally related nanoscopic species (3-60 nm). FFF analyses of other classes of materials were less successful. Attempts to analyze platelets of layered materials, including exfoliated graphite (graphene) and TaS2 and MoS2, were disappointing. We were not able to optimize flow conditions for the layered materials. The metal sulfides react with the aqueous carrier liquid and settle out of suspension quickly because of their high density.

John P. Selegue

2011-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

186

Article Removal of Mercury by Foam Fractionation Using Surfactin,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: The separation of mercury ions from artificially contaminated water by the foam fractionation process using a biosurfactant (surfactin) and chemical surfactants (SDS and Tween-80) was investigated in this study. Parameters such as surfactant and mercury concentration, pH, foam volume, and digestion time were varied and their effects on the efficiency of mercury removal were investigated. The recovery efficiency of mercury ionsInt. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12 8246 was highly sensitive to the concentration of the surfactant. The highest mercury ion recovery by surfactin was obtained using a surfactin concentration of 10 CMC, while recovery using SDS required 10 CMC. However, the enrichment of mercury

A Biosurfactant; Hau-ren Chen; Chien-cheng Chen; A. Satyanarayana Reddy; Chien-yen Chen; Wun Rong Li; Min-jen Tseng; Hung-tsan Liu; Wei Pan; Jyoti Prakash Maity; Shashi B. Atla

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Interaction-induced fractional Bloch and tunneling oscillations  

SciTech Connect

We study the dynamics of few interacting bosons in a one-dimensional lattice with dc bias. In the absence of interactions the system displays single-particle Bloch oscillations. For strong interaction the Bloch oscillation regime re-emerges with fractional Bloch periods which are inversely proportional to the number of bosons clustered into a bound state. The interaction strength affects the oscillation amplitude. Excellent agreement is found between numerical data and a composite particle dynamics approach. For specific values of the interaction strength, a particle will tunnel from the interacting cloud to a well-defined distant lattice location.

Khomeriki, Ramaz [Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Noethnitzer Strasse 38, D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Physics Department, Tbilisi State University, Chavchavadze 3, 0128 Tbilisi (Georgia); Krimer, Dmitry O.; Haque, Masudul; Flach, Sergej [Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Noethnitzer Strasse 38, D-01187 Dresden (Germany)

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

188

Energy Efficiency in Cryogenic Fractionation Through Distributive Distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Advanced Recovery System (ARS) is a patented process that uses the principle of distributed distillation to achieve energy efficiency in the olefins process. This paper describes the concept of ARS and how, by integrating the chill-down and cryogenic fractionation steps, the technology can significantly reduce refrigeration power requirements. ARS technology can be applied to revamps of existing plants as well as new plant designs. Additional applications are now being considered in the integration of refinery off-gas streams with other olefins process.

Carradine, C. R.; McCue, R. H.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

A high precision instrument to measure angular and binocular deviation introduced by aircraft windscreens by using a shadow casting technique  

SciTech Connect

Objects viewed through transparent sheets with residual non-parallelism and irregularity appear shifted and distorted. This distortion is measured in terms of angular and binocular deviation of an object viewed through the transparent sheet. The angular and binocular deviations introduced are particularly important in the context of aircraft windscreens and canopies as they can interfere with decision making of pilots especially while landing, leading to accidents. In this work, we have developed an instrument to measure both the angular and binocular deviations introduced by transparent sheets. This instrument is especially useful in the qualification of aircraft windscreens and canopies. It measures the deviation in the geometrical shadow cast by a periodic dot pattern trans-illuminated by the distorted light beam from the transparent test specimen compared to the reference pattern. Accurate quantification of the shift in the pattern is obtained by cross-correlating the reference shadow pattern with the specimen shadow pattern and measuring the location of the correlation peak. The developed instrument is handy to use and computes both angular and binocular deviation with an accuracy of less than {+-}0.1 mrad ( Almost-Equal-To 0.036 mrad) and has an excellent repeatability with an error of less than 2%.

Shivananju, B. N.; Yamdagni, S. [Department of Instrumentation and Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Vasu, R. M. [Department of Instrumentation and Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Applied Photonics Initiative, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Asokan, S. [Department of Instrumentation and Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Applied Photonics Initiative, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Robert Bosch Centre for Cyber Physical Systems, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

190

Protein Solubility, Digestibility and Fractionation after Germination of Sorghum Varieties  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The changes in crude protein, free amino acids, amino acid composition, protein solubility, protein fractionation and protein digestibility after germination of sorghum were investigated. Sorghum varieties (Dorado, Shandaweel-6, Giza-15) were soaked for 20 h followed by germination for 72 h; the results revealed that crude protein and free amino acids in raw sorghum varieties ranged from 10.62 to 12.46 % and 0.66 to 1.03 mg/g, respectively. Shandaweel-6 was the highest variety in crude protein and free amino acids content. After germination, crude protein was decreased and free amino acids were increased. There was an increase in content of valine and phenylalanine amino acids after germination. On the other hand, there was a decrease in most of amino acids after germination. After germination protein solubility was significantly increased. Regarding protein fractions, there was an increase in albumin, globulin and kafirin proteins and a decrease in cross linked kafirin and cross linked glutelin after germination.

Abd El-moneim M. R. Afify; Hossam S. El-beltagi; Samiha M. Abd El-salam; Azza A. Omran

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

TRANSFORMERLESS OPERATION OF DIII-D WITH HIGH BOOTSTRAP FRACTION  

SciTech Connect

OAK-B135 The authors have initiated an experimental program to address some of the questions associated with operation of a tokamak with high bootstrap current fraction under high performance conditions, without assistance from a transformer. In these discharges they have maintained stationary (or slowly improving) conditions for > 2.2 s at {beta}{sub N} {approx} {beta}{sub p} {approx} 2.8. Significant current overdrive, with dI/dt > 50 kA/s and zero or negative voltage, is sustained for over 0.7 s. The overdrive condition is usually ended with the appearance of MHD activity, which alters the profiles and reduces the bootstrap current. Characteristically these plasmas have 65%-80% bootstrap current, 25%-30% NBCD, and 5%-10% ECCD. Fully noninductive operation is essential for steady-state tokamaks. For efficient operation, the bootstrap current fraction must be close to 100%, allowing for a small additional ({approx} 10%) external current drive capability to be used for control. In such plasmas the current and pressure profiles are rightly coupled because J(r) is entirely determined by p(r) (or more accurately by the kinetic profiles). The pressure gradient in turn is determined by transport coefficients which depend on the poloidal field profile.

POLITZER,PA; HYATT,AW; LUCE,TC; MAHDAVI,MA; MURAKAMI,M; PERKINS,FW; PRATER,R; TURNBULL,AD; CASPER,TA; FERRON,JR; JAYAKUMAR,RJ; LAHAYE,RJ; LAZARUS,EA; PETTY,CC; WADE,MR

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Healthful LipidsChapter 30 Palm Oil, Its Fractions, and Components  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Healthful Lipids Chapter 30 Palm Oil, Its Fractions, and Components Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry AOCS Press Downloadable pdf of Chapter 30 Palm Oil, Its Fractions, an

193

Utilization of Ash Fractions from Alternative Biofuels used in Power Plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Utilization of Ash Fractions from Alternative Biofuels used in Power Plants PSO Project No. 6356 July 2008 Renewable Energy and Transport #12;2 Utilization of Ash Fractions from Alternative Biofuels)...............................................................................7 2. Production of Ash Products from Mixed Biofuels

194

Fractionation of phenolic compounds from a purple corn extract and evaluation of antioxidant and antimutagenic activities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of anthocyanins and other phenolic compounds from a purple corn extract was performed. The purple corn extract had cyanidin-3-glucoside, pelargonidin-3-glucoside, peonidin-3-glucoside and its respective acylated anthocyanin-glucosides. Cyadinin-3glucoside was the main constituent (44.4 ?? 4.7%) followed by the acylated cyanidin-3-glucoside (26.9 ?? 8.0%). Other phenolic compounds present in the purple corn corresponded to protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid, and p-coumaric acid. In addition, quercetin derivatives, a hesperitin derivative and pcoumaric and ferulic acid derivatives were found. Fractionation of phenolic compounds yielded two main fractions, an anthocyanin-rich water fraction (WF) and an ethyl acetate fraction (EAF). Evaluation of antimutagenic activity in both fractions revealed higher antimutagenic activity in the ethyl acetate fraction compared to the anthocyanin-rich fraction. On the other hand, antioxidant activity of the anthocyanin-rich fraction was higher compared to the ethyl acetate fraction. Further fractionation of the anthocyanin-rich fraction in a Toyopearl HW40 gel permeation column yielded five sub-fractions which showed no difference in antimutagenic activity except for the water sub-fraction WF-V. All the sub-fractions were active as antimutagens and antioxidants. Further fractionation of the ethyl acetate fraction yielded four sub-fractions that showed to be active as antimutagens and antioxidants. Ethyl acetate sub-fraction EAF-IV was the most active as an antimutagen. HPLC-DAD characterization of that sub-fraction revealed mainly the presence of a quercetin derivative with UV-visible spectral characteristics similar to rutin but with a little longer retention time. The mechanism of antimutagenic action by the phenolic compounds present either in the anthocyanin-rich fraction or the ethyl acetate fraction and sub-fraction EAFIV seems to be a contribution of a direct action on the enzymes involved in the activation of the mutagen and to the scavenging activity of the mutagen nucleophiles, as demonstrated by our assays.

Pedreschi, Romina Paola

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Transformation Property of the Caputo Fractional Differential Operator in Two Dimensional Space  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The transformation property of the Caputo fractional derivative operator of a scalar function under rotation in two dimensional space is derived. The study of the transformation property is essential for the formulation of fractional calculus in multi-dimensional space. The inclusion of fractional calculus in the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian dynamics relies on such transformation. An illustrative example is given.

Ehab Malkawi

2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

196

Least-Squares Spectral Method for the solution of a fractional advection-dispersion equation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fractional derivatives provide a general approach for modeling transport phenomena occurring in diverse fields. This article describes a Least Squares Spectral Method for solving advection-dispersion equations using Caputo or Riemann-Liouville fractional ... Keywords: Advection-dispersion, Anomalous diffusion, Anomalous transport, Caputo derivative, Fractional derivative, Least-Squares, Riemann-Liouville derivative, Riesz derivative, Spectral Method

Alfredo RaL Carella; Carlos Alberto Dorao

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

HANFORD MEDIUM-LOW CURIE WASTE PRETREATMENT ALTERNATIVES PROJECT FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION PILOT SCALE TESTING FINAL REPORT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Fractional Crystallization Pilot Plant was designed and constructed to demonstrate that fractional crystallization is a viable way to separate the high-level and low-activity radioactive waste streams from retrieved Hanford single-shell tank saltcake. The focus of this report is to review the design, construction, and testing details of the fractional crystallization pilot plant not previously disseminated.

HERTING DL

2008-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

198

A novel fractional order fuzzy PID controller and its optimal time domain tuning based on integral performance indices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel fractional order (FO) fuzzy Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller has been proposed in this paper which works on the closed loop error and its fractional derivative as the input and has a fractional integrator in its output. The fractional ... Keywords: FLC tuning, Fractional order controller, Fuzzy PID, Genetic algorithm, Integral performance indices, Optimal PID tuning

Saptarshi Das; Indranil Pan; Shantanu Das; Amitava Gupta

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

PREPRINT QUASIPARTICLE AGGREGATION I N THE FRACTIONAL QUANTUM HALL EFFECT  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

91618 91618 PREPRINT QUASIPARTICLE AGGREGATION I N THE FRACTIONAL QUANTUM HALL EFFECT R. B. Laughlin This paper was prepared for submittal to the Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on the Physics of Semi conductors San Francisco, California August 6-10, 1984 October 10, 1984 This is a preprint of a paper intended for publication in a journal or proceedings. Since changes may be made before publication, this preprint is made available with the un- derstanding that it will not be cited or reproduced without the permission of the author. DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency Thereof, nor any of their employees,

200

Fractional Brownian motion and the critical dynamics of zipping polymers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider two complementary polymer strands of length $L$ attached by a common end monomer. The two strands bind through complementary monomers and at low temperatures form a double stranded conformation (zipping), while at high temperature they dissociate (unzipping). This is a simple model of DNA (or RNA) hairpin formation. Here we investigate the dynamics of the strands at the equilibrium critical temperature $T=T_c$ using Monte Carlo Rouse dynamics. We find that the dynamics is anomalous, with a characteristic time scaling as $\\tau \\sim L^{2.26(2)}$, exceeding the Rouse time $\\sim L^{2.18}$. We investigate the probability distribution function, the velocity autocorrelation function, the survival probability and boundary behaviour of the underlying stochastic process. These quantities scale as expected from a fractional Brownian motion with a Hurst exponent $H=0.44(1)$. We discuss similarities and differences with unbiased polymer translocation.

Jean-Charles Walter; Alessandro Ferrantini; Enrico Carlon; Carlo Vanderzande

2011-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "introduced fractional horsepower" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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201

Effects of dry bulk density and particle size fraction on gas transport parameters in variably saturated landfill cover soil  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: > The effects of soil physical properties on gas transport parameters were investigated. > Higher values of D{sub p} and k{sub a} exhibited in the '+gravel' than the '-gravel' fraction at same soil-air content ({epsilon}). > Recent power law models for D{sub p} (WLR) and k{sub a} (RPL) were modified. > Model parameters were linearly related to easily measurable dry bulk density ({rho}{sub b}). - Abstract: Landfill sites are emerging in climate change scenarios as a significant source of greenhouse gases. The compacted final soil cover at landfill sites plays a vital role for the emission, fate and transport of landfill gases. This study investigated the effects of dry bulk density, {rho}{sub b}, and particle size fraction on the main soil-gas transport parameters - soil-gas diffusivity (D{sub p}/D{sub o}, ratio of gas diffusion coefficients in soil and free air) and air permeability (k{sub a}) - under variably-saturated moisture conditions. Soil samples were prepared by three different compaction methods (Standard and Modified Proctor compaction, and hand compaction) with resulting {rho}{sub b} values ranging from 1.40 to 2.10 g cm{sup -3}. Results showed that D{sub p} and k{sub a} values for the '+gravel' fraction (<35 mm) became larger than for the '-gravel' fraction (<2 mm) under variably-saturated conditions for a given soil-air content ({epsilon}), likely due to enhanced gas diffusion and advection through less tortuous, large-pore networks. The effect of dry bulk density on D{sub p} and k{sub a} was most pronounced for the '+gravel' fraction. Normalized ratios were introduced for all soil-gas parameters: (i) for gas diffusivity D{sub p}/D{sub f}, the ratio of measured D{sub p} to D{sub p} in total porosity (f), (ii) for air permeability k{sub a}/k{sub a,pF4.1}, the ratio of measured k{sub a} to k{sub a} at 1235 kPa matric potential (=pF 4.1), and (iii) for soil-air content, the ratio of soil-air content ({epsilon}) to total porosity (f) (air saturation). Based on the normalized parameters, predictive power-law models for D{sub p}({epsilon}/f) and k{sub a}({epsilon}/f) models were developed based on a single parameter (water blockage factor M for D{sub p} and P for k{sub a}). The water blockage factors, M and P, were found to be linearly correlated to {rho}{sub b} values, and the effects of dry bulk density on D{sub p} and k{sub a} for both '+gravel' and '-gravel' fractions were well accounted for by the new models.

Wickramarachchi, Praneeth, E-mail: praneeth1977@yahoo.co.uk [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Kawamoto, Ken; Hamamoto, Shoichiro [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Institute for Environmental Science and Technology, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Nagamori, Masanao [Center for Environmental Science in Saitama, 914 Kamitanadare, Kazo, Saitama 347-0115 (Japan); Moldrup, Per [Environmental Engineering Section, Dept. of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Aalborg University, Sohngaardsholmsvej 57, DK-9000 Aalborg (Denmark); Komatsu, Toshiko [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Institute for Environmental Science and Technology, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

202

Fractional Fourier approximations for potential gravity waves on deep water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the framework of the canonical model of hydrodynamics, where fluid is assumed to be ideal and incompressible, waves are potential, two-dimensional, and symmetric, the authors have recently reported the existence of a new type of gravity waves on deep water besides well studied Stokes waves (Phys. Rev. Lett., 2002, v. 89, 164502). The distinctive feature of these waves is that horizontal water velocities in the wave crests exceed the speed of the crests themselves. Such waves were found to describe irregular flows with stagnation point inside the flow domain and discontinuous streamlines near the wave crests. Irregular flows produce a simple model for describing the initial stage of the formation of spilling breakers when a localized jet is formed at the crest following by generating whitecaps. In the present work, a new highly efficient method for computing steady potential gravity waves on deep water is proposed to examine the above results in more detail. The method is based on the truncated fractional a...

Lukomsky, V P; Lukomsky, Vasyl P.; Gandzha, Ivan S.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM VALUES FROM LIGHT ELEMENT VALUES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for removing light element impurities from plutonium. It has been found that plutonium contaminated with impurities may be purified by converting the plutonium to a halide and purifying the halide by a fractional distillation whereby impurities may be distilled from the plutonium halide. A particularly effective method includes the step of forming a lower halide such as the trior tetrahalide and distilling the halide under conditions such that no decomposition of the halide occurs. Molecular distillation methods are particularly suitable for this process. The apparatus may comprise an evaporation plate with means for heating it and a condenser surface with means for cooling it. The condenser surface is placed at a distance from the evaporating surface less than the mean free path of molecular travel of the material being distilled at the pressure and temperature used. The entire evaporating system is evacuated until the pressure is about 10/sup -4/ millimeters of mercury. A high temperuture method is presented for sealing porous materials such as carbon or graphite that may be used as a support or a moderator in a nuclear reactor. The carbon body is subjected to two surface heats simultaneously in an inert atmosphere; the surface to be sealed is heated to 1500 degrees centigrade; and another surface is heated to 300 degrees centigrade, whereupon the carbon vaporizes and flows to the cooler surface where it is deposited to seal that surface. This method may be used to seal a nuclear fuel in the carbon structure.

Cunningham, B.B.

1957-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

204

Delayed feedback control of fractional-order chaotic systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the possibility to stabilize unstable steady states and unstable periodic orbits in chaotic fractional-order dynamical systems by the time-delayed feedback method. By performing a linear stability analysis, we establish the parameter ranges for successful stabilization of unstable equilibria in the plane parametrizad by the feedback gain and the time delay. An insight into the control mechanism is gained by analyzing the characteristic equation of the controlled system, showing that the control scheme fails to control unstable equilibria having an odd number of positive real eigenvalues. We demonstrate that the method can also stabilize unstable periodic orbits for a suitable choice of the feedback gain, providing that the time delay is chosen to coincide with the period of the target orbit. In addition, it is shown numerically that delayed feedback control with a sinusoidally modulated time delay significantly enlarges the stability region of the steady states in comparison to the classical time-delayed feedback scheme with a constant delay.

Aleksandar Gjurchinovski; Trifce Sandev; Viktor Urumov

2010-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

205

DOE-HDBK-3010-94; DOE Handbook Airborne Release Fractions/Rates and Respirable Fractions for Nonreactor Nuclear Facilities, Volume 1  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

10-94 10-94 December 1994 CHANGE NOTICE NO. 1 March 2000 DOE HANDBOOK AIRBORNE RELEASE FRACTIONS/RATES AND RESPIRABLE FRACTIONS FOR NONREACTOR NUCLEAR FACILITIES Volume I - Analysis of Experimental Data U.S. Department of Energy AREA SAFT Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This document has been reproduced from the best available copy. Available to DOE and DOE contractors from ES&H Technical Information Services, U.S. Department of Energy, (800) 473-4375, fax: (301) 903-9823. Available to the public from the U.S. Department of Commerce, Technology Administration, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161; (703) 605-6000. Change Notice No. 1 DOE-HDBK-3010-94 March 2000 Airborne Release Fractions/Rates and Respirable Fractions

206

Modeling the View Angle Dependence of Gap Fractions in Forest Canopies: Implications for Mapping Fractional Snow Cover Using Optical Remote Sensing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Forest canopies influence the proportion of the land surface that is visible from above, or the viewable gap fraction (VGF). The VGF limits the amount of information available in satellite data about the land surface, such as snow cover in ...

Jicheng Liu; Curtis E. Woodcock; Rae A. Melloh; Robert E. Davis; Ceretha McKenzie; Thomas H. Painter

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy in Patients With Optic Nerve Sheath Meningioma  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (SFRT) in the treatment of optic nerve sheath meningioma (ONSM). Methods and Materials: Between 1993 and 2005, 109 patients (113 eyes) with primary (n = 37) or secondary (n = 76) ONSM were treated according to a prospective protocol with SFRT to a median dose of 54 Gy. All patients underwent radiographic, ophthalmologic, and endocrine analysis before and after SFRT. Radiographic response, visual control, and late side effects were endpoints of the analysis. Results: Median time to last clinical, radiographic, and ophthalmologic follow up was 30.2 months (n = 113), 42.7 months (n = 108), and 53.7 months (n = 91), respectively. Regression of the tumor was observed in 5 eyes and progression in 4 eyes, whereas 104 remained stable. Visual acuity improved in 12, deteriorated in 11, and remained stable in 68 eyes. Mean visual field defects reduced from 33.6% (n = 90) to 17.8% (n = 56) in ipsilateral and from 10% (n = 94) to 6.7% (n = 62) in contralateral eyes. Ocular motility improved in 23, remained stable in 65, and deteriorated in 3 eyes. Radiographic tumor control was 100% at 3 years and 98% at 5 years. Visual acuity was preserved in 94.8% after 3 years and in 90.9% after 5 years. Endocrine function was normal in 90.8% after 3 years and in 81.3% after 5 years. Conclusions: SFRT represents a highly effective treatment for ONSM. Interdisciplinary counseling of the patients is recommended. Because of the high rate of preservation of visual acuity we consider SFRT the standard approach for the treatment of ONSM. Prolonged observation is warranted to more accurately assess late visual impairment. Moderate de-escalation of the radiation dose might improve the preservation of visual acuity and pituitary gland function.

Paulsen, Frank, E-mail: frank.paulsen@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Doerr, Stefan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Wilhelm, Helmut [Department of Ophthalmology, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Becker, Gerd [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinik am Eichert, Goeppingen (Germany); Bamberg, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Classen, Johannes [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Vincentius-Kliniken, Karlsruhe (Germany)

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

The use of carbonation and fractional evaporative crystallization in the pretreatment of Hanford nuclear wastes.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The purpose of this work was to explore the use of fractional evaporative crystallization as a technology that can be used to separate medium-curie waste (more)

Dumont, George Pierre, Jr.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Experimental investigation and systems modeling of fractional catalytic pyrolysis of pine .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The fractional catalytic pyrolysis of pine was studied both experimentally and through models. A preliminary stage economic analysis was conducted for a wood chip pyrolysis (more)

Goteti, Anil Chaitanya

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.5 Thermal Distribution Systems  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

6 1999 Energy Efficient Motors, Replacements and Sales, by Horsepower Class | Units in Use Horsepower | Energy Efficient Horsepower Range (106) | % Retired 1 - 5 | 17% 5.1 - 20 |...

211

Limited lithium isotopic fractionation during progressive metamorphic dehydration in metapelites: A case study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Limited lithium isotopic fractionation during progressive metamorphic dehydration in metapelites-zone metamorphism far removed from the pluton to partially melted rocks adjacent to the pluton. Lithium on the aureole scale. Published by Elsevier B.V. Keywords: Lithium; Isotope fractionation; Metamorphic

Mcdonough, William F.

212

2012 Special Issue: Nonlinear dynamics and chaos in fractional-order neural networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several topics related to the dynamics of fractional-order neural networks of Hopfield type are investigated, such as stability and multi-stability (coexistence of several different stable states), bifurcations and chaos. The stability domain of a steady ... Keywords: Chaos, Fractance, Fractional order, Hopf bifurcation, Hub, Multistability, Neural networks, Ring, Stability, Strange attractor

Eva Kaslik; Seenith Sivasundaram

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Development of Approach to Estimate Volume Fraction of Multiphase Material Using Dielectrics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Most engineering as well as pavement materials are composites composed of two or more components to obtain a variety of solid properties to support internal and external loading. The composite materials rely on physical or chemical properties and volume fraction of each component. While the properties can be identified easily, the volume fraction is hard to be estimated due to the volumetric variation during the performance in the field. Various test procedures have been developed to measure the volume fractions; however, they depend on subjective determination and judgment. As an alternative, electromagnetic technique using dielectric constant was developed to estimate the volume fraction. Empirical and mechanistic approaches were used to relate the dielectric constant and volume fraction. While the empirical models are not very accurate in all cases, the mechanistic models require assumptions of constituent dielectric constants. For those reasons, the existing approaches might produce less accurate estimate of volume fraction. In this study, a mechanistic-based approach using the self consistent scheme was developed to be applied to multiphase materials. The new approach was based on calibrated dielectric constant of components to improve results without any assumptions. Also, the system identification was used iteratively to solve for dielectric parameters and volume fraction at each step. As the validation performed to verify the viability of the new approach using soil mixture and portland cement concrete, it was found that the approach has produced a significant improvement in the accuracy of the estimated volume fraction.

Lee, Sang Ick

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Enzymatic Digestibility of Corn Stover Fractions in Response to Fungal Pretreatment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Corn stover fractions (leaves, cobs, and stalks) were studied for enzymatic digestibility after pretreatment with a white rot fungus, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora. Among the three fractions, leaves had the least recalcitrance to fungal pretreatment and the lignin degradation reached 45% after 30 days of pretreatment. The lignin degradation of stalks and cobs was similar but was significantly lower than that of leaves (p corn cobs.

Cui, Z. F.; Wan, C. X.; Shi, J.; Sykes, R. W.; Li, Y. B.

2012-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

215

Neural network prediction model for the methane fraction in biogas from field-scale landfill bioreactors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study we present a neural network model for predicting the methane fraction in landfill gas originating from field-scale landfill bioreactors. Landfill bioreactors were constructed at the Odayeri Sanitary Landfill, Istanbul, Turkey, and operated ... Keywords: Anaerobic digestion, Landfill gas, Leachate, Methane fraction, Modeling, Neural network

Bestamin Ozkaya; Ahmet Demir; M. Sinan Bilgili

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Synchronization of Fractional-order Chaotic Systems with Gaussian fluctuation by Sliding Mode Control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper is devoted to the problem of synchronization between fractional-order chaotic systems with Gaussian fluctuation by the method of fractional-order sliding mode control. A fractional integral (FI) sliding surface is proposed for synchronizing the uncertain fractional-order system, and then the sliding mode control technique is carried out to realize the synchronization of the given systems. One theorem about sliding mode controller is presented to prove the proposed controller can make the system synchronize. As a case study, the presented method is applied to the fractional-order Chen-L\\"u system as the drive-response dynamical system. Simulation results show a good performance of the proposed control approach in synchronizing the chaotic systems in presence of Gaussian noise.

Yong Xu; Hua Wang

2013-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

217

Low or High Fractionation Dose {beta}-Radiotherapy for Pterygium? A Randomized Clinical Trial  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: Postoperative adjuvant treatment using {beta}-radiotherapy (RT) is a proven technique for reducing the recurrence of pterygium. A randomized trial was conducted to determine whether a low fractionation dose of 2 Gy within 10 fractions would provide local control similar to that after a high fractionation dose of 5 Gy within 7 fractions for surgically resected pterygium. Methods: A randomized trial was conducted in 200 patients (216 pterygia) between February 2006 and July 2007. Only patients with fresh pterygium resected using a bare sclera method and given RT within 3 days were included. Postoperative RT was delivered using a strontium-90 eye applicator. The pterygia were randomly treated using either 5 Gy within 7 fractions (Group 1) or 2 Gy within 10 fractions (Group 2). The local control rate was calculated from the date of surgery. Results: Of the 216 pterygia included, 112 were allocated to Group 1 and 104 to Group 2. The 3-year local control rate for Groups 1 and 2 was 93.8% and 92.3%, respectively (p = .616). A statistically significant difference for cosmetic effect (p = .034), photophobia (p = .02), irritation (p = .001), and scleromalacia (p = .017) was noted in favor of Group 2. Conclusions: No better local control rate for postoperative pterygium was obtained using high-dose fractionation vs. low-dose fractionation. However, a low-dose fractionation schedule produced better cosmetic effects and resulted in fewer symptoms than high-dose fractionation. Moreover, pterygia can be safely treated in terms of local recurrence using RT schedules with a biologic effective dose of 24-52.5 Gy{sub 10.}.

Viani, Gustavo Arruda, E-mail: gusviani@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Marilia Medicine School, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); De Fendi, Ligia Issa; Fonseca, Ellen Carrara [Department of Ophthalmology, Marilia Medicine School, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Stefano, Eduardo Jose [Department of Radiation Oncology, Marilia Medicine School, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Anomalous g-Factors for Charged Leptons in a Fractional Coarse-Grained Approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work, we investigate aspects of the electron, muon and tau gyromagnetic ratios (g-factor) in a fractional coarse-grained scenario, by adopting a Modified Riemann-Liouville (MRL) fractional calculus. We point out the possibility of mapping the experimental values of the specie's g-factors into a theoretical parameter which accounts for fractionality, without computing higher-order QED calculations. We wish to understand whether the value of (g-2) may be traced back to a fractionality of space-time.The justification for the difference between the experimental and the theoretical value g=2 stemming from the Dirac equation is given in the terms of the complexity of the interactions of the charged leptons, considered as pseudo-particles and "dressed" by the interactions and the medium. Stepwise, we build up a fractional Dirac equation from the fractional Weyl equation that, on the other hand, was formulated exclusively in terms of the helicity operator. From the fractional angular momentum algebra, in a co...

Weberszpil, J

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Welcome to the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering. The intent of this Handbook is to introduce you to the Department, the faculty, and the undergraduate programs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. The intent of this Handbook is to introduce you to the Department, the faculty, and the undergraduate programs and activities. This Handbook also provides details on Department policies, procedures must meet, but also the opportunities available to you. You should keep this Handbook

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

220

Welcome to the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering. The intent of this Handbook is to introduce you to the Department, the faculty, and the undergraduate programs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of this Handbook is to introduce you to the Department, the faculty, and the undergraduate programs and activities. This Handbook also provides details on Department policies, procedures, and requirements that may affect you the opportunities available to you. You should use this handbook to answer questions, particularly questions

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "introduced fractional horsepower" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Micro-scale anaerobic digestion of point source components of organic fraction of municipal solid waste  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Micro-scale anaerobic digestion of point source components of organic fraction of municipal solid that are needed when designing plug-flow type anaerobic bioreactors. More specifically, the decomposition patterns

Columbia University

222

Practical Handbook of Soybean Processing and UtilizationChapter 15 Soybean Oil Crystallization and Fractionation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Practical Handbook of Soybean Processing and Utilization Chapter 15 Soybean Oil Crystallization and Fractionation Processing eChapters Processing AOCS Press Downloadable pdf of Chapter 15 Soybean Oil Crystallizati

223

Statistical Reliability of Neighboring Range Bin Estimates of Coherent Fractional Contributions to Radar Backscattered Power  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It was recently demonstrated that magnitudes of the power-normalized cross-correlation functions of complex amplitudes in neighboring range bins are identical to the fractional contributions made by radar coherent backscatter in the direction of ...

A. R. Jameson

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Sensitivity of the Estimated Monthly Convective Rain Fraction to the Choice of ZR Relation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigates the sensitivity of the estimated monthly convective rain fractionthat is, the percentage of the areal rain accumulation contributed by precipitation identified as convectiveto variations of the ZR parameters used in ...

Matthias Steiner; Robert A. Houze Jr.

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Entrainment Rate, Cloud Fraction, and Liquid Water Path of PBL Stratocumulus Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The large eddy simulation technique is used to search for key factors in determining the entrainment rate, cloud fraction, and liquid water path in the stratocumulus-topped boundary layer (STBL), with the goal of developing simple schemes of ...

Chin-Hoh Moeng

2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Measurement of the [ital D][r arrow][pi][pi] branching fractions  

SciTech Connect

Using data from CLEO II at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring we provide a new measurement of the branching fraction for [ital D][sup 0][r arrow][pi][sup +][pi][sup [minus

Selen, M.; Sadoff, A.J.; Ammar, R.; Ball, S.; Baringer, P.; Coppage, D.; Copty, N.; Davis, R.; Hancock, N.; Kelly, M.; Kwak, N.; Lam, H.; Kubota, Y.; Lattery, M.; Nelson, J.K.; Patton, S.; Perticone, D.; Poling, R.; Savinov, V.; Schrenk, S.; Wang, R.; Alam, M.S.; Kim, I.J.; Nemati, B.; O'Neill, J.J.; Severini, H.; Sun, C.R.; Zoeller, M.M.; Crawford, G.; Daubenmeir, C.M.; Fulton, R.; Fujino, D.; Gan, K.K.; Honscheid, K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Lee, J.; Malchow, R.; Morrow, F.; Skovpen, Y.; Sung, M.; White, C.; Whitmore, J.; Wilson, P.; Butler, F.; Fu, X.; Kalbfleisch, G.; Lambrecht, M.; Ross, W.R.; Skubic, P.; Snow, J.; Wang, P.L.; Wood, M.; Bortoletto, D.; Brown, D.N.; Fast, J.; McIlwain, R.L.; Miao, T.; Miller, D.H.; Modesitt, M.; Schaffner, S.F.; Shibata, E.I.; Shipsey, I.P.J.; Wang, P.N.; Battle, M.; Ernst, J.; Kroha, H.; Roberts, S.; Sparks, K.; Thorndike, E.H.; Wang, C.H.; Dominick, J.; Sanghera, S.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stroynowski, R.; Artuso, M.; He, D.; Goldberg, M.; Horwitz, N.; Ken; (CLEO Collaboration)

1993-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

227

comparison of bio-oil produced in a fractionated bio-oil collection system.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Fast pyrolysis bio-oil, char and non-condensable gases were produced from a 8 kg/hr fluidized bed reactor. The bio-oil was collected in a fractionating bio-oil collection (more)

Pollard, Anthony Joseph Sherwood

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

What Fraction of a Kelvin Wave Incident on a Narrow Strait Is Transmitted?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Parameters governing the fraction of a Kelvin wave transmitted through a narrow gap or channel include time dependence, nonlinearity, friction, and strait geometry, yet only limited regions of this parameter space have been explored. Linear ...

