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Sample records for internal mem orandum

  1. MEtlORANDUM DATE

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    FIATERIALS HANDLEDt ---....4------ WHealth Physics Protection Little or None mECMED responsibility *Contractor responsibility ' Typo (on basis of records reviewed) . :. ...

  2. Sandia MEMS

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2002-06-13

    SUMMiT V (Sandia Ultra planar Multi level MEMS Technology) is a 5 level surface micromachine fabrication technology, which customers intornal and external to Sandia can access to fabricate prototype MEMS devices. This CD contains an integrated set of electronic files that: a) Describe the SUMMiT V fabrication process b) Provide enabling educational information (including pictures, videos, technical information) c) Facilitate the process of designing MEMS with the SUMMiT process (prototype file, Design Rule Checker, Standardmore » Parts Library) d) Facilitate the process of having MEMS fabricated at Sandia National Laboratories e) Facilitate the process of having post-fabrication services performed. While there exist some files on the CD that are used in conjunction with software package AutoCAD, these files are not intended for use independent of the CD. Nole that the customer must purchase his/her own copy of Aut0CAD to use with these files.« less

  3. MEtlORANDUM TO: FILE

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ...----.-----... Control q Health Physics Protection 0 AEWUED managed operations q Little or None 0 AECMED responsible for ci ...

  4. Q MEtlORANDUM SUBJECT:

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AECMED INVOLVEMENT AT SITE -...---... ------ . , Control 0 Health Physics Protection 0 AEWMED managed operations (J Little or None 0 AEWMED responsible for -ECNED ...

  5. Failure mechanisms in MEMS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walraven, Jeremy Allen

    2003-07-01

    MEMS components by their very nature have different and unique failure mechanisms than their macroscopic counterparts. This paper discusses failure mechanisms observed in various MEMS components and technologies. MEMS devices fabricated using bulk and surface micromachining process technologies are emphasized. MEMS devices offer uniqueness in their application, fabrication, and functionality. Their uniqueness creates various failure mechanisms not typically found in their bulk or IC counterparts. In ICs, electrical precautions are taken to mitigate failure. In MEMS, both electrical and mechanical precautions must be enacted to reduce the risk of failure and increased reliability. Unlike ICs, many MEMS components are designed to interact with their environment, making the fabrication, testing, and packaging processes critical for the success of the device.

  6. memP

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2010-02-05

    The lightweight heap profiling tool memP Version 1 provides a library that can be used with MPI applications that make use of heap memory allocations to provide profile data based on the per-task high-water-mark of heap allocation. The memP output is generated as a text report that can present summary information or specific detail of the allocation call site data for each task The memP library source code is based on teh mpiP MPI profilingmore » library (http://mpip.sourceforge.net), but is substantially different in functionality and organization.« less

  7. MEMS in microfluidic channels.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashby, Carol Iris Hill; Okandan, Murat; Michalske, Terry A.; Sounart, Thomas L.; Matzke, Carolyn M.

    2004-03-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) comprise a new class of devices that include various forms of sensors and actuators. Recent studies have shown that microscale cantilever structures are able to detect a wide range of chemicals, biomolecules or even single bacterial cells. In this approach, cantilever deflection replaces optical fluorescence detection thereby eliminating complex chemical tagging steps that are difficult to achieve with chip-based architectures. A key challenge to utilizing this new detection scheme is the incorporation of functionalized MEMS structures within complex microfluidic channel architectures. The ability to accomplish this integration is currently limited by the processing approaches used to seal lids on pre-etched microfluidic channels. This report describes Sandia's first construction of MEMS instrumented microfluidic chips, which were fabricated by combining our leading capabilities in MEMS processing with our low-temperature photolithographic method for fabricating microfluidic channels. We have explored in-situ cantilevers and other similar passive MEMS devices as a new approach to directly sense fluid transport, and have successfully monitored local flow rates and viscosities within microfluidic channels. Actuated MEMS structures have also been incorporated into microfluidic channels, and the electrical requirements for actuation in liquids have been quantified with an elegant theory. Electrostatic actuation in water has been accomplished, and a novel technique for monitoring local electrical conductivities has been invented.

  8. MEMS Relays | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Next Revolution in MEMS Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) The Next Revolution in MEMS Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) engineers share what GE Global Research is doing to revolutionize MEMS technology. You Might Also Like 2-1-8-v-mems-applications Engineer Chris Keimel Introduces MEMS Technology

  9. MEMS fluidic actuator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kholwadwala, Deepesh K.; Johnston, Gabriel A.; Rohrer, Brandon R.; Galambos, Paul C.; Okandan, Murat

    2007-07-24

    The present invention comprises a novel, lightweight, massively parallel device comprising microelectromechanical (MEMS) fluidic actuators, to reconfigure the profile, of a surface. Each microfluidic actuator comprises an independent bladder that can act as both a sensor and an actuator. A MEMS sensor, and a MEMS valve within each microfluidic actuator, operate cooperatively to monitor the fluid within each bladder, and regulate the flow of the fluid entering and exiting each bladder. When adjacently spaced in a array, microfluidic actuators can create arbitrary surface profiles in response to a change in the operating environment of the surface. In an embodiment of the invention, the profile of an airfoil is controlled by independent extension and contraction of a plurality of actuators, that operate to displace a compliant cover.

  10. Sandia Advanced MEMS Design Tools, Version 2.0

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2002-06-13

    Sandia Advanced MEMS Design Tools is a 5-level surface micromachine fabrication technology, which customers internal and external to Sandia can access to fabricate prototype MEMS devices. This CD contains an integrated set of electronic files that: a) Describe the SUMMiT V fabrication process b) Provide enabling educational information (including pictures, videos, technical information) c)Facilitate the process of designing MEMS with the SUMMiT process (prototype file, Design Rule Checker, Standard Parts Library) d) Facilitate the processmore » of having MEMS fabricated at SNL e) Facilitate the process of having post-fabrication services performed While there exist some files on the CD that are used in conjunction with the software AutoCAD, these files are not intended for use independent of the CD. NOTE: THE CUSTOMER MUST PURCHASE HIS/HER OWN COPY OF AutoCAD TO USE WITH THESE FILES.« less

  11. Failure analysis issues in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Failure analysis issues in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). Failure analysis and device characterization of MEMS components are critical steps in understanding the ...

  12. Future challenges for MEMS failure analysis. (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Future challenges for MEMS failure analysis. MEMS processes and components are ... Specific areas of concern for the failure analyst will also be discussed. MEMS components ...

  13. Ovenized microelectromechanical system (MEMS) resonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olsson, Roy H; Wojciechowski, Kenneth; Kim, Bongsang

    2014-03-11

    An ovenized micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) resonator including: a substantially thermally isolated mechanical resonator cavity; a mechanical oscillator coupled to the mechanical resonator cavity; and a heating element formed on the mechanical resonator cavity.

  14. Optically transduced MEMS magnetometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielson, Gregory N; Langlois, Eric

    2014-03-18

    MEMS magnetometers with optically transduced resonator displacement are described herein. Improved sensitivity, crosstalk reduction, and extended dynamic range may be achieved with devices including a deflectable resonator suspended from the support, a first grating extending from the support and disposed over the resonator, a pair of drive electrodes to drive an alternating current through the resonator, and a second grating in the resonator overlapping the first grating to form a multi-layer grating having apertures that vary dimensionally in response to deflection occurring as the resonator mechanically resonates in a plane parallel to the first grating in the presence of a magnetic field as a function of the Lorentz force resulting from the alternating current. A plurality of such multi-layer gratings may be disposed across a length of the resonator to provide greater dynamic range and/or accommodate fabrication tolerances.

  15. MemAxes Visualization Software

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-08-28

    Hardware advancements such as Intel's PEBS and AMD's IBS, as well as software developments such as the perf_event API in Linux have made available the acquisition of memory access samples with performance information. MemAxes is a visualization and analysis tool for memory access sample data. By mapping the samples to their associated code, variables, node topology, and application dataset, MemAxes provides intuitive views of the data.

  16. Microelectromechanical (MEM) thermal actuator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garcia, Ernest J.; Fulcher, Clay W. G.

    2012-07-31

    Microelectromechanical (MEM) buckling beam thermal actuators are disclosed wherein the buckling direction of a beam is constrained to a desired direction of actuation, which can be in-plane or out-of-plane with respect to a support substrate. The actuators comprise as-fabricated, linear beams of uniform cross section supported above the substrate by supports which rigidly attach a beam to the substrate. The beams can be heated by methods including the passage of an electrical current through them. The buckling direction of an initially straight beam upon heating and expansion is controlled by incorporating one or more directional constraints attached to the substrate and proximal to the mid-point of the beam. In the event that the beam initially buckles in an undesired direction, deformation of the beam induced by contact with a directional constraint generates an opposing force to re-direct the buckling beam into the desired direction. The displacement and force generated by the movement of the buckling beam can be harnessed to perform useful work, such as closing contacts in an electrical switch.

  17. Electrostatic MEMS devices with high reliability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldsmith, Charles L; Auciello, Orlando H; Sumant, Anirudha V; Mancini, Derrick C; Gudeman, Chris; Sampath, Suresh; Carlilse, John A; Carpick, Robert W; Hwang, James

    2015-02-24

    The present invention provides for an electrostatic microelectromechanical (MEMS) device comprising a dielectric layer separating a first conductor and a second conductor. The first conductor is moveable towards the second conductor, when a voltage is applied to the MEMS device. The dielectric layer recovers from dielectric charging failure almost immediately upon removal of the voltage from the MEMS device.

  18. Metal MEMS Devices | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MEMS: Inside the Global Research Cleanroom Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) MEMS: Inside the Global Research Cleanroom This follow-up to our introduction to MEMS takes you inside the GE Global Research cleanroom to see more about how MEMS are made. You Might Also Like 2-1-8-v-mems-applications Engineer

  19. Inertial measurement unit using rotatable MEMS sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kohler, Stewart M.; Allen, James J.

    2007-05-01

    A MEM inertial sensor (e.g. accelerometer, gyroscope) having integral rotational means for providing static and dynamic bias compensation is disclosed. A bias compensated MEM inertial sensor is described comprising a MEM inertial sense element disposed on a rotatable MEM stage. A MEM actuator drives the rotation of the stage between at least two predetermined rotational positions. Measuring and comparing the output of the MEM inertial sensor in the at least two rotational positions allows for both static and dynamic bias compensation in inertial calculations based on the sensor's output. An inertial measurement unit (IMU) comprising a plurality of independently rotatable MEM inertial sensors and methods for making bias compensated inertial measurements are disclosed.

  20. Inertial measurement unit using rotatable MEMS sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kohler, Stewart M.; Allen, James J.

    2006-06-27

    A MEM inertial sensor (e.g. accelerometer, gyroscope) having integral rotational means for providing static and dynamic bias compensation is disclosed. A bias compensated MEM inertial sensor is described comprising a MEM inertial sense element disposed on a rotatable MEM stage. A MEM actuator for drives the rotation of the stage between at least two predetermined rotational positions. Measuring and comparing the output of the MEM inertial sensor in the at least two rotational positions allows, for both static and dynamic bias compensation in inertial calculations based on the sensor's output. An inertial measurement unit (IMU) comprising a plurality of independently rotatable MEM inertial sensors and methods for making bias compensated inertial measurements are disclosed.

  1. W-Coating for MEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleming, J.G.; Mani, S.S.; Sniegowski, J.J.

    1999-07-08

    The integration of miniaturized mechanical components has spawned a new technology known as microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). Surface micromachining, defined as the fabrication of micromechanical structures from deposited thin films, is one of the core technological processes underlying MEMS. Surface micromachined structures have a large ratio of surface area to volume which makes them particularly vulnerable to adhesion to the substrate or adjacent structures during release or in use--a problem is called stiction. Since microactuators can have surfaces in normal or sliding contact, function and wear are critical issues for reliable operation of MEMS devices. Surface modifications are needed to reduce adhesion and friction in micromechanical structures. In this paper, we will present a process used to selectively coat MEMS devices with Tungsten using a CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition) process. We will discuss the effect of wet and vapor phase cleans along with different process variables. Endurance of the W coating is important, especially in applications where wear due to repetitive contacts with the film may occur. Further, tungsten is hard and chemically inert, Tungsten CVD is used in the integrated-circuit industry, which makes this, approach manufacturable.

  2. Sandia Advanced MEMS Design Tools, Version 2.2.5

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2010-01-19

    The Sandia National Laboratories Advanced MEMS Design Tools, Version 2.2.5, is a collection of menus, prototype drawings, and executables that provide significant productivity enhancements when using AutoCAD to design MEMS components. This release is designed for AutoCAD 2000i, 2002, or 2004 and is supported under Windows NT 4.0, Windows 2000, or XP. SUMMiT V (Sandia Ultra planar Multi level MEMS Technology) is a 5 level surface micromachine fabrication technology, which customers internal and external tomore » Sandia can access to fabricate prototype MEMS devices. This CD contains an integrated set of electronic files that: a) Describe the SUMMiT V fabrication process b) Facilitate the process of designing MEMS with the SUMMiT process (prototype file, Design Rule Checker, Standard Parts Library) New features in this version: AutoCAD 2004 support has been added. SafeExplode ? a new feature that explodes blocks without affecting polylines (avoids exploding polylines into objects that are ignored by the DRC and Visualization tools). Layer control menu ? a pull-down menu for selecting layers to isolate, freeze, or thaw. Updated tools: A check has been added to catch invalid block names. DRC features: Added username/password validation, added a method to update the user?s password. SNL_DRC_WIDTH ? a value to control the width of the DRC error lines. SNL_BIAS_VALUE ? a value use to offset selected geometry SNL_PROCESS_NAME ? a value to specify the process name Documentation changes: The documentation has been updated to include the new features. While there exist some files on the CD that are used in conjunction with software package AutoCAD, these files are not intended for use independent of the CD. Note that the customer must purchase his/her own copy of AutoCAD to use with these files.« less

  3. Sandia Advanced MEMS Design Tools, Version 2.2.5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yarberry, Victor; Allen, James; Lantz, Jeffery; Priddy, Brian; & Westling, Belinda

    2010-01-19

    The Sandia National Laboratories Advanced MEMS Design Tools, Version 2.2.5, is a collection of menus, prototype drawings, and executables that provide significant productivity enhancements when using AutoCAD to design MEMS components. This release is designed for AutoCAD 2000i, 2002, or 2004 and is supported under Windows NT 4.0, Windows 2000, or XP. SUMMiT V (Sandia Ultra planar Multi level MEMS Technology) is a 5 level surface micromachine fabrication technology, which customers internal and external to Sandia can access to fabricate prototype MEMS devices. This CD contains an integrated set of electronic files that: a) Describe the SUMMiT V fabrication process b) Facilitate the process of designing MEMS with the SUMMiT process (prototype file, Design Rule Checker, Standard Parts Library) New features in this version: AutoCAD 2004 support has been added. SafeExplode ? a new feature that explodes blocks without affecting polylines (avoids exploding polylines into objects that are ignored by the DRC and Visualization tools). Layer control menu ? a pull-down menu for selecting layers to isolate, freeze, or thaw. Updated tools: A check has been added to catch invalid block names. DRC features: Added username/password validation, added a method to update the user?s password. SNL_DRC_WIDTH ? a value to control the width of the DRC error lines. SNL_BIAS_VALUE ? a value use to offset selected geometry SNL_PROCESS_NAME ? a value to specify the process name Documentation changes: The documentation has been updated to include the new features. While there exist some files on the CD that are used in conjunction with software package AutoCAD, these files are not intended for use independent of the CD. Note that the customer must purchase his/her own copy of AutoCAD to use with these files.

  4. MEMS packaging efforts at Sandia National Laboratories.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Custer, Jonathan Sloane

    2003-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has programs covering a broad range of MEMS technologies from LIGA to bulk to surface micromachining. These MEMS technologies are being considered for an equally broad range of applications, including sensors, actuators, optics, and microfluidics. As these technologies have moved from the research to the prototype product stage, packaging has been required to develop new capabilities to integrated MEMS and other technologies into functional microsystems. This paper discusses several of Sandia's MEMS packaging efforts, focusing mainly on inserting Sandia's SUMMIT V (5-level polysilicon) surface micromachining technology into fieldable microsystems.

  5. The Sandia MEMS Passive Shock Sensor : FY08 failure analysis...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: The Sandia MEMS Passive Shock Sensor : FY08 failure analysis activities. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Sandia MEMS Passive Shock Sensor : FY08 ...

  6. MEMS based pyroelectric thermal energy harvester (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Data Explorer Search Results MEMS based pyroelectric thermal energy harvester Title: MEMS based pyroelectric thermal energy harvester A pyroelectric thermal energy harvesting ...

  7. The Sandia MEMS Passive Shock Sensor : dormancy and aging. (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The Sandia MEMS Passive Shock Sensor : dormancy and aging. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Sandia MEMS Passive Shock Sensor : dormancy and aging. This report ...

  8. Sources of stress gradients in electrodeposited Ni MEMS. (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Sources of stress gradients in electrodeposited Ni MEMS. The ability of future integrated metal-semiconductor micro-systems such as RF MEMS to perform highly complex ...

  9. Science-based MEMS reliability methodology. (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Science-based MEMS reliability methodology. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Science-based MEMS reliability methodology. No abstract prepared. Authors: Walraven, Jeremy ...

  10. Challenges in the Packaging of MEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malshe, A.P.; Singh, S.B.; Eaton, W.P.; O'Neal, C.; Brown, W.D.; Miller, W.M.

    1999-03-26

    The packaging of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is a field of great importance to anyone using or manufacturing sensors, consumer products, or military applications. Currently much work has been done in the design and fabrication of MEMS devices but insufficient research and few publications have been completed on the packaging of these devices. This is despite the fact that packaging is a very large percentage of the total cost of MEMS devices. The main difference between IC packaging and MEMS packaging is that MEMS packaging is almost always application specific and greatly affected by its environment and packaging techniques such as die handling, die attach processes, and lid sealing. Many of these aspects are directly related to the materials used in the packaging processes. MEMS devices that are functional in wafer form can be rendered inoperable after packaging. MEMS dies must be handled only from the chip sides so features on the top surface are not damaged. This eliminates most current die pick-and-place fixtures. Die attach materials are key to MEMS packaging. Using hard die attach solders can create high stresses in the MEMS devices, which can affect their operation greatly. Low-stress epoxies can be high-outgassing, which can also affect device performance. Also, a low modulus die attach can allow the die to move during ultrasonic wirebonding resulting to low wirebond strength. Another source of residual stress is the lid sealing process. Most MEMS based sensors and devices require a hermetically sealed package. This can be done by parallel seam welding the package lid, but at the cost of further induced stress on the die. Another issue of MEMS packaging is the media compatibility of the packaged device. MEMS unlike ICS often interface with their environment, which could be high pressure or corrosive. The main conclusion we can draw about MEMS packaging is that the package affects the performance and reliability of the MEMS devices. There is a

  11. MEMS3DMODELERV1.0

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2001-10-30

    The MEMS 3 D Modeler is a software package that creates 3D CAD solid models from 2D layout masks and a MEMS process definition. The solid models may be generated in either the ACIS SAT or IGES format. The result is an accurate representation that may be used for visualization or FEA analysis

  12. Development of MEMS photoacoustic spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, Alex Lockwood; Eichenfield, Matthew S.; Griffin, Benjamin; Harvey, Heidi Alyssa; Nielson, Gregory N.; Okandan, Murat; Langlois, Eric; Resnick, Paul James; Shaw, Michael J.; Young, Ian; Givler, Richard C.; Reinke, Charles M.

