National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for internal engine friction

  1. Piston ring design for reduced friction in modern internal combustion engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smedley, Grant, 1978-

    2004-01-01

    Piston ring friction losses account for approximately 20% of the total mechanical losses in modern internal combustion engines. A reduction in piston ring friction would therefore result in higher efficiency, lower fuel ...

  2. Engine Friction Reduction Through Surface Finish and Coatings...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Friction Reduction Through Surface Finish and Coatings Engine Friction Reduction Through Surface Finish and Coatings Opportunities exist for friction reduction in piston rings and...

  3. ENGINEERING INTERNATIONAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    University of Technology, Sydney

    COURSE GUIDE 2013 UTS: ENGINEERING INTERNATIONAL UNDERGRADUATE w w w.eng.uts.edu.au #12;2 / ENGINEERING IN AUSTRALIA Internationally, Australian universities have a reputation for high quality research developed close links with many international institutions, particularly in Asia. ENGINEERING IN SYDNEY

  4. Postulated Mesoscale Quantum of Internal Friction Hysteresis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Randall D. Peters

    2004-05-27

    Evidence is provided, from yet another experiment, for the existence of a mesoscale quantum of internal friction hysteresis, having the value of the electron rest energy divided by the fine structure constant.

  5. International combustion engines; Applied thermosciences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferguson, C.R.

    1985-01-01

    Focusing on thermodynamic analysis - from the requisite first law to more sophisticated applications - and engine design, this book is an introduction to internal combustion engines and their mechanics. It covers the many types of internal combustion engines, including spark ignition, compression ignition, and stratified charge engines, and examines processes, keeping equations of state simple by assuming constant specific heats. Equations are limited to heat engines and later applied to combustion engines. Topics include realistic equations of state, stroichiometry, predictions of chemical equilibrium, engine performance criteria, and friction, which is discussed in terms of the hydrodynamic theory of lubrication and experimental methods such as dimensional analysis.

  6. EVALUATION OF A LOW FRICTION - HIGH EFFICIENCY ROLLER BEARING ENGINE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolarik, Robert V. II; Shattuck, Charles W.; Copper, Anthony P.

    2009-06-30

    This Low Friction (High Efficiency Roller Bearing) Engine (LFE) report presents the work done by The Timken Company to conduct a technology demonstration of the benefits of replacing hydrodynamic bearings with roller bearings in the crankshaft and camshaft assemblies of an internal combustion engine for the purpose of collecting data sufficient to prove merit. The engines in the present study have been more extensively converted to roller bearings than any previous studies (40 needle roller bearings per engine) to gain understanding of the full potential of application of bearing technology. The project plan called for comparative testing of a production vehicle which was already respected for having demonstrated low engine friction levels with a rollerized version of that engine. Testing was to include industry standard tests for friction, emissions and fuel efficiency conducted on instrumented dynamometers. Additional tests for fuel efficiency, cold start resistance and other measures of performance were to be made in the actual vehicle. Comparative measurements of noise, vibration and harshness (NVH), were planned, although any work to mitigate the suspected higher NVH level in the rollerized engine was beyond the scope of this project. Timken selected the Toyota Avalon with a 3.5L V-6 engine as the test vehicle. In an attempt to minimize cost and fabrication time, a ‘made-from’ approach was proposed in which as many parts as possible would be used or modified from production parts to create the rollerized engine. Timken commissioned its test partner, FEV Engine Technology, to do a feasibility study in which they confirmed that using such an approach was possible to meet the required dimensional restrictions and tolerances. In designing the roller bearing systems for the crank and cam trains, Timken utilized as many production engine parts as possible. The crankshafts were produced from production line forgings, which use Timken steel, modified with special machining and heat treatment. Timken designed and manufactured all of the roller bearing related components such as the thrust bearing package. The production connecting rods and camshafts could not be used for the roller bearing engine, so new ones were produced according to the team’s designs using Timken steel. The remaining miscellaneous components were designed and procured by FEV. Timken prepared a display version of the crankshaft portion of the production engine without connecting rods which could be driven by a motor through a cogged-belt and electrically actuated clutch arrangement. A modified version was also made in which the engine was outfitted with roller bearings on the main bearing positions. Preliminary tests showed that the rollerized engine was running with 1/3 less friction than the standard display engine. Additional friction testing and noise characterization was cut short because of shipping damage to the rollerized engine display and because of other project priorities. The team did successfully demonstrate the ability to package roller bearings satisfactorily in numerous locations in a typical automotive engine. The scope of this project did not include durability demonstration and that subject would have to be addressed in any follow-on work. In the actual test phase, the rollerized engine did show significantly less friction in motored dynamometer tests compared to its production equivalent. The 5-10% improvement measured in this study was about half that seen in other studies. However, the fired test results did not show a reduction in friction which did not match prior experience or expectations. Subsequent teardown and inspection of the rollerized engine revealed potential sources of excessive friction in the experimental application. These features would be eliminated in a design not based on modification of production parts. The team is confident (based on experience) that friction reduction would be realized with proper modifications.

  7. Low-Friction Engineered Surfaces

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT).

  8. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Engine Friction Reduction Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about engine friction...

  9. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Engine Friction Reduction Technologies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and vehicle technologies office annual merit review and peer evaluation meeting about engine friction...

  10. Friction and Wear Reduction in Diesel Engine Valve Trains | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reduction in Diesel Engine Valve Trains Friction and Wear Reduction in Diesel Engine Valve Trains Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle Technologies "Mega" Merit Review...

  11. Factors affecting piston ring friction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liao, Kai, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01

    The piston ring pack friction is a major contributor to the internal combustion engine mechanical friction loss. The oil control ring decides the oil supply to the top two rings in addition to being the major friction ...

  12. Quantifying internal friction in unfolded and intrinsically disordered proteins with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bigelow, Stephen

    Quantifying internal friction in unfolded and intrinsically disordered proteins with single reflects the "roughness" of the energy land- scape, plays an important role for proteins by modulating spectroscopy, and microfluidic mixing to determine the reconfiguration times of unfolded proteins

  13. Department of Mechanical Engineering Fall 2011 Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Friction Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    PENNSTATE Department of Mechanical Engineering Fall 2011 Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Friction the friction losses of a heavy duty diesel engine. In addition, a tear down procedure needed to be created in order to guide the engine disassembly and testing. The overall goal was to improve fuel economy

  14. The influence of internal friction on rotordynamic instability 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srinivasan, Anand

    2004-09-30

    Internal friction has been known to be a cause of whirl instability in built-up rotors since the early 1900's. This internal damping tends to make the rotor whirl at shaft speeds greater than a critical speed, the whirl speed usually being equal...

  15. Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Lubricant and Additive Effects on Engine Friction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Combining data from motored engine friction, a theoretical engine model, a line friction contact rig, and a fired engine can provide better insight to lube oil and additive performance.

  16. Development and application of a lubricant composition model to study effects of oil transport, vaporization, fuel dilution, and soot contamination on lubricant rheology and engine friction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gu, Grace Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Engine oil lubricants play a critical role in controlling mechanical friction in internal combustion engines by reducing metal-on-metal contact. This implies the importance of understanding lubricant optimization at the ...

  17. LOW-ENGINE-FRICTION TECHNOLOGY FOR ADVANCED NATURAL-GAS RECIPROCATING ENGINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Victor W. Wong; Tian Tian; Grant Smedley

    2003-08-28

    This program aims at improving the efficiency of advanced natural-gas reciprocating engines (ANGRE) by reducing piston/ring assembly friction without major adverse effects on engine performance, such as increased oil consumption and emissions. A detailed set of piston/ring dynamic and friction models have been developed and applied that illustrated the fundamental relationships between design parameters and friction losses. Various low-friction strategies and concepts have been explored, and engine experiments will validate these concepts. An iterative process of experimentation, simulation and analysis, will be followed with the goal of demonstrating a complete optimized low-friction engine system. As planned, MIT has developed guidelines for an initial set of low-friction piston-ring-pack designs. Current recommendations focus on subtle top-piston-ring and oil-control-ring characteristics. A full-scale Waukesha F18 engine has been installed at Colorado State University and testing of the baseline configuration is in progress. Components for the first design iteration are being procured. Subsequent work includes examining the friction and engine performance data and extending the analyses to other areas to evaluate opportunities for further friction improvement and the impact on oil consumption/emission and wear, towards demonstrating an optimized reduced-friction engine system.

  18. LOW-ENGINE-FRICTION TECHNOLOGY FOR ADVANCED NATURAL-GAS RECIPROCATING ENGINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Victor Wong; Tian Tian; Luke Moughon; Rosalind Takata; Jeffrey Jocsak

    2006-03-31

    This program aims at improving the efficiency of advanced natural-gas reciprocating engines (ANGRE) by reducing piston and piston ring assembly friction without major adverse effects on engine performance, such as increased oil consumption and wear. An iterative process of simulation, experimentation and analysis is being followed towards achieving the goal of demonstrating a complete optimized low-friction engine system. To date, a detailed set of piston and piston-ring dynamic and friction models have been developed and applied that illustrate the fundamental relationships among mechanical, surface/material and lubricant design parameters and friction losses. Demonstration of low-friction ring-pack designs in the Waukesha VGF 18GL engine confirmed total engine FEMP (friction mean effective pressure) reduction of 7-10% from the baseline configuration without significantly increasing oil consumption or blow-by flow. This represents a substantial (30-40%) reduction of the ringpack friction alone. The measured FMEP reductions were in good agreement with the model predictions. Further improvements via piston, lubricant, and surface designs offer additional opportunities. Tests of low-friction lubricants are in progress and preliminary results are very promising. The combined analysis of lubricant and surface design indicates that low-viscosity lubricants can be very effective in reducing friction, subject to component wear for extremely thin oils, which can be mitigated with further lubricant formulation and/or engineered surfaces. Hence a combined approach of lubricant design and appropriate wear reduction offers improved potential for minimum engine friction loss. Piston friction studies indicate that a flatter piston with a more flexible skirt, together with optimizing the waviness and film thickness on the piston skirt offer significant friction reduction. Combined with low-friction ring-pack, material and lubricant parameters, a total power cylinder friction reduction of 30-50% is expected, translating to an engine efficiency increase of two percentage points from its current baseline towards the goal of 50% ARES engine efficiency. The design strategies developed in this study have promising potential for application in all modern reciprocating engines as they represent simple, low-cost methods to extract significant fuel savings. The current program has possible spinoffs and applications in other industries as well, including transportation, CHP, and diesel power generation. The progress made in this program has wide engine efficiency implications, and potential deployment of low-friction engine components or lubricants in the near term is possible as current investigations continue.

  19. LOW-ENGINE-FRICTION TECHNOLOGY FOR ADVANCED NATURAL-GAS RECIPROCATING ENGINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Victor Wong; Tian Tian; Luke Moughon; Rosalind Takata; Jeffrey Jocsak

    2005-09-30

    This program aims at improving the efficiency of advanced natural-gas reciprocating engines (ANGRE) by reducing piston and piston ring assembly friction without major adverse effects on engine performance, such as increased oil consumption and wear. An iterative process of simulation, experimentation and analysis is being followed towards achieving the goal of demonstrating a complete optimized low-friction engine system. To date, a detailed set of piston and piston-ring dynamic and friction models have been developed and applied that illustrate the fundamental relationships between design parameters and friction losses. Low friction ring designs have already been recommended in a previous phase, with full-scale engine validation partially completed. Current accomplishments include the addition of several additional power cylinder design areas to the overall system analysis. These include analyses of lubricant and cylinder surface finish and a parametric study of piston design. The Waukesha engine was found to be already well optimized in the areas of lubricant, surface skewness and honing cross-hatch angle, where friction reductions of 12% for lubricant, and 5% for surface characteristics, are projected. For the piston, a friction reduction of up to 50% may be possible by controlling waviness alone, while additional friction reductions are expected when other parameters are optimized. A total power cylinder friction reduction of 30-50% is expected, translating to an engine efficiency increase of two percentage points from its current baseline towards the goal of 50% efficiency. Key elements of the continuing work include further analysis and optimization of the engine piston design, in-engine testing of recommended lubricant and surface designs, design iteration and optimization of previously recommended technologies, and full-engine testing of a complete, optimized, low-friction power cylinder system.

  20. Low-Engine-Friction Technology for Advanced Natural-Gas Reciprocating Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Victor Wong; Tian Tian; G. Smedley; L. Moughon; Rosalind Takata; J. Jocsak

    2006-11-30

    This program aims at improving the efficiency of advanced natural-gas reciprocating engines (ANGRE) by reducing piston and piston ring assembly friction without major adverse effects on engine performance, such as increased oil consumption and wear. An iterative process of simulation, experimentation and analysis has been followed towards achieving the goal of demonstrating a complete optimized low-friction engine system. In this program, a detailed set of piston and piston-ring dynamic and friction models have been adapted and applied that illustrate the fundamental relationships among mechanical, surface/material and lubricant design parameters and friction losses. Demonstration of low-friction ring-pack designs in the Waukesha VGF 18GL engine confirmed ring-pack friction reduction of 30-40%, which translates to total engine FEMP (friction mean effective pressure) reduction of 7-10% from the baseline configuration without significantly increasing oil consumption or blow-by flow. The study on surface textures, including roughness characteristics, cross hatch patterns, dimples and grooves have shown that even relatively small-scale changes can have a large effect on ring/liner friction, in some cases reducing FMEP by as much as 30% from a smooth surface case. The measured FMEP reductions were in good agreement with the model predictions. The combined analysis of lubricant and surface design indicates that low-viscosity lubricants can be very effective in reducing friction, subject to component wear for extremely thin oils, which can be mitigated with further lubricant formulation and/or engineered surfaces. Hence a combined approach of lubricant design and appropriate wear reduction offers improved potential for minimum engine friction loss. Testing of low-friction lubricants showed that total engine FMEP reduced by up to {approx}16.5% from the commercial reference oil without significantly increasing oil consumption or blow-by flow. Piston friction studies indicate that a flatter piston with a more flexible skirt, together with optimizing the waviness and film thickness on the piston skirt offer significant friction reduction. Combined with low-friction ring-pack, material and lubricant parameters, a total power cylinder friction reduction of 30-50% is expected, translating to an engine efficiency increase of two percentage points from its current baseline towards the goal of 50% ARES engine efficiency. The design strategies developed in this study have promising potential for application in all modern reciprocating engines as they represent simple, low-cost methods to extract significant fuel savings. The current program has possible spinoffs and applications in other industries as well, including transportation, CHP, and diesel power generation. The progress made in this program has wide engine efficiency implications, and potential deployment of low-friction engine components or lubricants in the near term is quite possible.

  1. Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering Spring 2012 Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Friction Reduction Testing and Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    PENNSTATE Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering Spring 2012 Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Friction Reduction Testing and Analysis Overview Volvo Group Powertrain Engineering is interested performed to educate the team on engine friction testing. A 3D CAD model was initially produced to design

  2. Looping dynamics of flexible chain with internal friction at different degree of compactness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nairhita Samanta; Rajarshi Chakrabarti

    2015-02-11

    Recently single molecule experiments have shown the importance of internal friction in biopolymer dynamics. Such studies also suggested that the internal friction although independent of solvent viscosity has strong dependence on denaturant concentration. Recent simulations also support such propositions by pointing out weak interactions to be the origin of internal friction in proteins. Here we made an attempt to investigate how a single polymer chain with internal friction undergoes reconfiguration and looping dynamics in a confining potential which accounts for the presence of the denaturant, by using recently proposed Compacted Rouse with internal friction (CRIF). We also incorporated the effect of hydrodynamics by extending this further to Compacted Zimm with internal friction (CZIF). All the calculations are carried out within the Wilemski Fixmann (WF) framework. By changing the strength of the confinement we mimicked chains with different degrees of compactness at different denaturant concentrations. While compared with experiments our results are found to be in good agreement.

  3. Nanoparticle Emissions from Internal Combustion Engines | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nanoparticle Emissions from Internal Combustion Engines Nanoparticle Emissions from Internal Combustion Engines 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference...

  4. Rotary internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray, J.L.; Mosca, J.O.

    1992-02-25

    This patent describes a rotary internal combustion engine. It includes a housing; a cam track internally disposed within the housing and adapted to receive a cam follower; an engine block disposed within the housing, the engine block being relatively rotatable within the housing about a central axis; means connectable to an external drive member for translating the relative rotation of the engine block with respect to the housing into useful work; at least one radially arranged cylinder assembly on the block, each cylinder assembly including a cylinder having a longitudinal axis extending generally radially outwardly from the rotational axis of the block, the cylinder including means defining an end wall, a piston member disposed within the cylinder and adapted to reciprocate within the cylinder; the piston, cylinder and cylinder end wall together.