Helen L. Johnson; Chris Garrett

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Relationships between Total Water, Condensed Water, and Cloud Fraction in Stratiform Clouds Examined Using Aircraft Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Relationships among total water, condensed water, and cloud fraction in boundary layer and cold tropospheric stratiform clouds are investigated using a large observational dataset collected by the U.K. Met. Office C-130 aircraft. Values of the ...

Robert Wood; Paul R. Field

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

MULTIPLE SULFUR ISOTOPE FRACTIONATIONS IN BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS: A CASE STUDY WITH SULFATE REDUCERS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MULTIPLE SULFUR ISOTOPE FRACTIONATIONS IN BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS: A CASE STUDY WITH SULFATE REDUCERS*, DONALD E. CANFIELD**, and KIRSTEN S. HABICHT** ABSTRACT. Multiple sulfur isotope measurements of sulfur disproportionation indicate that different types of metabolic processes impart differ- ent multiple isotope

Kaufman, Alan Jay

231

An experimental study of magnesium-isotope fractionation in chlorophyll-a photosynthesis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Geology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616. whcasey@ucdavis.edu keywords: photosynthesis, magnesium isotopes,Isotope Fractionation in Chlorophyll-a Photosynthesis Jay R. Black Department of Chemistry Department of Geology,

Black, J R; Yin, Q Z; Casey, W H

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Intercomparison of Spatial Forecast Verification Methods: Identifying Skillful Spatial Scales Using the Fractions Skill Score  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The fractions skill score (FSS) was one of the measures that formed part of the Intercomparison of Spatial Forecast Verification Methods project. The FSS was used to assess a common dataset that consisted of real and perturbed Weather Research ...

Marion Mittermaier; Nigel Roberts

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

A New Volatility Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer to Measure the Volatile Sulfuric Acid Aerosol Fraction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A volatility tandem differential mobility analyzer (VTDMA) was developed with the intention to measure the fraction of sulfuric acid in marine fine aerosols (Dp < 150 nm). This work focused on the design and calibration of an aerosol conditioner ...

D. A. Orsini; A. Wiedensohler; F. Stratmann; D. S. Covert

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Preserves Salivary Gland Function After Fractionated Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: Radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer consists of fractionated radiation treatments that cause significant damage to salivary glands leading to chronic salivary gland dysfunction with only limited prevention and treatment options currently available. This study examines the feasibility of IGF-1 in preserving salivary gland function following a fractionated radiation treatment regimen in a pre-clinical model. Methods and Materials: Mice were exposed to fractionated radiation, and salivary gland function and histological analyses of structure, apoptosis, and proliferation were evaluated. Results: In this study, we report that treatment with fractionated doses of radiation results in a significant level of apoptotic cells in FVB mice after each fraction, which is significantly decreased in transgenic mice expressing a constitutively active mutant of Akt1 (myr-Akt1). Salivary gland function is significantly reduced in FVB mice exposed to fractionated radiation; however, myr-Akt1 transgenic mice maintain salivary function under the same treatment conditions. Injection into FVB mice of recombinant insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), which activates endogenous Akt, suppressed acute apoptosis and preserved salivary gland function after fractionated doses of radiation 30 to 90 days after treatment. FVB mice exposed to fractionated radiation had significantly lower levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive salivary acinar cells 90 days after treatment, which correlated with a chronic loss of function. In contrast, FVB mice injected with IGF-1 before each radiation treatment exhibited acinar cell proliferation rates similar to those of untreated controls. Conclusion: These studies suggest that activation of IGF-1-mediated pathways before head-and-neck radiation could modulate radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction and maintain glandular homeostasis.

Limesand, Kirsten H., E-mail: limesank@u.arizona.ed [Department of Physiological Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Avila, Jennifer L. [Department of Physiological Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Victory, Kerton; Chang, Hui-Hua; Shin, Yoon Joo; Grundmann, Oliver [Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Klein, Rob R. [Department of Pathology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Simplified solar fraction estimation for space and water heating at DOD installations. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A set of nomographs is provided which can be used to estimate the average annual solar fraction for solar space and water heating at a large number of DOD facilities. The solar fraction estimated from the nomograph is in close agreement with F-Chart 3.0 and allows for variation of the following parameters: annual load, collector area, collector transmittance-absorption coefficient, and collector overall loss coefficient.

Pacheco, N.S.; Kniola, D.G.; Sheedy, J.F.; Scari, R.J.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Simultaneous energy distribution and ion fraction measurements using a linear time-of-flight analyzer with a floatable drift tube  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Simultaneous energy distribution and ion fraction measurements using a linear time A technique for simultaneous energy distribution and ion fraction measurements using a linear time Laboratory's Multicharged Ion Research Facility. Energy distributions of the scattered projectiles

237

Relationships among nitric oxide, temperature and mixture fraction in hydrogen jet flames  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Simultaneous point measurements of NO, the major species, mixture fraction, temperature, and OH are obtained in nonpremixed turbulent hydrogen jet flames, using the combination of spontaneous Raman scattering, Rayleigh scattering, and laser-induced fluorescence. Results are presented for an undiluted hydrogen flame at Reynolds number 10,000 and for flames with 20% and 40% helium dilution. Radial dependence of conditional mean NO mole fraction (conditional on mixture fraction) is shown to be small at upstream locations and negligible at the downstream locations that contribute most to the overall NO emission. Near the flame base, where NO formation rates and concentrations are sensitive to local strain, fluctuations of the NO mole fraction conditional on mixture fraction are 40 to 50% of conditional mean. When average NO levels are calculated conditional on both mixture fraction and temperature, a significant temperature dependence is found. However, this double conditioning does not substantially reduce NO fluctuations relative to the mean values. These results combined with previously reported data on the present hydrogen flames provide a detailed basis for evaluation and refinement of turbulent combustion models for thermal NO{sub x} formation in jet flames.

Barlow, R.S. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Carter, C.D. [Systems Research Labs., Inc., Dayton, OH (United States)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

The restaurant at the end of the random walk: recent developments in the description of anomalous transport by fractional dynamics.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The restaurant at the end of the random walk: recent developments in the description of anomalous transport by fractional dynamics.

Metzler, R

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Resole resin products derived from fractionated organic and aqueous condensates made by fast-pyrolysis of biomass materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for preparing phenol-formaldehyde resole resins by fractionating organic and aqueous condensates made by fast-pyrolysis of biomass materials while using a carrier gas to move feed into a reactor to produce phenolic-containing/neutrals in which portions of the phenol normally contained in said resins are replaced by a phenolic/neutral fractions extract obtained by fractionation.

Chum, H.L.; Black, S.K.; Diebold, J.P.; Kreibich, R.E.

1993-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

240

Resole resin products derived from fractionated organic and aqueous condensates made by fast-pyrolysis of biomass materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for preparing phenol-formaldehyde resole resins by fractionating organic and aqueous condensates made by fast-pyrolysis of biomass materials while using a carrier gas to move feed into a reactor to produce phenolic-containing/neutrals in which portions of the phenol normally contained in said resins are replaced by a phenolic/neutral fractions extract obtained by fractionation.

Chum, Helena L. (8448 Allison Ct., Arvada, CO 80005); Black, Stuart K. (4976 Raleigh St., Denver, CO 80212); Diebold, James P. (57 N. Yank Way, Lakewood, CO 80228); Kreibich, Roland E. (4201 S. 344th, Auburn, WA 98001)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "introduced fractional horsepower" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Accumulation of DNA Double-Strand Breaks in Normal Tissues After Fractionated Irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: There is increasing evidence that genetic factors regulating the recognition and/or repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are responsible for differences in radiosensitivity among patients. Genetically defined DSB repair capacities are supposed to determine patients' individual susceptibility to develop adverse normal tissue reactions after radiotherapy. In a preclinical murine model, we analyzed the impact of different DSB repair capacities on the cumulative DNA damage in normal tissues during the course of fractionated irradiation. Material and Methods: Different strains of mice with defined genetic backgrounds (SCID{sup -/-} homozygous, ATM{sup -/-} homozygous, ATM{sup +/-}heterozygous, and ATM{sup +/+}wild-type mice) were subjected to single (2 Gy) or fractionated irradiation (5 x 2 Gy). By enumerating gammaH2AX foci, the formation and rejoining of DSBs were analyzed in organs representative of both early-responding (small intestine) and late-responding tissues (lung, kidney, and heart). Results: In repair-deficient SCID{sup -/-} and ATM{sup -/-}homozygous mice, large proportions of radiation-induced DSBs remained unrepaired after each fraction, leading to the pronounced accumulation of residual DNA damage after fractionated irradiation, similarly visible in early- and late-responding tissues. The slight DSB repair impairment of ATM{sup +/-}heterozygous mice was not detectable after single-dose irradiation but resulted in a significant increase in unrepaired DSBs during the fractionated irradiation scheme. Conclusions: Radiation-induced DSBs accumulate similarly in acute- and late-responding tissues during fractionated irradiation, whereas the whole extent of residual DNA damage depends decisively on the underlying genetically defined DSB repair capacity. Moreover, our data indicate that even minor impairments in DSB repair lead to exceeding DNA damage accumulation during fractionated irradiation and thus may have a significant impact on normal tissue responses in clinical radiotherapy.

Ruebe, Claudia E., E-mail: claudia.ruebe@uks.e [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saarland University, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Fricke, Andreas; Wendorf, Juliane; Stuetzel, Annika; Kuehne, Martin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saarland University, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Ong, Mei Fang [Institute of Medical Biometrics, Epidemiology and Medical Informatics, Saarland University, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Lipp, Peter [Institute for Molecular Cell Biology, Saarland University, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Ruebe, Christian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saarland University, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

242

Introducing backward refinement into B  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The B Method exploits a direct first-order wp predicate-transformer formulation of downward simulation to generate its proof obligations for a refinement, so B's notion of refinement is restricted to that of forward refinement. Therefore some refinements ...

Steve Dunne

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery in Fractional-Wet Systems: A Pore-Scale Investigation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is a technology that could potentially increase the tertiary recovery of oil from mature oil formations. However, the efficacy of this technology in fractional-wet systems is unknown, and the mechanisms involved in oil mobilization therefore need further investigation. Our MEOR strategy consists of the injection of ex situ produced metabolic byproducts produced by Bacillus mojavensis JF-2 (which lower interfacial tension (IFT) via biosurfactant production) into fractional-wet cores containing residual oil. Two different MEOR flooding solutions were tested; one solution contained both microbes and metabolic byproducts while the other contained only the metabolic byproducts. The columns were imaged with X-ray computed microtomography (CMT) after water flooding, and after MEOR, which allowed for the evaluation of the pore-scale processes taking place during MEOR. Results indicate that the larger residual oil blobs and residual oil held under relatively low capillary pressures were the main fractions recovered during MEOR. Residual oil saturation, interfacial curvatures, and oil blob sizes were measured from the CMT images and used to develop a conceptual model for MEOR in fractional-wet systems. Overall, results indicate that MEOR was effective at recovering oil from fractional-wet systems with reported additional oil recovered (AOR) values between 44 and 80%; the highest AOR values were observed in the most oil-wet system.

Armstrong, Ryan T.; Wildenschild, Dorthe (Oregon State U.)

2012-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

244

Manipulating atoms in an optical lattice: Fractional fermion number and its optical quantum measurement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We provide a detailed analysis of our previously proposed scheme [Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 180401, (2002)] to engineer the profile of the hopping amplitudes for atomic gases in a 1D optical lattice so that the particle number becomes fractional. We consider a constructed system of a dilute two-species gas of fermionic atoms where the two components are coupled via a coherent electromagnetic field with a topologically nontrivial phase profile. We show both analytically and numerically how the resulting atomic Hamiltonian in a prepared dimerized optical lattice with a defect in the pattern of alternating hopping amplitudes exhibits a fractional fermion number. In particular, in the low-energy limit we demonstrate the equivalence of the atomic Hamiltonian to a relativistic Dirac Hamiltonian describing fractionalization in quantum field theory. Expanding on our earlier argument [Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 150404 (2003)] we show how the fractional eigenvalues of the particle number operator can be detected via light scattering. In particular, we show how scattering of far-off resonant light can convey information about the counting statistics of the atoms in an optical lattice, including state-selective atom density profiles and atom number fluctuations. Optical detection could provide a truly quantum mechanical measurement of the particle number fractionalization in a dilute atomic gas.

J. Ruostekoski; J. Javanainen; G. V. Dunne

2007-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

245

Fractional domain walls from on-site softening in dipolar bosons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study dipolar bosons in a 1D optical lattice and identify a region in parameter space---strong coupling but relatively weak on-site repulsion---hosting a series of stable charge-density-wave (CDW) states whose low-energy excitations, built from "fractional domain walls," have remarkable similarities to those of non-Abelian fractional quantum Hall states. Here, a conventional domain wall between translated CDW's may be split by inserting strings of degenerate, but inequivalent, CDW states. Outside these insulating regions, we find numerous supersolids as well as a superfluid regime. The mentioned phases should be accessible experimentally and, in particular, the fractional domain walls can be created in the ground state using single-site addressing, i.e., by locally changing the chemical potential.

Emma Wikberg; Jonas Larson; Emil J. Bergholtz; Anders Karlhede

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

246

A Measurement of the Semileptonic Branching Fraction of the B_s Meson  

SciTech Connect

We report a measurement of the inclusive semileptonic branching fraction of the B{sub s} meson using data collected with the BABAR detector in the center-of-mass energy region above the {gamma}(4S) resonance. We use the inclusive yield of {phi} mesons and the {phi} yield in association with a high-momentum lepton to perform a simultaneous measurement of the semileptonic branching fraction and the production rate of B{sub s} mesons relative to all B mesons as a function of center-of-mass energy. The inclusive semileptonic branching fraction of the B{sub s} meson is determined to be {Beta}(B{sub s} {yields} {ell}{nu}X) = 9.5{sub -2.0}{sup +2.5}(stat){sub -1.9}{sup +1.1}(syst)%, where {ell} indicates the average of e and {mu}.

Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Martinelli, M.; Milanes, D.A.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Brown, D.N.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; Asgeirsson, D.J.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T.S.; McKenna, J.A.; /Imperial Coll., London /Annecy, LAPP /Barcelona U., ECM /INFN, Bari /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /INFN, Bari /Bari U. /Bergen U. /UC, Berkeley /Ruhr U., Bochum /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UC, Riverside /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /Frascati /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Indian Inst. Tech., Guwahati /Harvard U. /Harvey Mudd Coll. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa State U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Paris U., VI-VII /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Manchester U. /Maryland U.; /more authors..

2012-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

247

Calorimetric measurements of inward-flowing fraction for complex glazing and shading systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper presents a calorimetric measurement of layer-specific inward-flowing fractions of absorbed solar energy for a number of geometric configurations common in fenestrations with shading. The inward-flowing fractions are found to be relatively insensitive to exterior conditions. Results for an interior venetian blind over double glazing agree with thermal model calculations in literature, and are the first layer-specific verification of these calculations. It is argued that a data base of these inward-flowing fractions for a suitably broad class of geometries will make possible the determination of solar heat gain coefficient from noncalorimetric measurements of solar-optical properties of complex fenestration components, a procedure termed solar-thermal separation.

Klems, J.H.; Kelley, G.O.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Analysis of Oxygenated Compounds in Hydrotreated Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Oil Distillate Fractions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three hydrotreated bio-oils with different oxygen contents (8.2, 4.9, and 0.4 w/w) were distilled to produce Light, Naphtha, Jet, Diesel, and Gasoil boiling range fractions that were characterized for oxygen containing species by a variety of analytical methods. The bio-oils were originally generated from lignocellulosic biomass in an entrained-flow fast pyrolysis reactor. Analyses included elemental composition, carbon type distribution by {sup 13}C NMR, acid number, GC-MS, volatile organic acids by LC, and carbonyl compounds by DNPH derivatization and LC. Acid number titrations employed an improved titrant-electrode combination with faster response that allowed detection of multiple endpoints in many samples and for acid values attributable to carboxylic acids and to phenols to be distinguished. Results of these analyses showed that the highest oxygen content bio-oil fractions contained oxygen as carboxylic acids, carbonyls, aryl ethers, phenols, and alcohols. Carboxylic acids and carbonyl compounds detected in this sample were concentrated in the Light, Naphtha, and Jet fractions (oil or refinery intermediate streams may exist for the Diesel and Gasoil fractions. The 4.9 % oxygen sample contained almost exclusively phenolic compounds found to be present throughout the boiling range of this sample, but imparting measurable acidity primarily in the Light, Naphtha and Jet fractions. Additional study is required to understand what levels of the weakly acidic phenols could be tolerated in a refinery feedstock. The Diesel and Gasoil fractions from this upgraded oil had low acidity but still contained 3 to 4 wt% oxygen present as phenols that could not be specifically identified. These materials appear to have excellent potential as refinery feedstocks and some potential for blending into finished fuels. Fractions from the lowest oxygen content oil exhibited some phenolic acidity, but generally contained very low levels of oxygen functional groups. These materials would likely be suitable as refinery feedstocks and potentially as fuel blend components. PIONA analysis of the Light and Naphtha fractions shows benzene content of 0.5 and 0.4 vol%, and predicted (RON + MON)/2 of 63 and 70, respectively.

Christensen, Earl D.; Chupka, Gina; Luecke, Jon; Smurthwaite, Tricia D.; Alleman, Teresa L.; Iisa, Kristiina; Franz, James A.; Elliott, Douglas C.; McCormick, Robert L.

2011-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

249

HYGROSCOPIC MOISTURE SORPTION KINETICS MODELING OF CORN STOVER AND ITS FRACTIONS  

SciTech Connect

Corn stover, a major crop-based lignocellulosic biomass feedstock, is required to be at an optimum moisture content for efficient bioconversion processes. Environmental conditions surrounding corn stover, as in storage facilities, affect its moisture due to hygroscopic sorption or desorption. The measurement and modeling of sorption characteristics of corn stover and its leaf, husk, and stalk fractions are useful from utilization and storage standpoints, hence investigated in this article. A benchtop low-temperature humidity chamber provided the test environments of 20 C, 30 C, and 40 C at a constant 95% relative humidity. Measured sorption characteristics with three replications for each fraction were obtained from instantaneous sample masses and initial moisture contents. Observed sorption characteristics were fitted using exponential, Page, and Peleg models. Corn stover fractions displayed a rapid initial moisture uptake followed by a slower sorption rates and eventually becoming almost asymptotic after 25 h. Sorption characteristics of all corn stover fractions were significantly different (P < 0.0001) but not the effect of temperature (P > 0.05) on these fractions. The initial 30 min of sorption was found to be critical due to peak rates of sorption from storage, handling, and processing standpoints. The Page and Peleg models had comparable performance fitting the sorption curves (R2 = 0.995), however the exponential model (R2 = 0.91) was not found suitable because of patterned residuals. The Arrhenius type relationship (P < 0.05; R2 = 0.80) explained the temperature variation of the fitted sorption model parameters. The Peleg model fitted constants, among the sorption models studied, had the best fit (R2 = 0.93) with the Arrhenius relationship. A developed method of mass proportion, involving individual corn stover fraction dry matter ratios, predicted the whole corn stover sorption characteristics from that of its individual fractions. Sorption characteristics models of individual corn stover fractions and predicted whole corn stover including a nomogram can be used for direct and quick estimation. Developed sorption characteristics find application in several fields of corn stover biomass processing, handling, and transport

Igathinathane, C. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Pordesimo, L. O. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Womac, A.R. [University of Tennessee; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Effects of bounded space in the solutions of time-space fractional diffusion equation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

By using a recently proposed numerical method, the fractional diffusion equation with memory in a finite domain is solved for different asymmetry parameters and fractional orders. Some scaling laws are revisited in this condition, such as growth rate in a distance from pulse perturbation, the time when the perturbative peak reaches the other points, and advectionlike behavior as a result of asymmetry and memory. Conditions for negativity and instability of solutions are shown. Also up-hill transport and its time-space region are studied.

Allami, M. H. [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokri, B. [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Physics Department, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

251

Design and development of Stirling engines for stationary-power-generation applications in the 500- to 3000-horsepower range. Phase I final report  

SciTech Connect

A program plan and schedule for the implementation of the proposed conceptual designs through the remaining four phases of the overall large Stirling engine development program was prepared. The objective of Phase II is to prepare more detailed designs of the conceptual designs prepared in Phase I. At the conclusion of Phase II, a state-of-the-art design will be selected from the candidate designs developed in Phase I for development. The objective of Phase III is to prepare manufacturing drawings of the candidate engine design. Also, detailed manufacturing drawings of both 373 kW (500 hp) and 746 kW (1000 hp) power pack skid systems will be completed. The power pack skid systems will include the generator, supporting skid, controls, and other supporting auxiliary subsystems. The Stirling cycle engine system (combustion system, Stirling engine, and heat transport system) will be mounted in the power pack skid system. The objective of Phase IV is to procure parts for prototype engines and two power pack skid systems and to assemble Engines No. 1 and 2. The objective of Phase V is to perform extensive laboratory and demonstration testing of the Stirling engines and power pack skid systems, to determine the system performance and cost and commercialization strategy. Scheduled over a 6 yr period the cost of phases II through V is estimated at $22,063,000. (LCL)

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Design and development of Stirling engines for stationary power generation applications in the 500 to 3000 horsepower range. Volume 2. Program plan  

SciTech Connect

A plan for implementing the proposed state-of-the-art design described in Volume I has been developed. The main objective of the project is to demonstrate a large coal-fired Stirling engine and thus shorten the lead time to commercialization. The demonstration engine will be based on the concepts developed in the first phase of this program, as detailed in Volume I of this report. Thus the proposed program plan is based on the U-4 engine concept fired by a fluidized bed combustor with a two-stage gravity-assisted heat pipe. The plan is divided into five phases and an ongoing supporting technology program. Phase I, Conceptual Design, has been completed. The remaining phases are: Preliminary Design; Final Design; Fabrication; and Testing and Demonstration. The primary target is to begin testing the large coal-fired engine by the fifth year (1985) after the start of Preliminary Design.

Not Available,

1980-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

253

The use of AVL integrated with RFID for the transportation of fractioned cargo  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work has as purpose to describe and evaluate the integration of different technologies with the purpose of improving the transportation and h and highway distribution of cargo. Through a comparative analysis, advantages and disadvantages of the ... Keywords: AVL, RFID, barcode, fractioned cargo, georeferral, logistics

Dcio Tomasulo De Vicente; Marcelo Jos Maluf Garcia; Silvio Giuseppe Di Santo; Eduardo Mario Dias; Caio Fernando Fontana

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Levy path integral approach to the solution of the fractional Schrdinger equation with infinite square well  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The solution to the fractional Schr\\"odinger equation with infinite square well is obtained in this paper, by use of the L\\'evy path integral approach. We obtain the even and odd parity wave functions of this problem, which are in accordance with those given by Laskin in [Chaos 10 (2000), 780--790].

Dong Jianping

2013-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

255

Numerical solution for Stokes' first problem for a heated generalized second grade fluid with fractional derivative  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we consider Stokes' first problem for a heated generalized second grade fluid with fractional derivative (SFP-HGSGF). An effective implicit numerical approximation scheme (INAS) for solving the SFP-HGSGF is presented. The stability and ... Keywords: Convergence, Generalized second grade fluid, Numerical method, Stability, Stokes' first problem

Chunhong Wu

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Measurements of the Cosmic-Ray Positron Fraction From 1 to 50 GeV  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Two measurements of the cosmic-ray positron fraction as a function of energy have been made using the High Energy Antimatter Telescope (HEAT) balloon-borne instrument. The first flight took place from Ft. Sumner, New Mexico in 1994, and yielded results above the geomagnetic cutoff energy of 4.5 GeV. The second flight from Lynn Lake, Manitoba in 1995 permitted measurements over a larger energy interval, from 1 GeV to 50 GeV. In this letter we present results on the positron fraction based on data from the Lynn Lake flight, and compare these with the previously published results from the Ft. Sumner flight. The results confirm that the positron fraction does not increase with energy above ~10 GeV, although a small excess above purely secondary production cannot be ruled out. At low energies the positron fraction is slightly larger than that reported from measurements made in the 1960's. This effect could possibly be a consequence of charge dependence in the level of solar modulation.

HEAT Collaboration; S. W. Barwick; E. Schneider; J. J. Beatty; G. A. de Nolfo; A. Bhattacharyya; C. R. Bower; J. A. Musser; C. J. Chaput; S. Coutu; S. McKee; G. Tarle; A. D. Tomasch; J. Knapp; D. M. Lowder; D. Muller; S. P. Swordy; E. Torbet; S. L. Nutter

1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

257

Determination of the effective delayed neutron fraction using MCNP4B  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The capability to calculate effective delayed neutron fractions has now been implemented into MCNP4B and is in the testing phase. This option should prove to be most useful for multiplying systems which are not easily modeled using deterministic codes.

Werner, C.J.; Little, R.C.

1999-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

258

Extreme lithium isotopic fractionation during continental weathering revealed in saprolites from South Carolina  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Extreme lithium isotopic fractionation during continental weathering revealed in saprolites from in revised form 6 July 2004 Abstract The lithium concentration and isotopic composition of two saprolites the behavior of lithium isotopes during continental weathering. Both saprolites show a general trend

Rudnick, Roberta L.

259

Determination of volume fractions in two-phase flows from sound speed measurement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurate measurement of the composition of oil-water emulsions within the process environment is a challenging problem in the oil industry. Ultrasonic techniques are promising because they are non-invasive and can penetrate optically opaque mixtures. This paper presents a method of determining the volume fractions of two immiscible fluids in a homogenized two-phase flow by measuring the speed of sound through the composite fluid along with the instantaneous temperature. Two separate algorithms are developed by representing the composite density as (i) a linear combination of the two densities, and (ii) a non-linear fractional formulation. Both methods lead to a quadratic equation with temperature dependent coefficients, the root of which yields the volume fraction. The densities and sound speeds are calibrated at various temperatures for each fluid component, and the fitted polynomial is used in the final algorithm. We present results when the new algorithm is applied to mixtures of crude oil and process water from two different oil fields, and a comparison of our results with a Coriolis meter; the difference between mean values is less than 1%. Analytical and numerical studies of sensitivity of the calculated volume fraction to temperature changes and calibration errors are also presented.

Chaudhuri, Anirban [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sinha, Dipen N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Osterhoudt, Curtis F. [University of Alaska

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

260

INDICATION OF INSENSITIVITY OF PLANETARY WEATHERING BEHAVIOR AND HABITABLE ZONE TO SURFACE LAND FRACTION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is likely that unambiguous habitable zone terrestrial planets of unknown water content will soon be discovered. Water content helps determine surface land fraction, which influences planetary weathering behavior. This is important because the silicate-weathering feedback determines the width of the habitable zone in space and time. Here a low-order model of weathering and climate, useful for gaining qualitative understanding, is developed to examine climate evolution for planets of various land-ocean fractions. It is pointed out that, if seafloor weathering does not depend directly on surface temperature, there can be no weathering-climate feedback on a waterworld. This would dramatically narrow the habitable zone of a waterworld. Results from our model indicate that weathering behavior does not depend strongly on land fraction for partially ocean-covered planets. This is powerful because it suggests that previous habitable zone theory is robust to changes in land fraction, as long as there is some land. Finally, a mechanism is proposed for a waterworld to prevent complete water loss during a moist greenhouse through rapid weathering of exposed continents. This process is named a 'waterworld self-arrest', and it implies that waterworlds can go through a moist greenhouse stage and end up as planets like Earth with partial ocean coverage. This work stresses the importance of surface and geologic effects, in addition to the usual incident stellar flux, for habitability.

Abbot, Dorian S.; Ciesla, Fred J. [Department of the Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, 5734 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Cowan, Nicolas B., E-mail: abbot@uchicago.edu [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2131 Tech Drive, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)

2012-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "introduced fractional horsepower" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Estimation of the Turbulent Fraction in the Free Atmosphere from MST Radar Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Small-scale turbulence in the free atmosphere is known to be intermittent in space and time. The turbulence fraction of the atmosphere is a key parameter in order to evaluate the transport properties of small-scale motions and to interpret clear-...

Richard Wilson; Francis Dalaudier; Francois Bertin

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

A box-type scheme for fractional sub-diffusion equation with Neumann boundary conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Combining order reduction approach and L1 discretization, a box-type scheme is presented for solving a class of fractional sub-diffusion equation with Neumann boundary conditions. A new inner product and corresponding norm with a Sobolev embedding inequality ... Keywords: Box-type scheme, Convergence, Energy method, Neumann boundary conditions, Stability, Sub-diffusion equation

Xuan Zhao; Zhi-zhong Sun

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Separation of gonadotropic fractions with different species specificities from tuna pituitaries  

SciTech Connect

Eight different gonadotropic glycoprotein fractions were separated from the acetone-dried powder of yellow fin tuna pituitary glands by successive chromatographies on Superose 12 for gel filtration and Mono Q for anion exchange using the Pharmacia fast protein liquid chromatography system. This was preceded by preliminary separations using an ammonium sulfate precipitation method and affinity chromatography on concanavalin A-Sepharose. For biological characterization, we employed two radioreceptor assay systems, one using goby testis plasma membranes and silver carp GTH as the receptor and radioligand, respectively, and the other using testis plasma membranes of the yellow fin tuna and gonadotropin of the same species, respectively. We also employed two testicular cyclic AMP accumulation bioassay methods in vitro, one with the goby testis and the other with the mackerel testis. The least acidic fraction after Mono Q was further separated into four subfractions by rechromatography with Mono Q. They were strongly active in the tuna and mackerel assays but almost inactive in the goby assays. They were referred to as tuna-type tuna gonadotropin. In contrast, the most acidic fraction obtained after the first Mono Q was active in the goby assays but almost inactive in the tuna and mackerel assays. It was referred to as goby-type tuna gonadotropin. The intermediate fractions were active on both assays and are considered to be mixtures of tuna-type and goby-type gonadotropins. The reason for the presence of gonadotropin inactive to homologous species is discussed from the evolutionary viewpoint.

Ando, H.; Ishii, S.

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Volume fraction optimization of functionally graded composite panels for stress reduction and critical temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The volume fraction optimization of functionally graded (FG) composite panels is studied by considering stress reduction and thermo-mechanical buckling. The structure is made up of ceramic layer, functionally graded materials (FGMs) and metal layer. ... Keywords: 3-D finite element model, Functionally graded materials, Optimization, Stress reduction, Thermo-mechanical buckling

Kyung-Su Na; Ji-Hwan Kim

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Measurements of the Cosmic-Ray Positron Fraction From 1 to 50 GeV  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Two measurements of the cosmic-ray positron fraction as a function of energy have been made using the High Energy Antimatter Telescope (HEAT) balloon-borne instrument. The first flight took place from Ft. Sumner, New Mexico in 1994, and yielded results above the geomagnetic cutoff energy of 4.5 GeV. The second flight from Lynn Lake, Manitoba in 1995 permitted measurements over a larger energy interval, from 1 GeV to 50 GeV. In this letter we present results on the positron fraction based on data from the Lynn Lake flight, and compare these with the previously published results from the Ft. Sumner flight. The results confirm that the positron fraction does not increase with energy above ~10 GeV, although a small excess above purely secondary production cannot be ruled out. At low energies the positron fraction is slightly larger than that reported from measurements made in the 1960's. This effect could possibly be a consequence of charge dependence in the level of solar modulation.

Barwick, S W; Beatty, J J; De Nolfo, G A; Bhattacharya, A; Bower, C; Musser, J A; Chaput, C J; Coutu, S; McKee, S; Tarl, G; Tomasch, A D; Knapp, J; Lowder, D M; Mller, D; Swordy, S P; Torbet, E; Nutter, S L

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

A facile electron microscopy method for measuring precipitate volume fractions in AlCuMg alloys  

SciTech Connect

Precipitate volume fraction is an important parameter to estimate the strength of precipitation-hardened metals. In this study, a facile method was applied to measure the precipitate volume fractions in an age-hardened AlCuMg alloy. In this method, the precipitate volume fraction values can be obtained by multiplying the volume precipitate number densities with the averaged precipitate volumes, which can be easily measured in scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Compared with the conventional method, in which the specimen thickness has to be measured in transmission electron microscopy, the method proposed in this study is more facile to perform. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have proposed a facile method to measure precipitate volume fractions for precipitation-hardened metals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This technique works well for the square-shaped {theta} Prime -phase nano-precipitates in 2xxx aluminum alloys. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interesting is that the proposed method is easy for materials scientists and engineers to perform.

Zhao, X.Q.; Shi, M.J.; Chen, J.H., E-mail: jhchen123@hnu.edu.cn; Wang, S.B.; Liu, C.H.; Wu, C.L.

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

267

Normalized cut segmentation of thyroid tumor image based on fractional derivatives  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the clinical diagnosis of thyroid tumor, ultrasound image may provide anatomical detail of the tumor, and radionuclide image may provide functional information about activity distribution of the tumor. Fusion of the two-modality medical image doesn't ... Keywords: fractional derivatives, image segmentation, normalized cut, thyroid tumor image

Jie Zhao; Li Zhang; Wei Zheng; Hua Tian; Dong-mei Hao; Song-hong Wu

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Stable isotope fractionation by thermal diffusion through partially molten wet and dry silicate rocks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Stable isotope fractionation by thermal diffusion through partially molten wet and dry silicate rocks I.N. Bindeman a,n , C.C. Lundstrom b , C. Bopp b , F. Huang b,c a Department of Geological Sciences, 1272 University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403, USA b Department of Geology, University of Illinois

Bindeman, Ilya N.