    2014-01-01

    After years in the field, many materials suffer degradation, off-gassing, and chemical changes causing build-up of measurable chemical atmospheres. Stand-alone embedded chemical sensors are typically limited in specificity, require electrical lines, and/or calibration drift makes data reliability questionable. Along with size, these "Achilles' heels" have prevented incorporation of gas sensing into sealed, hazardous locations which would highly benefit from in-situ analysis. We report on development of an all-optical, mid-IR, fiber-optic based MEMS Photoacoustic Spectroscopy solution to address these limitations. Concurrent modeling and computational simulation are used to guide hardware design and implementation.

  13. Micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) for mechanical engineers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, A. P., LLNL

    1996-11-18

    The ongoing advances in Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) are providing man-kind the freedom to travel to dimensional spaces never before conceivable. Advances include new fabrication processes, new materials, tailored modeling tools, new fabrication machines, systems integration, and more detailed studies of physics and surface chemistry as applied to the micro scale. In the ten years since its inauguration, MEMS technology is penetrating industries of automobile, healthcare, biotechnology, sports/entertainment, measurement systems, data storage, photonics/optics, computer, aerospace, precision instruments/robotics, and environment monitoring. It is projected that by the turn of the century, MEMS will impact every individual in the industrial world, totaling sales up to $14 billion (source: System Planning Corp.). MEMS programs in major universities have spawned up all over the United States, preparing the brain-power and expertise for the next wave of MEMS breakthroughs. It should be pointed out that although MEMS has been initiated by electrical engineering researchers through the involvement of IC fabrication techniques, today it has evolved such that it requires a totally multi-disciplinary team to develop useful devices. Mechanical engineers are especially crucial to the success of MEMS development, since 90% of the physical realm involved is mechanical. Mechanical engineers are needed for the design of MEMS, the analysis of the mechanical system, the design of testing apparatus, the implementation of analytical tools, and the packaging process. Every single aspect of mechanical engineering is being utilized in the MEMS field today, however, the impact could be more substantial if more mechanical engineers are involved in the systems level designing. In this paper, an attempt is made to create the pathways for a mechanical engineer to enter in the MEMS field. Examples of application in optics and medical devices will be used to illustrate how mechanical

  14. MEMS reliability in shock environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    TANNER,DANELLE M.; WALRAVEN,JEREMY A.; HELGESEN,KAREN SUE; IRWIN,LLOYD W.; BROWN,FREDERICK A.; SMITH,NORMAN F.; MASTERS,NATHAN

    2000-02-09

    In order to determine the susceptibility of the MEMS (MicroElectroMechanical Systems) devices to shock, tests were performed using haversine shock pulses with widths of 1 to 0.2 ms in the range from 500g to 40,000g. The authors chose a surface-micromachined microengine because it has all the components needed for evaluation: springs that flex, gears that are anchored, and clamps and spring stops to maintain alignment. The microengines, which were unpowered for the tests, performed quite well at most shock levels with a majority functioning after the impact. Debris from the die edges moved at levels greater than 4,000g causing shorts in the actuators and posing reliability concerns. The coupling agent used to prevent stiction in the MEMS release weakened the die-attach bond, which produced failures at 10,000g and above. At 20,000g the authors began to observe structural damage in some of the thin flexures and 2.5-micron diameter pin joints. The authors observed electrical failures caused by the movement of debris. Additionally, they observed a new failure mode where stationary comb fingers contact the ground plane resulting in electrical shorts. These new failure were observed in the control group indicating that they were not shock related.

  15. Design of Surface Micromachined Compliant MEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joe Anthony Bradley

    2002-12-31

    The consideration of compliant mechanisms as Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) is the focus of this research endeavor. MEMS are micron to millimeter devices that combine electrical, mechanical, and information processing capabilities on the same device. These MEMS need some mechanical motion or parts that move relative to each other. This relative motion, using multiple parts, is not desired because of the assembly requirement and the friction introduced. Compliant devices limits or eliminates friction and the need for multi-component assembly. Compliant devices improve designs by creating single piece mechanisms. The purpose of this research is to validate surface micromachining as a viable fabrication process for compliant MEMS designs. Specifically, this research has sought to fabricate a micro-compliant gripper and a micro-compliant clamp to illustrate the process. While other researchers have created compliant MEMs, most have used comb-drive actuation methods and bulk micromachining processes. This research focused on fully-compliant devices that use device flexibility for motion and actuation. Validation of these compliant MEMS is achieved by structural optimization of device design and functional performance testing. This research contributes to the ongoing research in MEMS by evaluating the potential of using surface micromachining as a process for fabricating compliant micro-mechanisms.

  16. Design of Surface micromachined Compliant MEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joe Anthony Bradley

    2002-08-01

    The consideration of compliant mechanisms as Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) is the focus of this research endeavor. MEMS are micron to millimeter devices that combine electrical, mechanical, and information processing capabilities on the same device. These MEMS need some mechanical motion or parts that move relative to each other. This relative motion, using multiple parts, is not desired because of the assembly requirement and the friction introduced. Compliant devices limits or eliminates friction and the need for multi-component assembly. Compliant devices improve designs by creating single piece mechanisms. The purpose of this research is to validate surface micromachining as a viable fabrication process for compliant MEMS designs. Specifically, this research has sought to fabricate a micro-compliant gripper and a micro-compliant clamp to illustrate the process. While other researchers have created compliant MEMS, most have used comb-drive actuation methods and bulk micromachining processes. This research focuses on fully-compliant devices that use device flexibility for motion and actuation. Validation of these compliant MEMS is achieved by structural optimization of device design and functional performance testing. This research contributes to the ongoing research in MEMS by evaluating the potential of using surface micromachining as a process for fabricating compliant micro-mechanisms.

  17. 05670_MEMS | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fabry-Perot MEMS Accelerometers for Advanced Seismic Imaging Last Reviewed 1212015 DE-FC26-09NT0005670 Goal The objective of this project is to build an accelerometer and...

  18. Si-based RF MEMS components.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens, James E.; Nordquist, Christopher Daniel; Baker, Michael Sean; Fleming, James Grant; Stewart, Harold D.; Dyck, Christopher William

    2005-01-01

    Radio frequency microelectromechanical systems (RF MEMS) are an enabling technology for next-generation communications and radar systems in both military and commercial sectors. RF MEMS-based reconfigurable circuits outperform solid-state circuits in terms of insertion loss, linearity, and static power consumption and are advantageous in applications where high signal power and nanosecond switching speeds are not required. We have demonstrated a number of RF MEMS switches on high-resistivity silicon (high-R Si) that were fabricated by leveraging the volume manufacturing processes available in the Microelectronics Development Laboratory (MDL), a Class-1, radiation-hardened CMOS manufacturing facility. We describe novel tungsten and aluminum-based processes, and present results of switches developed in each of these processes. Series and shunt ohmic switches and shunt capacitive switches were successfully demonstrated. The implications of fabricating on high-R Si and suggested future directions for developing low-loss RF MEMS-based circuits are also discussed.

  19. RF MEMS reconfigurable triangular patch antenna.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nordquist, Christopher Daniel; Christodoulou, Christos George; Feldner, Lucas Matthew

    2005-01-01

    A Ka-band RF MEMS enabled frequency reconfigurable triangular microstrip patch antenna has been designed for monolithic integration with RF MEMS phase shifters to demonstrate a low-cost monolithic passive electronically scanned array (PESA). This paper introduces our first prototype reconfigurable triangular patch antenna currently in fabrication. The aperture coupled patch antenna is fabricated on a dual-layer quartz/alumina substrate using surface micromachining techniques.

  20. RF MEMS reconfigurable triangular patch antenna.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christodoulou, Christos George; Nordquist, Christopher Daniel; Feldner, Lucas Matthew

    2005-07-01

    A Ka-band RF MEMS enabled frequency reconfigurable triangular microstrip patch antenna has been designed for monolithic integration with RF MEMS phase shifters to demonstrate a low-cost monolithic passive electronically scanned array (PESA). This paper introduces our first prototype reconfigurable triangular patch antenna currently in fabrication. The aperture coupled patch antenna is fabricated on a dual-layer quartz/alumina substrate using surface micromachining techniques.

  1. Future challenges for MEMS failure analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walraven, Jeremy Allen

    2003-07-01

    MEMS processes and components are rapidly changing in device design, processing, and, most importantly, application. This paper will discuss the future challenges faced by the MEMS failure analysis as the field of MEMS (fabrication, component design, and applications) grows. Specific areas of concern for the failure analyst will also be discussed. MEMS components are extremely diverse in their application and function. Failure analysts will have to be equally diverse and/or multidisciplinary in their analysis of these devices. Many tools and techniques developed from the IC industry have been used for MEMS FA, but more MEMS-specific FA toolsets have to be developed for diagnosis of these failure mechanisms. Many of the devices discussed in this paper have global issues associated with failure analysis. Many non destructive techniques must be developed to assess the failure mechanisms. Tools and techniques that can perform these functions on a larger scale will also be required. To achieve this, industry will have to work with academia and government institutions to create the knowledge base required for tool and technique development for global and local defect localization.

  2. Challenges in the Packaging of MEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BROWN, WILLIAM D.; EATON, WILLIAM P.; MALSHE, AJAY P.; MILLER, WILLIAM M.; O'NEAL, CHAD; SINGH, SUSHILA B.

    1999-09-24

    Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) packaging is much different from conventional integrated circuit (IC) packaging. Many MEMS devices must interface to the environment in order to perform their intended function, and the package must be able to facilitate access with the environment while protecting the device. The package must also not interfere with or impede the operation of the MEMS device. The die attachment material should be low stress, and low outgassing, while also minimizing stress relaxation overtime which can lead to scale factor shifts in sensor devices. The fabrication processes used in creating the devices must be compatible with each other, and not result in damage to the devices. Many devices are application specific requiring custom packages that are not commercially available. Devices may also need media compatible packages that can protect the devices from harsh environments in which the MEMS device may operate. Techniques are being developed to handle, process, and package the devices such that high yields of functional packaged parts will result. Currently, many of the processing steps are potentially harmful to MEMS devices and negatively affect yield. It is the objective of this paper to review and discuss packaging challenges that exist for MEMS systems and to expose these issues to new audiences from the integrated circuit packaging community.

  3. The Sandia MEMS passive shock sensor : FY08 design summary. ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: The Sandia MEMS passive shock sensor : FY08 design summary. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Sandia MEMS passive shock sensor : FY08 design summary. ...

  4. Sandia National Laboratories SUMMiT VTM MEMS Process: Mature...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SUMMiT VTM MEMS Process: Mature Technology with an Exciting Future. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Sandia National Laboratories SUMMiT VTM MEMS Process: Mature ...

  5. Combined photonics and MEMs function demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blum, O.; Warren, M.E.; Hou, H.Q.; Choquette, K.D.; Rogers, M.S.; Sniegowski, J.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Carson, R.F. [Microoptical Devices, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The authors have recently demonstrated two prototypes where photonics and microelectromechanical system (MEMs) technologies have been integrated to show proof-of-principle functionality for weapon surety functions. These activities are part of a program which is exploring the miniaturization of electromechanical components for making weapon systems safer. Such miniaturization can lead to a low-cost, small, high-performance ``systems-on-a-chip``, and have many applications ranging from advanced military systems to large-volume commercial markets like automobiles, rf or land-based communications networks and equipment, or commercial electronics. One of the key challenges in realization of the microsystem is integration of several technologies including digital electronics; analog and rf electronics, optoelectronics (light emitting and detecting devices and circuits), sensors and actuators, and advanced packaging technologies. In this work the authors describe efforts in integrating MEMs and photonic functions and the fabrication constraints on both system components. Here, they discuss two examples of integration of MEMs and a photonic device. In the first instance, a MEMs locking device pin is driven by a voltage generated by photovoltaic cells connected in series, which are driven by a laser. In the second case, a VCSEL emitting at 1.06 {micro}m is packaged together with a metallized MEMs shutter. By appropriate alignment to the opening in the shutter, the VCSEL is turned on and off by the movement of the Si chopper wheel.

  6. Release Resistant Electrical Interconnections For Mems Devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Garrett, Stephen E.; Reber, Cathleen A.

    2005-02-22

    A release resistant electrical interconnection comprising a gold-based electrical conductor compression bonded directly to a highly-doped polysilicon bonding pad in a MEMS, IMEMS, or MOEMS device, without using any intermediate layers of aluminum, titanium, solder, or conductive adhesive disposed in-between the conductor and polysilicon pad. After the initial compression bond has been formed, subsequent heat treatment of the joint above 363 C creates a liquid eutectic phase at the bondline comprising gold plus approximately 3 wt % silicon, which, upon re-solidification, significantly improves the bond strength by reforming and enhancing the initial bond. This type of electrical interconnection is resistant to chemical attack from acids used for releasing MEMS elements (HF, HCL), thereby enabling the use of a "package-first, release-second" sequence for fabricating MEMS devices. Likewise, the bond strength of an Au--Ge compression bond may be increased by forming a transient liquid eutectic phase comprising Au-12 wt % Ge.

  7. Failure analysis issues in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walraven, Jeremy Allen

    2005-07-01

    Failure analysis and device characterization of MEMS components are critical steps in understanding the root causes of failure and improving device performance. At the wafer and die level these tasks can be performed with little or no sample preparation. Larger challenges occur after fabrication when the device is packaged, capped, sealed, or otherwise obstructed from view. The challenges and issues of MEMS failure analysis lie in identifying the root cause of failure for these packaged, capped, and sealed devices without perturbing the device or its immediate environment. Novel methods of gaining access to the device or preparing the device for analysis are crucial to accurately determining the root cause of failure. This paper will discuss issues identified in performing root cause failure analysis of packaged MEMS devices, as well as the methods employed to analyze them.

  8. IC-Compatible Technologies for Optical MEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krygowski, T.W.; Sniegowski, J.J.

    1999-04-30

    Optical Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (Optical MEMS) Technology holds the promise of one-day producing highly integrated optical systems on a common, monolithic substrate. The choice of fabrication technology used to manufacture Optical MEMS will play a pivotal role in the size, functionality and ultimately the cost of optical Microsystems. By leveraging the technology base developed for silicon integrated circuits, large batches of routers, emitters, detectors and amplifiers will soon be fabricated for literally pennies per part. In this article we review the current status of technologies used for Optical MEMS, as well as fabrication technologies of the future, emphasizing manufacturable surface micromachining approaches to producing reliable, low-cost devices for optical communications applications.

  9. MEMS reliability: The challenge and the promise

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, W.M.; Tanner, D.M.; Miller, S.L.; Peterson, K.A.

    1998-05-01

    MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) that think, sense, act and communicate will open up a broad new array of cost effective solutions only if they prove to be sufficiently reliable. A valid reliability assessment of MEMS has three prerequisites: (1) statistical significance; (2) a technique for accelerating fundamental failure mechanisms, and (3) valid physical models to allow prediction of failures during actual use. These already exist for the microelectronics portion of such integrated systems. The challenge lies in the less well understood micromachine portions and its synergistic effects with microelectronics. This paper presents a methodology addressing these prerequisites and a description of the underlying physics of reliability for micromachines.

  10. Introduction to applications and industries for Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walraven, Jeremy Allen

    2003-07-01

    Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) have gained acceptance as viable products for many commercial and government applications. MEMS are currently being used as displays for digital projection systems, sensors for airbag deployment systems, inkjet print head systems, and optical routers. This paper will discuss current and future MEMS applications. What are MEMS? MEMS are typically defined as microscopic devices designed, processed, and used to interact or produce changes within a local environment. A mechanical, electrical, or chemical stimulus can be used to create a mechanical, electrical, or chemical response in a local environment. These smaller, more sophisticated devices that think, act, sense, and communicate are replacing their bulk counterparts in many traditional applications.

  11. Sandia Agile MEMS Prototyping, Layout Tools, Education and Services Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schriner, H.; Davies, B.; Sniegowski, J.; Rodgers, M.S.; Allen, J.; Shepard, C.

    1998-05-01

    Research and development in the design and manufacture of Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) is growing at an enormous rate. Advances in MEMS design tools and fabrication processes at Sandia National Laboratories` Microelectronics Development Laboratory (MDL) have broadened the scope of MEMS applications that can be designed and manufactured for both military and commercial use. As improvements in micromachining fabrication technologies continue to be made, MEMS designs can become more complex, thus opening the door to an even broader set of MEMS applications. In an effort to further research and development in MEMS design, fabrication, and application, Sandia National Laboratories has launched the Sandia Agile MEMS Prototyping, Layout Tools, Education and Services Program or SAMPLES program. The SAMPLES program offers potential partners interested in MEMS the opportunity to prototype an idea and produce hardware that can be used to sell a concept. The SAMPLES program provides education and training on Sandia`s design tools, analysis tools and fabrication process. New designers can participate in the SAMPLES program and design MEMS devices using Sandia`s design and analysis tools. As part of the SAMPLES program, participants` designs are fabricated using Sandia`s 4 level polycrystalline silicon surface micromachine technology fabrication process known as SUMMiT (Sandia Ultra-planar, Multi-level MEMS Technology). Furthermore, SAMPLES participants can also opt to obtain state of the art, post-fabrication services provided at Sandia such as release, packaging, reliability characterization, and failure analysis. This paper discusses the components of the SAMPLES program.

  12. Monolithic integration of a MOSFET with a MEMS device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Reid; Draper, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    An integrated microelectromechanical system comprises at least one MOSFET interconnected to at least one MEMS device on a common substrate. A method for integrating the MOSFET with the MEMS device comprises fabricating the MOSFET and MEMS device monolithically on the common substrate. Conveniently, the gate insulator, gate electrode, and electrical contacts for the gate, source, and drain can be formed simultaneously with the MEMS device structure, thereby eliminating many process steps and materials. In particular, the gate electrode and electrical contacts of the MOSFET and the structural layers of the MEMS device can be doped polysilicon. Dopant diffusion from the electrical contacts is used to form the source and drain regions of the MOSFET. The thermal diffusion step for forming the source and drain of the MOSFET can comprise one or more of the thermal anneal steps to relieve stress in the structural layers of the MEMS device.