  5. ENSC 283: Friction and Minor Losses in Pipelines School of Engineering Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    ENSC 283: Friction and Minor Losses in Pipelines 1 School of Engineering Science Mechatronics and Minor Losses in Pipelines 2 School of Engineering Science Mechatronics Systems Engineering 1 Laboratory Figure 1- Components of experimental apparatus. #12;ENSC 283: Friction and Minor Losses in Pipelines 3

  6. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Engine Friction Reduction – Part II (Base fluid and additive technologies)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and vehicle technologies office annual merit review and peer evaluation meeting about engine friction...

  7. Rotary internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Le, L.K.

    1990-11-20

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine comprising; a rotary compressor mechanism; a rotary expander mechanism; and combustion chamber means disposed between the compressor mechanism and the expander mechanism, whereby compressed air is delivered to the combustion chamber through the compressor discharge port, and pressurized gas is delivered from the combustion chamber into the expander mechanism through the pressurized gas intake port.

  8. Rotary internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray, J.L.

    1993-07-20

    A multi bank power plant is described comprising at least a first and a second rotary internal combustion engine connectable together in series, each of the engines comprising: a housing; a cam track internally disposed within the housing and adapted to receive a cam follower; an engine block disposed within the housing and rotatable about a central axis; an output shaft extending axially from each the engine block, each output shaft being coaxial with the other; means for coupling the output shafts together so that the output shafts rotate together in the same direction at the same speed; at least one radially arranged cylinder assembly on each block, each cylinder assembly including a cylinder having a longitudinal axis extending generally radially outwardly from the rotational axis of the block, the cylinder including means defining an end wall, a piston member disposed within the cylinder and adapted to reciprocate within the cylinder; a combustion chamber, means permitting periodic introduction of air and fuel into the combustion chamber, means for causing combustion of a compressed mixture of air and fuel within the combustion chamber, means permitting periodic exhaust of products of combustion of air and fuel from the combustion chamber, and means for imparting forces and motions of the piston within the cylinder to and from the cam track, the means comprising a cam follower operatively connected to the piston; wherein the cam track includes at least a first segment and at least a second segment thereof, the first segment having a generally positive slope wherein the segment has a generally increasing radial distance from the rotational axis of the engine block whereby as a piston moves outwardly in a cylinder on a power stroke while the cam follower is in radial register with the cam track segment, the reactive force of the respective cam follower against the cam track segment acts in a direction tending to impart rotation to the engine block.

  9. Internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, H.G.; Speer, S.

    1991-12-31

    This patent describes improvement in a 2-cycle, diesel cycle internal combustion engine comprising a single in-line engine block, internal wall surfaces defining at least one cylinder within the engine block, the central longitudinal axis of each cylinder being within a common plane extending longitudinally of the engine block, the axially extending internal wall surface of each cylinder being closed at one end and having at least one air intake port therethrough, a piston axially and reciprocally movable within each cylinder over a permitted stroke distance, so as to alternately cover and expose each air intake port for a finite time period; an exhaust port at the closed end of the cylinder above the piston, and a mechanically operated valve for opening and closing such exhaust port located immediately adjacent such port, a substantially rigid connecting rod pivotably connected at one end of each piston, and a crankshaft, rotatably connected to the second end of each connecting rod, such that the crankshaft is caused to rotate connecting means between the piston and the connecting rod. The improvement comprises the diameter of the cylinder is greater than the permitted stroke distance of the piston within the cylinder, and the axis of the crankshaft is parallel to and laterally offset from the common plane by a distance sufficient to form an angle alpha between the connecting rod and the axis of the cylinder, when the piston is at top-dead center, of at least about 12 degrees, such that the time during which each air intake port is exposed is increased when the direction of crankshaft rotation is opposite to the direction of the crankshaft offset from the common plane.

  10. Effects of lubricant viscosity and surface texturing on ring-pack performance in internal combustion engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takata, Rosalind (Rosalind Kazuko), 1978-

    2006-01-01

    The piston ring-pack contributes approximately 25% of the mechanical losses in an internal combustion engine. Both lubricant viscosity and surface texturing were investigated in an effort to reduce this ring-pack friction ...

  11. Modeling the structural behavior of the piston rings under different boundary conditions in internal combustion engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Dian

    2010-01-01

    In the process of designing internal combustion engine, piston ring plays an important role in fulfilling the requirements of camber gas sealing, friction reduction and lubrication oil consumption. The goal of this thesis ...

  12. Internal combustion rotary engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, S.P.

    1993-08-24

    An internal combustion rotary engine is described comprising: an internal combustion chamber wherein a combustible fuel-air mixture is ignited for producing a driving gas flow; a central rotor having an outer surface in which at least one group of curved channels circumferentially-and-axially extending without radially extending through the central rotor; and at least one annular rotor each enclosing the central rotor having an inner surface in which a corresponding number of curved channels circumferentially-and-axially extending without radially extending through the annular rotor; when the curved channels in the central rotor communicate with the curved channels in the annular rotor, the driving gas flow circumferentially-and-axially passing between the outer surface of the central rotor and the inner surface of the annular rotor for rotating the central rotor and the annular rotor in opposite directions.

  13. Engine Friction Reduction Through Surface Finish and Coatings

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Opportunities exist for friction reduction in piston rings and valve trains using durable, advanced material technologies, such as diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings, and new lubricants.

  14. Measurement of local internal friction in metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, H.; Büchsenschütz-Göbeler, M.; Luo, Y.; Samwer, K.; Kumar, A.; Arnold, W.

    2014-04-07

    Atomic force acoustic microscopy (AFAM), an advanced scanning probe microscopy technique, has been used to measure local elastic properties with a spatial resolution given by the tip-sample contact radius. AFAM is based on inducing out-of-plane vibrations in the specimen. The vibrations are sensed by the AFM cantilever from by the photodiode signal when its tip is in contact with the material under test. To measure local damping, the inverse quality factor Q{sup ?1} of the resonance curve is usually evaluated. Here, from the contact-resonance spectra obtained, we determine the real and imaginary part of the contact stiffness k* and from these two quantities the local damping factor Q{sub loc}{sup ?1} is obtained which is proportional to the imaginary part ? of the contact stiffness. The evaluation of the data is based on the cantilever's mass distribution with damped flexural modes and not on an effective point-mass approximation for the cantilever’s motion. The given equation is simple to use and has been employed to study the local Q{sub loc}{sup ?1} of amorphous PdCuSi metallic glass and its crystalline counterpart as a function of position of the AFM tip on the surface. The width of the distribution changes dramatically from the amorphous to the crystalline state as expected from the consequences of the potential-energy landscape picture. The center value of the distribution curve for Q{sub loc}{sup ?1} coincides very well with published data, based on global ultrasonic or internal friction measurements. This is compared to Q{sub loc}{sup ?1} measured in crystalline SrTiO{sub 3}, which exhibits a narrow distribution, as expected.

  15. Steam boosted internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, M.A.

    1987-01-20

    A device is described to supplement the power produced by burning fuel in an internal combustion engine with steam, the device comprising: a means for producing a constant flow of water past a boiler means; a means for allowing the water to flow in the direction of the boiler; a boiler means external to the internal combustion engine to convert the water into superheated steam; a means for controlling the pressure of the water such that the water pressure is greater than the pressure of the steam produced by the boiler; and a means for injection of the superheated steam directly into a cylinder of the internal combustion engine, a means for producing a constant flow of water at a pressure greater than the pressure of the superheated steam, wherein the constant flow means at greater pressure comprises a chamber with a gaseous component, with the gaseous component being of constant volume and exerting constant pressure upon water within the chamber.

  16. Friction and Wear Enhancement of Titanium Alloy Engine Components...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Alloy Engine Components Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Can hard coatings and lubricant anti-wear additives work together? Vehicle Technologies Office Merit...

  17. Rotary valve internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bunk, P.H.

    1989-03-28

    A rotary valve internal combustion engine is described, comprising: an engine block; at least one cylinder in the engine block; at least one cylinder having a top end; cylinder head means located adjacent the top end of at least one cylinder, the cylinder head means having a cylindrically shaped cavity therein, the cylindrically shaped cavity being oriented in perpendicular relation to at least one cylinder; a piston sealingly mounted in at least one cylinder for reciprocable movement therein, the reciprocable movement including an intake stroke and an exhaust stroke; engine shaft means rotatably mounted to the engine block; means within the engine block for converting the reciprocable movement of the piston into rotary motion of the engine shaft means; a cylinder port located at the top end of at least one cylinder; a rotary valve rotatably mounted in the cylindrically shaped cavity; means connected with the engine shaft means for rotating the rotary valve in a predetermined synchronization with the reciprocable movement of the piston; aspiration means in the rotary valve for selectively aspirating at least one cylinder during the intake an exhaust strokes; and a spark plug removably mounted within the rotary valve and rotatable therewith.

  18. Friction due to inhomogeneous driving of coupled spins in a quantum heat engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George Thomas; Ramandeep S. Johal

    2013-10-01

    We consider two spin-1/2 particles with isotropic Heisenberg interaction, as the working substance of a quantum heat engine. We observe a frictional effect on the adiabatic branches of the heat cycle, which arises due to an inhomogeneous driving at a finite rate of the external magnetic field. The frictional effect is characterized by entropy production in the system and reduction in the work extracted. Corresponding to a sudden and a very slow driving, we find expressions for the lower and upper bounds of work that can be extracted on the adiabatic branches. These bounds are also confirmed with numerical simulations of the corresponding Liouville-von Neumann equation.

  19. Friction Characteristics of Steel Pistons for Diesel Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Dallwoo

    The use of iron pistons is increasing due to the higher power requirements of diesel truck engines. Expansion of the iron piston is a common concern. The purpose of this study is to clarify the lubrication conditions of ...

  20. Rotary reciprocating internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogren, W.

    1992-06-23

    This patent describes a rotary reciprocating internal combustion engine. It comprises a housing which comprises a cylindrical head with two end and frame plates mounted on both ends of the head enclose the head, the head including a pair of fuel into ports and a pair of exhaust ports, a pair of ring gears; a rotor axially aligned in the cylindrical head and comprising a set of four radially extending cylinders and pistons reciprocable in the cylinders; a power take off shaft fixed to the crank support plates and axially aligned with the rotor; oiling means for oiling the rotary engine; and a set of eight crank gears.

  1. Reconfiguration Dynamics in folded and intrinsically disordered protein with internal friction: Effect of solvent quality and denaturant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nairhita Samanta; Rajarshi Chakrabarti

    2015-06-01

    We consider a phantom chain model of polymer with internal friction in a harmonic confinement and extend it to take care of effects of solvent quality following a mean field approach where an exponent $\

  2. Modeling the performance of the piston ring-pack with consideration of non-axisymmetric characteristics of the power cylinder system in internal combustion engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Liang, 1971-

    2005-01-01

    The performance of the piston ring-pack is directly associated with the friction, oil consumption, wear, and blow-by in internal combustion engines. Because of non-axisymmetric characteristics of the power cylinder system, ...

  3. Internal combustion engine fuel feed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cochard, P.; Guicherd, C.

    1980-02-19

    In a method and apparatus for controlling the fuel feed to a stratified-charge internal combustion engine, from idle up to the position corresponding with the maximum flow of air, the overall richness (Rg) of the combustible mixture is reduced by acting simultaneously upon the flow of fuel feeding the main chamber and upon the flow of fuel injected into the auxiliary chamber. For higher loads the maximum flow of air is kept constant and rg is increased by continuing to act upon both fuel flows. By keeping the richness of the mixture in the auxiliary chamber substantially constant, it is possible to obtain the best compromise between the performance of the engine and the emission of pollutant gases.

  4. Pneumatic starter for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristoff, J.J.; Elwer, M.

    1992-05-12

    This patent describes a starter arrangement for an engine. It comprises a fluid actuated rotary vane motor which is adapted to engage an associated engine, the rotary motor having a hub and at least one blade which is slidably mounted in the hub and is made from a fiber reinforced plastic material to reduce friction, and wherein the at least one blade has a wear surface made of the same material; a housing including a sleeve in which the rotary motor is positioned, (a relay valve means for selectively providing a pressurized operating fluid to the rotary motor,) wherein the blade material and the sleeve inner surface coating cooperate to enable the motor to rotate in the sleeve with a minimum of friction thereby obviating the need for a lubricating system for the starter arrangement.

  5. Free Energy and Internal Combustion Engine Cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    William D. Harris

    2012-01-11

    The performance of one type (Carnot) of Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) cycle is analyzed within the framework of thermodynamic free energies. ICE performance is different from that of an External Combustion Engine (ECE) which is dictated by Carnot's rule.

  6. Free Energy and Internal Combustion Engine Cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, William D

    2012-01-01

    The performance of one type (Carnot) of Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) cycle is analyzed within the framework of thermodynamic free energies. ICE performance is different from that of an External Combustion Engine (ECE) which is dictated by Carnot's rule.

  7. Internal combustion engine and method for control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brennan, Daniel G

    2013-05-21

    In one exemplary embodiment of the invention an internal combustion engine includes a piston disposed in a cylinder, a valve configured to control flow of air into the cylinder and an actuator coupled to the valve to control a position of the valve. The internal combustion engine also includes a controller coupled to the actuator, wherein the controller is configured to close the valve when an uncontrolled condition for the internal engine is determined.

  8. Advancing Internal Combustion Engine Simulations using Sensitivity...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advancing Internal Combustion Engine Simulations using Sensitivity Analysis PI Name: Sibendu Som PI Email: ssom@anl.gov Institution: Argonne National Laboratory Allocation Program:...

  9. Stratified charge internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skopil, A.O.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine. It comprises: a main cylinder, a main piston within the main cylinder, and means for delivering a combustible charge into the main cylinder; a smaller idle cylinder, and idle piston within the idle cylinder, and means for delivering a combustible charge into the idle cylinder; an ignition passageway leading from the idle cylinder to the main cylinder; and an ignition device within the ignition passageway operable to ignite a compressed charge discharged by the idle cylinder into the ignition passageway. The passageway being positioned to discharge the ignited compressed charge from the idle cylinder into the main cylinder to ignite the compressed charge within the main cylinder.

  10. Examining Effects of Lubricant Composition in Engine Component...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Internal Combustion Engines Engine Friction Reduction Through Surface Finish and Coatings Vehicle Technologies Office: 2012 Fuel and Lubricant Technologies R&D Annual Progress...

  11. A multi-scale model for piston ring dynamics, lubrication and oil transport in internal combustion engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baelden, Camille

    2014-01-01

    Fuel consumption reduction of more than 20% can be achieved through engine friction reduction. Piston and piston rings contribute approximately half of the total engine friction and are therefore central to friction reduction ...

  12. Injector tip for an internal combustion engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shyu, Tsu Pin; Ye, Wen

    2003-05-20

    This invention relates to a the tip structure of a fuel injector as used in a internal combustion engine. Internal combustion engines using Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) technology require a tip structure that directs fuel spray in a downward direction. This requirement necessitates a tip design that is capable of withstanding mechanical stresses associated with the design.

  13. International Conference on Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    4th International Conference on Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering June 25-28, 2007 Paper No. 1387 of the concept of "macro-element" as a convenient tool for a fast but concise and accurate prediction manuscript, published in "4?? INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON EARTHQUAKE GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING

  14. Pneumatic starter for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristof, J.J.; Elwer, M.

    1989-07-11

    A starter arrangement for an engine is described which consists of: a fluid actuated rotary vane motor which is adapted to engage an associated engine, the rotary motor having a hub and at least one blade which is slidably mounted in the hub and is made from a fiber reinforced plastic material to reduce friction, and wherein at least one blade has a wear surface made of the same material; a housing including a sleeve in which the rotary motor is positioned, the sleeve having on its inner surface a hard metallic coating to reduce friction, wherein the sleeve inner surface coating comprises a chromium electrocuting having a hardness which measures at least 70 on the Rockwell C hardness scale and a microfinish of less than 10 micro-inches R.M.S.; and, a relay valve means for selectively providing a pressurized operating fluid to the rotary motor, wherein the blade material and the sleeve inner surface coating cooperate to enable the motor to rotate in the sleeve with a minimum of friction thereby obviating the need for a lubricating system for the starter arrangement.

  15. Starting apparatus for internal combustion engines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dyches, G.M.; Dudar, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    This report is a patent description for a system to start an internal combustion engine. Remote starting and starting by hearing impaired persons are addressed. The system monitors the amount of current being drawn by the starter motor to determine when the engine is started. When the engine is started the system automatically deactivates the starter motor. Five figures are included.

  16. Control system for supercharged internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawamura, H.

    1988-05-24

    A control system for controlling an internal combustion engine is described having a supercharge including a rotatable shaft and an exhaust turbine driven by exhaust gas. The control system comprising: a rotary electric machine mounted on the rotatable shaft of the supercharger for imposing a load on the exhaust turbine of the supercharger; setting means for setting an engine brake mode of the internal combustion engine; and operating means for operating the rotary electric machine when the engine brake mode is set by the setting means.