269

Carbon isotope fractionation between diet, breath CO2, and bioapatite in different mammals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon isotope fractionation between diet, breath CO2, and bioapatite in different mammals Benjamin , M. Denise Dearing c , Beverly L. Roeder b , James R. Ehleringer c a Department of Geology 84112, USA Received 15 November 2004; received in revised form 15 March 2005 Abstract The carbon isotope

Ehleringer, Jim

270

85More Atomic Fractions The single electron inside an atom can exist in many  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

85More Atomic Fractions The single electron inside an atom can exist in many different energy states. The lowest energy an electron can have is called the Ground State: this is the bottom rung on the ladder marked with an energy of '1' in the figure to the left. The electron must obey the Ladder Rule

271

VLSI Architecture Design of Fractional Motion Estimation for H.264/AVC  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The H.264/AVC Fractional Motion Estimation (FME) with rate-distortion constrained mode decision can improve the rate-distortion efficiency by 2---6 dB in peak signal-to-noise ratio. However, it comes with considerable computation complexity. Acceleration ... Keywords: H.264/AVC, Motion estimation, VLSI architecture, Video coding

Yi-Hau Chen; Tung-Chien Chen; Shao-Yi Chien; Yu-Wen Huang; Liang-Gee Chen

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Doppler-shift proton fraction measurement on a CW proton injector  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A spectrometer/Optical Multi-channel Analyzer has been used to measure the proton fraction of the cw proton injector developed for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) and the Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) at Los Alamos. This technique, pioneered by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), was subsequently adopted by the international fusion community as the standard for determining the extracted ion fractions of neutral beam injectors. Proton fractions up to 95 {+-} 3% have been measured on the LEDA injector. These values are in good agreement with results obtained by magnetically sweeping the ion beam, collimated by a slit, across a Faraday cup. Since the velocity distribution of each beam species is measured, it also can be used to determine beam divergence. While divergence has not yet been ascertained due to the wide slit widths in use, non-Gaussian distributions have been observed during operation above the design-matched perveance. An additional feature is that the presence of extracted water ions can be observed. During ion source conditioning at 75 kV, an extracted water fraction > 30% was briefly observed.

Kamperschroer, J.H. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Sherman, J.D.; Zaugg, T.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Arvin, A.H.; Bolt, A.S.; Richards, M.C. [Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC (United States)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

273

Modeling for electrical characteristics of solid oxide fuel cell based on fractional calculus  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It's vital for the research of electrochemical reaction in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) to establish accurate dynamic model of its electrical characteristics. The inherent potential polarization of SOFC is analyzed, and integer order dynamic model is ... Keywords: electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, equivalent circuit, fractional order dynamic model, genetic algorithm, integer order dynamic model, solid oxide fuel cell

HongLiang Cao; Li Xi; ZhongHua Deng; Qin Yi

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Modeling twin-screw multiphase pump performance during periods of high gas volume fraction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Multiphase pumping is a new technology used for reducing capital investments, increasing production rates, and improving recoveries in many on-shore projects. Interest is also growing in the subsea/offshore application of this technology. Multiphase pumping adds energy to an unprocessed effluent stream acting as a combined pump and compressor, permitting the recovery of oil and gas on an economical basis. In practice, multiphase production is characterized by wide fluctuations in the gas and liquid mass flow rates. During periods of substantial gas flow, temperature becomes the critical variable determining the performance of the pump. Without the liquid phase to remove the gas compression heat, temperatures in the discharge gas stream begin to rise causing a decrease in efficiency, a high temperature shut-in of the pump, and damage to the pump. While this behavior has been observed in lab experiments and in the field, a review of literature reveals that no mechanistic model exists for predicting the performance of a twin-screw pump under high gas volume flow conditions. Also, very few data are available under high GVF conditions. Both large-scale experiments and mechanistic modeling were performed as part of this research. This thesis models the behavior of a twin-screw multiphase pump under high gas volume fraction conditions. The model of the pump is based on fundamental principles of thermodynamic and fluid mechanics. The specific experimental tasks undertaken in this work include studying the volumetric pump performance during periods of high gas volume fractions, the observation of temperature increase with time under periods of 100% gas volume fraction and studying the effect of viscosity on high GVF performance. The results indicate that the pump can be operated during periods of 100% gas volume fractions. The volumetric efficiency of the twin-screw multiphase pump during periods of high to 100% gas volume fractions can be improved by increasing the viscosity of the process stream or by injecting high viscosity fluids into the pump casing. At 94-95% gas volume fraction the system transitions from isothermal conditions. And the system moves from isothermal to adiabatic (uncooled) conditions with time. A model has been generated that predicts temperature increase with time as a function of the key parameters of pump speed, differential pressure, mass flow rate, specific heat and slip flow. This model can be used to develop novel control philosophies for operating multiphase pumps during high gas volume fractions.

Singh, Aditya

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Cu isotope fractionation during bornite dissolution: An in situ X-ray diffraction analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Low-temperature ore deposits exhibit a large variation in {delta}{sup 65}Cu ({approx}12{per_thousand}), and this range has been attributed, in part, to isotope fractionation during weathering reactions of primary minerals such as chalcocite and chalcopyrite. Here, we examine the fractionation of Cu isotopes during dissolution of another important Cu ore mineral, bornite, using a novel approach that combines time-resolved X-ray diffraction (XRD) and isotope analysis of reaction products. During the initial stages of bornite oxidative dissolution by ferric sulfate ( 20 mol% Cu was leached from the solid, the difference between the Cu isotope composition of the aqueous and mineral phases approached zero, with {Delta}{sub aq - min}{sup 0} values ranging from - 0.21 {+-} 0.61{per_thousand} to 0.92 {+-} 0.25{per_thousand}. XRD analysis allowed us to correlate changes in the atomic structure of bornite with the apparent isotope fractionation as the dissolution reaction progressed. These data revealed that the greatest degree of apparent fractionation is accompanied by a steep contraction in the unit-cell volume, which we identified as a transition from stoichiometric to non-stoichiometric bornite. We propose that the initially high {Delta}{sub aq - min} values result from isotopically heavy Cu ({sup 65}Cu) concentrating within Cu{sup 2+} during dissolution. The decrease in the apparent isotope fractionation as the reaction progresses occurs from the distillation of isotopically heavy Cu ({sup 65}Cu) during dissolution or kinetic isotope effects associated with the depletion of Cu from the surfaces of bornite particles.

Wall, Andrew J.; Mathur, Ryan; Post, Jeffrey E.; Heaney, Peter J. (Juniata); (Smithsonian); (Penn)

2012-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

276

Revised estimates of electron absorbed fractions and radionuclide S-values in trabecular bone  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The field of nuclear medicine has reached advanced stages in the use of radiopharmaceuticals for the treatment and diagnosis of innumerable maladies. However, along with the use of nuclear medicine come responsibilities inherently associated with the use of radioactive material. It is necessary to be able to calculate doses in the trabecular bone region accurately and consistently. The accurate assessment of patient dose will allow physicians to better predict the amounts of radioactivity needed for specific diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Additionally, improved calculational techniques for bone dosimetry will decrease the likelihood of overadministrations and will allow for reliable predictions of side-effects to patients. The dosimetry of this region is therefore a very important, and unfortunately complicated, area associated with the field of nuclear medicine. A new dosimetric trabecular bone model has been developed and incorporated into a Monte Carlo radiation transport code to determine electron absorbed fractions in red bone marrow and the endosteal tissue which is contained in trabecular bone. The model is based on measured omnidirectional chord length distributions through trabeculae and marrow cavities in nine skeletal locations. Absorbed fractions were calculated for the two target regions, and then estimated from these results for all other skeletal regions thought to contain red marrow. These absorbed fractions were then used to calculate S-values for a variety of beta-emitting radionuclides at each of 15 skeletal locations thought to contain red bone marrow. Absorbed fractions and S-values were calculated for sources in the marrow, on the bone surface, and in the bone volume. Comparisons were made between the new absorbed fractions and those published in ICRP Publication 30, as well as between the new S-values and those determined from the MIRDOSE2 software.

Parry, Robert Alan

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

DEVELOPMENT OF A POPULATION BALANCE MODEL TO SIMULATE FRACTIONATION OF GROUND SWITCHGRASS  

SciTech Connect

The population balance model represents a time-dependent formulation of mass conservation for a ground biomass that flows through a set of sieves. The model is suitable for predicting the change in size and distribution of ground biomass while taking into account the flow rate processes of particles through a grinder. This article describes the development and application of this model to a switchgrass grinding operation. The mass conservation formulation of the model contains two parameters: breakage rate and breakage ratio. A laboratory knife mill was modified to act as a batch or flow-through grinder. The ground switchgrass was analyzed over a set of six Tyler sieves with apertures ranging from 5.66 mm (top sieve) to 1 mm (bottom sieve). The breakage rate was estimated from the sieving tests. For estimating the breakage ratio, each of the six fractions was further ground and sieved to 11 fractions on a set of sieves with apertures ranging from 5.66 to 0.25 mm (and pan). These data formed a matrix of values for determining the breakage ratio. Using the two estimated parameters, the transient population balance model was solved numerically. Results indicated that the population balance model generally underpredicted the fractions remaining on sieves with 5.66, 4.00, and 2.83 mm apertures and overpredicted fractions remaining on sieves with 2.00, 1.41, and 1.00 mm apertures. These trends were similar for both the batch and flow-through grinder configurations. The root mean square of residuals (RSE), representing the difference between experimental and simulated mass of fractions, was 0.32 g for batch grinding and 0.1 g for flow-through grinding. The breakage rate exhibited a linear function of the logarithm of particle size, with a regression coefficient of 0.99.

Naimi, L.J. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Bi, X.T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Lau, A.K. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Womac, A.R. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Igathinathane, C. [North Dakota State University; Sowlati, T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Melin, Staffan [Delta Research Corporation; Emami, M. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Afzal, M [University of New Brunswick

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Use of evaporative fractional crystallization in the pretreatment process of multi-salt single shell tank Hanford nuclear wastes.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The purpose of the work described in this thesis was to explore the use of fractional crystallization as a technology that can be used to (more)

Nassif, Laurent

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Validation of ATR Fission Power Deposition Fraction in HEU and LEU Fuel Plates  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a high power (250 MW), high neutron flux research reactor operating in the United States. Powered with highly enriched uranium (HEU), the ATR has a maximum unperturbed thermal neutron flux rating of 1.0 x 1015 n/cm2s. Because of its high power and large test volumes located in high flux areas, the ATR is an ideal candidate for assessing the feasibility of converting an HEU driven reactor to a low-enriched core. A detailed plate-by-plate MCNP ATR full core model has been developed and validated for the low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel conversion feasibility study. Using this model, an analysis has been performed to determine the LEU density and U-235 enrichment required in the fuel meat to yield equivalent K-eff versus effective full power days (EFPDs) between the HEU and LEU cores. This model has also been used to optimize U-235 content of the LEU core, minimizing the differences in K-eff and heat flux profile between the HEU and LEU cores at 115 MW total core power for 125 EFPDs. The LEU core conversion feasibility study evaluated foil type (U-10Mo) fuel with the LEU reference design of 19.7 wt% U-235 enrichment. The LEU reference design has a fixed fuel meat thickness of 0.330 mm and can sustain the same operating cycle length as the HEU fuel. Heat flux and fission power density are parameters that are proportional to the fraction of fission power deposited in fuel. Thus, the accurate determination of the fraction of fission power deposited in the fuel is important to ATR nuclear safety. In this work, a new approach was developed and validated, the Tally Fuel Cells Only (TFCO) method. This method calculates and compares the fission power deposition fraction between HEU and LEU fuel plates. Due to the high density of the U-10Mo LEU fuel, the fission ?-energy deposition fraction is 37.12%, which is larger than the HEUs ?-energy deposition fraction of 19.7%. As a result, the fuel decay heat cooling will need to be improved. During the power operation, the total fission energy (200 MeV per fission) deposition fraction of LEU and HEU are 90.9% and 89.1%, respectively.

G. S. Chang

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

The equivalent electrical permittivity of gas-solid mixtures at intermediate solid volume fractions.  

SciTech Connect

Several mixture models are evaluated for their suitability in predicting the equivalent permittivity of dielectric particles in a dielectric medium for intermediate solid volume fractions (0.4 to 0.6). Predictions of the Maxwell, Rayleigh, Bottcher and Bruggeman models are compared to computational simulations of several arrangements of solid particles in a gas and to the experimentally determined permittivity of a static particle bed. The experiment uses spherical glass beads in air, so air and glass permittivity values (1 and 7, respectively) are used with all of the models and simulations. The experimental system used to measure the permittivity of the static particle bed and its calibration are described. The Rayleigh model is found to be suitable for predicting permittivity over the entire range of solid volume fractions (0-0.6).

Torczynski, John Robert; Ceccio, Steven Louis; Tortora, Paul Richard

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "introduced fractional horsepower" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Method of producing a colloidal fuel from coal and a heavy petroleum fraction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is provided for combining coal as a colloidal suspension within a heavy petroleum fraction. The coal is broken to a medium particle size and is formed into a slurry with a heavy petroleum fraction such as a decanted oil having a boiling point of about 300.degree.-550.degree. C. The slurry is heated to a temperature of 400.degree.-500.degree. C. for a limited time of only about 1-5 minutes before cooling to a temperature of less than 300.degree. C. During this limited contact time at elevated temperature the slurry can be contacted with hydrogen gas to promote conversion. The liquid phase containing dispersed coal solids is filtered from the residual solids and recovered for use as a fuel or feed stock for other processes. The residual solids containing some carbonaceous material are further processed to provide hydrogen gas and heat for use as required in this process.

Longanbach, James R. (Columbus, OH)

1983-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

282

First Measurement of the Branching Fraction of the Decay $\\psi(2S) \\to \\tau\\tau$  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The branching fraction of the psi(2S) decay into tau pair has been measured for the first time using the BES detector at the Beijing Electron-Positron Collider. The result is $B_{\\tau\\tau}=(2.71\\pm 0.43 \\pm 0.55) \\times 10^{-3}$, where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic. This value, along with those for the branching fractions into e+e- and mu+mu of this resonance, satisfy well the relation predicted by the sequential lepton hypothesis. Combining all these values with the leptonic width of the resonance the total width of the psi(2S) is determined to be $(252 \\pm 37)$ keV.

Bai, J Z; Bian, J G; Blum, I K; Chen, G P; Chen, H F; Chen, J; Chen Jia Chao; Chen, Y; Chen, Y B; Chen, Y Q; Cheng Bao Sen; Cui, X Z; Ding, H L; Dong, L Y; Du, Z Z; Dunwoodie, W M; Gao, C S; Gao, M L; Gao, S Q; Gratton, P; Gu, J H; Gu, S D; Gu, W X; Gu, Y F; Guo, Z J; Guo, Y N; Han, S W; Han, Y; Harris, F A; He, J; He, J T; He, K L; He, M; Heng, Y K; Hitlin, D G; Hu, G Y; Hu, H M; Hu, J L; Hu, Q H; Hu, T; Hu Xiao Qing; Huang, G S; Huang, Y Z; Izen, J M; Jiang, C H; Jin, Y; Jones, B D; Ju, X; Ke, Z J; Kelsey, M H; Kim, B K; Kong, D; Lai, Y F; Lang, P F; Lankford, A J; Li, C G; Li, D; Li, H B; Li, J; Li, J C; Li, P Q; Li, R B; Li, W; Li, W G; Li, X H; Li Xiao Nan; Liu, H M; Liu, J; Liu, R G; Liu, Y; Lou, X C; Lowery, B; Lu, F; Lu, J G; Luo, X L; Ma, E C; Ma, J M; Malchow, R; Mao, H S; Mao, Z P; Meng, X C; Nie, J; Olsen, S L; Oyang, J Y T; Paluselli, D; Pan, L J; Panetta, J; Porter, F; Qi, N D; Qi, X R; Qian, C D; Qiu, J F; Qu, Y H; Que, Y K; Rong, G; Schernau, M; Shao, Y Y; Shen, B W; Shen, D L; Shen, H; Shen, X Y; Sheng, H Y; Shi, H Z; Song, X F; Standifird, J; Sun, F; Sun, H S; Sun, Y; Sun, Y Z; Tang, S Q; Toki, W; Tong, G L; Varner, G S; Wang, F; Wang, L S; Wang, L Z; Wang, M; Wang, P; Wang, P L; Wang, S M; Wang, T J; Wang, Y Y; Weaver, M; Wei, C L; Wu, J M; Wu, N; Wu, Y G; Xi, D M; Xia, X M; Xie, P P; Xie, Y; Xie, Y H; Xu, G F; Xue, S T; Yan, J; Yan, W G; Yang, C M; Yang, C Y; Yang, H X; Yang, J; Yang, W; Yang, X F; Ye, M H; Ye Shu Wei; Ye, Y X; Yu, C S; Yu, C X; Yu, G W; Yu Yu Hei; Yu, Z Q; Yuan, C Z; Yuan, Y; Zhang Bing Yun; Zhang, C; Zhang, C C; Zhang, D H; Zhang, H L; Zhang, J; Zhang, J W; Zhang, L; Zhang, L S; Zhang, P; Zhang, Q J; Zhang, S Q; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y Y; Zhao, D X; Zhao, H W; Zhao Jia Wei; Zhao, M; Zhao Wei Ren; Zhao, Z G; Zheng Jian Ping; Zheng Lin Sheng; Zheng Zhi Peng; Zhou, B Q; Zhou, G P; Zhou, H S; Zhou, L; Zhu, K J; Zhu, Q M; Zhu, Y C; Zhu, Y S; Zhuang, B A

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

The Fractionation of Loblolly Pine Woodchips Into Pulp For Making Paper Products  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall goal of the project was to test the PureVision biomass fractionation technology for making pulp from loblolly pine. A specific goal was to produce a pulp product that is comparable to pulp produced from the kraft process, while reducing the environmental effects of the kraft process, known to be a highly pollutant process. The overall goal of the project was met by using the biomass fractionation concept for making pulp product. This proof-of-concept study, done with Southern pine pinchips as feedstock, evaluated NaOH concentration and residence time as variables in single-stage cocurrent pulping process. It can be concluded that 1% NaOH is adequate for effective delignification using the PureVision process; this is about ? of that used in the kraft process. Also, the PureVision process does not use sulfur-based chemicals such as N2S and hence, is environmentally more benign.

Kiran Kadam, PhD

2006-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

284

Fast and accurate behavioral simulation of fractional-N frequency synthesizers and other PLL/DLL circuits  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Techniques for fast and accurate simulation of fractional-N synthesizers at a detailed behavioral level are presented. The techniques allow a uniform time step to be used for the simulator, and can be applied to a variety of phase locked loop (PLL) and ... Keywords: DLL, PLL, delta, fractional-N, frequency, sigma, synthesizer

Michael H. Perrott

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Sulfur distribution in the oil fractions obtained by thermal cracking of Jordanian El-Lajjun oil Shale  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by the thermal cracking process of the El-Lujjan oil shale showed that the yield of oil was around 12 wt of the boiling point for different distillate fractions. Sulfur in Jordanian oil shale was found to be mainly the dominant phases in these fractions. q 2005 Published by Elsevier Ltd. 1. Introduction Oil shale

Shawabkeh, Reyad A.

286

Method of electric field flow fractionation wherein the polarity of the electric field is periodically reversed  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A novel method of electric field flow fractionation for separating solute molecules from a carrier solution is disclosed. The method of the invention utilizes an electric field that is periodically reversed in polarity, in a time-dependent, wave-like manner. The parameters of the waveform, including amplitude, frequency and wave shape may be varied to optimize separation of solute species. The waveform may further include discontinuities to enhance separation.

Stevens, Fred J. (Naperville, IL)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Fractional neutron KERMA for hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen deduced from microdosimetric measurements  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Paired microdosimetric counters have been employed to deduce the neutron fractional KERMA values in A150-plastic. Event size spectra from 14.8-MeV neutron bombardment of a graphite-walled proportional counter were used to unfold the H, C, N and O KERMA values from fast neutron irradiation of an A150-plastic-walled counter. Results are compared for a four element A150-plastic model to the calculations of Caswell et al.

DeLuca, P.M. Jr.; Schell, M.C.; Pearson, D.W.; Attix, F.H.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Contingency plan for deployment of the void fraction instrument in Tank 241-AY-102  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-heat producing sludge from tank 241-C-106 will be sluiced and transferred to tank 241-AY-102 beginning in October 1998. Safety analyses have postulated that after retrieval, the waste in 241-AY-102 may generate and retain unsafe levels of flammable gases (Noorani 1998, Pasamebmetoglu etal. 1997). Unsafe levels of retained gas are not expected, but cannot be ruled out because of the large uncertainty in the gas generation and retention rates. The Tank Waste Remediation System Basis for Interim Operation (Noorani 1998) identifies the need for a contingency plan to add void fraction monitoring to tank 241-AY-102 within 2 weeks of the identification of flammable gas buildup that would warrant monitoring. The Tank 241-C-106 Waste Retrieval Sluicing System Process Control Plan (Carothers et al. 1998) committed to providing a contingency plan for deployment of the void fraction instrument (VFI) in tank 241-AY-102. The VFI determines the local void fraction of the waste by compressing a waste sample captured in a gas-tight test chamber. The sample chamber is mounted on the end of a 76-cm (2.5-ft) arm that can be rotated from vertical to horizontal when the instrument is deployed. Once in the waste, the arm can be positioned horizontally and rotated to sample in different areas below the riser. The VFI is deployed using a crane. The VFI has been deployed previously in 241-AW, 241-AN, and 241-SY tank farms, most recently in tank 241-SY-101 in June and July 1998. An additional test in tank 241-SY-101 is planned in September 1998. Operating instructions for the VFI are included in the Void Fraction Instrument Operation and Maintenance Manual (Pearce 1994).

CONNER, J.M.

1999-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

289

Comparative Toxicity of Combined Particle and Semi-Volatile Organic Fractions of Gasoline and Diesel Emissions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Little is known about the relative health hazards presented by emissions from in-use gasoline and diesel engines. Adverse health effects have been ascribed to engine emissions on the basis of: (1) the presence of known toxic agents in emissions; (2) high-dose animal and bacterial mutagenicity tests; and (3) studies indicating gradients of health effects with proximity to roadways. Most attention has been given to the particulate fraction of emissions; little attention has been given to the semi-volatile organic fraction. However, the semi-volatile fraction overlaps the particulate fraction in composition and is always present in the vicinity of fresh emissions. Although the potential health effects of diesel emissions have been frequently studied and debated during the past 20 years (EPA, 2002), relatively little attention has been given to the toxicity of emissions from gasoline engines. In view of the considerable progress in cleaning up diesel emissions, it would be useful to compare the toxicity of emissions from contemporary on-road diesel technology with that of emissions from the in-use gasoline fleet that is well-accepted by the public. It would also be useful to have a set of validated tests for rapid, cost-effective comparisons of the toxicity of emission samples, both for comparisons among competing technologies (e.g., diesel, gasoline, natural gas) and for determining the impacts of new fuel, engine, and after-treatment strategies on toxicity. The Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies has sponsored research aimed at developing and applying rapid-response toxicity tests for collected emission samples (Seagrave et al., 2000). This report presents selected results from that work, which is being published in much greater detail in the peer-reviewed literature (Seagrave et al., 2002).

Mauderly, Joe; Seagrave, JeanClare; McDonald, Jacob; Gigliotti,Andrew; Nikula, Kristen; Seilkop, Steven; Gurevich, Michael

2002-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

290

Fractional models for modeling complex linear systems under poor frequency resolution measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

When modeling a linear system in a parametric way, one needs to deal with (i) model structure selection, (ii) model order selection as well as (iii) an accurate fit of the model. The most popular model structure for linear systems has a rational form ... Keywords: Continuous-time modeling, Fractional order systems, Linear systems, Non-asymptotic, Nonlinear least squares, Parametric models, Poor frequency resolutions, Statistical signal processing, Transfer function

Kurt Barb, Oscar J. Olarte Rodriguez, Wendy Van Moer, Lieve Lauwers

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Sorption of organic carbon compounds to the fine fraction of surface and Subsurface Soils  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) transported from the soil surface is stabilized in deeper soil profiles by physicochemical sorption processes. However, it is unclear how different forms of organic carbon (OC) compounds common in soil organic matter interact with soil minerals in the surface (A) and subsurface (B) horizons. We added four compounds (glucose, starch, cinnamic acid and stearic acid) to the silt- and clay-sized fraction (fine fraction) of A and B horizons of eight soils from varying climates (3 temperate, 3 tropical, 1 arctic and 1 sub-arctic). Equilibriumbatch experiments were conducted using 0 to 100 mg C L 1 of 14C-labeled compounds for 8 h. Sorption parameters (maximum sorption capacity, Qmax and binding coefficient, k) calculated by fitting sorption data to the Langmuir equation showed that Qmax of A and B horizons was very similar for all compounds. Both Qmax and k values were related to sorbate properties, with Qmax being lowest for glucose (20 500 mg kg 1), highest for stearic acid (20,000 200,000 mg kg 1), and intermediate for both cinnamic acid (200 4000 mg kg 1) and starch (400 6000 mg kg 1). Simple linear regression analysis revealed that physicochemical properties of the sorbents influenced the Qmax of cinnamic acid and stearic acid, but not glucose and starch. The sorbent properties did not show predictive ability for binding coefficient k. By using the fine fraction as sorbent, we found that the mineral fractions of A horizons are equally reactive as the B horizons irrespective of soil organic carbon content.

Jagadamma, Sindhu [ORNL; Mayes, Melanie [ORNL; Zinn, Yuri [Federal University of Lavras, Brazil; Gisladottir, Gudrun [University of Iceland; Ann, Russell [Iowa State University

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Fractionation of Dissolved Solutes and Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter During Experimental Sea Ice Formation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the past decade there has been an overall decrease in Arctic Ocean sea ice cover. Changes to the ice cover have important consequences for organic carbon cycling, especially over the continental shelves. When sea ice is formed, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and other tracers are fractionated in relation to the initial water. Two separate freeze-out experiments were conducted to observe the effects of fractionation during ice formation. In experiment 1, marine and freshwater end members were mixed together in different ratios to create four different salinities. In experiment 2, a brackish water sample was collected. The initial unfrozen water, ice melt, and post-freeze brine water were tested for dissolved organic carbon, total nitrogen (TN), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), fluorescence and absorption (optics), water isotopes (?18O and ?D), and lignin phenols. Results showed a clear fractionation effect for all parameters, where the ice samples contained much less of the dissolved species than the enriched brine samples. This information is important to consider when trying using these parameters to determine the fate of carbon and the freshwater budget to the Arctic Ocean.

Smith, Stephanie 1990-

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Radioprotective Effect of Lidocaine on Function and Ultrastructure of Salivary Glands Receiving Fractionated Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: Radiation-induced xerostomia still represents a common side effect after radiotherapy for head-and-neck malignancies. The aim of the present study was to examine the radioprotective effect of lidocaine hydrochloride during fractionated radiation in an experimental animal model. Methods and Materials: To evaluate the influence of different radiation doses on salivary gland function and the radioprotective effect of lidocaine, rabbits were irradiated with 15, 25, 30, and 35 Gy (equivalent doses in 2-Gy fractions equivalent to 24, 40, 48, and 56 Gy, respectively). Lidocaine hydrochloride (10 and 12 mg/kg) was administered before every radiation fraction in the treatment groups. Salivary gland function was assessed by flow sialometry and sialoscintigraphy, and the morphologic changes were evaluated using transmission electron microscopy. Results: Functional impairment was first observed after 35 Gy and pretreatment with lidocaine improved radiation tolerance of both parotid and submandibular glands. The use of 12 mg/kg lidocaine was superior and displayed significant radioprotection with regard to flow sialometry and sialoscintigraphy. The ultrastructure was largely preserved after pretreatment with both lidocaine doses. Conclusions: Lidocaine represents an effective radioprotective agent and a promising approach for clinical application to avoid radiation-induced functional impairment of salivary glands.

Hakim, Samer George, E-mail: samer.hakim@mkg-chir.mu-luebeck.de [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Benedek, Geza Attila [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Su Yuxiong [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Guanghua (China); Jacobsen, Hans Christian [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Klinger, Matthias [Institute of Anatomy, University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Dendorfer, Andreas [Institute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Hemmelmann, Claudia [Institute of Medical Biometry and Statistics, University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Meller, Birgit [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Nadrowitz, Roger; Rades, Dirk [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Sieg, Peter [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

294

Preliminary Results of Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy After Cyst Drainage for Craniopharyngioma in Adults  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the effectiveness of fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) for craniopharyngioma. Methods and Materials: Between 1999 and 2005, 16 patients with craniopharyngioma were referred to Tokyo Medical University Hospital. They received FSRT alone after histologic confirmation by needle biopsy and underwent cyst drainage via endoscopy. The median prescription dose fraction was 30 Gy in six fractions. All patients except 1 were followed up until December 2009 or death. Results: The median follow-up period was 52 months (range, 4-117 months). Of the 17 patients, 3 experienced recurrence 4 to 71 months after FSRT. The 3-year local control rate was 82.4%. One patient died of thyroid cancer, and the 3-year survival rate was 94.1%. Eight patients had improved visual fields at a median of 2.5 months after FSRT, but hormonal functions did not improve in any patient. Conclusions: FSRT after cyst drainage seems to be safe and effective for patients with craniopharyngiomas, and it may be a safe alternative to surgery.

Kanesaka, Naoto, E-mail: kaneka@tokyo-med.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Tokyo Medical University Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Mikami, Ryuji; Nakayama, Hidetsugu; Nogi, Sachika; Tajima, Yu [Department of Radiology, Tokyo Medical University Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Nakajima, Nobuyuki; Wada, Jun; Miki, Tamotsu; Haraoka, Jou [Department of Neurosurgery, Tokyo Medical University Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Okubo, Mitsuru [Department of Radiology, Tokyo Medical University Hachioji Medical Center, Tokyo (Japan); Sugahara, Shinji [Department of Radiology, Tokyo Medical University Ibaraki Medical Center, Tokyo (Japan); Tokuuye, Koichi [Department of Radiology, Tokyo Medical University Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

295

High dose per fraction dosimetry of small fields with Gafchromic EBT2 film  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Small field dosimetry is prone to uncertainties due to the lack of electronic equilibrium and the use of the correct detector size relative to the field size measured. It also exhibits higher sensitivity to setup errors as well as large variation in output with field size and shape. Radiochromic film is an attractive method for reference dosimetry in small fields due to its ability to provide 2D dose measurements while having minimal impact on the dose distribution. Gafchromic EBT2 has a dose range of up to 40 Gy; therefore, it could potentially be useful for high dose reference dosimetry with high spatial resolution. This is a requirement in stereotactic radiosurgery deliveries, which deliver high doses per fraction to small targets. Methods: Targets of 4 mm and 12 mm diameters were treated to a minimum peripheral dose of 21 Gy prescribed to 80% of the maximum dose in one fraction. Target doses were measured with EBT2 film (both targets) and an ion chamber (12 mm target only). Measured doses were compared with planned dose distributions using profiles through the target and minimum peripheral dose coverage. Results: The measured target doses and isodose coverage agreed with the planned dose within {+-}1 standard deviation of three measurements, which were 2.13% and 2.5% for the 4 mm and 12 mm targets, respectively. Conclusions: EBT2 film is a feasible dosimeter for high dose per fraction reference 2D dosimetry.

Hardcastle, Nicholas; Basavatia, Amar; Bayliss, Adam; Tome, Wolfgang A. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 and Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia 2515 (Australia); Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 (United States); Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 (United States); Departments of Human Oncology, Medical Physics, and Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 and Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia 2515 (Australia)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

296

In situ determination of rheological properties and void fraction: Hanford Waste Tank 241-SY-103  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the results of the operation of the void fraction instrument (VFI) and ball rheometer in Hanford Tank 241-SY-103. The two instruments were deployed through risers 17C and 22A in July and August 1995 to gather data on the gas content and rheology of the waste. The results indicate that the nonconvective sludge layer contains up to 12% void and an apparent viscosity of 104 to 105 cP with a yield strength less than 210 Pa. The convective layer measured zero void and had no measurable yield strength. Its average viscosity was about 45 cP, and the density was less than 1.5 g/cc. The average void fraction was 0.047 {plus_minus} 0.015 at riser 17C and 0.091 {plus_minus} 0.015 at riser 22A. The stored gas volume based on these void fraction measurements is 213 {plus_minus} 42 M{sup 3} at 1 atmosphere.

Shepard, C.L.; Stewart, C.W.; Alzheimer, J.M.; Terrones, G.; Chen, G. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Wilkins, N.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Measurement of the B -> D^* l nu Branching Fractions and |Vcb|  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the exclusive semileptonic B meson decays B- -> D*0 l- nu and B0 -> D*+ l- nu using data collected with the CLEO II detector at CESR. We present measurements of the branching fractions B(B0 -> D*+ l-nu) = 0.5/f00* [4.49+/-0.32+/-0.39]% and B(B- -> D*0 l-nu) = 0.5/f+-*[5.13+/-0.54+/-0.64]%, where f00 and f+- are the neutral and charged B meson production fractions at the Upsilon(4s) resonance. Assuming isospion invariance and taking the charged to neutral B meson lifetimes measured at higher energy machines, we determine the ratio f+-/f00=1.04+/-0.14+/-0.13+-/-0.10; further assuming f+- + f00 = 1 we also determine the partial width G(B->D* l nu) = 29.9+/-1.9+/-2.7+/-2.0 ns-1 (independent of f+-/f00). From this partial width we calculate B -> D* l nu branching fractions that do not depend on f+-/f00, nor the individual B lifetimes, but only on the charged to neutral lifetime ratio. The product of the CKM matrix element |Vcb| times the normalization of the decay form factor at the point of zero recoil o...