  13. Predicting fracture in micron-scale polycrystalline silicon MEMS

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    structures. (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Predicting fracture in micron-scale polycrystalline silicon MEMS structures. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Predicting fracture in micron-scale polycrystalline silicon MEMS structures. Designing reliable MEMS structures presents numerous challenges. Polycrystalline silicon fractures in a brittle manner with considerable variability in measured strength. Furthermore, it is not clear how to use a measured tensile

  14. Preliminary characterization of active MEMS valves. (Technical Report) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Preliminary characterization of active MEMS valves. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Preliminary characterization of active MEMS valves. Partial characterization of a series of electrostatically actuated active microfluidic valves is to be performed. Tests are performed on a series of 24 valves from two different MEMS sets. Focus is on the physical deformation of the structures under variable pressure loadings, as well as voltage levels. Other issues that inhibit

  15. The Sandia MEMS Passive Shock Sensor : dormancy and aging. (Technical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report) | SciTech Connect The Sandia MEMS Passive Shock Sensor : dormancy and aging. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Sandia MEMS Passive Shock Sensor : dormancy and aging. This report presents the results of an aging experiment that was established in FY09 and completed in FY10 for the Sandia MEMS Passive Shock Sensor. A total of 37 packages were aged at different temperatures and times, and were then tested after aging to determine functionality. Aging temperatures were

  16. MEMS Packaging - Current Issues and Approaches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DRESSENDORFER,PAUL V.; PETERSON,DAVID W.; REBER,CATHLEEN ANN

    2000-01-19

    The assembly and packaging of MEMS (Microelectromechanical Systems) devices raise a number of issues over and above those normally associated with the assembly of standard microelectronic circuits. MEMS components include a variety of sensors, microengines, optical components, and other devices. They often have exposed mechanical structures which during assembly require particulate control, space in the package, non-contact handling procedures, low-stress die attach, precision die placement, unique process schedules, hermetic sealing in controlled environments (including vacuum), and other special constraints. These constraints force changes in the techniques used to separate die on a wafer, in the types of packages which can be used in the assembly processes and materials, and in the sealing environment and process. This paper discusses a number of these issues and provides information on approaches being taken or proposed to address them.

  17. Strength of Polysilicon for MEMS Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchheit, Thomas E.; LaVan, David A.

    1999-07-20

    The safe, secure and reliable application of Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) devices requires knowledge about the distribution in material and mechanical properties of the small-scale structures. A new testing program at Sandia is quantifying the strength distribution using polysilicon samples that reflect the dimensions of critical MEMS components. The strength of polysilicon fabricated at Sandia's Microelectronic Development Laboratory was successfully measured using samples 2.5 microns thick, 1.7 microns wide with lengths between 15 and 25 microns. These tensile specimens have a freely moving hub on one end that anchors the sample to the silicon die and allows free rotation. Each sample is loaded in uniaxial tension by pulling laterally with a flat tipped diamond in a computer-controlled Nanoindenter. The stress-strain curve is calculated using the specimen cross section and gage length dimensions verified by measuring against a standard in the SEM.

  18. Review of pyroelectric thermal energy harvesting and new MEMs...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Review of pyroelectric thermal energy harvesting and new MEMs based resonant energy conversion techniques Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Review of ...

  19. Predicting fracture in micron-scale polycrystalline silicon MEMS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Predicting fracture in micron-scale polycrystalline silicon MEMS structures. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Predicting fracture in micron-scale polycrystalline silicon ...

  20. Accelerated testing of sliding-contact MEMS devices. (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    at the Mechanical Reliability of Silicon MEMS held February 27-28, 2006 in Hale, Germany. ... Language: English Subject: 42 ENGINEERING; SILICON; TESTING; MICROELECTRONIC CIRCUITS; ...

  1. Design and reliability of a MEMS thermal rotary actuator. (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Design and reliability of a MEMS thermal rotary ... Resource Relation: Conference: Proposed for presentation at the TEXMEMS IX held September ...

  2. Thin Silicon MEMS Contact-Stress Sensor Kotovksy, J; Tooker,...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A; Horsley, D 42 ENGINEERING; 42 ENGINEERING; ACCURACY; ACTUATORS; SILICON This thin, MEMS contact-stress sensor continuously and accurately measures time-varying, solid...

  3. Thin Silicon MEMS Contact-Stress Sensor Kotovsky, J; Tooker,...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ACCURACY; ACTUATORS; CALIBRATION; DIAPHRAGM; SILICON; STABILITY; THICKNESS This thin, MEMS contact-stress (CS) sensor continuously and accurately measures time-varying, solid...

  4. Thin Silicon MEMS Contact-Stress Sensor Kotovsky, J; Tooker,...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    LIFETIME; PACKAGING; PERFORMANCE; SILICON; THICKNESS This work offers the first, thin, MEMS contact-stress (CS) sensor capable of accurate in situ measruement of time-varying,...

  5. Frequency Stabilization in Nonlinear MEMS and NEMS Oscillators...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Frequency Stabilization in Nonlinear MEMS and NEMS Oscillators Technology available for licensing: a method to create micro- and nanoscale mechanical oscillators with excellent...

  6. Optical system properties of a reconfigurable MEMS interconnect...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    system properties of a reconfigurable MEMS interconnect. Citation Details In-Document ... Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 42 ...

  7. GE MEMS for LTE Advanced Mobile Devices | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    GE MEMS Switch Technology Demonstrates Performance Which Could Meet Demands for ... longer battery life, and the advanced RF designs required of LTE-Advanced devices. ...

  8. Update on the Sandia MEMS Passive Shock Sensor. (Conference)...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    on the Sandia MEMS Passive Shock Sensor. Abstract not provided. Authors: Mitchell, John Anthony ; Gustafson, Carl Publication Date: 2008-03-01 OSTI Identifier: 1145847 Report...

  9. Integrated superhard and metallic coatings for MEMS : LDRD 57300...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    usemore than previous methods such as high temperature ... MEMS. A method to study the adhesion of these ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English ...

  10. Failure mechanisms in MEMS. (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In MEMS, both electrical and mechanical precautions must be enacted to reduce the risk of ... Subject: 42 ENGINEERING; MICROELECTRONICS; FAILURE MODE ANALYSIS; FABRICATION; PACKAGING; ...

  11. Mem. S.A.It. Vol.

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mem. S.A.It. Vol. 76, 114 c SAIt 2005 Memorie della Polarization and energy content of parsec-scale AGN jets Maxim Lyutikov 1 , Vladimir Pariev 2,3 , Denise Gabuzda 4 1 University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada 2 University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, USA and 3 Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow, Russia 4 University College Cork, Cork, Ireland Abstract. Most of energy carried by relativistic AGN jets remains undetected until hun- dreds of kiloparsecs where interaction with

  12. Tunable Young's Modulus in Carbon MEMS using Graphene-based Stiffeners...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Tunable Young's Modulus in Carbon MEMS using Graphene-based Stiffeners. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Tunable Young's Modulus in Carbon MEMS using Graphene-based ...

  13. Solid polymer MEMS-based fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowski, Alan F.; Morse, Jeffrey D.

    2008-04-22

    A micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) based thin-film fuel cells for electrical power applications. The MEMS-based fuel cell may be of a solid oxide type (SOFC), a solid polymer type (SPFC), or a proton exchange membrane type (PEMFC), and each fuel cell basically consists of an anode and a cathode separated by an electrolyte layer. The electrolyte layer can consist of either a solid oxide or solid polymer material, or proton exchange membrane electrolyte materials may be used. Additionally catalyst layers can also separate the electrodes (cathode and anode) from the electrolyte. Gas manifolds are utilized to transport the fuel and oxidant to each cell and provide a path for exhaust gases. The electrical current generated from each cell is drawn away with an interconnect and support structure integrated with the gas manifold. The fuel cells utilize integrated resistive heaters for efficient heating of the materials. By combining MEMS technology with thin-film deposition technology, thin-film fuel cells having microflow channels and full-integrated circuitry can be produced that will lower the operating temperature an will yield an order of magnitude greater power density than the currently known fuel cells.

  14. Solid oxide MEMS-based fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowksi, Alan F.; Morse, Jeffrey D.

    2007-03-13

    A micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) based thin-film fuel cells for electrical power applications. The MEMS-based fuel cell may be of a solid oxide type (SOFC), a solid polymer type (SPFC), or a proton exchange membrane type (PEMFC), and each fuel cell basically consists of an anode and a cathode separated by an electrolyte layer. The electrolyte layer can consist of either a solid oxide or solid polymer material, or proton exchange membrane electrolyte materials may be used. Additionally catalyst layers can also separate the electrodes (cathode and anode) from the electrolyte. Gas manifolds are utilized to transport the fuel and oxidant to each cell and provide a path for exhaust gases. The electrical current generated from each cell is drawn away with an interconnect and support structure integrated with the gas manifold. The fuel cells utilize integrated resistive heaters for efficient heating of the materials. By combining MEMS technology with thin-film deposition technology, thin-film fuel cells having microflow channels and full-integrated circuitry can be produced that will lower the operating temperature an will yield an order of magnitude greater power density than the currently known fuel cells.

  15. The challenge of reliability in MEMS commercialization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, W.M.; Tanner, D.M.; Miller, S.L.

    1998-09-01

    MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) that think, sense, act and communicate will open up a broad new array of cost-effective solutions only if MEMS is demonstrated to be sufficiently reliable. This could prove to be a major challenge if it is not addressed concurrently with technology development. There are three requirements for a valid assessment of reliability: statistical significance, identification of fundamental failure mechanisms and development of techniques for accelerating them, and valid physical models to allow prediction of failures during actual use. While these already exist for the microelectronics portion of such integrated systems, the real challenge lies in the less well-understood micromachine portions and its synergistic effects with microelectronics. This requires the elicitation of a methodology focused on MEMS reliability, which the authors discuss. A new testing and analysis infrastructure must also be developed to meet the needs of this methodology. They describe their implementation of this infrastructure and its success in addressing the three requirements for a valid reliability assessment.

  16. Pre-release plastic packaging of MEMS and IMEMS devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Conley, William R.

    2002-01-01

    A method is disclosed for pre-release plastic packaging of MEMS and IMEMS devices. The method can include encapsulating the MEMS device in a transfer molded plastic package. Next, a perforation can be made in the package to provide access to the MEMS elements. The non-ablative material removal process can include wet etching, dry etching, mechanical machining, water jet cutting, and ultrasonic machining, or any combination thereof. Finally, the MEMS elements can be released by using either a wet etching or dry plasma etching process. The MEMS elements can be protected with a parylene protective coating. After releasing the MEMS elements, an anti-stiction coating can be applied. The perforating step can be applied to both sides of the device or package. A cover lid can be attached to the face of the package after releasing any MEMS elements. The cover lid can include a window for providing optical access. The method can be applied to any plastic packaged microelectronic device that requires access to the environment, including chemical, pressure, or temperature-sensitive microsensors; CCD chips, photocells, laser diodes, VCSEL's, and UV-EPROMS. The present method places the high-risk packaging steps ahead of the release of the fragile portions of the device. It also provides protection for the die in shipment between the molding house and the house that will release the MEMS elements and subsequently treat the surfaces.

  17. Tools and techniques for failure analysis and qualification of MEMS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walraven, Jeremy Allen

    2003-07-01

    Many of the tools and techniques used to evaluate and characterize ICs can be applied to MEMS technology. In this paper we discuss various tools and techniques used to provide structural, chemical, and electrical analysis and how these data aid in qualifying MEMS technologies.

  18. MEMS Pro Design Kit - Parts A, B, and C

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-06-15

    Part A: SUMMiT V design Kit components for use with MEMS Pro from SoftMEMS Part B: SUMMiT V remote DRC and gear generator source code for use with autocad visual basic Part C: SUMMiT V DRC rules source and test cases for Calibre DRC engine

  19. RF-MEMS capacitive switches with high reliability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldsmith, Charles L.; Auciello, Orlando H.; Carlisle, John A.; Sampath, Suresh; Sumant, Anirudha V.; Carpick, Robert W.; Hwang, James; Mancini, Derrick C.; Gudeman, Chris

    2013-09-03

    A reliable long life RF-MEMS capacitive switch is provided with a dielectric layer comprising a "fast discharge diamond dielectric layer" and enabling rapid switch recovery, dielectric layer charging and discharging that is efficient and effective to enable RF-MEMS switch operation to greater than or equal to 100 billion cycles.

  20. Are diamonds a MEM's best friend?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Auciello, O.; Pacheco, S.; Sumant, A. V.; Gudeman, C.; Sampath, S.; Datta, A.; Carpick, R. W.; Adiga, V. P.; Zurcher, P.; Ma, Z.; Yuan, H.-C.; Carlisle, J. A.; Kabius, B.; Hiller, J.; Srinivasan, S.; Freescale Semiconductor; Innovative MicroTech.; Univ. of Pennsylvania; Univ. of Wisconsin at Madison; Advanced Diamond Tech., Inc.; INTEL Res. Lab.

    2007-12-01

    Next-generation military and civilian communication systems will require technologies capable of handling data/ audio, and video simultaneously while supporting multiple RF systems operating in several different frequency bands from the MHz to the GHz range. RF microelectromechani-cal/nanoelectromechanical (MEMS/NEMS) devices, such as resonators and switches, are attractive to industry as they offer a means by which performance can be greatly improved for wireless applications while at the same time potentially reducing overall size and weight as well as manufacturing costs.

  1. The Sandia MEMS passive shock sensor : FY07 maturation activities.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houston, Jack E.; Blecke, Jill; Mitchell, John Anthony; Wittwer, Jonathan W.; Crowson, Douglas A.; Clemens, Rebecca C.; Walraven, Jeremy Allen; Epp, David S.; Baker, Michael Sean

    2008-08-01

    This report describes activities conducted in FY07 to mature the MEMS passive shock sensor. The first chapter of the report provides motivation and background on activities that are described in detail in later chapters. The second chapter discusses concepts that are important for integrating the MEMS passive shock sensor into a system. Following these two introductory chapters, the report details modeling and design efforts, packaging, failure analysis and testing and validation. At the end of FY07, the MEMS passive shock sensor was at TRL 4.

  2. Superhydrophobic Surface Coatings for Microfluidics and MEMs.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Branson, Eric D.; Singh, Seema [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA] [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA; Houston, Jack E.; van Swol, Frank B.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2006-11-01

    Low solid interfacial energy and fractally rough surface topography confer to Lotus plants superhydrophobic (SH) properties like high contact angles, rolling and bouncing of liquid droplets, and self-cleaning of particle contaminants. This project exploits the porous fractal structure of a novel, synthetic SH surface for aerosol collection, its self-cleaning properties for particle concentration, and its slippery nature 3 to enhance the performance of fluidic and MEMS devices. We propose to understand fundamentally the conditions needed to cause liquid droplets to roll rather than flow/slide on a surface and how this %22rolling transition%22 influences the boundary condition describing fluid flow in a pipe or micro-channel. Rolling of droplets is important for aerosol collection strategies because it allows trapped particles to be concentrated and transported in liquid droplets with no need for a pre-defined/micromachined fluidic architecture. The fluid/solid boundary condition is important because it governs flow resistance and rheology and establishes the fluid velocity profile. Although many research groups are exploring SH surfaces, our team is the first to unambiguously determine their effects on fluid flow and rheology. SH surfaces could impact all future SNL designs of collectors, fluidic devices, MEMS, and NEMS. Interfaced with inertial focusing aerosol collectors, SH surfaces would allow size-specific particle populations to be collected, concentrated, and transported to a fluidic interface without loss. In microfluidic systems, we expect to reduce the energy/power required to pump fluids and actuate MEMS. Plug-like (rather than parabolic) velocity profiles can greatly improve resolution of chip-based separations and enable unprecedented control of concentration profiles and residence times in fluidic-based micro-reactors. Patterned SH/hydrophilic channels could induce mixing in microchannels and enable development of microflow control elements

  3. Integrated superhard and metallic coatings for MEMS : LDRD 57300...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... This approach was used to deposit copper, gold and rhodium onto polysilicon MEMS. A method to study the adhesion of these metals to polysilicon was developed. It was also shown ...

  4. Sandia Advanced MEMS Design Tools, V2.1

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2002-02-04

    SUMMiT V (Sandia Ultra planar Multi level MEMS Technology) is a 5 level surface micromachine fabrication technology, which customers intornal and external to Sandia can access to fabricate prototype MEMS devices. This CD contains an integrated set of electronic files that: a) Describe the SUMMiT V fabrication process b) Provide enabling educational information (including pictures, videos, technical information) c) Facilitate the process of designing MEMS with the SUMMiT process (prototype file, Design Rule Checker, Standardmore » Parts Library) d) Facilitate the process of having MEMS fabricated at Sandia National Laboratories e) Facilitate the process of having post-fabrication services performed. While there exist some files on the CD that are used in conjunction with software package AutoCAD, these files are not intended for use independent of the CD. Nole that the customer must purchase his/her own copy of Aut0CAD to use with these files.« less

  5. The Sandia MEMS passive shock sensor : FY08 design summary. ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: The Sandia MEMS passive shock sensor : FY08 design summary. Citation ... Word Cloud More Like This Full Text preview image File size NAView Full Text View Full ...

  6. The Sandia MEMS Passive Shock Sensor : FY08 failure analysis...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: The Sandia MEMS Passive Shock Sensor : FY08 failure analysis activities. ... Word Cloud More Like This Full Text preview image File size NAView Full Text View Full ...

  7. The MEMS Technology Revolution Is Beginning | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Some of the very first MEMS devices were ink-jet print heads and pressure sensors. Later ... devices are used in different parts of a car including the engine, tires and the airbags. ...

  8. Planarization techniques for MEMS: enabling new structures and enhancing manufacturability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, J.H.

    1996-12-31

    Planarization techniques such as chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) have emerged as enabling technologies for the manufacturing of multi- level metal interconnects used in high-density Integrated Circuits (IC). An overview of general planarization techniques for MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) and, in particular, the extension of CMP from sub-micron IC manufacturing to the fabrication of complex surface-micromachined MEMS will be presented. Planarization technique alleviates processing problems associated with fabrication of multi-level polysilicon structures, eliminates design constraints linked with non-planar topography, and provides an avenue for integrating different process technologies. The CMP process and present examples of the use of CMP in fabricating MEMS devices such as microengines, pressure sensors, and proof masses for accelerometers along with its use for monolithically integrating MEMS devices with microelectronics are presented.

  9. MEMS inertial sensors with integral rotation means.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohler, Stewart M.

    2003-09-01

    The state-of-the-art of inertial micro-sensors (gyroscopes and accelerometers) has advanced to the point where they are displacing the more traditional sensors in many size, power, and/or cost-sensitive applications. A factor limiting the range of application of inertial micro-sensors has been their relatively poor bias stability. The incorporation of an integral sensitive axis rotation capability would enable bias mitigation through proven techniques such as indexing, and foster the use of inertial micro-sensors in more accuracy-sensitive applications. Fabricating the integral rotation mechanism in MEMS technology would minimize the penalties associated with incorporation of this capability, and preserve the inherent advantages of inertial micro-sensors.

  10. Mechanics and tribology of MEMS materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prasad, Somuri V.; Dugger, Michael Thomas; Boyce, Brad Lee; Buchheit, Thomas Edward

    2004-04-01

    Micromachines have the potential to significantly impact future weapon component designs as well as other defense, industrial, and consumer product applications. For both electroplated (LIGA) and surface micromachined (SMM) structural elements, the influence of processing on structure, and the resultant effects on material properties are not well understood. The behavior of dynamic interfaces in present as-fabricated microsystem materials is inadequate for most applications and the fundamental relationships between processing conditions and tribological behavior in these systems are not clearly defined. We intend to develop a basic understanding of deformation, fracture, and surface interactions responsible for friction and wear of microelectromechanical system (MEMS) materials. This will enable needed design flexibility for these devices, as well as strengthen our understanding of material behavior at the nanoscale. The goal of this project is to develop new capabilities for sub-microscale mechanical and tribological measurements, and to exercise these capabilities to investigate material behavior at this size scale.