  17. Engine lubrication oil aeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baran, Bridget A. (Bridget Anne)

    2007-01-01

    The lubrication system of an internal combustion engine serves many purposes. It lubricates moving parts, cools the engine, removes impurities, supports loads, and minimizes friction. The entrapment of air in the lubricating ...

  18. Findings of Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine Durability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrett Beauregard

    2010-12-31

    Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine (HICE) technology takes advantage of existing knowledge of combustion engines to provide a means to power passenger vehicle with hydrogen, perhaps as an interim measure while fuel cell technology continues to mature. This project seeks to provide data to determine the reliability of these engines. Data were collected from an engine operated on a dynamometer for 1000 hours of continuous use. Data were also collected from a fleet of eight (8) full-size pickup trucks powered with hydrogen-fueled engines. In this particular application, the data show that HICE technology provided reliable service during the operating period of the project. Analyses of engine components showed little sign of wear or stress except for cylinder head valves and seats. Material analysis showed signs of hydrogen embrittlement in intake valves.

  19. Internal combustion engine injection superheated steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahoney, F.G.

    1991-01-22

    This patent describes a method for introducing water vapor to the combustion chambers of an internal combustion engine. It comprises: introducing a metered amount of liquid water into a heat exchanger; contacting the heat exchanger directly with hot exhaust gases emanating from the exhaust manifold; maintaining the water in the heat exchanger for a period sufficient to vaporize the water into steam and superheat same; reducing pressure and increasing temperature to create superheated steam; introducing the superheated steam into the air supply proximate to the air induction system, upstream of any carburetion, of the internal combustion engine.

  20. Starting apparatus for internal combustion engines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dyches, Gregory M. (Barnwell, SC); Dudar, Aed M. (Augusta, GA)

    1997-01-01

    An internal combustion engine starting apparatus uses a signal from a curt sensor to determine when the engine is energized and the starter motor should be de-energized. One embodiment comprises a transmitter, receiver, computer processing unit, current sensor and relays to energize a starter motor and subsequently de-energize the same when the engine is running. Another embodiment comprises a switch, current transducer, low-pass filter, gain/comparator, relay and a plurality of switches to energize and de-energize a starter motor. Both embodiments contain an indicator lamp or speaker which alerts an operator as to whether a successful engine start has been achieved. Both embodiments also contain circuitry to protect the starter and to de-energize the engine.

  1. Temperature dependence of dynamic Young's modulus and internal friction in three plasma sprayed NiCrAlY coating alloys 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cook, Lloyd Steven

    1989-01-01

    for internal friction 6. 3 The corstant C TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) CONCLUSIONS Page 17 REFERENCES VITA 00 LIST OF TABLES Table l. Alloy Compositions . 2. Measured Densities of Specimens 3. Polynomials for CTE Data 4. Dynamic Young's Modulus... in failure, the mechanical properties of coatings have not been a subject of much concern. Recently, however, plasma sprayed NiCrA1Y coatings have been used as "bond coats", intermediate between an insulating top coat and the protected structural member...

  2. International Conference on Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oprsal, Ivo

    1D VS 3D STRONG GROUND MOTION HYBRID MODELLING OF SITE, AND PRONOUNCED TOPOGRAPHY EFFECTS AT AUGUSTA effects, spectral amplification, topography INTRODUCTION Earthquake ground motion modelling4th International Conference on Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering June 25-28, 2007 Paper No. 1416

  3. Third International Symposium ENGINEERING OF CHEMICAL COMPLEXITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rudzick, Oliver

    Third International Symposium ENGINEERING OF CHEMICAL COMPLEXITY Program 4 May, Tuesday 16:00 ­ 20:45 ­ 11:15 Coffee break Session chair: R. Kapral 11:15 M. Britton "Probing chemical waves and patterns "Anomalous dispersion in chemical reaction-diffusion systems" 15:10 S. Müller "Hydrodynamic instability

  4. 8th International Conference Engineering of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frey, Erwin

    8th International Conference Engineering of Chemical Complexity Conference Chair: Katharina Krischer Honorary Conference Chairman: Gerhard Ertl, Nobel Laureate Plenary Lectures: Harry L. Swinney (USA.bcsccs.de The aim of this conference is to review current experimental and theoretical progress in understanding

  5. Two phase exhaust for internal combustion engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vuk, Carl T. (Denver, IA)

    2011-11-29

    An internal combustion engine having a reciprocating multi cylinder internal combustion engine with multiple valves. At least a pair of exhaust valves are provided and each supply a separate power extraction device. The first exhaust valves connect to a power turbine used to provide additional power to the engine either mechanically or electrically. The flow path from these exhaust valves is smaller in area and volume than a second flow path which is used to deliver products of combustion to a turbocharger turbine. The timing of the exhaust valve events is controlled to produce a higher grade of energy to the power turbine and enhance the ability to extract power from the combustion process.

  6. Fuel injector nozzle for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klomp, E.D.; Peters, B.D.

    1990-06-12

    This patent describes a fuel injection nozzle for a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. It comprises: a nozzle body with at least one fuel flow opening therethrough for feed fuel to the chamber, a resilient diaphragm normally sealing the opening and having orifice means therein for further atomizing and directing the pulses into the chamber, fastening means for fixing the diaphragm to the body so that diaphragm can deflect by a predetermined amount under low engine load operating conditions so that a wide angle cone of atomized fuel is injected into and generally at one end of the combustion chamber for the stratified charge thereof and deflect by an amount greater than the first amount of deflection under high engine load operating conditions. A narrow spray cone of atomized fuel is injected in a deeper pattern into and throughout the combustion chamber for optimizing the charge thereof and fuel burns under the low and high load engine operating conditions.

  7. H2 Internal Combustion Engine Research Towards 45% efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Internal Combustion Engine Research Towards 45% efficiency and Tier2-Bin5 emissions H2 Internal Combustion Engine Research Towards 45% efficiency and Tier2-Bin5 emissions 2009 DOE...

  8. Rotating Liner Engine: Improving Efficiency of Heavy Duty Diesels by Significant Friction Reduction, and Extending the Life of Heavy Duty Engines.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dardalis, Dimitrios

    2013-12-31

    This report describes the work on converting a 4 cylinder Cummins ISB engine into a single cylinder Rotating Liner Engine functioning prototype that can be used to measure the friction benefits of rotating the cylinder liner in a high pressure compression ignition engine. A similar baseline engine was also prepared, and preliminary testing was done. Even though the fabrication of the single cylinder prototype was behind schedule due to machine shop delays, the fundamental soundness of the design elements are proven, and the engine has successfully functioned. However, the testing approach of the two engines, as envisioned by the original proposal, proved impossible due to torsional vibration resonance caused by the single active piston. A new approach for proper testing has been proposed,

  9. Nanotribology and Nanoscale Friction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Yi [Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, New Jersey; Qu, Zhihua [University of Central Florida, Orlando; Braiman, Yehuda [ORNL; Zhang, Zhenyu [ORNL; Barhen, Jacob [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    Tribology is the science and technology of contacting solid surfaces in relative motion, including the study of lubricants, lubrication, friction, wear, and bearings. It is estimated that friction and wear cost the U.S. economy 6% of the gross national product (Persson, 2000). For example, 5% of the total energy generated in an automobile engine is lost to frictional resistance. The study of nanoscale friction has a technological impact in reducing energy loss in machines, in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), and in the development of durable, low-friction surfaces and ultra-thin lubrication films.

  10. Oil transport inside the oil control ring grove and its interaction with surrounding areas in internal combustion engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Senzer, Eric B

    2012-01-01

    In piston ring pack design, there is a tradeoff between reducing friction and increasing oil consumption. While friction reduces engine efficiency, oil consumption can poison exhaust aftertreatment systems. The primary ...

  11. Modeling piston skirt lubrication in internal combustion engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bai, Dongfang, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    Ever-increasing demand for reduction of the undesirable emissions from the internal combustion engines propels broader effort in auto industry to design more fuel efficient engines. One of the major focuses is the reduction ...

  12. The Role of the Internal Combustion Engine in our Energy Future...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Internal Combustion Engine in our Energy Future The Role of the Internal Combustion Engine in our Energy Future Reviews heavy-duty vehicle market, alternatives to internal...

  13. Integrated CHP/Advanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    to meet local air quality authority emissions restrictions. Integrated Combined Heat and PowerAdvanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine System for Landfill Gas to...

  14. 2.61 Internal Combustion Engines, Spring 2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heywood, John B.

    Fundamentals of how the design and operation of internal combustion engines affect their performance, operation, fuel requirements, and environmental impact. Study of fluid flow, thermodynamics, combustion, heat transfer ...

  15. Design and prototype of dual loop lubricant system to improve engine fuel economy, emissions, and oil drain interval

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plumley, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Regulations aimed at improving fuel economy and reducing harmful emissions from internal combustion engines place constraints on lubricant formulations necessary for controlling wear and reducing friction. Viscosity reduction ...

  16. Internal combustion engine with integral intercooler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poore, B.B.; Beitel, H.V.; Weinert, S.

    1990-11-06

    This patent describes a liquid-cooled internal combustion engine. It comprises: a cylinder block; a cylinder head attached to the block and having formed therein a combustion air inlet, a coolant supply passage, a coolant return passage and an air supply passage for receiving turbocharged air; an intercooler having a coolant inlet and a coolant outlet; a first conduit communicating the intercooler coolant inlet with the coolant supply passage; a second conduit communicating the intercooler coolant outlet with the coolant return passage; a cover attachable to the cylinder head, the cover completely enclosing the intercooler and the first and second conduits; and the cover, the cylinder head and the intercooler being arranged so that turbocharged air flows from the air supply passage to the air inlet via the intercooler.

  17. Department of Energy and Electrical Engineering Spring 2012 Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Friction Reduction Testing and Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    PENNSTATE Department of Energy and Electrical Engineering Spring 2012 Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Engineering Specifications Concept Generation of Test Cell Test Cell Design Cad Drawings Labview Program. Future groups will be able to use this test rig to run a multitude of engine tests Volvo will be able

  18. Internal combustion engine with sustained power stroke

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNair, R.J.

    1980-09-09

    A four stroke cycle internal combustion engine is presented having a sustained power stroke which results from a delayed mixing of a stratified charge. Use of delayed mixing of an overall stoichiometric air-fuel mixture results in formation of a low amount of the oxides of nitrogen. Delayed mixing of the stratified charge is achieved by placement of at least one Helmholtz resonator cavity in the head or closed end of each combustion chamber. The Helmholtz resonator cavity communicates with the top end of the main combustion chamber via a narrow slot. On the intake stroke of each engine cylinder, the main chamber is filled with a slightly fuel rich gaseous charge while the companion Helmholtz resonator cavity is filled with air. During the compression stroke some of the rich air-fuel mixture is forced into the resonator cavity via the communicating slot. At or near tdc, the air-fuel mixture in the main chamber is ignited. As the flame front progresses across the chamber a rapid increase in pressure serves not only to power the piston, but also to initiate a resonant reaction in the Helmholtz resonator cavity which results in a transfer of the unburned gases therein into the main combustion chamber. This both sustains the power stroke and at the same time lowers the peak flame temperature in the main chamber.

  19. Internal combustion engine with compound air compression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul, M.A.; Paul, A.

    1991-10-15

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine in combination with a compound air compression system. It comprises: a reciprocator with at least one cylinder, at least one piston reciprocal in the cylinder and a combustion chamber formed in substantial part by portions of the piston and cylinder, the reciprocator having a drive shaft; a rotary compressor having a drive shaft mechanically coupled to the drive shaft of the reciprocator, the rotary compressor having a Wankel-type, three-lobe, epitrochiodal configuration sides having a conduit conjected to the reciprocator for supplying compressed air to the reciprocator; a turbocharged with a gas turbine and a turbocompressor, the turbocompressor having an air conduit connected to the expander side of the rotary compressor; and a bypass conduit with a valve means connecting the turbocharger to the reciprocator for supplying compressed air directly to the reciprocator wherein the drive shaft of the reciprocator and the drive shaft of the compressor have connecting means for transmitting mechanical energy to the reciprocator at mid to high operating speeds of the engine when the turbocharge supplies compressed air to the rotary compressor and, at least in part, drives the rotary compressor.

  20. Multiple vane rotary internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pangman, E.L.

    1994-01-11

    A three-piece housing enclosing a cavity has rotatably mounted therein a rotor having a plurality of slots, each slot supporting a vane. Each vane has a retention end guided in its revolution around the rotor by an internal, non-circular vane retention track. Two adjacent vanes define opposite sides of a combustion chamber, while the housing and the portion of the rotor between the adjacent vanes form the remaining surfaces of the combustion chamber. Each combustion chamber is rotated past an intake port, a diagonal plasma bleed-over groove, and an exhaust port to accomplish the phases of a combustion cycle. Fuel ignition is provided to more than one combustion chamber at a time by expanding gases passing through a plasma bleed-over groove and being formed into a vortex that ignites and churns the charge in a succeeding combustion chamber. Exhaust gases remaining after primary evacuation are removed by a secondary evacuation system utilizing a venturi creating negative pressure which evacuates the combustion chamber. Lubrication is circulated through the engine without the use of a lubricant pump. The centrifugal force of the rotating rotor causes the lubricant therein to be pressurized thereby drawing additional lubricant into the closed system and forcing lubricant within the engine to be circulated. 9 figs.

  1. 4th International Conference on Earthquake Engineering Taipei, Taiwan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lynch, Jerome P.

    4th International Conference on Earthquake Engineering Taipei, Taiwan October 12-13, 2006 Paper No, law@stanford.edu 5 Research Assistant, Dept. of Civil Engineering, National Taiwan Univ., Taipei, Taiwan, r92521247@ntu.edu.tw 6 Professor, Dept. of Civil Engineering, National Taiwan Univ., Taipei

  2. 4th International Conference on Earthquake Engineering Taipei, Taiwan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    4th International Conference on Earthquake Engineering Taipei, Taiwan October 12-13, 2006 Paper No., USA, law@stanford.edu 5 Research Assistant, Dept. of Civil Engineering, National Taiwan Univ., Taipei, Taiwan, r92521247@ntu.edu.tw 6 Professor, Dept. of Civil Engineering, National Taiwan Univ., Taipei

  3. 4th International Conference on Earthquake Engineering Taipei, Taiwan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lynch, Jerome P.

    4th International Conference on Earthquake Engineering Taipei, Taiwan October 12-13, 2006 Paper No Center for Research on Earthquake Engineering (NCREE) in Taiwan. Emphasis is placed on using simulation on Earthquake Engineering, Taipei, Taiwan 2 Prof., University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada, USA 3 Assoc. Prof

  4. 4th International Conference on Earthquake Engineering Taipei, Taiwan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruneau, Michel

    4th International Conference on Earthquake Engineering Taipei, Taiwan October 12-13, 2006 Paper No Fellow, National Center for Research on Earthquake Engineering, Taipei, Taiwan, hanklin@ncree.org 2 Director, National Center for Research on Earthquake Engineering, Taipei, Taiwan, kctsai@ncree.org 3 Ph

  5. Variable camshaft timing for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butterfield, R.P.; Smith, F.R.; Dembosky, S.K.

    1991-09-10

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine. It comprises a rotatable crankshaft; a camshaft, the camshaft being rotatable about its longitudinal central axis and being subject to a unidirectionally acting torque during the rotation thereof; first means mounted on the camshaft, the first means being oscillatable with respect to the camshaft about the longitudinal central axis of the camshaft at least through a limited arc; second means keyed to the camshaft for rotation therewith; rotary movement transmitting means interconnecting the crankshaft and one of the first means and the second means for transmitting rotary movement from the crankshaft to the camshaft; a first hydraulic cylinder having a body end pivotably attached to one of the first means and the second means and a piston end pivotably attached to the other of the first means and the second means; a second hydraulic cylinder having a body end pivotably attached to the one of the first means and the second means and a piston end pivotably attached to the other of the first means and the second means, the second hydraulic cylinder and the first hydraulic cylinder being disposed to act in opposite directions.

  6. Internal combustion engine with rotary combustion chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, C.N.; Cross, P.C.

    1986-09-23

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine comprising: a block having at least one cylindrical wall surrounding a piston chamber, piston means located in the piston chamber means operable to reciprocate the piston means in the chamber, head means mounted on the block covering the chamber. The head means has an air and fuel intake passage, and exhaust gas passage, a rotary valve assembly operatively associated with the head means for controlling the flow of air and fuel into the rotary valve assembly and piston chamber and the flow of exhaust gas from rotary valve assembly and the piston chamber. The means has a housing with a bore open to the piston chamber accommodating the rotary valve assembly, the valve assembly comprising a cylindrical sleeve located in the bore, the sleeve having an inner surface, an ignition hole, and intake and exhaust ports aligned with the intake passage and exhaust gas passage, spark generating means mounted on the housing operable to generate a spark. The rotatable valving means is located within the sleeve for controlling the flow of air and fuel into the rotary valve assembly and piston chamber and the flow of exhaust gases out of the rotary valve assembly and piston chamber.