Barish, B; Chan, S; Cowen, D F; Eigen, G; Miller, J S; O'Grady, C; Urheim, J; Weinstein, A J; Acosta, D; Athanas, M; Masek, G; Paar, H P; Gronberg, J; Kutschke, R; Menary, S; Morrison, R J; Nakanishi, S; Nelson, H N; Nelson, T K; Qiao, C; Richman, J D; Ryd, A; Tajima, H; Sperka, D; Witherell, M S; Procario, M; Balest, R; Cho, K; Daoudi, M; Ford, W T; Johnson, D R; Lingel, K; Lohner, M; Rankin, P; Smith, J G; Alexander, J P; Bebek, C; Berkelman, K; Bloom, K; Browder, T E; Cassel, D G; Cho, H A; Coffman, D M; Crowcroft, D S; Drell, P S; Ehrlich, R; Gaidarev, P; Galik, R S; Garca-Sciveres, M; Geiser, B; Gittelman, B; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Jones, C D; Jones, S L; Kandaswamy, J; Katayama, N; Kim, P C; Kreinick, D L; Ludwig, G S; Masui, J; Mevissen, J; Mistry, N B; Ng, C R; Nordberg, E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Riley, D; Salman, S; Sapper, M; Wrthwein, F; Avery, P; Freyberger, A; Rodrguez, J; Yang, S; Yelton, J; Cinabro, D; Henderson, S; Liu, T; Saulnier, M; Wilson, R; Yamamoto, H; Bergfeld, T; Eisenstein, B I; Gollin, G; Ong, B; Palmer, M; Selen, M; Thaler, J J; Edwards, K W; Ogg, M; Bellerive, A; Britton, D I; Hyatt, E R F; MacFarlane, D B; Patel, P M; Spaan, B; Sadoff, A J; Ammar, R; Ball, S; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Besson, D; Coppage, D; Copty, N; Davis, R; Hancock, N; Kelly, M; Kotov, S; Kravchenko, I; Kwak, N; Lam, H; Kubota, Y; Lattery, M; Momayezi, M; Nelson, J K; Patton, S; Perticone, D; Poling, R; Savinov, V; Schrenk, S; Wang, R; Alam, M S; Kim, I J; Nemati, B; Ling, Z; O'Neill, J J; Severini, H; Sun, C R; Wappler, F; Crawford, G; Daubenmier, C M; Fulton, R; Fujino, D; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Lee, J; Malchow, R; Skovpen, Y; Sung, M; White, C; Zoeller, M M; Butler, F; Fu, X; Kalbfleisch, G; Ross, W R; Skubic, P L; Wood, M; Fast, J; McIlwain, R L; Miao, T; Miller, D H; Modesitt, M; Payne, D; Shibata, E I; Shipsey, I P J; Wang, P N; Battle, M; Ernst, J; Gibbons, L; Kwon, Y; Roberts, S; Thorndike, E H; Wang, C H; Dominick, J; Lambrecht, M; Sanghera, S; Shelkov, V; Skwarnicki, T; Stroynowski, R; Volobuev, I P; Wei, G; Zadorozhny, P; Artuso, M; Goldberg, M; He, D; Horwitz, N; Kennett, R; Mountain, R; Moneti, G C; Muheim, F; Mukhin, Y; Playfer, S; Rozen, Y; Stone, S; Thulasidas, M; Vasseur, G; Xing, X; Zhu, G; Bartelt, J; Csorna, S E; Egyed, Z; Jain, V; Gibaut, D; Kinoshita, K

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Measuring Sub-micron Size Fractionated Particulate Matter on Aluminum Impactor Disks  

SciTech Connect

Sub-micron sized airborne particulate matter is not collected well on regular quartz or glass fiber filter papers. We used a micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI) to size fractionate particulate matter (PM) into six size fractions and deposit it on specially designed high purity thin aluminum disks. The MOUDI separated PM into fractions 56-100 nm, 100-180 nm, 180-320 nm, 320-560 nm, 560-1000 nm, and 1000-1800 nm. Since MOUDI have low flow rates, it takes several days to collect sufficient carbon on 47 mm foil disks. The small carbon mass (20-200 microgram C) and large aluminum substrate ({approx}25 mg Al) presents several challenges to production of graphite targets for accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) analysis. The Al foil consumes large amounts of oxygen as it is heated and tends to melt into quartz combustion tubes, causing gas leaks. We describe sample processing techniques to reliably produce graphitic targets for {sup 14}C-AMS analysis of PM deposited on Al impact foils.

Buchholz, B A; Zermeno, P; Hwang, H; Young, T M

2009-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

299

EFFECT OF ANATOMICAL FRACTIONATION ON THE ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF ACID AND ALKALINE PRETREATED CORN STOVER  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Due to concerns with biomass collection systems and soil sustainability there are opportunities to investigate the optimal plant fractions to collect for conversion. An ideal feedstock would require low severity pretreatment to release a maximum amount of sugar during enzymatic hydrolysis. Corn stover fractions were separated by hand and analyzed for glucan, xylan, acid soluble lignin, acid insoluble lignin, and ash composition. The stover fractions were also pretreated with either 0, 0.4, or 0.8% NaOH for 2 hours at room temperature, washed, autoclaved and saccharified. In addition, acid pretreated samples underwent simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) to ethanol. In general, the two pretreatments produced similar trends with cobs, husks, and leaves responding best to the pretreatments, the tops of stalks responding slightly less, and the bottom of the stalks responding the least. For example, corn husks pretreated with 0.8% NaOH released over 90% (standard error of 3.8%) of the available glucan, while only 45% (standard error of 1.1%) of the glucan was produced from identically treated stalk bottoms. Estimates of the theoretical ethanol yield using acid pretreatment followed by SSF were 65% (standard error of 15.9%) for husks and 29% (standard error of 1.8%) for stalk bottoms. This suggests that integration of biomass collection systems to remove sustainable feedstocks could be integrated with the processes within a biorefinery to minimize overall ethanol production costs.

K. B. Duguid; M. D. Montross; C. W. Radtke; C. L. Crofcheck; L. M. Wendt; S. A. Shearer

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Catalytic two-stage coal hydrogenation process using extinction recycle of heavy liquid fraction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for catalytic two-stage hydrogenation and liquefaction of coal with selective extinction recycle of all heavy liquid fractions boiling above a distillation cut point of about 600--750 F to produce increased yields of low-boiling hydrocarbon liquid and gas products. In the process, the particulate coal feed is slurried with a process-derived liquid solvent normally boiling above about 650 F and fed into a first stage catalytic reaction zone operated at conditions which promote controlled rate liquefaction of the coal, while simultaneously hydrogenating the hydrocarbon recycle oils. The first stage reactor is maintained at 710--800 F temperature, 1,000--4,000 psig hydrogen partial pressure, and 10-90 lb/hr per ft[sup 3] catalyst space velocity. Partially hydrogenated material withdrawn from the first stage reaction zone is passed directly to the second stage catalytic reaction zone maintained at 760--860 F temperature for further hydrogenation and hydroconversion reactions. A 600--750 F[sup +] fraction containing 0--20 W % unreacted coal and ash solids is recycled to the coal slurrying step. If desired, the cut point lower boiling fraction can be further catalytically hydrotreated. By this process, the coal feed is successively catalytically hydrogenated and hydroconverted at selected conditions, to provide significantly increased yields of desirable low-boiling hydrocarbon liquid products and minimal production of hydrocarbon gases, and no net production of undesirable heavy oils and residuum materials. 2 figs.

MacArthur, J.B.; Comolli, A.G.; McLean, J.B.

1989-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "introduced fractional horsepower" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Validation of MODIS-Retrieved Cloud Fractions Using Whole Sky Imager Measurements at the Three ARM Sites  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

MODIS-Retrieved Cloud Fractions Using MODIS-Retrieved Cloud Fractions Using Whole Sky Imager Measurements at the Three ARM Sites Z. Li, M. C. Cribb, and F.-L. Chang Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center University of Maryland College Park, Maryland A. P. Trishchenko Canada Centre for Remote Sensing Ottawa, Ontario, Canada Introduction Given the importance of clouds in modulating the surface energy budget, it is critical to obtain accurate estimates of their fractional amount in the atmospheric column for use in modeling studies. Satellite remote sensing of cloud properties such as cloud amount has the advantage of providing global coverage on a regular basis. Ground-based surveys of cloud fraction offer a practical database for use in determining the accuracy of these remotely sensed estimates of cloud fraction on a regional scale.

302

Combined Dilute Acid and Solvent Based Pretreatment of Agricultural Wastes for Efficient Lignocellulosic Fractionation and Biofuels Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A true biorefinery for processing lignocellulosic biomass should achieve maximum utilization of all major constituents (cellulose, hemicellulose, & lignin) within the feedstock. In this work a combined pretreatment process of dilute acid (DA) and N-methyl morpholine N-oxide (NMMO) is described that allows for both fractionation and subsequent complete hydrolysis of the feedstocks (corn stover and sugarcane bagasse). During this multi-step processing, the dilute acid pretreatment solubilizes the majority (>90%) of the hemicellulosic fraction, while the NMMO treatment yields a cellulosic fraction that is completely digestible within 48 hours at low enzyme loadings. With both the cellulosic and hemicellulosic fractions being converted into separate, dissolved sugar fractions, the remaining portion is nearly pure lignin. When used independently, DA and NMMO pretreatments are only able to achieve ~80% and ~45% cellulosic conversion, respectively. Mass balance calculations along with experimental results are used to illustrate the feasibility of separation and recycling of NMMO.

Brodeur, G.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Wilson, C.; Telotte, J.; Collier, J.; Stickel, J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Cathode Performance as a Function of Inactive Materials and Void Fractions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cathode Performance as a Function of Inactive Materials and Void Fractions Cathode Performance as a Function of Inactive Materials and Void Fractions Title Cathode Performance as a Function of Inactive Materials and Void Fractions Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2010 Authors Zheng, Honghe, Gao Liu, Xiangyun Song, Paul L. Ridgway, Shidi Xun, and Vincent S. Battaglia Journal Journal of Electrochemical Society Abstract Li[Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3]O2 -based laminates of approximately the same loading and of varying levels of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) binder and acetylene black (ratio held constant) were fabricated and calendered to different porosities, with the objective to investigate performance on a volume basis. The electronic conductivity of the laminates depends strongly on the inactive material content but not significantly on porosity. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies found that charge-transfer resistance with calendering varied greatly with inactive material content. When the electrode contains low levels of inactive material (2% PVDF and 1.6% carbon), calendering significantly reduced the bulk resistance of the electrode. With high levels of inactive material (8% PVDF and 6.4% carbon), charge-transfer resistance increased with increased calendering. Above a certain level, depending on the overall composition, the inactive material reduces ionic transport to the active material surface. For a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle required to go 40 miles at an average rate of 20 miles/h with a 38 kW 10 s power-pulse capability, the cell chemistry studied is energy-limited. Therefore, based on the results of this study, the cathode should be compressed to 10% porosity with a minimal amount of inactive material

304

Hypofractionated Versus Conventionally Fractionated Radiotherapy for Prostate Carcinoma: Final Results of Phase III Randomized Trial  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To evaluate the long-term efficacy and toxicity of a hypofractionated (55 Gy in 20 fractions within 4 weeks) vs. a conventionally fractionated (64 Gy in 32 fractions within 6.5 weeks) dose schedule for radiotherapy (RT) for localized carcinoma of the prostate. Methods and Materials: A total of 217 patients were randomized to either the hypofractionated (n = 108) or the conventional (n = 109) dose schedule. Most patients (n = 156) underwent RT planning and RT using a two-dimensional computed tomography method. Efficacy using the clinical, radiologic, and prostate-specific antigen data in each patient was evaluated before RT and at predetermined intervals after RT until death. Gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicity using the modified Late Effect in Normal Tissue - Subjective Objective Management Analytic (LENT-SOMA) scales was also evaluated before and at intervals after RT to 60 months. Results: The whole group has now been followed for a median of 90 months (range, 3-138). Of the 217 patients, 85 developed biochemical relapse (nadir prostate-specific antigen level + 2 {mu}g/L), 36 in the hypofractionated and 49 in the conventional group. The biochemical relapse-free, but not overall, survival at 90 months was significantly better with the hypofractionated (53%) than with the conventional (34%) schedule. Gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicity persisted 60 months after RT and did not differ between the two dose schedules. Multivariate analyses revealed that the conventional schedule was of independent prognostic significance, not only for biochemical failure, but also for an increased risk of worse genitourinary symptoms at 4 years. Conclusions: A therapeutic advantage of the hypofractionated compared with the conventional dose schedule for RT of prostate cancer was evident at 90 months in the present study.

Yeoh, Eric E., E-mail: eric.yeoh@health.sa.gov.au [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide (Australia); Botten, Rochelle J.; Butters, Julie; Di Matteo, Addolorata C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide (Australia); Holloway, Richard H. [Department of Gastroenterology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide (Australia); Fowler, Jack [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI (United States)

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Nuclear spin-lattice relaxation from fractional wobbling in a cone  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate resulted from a fractional diffusion equation for anomalous rotational wobbling in a cone. The mechanism of relaxation is assumed to be due to dipole-dipole interaction of nuclear spins and is treated within the framework of the standard Bloemberger, Purcell, Pound - Solomon scheme. We consider the general case of arbitrary orientation of the cone axis relative the magnetic field. The BPP-Solomon scheme is shown to remain valid for systems with the distribution of the cone axes depending only on the tilt relative the magnetic field but otherwise being isotropic. We consider the case of random isotropic orientation of cone axes relative the magnetic field taking place in powders. Also we consider the case of their predominant orientation along or opposite the magnetic field and that of their predominant orientation transverse to the magnetic field which may be relevant for, e.g., liquid crystals. Besides we treat in details the model case of the cone axis directed along the magnetic field. The latter provides direct comparison of the limiting case of our formulas with the textbook formulas for ordinary isotropic rotational diffusion. We show that the present model enables one to obtain naturally the well known power law for Larmor frequency dependence of the spin-lattice relaxation rate. The latter is observed in some complex systems. From this law the dependence of the fractional diffusion coefficient on the fractional index is obtained to have a rather simple functional form. The dependence of the spin-lattice relaxation rate on the cone half-width for the case of ordinary rotational diffusion yields results similar to those predicted by the model-free approach.

A. E. Sitnitsky

2011-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

306

Assessment of New Calculation Method for Toxicological Sums-of-Fractions for Hanford Tank Farm Wastes  

SciTech Connect

The toxicological source terms used for potential accident assessment in the Hanford Tank Farms DSA are based on toxicological sums-of-fractions (SOFs) that were calculated based on the Best Basis Inventory (BBI) from May 2002, using a method that depended on thermodynamic equilibrium calculations of the compositions of liquid and solid phases. The present report describes a simplified SOF-calculation method that is to be used in future toxicological updates and assessments and compares its results (for the 2002 BBI) to those of the old method.

Mahoney, Lenna A.

2006-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

307

Biogas generation by two-phase anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The organic fraction of municipal solid waste can be a significant energy source for renewable energy generation. The total production of municipal solid waste in Turkey was 25??106 tones per year. Anaerobic digestion (AD) process may be a solution to the problems of energy demand and waste management since it provides biomethanation along with waste stabilization. AD can be operated in single or two phase configurations. Two-phase processes have some advantages over one phase systems in terms of selection of microorganisms

Eylem Dogan; Gksel N. Demirer

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Void fraction prediction in two-phase flow across a tube bundle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The hydrodynamics of two-phase flow has been investigated extensively for in-tube flows and for parallel flows in tube bundles. Very limited work has been performed, however, on vertical two-phase flows across tube bundles, which occur frequently on the shell side of heat exchangers such as kettle reboilers used in the process and other industries. In recent years, a few articles have been published on the measurement and prediction of void fraction in adiabatic, vertical air-water flow across horizontal rod bundles.

Dowlati, R.; Kawaji, M.; Chisholm, D.; Chan, A.M.C. (Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Univ. of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A4 (CA))

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Process for fractionating fast-pyrolysis oils, and products derived therefrom  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is disclosed for fractionating lignocellulosic materials fast-prolysis oils to produce phenol-containing compositions suitable for the manufacture of phenol-formaldehyde resins. The process includes admixing the oils with an organic solvent having at least a moderate solubility parameter and good hydrogen The United States Government has rights in this invention under Contract No. DE-AC02-83CH10093 between the United States Department of Energy and the Solar Energy Research Institute, a Division of the Midwest Research Institute.

Chum, Helena L. (Arvada, CO); Black, Stuart K. (Denver, CO)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Reduction of chemical networks. II. Analysis of the fractional ionisation in protoplanetary discs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(abridged) We analyse the evolution of the fractional ionisation in a steady-state protoplanetary disc with a vertical temperature gradient and with gas-grain chemistry including surface reactions. The ionisation due to stellar X-rays, stellar and interstellar UV radiation, cosmic rays and radionuclide decay is taken into account. Using our reduction schemes as a tool for the analysis, we isolate small sets of chemical reactions that reproduce the evolution of the ionisation degree at representative disc locations with an accuracy of 50%-100%. Column densities of key molecules are calculated and compared to the results of other recent studies and observational data.

D. Semenov; D. Wiebe; Th. Henning

2004-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

311

A continued fraction Let (a)r = (1 -a)(1 -ax) (1 -axr-1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A continued fraction Let (a)r = (1 - a)(1 - ax) · · · (1 - axr-1 ), (x)r = (1 - x)(1 - x2 ) · · · (1 - xr ), and r s = (x)r (x)s(x)r-s . We will show that (1) 1 + a + b + cx - a 1 + a + bx+ · · · cxn - a 1 + a + bxn = Pn(a, b, c, x) Qn(a, b, c, x) , where Pn(a, b, c, x) = n+1 r=0 x 1 2 (r2 -r) min(r,n+1

Hirschhorn, Mike

312

Palm Oil: Production, Processing, Uses, and CharacterizationChapter 12 Palm Oil and Palm Kernel Oil Refining and Fractionation Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Palm Oil: Production, Processing, Uses, and Characterization Chapter 12 Palm Oil and Palm Kernel Oil Refining and Fractionation Technology Food Science Health Nutrition Biochemistry Processing eChapters Food Science & Technology Health

313

Analytical Solutions to the Stochastic Kinetic Equation for Liquid and Ice Particle Size Spectra. Part I: Small-Size Fraction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The kinetic equation of stochastic condensation for cloud drop size spectra is extended to account for crystalline clouds and also to include the accretionaggregation process. The size spectra are separated into small and large size fractions ...

Vitaly I. Khvorostyanov; Judith A. Curry

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

ISOTOPE FRACTIONATION Isotopes are atoms whose nuclei contain the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons. The  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for the utilization of stable isotopes in geology, geochemistry, biogeochemistry, paleoceanography and elsewhere____________________________ ISOTOPE FRACTIONATION ____________________________ Isotopes are atoms whose nuclei contain the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons. The term `isotope

Zeebe, Richard E.

315

Value of Real-Time Vegetation Fraction to Forecasts of Severe Convection in High-Resolution Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Near-real-time values of vegetation fraction are incorporated into a 2-km nested version of the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (ARW) model and compared to forecasts from a control run that uses climatological values of ...

Kenneth A. James; David J. Stensrud; Nusrat Yussouf

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Flaxseed in Human Nutrition, 2nd EditionChapter 20 Processing of Flaxseed Fiber, Oil, Protein, and Lignan Fractions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flaxseed in Human Nutrition, 2nd Edition Chapter 20 Processing of Flaxseed Fiber, Oil, Protein, and Lignan Fractions Food Science Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Food Science & Technology Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Pres

317

Time Series of Daily Averaged Cloud Fractions over Landfast First-Year Sea Ice from Multiple Data Sources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The time series of daily averaged cloud fractions (CFs) collected from different platformstwo Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments on Terra and Aqua satellites, the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)...

Xin Jin; John M. Hanesiak; David G. Barber

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

A Climatology of Midlatitude Continental Clouds from the ARM SGP Central Facility. Part II: Cloud Fraction and Surface Radiative Forcing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Data collected at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility (SCF) are analyzed to determine the monthly and hourly variations of cloud fraction and radiative forcing between ...

Xiquan Dong; Baike Xi; Patrick Minnis

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Completing Pre-Pilot Tasks To Scale Up Biomass Fractionation Pretreatment Apparatus From Batch To Continuous  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

PureVision Technology, Inc. (PureVision) was the recipient of a $200,000 Invention and Innovations (I&I) grant from the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) to complete prepilot tasks in order to scale up its patented biomass fractionation pretreatment apparatus from batch to continuous processing. The initial goal of the I&I program, as detailed in PureVision's original application to the DOE, was to develop the design criteria to build a small continuous biomass fractionation pilot apparatus utilizing a retrofitted extruder with a novel screw configuration to create multiple reaction zones, separated by dynamic plugs within the reaction chamber that support the continuous counter-flow of liquids and solids at elevated temperature and pressure. Although the ultimate results of this 27-month I&I program exceeded the initial expectations, some of the originally planned tasks were not completed due to a modification of direction in the program. PureVision achieved its primary milestone by establishing the design criteria for a continuous process development unit (PDU). In addition, PureVision was able to complete the procurement, assembly, and initiate shake down of the PDU at Western Research Institute (WRI) in Laramie, WY during August 2003 to February 2004. During the month of March 2004, PureVision and WRI performed initial testing of the continuous PDU at WRI.

Dick Wingerson

2004-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

320

Standard test method for measurement of 235U fraction using enrichment meter principle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1.1 This test method covers the quantitative determination of the fraction of 235U in uranium using measurement of the 185.7 keV gamma-ray produced during the decay of 235U. 1.2 This test method is applicable to items containing homogeneous uranium-bearing materials of known chemical composition in which the compound is considered infinitely thick with respect to 185.7 keV gamma-rays. 1.3 This test method can be used for the entire range of 235U fraction as a weight percent, from depleted (0.2 % 235U) to highly enriched (97.5 % 235U). 1.4 Measurement of items that have not reached secular equilibrium between 238U and 234Th may not produce the stated bias when low-resolution detectors are used with the computational method listed in Annex A2. 1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.6 This standard may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety co...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "introduced fractional horsepower" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Measurements of the Branching fractions for $B_(s) -> D_(s)???$ and $?_b^0 -> ?_c^+???$  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Branching fractions of the decays $H_b\\to H_c\\pi^-\\pi^+\\pi^-$ relative to $H_b\\to H_c\\pi^-$ are presented, where $H_b$ ($H_c$) represents B^0-bar($D^+$), $B^-$ ($D^0$), B_s^0-bar ($D_s^+$) and $\\Lambda_b^0$ ($\\Lambda_c^+$). The measurements are performed with the LHCb detector using 35${\\rm pb^{-1}}$ of data collected at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV. The ratios of branching fractions are measured to be B(B^0-bar -> D^+\\pi^-\\pi^+\\pi^-)/ B(B^0-bar -> D^+\\pi^-) = 2.38\\pm0.11\\pm0.21 B(B^- -> D^0\\pi^-\\pi^+\\pi^-) / B(B^- -> D^0\\pi^-) = 1.27\\pm0.06\\pm0.11 B(B_s^0-bar -> D_s^+\\pi^-\\pi^+\\pi^-) / B(B_s^0-bar -> D_s^+\\pi^-) = 2.01\\pm0.37\\pm0.20 B(\\Lambda_b^0->\\Lambda_c^+\\pi^-\\pi^+\\pi^-) / B(\\Lambda_b^0 -> \\Lambda_c^+\\pi^-) = 1.43\\pm0.16\\pm0.13. We also report measurements of partial decay rates of these decays to excited charm hadrons. These results are of comparable or higher precision than existing measurements.

LHCb Collaboration; R. Aaij; B. Adeva; M. Adinolfi; C. Adrover; A. Affolder; Z. Ajaltouni; J. Albrecht; F. Alessio; M. Alexander; G. Alkhazov; P. Alvarez Cartelle; A. A. Alves Jr; S. Amato; Y. Amhis; J. Anderson; R. B. Appleby; O. Aquines Gutierrez; F. Archilli; L. Arrabito; A. Artamonov; M. Artuso; E. Aslanides; G. Auriemma; S. Bachmann; J. J. Back; D. S. Bailey; V. Balagura; W. Baldini; R. J. Barlow; C. Barschel; S. Barsuk; W. Barter; A. Bates; C. Bauer; Th. Bauer; A. Bay; I. Bediaga; K. Belous; I. Belyaev; E. Ben-Haim; M. Benayoun; G. Bencivenni; S. Benson; J. Benton; R. Bernet; M. -O. Bettler; M. van Beuzekom; A. Bien; S. Bifani; A. Bizzeti; P. M. Bj rnstad; T. Blake; F. Blanc; C. Blanks; J. Blouw; S. Blusk; A. Bobrov; V. Bocci; A. Bondar; N. Bondar; W. Bonivento; S. Borghi; A. Borgia; T. J. V. Bowcock; C. Bozzi; T. Brambach; J. van den Brand; J. Bressieux; D. Brett; S. Brisbane; M. Britsch; T. Britton; N. H. Brook; H. Brown; A. Bchler-Germann; I. Burducea; A. Bursche; J. Buytaert; S. Cadeddu; J. M. Caicedo Carvajal; O. Callot; M. Calvi; M. Calvo Gomez; A. Camboni; P. Campana; A. Carbone; G. Carboni; R. Cardinale; A. Cardini; L. Carson; K. Carvalho Akiba; G. Casse; M. Cattaneo; M. Charles; Ph. Charpentier; N. Chiapolini; K. Ciba; X. Cid Vidal; G. Ciezarek; P. E. L. Clarke; M. Clemencic; H. V. Cliff; J. Closier; C. Coca; V. Coco; J. Cogan; P. Collins; F. Constantin; G. Conti; A. Contu; A. Cook; M. Coombes; G. Corti; G. A. Cowan; R. Currie; B. D'Almagne; C. D'Ambrosio; P. David; I. De Bonis; S. De Capua; M. De Cian; F. De Lorenzi; J. M. De Miranda; L. De Paula; P. De Simone; D. Decamp; M. Deckenhoff; H. Degaudenzi; M. Deissenroth; L. Del Buono; C. Deplano; O. Deschamps; F. Dettori; J. Dickens; H. Dijkstra; P. Diniz Batista; S. Donleavy; A. Dosil Surez; D. Dossett; A. Dovbnya; F. Dupertuis; R. Dzhelyadin; C. Eames; S. Easo; U. Egede; V. Egorychev; S. Eidelman; D. van Eijk; F. Eisele; S. Eisenhardt; R. Ekelhof; L. Eklund; Ch. Elsasser; D. G. d'Enterria; D. Esperante Pereira; L. Estve; A. Falabella; E. Fanchini; C. Frber; G. Fardell; C. Farinelli; S. Farry; V. Fave; V. Fernandez Albor; M. Ferro-Luzzi; S. Filippov; C. Fitzpatrick; M. Fontana; F. Fontanelli; R. Forty; M. Frank; C. Frei; M. Frosini; S. Furcas; A. Gallas Torreira; D. Galli; M. Gandelman; P. Gandini; Y. Gao; J-C. Garnier; J. Garofoli; J. Garra Tico; L. Garrido; C. Gaspar; N. Gauvin; M. Gersabeck; T. Gershon; Ph. Ghez; V. Gibson; V. V. Gligorov; C. Gbel; D. Golubkov; A. Golutvin; A. Gomes; H. Gordon; M. Grabalosa Gndara; R. Graciani Diaz; L. A. Granado Cardoso; E. Graugs; G. Graziani; A. Grecu; S. Gregson; B. Gui; E. Gushchin; Yu. Guz; T. Gys; G. Haefeli; C. Haen; S. C. Haines; T. Hampson; S. Hansmann-Menzemer; R. Harji; N. Harnew; J. Harrison; P. F. Harrison; J. He; V. Heijne; K. Hennessy; P. Henrard; J. A. Hernando Morata; E. van Herwijnen; E. Hicks; W. Hofmann; K. Holubyev; P. Hopchev; W. Hulsbergen; P. Hunt; T. Huse; R. S. Huston; D. Hutchcroft; D. Hynds; V. Iakovenko; P. Ilten; J. Imong; R. Jacobsson; A. Jaeger; M. Jahjah Hussein; E. Jans; F. Jansen; P. Jaton; B. Jean-Marie; F. Jing; M. John; D. Johnson; C. R. Jones; B. Jost; S. Kandybei; M. Karacson; T. M. Karbach; J. Keaveney; U. Kerzel; T. Ketel; A. Keune; B. Khanji; Y. M. Kim; M. Knecht; S. Koblitz; P. Koppenburg; A. Kozlinskiy; L. Kravchuk; K. Kreplin; M. Kreps; G. Krocker; P. Krokovny; F. Kruse; K. Kruzelecki; M. Kucharczyk; S. Kukulak; R. Kumar; T. Kvaratskheliya; V. N. La Thi; D. Lacarrere; G. Lafferty; A. Lai; D. Lambert; R. W. Lambert; E. Lanciotti; G. Lanfranchi; C. Langenbruch; T. Latham; R. Le Gac; J. van Leerdam; J. -P. Lees; R. Lefvre; A. Leflat; J. Lefranois; O. Leroy; T. Lesiak; L. Li; L. Li Gioi; M. Lieng; M. Liles; R. Lindner; C. Linn; B. Liu; G. Liu; J. H. Lopes; E. Lopez Asamar; N. Lopez-March; J. Luisier; F. Machefert; I. V. Machikhiliyan; F. Maciuc; O. Maev; J. Magnin; S. Malde; R. M. D. Mamunur; G. Manca; G. Mancinelli; N. Mangiafave; U. Marconi; R. Mrki; J. Marks; G. Martellotti; A. Martens; L. Martin; A. Martn Snchez; D. Martinez Santos; A. Massafferri; Z. Mathe; C. Matteuzzi; M. Matveev; E. Maurice; B. Maynard; A. Mazurov; G. McGregor; R. McNulty; C. Mclean; M. Meissner; M. Merk; J. Merkel; R. Messi; S. Miglioranzi; D. A. Milanes; M. -N. Minard; S. Monteil; D. Moran; P. Morawski; R. Mountain; I. Mous; F. Muheim; K. Mller; R. Muresan; B. Muryn; M. Musy; J. Mylroie-Smith; P. Naik; T. Nakada; R. Nandakumar; J. Nardulli; I. Nasteva; M. Nedos; M. Needham; N. Neufeld; C. Nguyen-Mau; M. Nicol; S. Nies; V. Niess; N. Nikitin; A. Oblakowska-Mucha; V. Obraztsov; S. Oggero; S. Ogilvy; O. Okhrimenko; R. Oldeman; M. Orlandea; J. M. Otalora Goicochea; P. Owen; B. Pal; J. Palacios; M. Palutan; J. Panman; A. Papanestis; M. Pappagallo; C. Parkes; C. J. Parkinson; G. Passaleva; G. D. Patel; M. Patel; S. K. Paterson

2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

322

Correction for dynamic bias error in transmission measurements of void fraction  

SciTech Connect

Dynamic bias errors occur in transmission measurements, such as X-ray, gamma, or neutron radiography or tomography. This is observed when the properties of the object are not stationary in time and its average properties are assessed. The nonlinear measurement response to changes in transmission within the time scale of the measurement implies a bias, which can be difficult to correct for. A typical example is the tomographic or radiographic mapping of void content in dynamic two-phase flow systems. In this work, the dynamic bias error is described and a method to make a first-order correction is derived. A prerequisite for this method is variance estimates of the system dynamics, which can be obtained using high-speed, time-resolved data acquisition. However, in the absence of such acquisition, a priori knowledge might be used to substitute the time resolved data. Using synthetic data, a void fraction measurement case study has been simulated to demonstrate the performance of the suggested method. The transmission length of the radiation in the object under study and the type of fluctuation of the void fraction have been varied. Significant decreases in the dynamic bias error were achieved to the expense of marginal decreases in precision.

Andersson, P.; Sunden, E. Andersson; Svaerd, S. Jacobsson; Sjoestrand, H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Division of Applied Nuclear Physics, Uppsala University, Laegerhyddsgatan 1, 751 20 Uppsala (Sweden)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

323

Measurement of the W-boson helicity fractions in top-quark decays at CDF  

SciTech Connect

We present a measurement of the fractions F{sub 0} and F{sub +} of longitudinally polarized and right-handed W bosons in top-quark decays using data collected with the CDF II detector. The data set used in the analysis corresponds to an integrated luminosity of approximately 955 pb{sup -1}. We select t{bar t} candidate events with one lepton, at least four jets, and missing transverse energy. Our helicity measurement uses the decay angle {theta}*, which is defined as the angle between the momentum of the charged lepton in the W boson rest-frame and the W momentum in the top-quark rest-frame. The cos{theta}* distribution in the data is determined by full kinematic reconstruction of the t{bar t} candidates. We find F{sub 0}= 0.59 {+-} 0.12(stat){sup +0.07}{sub -0.06}(syst) and F{sub +}=-0.03 {+-} 0.06(stat){sup +0.04}{sub -0.03}(syst), which is consistent with the standard model prediction. We set an upper limit on the fraction of right-handed W bosons of F{sub +} {le} 0.10 at the 95% confidence level.

Chwalek, Thorsten; /Karlsruhe U., EKP

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Completing Pre-Pilot Tasks To Scale Up Biomass Fractionation Pretreatment Apparatus From Batch To Continuous  

SciTech Connect

PureVision Technology, Inc. (PureVision) was the recipient of a $200,000 Invention and Innovations (I&I) grant from the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) to complete prepilot tasks in order to scale up its patented biomass fractionation pretreatment apparatus from batch to continuous processing. The initial goal of the I&I program, as detailed in PureVision's original application to the DOE, was to develop the design criteria to build a small continuous biomass fractionation pilot apparatus utilizing a retrofitted extruder with a novel screw configuration to create multiple reaction zones, separated by dynamic plugs within the reaction chamber that support the continuous counter-flow of liquids and solids at elevated temperature and pressure. Although the ultimate results of this 27-month I&I program exceeded the initial expectations, some of the originally planned tasks were not completed due to a modification of direction in the program. PureVision achieved its primary milestone by establishing the design criteria for a continuous process development unit (PDU). In addition, PureVision was able to complete the procurement, assembly, and initiate shake down of the PDU at Western Research Institute (WRI) in Laramie, WY during August 2003 to February 2004. During the month of March 2004, PureVision and WRI performed initial testing of the continuous PDU at WRI.