  11. Development of MEMS based pyroelectric thermal energy harvesters

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Development of MEMS based pyroelectric thermal energy harvesters Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Development of MEMS based pyroelectric thermal energy harvesters The efficient conversion of waste thermal energy into electrical energy is of considerable interest due to the huge sources of low-grade thermal energy available in technologically advanced societies. Our group at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is developing a new type

  12. MEMS packaging with etching and thinning of lid wafer to form lids and expose device wafer bond pads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chanchani, Rajen; Nordquist, Christopher; Olsson, Roy H; Peterson, Tracy C; Shul, Randy J; Ahlers, Catalina; Plut, Thomas A; Patrizi, Gary A

    2013-12-03

    In wafer-level packaging of microelectromechanical (MEMS) devices a lid wafer is bonded to a MEMS wafer in a predermined aligned relationship. Portions of the lid wafer are removed to separate the lid wafer into lid portions that respectively correspond in alignment with MEMS devices on the MEMS wafer, and to expose areas of the MEMS wafer that respectively contain sets of bond pads respectively coupled to the MEMS devices.

  13. High-G testing of MEMS mechanical non-volatile memory and silicon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: High-G testing of MEMS mechanical non-volatile memory and silicon re-entry switch. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-G testing of MEMS mechanical ...

  14. High-G testing of MEMS mechanical non-volatile memory and silicon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High-G testing of MEMS mechanical non-volatile memory and silicon re-entry switch. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-G testing of MEMS mechanical non-volatile memory ...

  15. On-chip monitoring of MEMS gear motion. (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: On-chip monitoring of MEMS gear motion. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: On-chip monitoring of MEMS gear motion. We have designed and fabricated a polysilicon ...

  16. Integrated optical MEMS using through-wafer vias and bump-bonding.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormick, Frederick Bossert; Frederick, Scott K.

    2008-01-01

    This LDRD began as a three year program to integrate through-wafer vias, micro-mirrors and control electronics with high-voltage capability to yield a 64 by 64 array of individually controllable micro-mirrors on 125 or 250 micron pitch with piston, tip and tilt movement. The effort was a mix of R&D and application. Care was taken to create SUMMiT{trademark} (Sandia's ultraplanar, multilevel MEMS technology) compatible via and mirror processes, and the ultimate goal was to mate this MEMS fabrication product to a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electronics substrate. Significant progress was made on the via and mirror fabrication and design, the attach process development as well as the electronics high voltage (30 volt) and control designs. After approximately 22 months, the program was ready to proceed with fabrication and integration of the electronics, final mirror array, and through wafer vias to create a high resolution OMEMS array with individual mirror electronic control. At this point, however, mission alignment and budget constraints reduced the last year program funding and redirected the program to help support the through-silicon via work in the Hyper-Temporal Sensors (HTS) Grand Challenge (GC) LDRD. Several months of investigation and discussion with the HTS team resulted in a revised plan for the remaining 10 months of the program. We planned to build a capability in finer-pitched via fabrication on thinned substrates along with metallization schemes and bonding techniques for very large arrays of high density interconnects (up to 2000 x 2000 vias). Through this program, Sandia was able to build capability in several different conductive through wafer via processes using internal and external resources, MEMS mirror design and fabrication, various bonding techniques for arrayed substrates, and arrayed electronics control design with high voltage capability.

  17. The use of a high-order MEMS deformable mirror in the Gemini Planet Imager

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect The use of a high-order MEMS deformable mirror in the Gemini Planet Imager Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The use of a high-order MEMS deformable mirror in the Gemini Planet Imager We briefly review the development history of the Gemini Planet Imager's 4K Boston Micromachines MEMS deformable mirror. We discuss essential calibration steps and algorithms to control the MEMS with nanometer precision, including voltage-phase calibration and influence

  18. In the OSTI Collections: MEMS | OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Scientific and Technical Information MEMS View Past "In the OSTI Collections" Articles. Article Acknowledgement: Dr. William N. Watson, Physicist DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information MEMS as Sensors MEMS as Actuators The Characterization of MEMS References Research Organizations Reports available through SciTech Connect Patents available through DOepatents Report Cited in SciTech Connect Additional References The information-processing components in today's computers

  19. Differentially-driven MEMS spatial light modulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stappaerts, Eddy A.

    2004-09-14

    A MEMS SLM and an electrostatic actuator associated with a pixel in an SLM. The actuator has three electrodes: a lower electrode; an upper electrode fixed with respect to the lower electrode; and a center electrode suspended and actuable between the upper and lower electrodes. The center electrode is capable of resiliently-biasing to restore the center electrode to a non-actuated first equilibrium position, and a mirror is operably connected to the center electrode. A first voltage source provides a first bias voltage across the lower and center electrodes and a second voltage source provides a second bias voltage across the upper and center electrodes, with the first and second bias voltages determining the non-actuated first equilibrium position of the center electrode. A third voltage source provides a variable driver voltage across one of the lower/center and upper/center electrode pairs in series with the corresponding first or second bias voltage, to actuate the center electrode to a dynamic second equilibrium position.

  20. Novel Fabrication and Simple Hybridization of Exotic Material MEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Datskos, P.G.; Rajic, S.

    1999-11-13

    Work in materials other than silicon for MEMS applications has typically been restricted to metals and metal oxides instead of more ''exotic'' semiconductors. However, group III-V and II-VI semiconductors form a very important and versatile collection of material and electronic parameters available to the MEMS and MOEMS designer. With these materials, not only are the traditional mechanical material variables (thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, Young's modulus, etc.) available, but also chemical constituents can be varied in ternary and quaternary materials. This flexibility can be extremely important for both friction and chemical compatibility issues for MEMS. In addition, the ability to continually vary the bandgap energy can be particularly useful for many electronics and infrared detection applications. However, there are two major obstacles associated with alternate semiconductor material MEMS. The first issue is the actual fabrication of non-silicon devices and the second impediment is communicating with these novel devices. We will describe an essentially material independent fabrication method that is amenable to most group III-V and II-VI semiconductors. This technique uses a combination of non-traditional direct write precision fabrication processes such as diamond turning, ion milling, laser ablation, etc. This type of deterministic fabrication approach lends itself to an almost trivial assembly process. We will also describe in detail the mechanical, electrical, and optical self-aligning hybridization technique used for these alternate-material MEMS.

  1. MEMS: A new approach to micro-optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sniegowski, J.J.

    1997-12-31

    MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) and their fabrication technologies provide great opportunities for application to micro-optical systems (MOEMS). Implementing MOEMS technology ranges from simple, passive components to complicated, active systems. Here, an overview of polysilicon surface micromachining MEMS combined with optics is presented. Recent advancements to the technology, which may enhance its appeal for micro-optics applications are emphasized. Of all the MEMS fabrication technologies, polysilicon surface micromachining technology has the greatest basis in and leverages the most the infrastructure for silicon integrated circuit fabrication. In that respect, it provides the potential for very large volume, inexpensive production of MOEMS. This paper highlights polysilicon surface micromachining technology in regards to its capability to provide both passive and active mechanical elements with quality optical elements.

  2. SAMPLE (Sandia Agile MEMS Prototyping, Layout tools, and Education)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davies, B.R.; Barron, C.C.; Sniegowski, J.J.; Rodgers, M.S.

    1997-08-01

    The SAMPLE (Sandia Agile MEMS Protyping, Layout tools, and Education) service makes Sandia`s state-of-the-art surface-micromachining fabrication process, known as SUMMiT, available to US industry for the first time. The service provides a short cause and customized computer-aided design (CAD) tools to assist customers in designing micromachine prototypes to be fabricated in SUMMiT. Frequent small-scale manufacturing runs then provide SAMPLE designers with hundreds of sophisticated MEMS (MicroElectroMechanical Systems) chips. SUMMiT (Sandia Ultra-planar, Multi-level MEMS Technology) offers unique surface-micromachining capabilities, including four levels of polycrystalline silicon (including the ground layer), flanged hubs, substrate contacts, one-micron design rules, and chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) planarization. This paper describes the SUMMiT process, design tools, and other information relevant to the SAMPLE service and SUMMiT process.

  3. Hidden Challenges to MEMS Commercialization: Design Realization and Reliability Assurance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McWhorter, P.J.; Miller, S.L.; Miller, W.M.; Rodger, M.S.; Yarberry, V.R.

    1999-01-20

    The successful commercialization of MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) is an essential prerequisite for their implementation in many critical government applications. Several unique challenges must be overcome to achieve this widespread commercialization. Challenges associated with design realization and reliability assurance are discussed, along with approaches taken by Sandia to successfully overcome these challenges.

  4. The Sandia MEMS passive shock sensor : FY08 design summary. (Technical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: The Sandia MEMS passive shock sensor : FY08 design summary. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Sandia MEMS passive shock sensor : FY08 design summary. This report summarizes design and modeling activities for the MEMS passive shock sensor. It provides a description of past design revisions, including the purposes and major differences between design revisions but with a focus on Revisions 4 through 7 and the work performed in fiscal

  5. Thin Silicon MEMS Contact-Stress Sensor (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Thin Silicon MEMS Contact-Stress Sensor Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thin Silicon MEMS Contact-Stress Sensor This thin, MEMS contact-stress (CS) sensor continuously and accurately measures time-varying, solid interface loads in embedded systems over tens of thousands of load cycles. Unlike all other interface load sensors, the CS sensor is extremely thin (< 150 {micro}m), provides accurate, high-speed measurements, and exhibits good stability over time with no loss

  6. Piston-Driven Fluid Ejectors In Silicon Mems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Galambos, Paul C.; Benavides, Gilbert L.; Jokiel, Jr., Bernhard; Jakubczak II, Jerome F.

    2005-05-03

    A surface-micromachined fluid-ejection apparatus is disclosed which utilizes a piston to provide for the ejection of jets or drops of a fluid (e.g. for ink-jet printing). The piston, which is located at least partially inside a fluid reservoir, is moveable into a cylindrical fluid-ejection chamber connected to the reservoir by a microelectromechanical (MEM) actuator which is located outside the reservoir. In this way, the reservoir and fluid-ejection chamber can be maintained as electric-field-free regions thereby allowing the apparatus to be used with fluids that are electrically conductive or which may react or break down in the presence of a high electric field. The MEM actuator can comprise either an electrostatic actuator or a thermal actuator.

  7. Damage of MEMS thermal actuators heated by laser irradiation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walraven, Jeremy Allen; Klody, Kelly Anne; Sackos, John T.; Phinney, Leslie Mary

    2005-01-01

    Optical actuation of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is advantageous for applications for which electrical isolation is desired. Thirty-two polycrystalline silicon opto-thermal actuators, optically-powered MEMS thermal actuators, were designed, fabricated, and tested. The design of the opto-thermal actuators consists of a target for laser illumination suspended between angled legs that expand when heated, providing the displacement and force output. While the amount of displacement observed for the opto-thermal actuators was fairly uniform for the actuators, the amount of damage resulting from the laser heating ranged from essentially no damage to significant amounts of damage on the target. The likelihood of damage depended on the target design with two of the four target designs being more susceptible to damage. Failure analysis of damaged targets revealed the extent and depth of the damage.

  8. Damage of MEMS thermal actuators heated by laser irradiation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walraven, Jeremy Allen; Klody, Kelly Anne; Sackos, John T.; Phinney, Leslie Mary

    2004-11-01

    Optical actuation of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is advantageous for applications for which electrical isolation is desired. Thirty-two polycrystalline silicon opto-thermal actuators, optically-powered MEMS thermal actuators, were designed, fabricated, and tested. The design of the opto-thermal actuators consists of a target for laser illumination suspended between angled legs that expand when heated, providing the displacement and force output. While the amount of displacement observed for the opto-thermal actuators was fairly uniform for the actuators, the amount of damage resulting from the laser heating ranged from essentially no damage to significant amounts of damage on the target. The likelihood of damage depended on the target design with two of the four target designs being more susceptible to damage. Failure analysis of damaged targets revealed the extent and depth of the damage.

  9. The Sandia MEMS Passive Shock Sensor : FY08 testing for functionality...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Shock Sensor : FY08 testing for functionality, model validation, and technology readiness. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Sandia MEMS Passive Shock Sensor : FY08 ...

  10. Next-gen RF MEMS Switch for a Smarter, Faster Internet of Things...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RF MEMS Switch for a Smarter, Faster Internet of Things Karen Lightman 2014.03.28 Big Data. Internet of Things. Quantified Self. Connected Home. Connected City. These...

  11. Thin Silicon MEMS Contact-Stress Sensor (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    thin, MEMS contact-stress (CS) sensor continuously and accurately measures time-varying, ... and exhibits good stability over time with no loss of calibration with load cycling. ...

  12. Thin Silicon MEMS Contact-Stress Sensor (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Thin Silicon MEMS Contact-Stress Sensor Citation Details In-Document Search ... and exhibits good stability over time with no loss of calibration with load cycling. ...

  13. Performance and characterization of a MEMS-based device for alignment...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of a MEMS-based device for alignment and manipulation of x-ray nanofocusing optics Xu, Weihe Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, 11973 USA; Lauer, Kenneth...

  14. Critical issues for the application of integrated MEMS/CMOS technologies to inertial measurement units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, J.H.; Ellis, J.R.; Montague, S.; Allen, J.J.

    1997-03-01

    One of the principal applications of monolithically integrated micromechanical/microelectronic systems has been accelerometers for automotive applications. As integrated MEMS/CMOS technologies such as those developed by U.C. Berkeley, Analog Devices, and Sandia National Laboratories mature, additional systems for more sensitive inertial measurements will enter the commercial marketplace. In this paper, the authors will examine key technology design rules which impact the performance and cost of inertial measurement devices manufactured in integrated MEMS/CMOS technologies. These design parameters include: (1) minimum MEMS feature size, (2) minimum CMOS feature size, (3) maximum MEMS linear dimension, (4) number of mechanical MEMS layers, (5) MEMS/CMOS spacing. In particular, the embedded approach to integration developed at Sandia will be examined in the context of these technology features. Presently, this technology offers MEMS feature sizes as small as 1 {micro}m, CMOS critical dimensions of 1.25 {micro}m, MEMS linear dimensions of 1,000 {micro}m, a single mechanical level of polysilicon, and a 100 {micro}m space between MEMS and CMOS. This is applicable to modern precision guided munitions.

  15. In the OSTI Collections: MEMS | OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... entitled "MEMS based pyroelectric thermal energy harvester"DOepatents (US Patent ... much of this could be turned into useful energyWikipedia, but present-day conversion ...

  16. Friction of different monolayer lubricants in MEMs interfaces.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpick, Robert W. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Street, Mark D.; Ashurst, William Robert; Corwin, Alex David

    2006-01-01

    This report details results from our last year of work (FY2005) on friction in MEMS as funded by the Campaign 6 program for the Microscale Friction project. We have applied different monolayers to a sensitive MEMS friction tester called the nanotractor. The nanotractor is also a useful actuator that can travel {+-}100 {micro}m in 40 nm steps, and is being considered for several MEMS applications. With this tester, we can find static and dynamic coefficients of friction. We can also quantify deviations from Amontons' and Coulomb's friction laws. Because of the huge surface-to-volume ratio at the microscale, surface properties such as adhesion and friction can dominate device performance, and therefore such deviations are important to quantify and understand. We find that static and dynamic friction depend on the monolayer lubricant applied. The friction data can be modeled with a non-zero adhesion force, which represents a deviation from Amontons' Law. Further, we show preliminary data indicating that the adhesion force depends not only on the monolayer, but also on the normal load applied. Finally, we also observe slip deflections before the transition from static to dynamic friction, and find that they depend on the monolayer.

  17. MEMS-based thin-film fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowksi, Alan F.; Morse, Jeffrey D.

    2003-10-28

    A micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) based thin-film fuel cells for electrical power applications. The MEMS-based fuel cell may be of a solid oxide type (SOFC), a solid polymer type (SPFC), or a proton exchange membrane type (PEMFC), and each fuel cell basically consists of an anode and a cathode separated by an electrolyte layer. Additionally catalyst layers can also separate the electrodes (cathode and anode) from the electrolyte. Gas manifolds are utilized to transport the fuel and oxidant to each cell and provide a path for exhaust gases. The electrical current generated from each cell is drawn away with an interconnect and support structure integrated with the gas manifold. The fuel cells utilize integrated resistive heaters for efficient heating of the materials. By combining MEMS technology with thin-film deposition technology, thin-film fuel cells having microflow channels and full-integrated circuitry can be produced that will lower the operating temperature an will yield an order of magnitude greater power density than the currently known fuel cells.

  18. Selective W for coating and releasing MEMS devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mani, S.S.; Fleming, J.G.; Sniegowski, J.J.; Boer, M.P. de; Irwin, L.W.; Walraven, J.A.; Tanner, D.M.; Lavan, D.A.

    2000-01-04

    Two major problems associated with Si-based MEMS (MicroElectroMechanical Systems) devices are stiction and wear. Surface modifications are needed to reduce both adhesion and friction in micromechanical structures to solve these problems. In this paper, the authors will present a CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition) process that selectively coats MEMS devices with tungsten and significantly enhances device durability. Tungsten CVD is used in the integrated-circuit industry, which makes this approach manufacturable. This selective deposition process results in a very conformal coating and can potentially address both stiction and wear problems confronting MEMS processing. The selective deposition of tungsten is accomplished through the silicon reduction of WF{sub 6}. The self-limiting nature of this selective W deposition process ensures the consistency necessary for process control. The tungsten is deposited after the removal of the sacrificial oxides to minimize stress and process integration problems. Tungsten coating adheres well and is hard and conducting, requirements for device performance. Furthermore, since the deposited tungsten infiltrates under adhered silicon parts and the volume of W deposited is less than the amount of Si consumed, it appears to be possible to release stuck parts that are contacted over small areas such as dimples. The wear resistance of selectively coated W parts has been shown to be significantly improved on microengine test structures.