  7. Effects of piston design and lubricant selection on reciprocating engine friction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moughon, Luke (Luke Frank)

    2006-01-01

    The interaction between the piston and the liner in a reciprocating engine is of much interest because it affects reliability, noise, and efficiency. This study evaluated various changes to the piston skirt with the specific ...

  8. Proceedings of the ASME 2010 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences & Computers and Information in Engineering Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Proceedings of the ASME 2010 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences & Computers generation of low-level code that can be solved using GAMS and its solvers (BARON). This framework 2010 by ASME Proceedings of the ASME 2010 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences

  9. International weekly journal of science Molecular engineering of a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manstein, Dietmar J.

    International weekly journal of science Molecular engineering of a backwards-moving myosin motor 8C for 30 min and subjected to phenol­chloroform extraction, and RNAwas recovered by ethanol

  10. Optimal internal combustion engine tuning utilizing perturbation/correlation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brian Daniel Pautler

    2003-01-01

    This thesis addresses the application of the perturbation/correlation method to optimizing the torque output of internal combustion engines. This application was inspired by observations of the limitations in current techniques of the automotive...

  11. SE-CSE 2009: The Second International Workshop on Software Engineering for Computational Science and Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carver, Jeffrey C.

    SE-CSE 2009: The Second International Workshop on Software Engineering for Computational Science with the development of Computational Science & Engineering (CS&E) software. This software includes: 1) Scientific, the development of CS&E software has historically attracted little attention from the software engineering

  12. Measurement of the Young's modulus and internal friction of single crystal and polycrystalline copper, and copper-graphite composites as a function of temperature and orientation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wickstrom, Steven Norman

    1988-01-01

    MEASUREMENT OF THE YOUNG'S MODULUS AND INTERNAL FRICTION OF SINGLE CRYSTAL AND POLYCRYSTALLINE COPPER, AND COPPER- GRAPHITE COMPOSITES AS A FUNCTION OF TEMPERATURE AND ORIENTATION A Thesis by S teven Norman Wicks trom Submitted... AND POLYCRYSTALLINE COPPER, AND COPPER- GRAPHITE COMPOSITES AS A FUNCTION OF TEMPERATURE AND ORIENTATION A Thesis by Steven Norman Wickstrom Approved as to style and content by: A(J ~a Alan Wolfenden (Chairman of Committee) Don E. Bray (Member) Donald G...

  13. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL REACTOR ENGINEERING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palanki, Srinivas

    methane to generate hydrogen, are analyzed. In particular, basic chemical engineering principles with oxygen to generate electrical power which drives an electric motor. A brief description of the two main for automotive ap- plications, using methane as a fuel, are analyzed. Basic chemical engineering principles

  14. Nanoparticle Emissions from Internal Combustion Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    to 30 fold! HOWEVER, 1979 roadway measurments made on behind a truck powered by an engine of the same Mainly Light-Duty Spark Ignition Mainly Heavy-Duty Diesel Nanoparticles in the atmosphere appear

  15. High efficiency stoichiometric internal combustion engine system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winsor, Richard Edward (Waterloo, IA); Chase, Scott Allen (Cedar Falls, IA)

    2009-06-02

    A power system including a stoichiometric compression ignition engine in which a roots blower is positioned in the air intake for the engine to control air flow. Air flow is decreased during part power conditions to maintain the air-fuel ratio in the combustion chamber of the engine at stoichiometric, thus enabling the use of inexpensive three-way catalyst to reduce oxides of nitrogen. The roots blower is connected to a motor generator so that when air flow is reduced, electrical energy is stored which is made available either to the roots blower to temporarily increase air flow or to the system electrical load and thus recapture energy that would otherwise be lost in reducing air flow.

  16. Water distillation using waste engine heat from an internal combustion engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mears, Kevin S

    2006-01-01

    To meet the needs of forward deployed soldiers and disaster relief personnel, a mobile water distillation system was designed and tested. This system uses waste engine heat from the exhaust flow of an internal combustion ...

  17. Solid friction between soft filaments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew Ward; Feodor Hilitski; Walter Schwenger; David Welch; A. W. C. Lau; Vincenzo Vitelli; L. Mahadevan; Zvonimir Dogic

    2015-03-04

    Any macroscopic deformation of a filamentous bundle is necessarily accompanied by local sliding and/or stretching of the constituent filaments. Yet the nature of the sliding friction between two aligned filaments interacting through multiple contacts remains largely unexplored. Here, by directly measuring the sliding forces between two bundled F-actin filaments, we show that these frictional forces are unexpectedly large, scale logarithmically with sliding velocity as in solid-like friction, and exhibit complex dependence on the filaments' overlap length. We also show that a reduction of the frictional force by orders of magnitude, associated with a transition from solid-like friction to Stokes' drag, can be induced by coating F-actin with polymeric brushes. Furthermore, we observe similar transitions in filamentous microtubules and bacterial flagella. Our findings demonstrate how altering a filament's elasticity, structure and interactions can be used to engineer interfilament friction and thus tune the properties of fibrous composite materials.

  18. Internal Combustion Engine Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuelsof EnergyApril 2014 | DepartmentDepartment ofInsuranceof EnergyInternal

  19. International Society for Optical Engineering (SPIE) Fellows

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation CurrentHenryInhibitingInteractive JobsEngagement | NationalInternational

  20. 2015 INTEL International Science and Engineering Fair Grand Awards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borchers, Brian

    Fractured Shale Fourth Award of $500 Edward Park, 16, Las Cruces High School, Las Cruces, New Mexico Alamos High School, Los Alamos, New Mexico Modeling Gas Flow in Hydraulically Fractured Shale Coleman J2015 INTEL International Science and Engineering Fair Grand Awards -New Mexico Finalists

  1. 2015 INTEL International Science and Engineering Fair Grand Awards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borchers, Brian

    , New Mexico Modeling Gas Flow in Hydraulically Fractured Shale Microbiology Third Award of $12015 INTEL International Science and Engineering Fair Grand Awards -New Mexico Finalists- ISEF Second Award of $1,500 Sara Manshad, 16, Arrowhead Park Early College High School, Las Cruces, New Mexico

  2. Friction of Steel Sliding Under Boundary Lubrication Regime in...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    how to increase engine efficiency by reducing parasitic boundary regime friction losses and enable operation with lower viscosity oils while maintaining engine durability....

  3. 2003 ICECE March 16 19, 2003, So Paulo, BRAZIL International Conference on Engineering and Computer Education

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Larkin, Teresa L.

    Session ©2003 ICECE March 16 ­ 19, 2003, São Paulo, BRAZIL International Conference on Engineering

  4. Characterization of oil transport in the power cylinder of internal combustion engines during steady state and transient operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Przesmitzki, Steve (Steve Victor)

    2008-01-01

    Engine friction, wear, and oil consumption are some of the primary interests for the automotive industry. However, there is currently a lack of understanding of the fundamentals involving oil transport inside the power ...

  5. Apparatus for photocatalytic destruction of internal combustion engine emissions during cold start

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janata, Jiri (Richland, WA); McVay, Gary L. (Richland, WA); Peden, Charles H. (West Richland, WA); Exarhos, Gregory J. (Richland, WA)

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the destruction of emissions from an internal combustion engine wherein a substrate coated with TiO.sub.2 is exposed to a light source in the exhaust system of an internal combustion engine thereby catalyzing oxidation/reduction reactions between gaseous hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and oxygen in the exhaust of the internal combustion engine.

  6. Rotational position detecting device for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ushida, M.; Nakamura, Y.; Abe, K.

    1986-11-04

    This patent describes a device for detecting the rotational position of an internal combustion engine of the type that has a cam shaft extending outwardly from the engine through a wall of the engine block and a rotary member fixed to the cam shaft and driven therewith by a crankshaft of the engine. The device comprises: reference position information means and angular position information means both fixed to the end face of the driven rotary member remote from the wall of the engine block. In this way, the reference position and angular position information means are both moved among circular paths when the rotary member is rotated. The reference position and angular position information means are disposed at different radial distances from the axis of the driven rotary member; a reference position sensor and an angular position sensor respectively disposed to face the circular paths of the reference position and angular position information means; a housing fixed to the engine block to cover the driven rotary member and support the sensors; the housing having an end wall formed therein with an opening coaxial with the cam shaft; the cam shaft having an outer end portion extending outwardly beyond the driven rotary member into and through the opening; and a bearing mounted in the opening to rotatably receive the outer end portion of the cam shaft and position the housing with respect to the cam shaft.

  7. Enhanced Efficiency of Internal Combustion Engines By Employing Spinning Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geyko, Vasily; Fisch, Nathaniel

    2014-02-27

    The efficiency of the internal combustion engine might be enhanced by employing spinning gas. A gas spinning at near sonic velocities has an effectively higher heat capacity, which allows practical fuel cycles, which are far from the Carnot efficiency, to approach more closely the Carnot efficiency. A gain in fuel efficiency of several percent is shown to be theoretically possible for the Otto and Diesel cycles. The use of a flywheel, in principle, could produce even greater increases in the efficiency.

  8. American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The 2015 American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting will be held in New Orleans, Louisiana on July 26–29, 2015, and will examine industry trends and innovations, with a focus on the focus on the economic, political and social factors influencing the industry. Bioenergy Technologies Office Director Jonathan Male, Program Manager Alison Goss Eng, and Technology Managers Sam Tagore, Mark Elless, and Steve Thomas will be in attendance.

  9. Modeling engine oil vaporization and transport of the oil vapor in the piston ring pack on internal combustion engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Yeunwoo, 1973-

    2004-01-01

    A model was developed to study engine oil vaporization and oil vapor transport in the piston ring pack of internal combustion engines. With the assumption that the multi-grade oil can be modeled as a compound of several ...

  10. Proceedings of the ASME 2013 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences & Computers and Information in Engineering Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demaine, Erik

    Proceedings of the ASME 2013 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences & Computers Huff- man codes, and best known in origami as a pioneer of curved- crease folding. But during his early while 1 Copyright c 2013 by ASME #12;he was a professor at University of California, Santa Cruz

  11. Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2013-05-21

    An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger having a low pressure turbine outlet in fluid communication with an exhaust gas conduit. The turbocharger also includes a low pressure compressor intake and a high pressure compressor outlet in communication with an intake air conduit. An exhaust gas recirculation conduit fluidly communicates with the exhaust gas conduit to divert a portion of exhaust gas to a low pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extending between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and an engine intake system for delivery of exhaust gas thereto. A high pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extends between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and the compressor intake and delivers exhaust gas to the compressor for mixing with a compressed intake charge for delivery to the intake system.

  12. Fuel injector nozzle for an internal combustion engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cavanagh, Mark S. (Bloomington, IL); Urven, Jr., Roger L. (Colona, IL); Lawrence, Keith E. (Peoria, IL)

    2008-11-04

    A direct injection fuel injector includes a nozzle tip having a plurality of passages allowing fluid communication between an inner nozzle tip surface portion and an outer nozzle tip surface portion and directly into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. A first group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in a first common plane. A second group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in at least a second common plane substantially parallel to the first common plane. The second group has more passages than the first group.

  13. Fuel injector nozzle for an internal combustion engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cavanagh, Mark S. (Bloomington, IL); Urven, Jr., Roger L. (Colona, IL); Lawrence, Keith E. (Peoria, IL)

    2011-03-22

    A direct injection fuel injector includes a nozzle tip having a plurality of passages allowing fluid communication between an inner nozzle tip surface portion and an outer nozzle tip surface portion and directly into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. A first group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in a first common plane. A second group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in at least a second common plane substantially parallel to the first common plane. The second group has more passages than the first group.

  14. Fuel Injector Nozzle For An Internal Combustion Engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cavanagh, Mark S. (Bloomington, IL); Urven, Jr.; Roger L. (Colona, IL); Lawrence, Keith E. (Peoria, IL)

    2006-04-25

    A direct injection fuel injector includes a nozzle tip having a plurality of passages allowing fluid communication between an inner nozzle tip surface portion and an outer nozzle tip surface portion and directly into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. A first group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in a first common plane. A second group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in at least a second common plane substantially parallel to the first common plane. The second group has more passages than the first group.

  15. Fuel injector nozzle for an internal combustion engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cavanagh, Mark S. (Bloomington, IL); Urven, Jr., Roger L. (Colona, IL); Lawrence, Keith E. (Peoria, IL)

    2007-11-06

    A direct injection fuel injector includes a nozzle tip having a plurality of passages allowing fluid communication between an inner nozzle tip surface portion and an outer nozzle tip surface portion and directly into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. A first group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in a first common plane. A second group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in at least a second common plane substantially parallel to the first common plane. The second group has more passages than the first group.

  16. Spherical rotary valve assembly for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coates, G.J.

    1991-02-05

    This patent describes an improved rotary intake valve for use in a rotary valved internal combustion engine. It comprises: a drum body of spherical section formed by two parallel planar side walls of a sphere disposed about a center thereof thereby defining a spherically-shaped end wall and formed with a shaft receiving aperture, the drum body formed with a circularly-shaped cavity in a side wall thereof and with a channel extending between the circularly-shaped cavity and an aperture formed in the spherically-shaped end wall.

  17. Partially-Premixed Flames in Internal Combustion Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert W. Pitz; Michael C. Drake; Todd D. Fansler; Volker Sick

    2003-11-05

    This was a joint university-industry research program funded by the Partnerships for the Academic-Industrial Research Program (PAIR). The research examined partially premixed flames in laboratory and internal combustion engine environments at Vanderbilt University, University of Michigan, and General Motors Research and Development. At Vanderbilt University, stretched and curved ''tubular'' premixed flames were measured in a unique optically accessible burner with laser-induced spontaneous Raman scattering. Comparisons of optically measured temperature and species concentration profiles to detailed transport, complex chemistry simulations showed good correspondence at low-stretch conditions in the tubular flame. However, there were significant discrepancies at high-stretch conditions near flame extinction. The tubular flame predictions were found to be very sensitive to the specific hydrogen-air chemical kinetic mechanism and four different mechanisms were compared. In addition, the thermo-diffusive properties of the deficient reactant, H2, strongly affected the tubular flame structure. The poor prediction near extinction is most likely due to deficiencies in the chemical kinetic mechanisms near extinction. At the University of Michigan, an optical direct-injected engine was built up for laser-induced fluorescence imaging experiments on mixing and combustion under stratified charge combustion conditions with the assistance of General Motors. Laser attenuation effects were characterized both experimentally and numerically to improve laser imaging during the initial phase of the gasoline-air mixture development. Toluene was added to the isooctane fuel to image the fuel-air equivalence ratio in an optically accessible direct-injected gasoline engine. Temperature effects on the toluene imaging of fuel-air equivalence ratio were characterized. For the first time, oxygen imaging was accomplished in an internal combustion engine by combination of two fluorescence trackers, toluene and 3-pentanone. With this method, oxygen, fuel and equivalence ratio were measured in the cylinder. At General Motors, graduate students from the University of Michigan and Vanderbilt University worked with GM researchers to develop high-speed imaging methods for optically accessible direct-injection engines. Spark-emission spectroscopy was combined with high-speed spectrally-resolved combustion imaging in a direct-injected engine.

  18. Evaluation and silicon nitride internal combustion engine components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voldrich, W. (Allied-Signal Aerospace Co., Torrance, CA (United States). Garrett Ceramic Components Div.)

    1992-04-01

    The feasibility of silicon nitride (Si[sub 3]N[sub 4]) use in internal combustion engines was studied by testing three different components for wear resistance and lower reciprocating mass. The information obtained from these preliminary spin rig and engine tests indicates several design changes are necessary to survive high-stress engine applications. The three silicon nitride components tested were valve spring retainers, tappet rollers, and fuel pump push rod ends. Garrett Ceramic Components' gas-pressure sinterable Si[sub 3]N[sub 4] (GS-44) was used to fabricate the above components. Components were final machined from densified blanks that had been green formed by isostatic pressing of GS-44 granules. Spin rig testing of the valve spring retainers indicated that these Si[sub 3]N[sub 4] components could survive at high RPM levels (9,500) when teamed with silicon nitride valves and lower spring tension than standard titanium components. Silicon nitride tappet rollers showed no wear on roller O.D. or I.D. surfaces, steel axles and lifters; however, due to the uncrowned design of these particular rollers the cam lobes indicated wear after spin rig testing. Fuel pump push rod ends were successful at reducing wear on the cam lobe and rod end when tested on spin rigs and in real-world race applications.