Dick Wingerson

2004-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

325

Measurements of fuel mixture fraction oscillations of a turbulent jet non-premixed flame  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work describes new type of combustion instability for which the 3-way coupling between mixing, flame heat release, and acoustics is modified by local buoyancy effects. Measurements of fuel mixture fraction are made for a non-premixed jet flame in a combustion chamber to assess the dynamics of mixing under imposed acoustic oscillations (22-55 Hz). Infrared laser absorption and phase resolved acetone-planar laser induced fluorescence are used to measure the fuel mixture fraction and then the degree of fuel/air mixing is calculated by determining the unmixedness. Results show acoustic excitation causes oscillations in the degree of fuel/air mixing at the driving frequency, which results in oscillatory flame behavior. This oscillatory flame behavior couples to the buoyancy and this in turn affects the mixing. Results also show that the mixing becomes less effective when the excitation frequency is increased or when the flame is present, compared to the non-reacting case. This work describes a key coupling mechanism that occurs when buoyancy is a significant factor in the flow field. (author)

Kanga, D.M. [LG Chem Research Park, Dajeon 305-380 (Korea); Fernandez, V.; Culick, F.E.C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Ratner, A. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

326

Sensitivity and uncertainty in the effective delayed neutron fraction ({beta}{sub eff})  

SciTech Connect

Precise knowledge of effective delayed neutron fraction ({beta}{sub eff}) and of the corresponding uncertainty is important for reactor safety analysis. The interest in developing the methodology for estimating the uncertainty in {beta}{sub eff} was expressed in the scope of the UAM project of the OECD/NEA. A novel approach for the calculation of the nuclear data sensitivity and uncertainty of the effective delayed neutron fraction is proposed, based on the linear perturbation theory. The method allows the detailed analysis of components of {beta}{sub eff} uncertainty. The procedure was implemented in the SUSD3D sensitivity and uncertainty code applied to several fast neutron benchmark experiments from the ICSBEP and IRPhE databases. According to the JENDL-4 covariance matrices and taking into account the uncertainty in the cross sections and in the prompt and delayed fission spectra the total uncertainty in {beta}eff was found to be of the order of {approx}2 to {approx}3.5 % for the studied fast experiments. (authors)

Kodeli, I. I. [Jozef Stefan Inst., Jamova 39, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

A fractional step ELLAM approach to high-dimensional convection-diffusion problems with forward particle tracking  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, a fractional step method combined with an Eulerian-Lagrangian localized adjoint method (ELLAM) is proposed to solve high-dimensional convection-diffusion problems. The method reduces high-dimensional problems to a series of uncoupled one-dimensional ... Keywords: 65M55, 65M60, 76M10, 76S05, Convection-diffusion problems, ELLAM, Fractional step, High-dimensions

Dong Liang; Chuanbin Du; Hong Wang

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Surface kinetic model for isotopic and trace element fractionation during precipitation of calcite from aqueous solution  

SciTech Connect

A surface reaction kinetic model is developed for predicting Ca isotope fractionation and metal/Ca ratios of calcite as a function of rate of precipitation from aqueous solution. The model is based on the requirements for dynamic equilibrium; i.e. proximity to equilibrium conditions is determined by the ratio of the net precipitation rate (R{sub p}) to the gross forward precipitation rate (R{sub f}), for conditions where ionic transport to the growing crystal surface is not rate-limiting. The value of R{sub p} has been experimentally measured under varying conditions, but the magnitude of R{sub f} is not generally known, and may depend on several factors. It is posited that, for systems with no trace constituents that alter the surface chemistry, R{sub f} can be estimated from the bulk far-from-equilibrium dissolution rate of calcite (R{sub b} or k{sub b}), since at equilibrium R{sub f} = R{sub b}, and R{sub p} = 0. Hence it can be inferred that R{sub f} {approx} R{sub p} + R{sub b}. The dissolution rate of pure calcite is measureable and is known to be a function of temperature and pH. At given temperature and pH, equilibrium precipitation is approached when R{sub p} (= R{sub f} - R{sub b}) << R{sub b}. For precipitation rates high enough that R{sub p} >> R{sub b}, both isotopic and trace element partitioning are controlled by the kinetics of ion attachment to the mineral surface, which tend to favor more rapid incorporation of the light isotopes of Ca and discriminate weakly between trace metals and Ca. With varying precipitation rate, a transition region between equilibrium and kinetic control occurs near R{sub p} {approx} R{sub b} for Ca isotopic fractionation. According to this model, Ca isotopic data can be used to estimate R{sub f} for calcite precipitation. Mechanistic models for calcite precipitation indicate that the molecular exchange rate is not constant at constant T and pH, but rather is dependent also on solution saturation state and hence R{sub p}. Allowing R{sub b} to vary as R{sub p}{sup 1/2}, consistent with available precipitation rate studies, produces a better fit to some trace element and isotopic data than a model where R{sub b} is constant. This model can account for most of the experimental data in the literature on the dependence of {sup 44}Ca/{sup 40}Ca and metal/Ca fractionation in calcite as a function of precipitation rate and temperature, and also accounts for {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O variations with some assumptions. The apparent temperature dependence of Ca isotope fractionation in calcite may stem from the dependence of R{sub b} on temperature; there should be analogous pH dependence at pH < 6. The proposed model may be valuable for predicting the behavior of isotopic and trace element fractionation for a range of elements of interest in low-temperature aqueous geochemistry. The theory presented is based on measureable thermo-kinetic parameters in contrast to models that equire hyper-fast diffusivity in near-surface layers of the solid.

DePaolo, D.

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

329

IONIZED GAS IN THE FIRST 10 kpc OF THE INTERSTELLAR GALACTIC HALO: METAL ION FRACTIONS  

SciTech Connect

We present direct measures of the ionization fractions of several sulfur ions in the Galactic warm ionized medium (WIM). We obtained high-resolution ultraviolet absorption-line spectroscopy of post-asymptotic giant branch stars in the globular clusters Messier 3 [(l, b) = (42.{sup 0}2, +78.{sup 0}7), d = 10.2 kpc, and z = 10.0 kpc] and Messier 5 [(l, b) = (3.{sup 0}9, +46.{sup 0}8), d = 7.5 kpc, and z = +5.3 kpc] with the Hubble Space Telescope and Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer to measure, or place limits on, the column densities of S I, S II, S III, S IV, S VI, and H I. These clusters also house millisecond pulsars, whose dispersion measures give an electron column density from which we infer the H II column in these directions. We find fractions of S{sup +2} in the WIM for the M 3 and M 5 sight lines x(S{sup +2}) {identical_to} N(S{sup +2})/N(S) = 0.33 {+-} 0.07 and 0.47 {+-} 0.09, respectively, with variations perhaps related to location. With negligible quantities of the higher ionization states, we conclude that S{sup +} and S{sup +2} account for all of the S in the WIM. We extend the methodology to study the ion fractions in the warm and hot ionized gas of the Milky Way, including the high ions Si{sup +3}, C{sup +3}, N{sup +4}, and O{sup +5}. The vast majority of the Galactic ionized gas is warm (T {approx} 10{sup 4} K) and photoionized (the WIM) or very hot (T > 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} K) and collisionally ionized. The common tracer of ionized gas beyond the Milky Way, O{sup +5}, traces <1% of the total ionized gas mass of the Milky Way.

Howk, J. Christopher [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Consiglio, S. Michelle, E-mail: jhowk@nd.edu, E-mail: smconsiglio@ucla.edu [Current address: Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

2012-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

330

Bacterial mutagenicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in reconstituted mixtures and crude coal tar extracts and fractions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Although polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) are one of the most ubiquitous carcinogens in the environment, little is known regarding their potential mutagenic interactions. Risk assessment of complex PAH mixtures utilizes toxic equivalency factors which assume additive interactions between individual PAHS. The mutagenic interactions of PAH mixtures were investigated using the Salmonellalmicrosome assay. Two groups of samples included PAH mixtures modeling a coal tar and an environmental crude coal tar extract and its fractions. The PAH mixtures were prepared in 2-, 3-, 4-ring and total reconstituted groups in the same percentages as a model coal tar. The environmental coal tar was extracted and separated into PAH fractions. Each sample was tested at 5 consecutive dose levels with and without metabolic activation in the Salmonella/microsome assay using tester strains TA98 and TAIOO. The reconstituted mixture elicited the maximum mutagenic response of 1,089 revertants at a dose of 1.8mg/mL. At the four lower dose levels (0.09mg/mL to 1.8mg/mL), the reconstituted induced a higher response than the 4-ring mixture. At the highest dose level (18mg/mL), the reconstituted showed a lower response that the 4-ring. These results suggest enhanced mutagenic responses at lower dose levels, with inhibition at higher doses. The mutagenicity of the PAH mixtures was evaluated in combinations as 2-:3-, 3-:4-, and 2-:4-ring mixtures. The 2-:4-ring, and 3-:4-ring combinations induced lower mutagenic responses than the 4-ring alone, suggesting inhibition by the 2-and 3-ring PAHS. Inhibition was also observed when benzo[a]pyrene was tested 935 net revertants, while the benzo[a]pyrene:reconstituted mixture induced 349 net revertants. The methylene chloride extract of a coal tar induced 385 net TA98 and 589 net TAIOO revertants with high metabolic activation (30%). Fractions from the coal tar extract and binary mixtures of individual chemicals with a reconstituted coal tar extract induced additive responses. These data indicate that mixtures of PAHs exhibit a variety of mutagenic interactions. The interactive responses appear controlled by concentration and metabolism of the PAHS. Research of this nature may aid in establishing a clearer understanding of risks and interactions which occur from exposure to PAHS.

Onufrock, Amy Mildred

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

DETERMINATION OF THE FRACTION OF GIBBSITE AND BOEHMITE FORMS OF ALUMINUM IN TANK 51H SLUDGE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked with developing a test to determine the fraction of the gibbsite and boehmite forms of aluminum in the sludge solids. Knowledge of the fractions of gibbsite and boehmite in the sludge contained in various waste tanks would facilitate better sludge mass reduction estimates and allow better planning/scheduling for sludge batch preparation. The composite sludge sample prepared for use in the test from several small samples remaining from the original 3-L sample appears to be representative of the original sample based on the characterization data. A Gibbsite/Boehmite Test was developed that uses 8 M NaOH and a temperature of 65 C to dissolve aluminum. The soluble aluminum concentration data collected during the test indicates that, for the three standards containing gibbsite, all of the gibbsite dissolved in approximately 2 hours. Under the test conditions boehmite dissolved at more than an order of magnitude more slowly than gibbsite. An estimate based on the soluble aluminum concentration from the sludge sample at two hours into the test indicates the sludge solids contain a form of aluminum that dissolves at a rate similar to the 100% Boehmite standard. Combined with the XRD data from the original 3-L sample, these results provide substantial evidence that the boehmite form of aluminum predominates in the sludge. A calculation from the results of the Gibbsite/Boehmite test indicates the sludge contains {approx}3% gibbsite and {approx}97% boehmite. The sludge waste in Tank 51H was recently treated under Low Temperature Aluminum Dissolution (LTAD) conditions and a substantial fraction of aluminum (i.e., sludge mass) was removed, avoiding production of over 100 glass canisters in Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Results of the Gibbsite/Boehmite test indicate that the aluminum in this sludge was in the form of the more difficult to dissolve boehmite form of aluminum. Since boehmite may be the dominant form of aluminum in Savannah River Site (SRS) waste tank sludge, this result suggests that the conditions of the LTAD process can be used to dissolve both the gibbsite and boehmite forms of aluminum in tank sludge and costly tank infrastructure upgrades required for the higher temperature baseline process can be avoided. However, this conclusion should be confirmed by testing additional waste tank samples.

Hay, M; Kofi Adu-Wusu, K; Daniel McCabe, D

2008-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

332

Calculation of geothermal reservoir temperatures and steam fractions from gas compositions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper deals with the chemical equilibria and physical characteristics of the fluid in the reservoir (temperature, steam fraction with respect to total water, gas/steam ratio, redox conditions), which seem to be responsible for the observed concentrations of some reactive species found in the geothermal fluids (CO2, H2, H2S and CH4). Gas geochemistry is of particular interest in vapor-dominated fields where the fluid discharged consists of almost pure steam containing a limited number of volatile chemical species. Considering several geothermal systems, a good correlation has been obtained among the temperatures calculated from the gas geothermometers and the temperatures measured in the reservoir of evaluated by other physical or chemical methods. 24 refs., 5 figs.

D'Amore, F.; Truesdell, A.H.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

New Measurement of the Cosmic-Ray Positron Fraction from 5 to 15 GeV  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a new measurement of the cosmic-ray positron fraction at energies between 5 and 15 GeV with the balloon-borne HEAT-pbar instrument in the spring of 2000. The data presented here are compatible with our previous measurements, obtained with a different instrument. The combined data from the three HEAT flights indicate a small positron flux of non-standard origin above 5 GeV. We compare the new measurement with earlier data obtained with the HEAT-e+- instrument, during the opposite epoch of the solar cycle, and conclude that our measurements do not support predictions of charge sign dependent solar modulation of the positron abundance at 5 GeV.

J. J. Beatty; A. Bhattacharyya; C. Bower; S. Coutu; M. A. DuVernois; S. McKee; S. A. Minnick; D. Muller; J. Musser; S. Nutter; A. W. Labrador; M. Schubnell; S. Swordy; G. Tarle; A. Tomasch

2004-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

334

An Experimental Examination of a Progressing Cavity Pump Operating at Very High Gas Volume Fractions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The progressing cavity pump is a type of positive displacement pump that is capable of moving nearly any fluid. This type of pump transports fluids in a series of discrete cavities formed by the helical geometries of its rigid rotor and elastomeric stator. With appropriate materials for the rotor and stator, this pump can move combinations of liquids, suspended solids, and gasses equally well. Because of its versatility, the progressing cavity pump is widely used in the oil industry to transport mixtures of oil, water, and sediment; this investigation was prompted by a desire to extend the use of progressing cavity pumps to wet gas pumping applications. One of the progressing cavity pump's limitations is that the friction between the rotor and stator can generate enough heat to damage the rotor if the pump is not lubricated and cooled by the process fluid. Conventional wisdom dictates that this type of pump will overheat if it pumps only gas, with no liquid in the process fluid. If a progressing cavity pump is used to boost the output from a wet gas well, it could potentially be damaged if the well's output is too dry for an extended period of time. This project seeks to determine how a progressing cavity pump behaves when operating at gas volume fractions between 0.90 and 0.98. A progressing cavity pump manufactured by seepex, model no. BN 130-12, is tested at half and full speed using air-water mixtures with gas volume fractions of 0.90, 0.92, 0.94, 0.96, and 0.98. The pump's inlet and outlet conditions are controlled to produce suction pressures of 15, 30, and 45 psi and outlet pressures 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 psi higher than the inlet pressure. A series of thermocouples, pressure transducers, and turbine flow meters measures the pump's inlet and outlet conditions, the flow rates of water and air entering the pump, and pressures and temperatures at four positions within the pump's stator. Over all test conditions, the maximum recorded temperature of the pump stator did not exceed the maximum safe rubber temperature specified by the manufacturer. The pumps flow rate is independent of both the fluid's gas volume fraction and the pressure difference across the pump, but it increases slightly with the pump's suction pressure. The pump's mechanical load, however, is dependent only on the pressure difference across the pump and increases linearly with that parameter. Pressure measurements within the stator demonstrated that the leakage between the pump's cavities increases with the fluids gas volume fraction, indicating that liquid inside the pump improves its sealing capability. However, those same measurements failed to detect any appreciable leakage between the two pressure taps nearest the pump's inlet. This last observation suggests that the pump could be shortened by as much as 25 percent without losing any performance in the range of tested conditions; shortening the pump should increase its efficiency by decreasing its frictional mechanical load.

Glier, Michael W.

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Absolute Branching Fraction Measurements for D{sup +} and D{sup 0} Inclusive Semileptonic Decays  

SciTech Connect

We present measurements of the inclusive branching fractions for the decays D{sup +}{yields}Xe{sup +}{nu}{sub e} and D{sup 0}{yields}Xe{sup +}{nu}{sub e}, using 281 pb{sup -1} of data collected on the {psi}(3770) resonance with the CLEO-c detector. We find B(D{sup 0}{yields}Xe{sup +}{nu}{sub e})=(6.46{+-}0.17{+-}0.13)% and B(D{sup +}{yields}Xe{sup +}{nu}{sub e})=(16.13{+-}0.20{+-}0.33)%. Using the known D meson lifetimes, we obtain the ratio {gamma}{sub D{sup +}}{sup sl}/{gamma}{sub D{sup 0}}{sup sl}=0.985{+-}0.028{+-}0.015, confirming isospin invariance at the level of 3%. The positron momentum spectra from D{sup +} and D{sup 0} have consistent shapes.

Adam, N. E.; Alexander, J. P.; Berkelman, K.; Cassel, D. G.; Duboscq, J. E.; Ecklund, K. M.; Ehrlich, R.; Fields, L.; Gibbons, L.; Gray, R.; Gray, S. W.; Hartill, D. L.; Heltsley, B. K.; Hertz, D.; Jones, C. D.; Kandaswamy, J.; Kreinick, D. L.; Kuznetsov, V. E.; Mahlke-Krueger, H.; Meyer, T. O. [Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)] (and others)

2006-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

336

Direct measurement of the {ital D}{sub {ital s}} branching fraction to {phi}{pi}  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Beijing Spectrometer (BES) Collaboration has observed exclusive pair production of {ital D}{sub {ital s}} mesons at the Beijing Electron-Positron Collider (BEPC) at a center-of-mass energy of 4.03 GeV. The {ital D}{sub {ital s}} mesons are detected in the {phi}{pi}{sup +}, {ital {bar K}} {sup *0}{ital K}{sup +}, and {ital {bar K}} {sup 0}{ital K}{sup +} decay modes; two fully reconstructed events yield the value (3.9{sub {minus}1.9{minus}1.1}{sup +5.1+1.8})% for the {ital D}{sub {ital s}} branching fraction to {phi}{pi}. This is the first direct, model-independent measurement of this quantity.

Bai, J.Z.; Bardon, O.; Blum, I.; Breakstone, A.; Burnett, T.; Chen, G.P.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, J.; Chen, S.J.; Chen, S.M.; Chen, Y.; Chen, Y.B.; Chen, Y.Q.; Cheng, B.S.; Cowan, R.F.; Cui, H.C.; Cui, X.Z.; Ding, H.L.; Du, Z.Z.; Dunwoodie, W.; Fan, X.L.; Fang, J.; Fero, M.; Gao, C.S.; Gao, M.L.; Gao, S.Q.; Gao, W.X.; Gratton, P.; Gu, J.H.; Gu, S.D.; Gu, W.X.; Gu, Y.F.; Guo, Y.N.; Han, S.W.; Han, Y.; Harris, F.A.; Hatanaka, M.; He, J.; He, K.R.; He, M.; Hitlin, D.G.; Hu, G.Y.; Hu, H.B.; Hu, T.; Hu, X.Q.; Huang, D.Q.; Huang, Y.Z.; Izen, J.M.; Jia, Q.P.; Jiang, C.H.; Jin, Y.; Jones, L.; Kang, S.H.; Kelsey, M.H.; Kim, B.K.; Lai, Y.F.; Lan, H.B.; Lang, P.F.; Lankford, A.; Li, F.; Li, J.; Li, P.Q.; Li, Q.; Li, R.B.; Li, W.; Li, W.D.; Li, W.G.; Li, X.; Li, X.N.; Lin, S.Z.; Liu, H.M.; Liu, J.H.; Liu, Q.; Liu, R.G.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Z.A.; Lou, X.C.; Lowery, B.; Lu, J.G.; Ma, A.M.; Ma, E.C.; Ma, J.M.; Mao, H.S.; Mao, Z.P.; Malchow, R.; Mandelkern, M.; Meng, X.C.; Ni, H.L.; Nie, J.; Olsen, S.L.; Oyang, J.; Paluselli, D.; Pan, L.J.; Panetta, J.; Porter, F.; Prabhakar, E.; Qi, N.D.; Que, Y.K.; Quigley, J.; Rong, G.; Schernau, M.; Schmid, B.; Schultz, J.; Shao, Y.Y.; Shen, D.L.; Shen, H.; Shen, X.Y.; Sheng, H.Y.; Shi, H.Z.; Shi, X.R.; Smith, A.; Soderstrom, E.; Song, X.F.; Standifird, J.; Stoker, D.; Sun, F.; Sun, H.S.; Sun, S.J.; Synodinos, J.; Tan, Y.P.; Tang, S.Q.; Toki, W.; Tong, G.L.; Torrence, E.; Wang, F.; Wang, L.S.; Wang, L.Z.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P.L.; Wang, S.M.; Wang, T.J.; Wang, W.; Wang, Y.Y.; Whittaker, S.; Wilson, R.; Wisniewski, W.J.; Xi, D.M.; Xia, X.M.; Xie, P.P.; Xu, D.Z.; Xu, R.S.; Xu, Z.Q.; Xue, S.T.; Yamamoto, R.; Yan, J.; Yan, W.G.; Yang, C.M.; Yang, C.Y.; Yang, W.; Yao, H.B.; Ye, M.H.; Ye, S.Z.; Yu, C.S.; Yu, C.X.; Yu, Z.Q.; Yuan, C.Z.; Zhang, B.Y.; Zhang, C.C.; Zhang, D.H.; Zhang, H.L.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J.W.; Zhang, L.S.; Zhang, S.Q.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y.Y.; Zhao, D.X.; Zhao, J.W.; Zhao, M.; Zhao, P.D.; Zhao, W.R.; Zhao, W.X.; Zheng, J.H.; (BES Collabo..

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Measurement of the branching fraction for $D^{+} K^{-}\\pi^{+}\\pi^{+}$  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using the CLEO-II detector at CESR we have measured the ratio of branching fractions, {\\cal B}(D^+\\rightarrow K^- \\pi^+ \\pi^+)/{\\cal B}(D^0 \\rightarrow K^-\\pi^+) = 2.35 \\pm 0.16 \\pm 0.16. Our recent measurement of {\\cal B}(D^0 \\rightarrow K^-\\pi^+) then gives {\\cal B}(D^+\\rightarrow K^- \\pi^+ \\pi^+) = (9.3 \\pm 0.6 \\pm 0.8)\\%. hardcopies with figures can be obtained by writing to to: Pam Morehouse preprint secretary Newman Lab Cornell University Ithaca, NY 14853 or by sending mail to: preprints@lns62.lns.cornell.edu A postscript version is available through World-Wide-Web.

Balest, R; Cho, K; Daoudi, M; Ford, W T; Johnson, D R; Lingel, K; Lohner, M; Rankin, P; Smith, J G; Alexander, J P; Bebek, C; Berkelman, K; Bloom, K; Browder, T E; Cassel, D G; Cho, H A; Coffman, D M; Drell, P S; Ehrlich, R; Gaiderev, P; Garca-Sciveres, M; Geiser, B; Gittelman, B; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Jones, C D; Jones, S L; Kandaswamy, J; Katayama, N; Kim, P C; Kreinick, D L; Ludwig, G S; Masui, J; Mevissen, J; Mistry, N B; Ng, C R; Nordberg, E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Riley, D; Salman, S; Sapper, M; Wrthwein, F; Avery, P; Freyberger, A; Rodrguez, J; Stephens, R; Yang, S; Yelton, J; Cinabro, D; Henderson, S; Liu, T; Saulnier, M; Wilson, R; Yamamoto, H; Bergfeld, T; Eisenstein, B I; Gollin, G; Ong, B; Palmer, M; Selen, M; Thaler, J J; Sadoff, A J; Ammar, R; Ball, S; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Besson, D; Coppage, D; Copty, N; Davis, R; Hancock, N; Kelly, M; Kwak, N; Lam, H; Kubota, Y; Lattery, M; Nelson, J K; Patton, S; Perticone, D; Poling, R A; Savinov, V; Schrenk, S; Wang, R; Alam, M S; Kim, I J; Nemati, B; O'Neill, J J; Severini, H; Sun, C R; Zoeller, M M; Crawford, G; Daubenmier, C M; Fulton, R; Fujino, D; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Lee, J; Malchow, R; Skovpen, Y; Sung, M; White, C; Butler, F; Fu, X; Kalbfleisch, G; Ross, W R; Skubic, P L; Snow, J; Wang, P L; Wood, M; Brown, D N; Fast, J; McIlwain, R L; Miao, T; Miller, D H; Modesitt, M; Payne, D; Shibata, E I; Shipsey, I P J; Wang, P N; Battle, M; Ernst, J; Kwon, Y; Roberts, S; Thorndike, E H; Wang, C H; Dominick, J; Lambrecht, M; Sanghera, S; Shelkov, V; Skwarnicki, T; Stroynowski, R; Volobuev, I P; Wei, G; Zadorozhny, P; Artuso, M; Goldberg, M; He, D; Horwitz, N; Kennett, R; Mountain, R; Moneti, G C; Muheim, F; Mukhin, Y; Playfer, S; Rozen, Y; Stone, S; Thulasidas, M; Vasseur, G; Zhu, G; Bartelt, J; Csorna, S E; Egyed, Z; Jain, V; Kinoshita, K; Edwards, K W; Ogg, M; Britton, D I; Hyatt, E R F; MacFarlane, D B; Patel, P M; Akerib, D S; Barish, B; Chadha, M; Chan, S; Cowen, D F; Eigen, G; Miller, J S; O'Grady, C; Urheim, J; Weinstein, A J; Acosta, D; Athanas, M; Masek, G; Paar, H P; Gronberg, J; Kutschke, R; Menary, S; Morrison, R J; Nakanishi, S; Nelson, H N; Nelson, T K; Qiao, C; Richman, J D; Ryd, A; Tajima, H; Sperka, D; Witherell, M S; Procario, M

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Visual Outcome in Meningiomas Around Anterior Visual Pathways Treated With Linear Accelerator Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Meningiomas threatening the anterior visual pathways (AVPs) and not amenable for surgery are currently treated with multisession stereotactic radiotherapy. Stereotactic radiotherapy is available with a number of devices. The most ubiquitous include the gamma knife, CyberKnife, tomotherapy, and isocentric linear accelerator systems. The purpose of our study was to describe a case series of AVP meningiomas treated with linear accelerator fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) using the multiple, noncoplanar, dynamic conformal rotation paradigm and to compare the success and complication rates with those reported for other techniques. Patients and Methods: We included all patients with AVP meningiomas followed up at our neuro-ophthalmology unit for a minimum of 12 months after FSRT. We compared the details of the neuro-ophthalmologic examinations and tumor size before and after FSRT and at the end of follow-up. Results: Of 87 patients with AVP meningiomas, 17 had been referred for FSRT. Of the 17 patients, 16 completed >12 months of follow-up (mean 39). Of the 16 patients, 11 had undergone surgery before FSRT and 5 had undergone FSRT as first-line management. Tumor control was achieved in 14 of the 16 patients, with three meningiomas shrinking in size after RT. Two meningiomas progressed, one in an area that was outside the radiation field. The visual function had improved in 6 or stabilized in 8 of the 16 patients (88%) and worsened in 2 (12%). Conclusions: Linear accelerator fractionated RT using the multiple noncoplanar dynamic rotation conformal paradigm can be offered to patients with meningiomas that threaten the anterior visual pathways as an adjunct to surgery or as first-line treatment, with results comparable to those reported for other stereotactic RT techniques.

Stiebel-Kalish, Hadas, E-mail: kalishhadas@gmail.com [Neuro-Ophthalmology Unit, Rabin Medical Center, Petah Tikva (Israel); Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Reich, Ehud [Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Department of Ophthalmology, Rabin Medical Center, Petah Tikva (Israel); Gal, Lior [Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Rappaport, Zvi Harry [Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Department of Neurosurgery, Rabin Medical Center, Petah Tikva (Israel); Nissim, Ouzi [Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Stereotactic Radiosurgery Unit, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat Gan (Israel); Department of Neurosurgery, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat Gan (Israel); Pfeffer, Raphael [Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Stereotactic Radiosurgery Unit, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat Gan (Israel); Spiegelmann, Roberto [Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Stereotactic Radiosurgery Unit, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat Gan (Israel); Department of Neurosurgery, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat Gan (Israel)

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Anaerobic digestion of pressed off leachate from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A highly polluted liquid ('press water') was obtained from the pressing facility for the organic fraction of municipal solid waste in a composting plant. Methane productivity of the squeezed-off leachate was investigated in batch assays. To assess the technical feasibility of 'press water' as a substrate for anaerobic digestion, a laboratory-scale glass column reactor was operated semi-continuously at 37 {sup o}C. A high methane productivity of 270 m{sup -3} CH{sub 4} ton{sup -1} COD{sub added} or 490 m{sup -3} CH{sub 4} ton{sup -1} VS{sub added} was achieved in the batch experiment. The semi-continuously run laboratory-scale reactor was initially operated at an organic loading rate of 10.7 kg COD m{sup -3} d{sup -1}. The loading was increased to finally 27.7 kg COD m{sup -3} d{sup -1}, corresponding to a reduction of the hydraulic retention time from initially 20 to finally 7.7 days. During the digestion, a stable elimination of organic material (measured as COD elimination) of approximately 60% was achieved. Linearly with the increment of the OLR, the volumetric methane production of the reactor increased from 2.6 m{sup 3} m{sub reactor}{sup -3} d{sup -1} to 7.1 m{sup 3} m{sub reactor}{sup -3} d{sup -1}. The results indicated that 'press water' from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste was a suitable substrate for anaerobic digestion which gave a high biogas yield even at very high loading rates.

Nayono, Satoto E. [Department of Civil Engineering, Yogyakarta State University, Campus UNY Karangmalang Yogyakarta 55281 (Indonesia); Institute of Biology for Engineers and Biotechnology of Wastewater, University of Karlsruhe, Am Fasanengarten, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Winter, Josef, E-mail: josef.winter@iba.uka.d [Institute of Biology for Engineers and Biotechnology of Wastewater, University of Karlsruhe, Am Fasanengarten, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Gallert, Claudia [Institute of Biology for Engineers and Biotechnology of Wastewater, University of Karlsruhe, Am Fasanengarten, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

340

Long-Term Outcomes of Vestibular Schwannomas Treated With Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy: An Institutional Experience  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: We assessed clinical outcome and long-term tumor control after fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) for unilateral schwannoma. Methods and Materials: Between 1995 and 2007, 496 patients were treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy at Johns Hopkins Hospital (Baltimore, MD); 385 patients had radiologic follow-up that met the inclusion criteria. The primary endpoint was treatment failure. Secondary endpoints were radiologic progression and clinical outcome. Logistic regression analysis assessed the association of age, race, tumor side, sex, and pretreatment symptoms. Results: In 11 patients (3%) treatment failed, and they required salvage (microsurgical) treatment. Radiologic progression was observed in 116 patients (30.0%), including 35 patients (9%) in whom the treatment volume more than doubled during the follow-up period, although none required surgical resection. Tumors with baseline volumes of less than 1 cm{sup 3} were 18.02 times more likely to progress than those with tumor volumes of 1 cm{sup 3} or greater (odds ratio, 18.02; 95% confidence interval, 4.25-76.32). Treatment-induced neurologic morbidity included 8 patients (1.6%) with new facial weakness, 12 patients (2.8%) with new trigeminal paresthesias, 4 patients (0.9%) with hydrocephalus (1 communicating and 3 obstructive), and 2 patients (0.5%) with possibly radiation-induced neoplasia. Conclusions: Although the rate of treatment failure is low (3%), careful follow-up shows that radiologic progression occurs frequently. When reporting outcome, the 'no salvage surgery needed' and 'no additional treatment needed' criteria for treatment success need to be complemented by the radiologic data.

Kapoor, Sumit; Batra, Sachin [Department of Neurosurgery, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD (United States); Carson, Kathryn [Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Shuck, John; Kharkar, Siddharth; Gandhi, Rahul [Department of Neurosurgery, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD (United States); Jackson, Juan; Wemmer, Jan; Terezakis, Stephanie; Shokek, Ori; Kleinberg, Lawrence [Department of Radiation Oncology, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD (United States); Rigamonti, Daniele, E-mail: dr@jhmi.edu [Department of Neurosurgery, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD (United States)

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

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341

Predicting Rectal and Bladder Overdose During the Course of Prostate Radiotherapy Using Dose-Volume Data From Initial Treatment Fractions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To evaluate whether information from the initial fractions can determine which patients are likely to consistently exceed their planning dose-volume constraints during the course of radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Ten patients with high-risk prostate cancer were treated with helical tomotherapy to a dose of 60 Gy in 20 fractions. The prostate, rectum, and bladder were recontoured on their daily megavoltage computed tomography scans and the dose was recalculated. The bladder and rectal volumes (in mL) receiving {>=}100% and {>=}70% of the prescribed dose in each fraction and in the original plans were recorded. A fraction for which the difference between planned and delivered was more than 2 mL was considered a volume failure. Similarly if the difference in the planned and delivered maximum dose (D{sub max}) was {>=}1% for the rectum and bladder, the fraction was considered a dose failure. Each patient's first 3 to 5 fractions were analyzed to determine if they correctly identified those patients who would consistently fail (i.e., {>=}20% of fractions) during the course of their radiotherapy. Results: Six parameters were studied; the rectal volume (RV) and bladder volumes (BV) (in mL) received {>=}100% and {>=}70% of the prescribed dose and maximum dose to 2 mL of the rectum and bladder. This was given by RV{sub 100}, RV{sub 70}, BV{sub 100}, BV{sub 70}, RD{sub max}, and BD{sub max}, respectively. When more than 1 of the first 3 fractions exceed the planning constraint as defined, it accurately predicts consistent failures through the course of the treatment. This method is able to correctly identify the consistent failures about 80% (RV{sub 70}, BV{sub 100}, and RV{sub 100}), 90% (BV{sub 70}), and 100% (RD{sub max} and BD{sub max}) of the times. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the feasibility of a method accurately identifying patients who are likely to consistently exceed the planning constraints during the course of their treatment, using information from the first 3 to 5 fractions.