  19. Validation of thermal models for a prototypical MEMS thermal actuator.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallis, Michail A.; Torczynski, John Robert; Piekos, Edward Stanley; Serrano, Justin Raymond; Gorby, Allen D.; Phinney, Leslie Mary

    2008-09-01

    This report documents technical work performed to complete the ASC Level 2 Milestone 2841: validation of thermal models for a prototypical MEMS thermal actuator. This effort requires completion of the following task: the comparison between calculated and measured temperature profiles of a heated stationary microbeam in air. Such heated microbeams are prototypical structures in virtually all electrically driven microscale thermal actuators. This task is divided into four major subtasks. (1) Perform validation experiments on prototypical heated stationary microbeams in which material properties such as thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity are measured if not known and temperature profiles along the beams are measured as a function of electrical power and gas pressure. (2) Develop a noncontinuum gas-phase heat-transfer model for typical MEMS situations including effects such as temperature discontinuities at gas-solid interfaces across which heat is flowing, and incorporate this model into the ASC FEM heat-conduction code Calore to enable it to simulate these effects with good accuracy. (3) Develop a noncontinuum solid-phase heat transfer model for typical MEMS situations including an effective thermal conductivity that depends on device geometry and grain size, and incorporate this model into the FEM heat-conduction code Calore to enable it to simulate these effects with good accuracy. (4) Perform combined gas-solid heat-transfer simulations using Calore with these models for the experimentally investigated devices, and compare simulation and experimental temperature profiles to assess model accuracy. These subtasks have been completed successfully, thereby completing the milestone task. Model and experimental temperature profiles are found to be in reasonable agreement for all cases examined. Modest systematic differences appear to be related to uncertainties in the geometric dimensions of the test structures and in the thermal conductivity of the

  20. Micro Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) Pressure Sensor for Footwear

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kholwadwala, Deepesh K.; Rohrer, Brandon R.; Spletzer, Barry L.; Galambos, Paul C.; Wheeler, Jason W.; Hobart, Clinton G.; Givler, Richard C.

    2008-09-23

    Footwear comprises a sole and a plurality of sealed cavities contained within the sole. The sealed cavities can be incorporated as deformable containers within an elastic medium, comprising the sole. A plurality of micro electro-mechanical system (MEMS) pressure sensors are respectively contained within the sealed cavity plurality, and can be adapted to measure static and dynamic pressure within each of the sealed cavities. The pressure measurements can provide information relating to the contact pressure distribution between the sole of the footwear and the wearer's environment.

  1. Tunable cavity resonator including a plurality of MEMS beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peroulis, Dimitrios; Fruehling, Adam; Small, Joshua Azariah; Liu, Xiaoguang; Irshad, Wasim; Arif, Muhammad Shoaib

    2015-10-20

    A tunable cavity resonator includes a substrate, a cap structure, and a tuning assembly. The cap structure extends from the substrate, and at least one of the substrate and the cap structure defines a resonator cavity. The tuning assembly is positioned at least partially within the resonator cavity. The tuning assembly includes a plurality of fixed-fixed MEMS beams configured for controllable movement relative to the substrate between an activated position and a deactivated position in order to tune a resonant frequency of the tunable cavity resonator.

  2. Charging characteritiscs of ultrananocrystalline diamond in RF MEMS capacitive switches.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sumant, A. V.; Goldsmith, C.; Auciello, O.; Carlisle, J.; Zheng, H.; Hwang, J. C. M.; Palego, C.; Wang, W.; Carpick, R.; Adiga, V.; Datta, A.; Gudeman, C.; O'Brien, S.; Sampath, S.

    2010-05-01

    Modifications to a standard capacitive MEMS switch process have been made to allow the incorporation of ultra-nano-crystalline diamond as the switch dielectric. The impact on electromechanical performance is minimal. However, these devices exhibit uniquely different charging characteristics, with charging and discharging time constants 5-6 orders of magnitude quicker than conventional materials. This operation opens the possibility of devices which have no adverse effects of dielectric charging and can be operated near-continuously in the actuated state without significant degradation in reliability.

  3. Progress toward a MEMS fabricated 100 GHz oscillator.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loubriel, Guillermo Manuel; Lemp, Thomas; Weyn, Mark L.; Coleman, Phillip Dale; Rowley, James E.

    2006-02-01

    This report summarizes an LDRD effort which looked at the feasibility of building a MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) fabricated 100 GHz micro vacuum tube. PIC Simulations proved to be a very useful tool in investigating various device designs. Scaling parameters were identified. This in turn allowed predictions of oscillator growth based on beam parameters, cavity geometry, and cavity loading. The electron beam source was identified as a critical element of the design. FEA's (Field Emission Arrays) were purchased to be built into the micro device. Laboratory testing of the FEA's was also performed which pointed out care and handling issues along with maximum current capabilities. Progress was made toward MEMS fabrication of the device. Techniques were developed and successfully employed to build up several of the subassemblies of the device. However, the lower wall fabrication proved to be difficult and a successful build was not completed. Alternative approaches to building this structure have been identified. Although these alternatives look like good solutions for building the device, it was not possible to complete a redesign and build during the timeframe of this effort.

  4. The use of a high-order MEMS deformable mirror in the Gemini Planet Imager

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poyneer, L A; Bauman, B; Cornelissen, S; Jones, S; Macintosh, B; Palmer, D; Isaacs, J

    2010-12-17

    We briefly review the development history of the Gemini Planet Imager's 4K Boston Micromachines MEMS deformable mirror. We discuss essential calibration steps and algorithms to control the MEMS with nanometer precision, including voltage-phase calibration and influence function characterization. We discuss the integration of the MEMS into GPI's Adaptive Optics system at Lawrence Livermore and present experimental results of 1.5 kHz closed-loop control. We detail mitigation strategies in the coronagraph to reduce the impact of abnormal actuators on final image contrast.

  5. Thin Silicon MEMS Contact-Stress Sensor (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    work offers the first, thin, MEMS contact-stress (CS) sensor capable of accurate in situ measruement of time-varying, contact-stress between two solid interfaces (e.g. in vivo ...

  6. Performance of a MEMS-base Adaptive Optics Optical Coherency Tomography System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, J; Zadwadzki, R J; Jones, S; Olivier, S; Opkpodu, S; Werner, J S

    2008-01-16

    We have demonstrated that a microelectrical mechanical systems (MEMS) deformable mirror can be flattened to < 1 nm RMS within controllable spatial frequencies over a 9.2-mm aperture making it a viable option for high-contrast adaptive optics systems (also known as Extreme Adaptive Optics). The Extreme Adaptive Optics Testbed at UC Santa Cruz is being used to investigate and develop technologies for high-contrast imaging, especially wavefront control. A phase shifting diffraction interferometer (PSDI) measures wavefront errors with sub-nm precision and accuracy for metrology and wavefront control. Consistent flattening, required testing and characterization of the individual actuator response, including the effects of dead and low-response actuators. Stability and repeatability of the MEMS devices was also tested. An error budget for MEMS closed loop performance will summarize MEMS characterization.

  7. Inertial sensing microelectromechanical (MEM) safe-arm device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roesler, Alexander W.; Wooden, Susan M.

    2009-05-12

    Microelectromechanical (MEM) safe-arm devices comprise a substrate upon which a sense mass, that can contain an energetic material, is constrained to move along a pathway defined by a track disposed on the surface of the substrate. The pathway has a first end comprising a "safe" position and a second end comprising an "armed" position, whereat the second end the sense mass can be aligned proximal to energetic materials comprising the explosive train, within an explosive component. The sense mass can be confined in the safe position by a first latch, operable to release the sense mass by an acceleration acting in a direction substantially normal to the surface of the substrate. A second acceleration, acting in a direction substantially parallel to the surface of the substrate, can cause the sense mass to traverse the pathway from the safe position to the armed position.

  8. Method and system for automated on-chip material and structural certification of MEMS devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinclair, Michael B.; DeBoer, Maarten P.; Smith, Norman F.; Jensen, Brian D.; Miller, Samuel L.

    2003-05-20

    A new approach toward MEMS quality control and materials characterization is provided by a combined test structure measurement and mechanical response modeling approach. Simple test structures are cofabricated with the MEMS devices being produced. These test structures are designed to isolate certain types of physical response, so that measurement of their behavior under applied stress can be easily interpreted as quality control and material properties information.

  9. Ultrananocrystalline diamond films with optimized dielectric properties for advanced RF MEMS capacitive switches

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sumant, Anirudha V.; Auciello, Orlando H.; Mancini, Derrick C.

    2013-01-15

    An efficient deposition process is provided for fabricating reliable RF MEMS capacitive switches with multilayer ultrananocrystalline (UNCD) films for more rapid recovery, charging and discharging that is effective for more than a billion cycles of operation. Significantly, the deposition process is compatible for integration with CMOS electronics and thereby can provide monolithically integrated RF MEMS capacitive switches for use with CMOS electronic devices, such as for insertion into phase array antennas for radars and other RF communication systems.

  10. Integration of optoelectronics and MEMS by free-space micro-optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WARREN,MIAL E.; SPAHN,OLGA B.; SWEATT,WILLIAM C.; SHUL,RANDY J.; WENDT,JOEL R.; VAWTER,GREGORY A.; KRYGOWSKI,TOM W.; REYES,DAVID NMN; RODGERS,M. STEVEN; SNIEGOWSKI,JEFFRY J.

    2000-06-01

    This report represents the completion of a three-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program to investigate combining microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) with optoelectronic components as a means of realizing compact optomechanical subsystems. Some examples of possible applications are laser beam scanning, switching and routing and active focusing, spectral filtering or shattering of optical sources. The two technologies use dissimilar materials with significant compatibility problems for a common process line. This project emphasized a hybrid approach to integrating optoelectronics and MEMS. Significant progress was made in developing processing capabilities for adding optical function to MEMS components, such as metal mirror coatings and through-vias in the substrate. These processes were used to demonstrate two integration examples, a MEMS discriminator driven by laser illuminated photovoltaic cells and a MEMS shutter or chopper. Another major difficulty with direct integration is providing the optical path for the MEMS components to interact with the light. The authors explored using folded optical paths in a transparent substrate to provide the interconnection route between the components of the system. The components can be surface-mounted by flip-chip bonding to the substrate. Micro-optics can be fabricated into the substrate to reflect and refocus the light so that it can propagate from one device to another and them be directed out of the substrate into free space. The MEMS components do not require the development of transparent optics and can be completely compatible with the current 5-level polysilicon process. They report progress on a MEMS-based laser scanner using these concepts.

  11. MEMS closed-loop control incorporating a memristor as feedback sensing element

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Garcia, Ernest J.; Almeida, Sergio F.; Mireles, Jr., Jose; Zubia, David

    2015-12-01

    In this work the integration of a memristor with a MEMS parallel plate capacitor coupled by an amplification stage is simulated. It is shown that the MEMS upper plate position can be controlled up to 95% of the total gap. Due to its common operation principle, the change in the MEMS plate position can be interpreted by the change in the memristor resistance, or memristance. A memristance modulation of ~1 KΩ was observed. A polynomial expression representing the MEMS upper plate displacement as a function of the memristance is presented. Thereafter a simple design for a voltage closed-loop control ismore » presented showing that the MEMS upper plate can be stabilized up to 95% of the total gap using the memristor as a feedback sensing element. As a result, the memristor can play important dual roles in overcoming the limited operation range of MEMS parallel plate capacitors and in simplifying read-out circuits of those devices by representing the motion of the upper plate in the form of resistance change instead of capacitance change.« less

  12. MEMS closed-loop control incorporating a memristor as feedback sensing element

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia, Ernest J.; Almeida, Sergio F.; Mireles, Jr., Jose; Zubia, David

    2015-12-01

    In this work the integration of a memristor with a MEMS parallel plate capacitor coupled by an amplification stage is simulated. It is shown that the MEMS upper plate position can be controlled up to 95% of the total gap. Due to its common operation principle, the change in the MEMS plate position can be interpreted by the change in the memristor resistance, or memristance. A memristance modulation of ~1 KΩ was observed. A polynomial expression representing the MEMS upper plate displacement as a function of the memristance is presented. Thereafter a simple design for a voltage closed-loop control is presented showing that the MEMS upper plate can be stabilized up to 95% of the total gap using the memristor as a feedback sensing element. As a result, the memristor can play important dual roles in overcoming the limited operation range of MEMS parallel plate capacitors and in simplifying read-out circuits of those devices by representing the motion of the upper plate in the form of resistance change instead of capacitance change.

  13. Ultrasensitive measurement of MEMS cantilever displacement sensitivity below the shot noise limit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pooser, Raphael C; Lawrie, Benjamin J

    2015-01-01

    The displacement of micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMs) cantilevers is used to measure a variety of phe- nomena in devices ranging from force microscopes for single spin detection[1] to biochemical sensors[2] to un- cooled thermal imaging systems[3]. The displacement readout is often performed optically with segmented de- tectors or interference measurements. Until recently, var- ious noise sources have limited the minimum detectable displacement in MEMs systems, but it is now possible to minimize all other sources[4] so that the noise level of the coherent light eld, called the shot noise limit (SNL), becomes the dominant source. Light sources dis- playing quantum-enhanced statistics below this limit are available[5, 6], with applications in gravitational wave astronomy[7] and bioimaging[8], but direct displacement measurements of MEMS cantilevers below the SNL have been impossible until now. Here, we demonstrate the rst direct measurement of a MEMs cantilever displace- ment with sub-SNL sensitivity, thus enabling ultratrace sensing, imaging, and microscopy applications. By com- bining multi-spatial-mode quantum light sources with a simple dierential measurement, we show that sub-SNL MEMs displacement sensitivity is highly accessible com- pared to previous eorts that measured the displacement of macroscopic mirrors with very distinct spatial struc- tures crafted with multiple optical parametric ampliers and locking loops[9]. We apply this technique to a com- mercially available microcantilever in order to detect dis- placements 60% below the SNL at frequencies where the microcantilever is shot-noise-limited. These results sup- port a new class of quantum MEMS sensor whose ulti- mate signal to noise ratio is determined by the correla- tions possible in quantum optics systems.

  14. MEMS Switches Are XS in Size, XXL in Power | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MEMS Switches Are XS in Size, XXL in Power Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) MEMS Switches Are XS in Size, XXL in Power Chris Keimel 2012.09.28 Walk into a dark room and flip a light switch on. This simple action connected an electrical circuit and caused a light to illuminate the room. That switch is a

  15. Improved Design of Optical MEMS Using the SUMMiT Fabrication Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michalicek, M.A.; Comtois, J.H.; Barron, C.C.

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the design and fabrication of optical Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) devices using the Sandia Ultra planar Multilevel MEMS Technology (SUMMiT) fabrication process. This state of the art process, offered by Sandia National Laboratories, provides unique and very advantageous features which make it ideal for optical devices. This enabling process permits the development of micromirror devices with near ideal characteristics which have previously been unrealizable in standard polysilicon processes. This paper describes such characteristics as elevated address electrodes, individual address wiring beneath the device, planarized mirror surfaces, unique post-process metallization, and the best active surface area to date.

  16. Research and Development of Non-Spectroscopic MEMS-Based Sensor Arrays for

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Targeted Gas Detection (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Research and Development of Non-Spectroscopic MEMS-Based Sensor Arrays for Targeted Gas Detection Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Research and Development of Non-Spectroscopic MEMS-Based Sensor Arrays for Targeted Gas Detection Authors: Loui, A ; McCall, S K ; Zumstein, J M Publication Date: 2012-11-21 OSTI Identifier: 1059450 Report Number(s): LLNL-TR-606593 DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-48 Resource Type: Technical

  17. Patterning of nanocrystalline diamond films for diamond microstructures useful in MEMS and other devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, Dieter M.; Busmann, Hans-Gerd; Meyer, Eva-Maria; Auciello, Orlando; Krauss, Alan R.; Krauss, Julie R.

    2004-11-02

    MEMS structure and a method of fabricating them from ultrananocrystalline diamond films having average grain sizes of less than about 10 nm and feature resolution of less than about one micron . The MEMS structures are made by contacting carbon dimer species with an oxide substrate forming a carbide layer on the surface onto which ultrananocrystalline diamond having average grain sizes of less than about 10 nm is deposited. Thereafter, microfabrication process are used to form a structure of predetermined shape having a feature resolution of less than about one micron.

  18. MEMS-based fuel cells with integrated catalytic fuel processor and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowski, Alan F.; Morse, Jeffrey D.; Upadhye, Ravindra S.; Havstad, Mark A.

    2011-08-09

    Described herein is a means to incorporate catalytic materials into the fuel flow field structures of MEMS-based fuel cells, which enable catalytic reforming of a hydrocarbon based fuel, such as methane, methanol, or butane. Methods of fabrication are also disclosed.

  19. A dynamic system matching technique for improving the accuracy of MEMS gyroscopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stubberud, Peter A.; Stubberud, Stephen C.; Stubberud, Allen R.

    2014-12-10

    A classical MEMS gyro transforms angular rates into electrical values through Euler's equations of angular rotation. Production models of a MEMS gyroscope will have manufacturing errors in the coefficients of the differential equations. The output signal of a production gyroscope will be corrupted by noise, with a major component of the noise due to the manufacturing errors. As is the case of the components in an analog electronic circuit, one way of controlling the variability of a subsystem is to impose extremely tight control on the manufacturing process so that the coefficient values are within some specified bounds. This can be expensive and may even be impossible as is the case in certain applications of micro-electromechanical (MEMS) sensors. In a recent paper [2], the authors introduced a method for combining the measurements from several nominally equal MEMS gyroscopes using a technique based on a concept from electronic circuit design called dynamic element matching [1]. Because the method in this paper deals with systems rather than elements, it is called a dynamic system matching technique (DSMT). The DSMT generates a single output by randomly switching the outputs of several, nominally identical, MEMS gyros in and out of the switch output. This has the effect of 'spreading the spectrum' of the noise caused by the coefficient errors generated in the manufacture of the individual gyros. A filter can then be used to eliminate that part of the spread spectrum that is outside the pass band of the gyro. A heuristic analysis in that paper argues that the DSMT can be used to control the effects of the random coefficient variations. In a follow-on paper [4], a simulation of a DSMT indicated that the heuristics were consistent. In this paper, analytic expressions of the DSMT noise are developed which confirm that the earlier conclusions are valid. These expressions include the various DSMT design parameters and, therefore, can be used as design tools for DSMT

  20. Mechanical behavior simulation of MEMS-based cantilever beam using COMSOL multiphysics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Acheli, A. Serhane, R.

    2015-03-30

    This paper presents the studies of mechanical behavior of MEMS cantilever beam made of poly-silicon material, using the coupling of three application modes (plane strain, electrostatics and the moving mesh) of COMSOL Multi-physics software. The cantilevers playing a key role in Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) devices (switches, resonators, etc) working under potential shock. This is why they require actuation under predetermined conditions, such as electrostatic force or inertial force. In this paper, we present mechanical behavior of a cantilever actuated by an electrostatic force. In addition to the simplification of calculations, the weight of the cantilever was not taken into account. Different parameters like beam displacement, electrostatics force and stress over the beam have been calculated by finite element method after having defining the geometry, the material of the cantilever model (fixed at one of ends but is free to move otherwise) and his operational space.

  1. MEMS Fuel Cells--Low Temp--High Power Density - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Energy Storage Find More Like This Return to Search MEMS Fuel Cells--Low Temp--High Power Density Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Contact LLNL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Rechargeable batteries presently provide limited energy density and cyclical lifetime for portable power applications, with only incremental improvements forecasted in the foreseeable future. Furthermore, recharging requires access to electrical outlets via a tethered charger. The

  2. Solution-verified reliability analysis and design of bistable MEMS using error estimation and adaptivity.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eldred, Michael Scott; Subia, Samuel Ramirez; Neckels, David; Hopkins, Matthew Morgan; Notz, Patrick K.; Adams, Brian M.; Carnes, Brian; Wittwer, Jonathan W.; Bichon, Barron J.; Copps, Kevin D.