  19. 1 Copyright 2010 by ASME Proceedings of the ASME 2010 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams II, Robert L.

    -dof linkages, cams, and gear trains, such as the Ross-yoke Stirling engine mechanism shown in Figure 1 trains. #12;2 Copyright © 2010 by ASME Figure 1. Ross-Yoke Stirling Engine Mechanism www.ent.ohiou.edu/~urieli/stirling/engines1 Copyright © 2010 by ASME Proceedings of the ASME 2010 International Design Engineering Technical

  20. Computations and modeling of oil transport between piston lands and liner in internal combustion engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, Tianshi

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of lubricating oil in internal combustion engines is a continuous interest for engine developers and remains to be one of the least understood areas. A better understanding on oil transport is critical to ...

  1. Apparatus for photocatalytic destruction of internal combustion engine emissions during cold start

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janata, J.; McVay, G.L.; Peden, C.H.; Exarhos, G.J.

    1998-07-14

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for the destruction of emissions from an internal combustion engine wherein a substrate coated with TiO{sub 2} is exposed to a light source in the exhaust system of an internal combustion engine thereby catalyzing oxidation/reduction reactions between gaseous hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and oxygen in the exhaust of the internal combustion engine. 4 figs.

  2. Four stroke concentric oscillating rotary vane internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seno, C.L.

    1992-02-11

    This patent describes a four stroke concentric oscillating rotary vane internal combustion engine made up of a pair of cranking mechanisms, a pair of forced porting mechanisms, an output shaft mechanism, a stator, a rotor, four arcuate combustion chambers and longitudinal and transverse grooves for lubrication and dynamic sealing. It comprises the pair of cranking mechanisms control the oscillating rotary motion of the rotor, each cranking mechanism comprising: one end; the pair of forced porting mechanisms control the forced porting of air into and combustion by-products from the combustion chambers, each forced porting mechanism: products from the combustion chambers; the output shaft mechanism orchestrating and coordinating the synchronized iterative operations of the cranking.

  3. Emission control system and method for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Owens, L.

    1980-06-03

    Fresh air is introduced into the exhaust pipe leading to the muffler for an internal combustion engine, while the air and exhaust gas mixture is cooled, not only in the muffler but also in a circuitous tube which extends from the muffler to the normal discharge or tail pipe and in which a special cooler may be installed. From the outlet of the special cooling tube, which faces forwardly, a portion of the air and exhaust gas mixture, now cooled, is led from a Y-connection to the intake tube of the air filter, so that the air and exhaust gas mixture will be introduced into the intake system prior to the carburetor. A rearwardly slanting arm of the Y-connection connects the front end of the special cooling pipe with the normal tail pipe. The carburetor has one or more air bleed tubes leading into the mixture passage at or below the butterfly valves, so that at idling speeds, a small amount of fresh air is introduced, irrespective of the position of the butterfly valves, to overcome any tendency for the engine, when idling, to cough or sputter due to the introduction of an air and exhaust gas mixture to the air filter intake.

  4. Lubricant-Friendly, Superhard and Low-Friction Coatings by Design

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Superhard and low-friction coatings and surface treatments can help improve fuel economy and durability in engines.

  5. Women in Science and Engineering Initiative International Women's Day Conference 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haykin, Simon

    Women in Science and Engineering Initiative International Women's Day Conference 2008 "Celebrating Success and Diversity" March 7th & 8th, 2008 Conference Proceedings and Abstracts #12;Table of Contents Women in Science and Engineering Initiative _____________ - 2 - The International Women's Day Conference

  6. International Journal of Energy and Power Engineering 2014; 3(6): 308-322

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, R. Jacob

    International Journal of Energy and Power Engineering 2014; 3(6): 308-322 Published online January-957X (Print); ISSN: 2326-960X (Online) A system dynamics model for energy planning in Niger Yacouba Model for Energy Planning in Niger. International Journal of Energy and Power Engineering. Vol. 3, No. 6

  7. Proceedings of the ASME 2013 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences & International Conference on Multibody Systems, Nonlinear Dynamics, and Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hurst, Jonathan

    Proceedings of the ASME 2013 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences & International to reduce custom code. The following is a comprehensive robot control system designed for, but not limited successfully deployed on the aforementioned bipedal robot. 1 Copyright c 2013 by ASME #12;FIGURE 1. THE ROBOT

  8. A thermodynamic analysis of the rotary-vee internal combustion engine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bailey, Stephen Glenn

    1994-01-01

    The rotary-vee is a novel and unusual two-stroke cycle internal combustion engine. The rotary-vee engine is unique in that the combustion chamber and port design is very similar to a reciprocating two stroke engine, however, all of the components...

  9. Proceedings of IMECE 2008 ASME 2008 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Robert D.

    Proceedings of IMECE 2008 ASME 2008 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition Engineering Tufts University Medford, Massachusetts 02155 Email: r.white@tufts.edu Mark J. Moeller Judith M Engineering Calvin College Grand Rapids, Michigan 49546-4403 ABSTRACT The design, fabrication

  10. Proceeding of the 15th Annual Motorola Software Engineering Symposium (SES 2002) Internal Use Only

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qian, Lianfen

    Proceeding of the 15th Annual Motorola Software Engineering Symposium (SES 2002) Internal Use Only project management and is one of the most difficult empirical modeling tasks in software engineering researched and used as mentioned above. They have not received much attention linked to software engineering

  11. Proceedings of the ASME 28th International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frey, Pascal

    Proceedings of the ASME 28th International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering-mail: frederic.alauzet@inria.fr ABSTRACT Engineering offshore problems require a continuous progress of numerical schemes. How- ever, this strategy requires advanced meshing techniques. As engineering offshore

  12. Proceedings of ASME 2009 2009 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van de Ven, James D.

    of the liquid piston includes the fluidyne Stirling engine, also used for water pumping [2-4]. A preliminary1 Proceedings of ASME 2009 2009 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress Mechanical Energy and Power Systems Lab Department of Mechanical Engineering Worcester Polytechnic Institute

  13. 1 Copyright 2007 by ASME Proceedings of the 2007 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RESEARCH AND TEACHING: TWO DESIGN COURSES ORCHESTRATED AROUND A ROTARY DIESEL ENGINE PATENT Dirk Schaefer students at Georgia Tech Savannah were orchestrated around a patent of a rotary diesel engine. The design1 Copyright © 2007 by ASME Proceedings of the 2007 ASME International Mechanical Engineering

  14. 1 Copyright 2011 by ASME Proceedings of the 2011 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Camci, Cengiz

    determinant of modern engines. Gas turbine efficiency is related to many factors including secondary flow in the operational total temperature of the turbine inlet and thereby augment engine efficiency [2], [3] . Another1 Copyright © 2011 by ASME Proceedings of the 2011 International Mechanical Engineering Congress

  15. 1 Copyright 2011 by ASME Proceedings of the 2011 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Camci, Cengiz

    in gas turbine technology. One of the most crucial components of modern jet engines is the gas turbine1 Copyright © 2011 by ASME Proceedings of the 2011 International Mechanical Engineering Congress Gokce 1 Turbomachinery Aero-Heat Transfer Laboratory Department of Aerospace Engineering

  16. Plasmatron Fuel Reformer Development and Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Massachusetts Institute of Technology

  17. Motoring of a Flexible Resonant Engine to Estimate Associated Damping Losses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Motoring of a Flexible Resonant Engine to Estimate Associated Damping Losses S.M. Post, B.S. Preetham, C.D. Richards Washington State University School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering. Introduction The performance of internal combustion engines is limited by heat losses, friction losses

  18. Internal combustion engine utilizing stratified charge combustion process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Artman, N.G.

    1991-07-16

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine in which a piston is reciprocal alternately toward and from the upper end of a cylinder within a variable volume space adjacent to such end, a cylinder head having a face in closing relation with such cylinder end and containing a precombustion chamber with a sidewall having an inner periphery constructed about an axis extending upwardly from the cylinder and the periphery having an open lower end in two-way communication through the face with the variable volume space, the lower open end being smaller in diameter than the diameter of the cylinder, the upper end of the chamber having an air inlet passage closable by a valve, the chamber being operable when the valve is open and attendant to movement of the piston downwardly from the upper cylinder end to receive from the inlet passage a main inlet air stream and conduct the same downwardly therein and discharge the same through the open end downwardly therein and discharge the same through the open end downwardly into the variable volume space.

  19. Jet plume injection and combustion system for internal combustion engines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oppenheim, Antoni K. (Kensington, CA); Maxson, James A. (Berkeley, CA); Hensinger, David M. (Albany, CA)

    1993-01-01

    An improved combustion system for an internal combustion engine is disclosed wherein a rich air/fuel mixture is furnished at high pressure to one or more jet plume generator cavities adjacent to a cylinder and then injected through one or more orifices from the cavities into the head space of the cylinder to form one or more turbulent jet plumes in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition of the rich air/fuel mixture in the cavity of the jet plume generator. The portion of the rich air/fuel mixture remaining in the cavity of the generator is then ignited to provide a secondary jet, comprising incomplete combustion products which are injected into the cylinder to initiate combustion in the already formed turbulent jet plume. Formation of the turbulent jet plume in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition has been found to yield a higher maximum combustion pressure in the cylinder, as well as shortening the time period to attain such a maximum pressure.

  20. Jet plume injection and combustion system for internal combustion engines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oppenheim, A.K.; Maxson, J.A.; Hensinger, D.M.

    1993-12-21

    An improved combustion system for an internal combustion engine is disclosed wherein a rich air/fuel mixture is furnished at high pressure to one or more jet plume generator cavities adjacent to a cylinder and then injected through one or more orifices from the cavities into the head space of the cylinder to form one or more turbulent jet plumes in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition of the rich air/fuel mixture in the cavity of the jet plume generator. The portion of the rich air/fuel mixture remaining in the cavity of the generator is then ignited to provide a secondary jet, comprising incomplete combustion products which are injected into the cylinder to initiate combustion in the already formed turbulent jet plume. Formation of the turbulent jet plume in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition has been found to yield a higher maximum combustion pressure in the cylinder, as well as shortening the time period to attain such a maximum pressure. 24 figures.

  1. Intern experience at Walter P. Moore & Associates, consulting engineers: a report 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arguello Carazo, Francisco Xavier, 1953-

    2013-03-13

    accumula? ted as a consulting structural engineer, the intern was involved in other professional development activities such as conducting a seminar for the office staff on earthquake damage. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Many individuals assisted me... ARGUELLO CARAZO Submitted to the College of Engineering of Texas A & M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of DOCTOR OF ENGINEERING August 1979 Major Subject: Interdisciplinary Engineering A Report by FRANCISCO XAVIER...

  2. Review of internal combustion engine combustion chamber process studies at NASA Lewis Research Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, H.J.

    1984-01-01

    The performance of internal combustion stratified-charge engines is highly dependent on the in-cylinder fuel-air mixing processes occurring in these engines. Current research concerning the in-cylinder airflow characteristics of rotary and piston engines is presented. Results showing the output of multidimensional models, laser velocimetry measurements and the application of a holographic optical element are described. Models which simulate the four-stroke cycle and seal dynamics of rotary engines are also discussed.

  3. Investigation of Surface Treatments to Improve the Friction and Wear of Titanium Alloys for Diesel Engine Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blau, Peter J.; Cooley, Kevin M.; Kirkham, Melanie J.; Bansal, Dinesh G.

    2012-09-20

    This final report summarizes experimental and analytical work performed under an agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies, and UT-Battelle LLC. The project was directed by Jerry Gibbs, of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Propulsion Materials Program, with management by D. P. Stinton and J. A. Haynes of ORNL. Participants included Peter J. Blau (Principal Investigator), Kevin M. Cooley (senior technician), Melanie J. Kirkham (materials scientist) of the Materials Science and Technology Division or ORNL, and Dinesh G. Bansal, a post doctoral fellow employed by Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) and who, at the time of this writing, is an engineer with Cummins, Inc. This report covers a three-year effort that involved two stages. In the first stage, and after a review of the literature and discussions with surface treatment experts, a series of candidate alloys and surface treatments for titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) was selected for initial screening. After pre-screening using an ASTM standard test method, the more promising surface treatments were tested in Phase 2 using a variable loading apparatus that was designed and built to simulate the changing load patterns in a typical connecting rod bearing. Information on load profiles from the literature was supplemented with the help of T.C. Chen and Howard Savage of Cummins, Inc. Considering the dynamic and evolving nature of materials technology, this report presents a snapshot of commercial and experimental bearing surface technologies for titanium alloys that were available during the period of this work. Undoubtedly, further improvements in surface engineering methods for titanium will evolve.

  4. Proceedings of The ASME 2015 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences & Computers and Information in Engineering Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giles, C. Lee

    NETWORKS Suppawong Tuarob Computer Science and Engineering Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering Design and Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering Computer Science and Engineering The Pennsylvania to connect and exchange infor- mation in a timely and seamless manner. Literature has shown successful usages

  5. Compounded turbocharged rotary internal combustion engine fueled with natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenkins, P.E.

    1992-10-15

    This patent describes a compounded engine. It comprises: a first Wankel engine having a housing with a trochoidal inner surface containing a generally triangular shaped rotor, the engine containing a fuel supply system suitable for operating the engine with natural gas as a fuel; a turbocharge compressing air for combustion by the engine, the turbocharger being driven by the exhaust gases which exit from the engine; a combustion chamber in fluid communication with the exhaust from the engine after that exhaust has passed through the turbocharger, the chamber having an ignition device suitable for igniting hydrocarbons in the engine exhaust, whereby the engine timing, and the air and fuel mixture of the engine are controlled so that when the engine exhaust reaches the combustion chamber the exhaust contains a sufficient amount of oxygen and hydrocarbons to enable ignition and combustion of the engine exhaust in the combustion chamber without the addition of fuel or air, and whereby the engine operating conditions are controlled to vary the performance of the secondary combustor; and a controllable ignition device to ignite the exhaust gases in the combustion chamber at predetermined times.

  6. Intern experience at Fluor Engineers, Inc.: an internship report 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dobbs, Stephen Benton, 1956-

    2013-03-13

    This report demonstrates how the author's internship with the Houston Division of Fluor Engineers, Inc. fulfilled requirements of the Doctor of Engineering program and met the internship objectives. During the sixteen-month period...

  7. Certification of a weld produced by friction stir welding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Obaditch, Chris; Grant, Glenn J

    2013-10-01

    Methods, devices, and systems for providing certification of friction stir welds are disclosed. A sensor is used to collect information related to a friction stir weld. Data from the sensor is compared to threshold values provided by an extrinsic standard setting organizations using a certification engine. The certification engine subsequently produces a report on the certification status of the weld.

  8. Internal combustion engine utilizing stratified charge combustion process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Artman, N.G.

    1988-11-15

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine having a main air inlet passage communicating at an end thereof through the face of an cylinder head with an alternately expandable and contractable variable volume space in an end of a cylinder closed by such head, there being within the cylinder head a precombustion chamber forming a section of such passage and interposed between the space and an upstream portion of the passage, the chamber having a principal axis extending between opposite ends thereof and of which ends one is an air inlet and having a valve seat through which the chamber is communicative with the upstream passage portion and of which ends the other is an open end through which the passage has two-way communication with the space and is disposed to discharge air from the chamber into the space axially of the cylinder, the combination of air deflecting means in the chamber and operable during expansion of the space to modulate the flow of intake air passing through the chamber into the space into the form of a stream composed of a core portion flowing axially of the cylinder into the space and of a tubular portion encircling the core portion and flowing helically thereabout, fuel delivery means operable during a fuel injection period commencing during expansion of the space and subsequent to entry of a leading portion of the air stream into the space to inject evaporative fuel into the passage and into a trailing portion of the air stream therein at a rate to mix and form therewith an air-fuel mixture lean in fuel richness than flows within and at least partially through the chamber en route to the space during the expansion thereof. The fuel delivery means being operable to increase the volume of the trailing air stream portion mixed with fuel by advancing the starting time of the fuel injection period to increase the length of such period measured in units of space expansion.

  9. Modeling the lubrication of the piston ring pack in internal combustion engines using the deterministic method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Haijie

    2011-01-01

    Piston ring packs are used in internal combustion engines to seal both the high pressure gas in the combustion chamber and the lubricant oil in the crank case. The interaction between the piston ring pack and the cylinder ...

  10. Numerical modeling of piston secondary motion and skirt lubrication in internal combustion engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McClure, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    Internal combustion engines dominate transportation of people and goods, contributing significantly to air pollution, and requiring large amounts of fossil fuels. With increasing public concern about the environment and ...