Murthy, Vedang, E-mail: vmurthy@actrec.gov.in [Department of Radiation Oncology and Medical Physics, Tata Memorial Hospital and Advanced Centre for Treatment, Research and Education in Cancer (ACTREC), Tata Memorial Centre, Mumbai (India)] [Department of Radiation Oncology and Medical Physics, Tata Memorial Hospital and Advanced Centre for Treatment, Research and Education in Cancer (ACTREC), Tata Memorial Centre, Mumbai (India); Shukla, Pragya; Adurkar, Pranjal; Master, Zubin; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Shrivastava, Shyamkishore [Department of Radiation Oncology and Medical Physics, Tata Memorial Hospital and Advanced Centre for Treatment, Research and Education in Cancer (ACTREC), Tata Memorial Centre, Mumbai (India)] [Department of Radiation Oncology and Medical Physics, Tata Memorial Hospital and Advanced Centre for Treatment, Research and Education in Cancer (ACTREC), Tata Memorial Centre, Mumbai (India)

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Cellulose solvent- and organic solvent-based lignocellulose fractionation enabled efficient sugar release from a variety of lignocellulosic feedstocks  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cellulose solvent- and organic solvent-based lignocellulose fractionation ena- Cellulose solvent- and organic solvent-based lignocellulose fractionation ena- bled efficient sugar release from a variety of lignocellulosic feedstocks Noppadon Sathitsuksanoh, Zhiguang Zhu, Y.-H. Percival Zhang PII: S0960-8524(12)00712-2 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2012.04.088 Reference: BITE 9966 To appear in: Bioresource Technology Received Date: 29 February 2012 Revised Date: 21 April 2012 Accepted Date: 21 April 2012 Please cite this article as: Sathitsuksanoh, N., Zhu, Z., Percival Zhang, Y.-H., Cellulose solvent- and organic solvent- based lignocellulose fractionation enabled efficient sugar release from a variety of lignocellulosic feedstocks, Bioresource Technology (2012), doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2012.04.088 This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. As a service to our customers

343

Simple technologies for on-farm composting of cattle slurry solid fraction  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simple management techniques were examined for composting slurry solid fraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Composting slurry solids was effective without bulking agents, turning or rewetting. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Maximum rates of organic matter destruction were observed in short piles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermophilic temperatures in tall piles maximised sanitation and moisture reduction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The simple compost management approach maximised N retention and agronomic value. - Abstract: Composting technologies and control systems have reached an advanced stage of development, but these are too complex and expensive for most agricultural practitioners for treating livestock slurries. The development of simple, but robust and cost-effective techniques for composting animal slurries is therefore required to realise the potential benefits of waste sanitation and soil improvement associated with composted livestock manures. Cattle slurry solid fraction (SF) was collected at the rates of 4 m{sup 3} h{sup -1} and 1 m{sup 3} h{sup -1} and composted in tall (1.7 m) and short (1.2 m) static piles, to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics and nutrient dynamics of SF during composting without addition of bulking agent materials, and without turning or water addition. Highest maximum temperatures (62-64 Degree-Sign C) were measured in tall piles compared to short piles (52 Degree-Sign C). However, maximum rates of organic matter (OM) destruction were observed at mesophilic temperature ranges in short piles, compared to tall piles, whereas thermophilic temperatures in tall piles maximised sanitation and enhanced moisture reduction. Final OM losses were within the range of 520-660 g kg{sup -1} dry solids and the net loss of OM significantly (P < 0.001) increased nutrient concentrations during the composting period. An advanced degree of stabilization of the SF was indicated by low final pile temperatures and C/N ratio, low concentrations of NH{sub 4}{sup +} and increased concentrations of NO{sub 3}{sup -} in SF composts. The results indicated that minimum intervention composting of SF in static piles over 168 days can produce agronomically effective organic soil amendments containing significant amounts of OM (772-856 g kg{sup -1}) and plant nutrients. The implications of a minimal intervention management approach to composting SF on compost pathogen reduction are discussed and possible measures to improve sanitation are suggested.

Brito, L.M., E-mail: miguelbrito@esa.ipvc.pt [Escola Superior Agraria, Instituto Politecnico de Viana do Castelo, Refoios, 4990-706 Ponte de Lima (Portugal) and Mountain Research Centre (CIMO), IPB, Campus de St Apolonia, Apartado 1172, 5301-855 Braganca (Portugal); Mourao, I. [Escola Superior Agraria, Instituto Politecnico de Viana do Castelo, Refoios, 4990-706 Ponte de Lima (Portugal) and Mountain Research Centre (CIMO), IPB, Campus de St Apolonia, Apartado 1172, 5301-855 Braganca (Portugal); Coutinho, J., E-mail: j_coutin@utad.pt [C. Quimica, DeBA, EC Vida e Ambiente, Universidade de Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, ap 1013, 5001-911 Vila Real (Portugal); Smith, S.R., E-mail: s.r.smith@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

344

Renewed Search for FUN (Fractionated and Unidentified Nuclear Effects) in Primitive Chondrites  

SciTech Connect

Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) found in primitive chondrites record processes and conditions of the earliest solar system as they are the oldest known solid objects formed in the solar system [1,2]. CAIs with fractionation and unidentified nuclear anomalies (FUN CAIs; [3]) are very rare and thusfar found exclusively in CV carbonaceous chondrites (e.g., Allende and Vigarano)[4]. FUN CAIs are characterized by large nucleosynthetic anomalies in several elements (Ca, Ti, Si, Sr, Ba, Nd, and Sm), large mass-dependant isotope fractionation (Mg, Si, and O), and very little initial {sup 26}Al [4,5 and reference therein]. Formation of FUN CAIs by thermal processing of presolar dust aggregates prior to the injection of {sup 26}Al into the protoplanetary disk has been proposed. More recently [5] proposed that FUN CAIs formed from a protosolar molecular cloud after injection of {sup 26}Al but before {sup 26}Al and {sup 27}Al were completely homogenized. Therefore discovering more FUN CAIs to perform U-Pb and other short-lived chronometric dating will provide key constraints on the age of the solar system, the isotopic composition of the protosolar molecular cloud, the earliest stages of the thermal processing in the solar system and the timing of {sup 26}Al and other short-lived radionuclide injection into the nascent solar system. Most known FUN CAIs were discovered and studied > 30 yr ago, and their isotope ratios determined using thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). Most of these FUN CAIs were almost or entirely consumed during their respective analyses. [5] recently identified a new FUN CAI (NWA 779 KS-1) based on O and Mg isotope ratios determined by SIMS and MCICPMS, respectively. We have initiated a systematic search for FUN CAIs in primitive chondrites, taking advantage of the large mass-dependant Mg isotope effects known for FUN inclusions with little or no inferred {sup 26}Al. Our strategy is to use newly developed sample cells capable of holding very large slabs of meteorites for laser ablation interfaced with a multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-MC-ICPMS) at UC Davis. Here report the initial findings of our search and describe the instrument setup we use that provides rapid throughput and accurate results.

Tollstrup, D L; Wimpenny, J B; Yin, Q -; Ebel, D S; Jacobsen, B; Hutcheon, I D

2011-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

345

Control of Surface Mounted Permanent Magnet Motors with Special Application to Fractional-Slot Concentrated Windings  

SciTech Connect

It is well known that the ability of the permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM) to operate over a wide constant power speed range (CPSR) is dependent upon the machine inductance [1,2,3,4,5]. Early approaches for extending CPSR operation included adding supplementary inductance in series with the motor [1] and the use of anti-parallel thyristor pairs in series with the motor-phase windings [5]. The increased inductance method is compatible with a voltage-source inverter (VSI) controlled by pulse-width modulation (PWM) which is called the conventional phase advance (CPA) method. The thyristor method has been called the dual mode inverter control (DMIC). Neither of these techniques has met with wide acceptance since they both add cost to the drive system and have not been shown to have an attractive cost/benefit ratio. Recently a method has been developed to use fractional-slot concentrated windings to significantly increase the machine inductance [6]. This latest approach has the potential to make the PMSM compatible with CPA without supplemental external inductance. If the performance of such drive is acceptable, then the method may make the PMSM an attractive option for traction applications requiring a wide CPSR. A 30 pole, 6 kW, 6000 maximum revolutions per minute (rpm) prototype of the fractional-slot PMSM design has been developed [7]. This machine has significantly more inductance than is typical of regular PMSMs. The prototype is to be delivered in late 2005 to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for testing and development of a suitable controller. In advance of the test/control development effort, ORNL has used the PMSM models developed over a number of previous studies to study the steady-state performance of high-inductance PMSM machines with a view towards control issues. The detailed steady-state model developed includes all motor and inverter-loss mechanisms and will be useful in assessing the performance of the dynamic controller to be developed in future work. This report documents the results of this preliminary investigation.

Lawler, J.S.

2005-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

346

A MICROLENSING MEASUREMENT OF DARK MATTER FRACTIONS IN THREE LENSING GALAXIES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Direct measurements of dark matter distributions in galaxies are currently only possible through the use of gravitational lensing observations. Combinations of lens modeling and stellar velocity dispersion measurements provide the best constraints on dark matter distributions in individual galaxies, however they can be quite complex. In this paper, we use observations and simulations of gravitational microlensing to measure the smooth (dark) matter mass fraction at the position of lensed images in three lens galaxies: MG 0414+0534, SDSS J0924+0219, and Q2237+0305. The first two systems consist of early-type lens galaxies, and both display a flux ratio anomaly in their close image pair. Anomalies such as these suggest that a high smooth matter percentage is likely, and indeed we prefer {approx}50% smooth matter in MG 0414+0534 and {approx}80% in SDSS J0924+0219 at the projected locations of the lensed images. Q2237+0305 differs somewhat in that its lensed images lie in the central kiloparsec of the barred spiral lens galaxy, where we expect stars to dominate the mass distribution. In this system, we find a smooth matter percentage that is consistent with zero.

Bate, N. F.; Webster, R. L.; Wyithe, J. S. B. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Vic. 3010 (Australia); Floyd, D. J. E., E-mail: nbate@physics.unimelb.edu.au [OCIW, Las Campanas Observatory, Casilla 601, Colina El Pino, La Serena, Chile. (Chile)

2011-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

347

Assessment of New Calculation Method for Toxicological Sums-of-Fractions for Hanford Tank Wastes  

SciTech Connect

The toxicological source terms used for potential accident assessment in the Tank Farms DSA are based on toxicological sums-of-fractions (SOFs) that were calculated in fiscal years 2002 and 2003 based on the Best Basis Inventory (BBI) from May 2002, using the method described by Cowley et al. (2003). The present report describes a modified SOF-calculation method that is to be used in future toxicological updates and assessments and compares its results (for the 2002 BBI) to those of the old method. The new method generally calculated different (usually larger) SOFs than the old. The dominant reason was the more conservative way in which the new method represents concentration variability, in that it uses the waste layer with the maximum SOF to represent the tank SOF. The old method had used a tank-average waste composition and SOF. Differences between thermodynamically modeled and BBI solubilities were the next most common reason for differences between old (modeled) and new (BBI) SOFs, particularly in the liquid phase. The solubility-related changes in SOF were roughly equally distributed between increases and decreases. Changes in the effective toxicities of TOC and lead, which resulted from changes in the compounds in which these analytes were considered to be present, were the third most common reason. These toxicity changes increased SOFs and therefore were in a conservative direction.

Mahoney, Lenna A.

2006-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

348

Micro-scale anaerobic digestion of point source components of organic fraction of municipal solid waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The fermentation characteristics of six specific types of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) were examined, with an emphasis on properties that are needed when designing plug-flow type anaerobic bioreactors. More specifically, the decomposition patterns of a vegetable (cabbage), fruits (banana and citrus peels), fresh leaf litter of bamboo and teak leaves, and paper (newsprint) waste streams as feedstocks were studied. Individual OFMSW components were placed into nylon mesh bags and subjected to various fermentation periods (solids retention time, SRT) within the inlet of a functioning plug-flow biogas fermentor. These were removed at periodic intervals, and their composition was analyzed to monitor decomposition rates and changes in chemical composition. Components like cabbage waste, banana peels, and orange peels fermented rapidly both in a plug-flow biogas reactor (PFBR) as well as under a biological methane potential (BMP) assay, while other OFMSW components (leaf litter from bamboo and teak leaves and newsprint) fermented slowly with poor process stability and moderate biodegradation. For fruit and vegetable wastes (FVW), a rapid and efficient removal of pectins is the main cause of rapid disintegration of these feedstocks, which left behind very little compost forming residues (2-5%). Teak and bamboo leaves and newsprint decomposed only to 25-50% in 30 d. These results confirm the potential for volatile fatty acids accumulation in a PFBR's inlet and suggest a modification of the inlet zone or operation of a PFBR with the above feedstocks.

Chanakya, H.N. [Centre for Sustainable Technologies, (formerly ASTRA), Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India)], E-mail: chanakya@astra.iisc.ernet.in; Sharma, Isha [Centre for Sustainable Technologies, (formerly ASTRA), Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Ramachandra, T.V. [Centre for Sustainable Technologies, (formerly ASTRA), Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India)

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

349

Coupling detergent lysis/clean-up methodology with intact protein fractionation for enhanced proteome characterization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The expanding use of surfactants for proteome sample preparations has prompted the need to systematically optimize the application and removal of these MS-deleterious agents prior to proteome measurements. Here we compare four different detergent clean-up methods (Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) precipitation, Chloroform/Methanol/Water (CMW) extraction, commercial detergent removal spin column method (DRS) and filter-aided sample preparation(FASP)) with respect to varying amounts of protein biomass in the samples, and provide efficiency benchmarks with respect to protein, peptide, and spectral identifications for each method. Our results show that for protein limited samples, FASP outperforms the other three clean-up methods, while at high protein amount all the methods are comparable. This information was used in a dual strategy of comparing molecular weight based fractionated and unfractionated lysates from three increasingly complex samples (Escherichia coli, a five microbial isolate mixture, and a natural microbial community groundwater sample), which were all lysed with SDS and cleaned up using FASP. The two approaches complemented each other by enhancing the number of protein identifications by 8%-25% across the three samples and provided broad pathway coverage.

Sharma, Ritin [ORNL; Dill, Brian [ORNL; Chourey, Karuna [ORNL; Shah, Manesh B [ORNL; Verberkmoes, Nathan C [ORNL; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Shock-Wave Heating Model for Chondrule Formation: Prevention of Isotopic Fractionation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chondrules are considered to have much information on dust particles and processes in the solar nebula. It is naturally expected that protoplanetary disks observed in present star forming regions have similar dust particles and processes, so study of chondrule formation may provide us great information on the formation of the planetary systems. Evaporation during chondrule melting may have resulted in depletion of volatile elements in chondrules. However, no evidence for a large degree of heavy-isotope enrichment has been reported in chondrules. In order to meet this observed constraint, the rapid heating rate at temperatures below the silicate solidus is required to suppress the isotopic fractionation. We have developed a new shock-wave heating model taking into account the radiative transfer of the dust thermal continuum emission and the line emission of gas molecules and calculated the thermal history of chondrules. We have found that optically-thin shock waves for the thermal continuum emission from dust particles can meet the rapid heating constraint, because the dust thermal emission does not keep the dust particles high temperature for a long time in the pre-shock region and dust particles are abruptly heated by the gas drag heating in the post-shock region. We have also derived the upper limit of optical depth of the pre-shock region using the radiative diffusion approximation, above which the rapid heating constraint is not satisfied. It is about 1 ? 10. Subject headings: meteors, meteoroids shock waves solar system: formation 1

Hitoshi Miura; Taishi Nakamoto

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Effect of Fuel Fraction on Small Modified CANDLE Burn-up Based Gas Cooled Fast Reactors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A conceptual design study of Gas Cooled Fast Reactors with Modified CANDLE Burn-up has been performed. The objective of this research is to get optimal design parameters of such type reactors. The parameters of nuclear design including the critical condition, conversion ratio, and burn-up level were compared. These parameters are calculated by variation in the fuel fraction 47.5% up to 70%. Two dimensional full core multi groups diffusion calculations was performed by CITATION code. Group constant preparations are performed by using SRAC code system with JENDL-3.2 nuclear data library. In this design the reactor cores with cylindrical cell two dimensional R-Z core models are subdivided into several parts with the same volume in the axial directions. The placement of fuel in core arranged so that the result of plutonium from natural uranium can be utilized optimally for 10 years reactor operation. Modified CANDLE burn-up was established successfully in a core radial width 1.4 m. Total thermal power output for reference core is 550 MW. Study on the effect of fuel to coolant ratio shows that effective multiplication factor (k{sub eff}) is in almost linear relations with the change of the fuel volume to coolant ratio.

Ariani, Menik [Departmen of Physics Bandung Institute of Technology, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40134 (Indonesia); Physics Department, Sriwijaya University, Kampus Indralaya, Ogan Ilir, Sumatera Selatan (Indonesia); Su'ud, Zaki; Waris, Abdul; Asiah, Nur [Departmen of Physics Bandung Institute of Technology, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40134 (Indonesia); Shafii, M. Ali [Departmen of Physics Bandung Institute of Technology, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40134 (Indonesia); Physics Department, Andalas University, Kampus Limau Manis, Padang, Sumatera Barat (Indonesia); Khairurrijal

2010-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

352

Measurement of the branching fraction for $\\tau\\to\\eta K\  

SciTech Connect

The authors report on analyses of tau lepton decays {tau}{sup -} {yields} {eta}K{sup -}{nu}{sub {tau}} and {tau}{sup -} {yields} {eta}{pi}{sup -}{nu}{sub {tau}}, with {eta} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}, using 470 fb{sup -1} of data from the BABAR experiment at PEP-II, collected at center-of-mass energies at and near the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance. They measure the branching fraction for the {tau}{sup -} {yields} {eta}K{sup -}{nu}{sub {tau}} decay mode, {Beta}({tau}{sup -} {yields} {eta}K{sup -}{nu}{sub {tau}}) = (1.42 {+-} 0.11(stat) {+-} 0.07(syst)) x 10{sup -4}, and report a 95% confidence level upper limit for the second-class current process {tau}{sup -} {yields} {eta}{pi}{sup -}{nu}{sub {tau}}, {Beta}({tau}{sup -} {yields} {eta}{pi}{sup -}{nu}{sub {tau}}) < 9.9 x 10{sup -5}.

del Amo Sanchez, P.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Tisserand, V.; /Annecy, LAPP; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; /Barcelona U., ECM; Martinelli, M.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; /INFN, Bari /Bari U.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; /Bergen U.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D.N.; Hooberman, B.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; Osipenkov, I.L.; Tanabe, T.; /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UC, Riverside /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /Indian Inst. Tech., Guwahati /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa State U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Paris U., VI-VII /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Princeton U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /SLAC /South Carolina U. /Southern Methodist U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tel Aviv U. /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /Valencia U. /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

2011-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

353

LIMITS TO THE FRACTION OF HIGH-ENERGY PHOTON EMITTING GAMMA-RAY BURSTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

After almost four years of operation, the two instruments on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope have shown that the number of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with high-energy photon emission above 100 MeV cannot exceed roughly 9% of the total number of all such events, at least at the present detection limits. In a recent paper, we found that GRBs with photons detected in the Large Area Telescope have a surprisingly broad distribution with respect to the observed event photon number. Extrapolation of our empirical fit to numbers of photons below our previous detection limit suggests that the overall rate of such low flux events could be estimated by standard image co-adding techniques. In this case, we have taken advantage of the excellent angular resolution of the Swift mission to provide accurate reference points for 79 GRB events which have eluded any previous correlations with high-energy photons. We find a small but significant signal in the co-added field. Guided by the extrapolated power-law fit previously obtained for the number distribution of GRBs with higher fluxes, the data suggest that only a small fraction of GRBs are sources of high-energy photons.

Akerlof, Carl W.; Zheng, WeiKang, E-mail: akerlof@umich.edu [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, 450 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, 450 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States)

2013-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

354

Results of hydrotreating the kerosene fraction of HTI`S first proof of concept run  

SciTech Connect

The objective of Sandia`s hydrotreating study is to determine the relationships between hydrotreating conditions and product characteristics for coal liquids produced using current technologies. The coal-derived liquid used in the current work is the kerosene fraction of the product from Hydrocarbon Technologies Inc.`s first proof-of-concept run for it`s Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction Technology. Sandia`s hydrotreating experiments were performed in a continuous operation, microflow reactor system using aged HDN-60 catalyst. A factorial experimental design with three variables (temperature, pressure, liquid hourly space velocity) was used in this work. Nitrogen and sulfur contents of the feed and hydrotreated products were determined using an Antek 7000 Sulfur and Nitrogen Analyzer. Multiple samples were collected at each set of reaction conditions to ensure that each condition was lined out. Hydrotreating at each set of reaction conditions was repeated so that results could be normalized for catalyst deactivation. The normalized results were statistically analyzed. Increases in temperature and pressure had the greatest effects on nitrogen removal. The highest severity condition (388{degrees}C, 1500 psig H{sub 2}, 1.5g/h/g(cat)) gave a measured nitrogen value of <5 ppm.

Stohl, F.V.; Lott, S.E.; Diegert, K.V.; Goodnow, D.C.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

NIST Guide to SI Units - Appendix B9. Conversion Factors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... horsepower (550 ft lbf/s), watt (W), 7.456 999, E+02. horsepower (boiler), watt (W), 9.809 50, E+03. horsepower (electric), watt (W), 7.46, E+02. ...

356

NIST Guide to SI Units - Appendix B8. Factors for Units  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... horsepower (550 ft lbf/s) (hp), watt (W), 7.456 999, E+02. horsepower (boiler), watt (W), 9.809 50, E+03. horsepower (electric), watt (W), 7.46, E+02. ...

357

U(1) X U(1) XI Z(2) Chern-Simons theory and Z(4) parafermion fractional quantum Hall states  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study U(1)U(1)?Z2 Chern-Simons theory with integral coupling constants (k,l) and its relation to certain non-Abelian fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states. For the U(1)U(1)?Z2 Chern-Simons theory, we show how to compute ...

Barkeshli, Maissam

358

Gas conditioning and processing. Volume II. Absorption and fractionation; pumping, compression and expansion; refrigeration; hydrate inhibition, dehydration and process control  

SciTech Connect

Volume II of a two volume publication is presented in which aspects of conditioning and/or processing of natural gas for sale are examined. Chapters are included on absorption and fractionation, compression and expansion of fluids, refrigeration systems, liquefaction processes, water-hydrocarbon system behavior, dehydration and sweetening, adsorption processing, sulfur recovery, process control, and cost estimation. (JRD)

Campbell, J.M.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

A new void fraction correlation inferred from artificial neural networks for modeling two-phase flows in geothermal wells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new empirical void fraction correlation was developed using artificial neural network (ANN) techniques. The artificial networks were trained using the backpropagation algorithm and production data obtained from a worldwide database of geothermal wells. ... Keywords: Artificial intelligence, Geothermal energy, Liquid holdup, Pressure gradients, Simulation, Statistics

A. lvarez del Castillo; E. Santoyo; O. Garc a-Valladares

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

A method of electric field flow fractionation wherein the polarity of the electric field is periodically reversed  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Field flow fractionation, a method obtaining high resolution separations of organic and inorganic colloids and soluble molecules, has been known in the art for approximately twenty years. The term field flow fractionation uses the word field in a generic sense. The field may comprise an electric field, a temperature gradient, a pH gradient, gravitational sedimentation or sedimentation through the application of a centrifugal force. The field is made to act upon a flowing solution or colloidal suspension and causes segregation or fractionation of the solute molecules or colloid particles. A novel method of electric field flow fractionation for separating solute molecules from a carrier solution is disclosed. The method of the invention utilizes an electric field that is periodically reversed in polarity, in a time-dependent, wave-like manner. The parameters of the waveform, including amplitude, frequency and wave shape may be varied to optimize separation of solute species. The waveform may further include discontinuities to enhance separation. 11 figs.

Stevens, F.J.

1990-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "introduced fractional horsepower" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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361

A Scheme for Calculation of the Liquid Fraction in Mixed-Phase Stratiform Clouds in Large-Scale Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A scheme for calculation of the liquid fraction fl in mixed-phase stratiform clouds has been developed for use in large-scale models. An advantage of the scheme, compared to the interpolation in temperature that is typically used, is that it ...

Leon D. Rotstayn; Brian F. Ryan; Jack J. Katzfey

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Fractional-Slot Surface Mounted PM Motors with Concentrated Windings for HEV Traction Drives  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-power density and efficiency resulting from elimination of rotor windings and reduced magnetic-flux losses have made the rare earth permanent magnet (PM) motor a leading candidate for the Department of Energy's Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVTs) traction drive motor. These traction drives are generally powered by radial-gap motors, having the magnets on or embedded in a rotating cylinder separated from the inside surface of a slotted cylindrical stator by an annular gap. The two main types of radial-gap PM rotors are those with magnets mounted on the surface of a supporting back iron, called PM surface mounted (PMSM) motors, and those with magnets mounted in slots in the rotor, called interior PM (IPM) motors. Most early PM motor research was on the PMSM motor, which was thought to have an inherently low stator inductance. A low stator inductance can lead to currents dangerously exceeding rated current as the back-emf across the inductance increases with speed; consequently, part of the attempted solution has been to increase the stator inductance to reduce the rate of current rise. Although analysis suggested that there should be no problem designing sufficiently high stator inductance into PMSMs, attempts to do so were often not successful and a motor design was sought that would have a higher intrinsic inductance. Commercial research at Toyota has focused on IPM motors because they can achieve a high-saliency ratio, which helps them operate over a high constant power speed ratio (CPSR), but they are more difficult to fabricate. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) position has been to continue research on brushless direct current (dc) motors (BDCMs) because of ease of fabrication and increased power output. Recently there has been a revival of interest in a fractional-slot PMSMs [15] made with concentrated windings because they possess three important features. First, they can increase the motor's inductance sufficiently to reduce the characteristic current to value of the rated current, which will enable them to operate at high CPSR. This feature also limits short-circuit fault currents. Second, their segmented structure simplifies assembly problems and is expected to reduce assembly costs. Third, the back-emf waveform is nearly sinusoidal with low cogging. To examine in depth this design ORNL entered into a collaborative agreement with the University of Wisconsin to build and test a 6 kW laboratory demonstration unit. Design, fabrication, and testing of the unit to 4000 rpm were completed during FY 2005. The motor will be sent to ORNL to explore ways to control its inverter to achieve higher efficiency during FY 2006. This paper first reviews the concept of characteristic current and what is meant by optimal flux weakening. It then discusses application of the fractional-slot concentrated winding technique to increase the d-axis inductance of a PMSM showing how this approach differs from an integral-slot motor with sinusoidal-distributed windings. This discussion is followed by a presentation of collaborative analyses and comparison with the University of Wisconsin's measured data on a 6 kW, 36-slot, 30-pole motor with concentrated windings. Finally ORNL presents a PMSM design with integral-slot windings that appears to meet the FreedomCAR Specifications, but has some disadvantages. Further collaboration with the University of Wisconsin is planned for FY 2006 to design a motor that meets FreedomCAR specifications.

Bailey, J.M.

2005-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

363

Oscillation spectrum of an electron gas with a small density fraction of ions  

SciTech Connect

The problem is solved of the stability of a nonneutral plasma that completely fills a waveguide and consists of magnetized cold electrons and a small density fraction of ions produced by ionization of the atoms of the background gas. The ions are described by an anisotropic distribution function that takes into account the characteristic features of their production in crossed electric and magnetic fields. By solving a set of Vlasov-Poisson equations analytically, a dispersion equation is obtained that is valid over the entire range of allowable electric and magnetic field strengths. The solutions to the dispersion equation for the m = +1 main azimuthal mode are found numerically. The plasma oscillation spectrum consists of the families of Trivelpiece-Gould modes at frequencies equal to the frequencies of oblique Langmuir oscillations Doppler shifted by the electron rotation and also of the families of 'modified' ion cyclotron (MIC) modes at frequencies close to the harmonics of the MIC frequency (the frequencies of radial ion oscillations in crossed fields). It is shown that, over a wide range of electric and magnetic field strengths, Trivelpiece-Gould modes have low frequencies and interact with MIC modes. Trivelpiece-Gould modes at frequencies close to the harmonics of the MIC frequency with nonnegative numbers are unstable. The lowest radial Trivelpiece-Gould mode at a frequency close to the zeroth harmonic of the MIC frequency has the fastest growth rate. MIC modes are unstable over a wide range of electric and magnetic field strengths and grow at far slower rates. For a low ion density, a simplified dispersion equation is derived perturbatively that accounts for the nonlocal ion contribution, but, at the same time, has the form of a local dispersion equation for a plasma with a transverse current and anisotropic ions. The solutions to the simplified dispersion equation are obtained analytically. The growth rates of the Trivelpiece-Gould modes and the behavior of the MIC modes agree with those obtained by numerical simulation.

Yeliseyev, Yu. N. [National Science Center Kharkiv Institute of Physics and Technology (Ukraine)

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

364

Vanadium and nickel complexes in petroleum resid acid, base, and neutral fractions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Acid and base fractions from petroleum vacuum resids with no detectable (by visible spectrophotometry) quantities of porphyrinic Ni or V complexes were hydrotreated under various conditions to determine if significant amounts of porphyrinic metals were released, via disassociation or other means, upon hydrotreating. No significant quantities were observed, thereby indicating that nonporphyrinic metals were not simply associated, complexed or otherwise masked (in terms of visible spectrophotometric response) porphyrinic metal complexes. However, it is possible that hydrotreating was simply not effective in breaking up these associates and/or that some porphyrinic forms of metal were in fact released but were rapidly destroyed by hydrotreating. In addition, three liquid chromatographic (LC) separation methods were sequentially applied to Cerro Negro (Orinoco belt Venezuelan heavy crude) >700[degree]C resid in an effort to separate and concentrate the metal complexes present. Nonaqueous ion exchange chromatography was used initially to separate the resid into acid, base and neutral types. Two concentrates containing 19,500 and 13,500 ppm total V, or an estimated 19 and 13 wt % V-containing compounds respectively, were obtained. The degree of enrichment of Ni compounds obtained was significantly lower. By visible spectrophotometry, using vanadyl etioporphyrin as a standard, each of the concentrates contained near a 1:1 ratio of porphyrinic:nonporphyrinic V complexes. Analogous separation behavior for porphyrinic versus nonporphyrinic metal forms was observed throughout much of the work, thereby suggesting that a comparable diversity of structures existed within each general class of metal compounds. The generally wide dispersion of both Ni and V over the LC separation scheme suggests a structural variety of metal complexes that is comparable to that observed for other heteroatoms (N, S, O) in petroleum.

Pearson, C.D.; Green, J.D.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Vanadium and nickel complexes in petroleum resid acid, base, and neutral fractions  

SciTech Connect

Acid and base fractions from petroleum vacuum resids with no detectable (by visible spectrophotometry) quantities of porphyrinic Ni or V complexes were hydrotreated under various conditions to determine if significant amounts of porphyrinic metals were released, via disassociation or other means, upon hydrotreating. No significant quantities were observed, thereby indicating that nonporphyrinic metals were not simply associated, complexed or otherwise masked (in terms of visible spectrophotometric response) porphyrinic metal complexes. However, it is possible that hydrotreating was simply not effective in breaking up these associates and/or that some porphyrinic forms of metal were in fact released but were rapidly destroyed by hydrotreating. In addition, three liquid chromatographic (LC) separation methods were sequentially applied to Cerro Negro (Orinoco belt Venezuelan heavy crude) >700{degree}C resid in an effort to separate and concentrate the metal complexes present. Nonaqueous ion exchange chromatography was used initially to separate the resid into acid, base and neutral types. Two concentrates containing 19,500 and 13,500 ppm total V, or an estimated 19 and 13 wt % V-containing compounds respectively, were obtained. The degree of enrichment of Ni compounds obtained was significantly lower. By visible spectrophotometry, using vanadyl etioporphyrin as a standard, each of the concentrates contained near a 1:1 ratio of porphyrinic:nonporphyrinic V complexes. Analogous separation behavior for porphyrinic versus nonporphyrinic metal forms was observed throughout much of the work, thereby suggesting that a comparable diversity of structures existed within each general class of metal compounds. The generally wide dispersion of both Ni and V over the LC separation scheme suggests a structural variety of metal complexes that is comparable to that observed for other heteroatoms (N, S, O) in petroleum.

Pearson, C.D.; Green, J.D.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Fractional quantum Hall states of few bosonic atoms in geometric gauge fields  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We employ the exact diagonalization method to analyze the possibility of generating strongly correlated states in two-dimensional clouds of ultracold bosonic atoms which are subjected to a geometric gauge field created by coupling two internal atomic states to a laser beam. Tuning the gauge field strength, the system undergoes stepwise transitions between different ground states, which we describe by analytical trial wave functions, amongst them the Pfaffian, the Laughlin, and a Laughlin quasiparticle many-body state. The adiabatic following of the center of mass movement by the lowest energy dressed internal state, is lost by the mixing of the second internal state. This mixture can be controlled by the intensity of the laser field. The non-adiabaticity is inherent to the considered setup, and is shown to play the role of circular asymmetry. We study its influence on the properties of the ground state of the system. Its main effect is to reduce the overlap of the numerical solutions with the analytical trial expressions by occupying states with higher angular momentum. Thus, we propose generalized wave functions arising from the Laughlin and Pfaffian wave function by including components, where extra Jastrow factors appear, while preserving important features of these states. We analyze quasihole excitations over the Laughlin and generalized Laughlin states, and show that they possess effective fractional charge and obey anyonic statistics. Finally, we study the energy gap over the Laughlin state as the number of particles is increased keeping the chemical potential fixed. The gap is found to decrease as the number of particles is increased, indicating that the observability of the Laughlin state is restricted to a small number of particles.