    2006-10-01

    This report documents the results for an FY06 ASC Algorithms Level 2 milestone combining error estimation and adaptivity, uncertainty quantification, and probabilistic design capabilities applied to the analysis and design of bistable MEMS. Through the use of error estimation and adaptive mesh refinement, solution verification can be performed in an automated and parameter-adaptive manner. The resulting uncertainty analysis and probabilistic design studies are shown to be more accurate, efficient, reliable, and convenient.

  3. X-ray diffraction characterization of suspended structures forMEMS applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goudeau, P.; Tamura, N.; Lavelle, B.; Rigo, S.; Masri, T.; Bosseboeuf, A.; Sarnet, T.; Petit, J.-A.; Desmarres, J.-M.

    2005-09-15

    Mechanical stress control is becoming one of the major challenges for the future of micro and nanotechnologies. Micro scanning X-ray diffraction is one of the promising techniques that allows stress characterization in such complex structures at sub micron scales. Two types of MEMS structure have been studied: a bilayer cantilever composed of a gold film deposited on poly-silicon and a boron doped silicon bridge. X-ray diffraction results are discussed in view of numerical simulation experiments.

  4. MEMS 3-DoF gyroscope design, modeling and simulation through equivalent circuit lumped parameter model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mian, Muhammad Umer Khir, M. H. Md.; Tang, T. B.; Dennis, John Ojur; Riaz, Kashif; Iqbal, Abid; Bazaz, Shafaat A.

    2015-07-22

    Pre-fabrication, behavioural and performance analysis with computer aided design (CAD) tools is a common and fabrication cost effective practice. In light of this we present a simulation methodology for a dual-mass oscillator based 3 Degree of Freedom (3-DoF) MEMS gyroscope. 3-DoF Gyroscope is modeled through lumped parameter models using equivalent circuit elements. These equivalent circuits consist of elementary components which are counterpart of their respective mechanical components, used to design and fabricate 3-DoF MEMS gyroscope. Complete designing of equivalent circuit model, mathematical modeling and simulation are being presented in this paper. Behaviors of the equivalent lumped models derived for the proposed device design are simulated in MEMSPRO T-SPICE software. Simulations are carried out with the design specifications following design rules of the MetalMUMPS fabrication process. Drive mass resonant frequencies simulated by this technique are 1.59 kHz and 2.05 kHz respectively, which are close to the resonant frequencies found by the analytical formulation of the gyroscope. The lumped equivalent circuit modeling technique proved to be a time efficient modeling technique for the analysis of complex MEMS devices like 3-DoF gyroscopes. The technique proves to be an alternative approach to the complex and time consuming couple field analysis Finite Element Analysis (FEA) previously used.

  5. MEMS Lubrication by In-Situ Tribochemical Reactions From the Vapor Phase.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dugger, Michael T.; Asay, David B.; Kim, Seong H.

    2008-01-01

    Vapor Phase Lubrication (VPL) of silicon surfaces with pentanol has been demonstrated. Two potential show stoppers with respect to application of this approach to real MEMS devices have been investigated. Water vapor was found to reduce the effectiveness of VPL with alcohol for a given alcohol concentration, but the basic reaction mechanism observed in water-free environments is still active, and devices operated much longer in mixed alcohol and water vapor environments than with chemisorbed monolayer lubricants alone. Complex MEMS gear trains were successfully lubricated with alcohol vapors, resulting in a factor of 104 improvement in operating life without failure. Complex devices could be made to fail if operated at much higher frequencies than previously used, and there is some evidence that the observed failure is due to accumulation of reaction products at deeply buried interfaces. However, if hypothetical reaction mechanisms involving heated surfaces are valid, then the failures observed at high frequency may not be relevant to operation at normal frequencies. Therefore, this work demonstrates that VPL is a viable approach for complex MEMS devices in conventional packages. Further study of the VPL reaction mechanisms are recommended so that the vapor composition may be optimized for low friction and for different substrate materials with potential application to conventionally fabricated, metal alloy parts in weapons systems. Reaction kinetics should be studied to define effective lubrication regimes as a function of the partial pressure of the vapor phase constituent, interfacial shear rate, substrate composition, and temperature.

  6. Frequency stabilization in nonlinear MEMS and NEMS oscillators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lopez, Omar Daniel; Antonio, Dario

    2014-09-16

    An illustrative system includes an amplifier operably connected to a phase shifter. The amplifier is configured to amplify a voltage from an oscillator. The phase shifter is operably connected to a driving amplitude control, wherein the phase shifter is configured to phase shift the amplified voltage and is configured to set an amplitude of the phase shifted voltage. The oscillator is operably connected to the driving amplitude control. The phase shifted voltage drives the oscillator. The oscillator is at an internal resonance condition, based at least on the amplitude of the phase shifted voltage, that stabilizes frequency oscillations in the oscillator.

  7. International Conference

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Internal Combustion Engine Basics Internal Combustion Engine Basics November 22, 2013 - 2:02pm Addthis Pictured here is an animation showing the basic mechanics of how an internal combustion engine works. With support from the Energy Department, General Motors researchers developed a new technology -- the Intake Valve Lift Control -- that is helping save fuel and lower emissions in the 2014 Chevy Impala. As visualized in the closeup of the graphic, the Intake Valve Lift Control can operate at

  8. Amnesty International

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25

    Martin Ennals est secrétaire général d'Amnesty International et fait un discours sur les droits de l'homme

  9. SPICE Level 3 and BSIM3v3.1 characterization of monolithic integrated CMOS-MEMS devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staple, B.D.; Watts, H.A.; Dyck, C.; Griego, A.P.; Hewlett, F.W.; Smith, J.H.

    1998-08-01

    The monolithic integration of MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) with the driving, controlling, and signal processing electronics promises to improve the performance of micromechanical devices as well as lower their manufacturing, packaging, and instrumentation costs. Key to this integration is the proper interleaving, combining, and customizing of the manufacturing processes to produce functional integrated micromechanical devices with electronics. The authors have developed a MEMS-first monolithic integrated process that first seals the micromechanical devices in a planarized trench and then builds the electronics in a conventional CMOS process. To date, most of the research published on this technology has focused on the performance characteristics of the mechanical portion of the devices, with little information on the attributes of the accompanying electronics. This work attempts to reduce this information void by presenting the results of SPICE Level 3 and BSIM3v3.1 model parameters extracted for the CMOS portion of the MEMS-first process. Transistor-level simulations of MOSFET current, capacitance, output resistance, and transconductance versus voltage using the extracted model parameters closely match the measured data. Moreover, in model validation efforts, circuit-level simulation values for the average gate propagation delay in a 101-stage ring oscillator are within 13--18% of the measured data. In general, the BSIM3v3.1 models provide improved accuracy over the SPICE Level 3 models. These results establish the following: (1) the MEMS-first approach produces functional CMOS devices integrated on a single chip with MEMS devices and (2) the devices manufactured in the approach have excellent transistor characteristics. Thus, the MEMS-first approach renders a solid technology foundation for customers designing in the technology.

  10. Encapsulants for protecting MEMS devices during post-packaging release etch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peterson, Kenneth A.

    2005-10-18

    The present invention relates to methods to protect a MEMS or microsensor device through one or more release or activation steps in a "package first, release later" manufacturing scheme: This method of fabrication permits wirebonds, other interconnects, packaging materials, lines, bond pads, and other structures on the die to be protected from physical, chemical, or electrical damage during the release etch(es) or other packaging steps. Metallic structures (e.g., gold, aluminum, copper) on the device are also protected from galvanic attack because they are protected from contact with HF or HCL-bearing solutions.

  11. Thin Silicon MEMS Contact-Stress Sensor (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    work offers the first, thin, MEMS contact-stress (CS) sensor capable of accurate in situ measruement of time-varying, contact-stress between two solid interfaces (e.g. in vivo cartilage contact-stress and body armor dynamic loading). This CS sensor is a silicon-based device with a load sensitive diaphragm. The diaphragm is doped to create piezoresistors arranged in a full Wheatstone bridge. The sensor is similar in performance to established silicon pressure sensors, but it is reliably produced

  12. Thin Silicon MEMS Contact-Stress Sensor (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    thin, MEMS contact-stress sensor continuously and accurately measures time-varying, solid interface loads over tens of thousands of load cycles. The contact-stress sensor is extremely thin (150 {mu}m) and has a linear output with an accuracy of {+-} 1.5% FSO. Authors: Kotovksy, J ; Tooker, A ; Horsley, D Publication Date: 2010-05-28 OSTI Identifier: 984646 Report Number(s): LLNL-PROC-433955 TRN: US201016%%1413 DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-48 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation:

  13. A Small Area In-Situ MEMS Test Structure to Accurately Measure Fracture Strength by Electrostatic Probing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bitsie, Fernando; Jensen, Brian D.; de Boer, Maarten

    1999-07-15

    We have designed, fabricated, tested and modeled a first generation small area test structure for MEMS fracture studies by electrostatic rather than mechanical probing. Because of its small area, this device has potential applications as a lot monitor of strength or fatigue of the MEMS structural material. By matching deflection versus applied voltage data to a 3-D model of the test structure, we develop high confidence that the local stresses achieved in the gage section are greater than 1 GPa. Brittle failure of the polycrystalline silicon was observed.

  14. International Feedstock

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1.2.1.5 International Feedstock March 24, 2015 Feedstocks Patrick Lamers, PhD Idaho National Laboratory This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information 2 | Bioenergy Technologies Office Goal Statement Put the U.S. bioeconomy strategy in the context of global, competitive feedstock markets. * Evaluate international impacts on U.S. feedstock supply costs * Improve U.S. feedstock cost and volume projections * Leverage existing expertise and

  15. International Fellows

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Alexander and Lienert selected as ASM International Fellows November 6, 2013 David Alexander and Thomas Lienert of Metallurgy (MST-6) are among ASM International's 2013 Class of Fellows, who are honored for their distinguished contributions to materials science and engineering. A total of nine ASM fellows have come from Los Alamos over the years, according to the society, which is commemorating its 100th anniversary. Alexander achievements The citation for Alexander reads: "For excellence

  16. International Sunport

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    International Programs International Programs The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) has a mission to complete the safe clean-up of the environmental legacy resulting from six decades of weapons production and energy research. This effort is recognized as one of the largest and most diverse and technically complex environmental clean-up operations in the world. As described in the DOE Strategic Plan, to accomplish this mission, the Department will leverage

  17. A Robust MEMS Based Multi-Component Sensor for 3D Borehole Seismic Arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paulsson Geophysical Services

    2008-03-31

    The objective of this project was to develop, prototype and test a robust multi-component sensor that combines both Fiber Optic and MEMS technology for use in a borehole seismic array. The use such FOMEMS based sensors allows a dramatic increase in the number of sensors that can be deployed simultaneously in a borehole seismic array. Therefore, denser sampling of the seismic wave field can be afforded, which in turn allows us to efficiently and adequately sample P-wave as well as S-wave for high-resolution imaging purposes. Design, packaging and integration of the multi-component sensors and deployment system will target maximum operating temperature of 350-400 F and a maximum pressure of 15000-25000 psi, thus allowing operation under conditions encountered in deep gas reservoirs. This project aimed at using existing pieces of deployment technology as well as MEMS and fiber-optic technology. A sensor design and analysis study has been carried out and a laboratory prototype of an interrogator for a robust borehole seismic array system has been assembled and validated.

  18. Method of forming a package for MEMS-based fuel cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morse, Jeffrey D; Jankowski, Alan F

    2013-05-21

    A MEMS-based fuel cell package and method thereof is disclosed. The fuel cell package comprises seven layers: (1) a sub-package fuel reservoir interface layer, (2) an anode manifold support layer, (3) a fuel/anode manifold and resistive heater layer, (4) a Thick Film Microporous Flow Host Structure layer containing a fuel cell, (5) an air manifold layer, (6) a cathode manifold support structure layer, and (7) a cap. Fuel cell packages with more than one fuel cell are formed by positioning stacks of these layers in series and/or parallel. The fuel cell package materials such as a molded plastic or a ceramic green tape material can be patterned, aligned and stacked to form three dimensional microfluidic channels that provide electrical feedthroughs from various layers which are bonded together and mechanically support a MEMS-based miniature fuel cell. The package incorporates resistive heating elements to control the temperature of the fuel cell stack. The package is fired to form a bond between the layers and one or more microporous flow host structures containing fuel cells are inserted within the Thick Film Microporous Flow Host Structure layer of the package.

  19. Design and fabrication of a MEMS chevron-type thermal actuator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baracu, Angela; Voicu, Rodica; Müller, Raluca; Avram, Andrei; Pustan, Marius Chiorean, Radu Birleanu, Corina Dudescu, Cristian

    2015-02-17

    This paper presents the design and fabrication of a MEMS chevron-type thermal actuator. The device was designed for fabrication in the standard MEMS technology, where the topography of the upper layers depends on the patterns of structural and sacrificial layers underneath. The proposed actuator presents some advantages over usual thermal vertical chevron actuators by means of low operating voltages, high output force and linear movement without deformation of the shaft. The device simulations were done using COVENTOR software. The movement obtained by simulation was 12 μm, for a voltage of 0.2 V and the current intensity of 257 mA. The design optimizes the in-plane displacement by fixed anchors and beam inclination angle. Heating is provided by Joule dissipation. The material used for manufacture of chevron-based actuator was aluminum due to its thermal and mechanical properties. The release of the movable part was performed using isotropic dry etching by Reactive Ion Etching (RIE). A first inspection was achieved using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). In order to obtain the in-plane displacement we carried out electrical measurements. The thermal actuator can be used for a variety of optical and microassembling applications. This kind of thermal actuator could be integrated easily with other micro devices since its fabrication is compatible with the general semiconductor processes.

  20. Science and technology of piezoelectric/diamond heterostructures for monolithically integrated high performance MEMS/NEMS/CMOS devices.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Auciello, O.; Sumant, A. V.; Hiller, J.; Kabius, B.; Ma, Z.; Srinivasan, S.

    2008-12-01

    This paper describes the fundamental and applied science performed to integrate piezoelectric PbZr{sub x}Ti{sub 1-x}O{sub 3} and AlN films with a novel mechanically robust ultrananocrystalline diamond layer to enable a new generation of low voltage/high-performance piezoactuated hybrid piezoelectric/diamond MEMS/NEMS devices.

  1. Internal shim

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barth, Clyde H.; Blizinski, Theodore W.

    2003-05-13

    An internal shim used to accurately measure spaces in conjunction with a standard small probe has a shim top and a chassis. The internal shim is adjustably fixed within the space to be measured using grippers that emerge from the chassis and which are controlled by an arm pivotably attached to the shim top. A standard small probe passes through the shim along guides on the chassis and measures the distance between the exterior of the chassis and the boundary. By summing the measurements on each side of the chassis and the width of the chassis, the dimension of the space can be determined to within 0.001 inches.

  2. Internal Dosimetry

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    MEASUREMENT SENSITIVE DOE-STD-1121-2008 Change Notice No.1 October 2013 DOE STANDARD INTERNAL DOSIMETRY U.S. Department of Energy AREA SAFT Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This document is available on the Department of Energy Technical Standards Program Web Site at http://energy.gov/hss/information-center/department-energy- technical-standards-program ii Change Notice 1. Internal Dosimetry DOE-STD-1121-2008 Page/Section

  3. Design of DC-contact RF MEMS switch with temperature stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Junfeng; Li, Zhiqun; Zhu, Jian; Yu, Yuanwei; Jiang, Lili

    2015-04-15

    In order to improve the temperature stability of DC-contact RF MEMS switch, a thermal buckle-beam structure is implemented. The stability of the switch pull-in voltage versus temperature is not only improved, but also the impact of stress and stress gradient on the drive voltage is suppressed. Test results show that the switch pull-in voltage is less sensitive to temperature between -20 °C and 100 °C. The variable rate of pull-in voltage to temperature is about -120 mV/°C. The RF performance of the switch is stable, and the isolation is almost independent of temperature. After being annealed at 280 °C for 12 hours, our switch samples, which are suitable for packaging, have less than 1.5% change in the rate of pull-in voltage.

  4. Fast Simulating High Order Models Application to Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yacine, Z.; Benfdila, A.; Djennoune, S.

    2009-03-05

    The approximation of high order systems by low order models is one of the important problems in system theory. The use of a reduced order model makes it easier to implement analysis, simulations and control system designs. Numerous methods are available in the literature for order reduction of linear continuous systems in time domain as well as in frequency domain. But, this is not the case for non linear systems. The well known Trajectory Piece-Wise Linear approach (TPWL) elaborated to nonlinear model order reduction guarantees a simplification and an accurate representation of the behaviour of strongly non linear systems handling local and global approximation. The present attempt is towards evolving an improvement for the TPWL order reduction technique, which ensures a good quality of approximation combining the advantages of the Krylov subspaces method and the local linearization. We illustrate the technique on a MEMS circuit (Micro Electro-Mechanical System)

  5. INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS Signed by Secretary Spencer Abraham January 2001-December 2004 TABLE OF CONTENTS Joint Statement of ntent between the Department of Energy of the United States ofAmerica and The Ministry of Energy and Mines of the Republic ofPeru on Cooperation in the Field of Energy -Tab 1 Fifth Hemispheric Energy Ministers Meeting Mexico City, Mexico - March 9, 2001. Mexico Declaration - Energy: A Crucial Factor for Integration and Sustainable Development in the Hemisphere - Tab 2

  6. International Collaboration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chapter 6 Buildings sector energy consumption Overview Energy consumed in the buildings sector consists of residential and commercial end users and accounts for 20.1% of the total delivered energy consumed worldwide. Consumption of delivered, or site, energy contrasts with the use of the primary energy that also includes the energy used to generate and deliver electricity to individual sites such as homes, offices, or industrial plants. In the International Energy Outlook 2016 (IEO2016)

  7. International Affairs - DOE Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    International Affairs

  8. Internal Dosimetry

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    21-2008 October 2008 DOE STANDARD INTERNAL DOSIMETRY U.S. Department of Energy AREA SAFT Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. NOT MEASUREMENT SENSITIVE ii This document is available on the Department of Energy Technical Standards Program Web Site at http://www.hss.energy.gov/nuclearsafety/techstds/ DOE-STD-1121-2008 iii FOREWORD 1. This Department of Energy (DOE) standard is approved for use by all DOE Components and their

  9. Compliant membranes for the development of MEMS dual-backplate capacitive microphone using the SUMMiT V fabrication process.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, David (University of Florida, Gainesville, FL)

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this project is the investigation of compliant membranes for the development of a MicroElectrical Mechanical Systems (MEMS) microphone using the Sandia Ultraplanar, Multilevel MEMS Technology (SUMMiT V) fabrication process. The microphone is a dual-backplate capacitive microphone utilizing electrostatic force feedback. The microphone consists of a diaphragm and two porous backplates, one on either side of the diaphragm. This forms a capacitor between the diaphragm and each backplate. As the incident pressure deflects the diaphragm, the value of each capacitor will change, thus resulting in an electrical output. Feedback may be used in this device by applying a voltage between the diaphragm and the backplates to balance the incident pressure keeping the diaphragm stationary. The SUMMiT V fabrication process is unique in that it can meet the fabrication requirements of this project. All five layers of polysilicon are used in the fabrication of this device. The SUMMiT V process has been optimized to provide low-stress mechanical layers that are ideal for the construction of the microphone's diaphragm. The use of chemical mechanical polishing in the SUMMiT V process results in extremely flat structural layers and uniform spacing between the layers, both of which are critical to the successful fabrication of the MEMS microphone. The MEMS capacitive microphone was fabricated at Sandia National Laboratories and post-processed, packaged, and tested at the University of Florida. The microphone demonstrates a flat frequency response, a linear response up to the designed limit, and a sensitivity that is close to the designed value. Future work will focus on characterization of additional devices, extending the frequency response measurements, and investigating the use of other types of interface circuitry.