  11. INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ENGINEERING DESIGN ICED 01 GLASGOW, AUGUST 21-23, 2001

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelly, Tim

    INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ENGINEERING DESIGN ICED 01 GLASGOW, AUGUST 21-23, 2001 TRANSFERRING will become of increasing importance as the company spreads capability and its acquisition around the world. 3

  12. Dahl friction modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chou, Danielle, 1981-

    2004-01-01

    The drive behind improved friction models has been better prediction and control of dynamic systems. The earliest model was of classical Coulomb friction; however, the discontinuity during force reversal of the Coulomb ...

  13. Friction-Induced Fluid Heating in Nanoscale Helium Flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Zhigang [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2010-05-21

    We investigate the mechanism of friction-induced fluid heating in nanoconfinements. Molecular dynamics simulations are used to study the temperature variations of liquid helium in nanoscale Poiseuille flows. It is found that the fluid heating is dominated by different sources of friction as the external driving force is changed. For small external force, the fluid heating is mainly caused by the internal viscous friction in the fluid. When the external force is large and causes fluid slip at the surfaces of channel walls, the friction at the fluid-solid interface dominates over the internal friction in the fluid and is the major contribution to fluid heating. An asymmetric temperature gradient in the fluid is developed in the case of nonidentical walls and the general temperature gradient may change sign as the dominant heating factor changes from internal to interfacial friction with increasing external force.

  14. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN ENGINEERING Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng (2010)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Shaofan

    2010-01-01

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN ENGINEERING Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng (2010 Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, U.S.A. 2Faculty of Management and Administration is a subject of increasing importance to energy conversion/transfer, biochemistry, cellular and molecular

  15. 1 Copyright 2012 by ASME Proceedings of the ASME 2012 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shai, Offer

    1 Copyright © 2012 by ASME Proceedings of the ASME 2012 International Design Engineering Technical OF GEAR TRAIN SYSTEMS Terushkin Maria School of Mechanical Engineering Tel Aviv University Tel Aviv decomposition and synthesis of gear train systems. A graph of gear trains, widely reported in the literature

  16. 1 Copyright 2014 by ASME Proceedings of the ASME 2014 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nawratil, Georg

    1 Copyright © 2014 by ASME Proceedings of the ASME 2014 International Design Engineering Technical OF INVOLUTE-GEAR PAIRS WITH SKEW AXES Giorgio Figliolini Department of Civil & Mechanical Engineering gears with skew axes. In the case at hand, we show that the AS is an orthogonal helicoid whose axis a

  17. 1 Copyright 2010 by ASME Proceedings of the ASME 2010 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Awtar, Shorya

    characteristics of the flexure elements that serve as constraints in the design. Ground X Y z Beam Flexure Motion1 Copyright © 2010 by ASME Proceedings of the ASME 2010 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences & Computers and Information in Engineering Conference IDETC/CIE 2010 August 15 - August 18, 2010

  18. Proceedings of FUELCELL2006 The 4th International Conference on FUEL CELL SCIENCE, ENGINEERING and TECHNOLOGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papalambros, Panos

    Proceedings of FUELCELL2006 The 4th International Conference on FUEL CELL SCIENCE, ENGINEERING and TECHNOLOGY June 19-21, 2006, Irvine, CA, USA FUELCELL2006-97161 OPTIMAL DESIGN OF HYBRID FUEL CELL VEHICLES Engineering, University of Michigan G.G. Brown Bldg., Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 ABSTRACT Fuel cells are being

  19. Proceedings of IMECE06: International Mechanical Engineering Conference and Exposition 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Panchagnula, Mahesh

    be determined in an evaporating as well as a non-evaporating spray using this technique. Quantum dotsProceedings of IMECE06: International Mechanical Engineering Conference and Exposition 2006 OF QUANTUM DOTS AS FLUOROPHORES Sahithi Kandlakunta, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Tennessee Tech

  20. Side branch absorber for exhaust manifold of two-stroke internal combustion engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, Ralph E. (San Antonio, TX); Broerman, III, Eugene L. (San Antonio, TX); Bourn, Gary D. (Laramie, WY)

    2011-01-11

    A method of improving scavenging operation of a two-stroke internal combustion engine. The exhaust pressure of the engine is analyzed to determine if there is a pulsation frequency. Acoustic modeling is used to design an absorber. An appropriately designed side branch absorber may be attached to the exhaust manifold.

  1. VI International Conference on Computational Methods in Marine Engineering MARINE 2015

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    VI International Conference on Computational Methods in Marine Engineering MARINE 2015 F. Salvatore, R. Broglia and R. Muscari (Eds) SHIP VOYAGE ENERGY EFFICIENCY ASSESSMENT USING SHIP SIMULATORS Ameen.ac.uk, web page: http://www.soton.ac.uk Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering Department Faculty

  2. Internal combustion engine with rotary valve assembly having variable intake valve timing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, C.N.; Cross, P.C.

    1995-12-12

    An internal combustion engine has rotary valves associated with movable shutters operable to vary the closing of intake air/fuel port sections to obtain peak volumetric efficiency over the entire range of speed of the engine. The shutters are moved automatically by a control mechanism that is responsive to the RPM of the engine. A foot-operated lever associated with the control mechanism is also used to move the shutters between their open and closed positions. 21 figs.

  3. Method and systems for power control of internal combustion engines using individual cycle cut-off

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fedorenko, Y.; Korzhov, M.; Filippov, A.; Atamanenko, N.

    1996-09-01

    A new method of controlling power has been developed for improving efficiency and emissions performance of internal combustion engines at partial load. The method involves cutting-off some of the work cycles, as the load decreases, to obtain required power. Theoretical and experimental material is presented to illustrate the underlying principle, the implementation means and the results for the 4- and 8-cylinder piston engine and a twin rotor Wankel engine applications.

  4. Internal combustion engine with rotary valve assembly having variable intake valve timing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hansen, Craig N. (Eden Prairie, MN); Cross, Paul C. (Shorewood, MN)

    1995-01-01

    An internal combustion engine has rotary valves associated with movable shutters operable to vary the closing of intake air/fuel port sections to obtain peak volumetric efficiency over the entire range of speed of the engine. The shutters are moved automatically by a control mechanism that is responsive to the RPM of the engine. A foot-operated lever associated with the control mechanism is also used to move the shutters between their open and closed positions.

  5. Power and efficiency limits for internal combustion engines via methods of finite-time thermodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berry, R. Stephen

    Power and efficiency limits for internal combustion engines via methods of finite publication 17 June 1993) Analytical expressionsfor the upper bounds of power and efficiency of an internal and expensiveto compute and analyze.2If we are interestedin maximum power output or in maximum effi- ciency

  6. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN ENGINEERING Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng 2008; 76:922948

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirby, Mike

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN ENGINEERING Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng 2008; 76 of Energy; contract/grant number: W-7405-ENG-48 Copyright q 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. #12;ANALYSIS AND REDUCTION OF QUADRATURE ERRORS IN MPM 923 by solving Newton's laws of motion for the internal force due

  7. Faculty of Science and Engineering Discontinuation of "International Student Program without Japanese Language

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaji, Hajime

    of Advanced Science and Engineering have conducted "International Student Program without Japanese Language Japanese Language Entrance Requirement (AO method)" since AY 2009. This admission program is designed established "International Program AO Admission" for students who have not studied Japanese language in 2010

  8. CEC02 Paper Number: Proceedings 3rd International Conference on Concurrent Engineering in Construction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tommelein, Iris D.

    CEC02 Paper Number: Proceedings 3rd International Conference on Concurrent Engineering their approval, if any. I hereby transfer exclusively to Iris D. Tommelein, Editor of the Proceedings of the 3rd this work has been published by the Editor in the Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference

  9. H2 Internal Combustion Engine Research | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in Bethesda, Maryland. merit08wallner.pdf More Documents & Publications High-Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Engine via Fuel Reactivity Control H2...

  10. Proceedings of 2001 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Zhixiong "James"

    Mechanical,Aerospace, and Manufacturing Engineering Polytechnic University 333 Jay St., Brooklyn, NY 11201), measurement of optical properties (Prahl et al., 1993), and remote sensing (Walker and McLean, 1999

  11. Throttle valve control device for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ejiri, Y.; Ito, T.

    1988-05-31

    In a throttle valve control device for controlling a position of an engine throttle valve secured to a rotary shaft, which includes a control unit operative to produce a first electrical signal in accordance with a movement of an engine accelerator and an electro-mechanical force transducer operative to impart a first rotational torque to the rotary shaft and thereby to the throttle valve, the first rotational torque corresponding to the first electrical signal, the improvement is described comprising: a throttle valve returning means operative to produce a second rotational torque for biasing the throttle valve to a fully closed position irrespective of the movement of the engine accelerator and means responsive to the second electrical signal to transmit the second rotational torque to the rotary shaft irrespective of the movement of the engine accelerator.

  12. System and method for conditioning intake air to an internal combustion engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sellnau, Mark C.

    2015-08-04

    A system for conditioning the intake air to an internal combustion engine includes a means to boost the pressure of the intake air to the engine and a liquid cooled charge air cooler disposed between the output of the boost means and the charge air intake of the engine. Valves in the coolant system can be actuated so as to define a first configuration in which engine cooling is performed by coolant circulating in a first coolant loop at one temperature, and charge air cooling is performed by coolant flowing in a second coolant loop at a lower temperature. The valves can be actuated so as to define a second configuration in which coolant that has flowed through the engine can be routed through the charge air cooler. The temperature of intake air to the engine can be controlled over a wide range of engine operation.

  13. Vaporizer design criteria for ethanol fueled internal combustion engines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ariyaratne, Arachchi Rallage

    1985-01-01

    to gasoline. Rogowski and Taylor (1941) showed that alcohol could be used as an anti-knock agent for gasoline, but that alcohol could not compete economically with petroleum fuels as an engine fuel. These and many other studies show the potential... been identified in conversion of diesel engines of farm tractors for using alcohol fuels. Distillation at atmospheric pressure does not yield 200 proof ethanol, (Winston, 1981), so with present technology, ethanol produced on farms is aqueous. A...

  14. System for lubrication of a brake air compressor associated with a turbocharged internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, J.C.

    1992-10-13

    This patent describes a system for use with a vehicle which includes a turbocharged internal combustion engine having a lubricating system wherein lubricating oil from an engine oil reservoir is circulated within the engine and also to and from an associated brake system air compressor which supplies compressed air for operation of the vehicle air braking system. This patent describes improvement in passing supercharged air to an oil crankcase of the air compressor to cause lubricating oil to drain therefrom and return to the engine oil reservoir.

  15. Micromachine friction test apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    deBoer, Maarten P. (Albuquerque, NM); Redmond, James M. (Albuquerque, NM); Michalske, Terry A. (Cedar Crest, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) friction test apparatus is disclosed for determining static or dynamic friction in MEM devices. The friction test apparatus, formed by surface micromachining, is based on a friction pad supported at one end of a cantilevered beam, with the friction pad overlying a contact pad formed on the substrate. A first electrostatic actuator can be used to bring a lower surface of the friction pad into contact with an upper surface of the contact pad with a controlled and adjustable force of contact. A second electrostatic actuator can then be used to bend the cantilevered beam, thereby shortening its length and generating a relative motion between the two contacting surfaces. The displacement of the cantilevered beam can be measured optically and used to determine the static or dynamic friction, including frictional losses and the coefficient of friction between the surfaces. The test apparatus can also be used to assess the reliability of rubbing surfaces in MEM devices by producing and measuring wear of those surfaces. Finally, the friction test apparatus, which is small in size, can be used as an in situ process quality tool for improving the fabrication of MEM devices.

  16. http://jer.sagepub.com/ International Journal of Engine Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the increased use of ethanol­gasoline blends. Ethanol, an alternative to petroleum-based gasoline at over 500 points across the engine operating range for four blends of gasoline and ethanol. Furthermore model capable of capturing the impact of the ethanol blend ratio, burned gas fraction, spark timing

  17. Eelke Forlmer and Jan Bosch International Journal of Software Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bae, Doo-Hwan

    (2007) Hyoung-In Ihm #12;Contents Introduction Overview Software Architecture-Quality framework Case, KAIST 2/18 #12;Introduction (1/2) Software architecture restricts software quality Earliest design/W quality Relating to S/W architecture 2007-10-17 Software Engineering Lab, KAIST Quality Quality ... 5

  18. Proceedings of the 1996 spring technical conference of the ASME Internal Combustion Engine Division. Volume 2: Engine design and engine systems; ICE-Volume 26-2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uzkan, T.

    1996-12-31

    Although the cost of the petroleum crude has not increased much within the last decade, the drive to develop internal combustion engines is still continuing. The basic motivation of this drive is to reduce both emissions and costs. Recent developments in computer chip production and information management technology have opened up new applications in engine controls and monitoring. The development of new information is continuing at a rapid pace. Some of these research and development results were presented at the 1996 Spring Technical Conference of the ASME Internal Combustion Engine Division in Youngstown, Ohio, April 21--24, 1996. The papers presented covered various aspects of the design, development, and application of compression ignition and spark ignition engines. The conference was held at the Holiday Inn Metroplex Complex and hosted by Altronic Incorporated of Girard, Ohio. The written papers submitted to the conference have been published in three conference volumes. Volume 2 includes the papers on the topics of engine design, engine systems, and engine user experience.

  19. Friction Stir Welding of Lightweight Vehicle Structures: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanella, M L

    2008-08-31

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between UTBattelle, LLC and Ford Motor Company was to establish friction stir welding (FSW) and friction stir processing as viable options for use in construction of lightweight substructures for trucks and cars, including engine cradles, suspension sub frames, instrument panel supports, and intake manifolds.

  20. Turbocharged two-stroke internal combustion engine with four-stroke capability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burrahm, R.W.

    1990-03-13

    This patent describes, in a turbocharged two-stroke internal combustion engine without crankcase scavenging and having means for operating the exhaust valves in accordance with either two-stroke or four-stroke operation, a means for enabling the intake of combustible gas into cylinders of the engine during four-stroke operation through a port in each cylinder from a combustible gas source. It comprises: a valve mounted on each port responsive to pressure within the cylinder.

  1. Internal combuston engine having separated cylinder head oil drains and crankcase ventilation passages

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boggs, D.L.; Baraszu, D.J.; Foulkes, D.M.; Gomes, E.G.

    1998-12-29

    An internal combustion engine includes separated oil drain-back and crankcase ventilation passages. The oil drain-back passages extend from the cylinder head to a position below the top level of oil in the engine`s crankcase. The crankcase ventilation passages extend from passages formed in the main bearing bulkheads from positions above the oil level in the crankcase and ultimately through the cylinder head. Oil dams surrounding the uppermost portions of the crankcase ventilation passages prevent oil from running downwardly through the crankcase ventilation passages. 4 figs.

  2. Apparatus and method for operating internal combustion engines from variable mixtures of gaseous fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heffel, James W.; Scott, Paul B.

    2003-09-02

    An apparatus and method for utilizing any arbitrary mixture ratio of multiple fuel gases having differing combustion characteristics, such as natural gas and hydrogen gas, within an internal combustion engine. The gaseous fuel composition ratio is first sensed, such as by thermal conductivity, infrared signature, sound propagation speed, or equivalent mixture differentiation mechanisms and combinations thereof which are utilized as input(s) to a "multiple map" engine control module which modulates selected operating parameters of the engine, such as fuel injection and ignition timing, in response to the proportions of fuel gases available so that the engine operates correctly and at high efficiency irrespective of the gas mixture ratio being utilized. As a result, an engine configured according to the teachings of the present invention may be fueled from at least two different fuel sources without admixing constraints.

  3. Method and apparatus to clean the intake system of an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hein, S.R.; Clack, S.R.; Burrows, J.L.

    1991-02-05

    This patent describes an apparatus for cleaning the intake system of an internal combustion engine. It comprises: an air metering block having air passage means therein including an air outlet; an adapter means to connect the outlet of the air metering block to the intake system of the engine; air inlet means in the block communicating with the air passage means, an adjustment means within the air metering block for controlling the amount of air introduced into the air passage means; an injector means for connection to the intake system of an engine for injecting a solvent into the intake system of the engine; and a control means for controlling the injector means to vary the amount of solvent injected into the intake system of the engine by the injector means.

  4. Apparatus and method for operating internal combustion engines from variable mixtures of gaseous fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heffel, James W. (Lake Matthews, CA); Scott, Paul B. (Northridge, CA); Park, Chan Seung (Yorba Linda, CA)

    2011-11-01

    An apparatus and method for utilizing any arbitrary mixture ratio of multiple fuel gases having differing combustion characteristics, such as natural gas and hydrogen gas, within an internal combustion engine. The gaseous fuel composition ratio is first sensed, such as by thermal conductivity, infrared signature, sound propagation speed, or equivalent mixture differentiation mechanisms and combinations thereof which are utilized as input(s) to a "multiple map" engine control module which modulates selected operating parameters of the engine, such as fuel injection and ignition timing, in response to the proportions of fuel gases available so that the engine operates correctly and at high efficiency irrespective of the gas mixture ratio being utilized. As a result, an engine configured according to the teachings of the present invention may be fueled from at least two different fuel sources without admixing constraints.