B. Juli-Daz; T. Gra; N. Barbern; M. Lewenstein

2011-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

367

Experimental studies of oxygen isotope fractionation in the carbonic acid system at 15, 25, and 40 (degrees)C  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In light of recent studies that show oxygen isotope fractionation in carbonate minerals to be a function of HCO3 2-; and CO3 2- concentrations, the oxygen isotope fractionation and exchange between water and components of the carbonic acid system (HCO3 2-, CO3 2-, and CO2(aq)) were investigated at 15, 25, and 40 (degrees)C. To investigate oxygen isotope exchange between HCO3 2-, CO3 -2, and H2O, NaHCO3 solutions were prepared and the pH was adjusted over a range of 2 to 12 by the addition of small amounts of HCl or NaOH. After thermal, chemical, and isotopic equilibrium was attained, BaCl2 was added to the NaHCO3 solutions. This resulted in immediate BaCO3 precipitation; thus, recording the isotopic composition of the dissolved inorganic carbon. Data from experiments at 15, 25, and 40 (degrees)C (1 atm) show that the oxygen isotope fractionation between HCO3 2-; and H2O as a function of temperature is governed by the equation: 1000 ;HCO3--H2O = 2.66 + 0.05(106T-2) + 1.18 + 0.52. where is the fractionation factor and T is in kelvins. The temperature dependence of oxygen isotope fractionation between CO32 and H2O is 1000 CO32--H2O = 2.28 + 0.03(106T-2) - 1.50 + 0.29. The oxygen isotope fractionation between CO2(aq) and H2O was investigated by acid stripping CO2(aq) from low pH solutions; these data yield the following equation: 1000 CO2(aq)-H2O = 2.52 + 0.03(106T-2) + 12.12 + 0.33. The kinetics of oxygen isotope exchange were also investigated. The half-times for exchange between HCO3- and H2O were 3.6, 1.4, and 0.25 h at 15, 25, and 40 (degrees)C, respectively. The half-times for exchange between CO2 and H2O were 1200, 170, and 41 h at 15, 25, and 40 (degrees) C, respectively. These results show that the 18O of the total dissolved inorganic carbon species can vary as much as 17 at a constant temperature. This could result in temperature independent variations in the 18O of precipitated carbonate minerals, especially in systems that are not chemically buffered.

Beck, William Cory

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Inhibiting the Aurora B Kinase Potently Suppresses Repopulation During Fractionated Irradiation of Human Lung Cancer Cell Lines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: The use of molecular-targeted agents during radiotherapy of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a promising strategy to inhibit repopulation, thereby improving therapeutic outcome. We assessed the combined effectiveness of inhibiting Aurora B kinase and irradiation on human NSCLC cell lines in vitro. Methods and Materials: NSCLC cell lines were exposed to concentrations of AZD1152-hydroxyquinazoline pyrazol anilide (AZD1152-HQPA) inhibiting colony formation by 50% (IC50{sub clone}) in combination with single dose irradiation or different fractionation schedules using multiple 2-Gy fractions per day up to total doses of 4-40 Gy. The total irradiation dose required to control growth of 50% of the plaque monolayers (TCD50) was determined. Apoptosis, G2/M progression, and polyploidization were also analyzed. Results: TCD50 values after single dose irradiation were similar for the H460 and H661 cell lines with 11.4 {+-} 0.2 Gy and 10.7 {+-} 0.3 Gy, respectively. Fractionated irradiation using 3 Multiplication-Sign 2 Gy/day, 2 Multiplication-Sign 2 Gy/day, and 1 Multiplication-Sign 2 Gy/day schedules significantly increased TCD50 values for both cell lines grown as plaque monolayers with increasing radiation treatment time. This could be explained by a repopulation effect per day that counteracts 75 {+-} 8% and 27 {+-} 6% of the effect of a 2-Gy fraction in H460 and H661 cells, respectively. AZD1152-HQPA treatment concomitant to radiotherapy significantly decreased the daily repopulation effect (H460: 28 {+-} 5%, H661: 10 {+-} 4% of a 2-Gy fraction per day). Treatment with IC50{sub clone} AZD1152-HPQA did not induce apoptosis, prolong radiation-induced G2 arrest, or delay cell cycle progression before the spindle check point. However, polyploidization was detected, especially in cell lines without functional p53. Conclusions: Inhibition of Aurora B kinase with low AZD1152-HQPA concentrations during irradiation of NSCLC cell lines affects repopulation during radiotherapy. Thus, concomitant Aurora B kinase inhibition and irradiation may be a promising strategy for fast repopulating tumors, which are difficult to cure by dose escalation based on conventional fractionation.

Sak, Ali, E-mail: ali.sak@uni-due.de [Department of Radiotherapy, West German Cancer Centre (WTZ), University Hospital Essen, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen (Germany)] [Department of Radiotherapy, West German Cancer Centre (WTZ), University Hospital Essen, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen (Germany); Stuschke, Martin; Groneberg, Michael; Kuebler, Dennis; Poettgen, Christoph [Department of Radiotherapy, West German Cancer Centre (WTZ), University Hospital Essen, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen (Germany)] [Department of Radiotherapy, West German Cancer Centre (WTZ), University Hospital Essen, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen (Germany); Eberhardt, Wilfried E.E. [Department of Medicine (Cancer Research), West German Cancer Centre (WTZ), University Hospital Essen, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen (Germany)] [Department of Medicine (Cancer Research), West German Cancer Centre (WTZ), University Hospital Essen, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen (Germany)

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Investigation of a Multiphase Twin-screw Pump Operating at High Gas Volume Fractions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The use of twin-screw pumps for moving fluids is not new technology but its application to wet gas compression (high gas volume fraction [GVF]) is still considered relatively new. There are many advantages for using twin-screw pumps for oil field applications; three of the immediate improvements include reducing hardware costs, reducing well bore pressure, and producing a pressure boost to move the product to a central collection facility. While there are many advantages to using twin-screw pumps in wet gas applications, there are some problems that have been encountered while operating at high GVFs. When operating at high GVF, over 95 percent twin-screw pumps experience a severe loss of efficiency and an increase of operating temperature. A common way to increase the efficiency while operating in the high GVF range includes adding a liquid recirculation system where a portion of liquid is stored downstream of the pump and is injected into the pump inlet. These systems lower the effective GVF of the multiphase fluid below 95 percent in order to increase the pump efficiency. The first objective is to characterize the performance of a twin-screw pump fitted with a liquid recirculation system while operating under high GVF conditions. The second objective is to investigate the transient heat rise associated with high GVF operation. While traditional twin-screw pumps can be fitted with a liquid recirculation system to allow them to operate under high GVF conditions the pumps themselves are not optimized for wet gas compression and still suffer performance penalties. The results of this investigation show that the liquid recirculation system can allow the pump to operate under high GVF but the heat added to the system reduces the systems efficiency. Without a method of removing the heat generated in the pumping process the pump will not run at its optimal efficiency. The following investigation provides recommendations for further research in area of multiphase pumping using twin-screw pumps based on the characterization and transient studies provided in this thesis.

Kroupa, Ryan Daniel

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Dry-thermophilic anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste: Methane production modeling  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Methane generation may be modeled by means of modified product generation model of Romero Garcia (1991). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Organic matter content and particle size influence the kinetic parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher organic matter content and lower particle size enhance the biomethanization. - Abstract: The influence of particle size and organic matter content of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) in the overall kinetics of dry (30% total solids) thermophilic (55 Degree-Sign C) anaerobic digestion have been studied in a semi-continuous stirred tank reactor (SSTR). Two types of wastes were used: synthetic OFMSW (average particle size of 1 mm; 0.71 g Volatile Solids/g waste), and OFMSW coming from a composting full scale plant (average particle size of 30 mm; 0.16 g Volatile Solids/g waste). A modification of a widely-validated product-generation kinetic model has been proposed. Results obtained from the modified-model parameterization at steady-state (that include new kinetic parameters as K, Y{sub pMAX} and {theta}{sub MIN}) indicate that the features of the feedstock strongly influence the kinetics of the process. The overall specific growth rate of microorganisms ({mu}{sub max}) with synthetic OFMSW is 43% higher compared to OFMSW coming from a composting full scale plant: 0.238 d{sup -1} (K = 1.391 d{sup -1}; Y{sub pMAX} = 1.167 L CH{sub 4}/gDOC{sub c}; {theta}{sub MIN} = 7.924 days) vs. 0.135 d{sup -1} (K = 1.282 d{sup -1}; Y{sub pMAX} = 1.150 L CH{sub 4}/gDOC{sub c}; {theta}{sub MIN} = 9.997 days) respectively. Finally, it could be emphasized that the validation of proposed modified-model has been performed successfully by means of the simulation of non-steady state data for the different SRTs tested with each waste.

Fdez-Gueelfo, L.A., E-mail: alberto.fdezguelfo@uca.es [Department of Chemical Engineering and Food Technology, Faculty of Science, University of Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Alvarez-Gallego, C. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Food Technology, Faculty of Science, University of Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Sales, D. [Department of Environmental Technologies, Faculty of Marine and Environmental Sciences, University of Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Romero Garcia, L.I. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Food Technology, Faculty of Science, University of Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

371

SRC, NIST Introduce Second Phase of Nanoelectronics ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... improved energy efficiency and the ability to combine memory and logic.". NIST will provide $2.6 million to the effort each year for up to five years, ...

2013-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

372

Introducing FRED, Enabling Unique Visualization and Manipulation...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Member 20 May, 2013 - 14:28 FRED Free Energy Data Map OpenEI Tool Visualization The U.S. Department of Energy, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and the Planetary...

373

Introducing baselines for russian named entity recognition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Current research efforts in Named Entity Recognition deal mostly with the English language. Even though the interest in multi-language Information Extraction is growing, there are only few works reporting results for the Russian language. This paper ...

Rinat Gareev, Maksim Tkachenko, Valery Solovyev, Andrey Simanovsky, Vladimir Ivanov

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Introducing Lean Manufacturing Approach in Aluminium Bahrain ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Retrofit of a Combined Breaker Feeder with a Chisel Bath Contact Detection System to Reduce Anode Effect Frequency in a Potroom Simulating Traffic in a...

375

Introducing the tileworld: experimentally evaluating agent architectures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We describe a system called Tileworld, which consists of a simulated robot agent and a simulated environment which is both dynamic and unpredictable. Both the agent and the environment are highly parameterized, enabling one to control certain characteristics ...

Martha E. Pollack; Marc Ringuette

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Introducing International Minerals Innovation Institute of Saskatchewan  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cross Pollination between Industry and Engineering Programs/Students in Manitoba Improving the Health & Performance of Miners Working at Moderate to

377

Introducing PAP: a plasma apprentice program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although current capabilities of symbolic computation and artificial intelligence are not adequate to do all the types of thinking a physicist does in solving physics problems, much of what the human theorist does can be effectively imitated by a computer. This paper describes an early stage of implementation of an apprentice program for aiding plasma theorists in developing plasma physics theory, by performing some of those tasks which the theorist normally must do, but which are now amenable to machine imitation. The apprentice has a ''knowledge base'' containing its understanding of plasma theory, which can be accessed by the human user for pedagogic purposes, as well as by the apprentice itself, and some ability to do the kinds of qualitative or heuristic reasoning necessary to the human theorist in solving problems. These facilities enable the apprentice itself to do plasma calculations, informing the user of the progress of the calculation, and prompting him when a decision is needed which the apprentice is not equipped to handle. Some extensions planned for the future are discussed.

Mynick, H.E.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Introducing Ultrasound to Medical School Curriculum  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

be much less thanks to curriculum such as UCIs. This extraUltrasound to Medical School Curriculum Montessa Tenny MDefforts to bring this curriculum to UCI. What inspired you

Tenny, Montessa

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Genomics Track introduced in TREC 2003  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of evaluation workshops managed by ITL's Information Access Division and designed to foster research on technologies for information retrieval. ...

380

NREL: Education Programs - Senator Introduces Legislation to...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nebraska Wind Applications Center in Lincoln. State Facilitator Dan McGuire and Wind Powering America National Technical Director Ian Baring-Gould testified in favor of the bill....

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "introduced fractional horsepower" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Introducing complete graphs in molecular connectivity studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The mathematical model of the molecular polarizability of fifty-four organic compounds, of the lattice enthalpy of twenty metal halides, and of the partition coefficient of twenty-five organic compounds has been used to test four different complete graph, ... Keywords: Mathematical model, algorithms, chemical graphs, complete graphs, core electrons, molecular connectivity, polarizability

Lionello Pogliani

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Rio Grande pipeline introduces LPG to Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Rio Grande Pipeline, a joint venture between Mid-America Pipeline Co., Amoco Pipeline Co. and Navajo Pipeline Co., has broken new ground in the energy industry as the first LPG pipeline to cross the US-Mexico border. Plans for the project were announced in November 1995 and first deliveries started three months ago on March 21, 1997. The 8-inch, 265-mile pipeline originates near Odessa, TX, where it receives an 85-15 propane-butane mix via a connection to Mid-America Pipeline. From Odessa, product moves west through the Texas desert and crosses the Rio Grande River about 15 miles south of El Paso near Clint, TX and extends 20 miles into Mexico. Capacity of the line is 24,000 bpd and it has been averaging about 22,000 bpd since line-fill. All in all, it sounded like a reasonably feasible, routine project. But perceptions can be deceiving, or at least misleading. In other words, the project can be summarized as follows: one river, two cultures and a world of difference. The official border crossing for pipeline construction took place on Dec. 2, 1996, with a directional drill under the Rio Grande River, but in actuality, the joint venture partners were continually bridging differences in language, laws, customs and norms with Pemex and contracted workers from Mexico.

NONE

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

A new approach for simultaneously retrieving cloud albedo and cloud fraction from surface-based shortwave radiation measurements  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ENVIRONMENTAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LETTERS Environ. Res. Lett. 8 (2013) 044023 (9pp) doi:10.1088/1748-9326/8/4/044023 A new approach for simultaneously retrieving cloud albedo and cloud fraction from surface-based shortwave radiation measurements Yu Xie and Yangang Liu Environmental Sciences Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA E-mail: yxie@bnl.gov Received 27 June 2013 Accepted for publication 8 October 2013 Published 30 October 2013 Online at stacks.iop.org/ERL/8/044023 Abstract Surface-based measurements of shortwave (SW) radiative fluxes contain valuable information on cloud properties, but have not been fully used to infer those properties. Here a new analytical approach is presented that simultaneously infers cloud albedo and cloud fraction from surface-based measurements of total and direct radiative fluxes. An inspection of the

384

Measurement of Partial Branching Fractions of Inclusive Charmless B Meson Decays to K , K0, and pi  

SciTech Connect

The authors present measurements of partial branching fractions of B {yields} K{sup +}X, B {yields} K{sup 0} X, and B {yields} {pi}{sup +}X, where X denotes any accessible final state above the endpoint for B decays to charmed mesons, specifically for momenta of the candidate hadron greater than 2.34 (2.36) GeV for kaons (pions) in the B rest frame. These measurements are sensitive to potential new-phisics particles which could enter the b {yields} s(d) loop transitions. The analysis is performed on a data sample consisting of 383 x 10{sup 6} B{bar B} pairs collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II e{sup +}e{sup -} asymmetric energy collider. The results are in agreement with standard model predictions and exclude large enhancements of the inclusive branching fraction due to sources of new physics.

del Amo Sanchez, P.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Tisserand, V.; /Annecy, LAPP; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; /Barcelona U., ECM; Martinelli, M.; /INFN, Bari /Bari U.; Milanes, D.A.; /INFN, Bari; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; /INFN, Bari /Bari U.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; /Bergen U.; Brown, D.N.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; Osipenkov, I.L.; /UC, Berkeley; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; /Ruhr U., Bochum /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UC, Riverside /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Indian Inst. Tech., Guwahati /Harvard U. /Harvey Mudd Coll. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa State U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Paris U., VI-VII /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Princeton U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /SLAC /South Carolina U. /Southern Methodist U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tel Aviv U. /Tennessee U. /Texas Nuclear Corp., Austin /Texas U., Dallas /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /Valencia U. /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

2011-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

385

Theoretical and experimental analysis of a multiphase screw pump, handling gas-liquid mixtures with very high gas volume fractions  

SciTech Connect

In the investigation of the pumping behaviour of multiphase screw pumps, handling gas-liquid mixtures with very high gas volume fractions, theoretical and experimental analyses were performed. A new theoretical screw pump model was developed, which calculates the time-dependent conditions inside the several chambers of a screw pump as well as the exchange of mass and energy between these chambers. By means of the performed experimental analysis, the screw pump model was verified, especially at very high gas volume fractions from 90% to 99%. The experiments, which were conducted with the reference fluids water and air, can be divided mainly into the determination of the steady state pumping behaviour on the one hand and into the analysis of selected transient operating conditions on the other hand, whereas the visualisation of the leakage flows through the circumferential gaps was rounded off the experimental analysis. (author)

Raebiger, K. [LEISTRITZ Pumpen GmbH, Nuremberg (Germany); Faculty of Advanced Technology, University of Glamorgan, Pontypridd, Wales (United Kingdom); Maksoud, T.M.A.; Ward, J. [Faculty of Advanced Technology, University of Glamorgan, Pontypridd, Wales (United Kingdom); Hausmann, G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Building Services Engineering, University of Applied Sciences, Nuremberg (Germany)

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

386

Edge Mode Combinations in the Entanglement Spectra of Non-Abelian Fractional Quantum Hall States on the Torus  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a detailed analysis of bi-partite entanglement in the non-Abelian Moore-Read fractional quantum Hall state of bosons and fermions on the torus. In particular, we show that the entanglement spectra can be decomposed into intricate combinations of different sectors of the conformal field theory describing the edge physics, and that the edge level counting and tower structure can be microscopically understood by considering the vicinity of the thin-torus limit. We also find that the boundary entropy density of the Moore-Read state is markedly higher than in the Laughlin states investigated so far. Despite the torus geometry being somewhat more involved than in the sphere geometry, our analysis and insights may prove useful when adopting entanglement probes to other systems that are more easily studied with periodic boundary conditions, such as fractional Chern insulators and lattice problems in general.

Zhao Liu; Emil J. Bergholtz; Heng Fan; Andreas M. Laeuchli

2011-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

387

Progress report for the enhancement of Radcalc: Isotope database, gamma absorption fractions, and G(H{sub 2}) values  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Radcalc is a spreadsheet currently used to calculate the generation of hydrogen gas in low-level radioactive waste containers for purposes of transportation and packaging. Radcalc is being enlarged and expanded. It will be offered as a Windows compatible software and will include some of the following enhancements: extended radionuclide library, updated gamma absorption fractions for an increased number of packages, inclusion of a G(H{sub 2}) value data base, updated transportation information, thermal and pressure calculation update, testing and benchmarking. This report discusses the progress made on the new Radcalc program. It presents the new radionuclide library, the results of the gamma absorption fractions for the increased number of packages, and an extensive review of G(H{sub 2}) values.

Green, J.R.

1994-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

388

A finite-element approximation of a quasi-magnetostatic 3D eddy current model by fractional-step A-? scheme  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We propose in this paper a fractional-step A-@j scheme for a quasi-magnetostatic 3D eddy current model by means of finite-element approximations. Bounds for continuous and discrete error in finite time are given, and it is verified that provided the ... Keywords: Eddy current problem, Error estimates, Finite-element approximation, Fractional-step A-? scheme

Changfeng Ma

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

doi:10.1016/j.gca.2005.02.003 Experimental studies of oxygen isotope fractionation in the carbonic acid system at  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

doi:10.1016/j.gca.2005.02.003 Experimental studies of oxygen isotope fractionation in the carbonic Department of Geology and Geophysics, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-3115, USA 3 Department in revised form February 1, 2005) Abstract--In light of recent studies that show oxygen isotope fractionation

Grossman, Ethan L.

390

ISOTOPIC MASS FRACTIONATION OF SOLAR WIND: EVIDENCE FROM FAST AND SLOW SOLAR WIND COLLECTED BY THE GENESIS MISSION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

NASA's Genesis space mission returned samples of solar wind collected over {approx}2.3 years. We present elemental and isotopic compositions of He, Ne, and Ar analyzed in diamond-like carbon targets from the slow and fast solar wind collectors to investigate isotopic fractionation processes during solar wind formation. The solar wind provides information on the isotopic composition for most volatile elements for the solar atmosphere, the bulk Sun and hence, on the solar nebula from which it formed 4.6 Ga ago. Our data reveal a heavy isotope depletion in the slow solar wind compared to the fast wind composition by 63.1 {+-} 2.1 per mille for He, 4.2 {+-} 0.5 per mille amu{sup -1} for Ne and 2.6 {+-} 0.5 per mille amu{sup -1} for Ar. The three Ne isotopes suggest that isotopic fractionation processes between fast and slow solar wind are mass dependent. The He/H ratios of the collected slow and fast solar wind samples are 0.0344 and 0.0406, respectively. The inefficient Coulomb drag model reproduces the measured isotopic fractionation between fast and slow wind. Therefore, we apply this model to infer the photospheric isotopic composition of He, Ne, and Ar from our solar wind data. We also compare the isotopic composition of oxygen and nitrogen measured in the solar wind with values of early solar system condensates, probably representing solar nebula composition. We interpret the differences between these samples as being due to isotopic fractionation during solar wind formation. For both elements, the magnitude and sign of the observed differences are in good agreement with the values predicted by the inefficient Coulomb drag model.

Heber, Veronika S.; Baur, Heinrich; Wieler, Rainer [Institute for Geochemistry and Petrology, ETH Zurich, Clausiusstrasse 25, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Bochsler, Peter [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bern, Sidlerstasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); McKeegan, Kevin D. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, University of California Los Angeles, 595 Charles Young Drive East, Box 951567, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1567 (United States); Neugebauer, Marcia [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721-0092 (United States); Reisenfeld, Daniel B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812 (United States); Wiens, Roger C., E-mail: heber@ess.ucla.edu [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

2012-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

391

Constraining the origin of the rising cosmic ray positron fraction with the boron-to-carbon ratio  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The rapid rise in the cosmic ray positron fraction above 10 GeV, as measured by PAMELA and AMS, suggests the existence of nearby primary sources of high energy positrons, such as pulsars or annihilating/decaying dark matter. In contrast, the spectrum of secondary positrons produced through the collisions of cosmic rays in the interstellar medium is predicted to fall rapidly with energy, and thus is unable to account for the observed rise. It has been proposed, however, that secondary positrons could be produced and then accelerated in nearby supernova remnants, potentially explaining the observed rise, without the need of primary positron sources. Yet, if secondary positrons are accelerated in such shocks, other secondary cosmic ray species (such as boron nuclei, and antiprotons) will also be accelerated, leading to rises in the boron-to-carbon and antiproton-to-proton ratios. The measurements of the boron-to-carbon ratio by the PAMELA and AMS collaborations, however, show no sign of such a rise. With this new data in hand, we revisit the secondary acceleration scenario for the rising positron fraction. Assuming that the same supernova remnants accelerate both light nuclei (protons, helium) and heavier cosmic ray species, we find that no more than ~25% of the observed rise in the positron fraction can result from this mechanism (at the 95% confidence level)

Ilias Cholis; Dan Hooper

2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

392

Scaling dependence on time and distance in nonlinear fractional diffusion equations and possible applications to the water transport in soils  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recently, fractional derivatives have been employed to analyze various systems in engineering, physics, finance and hidrology. For instance, they have been used to investigate anomalous diffusion processes which are present in different physical systems like: amorphous semicondutors, polymers, composite heterogeneous films and porous media. They have also been used to calculate the heat load intensity change in blast furnace walls, to solve problems of control theory \\ and dynamic problems of linear and nonlinear hereditary mechanics of solids. In this work, we investigate the scaling properties related to the nonlinear fractional diffusion equations and indicate the possibilities to the applications of these equations to simulate the water transport in unsaturated soils. Usually, the water transport in soils with anomalous diffusion, the dependence of concentration on time and distance may be expressed in term of a single variable given by $\\lambda _{q}=x/t^{q}.$ In particular, for $q=1/2$ the systems obey Fick's law and Richards' equation for water transport. We show that a generalization of Richards' equation via fractional approach can incorporate the above property.

Kwok Sau Fa; E. K. Lenzi

2004-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

393

Far- and mid-infrared spectroscopy of complex organic matter of astrochemical interest: coal, heavy petroleum fractions, and asphaltenes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The coexistence of a large variety of molecular species (i.e., aromatic, cycloaliphatic and aliphatic) in several astrophysical environments suggests that unidentified IR emission (UIE) occurs from small solid particles containing a mix of aromatic and aliphatic structures (e.g., coal, petroleum, etc.), renewing the astronomical interest on this type of materials. A series of heavy petroleum fractions namely DAE, RAE, BQ-1, and asphaltenes derived from BQ-1 were used together with anthracite coal and bitumen as model compounds in matching the band pattern of the emission features of proto-planetary nebulae (PPNe). All the model materials were examined in the mid-infrared (2.5-16.7 um) and for the first time in the far-infrared (16.7-200 um), and the IR bands were compared with the UIE from PPNe. The best match of the PPNe band pattern is offered by the BQ-1 heavy aromatic oil fraction and by its asphaltenes fraction. Particularly interesting is the ability of BQ-1 to match the band pattern of the aromatic-ali...

Cataldo, F; Manchado, A

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Evaluation of the Sub-Channel Code COBRA-TF for Prediction of BWR Fuel Assembly Void Fraction Distribution  

SciTech Connect

Good quality experimental data is needed to refine the thermal hydraulic models for the prediction of rod bundle void distribution and critical heat flux (CHF) or dry-out. The Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) has provided a valuable database to evaluate the thermal hydraulic codes [1]. Part of this database was selected for the NUPEC BWR Full-size Fine-Mesh Bundle Tests (BFBT) benchmark sponsored by US NRC, METI-Japan, NEA/OECD and Nuclear Engineering Program of the Pennsylvania State University (PSU). Twenty-five organizations from ten countries have confirmed their intention to participate and will provide code predictions to be compared to the measured data for a series of defined exercises within the framework of the BFBT benchmark. This benchmark data includes both the fine-mesh high quality sub-channel void fraction and critical power data. Using a full BWR rod bundle test facility, the void distribution was measured at mesh sizes smaller than the sub-channel by using a state-of-the-art computer tomography (CT) technology [1]. Experiments were performed for different pressures, flow rates, exit qualities, inlet sub-cooling, power distributions, spacer types and assembly designs. There are microscopic and sub-channel averaged void fraction data from the CT scanner at the bundle exit as well as X-ray densitometer void distribution data at different elevation levels in the rod bundle. Each sub-channel's loss coefficient was calculated with using the Rehme method [2,3], and a COBRA-TF sub-channel model was developed for the NUPEC facility. The BWR assembly that was modeled with COBRA-TF includes two water rods at the center. The predicted sub-channel void fraction values from COBRA-TF are compared with the bundle exit void fraction values measured using the CT-scanner void fraction from the BFBT benchmark data. Different plots are used to examine the code prediction of the void distribution at a sub-channel level for the different sub-channels within the bundle. (authors)

Aydogan, Fatih; Hochreiter, Lawrence E.; Ivanov, Kostadin [The Pennsylvania State University, 302 Walker Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Rhee, Gene [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC 20555-0001 (United States); Sartori, Enrico [OECD/NEA, Le Seine St. Germain, 12 boulevard des Iles, 92130 Issy-les-Moulineaux (France); Utsuno, Hideaki [Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (Japan)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Radon (Rn-222) and thoron (Rn-220) emanation fractions from three separate formations of oil field pipe scale  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Over the course of normal oil well operations, pipes used downhole in the oil and petroleum industry tend to accumulate a mineral deposit on their interior, which restricts the flow of oil. This deposit, termed scale, will eventually occlude the interior diameter of the pipe making removal from service and descaling a cost effective option. The pipes are sent to cleaning yards where they remain until descaling can be performed. This storage period can potentially create a health concern not only because of the external radiation exposure but also because of the radon gas emissions, both of which are due to the radioactive minerals contained in the scale. It was believed that the structure of the scale is formed tightly enough to prevent much of the radon from becoming airborne. The goal of this research was to determine the emanation fractions for the rattled scale samples from three formations. A high purity germanium detector was used to measure the activities of the parents and progeny of radon, and electret ion chambers were used to measure the concentration of radon emanated from the scale. The emanation fractions of between 4.9x10-5 and 1.08x10-3 for radon were a factor of approximately 100 smaller than previous research results. For thoron, the fractions were and 5.72x10-8 and 4.92x10-7 for thoron with no previous research to compare. However, information that pertains to the temperature dependence of emanation was included in this research and was not available for previous, similar research. Therefore, differences in the environment (e.g., temperature, humidity, etc.) in which the previous experiments were conducted, as well as differences in the scale formation types used, could account for the discrepancy. In addition, measuring the emanation fractions of the rattled scale was a method of determining whether surface to volume ratio dependence existed. After acquiring the emanation fractions, insufficient evidence of any surface to volume ratio dependence could be found.

Fruchtnicht, Erich Harold

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

H. R. 3058: This Act may be cited as the Tire Recycling and Recovery Act of 1991, introduced in the US House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, July 25, 1991  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This bill was introduced into the US House of Representatives on July 25, 1991 to amend the Solid Waste Disposal Act in order to provide for a scrap tire management and recovery program. The objectives of this legislation are to provide temporary federal incentives to eliminate scrap tire piles through environmentally sound methods, including recycling, recovery and reuse. All future scrap tires are to be managed by the states through programs that will manage and minimize the buildup of scrap tire piles in the future.

Not Available

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Data:C53d57d0-ffe5-4a57-903e-ec5fcd212245 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

3d57d0-ffe5-4a57-903e-ec5fcd212245 3d57d0-ffe5-4a57-903e-ec5fcd212245 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Powder River Energy Corporation Effective date: 2011/01/10 End date if known: Rate name: Irrigation (I) Sector: Commercial Description: Applicability: Applicable to seasonal irrigation customers. Horsepower Charge: $15.50 per HP per year The irrigation season shall be April through October of each year. For service outside the irrigation season, there will be a charge of $2.50 per connected horsepower per month, or fraction thereof, plus an energy charge of $0.04790 per kWh used.

398

The Battery-Discharge-Model: A Class of Stochastic Finite Automata to Simulate Multidimensional Continued Fraction Expansion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We define an infinite stochastic state machine, the Battery-Discharge-Model (BDM), which simulates the behaviour of linear and jump complexity of the continued fraction expansion of multidimensional formal power series, a relevant security measure in the cryptanalysis of stream ciphers. We also obtain finite approximations to the infinite BDM, where polynomially many states suffice to approximate with an exponentially small error the probabilities and averages for linear and jump complexity of M-multisequences of length n over the finite field F_q, for any M, n, q.

Vielhaber, Michael

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Use of Lasers to Study the Impact of Fractionation and Condensation on the Toxicity of Nuclear Weapon Fallout  

SciTech Connect

An experimental concept has been developed to collect data to aid in the refinement of simulation programs designed to predict the fallout effects arising from surface and shallowly buried nuclear weapon detonations. These experiments, called the Condensation Debris Experiments (CDE), are intended to study the condensation/fractionation of material that is liberated following an initial deposition of laser energy onto a small, characterized target. The CDE effort also encompasses target development and material studies as well as supporting computational efforts studying radiation hydrodynamics, computational fluid dynamics, and relevant neutron activation processes (not discussed here).

Vidnovic III, T; Bradley, K S; Debonnel, C S; Dipeso, G; Fournier, K; Karpenko, V P; Tobin, M

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

A Measurement of the B ---> Eta/C K Branching Fraction Using the BaBar Detector  

SciTech Connect

The branching fraction is measured for the decay channels B{sup 0} {yields} {eta}{sub c}K{sub S}{sup 0} and B{sup +} {yields} {eta}{sub c}K{sup +} where {eta}{sub c} {yields} K{bar K}{pi}, using the BABAR detector. The {eta}{sub c} {yields} K{sub S}{sup 0}K{sup +}{pi}{sup -} and {eta}{sub c} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -}{pi}{sup 0} decay channels are used, including non-resonant decays and possibly those through intermediate resonances.

Jackson, Frank; /Manchester U.

2006-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "introduced fractional horsepower" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

THE TWO-PHASE FORMATION HISTORY OF SPIRAL GALAXIES TRACED BY THE COSMIC EVOLUTION OF THE BAR FRACTION  

SciTech Connect

We study the evolution of galactic bars and the link with disk and spheroid formation in a sample of zoom-in cosmological simulations. Our simulation sample focuses on galaxies with present-day stellar masses in the 10{sup 10}-10{sup 11} M{sub Sun} range, in field and loose group environments, with a broad variety of mass growth histories. In our models, bars are almost absent from the progenitors of present-day spirals at z > 1.5, and they remain rare and generally too weak to be observable down to z Almost-Equal-To 1. After this characteristic epoch, the fractions of observable and strong bars rise rapidly, bars being present in 80% of spiral galaxies and easily observable in two thirds of these at z {<=} 0.5. This is quantitatively consistent with the redshift evolution of the observed bar fraction, although the latter is presently known up to z Almost-Equal-To 0.8 because of band-shifting and resolution effects. Our models hence predict that the decrease in the bar fraction with increasing redshift should continue with a fraction of observable bars not larger than 10%-15% in disk galaxies at z > 1. Our models also predict later bar formation in lower-mass galaxies, in agreement with existing data. We find that the characteristic epoch of bar formation, namely redshift z Almost-Equal-To 0.8-1 in the studied mass range, corresponds to the epoch at which today's spirals acquire their disk-dominated morphology. At higher redshift, disks tend to be rapidly destroyed by mergers and gravitational instabilities and rarely develop significant bars. We hence suggest that the bar formation epoch corresponds to the transition between an early 'violent' phase of spiral galaxy formation at z {>=} 1 and a late 'secular' phase at z {<=} 0.8. In the secular phase, the presence of bars substantially contributes to the growth of the (pseudo-)bulge, but the bulge mass budget remains statistically dominated by the contribution of mergers, interactions, and disk instabilities at high redshift. Early bars at z > 1 are often short-lived, while most of the bars formed at z {<=} 1 persist down to z = 0, late cosmological gas infall being necessary to maintain some of them.