  10. Measured and predicted temperature profiles along MEMS bridges at pressures from 0.05 to 625 torr.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallis, Michail A.; Torczynski, John Robert; Piekos, Edward Stanley; Serrano, Justin Raymond; Gorby, Allen D.; Phinney, Leslie Mary

    2010-10-01

    We will present experimental and computational investigations of the thermal performance of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) as a function of the surrounding gas pressure. Lowering the pressure in MEMS packages reduces gas damping, providing increased sensitivity for certain MEMS sensors; however, such packaging also dramatically affects their thermal performance since energy transfer to the environment is substantially reduced. High-spatial-resolution Raman thermometry was used to measure the temperature profiles on electrically heated, polycrystalline silicon bridges that are nominally 10 microns wide, 2.25 microns thick, 12 microns above the substrate, and either 200 or 400 microns long in nitrogen atmospheres with pressures ranging from 0.05 to 625 Torr. Finite element modeling of the thermal behavior of the MEMS bridges is performed and compared to the experimental results. Noncontinuum gas effects are incorporated into the continuum finite element model by imposing temperature discontinuities at gas-solid interfaces that are determined from noncontinuum simulations. The experimental and simulation results indicate that at pressures below 0.5 Torr the gas-phase heat transfer is negligible compared to heat conduction through the thermal actuator legs. As the pressure increases above 0.5 Torr, the gas-phase heat transfer becomes more significant. At ambient pressures, gas-phase heat transfer drastically impacts the thermal performance. The measured and simulated temperature profiles are in qualitative agreement in the present study. Quantitative agreement between experimental and simulated temperature profiles requires accurate knowledge of temperature-dependent thermophysical properties, the device geometry, and the thermal accommodation coefficient.

  11. Two- and three-dimensional ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) structures for a high resolution diamond-based MEMS technology.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Auciello, O.; Krauss, A. R.; Gruen, D. M.; Busmann, H. G.; Meyer, E. M.; Tucek, J.; Sumant, A.; Jayatissa, A.; Moldovan, N.; Mancini, D. C.; Gardos, M. N.

    2000-01-17

    Silicon is currently the most commonly used material for the fabrication of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). However, silicon-based MEMS will not be suitable for long-endurance devices involving components rotating at high speed, where friction and wear need to be minimized, components such as 2-D cantilevers that may be subjected to very large flexural displacements, where stiction is a problem, or components that will be exposed to corrosive environments. The mechanical, thermal, chemical, and tribological properties of diamond make it an ideal material for the fabrication of long-endurance MEMS components. Cost-effective fabrication of these components could in principle be achieved by coating Si with diamond films and using conventional lithographic patterning methods in conjunction with e. g. sacrificial Ti or SiO{sub 2} layers. However, diamond coatings grown by conventional chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods exhibit a coarse-grained structure that prevents high-resolution patterning, or a fine-grained microstructure with a significant amount of intergranular non-diamond carbon. The authors demonstrate here the fabrication of 2-D and 3-D phase-pure ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) MEMS components by coating Si with UNCD films, coupled with lithographic patterning methods involving sacrificial release layers. UNCD films are grown by microwave plasma CVD using C{sub 60}-Ar or CH{sub 4}-Ar gas mixtures, which result in films that have 3--5 nm grain size, are 10--20 times smoother than conventionally grown diamond films, are extremely resistant to corrosive environments, and are predicted to have a brittle fracture strength similar to that of single crystal diamond.

  12. Method of forming a package for mems-based fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morse, Jeffrey D.; Jankowski, Alan F.

    2004-11-23

    A MEMS-based fuel cell package and method thereof is disclosed. The fuel cell package comprises seven layers: (1) a sub-package fuel reservoir interface layer, (2) an anode manifold support layer, (3) a fuel/anode manifold and resistive heater layer, (4) a Thick Film Microporous Flow Host Structure layer containing a fuel cell, (5) an air manifold layer, (6) a cathode manifold support structure layer, and (7) a cap. Fuel cell packages with more than one fuel cell are formed by positioning stacks of these layers in series and/or parallel. The fuel cell package materials such as a molded plastic or a ceramic green tape material can be patterned, aligned and stacked to form three dimensional microfluidic channels that provide electrical feedthroughs from various layers which are bonded together and mechanically support a MEMOS-based miniature fuel cell. The package incorporates resistive heating elements to control the temperature of the fuel cell stack. The package is fired to form a bond between the layers and one or more microporous flow host structures containing fuel cells are inserted within the Thick Film Microporous Flow Host Structure layer of the package.

  13. Development of a MEMS dual-axis differential capacitance floating element shear stress sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnard, Casey; Griffin, Benjamin

    2015-09-01

    A single-axis MEMS wall shear stress sensor with differential capacitive transduction method is produced. Using a synchronous modulation and demodulation interface circuit, the system is capable of making real time measurements of both mean and fluctuating wall shear stress. A sensitivity of 3.44 mV/Pa is achieved, with linearity in response demonstrated up to testing limit of 2 Pa. Minimum detectable signals of 340 μPa at 100 Hz and 120 μPa at 1 kHz are indicated, with a resonance of 3.5 kHz. Multiple full scale wind tunnel tests are performed, producing spectral measurements of turbulent boundary layers in wind speeds ranging up to 0.5 Ma (18 Pa of mean wall shear stress). The compact packaging allows for minimally invasive installation, and has proven relatively robust over multiple testing events. Temperature sensitivity, likely due to poor CTE matching of packaged materials, is an ongoing concern being addressed. These successes are being directly leveraged into a development plan for a dual-axis wall shear stress sensor, capable of producing true vector estimates at the wall.

  14. Characterization of microscale wear in a ploysilicon-based MEMS device using AFM and PEEM-NEXAFS spectromicroscopy.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grierson, D. S.; Konicek, A. R.; Wabiszewski, G. E.; Sumant, A. V.; de Boer, M. P.; Corwin, A. D.; Carpick, R. W. (Center for Nanoscale Materials); ( PSC-USR); (Univ. of Wisconsin at Madison); (Univ. of Pennsylvania); (SNL)

    2009-12-01

    Mechanisms of microscale wear in silicon-based microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) are elucidated by studying a polysilicon nanotractor, a device specifically designed to conduct friction and wear tests under controlled conditions. Photoelectron emission microscopy (PEEM) was combined with near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to quantitatively probe chemical changes and structural modification, respectively, in the wear track of the nanotractor. The ability of PEEM-NEXAFS to spatially map chemical variations in the near-surface region of samples at high lateral spatial resolution is unparalleled and therefore ideally suited for this study. The results show that it is possible to detect microscopic chemical changes using PEEM-NEXAFS, specifically, oxidation at the sliding interface of a MEMS device. We observe that wear induces oxidation of the polysilicon at the immediate contact interface, and the spectra are consistent with those from amorphous SiO{sub 2}. The oxidation is correlated with gouging and debris build-up in the wear track, as measured by AFM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  15. International Commitments Management

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2008-11-18

    This Order establishes a process to manage the Department's International Commitments under the administrative direction of the Office of Policy and International Affairs. No cancellation.

  16. Student Trainee (Engineering)- Intern

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of the Pathways Intern Employment Program is to provide the intern with exposure to public service, enhance educational experience, and support educational goals. The program is...

  17. Atomistic modeling of nanowires, small-scale fatigue damage in cast magnesium, and materials for MEMS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, Martin L.; Talmage, Mellisa J.; McDowell, David L., 1956- (,-Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); West, Neil (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); Gullett, Philip Michael (Mississippi State University , MS); Miller, David C. (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); Spark, Kevin (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); Diao, Jiankuai (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); Horstemeyer, Mark F. (Mississippi State University , MS); Zimmerman, Jonathan A.; Gall, K

    2006-10-01

    titled 'Atomistic Modeling of Nanowires, Small-scale Fatigue Damage in Cast Magnesium, and Materials for MEMS'. This project supported a strategic partnership between Sandia National Laboratories and the University of Colorado at Boulder by providing funding for the lead author, Ken Gall, and his students, while he was a member of the University of Colorado faculty.

  18. Renewable Energy Resources Inc formerly Internal Hydro International...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Inc formerly Internal Hydro International Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Renewable Energy Resources Inc (formerly Internal Hydro International Inc) Place: Tampa, Florida...

  19. STEP Intern Job Description

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    STEP Intern Job Description, from the Tool Kit Framework: Small Town University Energy Program (STEP).

  20. International Energy Statistics - EIA

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    International > International Energy Statistics International Energy Statistics Petroleum Production | Annual Monthly/Quarterly Consumption | Annual Monthly/Quarterly Capacity | Bunker Fuels | Stocks | Annual Monthly/Quarterly Reserves | Imports | Annual Monthly/Quarterly Exports | CO2 Emissions | Heat Content Natural Gas All Flows | Production | Consumption | Reserves | Imports | Exports | Carbon Dioxide Emissions | Heat Content Coal All Flows | Production | Consumption | Reserves | Imports

  1. Acceleration of dormant storage effects to address the reliability of silicon surface micromachined Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, James V.; Candelaria, Sam A.; Dugger, Michael Thomas; Duesterhaus, Michelle Ann; Tanner, Danelle Mary; Timpe, Shannon J.; Ohlhausen, James Anthony; Skousen, Troy J.; Jenkins, Mark W.; Jokiel, Bernhard, Jr.; Walraven, Jeremy Allen; Parson, Ted Blair

    2006-06-01

    Qualification of microsystems for weapon applications is critically dependent on our ability to build confidence in their performance, by predicting the evolution of their behavior over time in the stockpile. The objective of this work was to accelerate aging mechanisms operative in surface micromachined silicon microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) with contacting surfaces that are stored for many years prior to use, to determine the effects of aging on reliability, and relate those effects to changes in the behavior of interfaces. Hence the main focus was on 'dormant' storage effects on the reliability of devices having mechanical contacts, the first time they must move. A large number ({approx}1000) of modules containing prototype devices and diagnostic structures were packaged using the best available processes for simple electromechanical devices. The packaging processes evolved during the project to better protect surfaces from exposure to contaminants and water vapor. Packages were subjected to accelerated aging and stress tests to explore dormancy and operational environment effects on reliability and performance. Functional tests and quantitative measurements of adhesion and friction demonstrated that the main failure mechanism during dormant storage is change in adhesion and friction, precipitated by loss of the fluorinated monolayer applied after fabrication. The data indicate that damage to the monolayer can occur at water vapor concentrations as low as 500 ppm inside the package. The most common type of failure was attributed to surfaces that were in direct contact during aging. The application of quantitative methods for monolayer lubricant analysis showed that even though the coverage of vapor-deposited monolayers is generally very uniform, even on hidden surfaces, locations of intimate contact can be significantly depleted in initial concentration of lubricating molecules. These areas represent defects in the film prone to adsorption of water or

  2. International safeguards data authentication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melton, R.B.; Smith, C.E.; DeLand, S.M.; Manatt, D.R.

    1996-07-01

    The International Safeguards community is becoming increasingly reliant on information stored in electronic form. In international monitoring and related activities it must be possible to verify and maintain the integrity of this electronic information. This paper discusses the use of data authentication technology to assist in accomplishing this task. The paper provides background information, identifies the relevance to international safeguards, discusses issues related to export controls, algorithm patents, key management and the use of commercial vs. custom software.

  3. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-08-01

    This report provides information on current international petroleum production, demand, imports, and stocks. World oil demand and OECD demand data are presented for the years 1970 thru 1995.

  4. Internal Revenue Service

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ode X SCHEDULE A (Form 5500) Department of the Treasury Internal Revenue Service Department of Labor Employee Benefits Security Administration Pension Benefit...

  5. International Subcommittee Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Report Dr. Regis A. Matzie, Chair NEAC Meeting December 10, 2014 1 Externalities of Nuclear Power Important International Considerations Safety - because of the potential...

  6. Native Intern Profile Page

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The intern will work with the executive management teams to solve other problems as they arise. Morgan Gray Tribal A liation: Chickasaw Nation University: Oklahoma State University ...

  7. EM International. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    It is the intent of EM International to describe the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) various roles and responsibilities within the international community. Cooperative agreements and programs, descriptions of projects and technologies, and synopses of visits to international sites are all highlighted in this semiannual journal. Focus on EM programs in this issue is on international collaboration in vitrification projects. Technology highlights covers: in situ sealing for contaminated sites; and remote sensors for toxic pollutants. Section on profiles of countries includes: Arctic contamination by the former Soviet Union, and EM activities with Germany--cooperative arrangements.

  8. International Program Action Table - October 2012 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Communication & Engagement International Programs International Program Action Table - October 2012 International Program Action Table - October 2012 International Program ...

  9. NEAC International Subcommittee Recommendations

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    International Subcommittee Recommendations December 2014 Background Externalities of nuclear power are major considerations in the international arena. These externalities are primarily geopolitical considerations and considerations related to: * Safety of nuclear power plants - because of the potential impact that severe accidents can have on the nuclear industry globally; * Energy security - particularly in countries with little domestic energy resources because of the stable and reliable

  10. Venezuela-MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report IV-11: Supporting technology for enhanced oil recovery - EOR thermal processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venezuela

    2000-04-06

    This report contains the results of efforts under the six tasks of the Tenth Amendment anti Extension of Annex IV, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Energy Agreement. This report is presented in sections (for each of the six Tasks) and each section contains one or more reports that were prepared to describe the results of the effort under each of the Tasks. A statement of each Task, taken from the Agreement Between Project Managers, is presented on the first page of each section. The Tasks are numbered 68 through 73. The first through tenth report on research performed under Annex IV Venezuela MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report Number IV-1, IV-2, IV-3, IV-4, IV-5, IV-6, IV-7, IV-8, IV-9, IV-10 contain the results of the first 67 Tasks. These reports are dated April 1983, August 1984, March 1986, July 1987, November 1988, December 1989, October 1991, February 1993, March 1995, and December 1997, respectively.

  11. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-10-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world, in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  12. International energy annual 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-02-01

    The International Energy Annual presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 220 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy reported in the International Energy Annual includes hydroelectric power, geothermal, solar, and wind electric power, biofuels energy for the US, and biofuels electric power for Brazil. New in the 1996 edition are estimates of carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of petroleum and coal, and the consumption and flaring of natural gas. 72 tabs.

  13. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-03-01

    This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.

  14. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-01

    This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; stocks from 1973 through 1995, and trade from 1985 through 1995.

  15. Internal Controls Evaluations

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4, 2016 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Internal Control Evaluations Fiscal Year 2016 Guidance Page | 2 Table of Contents I. Introduction .............................................................................................................................................. 4 A. Background ......................................................................................................................................... 4 B. New for FY

  16. International resources law

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This book covers: Historical origins of civil code legal systems; Modern civil law practice for mineral lawyers; Treaties and agreements for protection of international investments; Europe 1992-toward a single energy market; Dispute resolution in international agreements; Assessment of political risk; Reducing political risk; Protecting mineral investments from upheaval in developing countries; Typical world petroleum arrangements; government take in the Pacific Rim - Papua New Guinea; Mineral base of the USSR and prospects of investment; International taxation for the mining practitioner; Tax considerations - branch versus subsidiary; Doing business in the host country - nontax considerations; Impact of host-country laws on operations and profits; Mineral development and native rights - New Zealand; Designing the investment vehicle: mining; International oil and gas joint ventures; Selected U.S. laws with extraterritorial effect; U.S. tax and securities laws applied to foreign joint venturers; and Extraterritorial effect of U.S. laws.

  17. Internal Patent Instructions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The internal patent instructions (IPIs) were originally established as a means for providing a common reference source to all patent counsel offices on centralized instructions, as stated in the...

  18. NEMS International Energy Module

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    EIA NEMS International Energy Module Model Documentation Report vii Mr. G. Daniel Butler U.S. Department of Energy EI-812 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 Tel:...

  19. International Energy Module

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    EIA NEMS International Energy Module Model Documentation Report vii Mr. G. Daniel Butler U.S. Department of Energy EI-812 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 Tel:...

  20. International Energy Module

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    self-contained units which are linked by an integrating mechanism. The NEMS International Energy Module (IEM) computes world oil prices, provides a set of crude oil and refined...

  1. NEAC International Subcommittee Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... for Peace Conference Room, 5A-118 1000 Independence Ave, SW Washington, DC 20585 11 DOE NEAC International Subcommittee Meeting October 29-30, 2015 Room 5A-118, Atoms for Peace ...

  2. HydroVision International

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The HydroVision International Conference and Exhibition offers attendees countless opportunities to network, share best practices, meet with product and service providers, and more.  Held over five...

  3. International Energy Agency

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE's market transformation efforts have reached to European and other countries who are part of the international distributed and decentralized energy community. Through its partnership with DOE, the combined heat and power (CHP) program of the International Energy Agency (IEA) conducts research and analysis of CHP markets and deployment efforts around the world and has used lessons learned from U.S. research, development, and deployment efforts to recommend market transformation activities and policies that will lead to new CHP installations worldwide.

  4. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This monthly publication provides current international oil data. The Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the OECD. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  5. Internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernauer, O.

    1980-10-07

    An internal combustion engine is described that has walls delimiting the working space or spaces of the internal combustion engine, in which a hydrogen-impervious, encapsulated metal hydride storage device is provided which is in heat-conducting contact with these walls; the interior of the encapsulation is adapted to be selectively connected to a source of hydrogen and/or to a separate further hydrogen storage device.

  6. (International meetings on ecology)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeAngelis, D.L.; Garten, C.T. Jr.; Turner, M.G.

    1990-09-25

    the travelers attended the Fifth International Congress of Ecology (INTECOL) in Yokohama, Japan, and two presented invited papers and chaired symposia. One traveler also attended the OJI International Seminar in Gifu, Japan and the Fukuoka Symposium on Theoretical Ecology in Fukuoka, Japan and presented invited papers. At these scientific gatherings, a large number of symposia and specific presentations were relevant to current research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), especially in the areas of landscape dynamics, plant physiology, and aquatic ecosystems.