  5. Validation of a Small Engine Based Procedure for Studying Performance of Engine Lube Oils, Ionic Liquids as Lubricants and/or Lubricant Additives, Opportunities for Engine Friction Reduction and Durable Design

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010.

  6. Friction Stir Welding of Hydrided Titanium Alloys Mark Taylor, D.P. Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Friction Stir Welding of Hydrided Titanium Alloys Mark Taylor, D.P. Field Multi-Scale Engineering for Undergraduates program under grant number EEC-0754370 During Friction Stir Welding (FSW), a non-consumable tool-state welding process, much frictional heating and force is required of the tool. This steep demand on the tool

  7. Seismic Interstory Drift Demands in Steel Friction Damped Braced Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peternell Altamira, Luis E.

    2010-01-16

    's design philosophies or to fall short on the expectations of this century's structural engineering. An analytical study on the behavior of friction devices and the effect they have on the structures into which they are incorporated has been undertaken...

  8. Proceedings of IMECE2007 2007 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Regueiro, Richard A.

    Proceedings of IMECE2007 2007 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition particle mechanics and the discrete element method, whereas the continuum region is modeled using linear silo flows), dry soils (sand, silt, gravel), and lunar and martian regolith (soil found on the surface

  9. Proceedings of IDETC/CIE 2006 ASME 2006 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    --the design of a cantilever beam for minimum weight and the design of a fan blade for minimum weight as a proposed method for materials design. The design of the fan blade and its material is completed usingProceedings of IDETC/CIE 2006 ASME 2006 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences

  10. 1 Copyright 2012 by ASME Proceedings of the 2012 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Copyright © 2012 by ASME Proceedings of the 2012 ASME International Mechanical Engineering of this paper is to generate a standalone automated code for segmenting colored optical microscope images microscope. Via color-coding to facilitate the bone microstructure identification, the image analysis results

  11. Proceedings of IMECE'03 ASME 2003 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Expo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dennis, Brian

    Proceedings of IMECE'03 ASME 2003 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Expo Washington tested on 3-D sim- ple geometries. The finite element code uses an efficient sparse matrix storage scheme ASME. Research Associate. Member ASME. Professor and Director of MAIDO Institute. Fellow of ASME

  12. Proceedings of IMECE'05 2005 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress Expo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasilyev, Oleg V.

    Proceedings of IMECE'05 2005 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress Expo Orlando-physics unstructured code "RocfluMP" that solves the modified three-dimensional time-dependent Euler- 1 Copyright c 2005 by ASME #12;havior of flow. Experimental evidence demonstrates that cavita- tion

  13. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN ENGINEERING Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng 2012; 91:126

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Komatitsch, Dimitri

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN ENGINEERING Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng 2012; 91 Application of an elastoplastic spectral-element method to 3D slope stability analysis Hom Nath Gharti1-element method for 3D time-independent elastoplastic problems in geomechanics. As a first application, we use

  14. Proceedings of FUELCELL2006 Fourth International Conference on Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    of water within the fuel cell stack is crit- ical for optimal stack performance. A balance must be struckProceedings of FUELCELL2006 Fourth International Conference on Fuel Cell Science, Engineering-ORIENTED MODEL OF THE WATER DYNAMICS IN FUEL CELLS B. A. McCain Fuel Cell Control Laboratory Department

  15. Third International Workshop on Software Engineering for High Performance Computing (HPC) Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carver, Jeffrey C.

    Third International Workshop on Software Engineering for High Performance Computing (HPC, and financial modeling. The TOP500 website (http://www.top500.org) lists the top 500 high performance computing to define new ways of measuring high performance computing systems that take into account not only the low

  16. 1 Copyright 2010 by ASME Proceedings of the ASME 2010 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Kemper E.

    of products produced by the same manufacturer, designed to fulfill the requirements of multiple market niches scenarios, research done in product development has indicated that there are exceptions to this design rule1 Copyright © 2010 by ASME Proceedings of the ASME 2010 International Design Engineering Technical

  17. ICED'09/148 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ENGINEERING DESIGN, ICED'09

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papalambros, Panos

    , marketing, and psychology. Quantitative models from these disciplines can be integrated into a design for teaching product design and for designing products taking into account market and policy environments alongICED'09/148 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ENGINEERING DESIGN, ICED'09 24 - 27 AUGUST 2009, STANFORD

  18. Proceedings of FUELCELL2006 The 4th International Conference on FUEL CELL SCIENCE, ENGINEERING and TECHNOLOGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Bin

    Proceedings of FUELCELL2006 The 4th International Conference on FUEL CELL SCIENCE, ENGINEERING and TECHNOLOGY June 19-21, 2006, Irvine, CA FUELCELL2006-97067 MODELING AND SIMULATION OF A MODERN PEM FUEL CELL and advances in hydrogen/air Proton Ex- change Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) are incorporated into a dynamic

  19. Proceedings of FuelCell2008 Sixth International Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technology Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papalambros, Panos

    optimization study. For a new technology, such as fuel cells, it is also important to include uncertaintiesProceedings of FuelCell2008 Sixth International Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technology Conference June 16-18, 2008, Denver, Colorado, USA FUELCELL2008-65111 OPTIMAL DESIGN OF HYBRID ELECTRIC FUEL

  20. Proceedings of IMECE '03: 2003 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguilar, Guillermo

    cryogenic sprays. Studies of evaporating liquids, such as fuels have also been carried out [5Proceedings of IMECE '03: 2003 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition Washington, D.C. -- November 16-21, 2003 IMECE2003-42178 CORRELATIONS BETWEEN SPRAY PROPERTIES AND HEAT

  1. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN ENGINEERING Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng 2006; 65:12691309

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN ENGINEERING Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng 2006; 65: Electrostatics D. Pardo1,,, L. Demkowicz1, C. Torres-Verdín2 and L. Tabarovsky3 1Institute for Computational. The refinement strategy is an extension of a fully automatic, energy-norm based, hp-adaptive algorithm. We

  2. Ceramics International 17 (1991)267-274 Molecular and Colloidal Engineering of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aksay, Ilhan A.

    1991-01-01

    Ceramics International 17 (1991)267-274 Molecular and Colloidal Engineering of Ceramicst Ilhan A in the processing of ceramics by a combination of techniques utilizing molecular precursors and colloids for powder are then converted to dense ceramics by heat treatment. This reviewsummarizes the concepts that are common to both

  3. Proceedings ASCE International Water Resources Engineering Conference August 8-12, 1999, Seattle, WA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wells, Scott A.

    Proceedings ASCE International Water Resources Engineering Conference August 8-12, 1999, Seattle and the construction of levees, dikes, culverts and irrigation channels. These changes have altered the natural flow quality and hydrodynamic effects of macrophytes and epiphyton. Introduction The Columbia Slough

  4. JOINT CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS 7th International Conference on Urban Earthquake Engineering (7CUEE) &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    JOINT CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS 7th International Conference on Urban Earthquake Engineering (7CUEE. INTRODUCTION Limiting the response of civil structures to large external lateral disturbances (e.g., wind loads tended to be characterized by a small number of large and expensive actuators that were either passive (e

  5. 2000 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exhibit, Orland, November 5-11, 2000 Copyright 2000 by ASME

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    2000 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exhibit, Orland, November 5-11, 2000 Copyright © 2000 by ASME MOLECULAR DYNAMICS SIMULATION OF HYDROGEN STORAGE IN SINGLE-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBES T: Temperature U: Potential energy Greek Symbols #12;2000 ASME International Mechanical Engineering

  6. KEER2010, PARIS | MARCH 2-4 2010 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON KANSEI ENGINEERING AND EMOTION RESEARCH 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaussier, Philippe

    KEER2010, PARIS | MARCH 2-4 2010 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON KANSEI ENGINEERING AND EMOTION of its behavior and allow it to learn place-actions associations to construct an attraction basin around manuscript, published in "International Conference on Kansei Engineering and Emotion Reasearch, Paris

  7. Internal combustion engines for alcohol motor fuels: a compilation of background technical information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blaser, Richard

    1980-11-01

    This compilation, a draft training manual containing technical background information on internal combustion engines and alcohol motor fuel technologies, is presented in 3 parts. The first is a compilation of facts from the state of the art on internal combustion engine fuels and their characteristics and requisites and provides an overview of fuel sources, fuels technology and future projections for availability and alternatives. Part two compiles facts about alcohol chemistry, alcohol identification, production, and use, examines ethanol as spirit and as fuel, and provides an overview of modern evaluation of alcohols as motor fuels and of the characteristics of alcohol fuels. The final section compiles cross references on the handling and combustion of fuels for I.C. engines, presents basic evaluations of events leading to the use of alcohols as motor fuels, reviews current applications of alcohols as motor fuels, describes the formulation of alcohol fuels for engines and engine and fuel handling hardware modifications for using alcohol fuels, and introduces the multifuel engines concept. (LCL)

  8. Development of High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Spark-Ignition and Compression-Ignition Internal Combustion Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marriott, Craig; Gonzalez, Manual; Russell, Durrett

    2011-06-30

    This report summarizes activities related to the revised STATEMENT OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES (SOPO) dated June 2010 for the Development of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion engine Designs for Spark-Ignition and Compression-Ignition Internal Combustion Engines (COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NUMBER DE-FC26-05NT42415) project. In both the spark- (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) development activities covered in this program, the goal was to develop potential production-viable internal combustion engine system technologies that both reduce fuel consumption and simultaneously met exhaust emission targets. To be production-viable, engine technologies were also evaluated to determine if they would meet customer expectations of refinement in terms of noise, vibration, performance, driveability, etc. in addition to having an attractive business case and value. Prior to this activity, only proprietary theoretical / laboratory knowledge existed on the combustion technologies explored The research reported here expands and develops this knowledge to determine series-production viability. Significant SI and CI engine development occurred during this program within General Motors, LLC over more than five years. In the SI program, several engines were designed and developed that used both a relatively simple multi-lift valve train system and a Fully Flexible Valve Actuation (FFVA) system to enable a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion process. Many technical challenges, which were unknown at the start of this program, were identified and systematically resolved through analysis, test and development. This report documents the challenges and solutions for each SOPO deliverable. As a result of the project activities, the production viability of the developed clean combustion technologies has been determined. At this time, HCCI combustion for SI engines is not considered production-viable for several reasons. HCCI combustion is excessively sensitive to control variables such as internal dilution level and charge temperature. As a result, HCCI combustion has limited robustness when variables exceed the required narrow ranges determined in this program. HCCI combustion is also not available for the entire range of production engine speeds and loads, (i.e., the dynamic range is limited). Thus, regular SI combustion must be employed for a majority of the full dynamic range of the engine. This degrades the potential fuel economy impact of HCCI combustion. Currently-available combustion control actuators for the simple valve train system engine do not have the authority for continuous air - fuel or torque control for managing the combustion mode transitions between SI and HCCI and thus, require further refinement to meet customer refinement expectations. HCCI combustion control sensors require further development to enable robust long-term HCCI combustion control. Finally, the added technologies required to effectively manage HCCI combustion such as electric cam phasers, central direct fuel injection, cylinder pressure sensing, high-flow exhaust gas recirculation system, etc. add excessive on-engine cost and complexity that erodes the production-viability business

  9. Rotary internal combustion engine and method of operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ballinger, M.S.

    1988-05-03

    A rotor is formed to include recesses each of which engages a portion of a rotary piston. The remaining portions of the rotary pistons project radially outwardly from the periphery of the rotor to a position contiguous the inner surface of a peripheral stator wall. The peripheral stator wall includes endwardly projecting lobes. The lobes are elongated axially of the engine and present convex surfaces of circular curvature which conform in size and shape to concave pockets formed in side portion of the rotary pistons. During rotation of the rotary assembly the piston pockets move into and then out from a meshing engagement with the lobes. One of the lobes carries an igniter. An explosive lean mixture is drawn into the side pocket of a piston as the piston moves past an inlet opening. This mixture is compressed by the engagement of the piston pocket and the lobe. Ignition of the compressed charged creates an explosive force acting on the rotor assembly, causing it to rotate.

  10. In Proc. of the 14th International Conference on Knowledge Engineering and Knowledge Management EKAW 2004, to appear.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mizoguchi, Riichiro

    In Proc. of the 14th International Conference on Knowledge Engineering and Knowledge Management. Functionality is one of the key concepts in understanding an artifact and in engineering domain knowledge. Although the importance of sharing of engineering knowledge in industry has been widely recognized, from

  11. Proceedings of the ASME 2011 International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition November 11-17, Denver, Colorado USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Zhixiong "James"

    EDGE OF A TURBINE BLADE Keyong Cheng Institute of Engineering ThermoPhysics, Chinese Academy the achievement of today's high firing temperature, high-efficiency gas turbine engines [4]. Therefore, manyProceedings of the ASME 2011 International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition IMECE 2011

  12. Friction Causing Unpredictability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joshua Oldham; Stefan Weigert

    2015-06-23

    The periodic motion of a classical point particle in a one-dimensional double-well potential acquires a surprising degree of complexity if friction is added. Finite uncertainty in the initial state can make it impossible to predict in which of the two wells the particle will finally settle. For two models of friction, we exhibit the structure of the basins of attraction in phase space which causes the final-state sensitivity. Adding friction to an integrable system with more than one stable equilibrium emerges as a possible "route to chaos" whenever initial conditions can be specified with finite accuracy only.

  13. Modeling of reciprocating internal combustion engines for power generation and heat recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yun, Kyung Tae; Cho, Heejin; Luck, Rogelio; Mago, Pedro J.

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents a power generation and heat recovery model for reciprocating internal combustion engines (ICEs). The purpose of the proposed model is to provide realistic estimates of performance/efficiency maps for both electrical power output and useful thermal output for various capacities of engines for use in a preliminary CHP design/simulation process. The proposed model will serve as an alternative to constant engine efficiencies or empirical efficiency curves commonly used in the current literature for simulations of CHP systems. The engine performance/efficiency calculation algorithm has been coded to a publicly distributed FORTRAN Dynamic Link Library (DLL), and a user friendly tool has been developed using Visual Basic programming. Simulation results using the proposed model are validated against manufacturer’s technical data.

  14. Proceedings of the ASME 2014 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences & Computers and Information in Engineering Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suresh, Krishnan

    -34383 Efficient Microstructural Design for Additive Manufacturing Krishnan Suresh suresh@engr.wisc.edu Department GPU. 1. INTRODUCTION The most significant benefit of additive manufacturing is that geometric of Mechanical Engineering UW-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA ABSTRACT* A salient feature of additive

  15. Proceedings of the ASME 2011 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences & Computers and Information in Engineering Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michalek, Jeremy J.

    profitability, since some designs are associated with greater market uncertainty than others. We propose for market systems, delta method, logit, design optimization, robust design, design under uncertainty development (NPD) literature has been dedicated to the integration of engineering design and marketing

  16. Proceedings of the ASME 2009 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences & Computers and Information in Engineering Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leyendecker, Sigrid

    Dynamical systems, animal hydrodynamic propulsion Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering- tions and is immersed in a perfect and incompressible fluid. We model the body as a constrained Cosserat flow where the ambient fluid is accounted for using the added mass effect. We show that the submerged

  17. IEEE/ACM International Conference on Automated Software Engineering (ASE) h5-index: 34 h5-median: 50

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Tao

    IEEE/ACM International Conference on Automated Software Engineering (ASE) h5-index: 34 h5-median source code on the web S Thummalapenta, T Xie Proceedings of the twenty-second IEEE/ACM international, Z Hu, H Zhao, M Takeichi, H Mei Proceedings of the twenty-second IEEE/ACM international conference

  18. Friction stir welding tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tolle; Charles R. (Idaho Falls, ID), Clark; Denis E. (Idaho Falls, ID), Barnes; Timothy A. (Ammon, ID)

    2008-04-15

    A friction stir welding tool is described and which includes a shank portion; a shoulder portion which is releasably engageable with the shank portion; and a pin which is releasably engageable with the shoulder portion.

  19. Internal combuston engine having separated cylinder head oil drains and crankcase ventilation passages

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boggs, David Lee (Bloomfield Hills, MI); Baraszu, Daniel James (Plymouth, MI); Foulkes, David Mark (Erfstadt, DE); Gomes, Enio Goyannes (Ann Arbor, MI)

    1998-01-01

    An internal combustion engine includes separated oil drain-back and crankcase ventilation passages. The oil drain-back passages extend from the cylinder head to a position below the top level of oil in the engine's crankcase. The crankcase ventilation passages extend from passages formed in the main bearing bulkheads from positions above the oil level in the crankcase and ultimately through the cylinder head. Oil dams surrounding the uppermost portions of the crankcase ventilation passages prevent oil from running downwardly through the crankcase ventilation passages.