Kraljic, Katarina; Bournaud, Frederic [Laboratoire AIM Paris-Saclay, CEA/IRFU/SAp, CNRS/INSU, Universite Paris Diderot, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Martig, Marie [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia)

2012-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

402

The effects of applied water at various fractions of measured evapotranspiration on reproductive growth and water productivity of Thompson Seedless grapevines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PAPER The eVects of applied water at various fractions ofon reproductive growth and water productivity of ThompsonThe reproductive growth and water productivity (WP b ) of

Williams, Larry E.; Grimes, D. W.; Phene, C. J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Palm Oil: Production, Processing, Uses, and CharacterizationChapter 17 Enzymatic and Chemical Modification of Palm Oil, Palm Kernel Oil, and Its Fractions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Palm Oil: Production, Processing, Uses, and Characterization Chapter 17 Enzymatic and Chemical Modification of Palm Oil, Palm Kernel Oil, and Its Fractions Food Science Health Nutrition Biochemistry Processing eChapters Food Science & Te

404

Dark Matter Halos and Evolution of Bars in Disk Galaxies: Varying Gas Fraction and Gas Spatial Resolution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We conduct numerical experiments by evolving gaseous/stellar disks embedded in live dark matter halos aiming at quantifying the effect of gas spatial resolution and gas content on the bar evolution. Model sequences have been constructed using different resolution, and gas fraction has been varied along each sequence within fgas=0%-50%, keeping the disk and halo properties unchanged. We find that the spatial resolution becomes important with an increase in `fgas'. For the higher resolution model sequences, we observe a bimodal behavior in the bar evolution with respect to the gas fraction, especially during the secular phase of this evolution. The switch from the gas-poor to gas-rich behavior is abrupt and depends on the resolution used. The diverging evolution has been observed in nearly all basic parameters characterizing bars, such as the bar strength, central mass concentration, vertical buckling amplitude, size, etc. We find that the presence of the gas component severely limits the bar growth and affects...

Villa-Vargas, Jorge; Heller, Clayton

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Contol of Surface Mounted Permanent Magnet Motors with Special Application to Motors with Fractional-Slot Concentrated Windings  

SciTech Connect

A 30-pole, 6-kW prototype of a fractional-slot permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) design has been developed to operate at a maximum speed of 6000 rpm [1,2]. This machine has significantly more inductance than regular PMSMs with distributed windings. The prototype was delivered in April 2006 to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for testing and development of a suitable controller. To prepare for this test/control development effort, ORNL used PMSM models developed over a number of previous studies to preview the control issues that arise when a dynamic controller drives a high inductance PMSM machine during steady state performance evaluations. The detailed steady state model developed includes all motor and inverter loss mechanisms and was useful for assessing the performance of the dynamic controller before it was put into operation. This report documents the results of tests demonstrating the effectiveness of ORNL's simple low-cost control scheme during characterization of the fractional-slot concentrated windings (FSCW) PMSM motor. The control scheme is simple because only the supply voltage magnitude and the phase angle between the back-electromotive force (emf) and the supply voltage is controlled. It is low-cost because it requires no current or phase voltage sensors.

Patil, N.; Lawler, J.S.; McKeever, J.

2007-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

406

Emissions from small-scale energy production using co-combustion of biofuel and the dry fraction of household waste  

SciTech Connect

In sparsely populated rural areas, recycling of household waste might not always be the most environmentally advantageous solution due to the total amount of transport involved. In this study, an alternative approach to recycling has been tested using efficient small-scale biofuel boilers for co-combustion of biofuel and high-energy waste. The dry combustible fraction of source-sorted household waste was mixed with the energy crop reed canary-grass (Phalaris Arundinacea L.), and combusted in both a 5-kW pilot scale reactor and a biofuel boiler with 140-180 kW output capacity, in the form of pellets and briquettes, respectively. The chlorine content of the waste fraction was 0.2%, most of which originated from plastics. The HCl emissions exceeded levels stipulated in new EU-directives, but levels of equal magnitude were also generated from combustion of the pure biofuel. Addition of waste to the biofuel did not give any apparent increase in emissions of organic compounds. Dioxin levels were close to stipulated limits. With further refinement of combustion equipment, small-scale co-combustion systems have the potential to comply with emission regulations.

Hedman, Bjoern [Chemistry Department, Environmental Chemistry, Umeaa University, SE-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden)]. E-mail: bjorn.hedman@chem.umu.se; Burvall, Jan [Unit for Biomass Technology and Chemistry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 4097, SE-904 03 Umeaa (Sweden); Nilsson, Calle [NBC Defence, NBC Analysis, The Swedish Defence Research Agency, SE-901 82 Umeaa (Sweden); Marklund, Stellan [Chemistry Department, Environmental Chemistry, Umeaa University, SE-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden)

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Measurements of Branching Fractions and CP Asymmetries and Studies of Angular Distributions for B to phi phi K Decays  

SciTech Connect

We present branching fraction and CP asymmetry measurements as well as angular studies of B {yields} {phi}{phi}K decays using 464 x 10{sup 6} B{bar B} events collected by the BABAR experiment. The branching fractions are measured in the {phi}{phi} invariant mass range below the {eta}{sub c} resonance (m{sub {phi}{phi}} < 2.85 GeV). We find {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} {phi}{phi}K{sup +}) = (5.6 {+-} 0.5 {+-} 0.3) x 10{sup -6} and {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {phi}{phi}K{sup 0}) = (4.5 {+-} 0.8 {+-} 0.3) x 10{sup -6}, where the first uncertaintiy is statistical and the second systematic. The measured direct CP asymmetries for the B{sup {+-}} decays are A{sub CP} = -0.10 {+-} 0.08 {+-} 0.02 below the {eta}{sub c} threshold (m{sub {phi}{phi}} < 2.85 GeV) and A{sub CP} = 0.09 {+-} 0.10 {+-} 0.02 in the {eta}{sub c} resonance region (m{sub {phi}{phi}} in [2.94,3.02] GeV). Angular distributions are consistent with J{sub P} = 0{sup -} in the {eta}{sub c} resonance region and favor J{sup P} = 0{sup +} below the {eta}{sub c} resonance.

Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Tisserand, V.; /Annecy, LAPP; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; /Barcelona U., ECM; Martinelli, M.; /INFN, Bari /Bari U.; Milanes, D.A.; /INFN, Bari; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; /INFN, Bari /Bari U.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; /Bergen U.; Brown, D.N.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; /UC, Berkeley; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; /Ruhr U., Bochum; Asgeirsson, D.J.; Hearty, C.; /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UC, Riverside /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Indian Inst. Tech., Guwahati /Harvard U. /Harvey Mudd Coll. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa State U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Paris U., VI-VII /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Princeton U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /SLAC /South Carolina U. /Southern Methodist U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tel Aviv U. /Tennessee U. /Texas Nuclear Corp., Austin /Texas U., Dallas /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /Valencia U. /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

408

Contol of Surface Mounted Permanent Magnet Motors with Special Application to Motors with Fractional-Slot Concentrated Windings  

SciTech Connect

A 30-pole, 6-kW prototype of a fractional-slot permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) design has been developed to operate at a maximum speed of 6000 rpm [1,2]. This machine has significantly more inductance than regular PMSMs with distributed windings. The prototype was delivered in April 2006 to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for testing and development of a suitable controller. To prepare for this test/control development effort, ORNL used PMSM models developed over a number of previous studies to preview the control issues that arise when a dynamic controller drives a high inductance PMSM machine during steady state performance evaluations. The detailed steady state model developed includes all motor and inverter loss mechanisms and was useful for assessing the performance of the dynamic controller before it was put into operation. This report documents the results of tests demonstrating the effectiveness of ORNL's simple low-cost control scheme during characterization of the fractional-slot concentrated windings (FSCW) PMSM motor. The control scheme is simple because only the supply voltage magnitude and the phase angle between the back-electromotive force (emf) and the supply voltage is controlled. It is low-cost because it requires no current or phase voltage sensors.

Patil, N.; Lawler, J.S.; McKeever, J.

2007-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

409

A STUDY OF CHEMICAL CHANGES PRODUCED BY HEAT AND BY IRRADIATION OF MEAT AND MEAT FRACTIONS. Report No. 2 (Progress) for Period December 24, 1958-March 23, 1959  

SciTech Connect

Irradiated fresh and irradiated cooked ground round of beef were separated into various fractions. Methanol extraction of the residue remaining after fractionation of irradiated fresh heef gave a substance which contained the characteristic wet dog hair irradiation odor. Results of various classification tests are given which indicate that this material contains steroids and lecithin. Efforts are being made to identify the entitv responsible for this wet dog hair odor. (auth)

Landmann, W.A.

1960-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

410

Anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste combining two pretreatment modalities, high temperature microwave and hydrogen peroxide  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microwave and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} pretreatment were studied to enhance anaerobic digestion of organic waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The whole waste pretreated at 115 Degree-Sign C or 145 Degree-Sign C had the highest biogas production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biogas production of the whole waste decreased at 175 Degree-Sign C due to formation of refractory compounds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pretreatment to 145 Degree-Sign C and 175 Degree-Sign C were the best when considering only the free liquid fraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 2}O{sub 2} pretreatment had a lag phase and the biogas production was not higher than MW pretreated samples. - Abstract: In order to enhance anaerobic digestion (AD) of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), pretreatment combining two modalities, microwave (MW) heating in presence or absence of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) were investigated. The main pretreatment variables affecting the characteristics of the OFMSW were temperature (T) via MW irradiation and supplemental water additions of 20% and 30% (SWA20 and SW30). Subsequently, the focus of this study was to evaluate mesophilic batch AD performance in terms of biogas production, as well as changes in the characteristics of the OFMSW post digestion. A high MW induced temperature range (115-175 Degree-Sign C) was applied, using sealed vessels and a bench scale MW unit equipped with temperature and pressure controls. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests were conducted on the whole OFMSW as well as the liquid fractions. The whole OFMSW pretreated at 115 Degree-Sign C and 145 Degree-Sign C showed 4-7% improvement in biogas production over untreated OFMSW (control). When pretreated at 175 Degree-Sign C, biogas production decreased due to formation of refractory compounds, inhibiting the digestion. For the liquid fraction of OFMSW, the effect of pretreatment on the cumulative biogas production (CBP) was more pronounced for SWA20 at 145 Degree-Sign C, with a 26% increase in biogas production after 8 days of digestion, compared to the control. When considering the increased substrate availability in the liquid fraction after MW pretreatment, a 78% improvement in biogas production vs. the control was achieved. Combining MW and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} modalities did not have a positive impact on OFMSW stabilization and enhanced biogas production. In general, all samples pretreated with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} displayed a long lag phase and the CBP was usually lower than MW irradiated only samples. First order rate constant was calculated.

Shahriari, Haleh, E-mail: haleh.shahriari@gmail.com [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Ottawa, 161 Louis Pasteur St., P.O. Box 450, Stn. A, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Warith, Mostafa [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Ottawa, 161 Louis Pasteur St., P.O. Box 450, Stn. A, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Hamoda, Mohamed [Department of Environmental Technology and Management, Kuwait University, P.O. Box 5969, Safat 13060 (Kuwait); Kennedy, Kevin J. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Ottawa, 161 Louis Pasteur St., P.O. Box 450, Stn. A, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada)

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

411

Measurement of branching fractions of B decays to K1(1270)pi and K1(1400)pi and determination of the CKM angle alpha from B0 --> a1(1260) - pi-  

SciTech Connect

In the Standard Model, CP violation in weak interactions involving quarks is parameterized by an irreducible complex phase in the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) quark-mixing-matrix. The precise determination of the CKM elements is a necessary ingredient for a stringent test of the Standard Model predictions, and is a crucial input for reducing the theoretical error in many New Physics searches with flavor, e.g., in the kaon sector. The unitarity of the CKM matrix is typically expressed as a triangle relationship among its parameters, where the area of the so-called Unitarity Triangle visually depicts the amount of asymmetry between the decays of B particles and their antimatter counterparts. In the past few years, the BABAR and Belle experiments have been able to measure all three angles of the triangle from CP asymmetry measurements. The first asymmetry measurements in B particle decays, about ten years ago, allowed to determine {beta}, which is now known to better than 5% precision. The angles {alpha} and {gamma}, measured in much rarer processes, required several years of data taking before analyses could yield reliable answers. A remarkable feature is that the direct measurement of the angles of the Unitarity Triangle generates an area that is consistent with the area predicted by measurement of the sides. In this thesis we have presented the branching fraction measurements of charged and neutral B meson decays to K{sub 1}(1270){pi} and K{sub 1}(1400){pi}, obtained from a data sample of 454 million {Upsilon}(4S) {yields} B{bar B} events. This analysis is particularly challenging from the experimental side since the branching fractions involved are very low, at the level of 10{sup -6} - 10{sup -7}, and the signal is characterized by the simultaneous presence of two overlapping resonances, which exhibit sizeable interference effects. The combined K{sub 1}(1270){pi} and K{sub 1}(1400){pi} signal is therefore modeled with a K-matrix formalism, which accounts for the effects of interference between the K{sub 1}(1270) and K{sub 1}(1400) mesons by introducing two effective parameters. The model is derived from the analysis, performed by the ACCMOR Collaboration, of the diffractive production of strange mesons.

Stracka, Simone; /Milan U. /SLAC

2011-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

412

Introducing New Scientists 2012 Introducing New Scientists 2012 is published by  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

#12;2 Prof. Oded Aharonson uses measurements from spacecraft dispatched throughout the solar system by the Phoenix Lander. Prof. Aharonson used laser measurements from spacecraft orbiting Mars to map the geologic..............................................................................................................20 Dr.Shmuel Rubinstein,Department of Physics of Complex Systems The dynamics of interfaces

Maoz, Shahar

413

Branching fractions for {psi}(2S){r_arrow}{gamma}{eta}{sup {prime}} and {gamma}{eta}  

SciTech Connect

We report first measurements of the branching fractions B({psi}{sub 2S}{r_arrow}{gamma}{eta}{sup {prime}})=(1.54{plus_minus}0.31{plus_minus}0.20){times}10{sup {minus}4} and B({psi}{sub 2S}{r_arrow}{gamma}{eta})=(0.53{plus_minus}0.31{plus_minus}0.08){times}10{sup {minus}4}. The {psi}(2S){r_arrow}{gamma}{eta}{sup {prime}} result is consistent with expectations of a model that considers the possibility of {eta}{sup {prime}}-{eta}{sub c}(2S) mixing. The ratio of the {psi}(2S){r_arrow}{gamma}{eta}{sup {prime}} and {psi}(2S){r_arrow}{gamma}{eta} rates is used to determine the pseudoscalar octet-singlet mixing angle. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

Bai, J.Z.; Bian, J.G.; Chai, Z.W.; Chen, G.P.; Chen, J.C.; Chen, Y.; Chen, Y.B.; Chen, Y.Q.; Cheng, B.S.; Cui, X.Z.; Ding, H.L.; Ding, L.Y.; Dong, L.Y.; Du, Z.Z.; Feng, S.; Gao, C.S.; Gao, M.L.; Gao, S.Q.; Gu, J.H.; Gu, S.D.; Gu, W.X.; Gu, Y.F.; Guo, Y.N.; Han, S.W.; Han, Y.; He, J.; He, J.T.; Hu, G.Y.; Hu, H.M.; Hu, J.L.; Hu, Q.H.; Hu, T.; Hu, X.Q.; Huang, J.D.; Huang, Y.Z.; Jiang, C.H.; Jin, Y.; Ke, Z.J.; Lai, Y.F.; Lang, P.F.; Li, C.G.; Li, D.; Li, H.B.; Li, J.; Li, P.Q.; Li, R.B.; Li, W.; Li, W.D.; Li, W.G.; Li, X.H.; Li, X.N.; Liu, H.M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J.H.; Liu, R.G.; Liu, Y.; Lu, F.; Lu, J.G.; Lu, J.Y.; Lu, L.C.; Luo, C.H.; Ma, A.M.; Ma, E.C.; Ma, J.M.; Mao, H.S.; Mao, Z.P.; Meng, X.C.; Nie, J.; Qi, N.D.; Qi, X.R.; Qiu, J.F.; Qu, Y.H.; Que, Y.K.; Rong, G.; Shao, Y.Y.; Shen, B.W.; Shen, D.L.; Shen, H.; Shen, X.Y.; Sheng, H.Y.; Shi, H.Z.; Song, X.F.; Sun, F.; Sun, H.S.; Tang, S.Q.; Tong, G.L.; Wang, F.; Wang, L.S.; Wang, L.Z.; Wang, M.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P.L.; Wang, S.M.; Wang, T.J.; Wang, Y.Y.; Wei, C.L.; Wu, Y.G.; Xi, D.M.; Xia, X.M.; Xie, P.P.; Xie, Y.; Xie, Y.H.; Xiong, W.J.; Xu, C.C.; Xu, G.F.; Xue, S.T.; Yan, J.; Yan, W.G.; Yang, C.M.; Yang, C.Y.; Yang, J.; Yang, X.F.; Ye, M.H.; Yi, K.; Yu, C.S.; Yu, C.X.; Yu, Z.Q.; Yu, Z.T.; Yuan, C.Z.; Yuan, Y.; Zhang, B.Y.; Zhang, C.C.; Zhang, D.H.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, H.L.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J.L.; Zhang, J.W.; Zhang, L.S.; Zhang, Q.J.; Zhang, S.Q.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y.Y.; Zhao, D.X.; Zhao, H.W.; Zhao, J.W.; Zhao, M.; Zhao, W.R.; Zhao, Z.G.; Zheng, J.P.; Zheng, L.S.; Zheng, Z.P.; Zhou, G.P.; Zhou, H.S.; Zhou, L.; Zhu, Q.M.; Zhu, Y.C.; Zhu, Y.S.; Zhuang, B.A. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing 100039, Peoples Republic of (China)] [Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing 100039, Peoples Republic of (China); Hitlin, D.G.; Kelsey, M.H.; Oyang, J.; Panetta, J.; Porter, F.; Weaver, M. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)] [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Chen, J.; Malchow, R.; Toki, W.; Yang, W. [Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 (United States)] [Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 (United States)

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Measurement of the B -> Omega l Nu and B -> Eta l Nu Branching Fractions Using Neutrino Reconstruction  

SciTech Connect

The authors present a study of the charmless semileptonic B-meson decays B{sup +} {yields} {omega}{ell}{sup +}{nu} and B{sup +} {yields} {eta}{ell}{sup +}{nu}. The analysis is based on 383 million B{bar B} pairs recorded at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance with the BABAR detector. The {omega} mesons are reconstructed in the channel {omega} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0} and the {eta} mesons in the channels {eta} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0} and {eta} {yields} {gamma}{gamma}. They measure the branching fractions {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} {omega}{ell}{sup +}{nu}) = (1.14 {+-} 0.16{sub stat} {+-} 0.08{sub syst}) x 10{sup -4} and {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} {eta}{ell}{sup +}{nu}) = (0.31 {+-} 0.06{sub stat} {+-} 0.08{sub syst}) x 10{sup -4}.

Aubert, Bernard; Bona, M.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, Vincent; /Annecy, LAPP; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; /Barcelona U., ECM; Lopez, L.; Palano, Antimo; Pappagallo, M.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Eigen, G.; Stugu, Bjarne; Sun, L.; /Bergen U.; Abrams, G.S.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D.N.; Cahn, Robert N.; Jacobsen, R.G.; /LBL, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /Bristol U. /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Manchester U., Comp. Sci. Dept. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT /McGill U. /Consorzio Milano Ricerche /INFN, Milan /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /Napoli Seconda U. /INFN, Naples /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /INFN, Pisa /Princeton U. /Banca di Roma /Frascati /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /South Carolina U. /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /Turin U. /INFN, Turin /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Valencia U., IFIC /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

2008-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

415

Effect of Biodiesel Blending on the Speciation of Soluble Organic Fraction from a Light Duty Diesel Engine  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel was volumetrically blended with 2007 certification ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel and run in a 1.7L direct-injection common rail diesel engine at one speed-load point (1500rpm, 2.6bar BMEP). Engine fueling rate and injection timing were adjusted to maintain a constant load, while particulate samples were collected in a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and with a dilution tunnel sampling train. The samples collected at these two locations were found to contain different levels of soluble organic fraction (SOF) and the different hydrocarbon species in the SOF. This observation indicates that traditional SOF measurements, in light of the specific sampling procedure used, may not be appropriate to DPF applications.

Strzelec, Andrea [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Foster, Prof. Dave [University of Wisconsin; Rutland, Prof. Christopher J. [University of Wisconsin

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Biomass to hydrogen via fast pyrolysis and catalytic steam reforming of the pyrolysis oil or its fractions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass and reforming of the pyroligneous oils are being studied as a strategy for producing hydrogen. A process of this nature has the potential to be cost competitive with conventional means of producing hydrogen. The authors propose a regionalized system of hydrogen production, where small- and medium-sized pyrolysis units (catalytic reforming of model compounds to hydrogen using Ni-based catalysts have achieved essentially complete conversion to H{sub 2}. Existing data on the catalytic reforming of oxygenates have been studied to guide catalyst selection. A process diagram for the pyrolysis and reforming operations is discussed, as are initial production cost estimates. A window of opportunity clearly exists if the bio-oil is first refined to yield valuable oxygenates so that only a residual fraction is used for hydrogen production.

Wang, D.; Czernik, S.; Montane, D.; Mann, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Chornet, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)]|[Univ. de Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada)

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Improvements in dose calculation accuracy for small off-axis targets in high dose per fraction tomotherapy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: A recent field safety notice from TomoTherapy detailed the underdosing of small, off-axis targets when receiving high doses per fraction. This is due to angular undersampling in the dose calculation gantry angles. This study evaluates a correction method to reduce the underdosing, to be implemented in the current version (v4.1) of the TomoTherapy treatment planning software. Methods: The correction method, termed 'Super Sampling' involved the tripling of the number of gantry angles from which the dose is calculated during optimization and dose calculation. Radiochromic film was used to measure the dose to small targets at various off-axis distances receiving a minimum of 21 Gy in one fraction. Measurements were also performed for single small targets at the center of the Lucy phantom, using radiochromic film and the dose magnifying glass (DMG). Results: Without super sampling, the peak dose deficit increased from 0% to 18% for a 10 mm target and 0% to 30% for a 5 mm target as off-axis target distances increased from 0 to 16.5 cm. When super sampling was turned on, the dose deficit trend was removed and all peak doses were within 5% of the planned dose. For measurements in the Lucy phantom at 9.7 cm off-axis, the positional and dose magnitude accuracy using super sampling was verified using radiochromic film and the DMG. Conclusions: A correction method implemented in the TomoTherapy treatment planning system which triples the angular sampling of the gantry angles used during optimization and dose calculation removes the underdosing for targets as small as 5 mm diameter, up to 16.5 cm off-axis receiving up to 21 Gy.

Hardcastle, Nicholas; Bayliss, Adam; Wong, Jeannie Hsiu Ding; Rosenfeld, Anatoly B.; Tome, Wolfgang A. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI, 53792 (United States); Department of Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, VIC 3002 (Australia) and Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI 53792 (United States); Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia) and Department of Biomedical Imaging, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 (United States); Einstein Institute of Oncophysics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York 10461 (United States) and Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

418

Elimination of phosphate and zirconium in the high-activity fraction resulting from TRUEX partitioning of ICPP zirconium calcines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laboratory testing was undertaken with the aim of developing a TRUEX flowsheet that would efficiently remove actinides from solutions of dissolved zirconium calcine and minimize the glass volume produced from the ensuing high-activity fraction. A TRUEX flowsheet is recommended for testing in the 2-cm centrifugal contactor pilot-plant based on the results from this testing. These laboratory tests show that zirconium recovery in the high activity fraction is minimized by scrubbing with an optimized NHF concentration of 0.2 M. This NH4F concentration in the scrub allowed the HEDPA strip concentration to be reduced from 0.04 M to 0.004 M because HEDPA is not consumed by zirconium. Complete TRU stripping was also achieved in these laboratory tests with 0.004 M HEDPA. Data from the small-scale laboratory batch contact tests were used in the Generic TRUEX Model (GTM) to evaluate the proposed flowsheet under counter-current conditions. GTM results indicate the raffinate will meet the Class A non-TRU limit of < 10 nCi/g in six extraction stages (O/A = 1), and quantitative actinide recovery will be achieved with the 0.004 M HEDPA in six strip stages (O/A = 1). Only 6.6 % of the initial zirconium concentration is anticipated to be recovered with the actinides, indicating the four scrub stages (O/A = 3) efficiently removes zirconium from the TRUEX solvent. In addition to recommending an improved TRUEX flowsheet for testing in the 2-cm centrifugal contactor pilot-plant, this work has shown that small reductions in zirconium extraction drastically improves flowsheet performance. These small changes in zirconium extraction can be accomplished by modifying the calcine dissolution parameters. Therefore, further calcine dissolution testing followed by TRUEX testing with the resulting feed solutions is also recommended.

Brewer, K.N.; Tillotson, R.D.; Tullock, P.A. [and others

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Mapping the Subcellular Proteome of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 using Sarkosyl-based fractionation and LC-MS/MS protein identification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple and effective subcellular proteomic method for fractionation and analysis of gram-negative bacterial cytoplasm, periplasm, inner, and outer membranes was applied to Shewanella oneidensis to gain insight into its subcellular architecture. A combination of differential centrifugation, Sarkosyl solubilization, and osmotic lysis was used to prepare subcellular fractions. Global differences in protein fractions were observed by SDS PAGE and heme staining, and tryptic peptides were analyzed using high-resolution LC-MS/MS. Compared to crude cell lysates, the fractionation method achieved a significant enrichment (average ~2-fold) in proteins predicted to be localized to each subcellular fraction. Compared to other detergent, organic solvent, and density-based methods previously reported, Sarkosyl most effectively facilitated separation of the inner and outer membranes and was amenable to mass spectrometry, making this procedure ideal for probing the subcellular proteome of gram-negative bacteria via LC-MS/MS. With 40% of the observable proteome represented, this study has provided extensive information on both subcellular architecture and relative abundance of proteins in S. oneidensis and provides a foundation for future work on subcellular organization and protein-membrane interactions in other gram-negative bacteria.

Brown, Roslyn N.; Romine, Margaret F.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Smith, Richard D.; Lipton, Mary S.

2010-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

420

Systems study of the feasibility of high-level nuclear waste fractionation for thermal stress control in a geologic repository: appendices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study assesses the benefits and costs of fractionating the cesium and strontium (Cs/Sr) components in commercial high-level waste (HLW) to a separate waste stream for the purpose of reducing geologic-repository thermal stresses in the region of the HLW. The major conclusion is that the Cs/Sr fractionation concept offers the prospect of a substantial total system cost advantage for HLW disposal if reduced HLW package temperatures in a basalt repository are desired. However there is no cost advantage if currently designated maximum design temperatures are acceptable. Aging the HLW for 50 to 100 years can accomplish similar results at equivalent or lower costs. Volume II contains appendices for: (1) thermal analysis supplement; (2) fractionation process experimental results supplement; (3) cost analysis supplement; and (4) radiological risk analysis supplement.

McKee, R.W.; Elder, H.K.; McCallum, R.F.; Silviera, D.J.; Swanson, J.L.; Wiles, L.E.

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

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421

ISOTOPE FRACTIONATION PROCESS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new method is described for isotopic enrichment of uranium. It has been found that when an aqueous acidic solution of ionic tetravalent uraniunn is contacted with chelate complexed tetravalent uranium, the U/sup 238/ preferentially concentrates in the complexed phase while U/sup 235/ concentrates in the ionic phase. The effect is enhanced when the chelate compound is water insoluble and is dissolved in a water-immiscible organic solvent. Cupferron is one of a number of sultable complexing agents, and chloroform is a suitable organic solvent.

Clewett, G.H.; Lee, DeW.A.

1958-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

422

ARM - Measurement - Cloud fraction  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Instruments ETA : Eta Model Runs ECMWFDIAG : European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts Diagnostic Analyses ECMWF : European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts Model...

423

Measurement of CP Asymmetries and Branching Fractions in Charmless Two-Body B-Meson Decays to Pions and Kaons  

SciTech Connect

We present improved measurements of CP-violation parameters in the decays B{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, B{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, and B{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}, and of the branching fractions for B{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} and B{sup 0} {yields} K{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}. The results are obtained with the full data set collected at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance by the BABAR experiment at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B factory at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, corresponding to 467 {+-} 5 million B{bar B} pairs. We find the CP-violation parameter values and branching fractions S{sub {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}} = -0.68 {+-} 0.10 {+-} 0.03, C{sub {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}} = -0.25 {+-} 0.08 {+-} 0.02, {Alpha}{sub K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}} = -0.107 {+-} 0.016{sub -0.004}{sup +0.006}, C{sub {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}} = -0.43 {+-} 0.26 {+-} 0.05, {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}) = (1.83 {+-} 0.21 {+-} 0.13) x 10{sup -6}, {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} K0{pi}{sup 0}) = (10.1 {+-} 0.6 {+-} 0.4) x 10{sup -6}, where in each case, the first uncertainties are statistical and the second are systematic. We observe CP violation with a significance of 6.7 standard deviations for B{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} and 6.1 standard deviations for B{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, including systematic uncertainties. Constraints on the Unitarity Triangle angle {alpha} are determined from the isospin relations among the B {yields} {pi}{pi} rates and asymmetries. Considering only the solution preferred by the Standard Model, we find {alpha} to be in the range [71{sup o}, 109{sup o}] at the 68% confidence level.

Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; /Annecy, LAPP; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; /Barcelona U., ECM; Palano, A.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; /Bergen U.; Brown, D.N.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; /Ruhr U., Bochum; Asgeirsson, D.J.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T.S.; McKenna, J.A.; So, R.Y.; /British Columbia U.; Khan, A.; /Brunel U.; Blinov, V.E.; /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UC, Riverside /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Indian Inst. Tech., Guwahati /Harvard U. /Harvey Mudd Coll. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa State U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Manchester U., Comp. Sci. Dept. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT /McGill U. /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Paris U., VI-VII /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /INFN, Pisa /Princeton U. /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /SLAC /South Carolina U. /Southern Methodist U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tel Aviv U. /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /Turin U. /INFN, Turin /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Valencia U., IFIC /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

2012-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

424

Multiphase Reactive Transport modeling of Stable Isotope Fractionation of Infiltrating Unsaturated Zone Pore Water and Vapor Using TOUGHREACT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Numerical simulations of transport and isotope fractionation provide a method to quantitatively interpret vadose zone pore water stable isotope depth profiles based on soil properties, climatic conditions, and infiltration. We incorporate the temperature-dependent equilibration of stable isotopic species between water and water vapor, and their differing diffusive transport properties into the thermodynamic database of the reactive transport code TOUGHREACT. These simulations are used to illustrate the evolution of stable isotope profiles in semiarid regions where recharge during wet seasons disturbs the drying profile traditionally associated with vadose zone pore waters. Alternating wet and dry seasons lead to annual fluctuations in moisture content, capillary pressure, and stable isotope compositions in the vadose zone. Periodic infiltration models capture the effects of seasonal increases in precipitation and predict stable isotope profiles that are distinct from those observed under drying (zero infiltration) conditions. After infiltration, evaporation causes a shift to higher 18O and D values, which are preserved in the deeper pore waters. The magnitude of the isotopic composition shift preserved in deep vadose zone pore waters varies inversely with the rate of infiltration.

Singleton, Michael J.; Sonnenthal, Eric L.; Conrad, Mark E.; DePaolo, Donald J.

2003-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

425

Hippocampal Dosimetry Predicts Neurocognitive Function Impairment After Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Benign or Low-Grade Adult Brain Tumors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To prospectively evaluate the association between hippocampal dose and long-term neurocognitive function (NCF) impairment for benign or low-grade adult brain tumors treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT). Methods and Materials: Adult patients with benign or low-grade adult brain tumors were treated with FSRT per institutional practice. No attempt was made to spare the hippocampus. NCF testing was conducted at baseline and 18 months follow-up, on a prospective clinical trial. Regression-based standardized z scores were calculated by using similar healthy control individuals evaluated at the same test-retest interval. NCF impairment was defined as a z score {7.3 Gy was associated with impairment in Wechsler Memory Scale-III Word List (WMS-WL) delayed recall (odds ratio [OR] 19.3; p = 0.043). The association between WMS-WL delayed recall and EQD{sub 2} to 100% of the bilateral hippocampi >0.0 Gy trended to significance (OR 14.8; p = 0.068). Conclusion: EQD{sub 2} to 40% of the bilateral hippocampi greater than 7.3 Gy is associated with long-term impairment in list-learning delayed recall after FSRT for benign or low-grade adult brain tumors. Given that modern intensity-modulated radiotherapy techniques can reduce the dose to the bilateral hippocampi below this dosimetric threshold, patients should be enrolled in ongoing prospective trials of hippocampal sparing during cranial irradiation to confirm these preliminary results.

Gondi, Vinai [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Hermann, Bruce P. [Department of Neurology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Mehta, Minesh P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Tome, Wolfgang A., E-mail: tome@humonc.wisc.edu [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

426

Design of a Fractional Order Phase Shaper for Iso-damped Control of a PHWR under Step-back Condition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Phase shaping using fractional order (FO) phase shapers has been proposed by many contemporary researchers as a means of producing systems with iso-damped closed loop response due to a stepped variation in input. Such systems, with the closed loop damping remaining invariant to gain changes can be used to produce dead-beat step response with only rise time varying with gain. This technique is used to achieve an active step-back in a Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) where it is desired to change the reactor power to a pre-determined value within a short interval keeping the power undershoot as low as possible. This paper puts forward an approach as an alternative for the present day practice of a passive step-back mechanism where the control rods are allowed to drop during a step-back action by gravity, with release of electromagnetic clutches. The reactor under a step-back condition is identified as a system using practical test data and a suitable Proportional plus Integral plus Derivative (PID) contro...

Saha, Suman; Ghosh, Ratna; Goswami, Bhaswati; Balasubramanian, R; Chandra, A K; Das, Shantanu; Gupta, Amitava; 10.1109/TNS.2010.2047405

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z