  7. International Energy Outlook 2016

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    484(2016) I May 2016 International Energy Outlook 2016 ~ Independent Statistics & Ana[ysis e~ ~* a~ 1 U.S. ~~ergy. Information Administration Contacts The International Energy Outlook 2016 was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) under the direction of John Conti, Assistant Administrator for Energy Analysis (john.conti@eia.gov, 202-586-2222); Paul Holtberg, Team Leader, Analysis Integration Team (paul.holtberg@eia.gov, 202-586-1284); Jim Diefenderfer, Director, Office

  8. International petroleum development agreements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, E.E.

    1993-12-31

    There are recognizable legal elements in all of the international arrangements for petroleum development currently in use but no arrangements are exactly like the typical American oil and gas lease. This article discusses differences and approaches to the differences in legal aspects of international petroleum development agreements. Topics covered include the following: oil and national sovereignty; obtaining a development agreement; concession and production sharing agreements; participation; differences among agreements.

  9. International Activities | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    International Activities International Activities International Activities The International Program assists the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) in identifying technologies and strategies for waste processing, groundwater and soil remediation, spent nuclear fuel and surplus nuclear material disposition, and facility deactivation and decommissioning. The International Program seeks to transform advances in science and engineering into practical solutions for environmental remediation.

  10. Redox buffered hydrofluoric acid etchant for the reduction of galvanic attack during release etching of MEMS devices having noble material films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hankins, Matthew G.

    2009-10-06

    Etchant solutions comprising a redox buffer can be used during the release etch step to reduce damage to the structural layers of a MEMS device that has noble material films. A preferred redox buffer comprises a soluble thiophosphoric acid, ester, or salt that maintains the electrochemical potential of the etchant solution at a level that prevents oxidation of the structural material. Therefore, the redox buffer preferentially oxidizes in place of the structural material. The sacrificial redox buffer thereby protects the exposed structural layers while permitting the dissolution of sacrificial oxide layers during the release etch.

  11. Biofuels International | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    International Jump to: navigation, search Name: Biofuels International Place: Indiana Sector: Biofuels Product: Pittsburgh based biofuels project developer presently developing a...

  12. OK International | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    OK International Jump to: navigation, search Name: OK International Address: san francisco Place: San Francisco, California Website: www.okinternational.org Coordinates:...

  13. Edison International | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    International Jump to: navigation, search Name: Edison International Place: Rosemead, California Zip: 91770 Product: Utility company and parent of SCE and Edison Mission Energy....

  14. Carbon International | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    International Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon International Place: London, United Kingdom Zip: NW1 8LH Sector: Carbon Product: London-based energy and communications...

  15. Student Trainee (Engineering)- Intern NTE

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of the Pathways Intern Employment Program is to provide the intern with exposure to public service, enhance educational experience, and support educational goals. The program is...

  16. BBI International | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    BBI International Jump to: navigation, search Name: BBI International Place: Salida, Colorado Zip: 81201 Sector: Biofuels Product: Information service provider for the Biofuels...

  17. International energy annual 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-04-01

    The International Energy Annual presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 220 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy reported in the International Energy Annual includes hydroelectric power and geothermal, solar, and wind electric power. Also included are biomass electric power for Brazil and the US, and biomass, geothermal, and solar energy produced in the US and not used for electricity generation. This report is published to keep the public and other interested parties fully informed of primary energy supplies on a global basis. The data presented have been largely derived from published sources. The data have been converted to units of measurement and thermal values (Appendices E and F) familiar to the American public. 93 tabs.

  18. International energy outlook 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The International Energy Outlook 1994 (IEO94) presents an assessment by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the outlook for international energy markets between 1990 and 2010. The report is provided as a statistical service to assist energy managers and analysts, both in government and in the private sector. These forecasts are used by international agencies, Federal and State governments, trade associations, and other planners and decisionmakers. They are published pursuant to the Depart. of Energy Organization Act of 1977 (Public Law 95-91), Section 205(c). The IEO94 projections are based on US and foreign government policies in effect on October 1, 1993-which means that provisions of the Climate Change Action Plan unveiled by the Administration in mid-October are not reflected by the US projections.

  19. INTERNAL CUTTING DEVICE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Russell, W.H. Jr.

    1959-06-30

    A device is described for removing material from the interior of a hollow workpiece so as to form a true spherical internal surface in a workpiece, or to cut radial slots of an adjustable constant depth in an already established spherical internal surface. This is accomplished by a spring loaded cutting tool adapted to move axially wherein the entire force urging the tool against the workpiece is derived from the spring. Further features of importance involve the provision of a seal between the workpiece and the cutting device and a suction device for carrying away particles of removed material.

  20. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    This document is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. The Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the OECD. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand and trade in OECD countries.

  1. Earth shelter goes international

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyer, L.L.

    1983-06-01

    Since the mid-1970's earth sheltered buildings in the US have become more numerous and important as a contemporary passive building concept. Further, an intense international interest has now developed, as evidenced by a number of important activities. One of these events is the 1983 International Conference on Energy Efficient Buildings with Earth Shelter Protection to be conducted during 1-6 August in Sydney, Australia. A review of past activities leading up to this event, as well as a brief review of the conference program, is the subject of this discussion.

  2. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2003-05-01

    The two broad categories of deposited weld metal repair and fiber-reinforced composite repair technologies were reviewed for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Preliminary test programs were developed for both deposited weld metal repairs and for fiber-reinforced composite repair. To date, all of the experimental work pertaining to the evaluation of potential repair methods has focused on fiber-reinforced composite repairs. Hydrostatic testing was also conducted on four pipeline sections with simulated corrosion damage: two with composite liners and two without.

  3. SummitView 1.0: a code to automatically generate 3D solid models of surface micro-machining based MEMS designs.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBride, Cory L. (Elemental Technologies, American Fort, UT); Yarberry, Victor R.; Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Meyers, Ray J.

    2006-11-01

    This report describes the SummitView 1.0 computer code developed at Sandia National Laboratories. SummitView is designed to generate a 3D solid model, amenable to visualization and meshing, that represents the end state of a microsystem fabrication process such as the SUMMiT (Sandia Ultra-Planar Multilevel MEMS Technology) V process. Functionally, SummitView performs essentially the same computational task as an earlier code called the 3D Geometry modeler [1]. However, because SummitView is based on 2D instead of 3D data structures and operations, it has significant speed and robustness advantages. As input it requires a definition of both the process itself and the collection of individual 2D masks created by the designer and associated with each of the process steps. The definition of the process is contained in a special process definition file [2] and the 2D masks are contained in MEM format files [3]. The code is written in C++ and consists of a set of classes and routines. The classes represent the geometric data and the SUMMiT V process steps. Classes are provided for the following process steps: Planar Deposition, Planar Etch, Conformal Deposition, Dry Etch, Wet Etch and Release Etch. SummitView is built upon the 2D Boolean library GBL-2D [4], and thus contains all of that library's functionality.

  4. International energy indicators. [International and US statistics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, E.K.

    1980-03-01

    For the international sector, a table of data is first presented followed by corresponding graph of the data for the following: (1) Iran: crude oil capacity, production, and shut-in, 1974 to February 1980; (2) Saudi Arabia (same as Iran); (3) OPEC (ex-Iran and Saudi Arabia); capacity, production, and shut-in, 1974 to January 1980; (4) non-OPEC Free World and US production of crude oil, 1973 to January 1980; (5) oil stocks: Free World, US, Japan, and Europe (landed), 1973 to 1979; (6) petroleum consumption by industrial countries, 1973 to October 1979; (7) USSR crude oil production, 1974 to February 1980; (8) Free World and US nuclear generation capacity, 1973 to January 1980. For the United States, the same data format is used for the following: (a) US imports of crude oil and products 1973 to January 1980; (b) landed cost of Saudi Arabia crude oil in current and 1974 dollars, 1974 to October 1979; (c) US trade in coal, 1973 to 1979; (d) summary of US merchandise trade, 1976 to January 1980; and (e) US energy/GNP ratio (in 1972 dollars), 1947 to 1979.

  5. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-05-01

    The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report is published for the use of Members of Congress, Federal agencies, State agencies, industry, and the general public. Publication of this report is in keeping with responsibilities given the Energy Information Administration in Public Law 95-91. The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995.

  6. Rotary internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Le, L.K.

    1990-11-20

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine comprising; a rotary compressor mechanism; a rotary expander mechanism; and combustion chamber means disposed between the compressor mechanism and the expander mechanism, whereby compressed air is delivered to the combustion chamber through the compressor discharge port, and pressurized gas is delivered from the combustion chamber into the expander mechanism through the pressurized gas intake port.

  7. Requirements for Xenon International

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayes, James C.; Ely, James H.

    2013-09-26

    This document defines the requirements for the new Xenon International radioxenon system. The output of this project will be a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) developed prototype and a manufacturer-developed production prototype. The two prototypes are intended to be as close to matching as possible; this will be facilitated by overlapping development cycles and open communication between PNNL and the manufacturer.

  8. Requirements for Xenon International

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayes, James C.; Ely, James H.; Haas, Derek A.; Harper, Warren W.; Heimbigner, Tom R.; Hubbard, Charles W.; Humble, Paul H.; Madison, Jill C.; Morris, Scott J.; Panisko, Mark E.; Ripplinger, Mike D.; Stewart, Timothy L.

    2015-12-30

    This document defines the requirements for the new Xenon International radioxenon system. The output of this project will be a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) developed prototype and a manufacturer-developed production prototype. The two prototypes are intended to be as close to matching as possible; this will be facilitated by overlapping development cycles and open communication between PNNL and the manufacturer.

  9. Internal Control Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2008-10-28

    To ensure sound internal controls and overall consistency in exercising the statutory authorities that vest in the Secretary, the Administrator, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), and Department's Chief Financial Officer (CFO), and to implement the Federal Managers' Financial Integrity Act of 1982 and related central agency guidance. Supersedes DOE O 413.1A.

  10. Internal split field generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thundat; Thomas George; Van Neste, Charles W.; Vass, Arpad Alexander

    2012-01-03

    A generator includes a coil of conductive material. A stationary magnetic field source applies a stationary magnetic field to the coil. An internal magnetic field source is disposed within a cavity of the coil to apply a moving magnetic field to the coil. The stationary magnetic field interacts with the moving magnetic field to generate an electrical energy in the coil.

  11. International energy outlook 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-05-01

    This International Energy Outlook presents historical data from 1970 to 1993 and EIA`s projections of energy consumption and carbon emissions through 2015 for 6 country groups. Prospects for individual fuels are discussed. Summary tables of the IEO96 world energy consumption, oil production, and carbon emissions projections are provided in Appendix A. The reference case projections of total foreign energy consumption and of natural gas, coal, and renewable energy were prepared using EIA`s World Energy Projection System (WEPS) model. Reference case projections of foreign oil production and consumption were prepared using the International Energy Module of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). Nuclear consumption projections were derived from the International Nuclear Model, PC Version (PC-INM). Alternatively, nuclear capacity projections were developed using two methods: the lower reference case projections were based on analysts` knowledge of the nuclear programs in different countries; the upper reference case was generated by the World Integrated Nuclear Evaluation System (WINES)--a demand-driven model. In addition, the NEMS Coal Export Submodule (CES) was used to derive flows in international coal trade. As noted above, foreign projections of electricity demand are now projected as part of the WEPS. 64 figs., 62 tabs.

  12. STEP Intern Reference Check Sheet

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    STEP Intern Reference Check Sheet, from the Tool Kit Framework: Small Town University Energy Program (STEP).

  13. NREL: International Activities Home Page

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sponsors and Partners NREL conducts its international programs in support of many U.S. agencies-including the Department of Energy, Agency for International Development, Department of State, Environmental Protection Agency, Millennium Challenge Corporation, Overseas Private Development Investment Corporation, as well as numerous international sponsors and partners, including the United Nations (UN) agencies, the Australian government, Global Green Growth Institute, International Renewable

  14. International Energy Agency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claudy, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    The International Energy Agency (IEA) responded to the 1973-1974 oil embargo with an emergency allocation program outlined in the Agreement on an International Energy Program (IEP), viewed by the US as an executive agreement and by most participants as a treaty. The IEA's four standing groups on Relations with Producer and other Consumer Countries, on Long-Term Cooperation, on the Oil Market, and on Emergency Questions are organized to accommodate co041869flicting interests through voting rights and to allow constructive interaction among intergovernmental bodies. A description of the allocation system and industry's role in emergencies is followed by a summary of US legal requirements relating to these activities. Four appendices reproduce the IEP Agreement and diagram the IEA organizational structure, the IEA emergency allocation system, and the Emergency Management Organization. (DCK)

  15. International Nuclear Security

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doyle, James E.

    2012-08-14

    This presentation discusses: (1) Definitions of international nuclear security; (2) What degree of security do we have now; (3) Limitations of a nuclear security strategy focused on national lock-downs of fissile materials and weapons; (4) What do current trends say about the future; and (5) How can nuclear security be strengthened? Nuclear security can be strengthened by: (1) More accurate baseline inventories; (2) Better physical protection, control and accounting; (3) Effective personnel reliability programs; (4) Minimize weapons-usable materials and consolidate to fewer locations; (5) Consider local threat environment when siting facilities; (6) Implement pledges made in the NSS process; and (7) More robust interdiction, emergency response and special operations capabilities. International cooperation is desirable, but not always possible.

  16. Internal core tightener

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brynsvold, Glen V.; Snyder, Jr., Harold J.

    1976-06-22

    An internal core tightener which is a linear actuated (vertical actuation motion) expanding device utilizing a minimum of moving parts to perform the lateral tightening function. The key features are: (1) large contact areas to transmit loads during reactor operation; (2) actuation cam surfaces loaded only during clamping and unclamping operation; (3) separation of the parts and internal operation involved in the holding function from those involved in the actuation function; and (4) preloaded pads with compliant travel at each face of the hexagonal assembly at the two clamping planes to accommodate thermal expansion and irradiation induced swelling. The latter feature enables use of a "fixed" outer core boundary, and thus eliminates the uncertainty in gross core dimensions, and potential for rapid core reactivity changes as a result of core dimensional change.

  17. Rotary internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray, J.L.; Mosca, J.O.

    1992-02-25

    This patent describes a rotary internal combustion engine. It includes a housing; a cam track internally disposed within the housing and adapted to receive a cam follower; an engine block disposed within the housing, the engine block being relatively rotatable within the housing about a central axis; means connectable to an external drive member for translating the relative rotation of the engine block with respect to the housing into useful work; at least one radially arranged cylinder assembly on the block, each cylinder assembly including a cylinder having a longitudinal axis extending generally radially outwardly from the rotational axis of the block, the cylinder including means defining an end wall, a piston member disposed within the cylinder and adapted to reciprocate within the cylinder; the piston, cylinder and cylinder end wall together.

  18. Internal combustion rotary engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, S.P.

    1993-08-24

    An internal combustion rotary engine is described comprising: an internal combustion chamber wherein a combustible fuel-air mixture is ignited for producing a driving gas flow; a central rotor having an outer surface in which at least one group of curved channels circumferentially-and-axially extending without radially extending through the central rotor; and at least one annular rotor each enclosing the central rotor having an inner surface in which a corresponding number of curved channels circumferentially-and-axially extending without radially extending through the annular rotor; when the curved channels in the central rotor communicate with the curved channels in the annular rotor, the driving gas flow circumferentially-and-axially passing between the outer surface of the central rotor and the inner surface of the annular rotor for rotating the central rotor and the annular rotor in opposite directions.

  19. International Algae Symposium

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office Advanced Algal Systems Technology Manager Daniel Fishman represented the Office at the International Algae Symposium in Tokyo, Japan. Hosted at the University of Tsukuba’s newly established Algae Biomass Bioenergy Development Research Center, the symposium was an opportunity for algae researchers, policy makers, and industry leaders across the globe to learn about each other’s work.

  20. International markets for CCTs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferriter, J.P.

    1997-12-31

    The paper begins by describing the role of the International Energy Agency, the importance of coal, what the IEA is doing in the area of clean coal technology, and the role of the IEA Coal Industry Advisory Board. The paper then discusses which coal technologies will be chosen, what the problem areas are, and what can be done to accelerate the take-up of clean coal technologies.

  1. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the OECD. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world, presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production, oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  2. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-11-01

    This document is a monthly publication which provides current data on international oil production,demand,imports and stocks. This report has four sections which contain time series data on world oil production and oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Also included is oil supply/demand balance information for the world, and data on oil imports and trade by OECD countries.

  3. International petroleum statistics report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    This monthly publication provides current data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the OECD. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.

  4. NREL: International Activities - Webmaster

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Webmaster Please enter your name and email address in the boxes provided, then type your message below. When you are finished, click "Send Message." NOTE: If you enter your e-mail address incorrectly, we will be unable to reply. Your name: Your email address: Your message: Send Message Printable Version International Activities Home Bilateral Partnerships Multilateral Partnerships Assessments & Tools Working with Us Did you find what you needed? Yes 1 No 0 Thank you for your

  5. Polarized internal target apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holt, Roy J.

    1986-01-01

    A polarized internal target apparatus with a polarized gas target of improved polarization and density achieved by mixing target gas atoms with a small amount of alkali metal gas atoms, and passing a high intensity polarized light source into the mixture to cause the alkali metal gas atoms to become polarized which interact in spin exchange collisions with target gas atoms yielding polarized target gas atoms.

  6. Polarized internal target apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holt, R.J.

    1984-10-10

    A polarized internal target apparatus with a polarized gas target of improved polarization and density (achieved by mixing target gas atoms with a small amount of alkali metal gas atoms, and passing a high intensity polarized light source into the mixture to cause the alkali metal gas atoms to become polarized which interact in spin exchange collisions with target gas atoms yielding polarized target gas atoms) is described.

  7. International energy outlook 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-06-15

    This report presents international energy projections through 2030, prepared by the Energy Information Administration. After a chapter entitled 'Highlights', the report begins with a review of world energy and economic outlook, followed by energy consumption by end-use sector. The next chapter is on world oil markets. Natural gas, world coal market and electricity consumption and supply are then discussed. The final chapter covers energy-related carbon dioxide emissions.

  8. Internal Program Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    American Synchrophasor Initiative (NASPI) and Advanced Applications Research & Development (AARD) Internal Program Review 27-28 June 2013 Washington, DC Joe Eto Lawrence Berkeley National Lab DOE/OE Transmission Reliability Program 2 Management Review Topics  Project objective  Major technical accomplishments that will be completed this year  Deliverables and schedule for activities to be completed under FY13 funding  Risk factors affecting timely completion of planned activities

  9. International Subcommittee Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dr. Regis A. Matzie, Chair NEAC Meeting December 10, 2014 1 Externalities of Nuclear Power Important International Considerations  Safety - because of the potential impact that severe accidents can have globally  Energy security - particularly in countries with little domestic energy resources  Reduction of green house gases - impact on global warming, severe weather, and flooding of coastal areas  Proliferation - particularly as it relates to the construction of sensitive nuclear

  10. International Cooperation Holiday Cheer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Administration International Atomic Energy Agency Secretary Moniz awards Hutcheon memorial nonproliferation fellowship to Thomas Gray Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz (second from bottom left, clockwise) and Anne Harrington, NNSA deputy administrator for Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation (sitting next to Moniz), discuss Ian Hutcheon's legacy with his wife Nancy (across from Harrington) and daughter Dana Hutcheon Gordon. Energy... DOE/NNSA's Nonproliferation Experts Lead First Workshop on the