  20. Topological Complexity of Frictional Interfaces: Friction Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. O. Ghaffari; R. P. Young

    2012-01-05

    Through research conducted in this study, a network approach to the correlation patterns of void spaces in rough fractures (crack type II) was developed. We characterized friction networks with several networks characteristics. The correlation among network properties with the fracture permeability is the result of friction networks. The revealed hubs in the complex aperture networks confirmed the importance of highly correlated groups to conduct the highlighted features of the dynamical aperture field. We found that there is a universal power law between the nodes' degree and motifs frequency (for triangles it reads T(k)\\proptok{\\beta} ({\\beta} \\approx2\\pm0.3)). The investigation of localization effects on eigenvectors shows a remarkable difference in parallel and perpendicular aperture patches. Furthermore, we estimate the rate of stored energy in asperities so that we found that the rate of radiated energy is higher in parallel friction networks than it is in transverse directions. The final part of our research highlights 4 point sub-graph distribution and its correlation with fluid flow. For shear rupture, we observed a similar trend in sub-graph distribution, resulting from parallel and transversal aperture profiles (a superfamily phenomenon).

  1. An experimental study of the oil evolution in critical piston ring pack regions and the effects of piston and ring designs in an internal combustion engine utilizing two-dimensional laser induced fluorescence and the impact on maritime economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vokac, Adam, 1978-

    2004-01-01

    Faced with increasing concern for lubricating, oil consumption and engine friction, it is critical to understand the oil transport mechanisms in the power cylinder system. Lubricating oil travels through distinct regions ...

  2. Method and device for frictional welding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peacock, H.B.

    1992-10-13

    A method is described for friction welding that produces a seal having essentially no gas porosity, comprises two rotationally symmetric, generally cylindrical members, spaced apart and coaxially aligned, that are rotated with respect to each other and brought together under high pressure. One member is preferably a generally cylindrical canister that stores uranium within its hollow walls. The other member is preferably a generally cylindrical, hollow weld ring. An annular channel formed in the weld ring functions as an internal flash trap and is uniquely designed so that substantially all of the welding flash generated from the friction welding is directed into the channel's recessed bottom. Also, the channel design limits distortion of the two members during the friction welding process, further contributing to the complete seal that is obtained. 5 figs.

  3. Method and device for frictional welding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peacock, H.B.

    1991-01-01

    A method for friction welding that produces a seal having essentially no gas porosity, comprises two rotationally symmetric, generally cylindrical members, spaced apart and coaxially aligned, that are rotated with respect to each other and brought together under high pressure. One member is preferably a generally cylindrical cannister that stores uranium within its hollow walls. The other member is preferably a generally cylindrical, hollow weld ring. An annular channel formed in the weld ring functions as an internal flash trap and is uniquely designed so that substantially all of the welding flash generated from the friction welding is directed into the channel`s recessed bottom. Also, the channel design limits distortion of the two members during the friction welding, process, further contributing to the complete seal that is obtained.

  4. Method and device for frictional welding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peacock, Harold B. (867 N. Belair Rd., Evans, GA 30809)

    1992-01-01

    A method for friction welding that produces a seal having essentially no gas porosity, comprises two rotationally symmetric, generally cylindrical members, spaced apart and coaxially aligned, that are rotated with respect to each other and brought together under high pressure. One member is preferably a generally cylindrical cannister that stores uranium within its hollow walls. The other member is preferably a generally cylindrical, hollow weld ring. An annular channel formed in the weld ring functions as an internal flash trap and is uniquely designed so that substantially all of the welding flash generated from the friction welding is directed into the channel's recessed bottom. Also, the channel design limits distortion of the two members during the friction welding process, further contributing to the complete seal that is obtained.

  5. Method for reducing peak phase current and decreasing staring time for an internal combustion engine having an induction machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Amey, David L. (Birmingham, MI); Degner, Michael W. (Farmington Hills, MI)

    2002-01-01

    A method for reducing the starting time and reducing the peak phase currents for an internal combustion engine that is started using an induction machine starter/alternator. The starting time is reduced by pre-fluxing the induction machine and the peak phase currents are reduced by reducing the flux current command after a predetermined period of time has elapsed and concurrent to the application of the torque current command. The method of the present invention also provides a strategy for anticipating the start command for an internal combustion engine and determines a start strategy based on the start command and the operating state of the internal combustion engine.

  6. Internal combustion engine system having a power turbine with a broad efficiency range

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whiting, Todd Mathew; Vuk, Carl Thomas

    2010-04-13

    An engine system incorporating an air breathing, reciprocating internal combustion engine having an inlet for air and an exhaust for products of combustion. A centripetal turbine receives products of the combustion and has a housing in which a turbine wheel is rotatable. The housing has first and second passages leading from the inlet to discrete, approximately 180.degree., portions of the circumference of the turbine wheel. The passages have fixed vanes adjacent the periphery of the turbine wheel and the angle of the vanes in one of the passages is different than those in the other so as to accommodate different power levels providing optimum approach angles between the gases passing the vanes and the blades of the turbine wheel. Flow through the passages is controlled by a flapper valve to direct it to one or the other or both passages depending upon the load factor for the engine.

  7. Friction of Steel Sliding Under Boundary Lubrication Regime in Commercial Gear Oils at Elevated Temperatures

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This study was conducted to understand how to increase engine efficiency by reducing parasitic boundary regime friction losses and enable operation with lower viscosity oils while maintaining engine durability.

  8. Copyright 2000, Society of Petroleum Engineers, Inc. This paper was prepared for presentation at the International Symposium on Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Copyright 2000, Society of Petroleum Engineers, Inc. This paper was prepared for presentation at the International Symposium on Formation Damage Control held in Lafayette, Louisiana, 23­24 February 2000

  9. EngOpt 2008 -International Conference on Engineering Optimization Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 01 -05 June 2008.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    EngOpt 2008 - International Conference on Engineering Optimization Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 01 - 05 Luiz Englert, s/n CEP: 90040-040 - Porto Alegre - RS - BRAZIL E-mail: arge@enq.ufrgs.br 1. Abstract

  10. Determination of the dynamic Young's modulus, shear modulus, and internal friction as a function of temperature and microstructure in Uranium - 2.4wt% Niobium 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chancellor, Wayne Morrow

    1988-01-01

    , storage, defense related, and other uses. The already excellent mechanical properties of uranium can be enhanced by alloying uranium with a variety of metals. The list of alloying elements includes titanium, zirconium, molybdenum and niobium [1... of Testing and Evaluation in many cases, made unnecessary the time tested tradition of experimentation as a means of determining, or more importantly, predicting the effects of changing parameters on the mechanical properties of engineering materials...

  11. Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering May 31 -June 5 , 2009, Honolulu, Hawaii

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manuel, Lance

    Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering OMAE2009 IN RELIABILITY STUDIES FOR OFFSHORE WIND TURBINES P. Agarwal Stress Engineering Services Houston, TX 77041, USA cases according to the IEC guidelines for offshore wind turbines, designers are required to estimate

  12. 1 Copyright 2007 by ASME Proceedings of the ASME 2007 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences & Computers and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michalek, Jeremy J.

    and market demand for maximizing the profit is applied to seek the optimal design. This paper builds models of engineering performance and market performance in product design. Hazelrigg [1] first proposed1 Copyright © 2007 by ASME Proceedings of the ASME 2007 International Design Engineering Technical

  13. Copyright 2006, Society of Petroleum Engineers This paper was prepared for presentation at the 2006 Abu Dhabi International Petroleum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    Copyright 2006, Society of Petroleum Engineers This paper was prepared for presentation at the 2006 Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition and Conference held in Abu Dhabi, U.A.E., 5­8 November not been reviewed by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and are subject to correction by the author

  14. Impact of Low-Friction Surface Treatments on Engine Friction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. 2006deerfenske.pdf More Documents & Publications...

  15. Integration of Radioisotope Heat Source with Stirling Engine and Cooler for Venus Internal-Structure Mission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, Alfred

    1993-10-01

    The primary mission goal is to perform long-term seismic measurements on Venus, to study its largely unknown internal structure. The principal problem is that most payload components cannot long survive Venus's harsh environment, 90 bars at 500 degrees C. To meet the mission life goal, such components must be protected by a refrigerated payload bay. JPL Investigators have proposed a mission concept employing a lander with a spherical payload bay cooled to 25 degrees C by a Stirling cooler powered by a radioisotope-heated Sitrling engine. To support JPL's mission study, NASA/Lewis and MTI have proposed a conceptual design for a hydraulically coupled Stirling engine and cooler, and Fairchild Space - with support of the Department of Energy - has proposed a design and integration scheme for a suitable radioisotope heat source. The key integration problem is to devise a simple, light-weight, and reliable scheme for forcing the radioisotope decay heat to flow through the Stirling engine during operation on Venus, but to reject that heat to the external environment when the Stirling engine and cooler are not operating (e.g., during the cruise phase, when the landers are surrounded by heat shields needed for protection during subsequent entry into the Venusian atmosphere.) A design and integration scheme for achieving these goals, together with results of detailed thermal analyses, are described in this paper. There are 7 copies in the file.

  16. Coal-water slurry fuel internal combustion engine and method for operating same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McMillian, Michael H. (Fairmont, WV)

    1992-01-01

    An internal combustion engine fueled with a coal-water slurry is described. About 90 percent of the coal-water slurry charge utilized in the power cycle of the engine is directly injected into the main combustion chamber where it is ignited by a hot stream of combustion gases discharged from a pilot combustion chamber of a size less than about 10 percent of the total clearance volume of main combustion chamber with the piston at top dead center. The stream of hot combustion gases is provided by injecting less than about 10 percent of the total coal-water slurry charge into the pilot combustion chamber and using a portion of the air from the main combustion chamber that has been heated by the walls defining the pilot combustion chamber as the ignition source for the coal-water slurry injected into the pilot combustion chamber.

  17. Wavelet Analysis of Cycle-to-Cycle Pressure Variations in an Internal Combustion Engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asok K. Sen; Grzegorz Litak; Rodolfo Taccani; Robert Radu

    2006-07-19

    Using a continuous wavelet transform we have analyzed the cycle-to-cycle variations of pressure in an internal combustion engine. The time series of maximum pressure variations are examined for different loading and their wavelet power spectrum is calculated for each load. From the wavelet power spectrum we detected the presence of long, intermediate and short-term periodicities in the pressure signal. It is found that depending on the load, the long and intermediate-term periodicities may span several cycles, whereas the short-period oscillations tend to appear intermittently. Knowledge of these periodicities may be useful to develop effective control strategies for efficient combustion.

  18. Proceedings of the 2004 International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering (ISESE'04) 0-7695-2165-7/04 $20.00 2004 IEEE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lanubile, Filippo

    Proceedings of the 2004 International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering (ISESE'04) 0 on Empirical Software Engineering (ISESE'04) 0-7695-2165-7/04 $20.00 © 2004 IEEE #12;Proceedings of the 2004 International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering (ISESE'04) 0-7695-2165-7/04 $20.00 © 2004 IEEE #12

  19. college of engineering Undergraduate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullos, Desiree

    and computer engineering » environmental engineering » industrial engineering » international Studies » industrial engineering » Materials Science » Mechanical engineering » Medical Physics » nuclear engineering degrees in civil engineering (ce) and construction engineering management (ceM). industry placement for ce

  20. Abstract--A cam-based, shear force actuated electromechanical valve drive system offering variable valve timing in internal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perreault, Dave

    1 Abstract--A cam-based, shear force actuated electromechanical valve drive system offering variable valve timing in internal combustion engines was previously proposed and demonstrated. To transform, optimal cam design, nonlinear friction model, variable valve timing. I. INTRODUCTION espite their simple

  1. Evaluation and silicon nitride internal combustion engine components. Final report, Phase I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voldrich, W. [Allied-Signal Aerospace Co., Torrance, CA (United States). Garrett Ceramic Components Div.

    1992-04-01

    The feasibility of silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) use in internal combustion engines was studied by testing three different components for wear resistance and lower reciprocating mass. The information obtained from these preliminary spin rig and engine tests indicates several design changes are necessary to survive high-stress engine applications. The three silicon nitride components tested were valve spring retainers, tappet rollers, and fuel pump push rod ends. Garrett Ceramic Components` gas-pressure sinterable Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} (GS-44) was used to fabricate the above components. Components were final machined from densified blanks that had been green formed by isostatic pressing of GS-44 granules. Spin rig testing of the valve spring retainers indicated that these Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} components could survive at high RPM levels (9,500) when teamed with silicon nitride valves and lower spring tension than standard titanium components. Silicon nitride tappet rollers showed no wear on roller O.D. or I.D. surfaces, steel axles and lifters; however, due to the uncrowned design of these particular rollers the cam lobes indicated wear after spin rig testing. Fuel pump push rod ends were successful at reducing wear on the cam lobe and rod end when tested on spin rigs and in real-world race applications.

  2. An Artist's depiction of the International Space Station. Photo courtesy of NASA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saskatchewan, University of

    OF ENGINEERING RESEARCH REPORT 2001-2002 Executive Summary 1. Division of Biomedical Engineering 2. Division of Environmental Engineering 3. Department of Agricultural and Bioresource Engineering 4. Department of Chemical Engineering 5. Department of Civil and Geological Engineering 6. Department of Electrical Engineering 7

  3. Friction surfaced Stellite6 coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, K. Prasad; Damodaram, R.; Rafi, H. Khalid; Ram, G.D. Janaki; Reddy, G. Madhusudhan; Nagalakshmi, R.

    2012-08-15

    Solid state Stellite6 coatings were deposited on steel substrate by friction surfacing and compared with Stellite6 cast rod and coatings deposited by gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred arc welding processes. Friction surfaced coatings exhibited finer and uniformly distributed carbides and were characterized by the absence of solidification structure and compositional homogeneity compared to cast rod, gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred coatings. Friction surfaced coating showed relatively higher hardness. X-ray diffraction of samples showed only face centered cubic Co peaks while cold worked coating showed hexagonally close packed Co also. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stellite6 used as coating material for friction surfacing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Friction surfaced (FS) coatings compared with casting, GTA and PTA processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Finer and uniformly distributed carbides in friction surfaced coatings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Absence of melting results compositional homogeneity in FS Stellite6 coatings.

  4. Mitigating the effect of siloxanes on internal combustion engines using landfill gasses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Besmann, Theodore M

    2015-01-06

    A waste gas combustion method that includes providing a combustible fuel source, in which the combustible fuel source is composed of at least methane and siloxane gas. A sodium source or magnesium source is mixed with the combustible fuel source. Combustion of the siloxane gas of the combustible fuel source produces a silicon containing product. The sodium source or magnesium source reacts with the silicon containing product to provide a sodium containing glass or sodium containing silicate, or a magnesium containing silicate. By producing the sodium containing glass or sodium containing silicate, or the magnesium containing silicate, or magnesium source for precipitating particulate silica instead of hard coating, the method may reduce or eliminate the formation of silica deposits within the combustion chamber and the exhaust components of the internal combustion engine.

  5. Mitigating the effect of siloxanes on internal combustion engines using landfill gasses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Besmann, Theodore M

    2014-01-21

    A waste gas combustion method that includes providing a combustible fuel source, in which the combustible fuel source is composed of at least methane and siloxane gas. A sodium source or magnesium source is mixed with the combustible fuel source. Combustion of the siloxane gas of the combustible fuel source produces a silicon containing product. The sodium source or magnesium source reacts with the silicon containing product to provide a sodium containing glass or sodium containing silicate, or a magnesium containing silicate. By producing the sodium containing glass or sodium containing silicate, or the magnesium containing silicate, or magnesium source for precipitating particulate silica instead of hard coating, the method may reduce or eliminate the formation of silica deposits within the combustion chamber and the exhaust components of the internal combustion engine.

  6. Proceedings of the international workshop on engineering design of next step reversed field pinch devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomson, D.B.

    1987-11-01

    These Proceedings contain the formal contributed papers, the workshop papers and workshop summaries presented at the International Workshop on Engineering Design of Next Step RFP Devices held at Los Alamos, July 13-17, 1987. Contributed papers were presented at formal sessions on the topics: (1) physics overview (3 papers); (2) general overview (3 papers); (3) front-end (9 papers); (4) computer control and data acquisition (1 paper); (5) magnetics (5 papers); and (6) electrical design (9 papers). Informal topical workshop sessions were held on the topics: (1) RFP physics (9 papers); (2) front-end (7 papers); (3) magnetics (3 papers); and (4) electrical design (1 paper). This volume contains the summaries written by the Chairmen of each of the informal topical workshop sessions. The papers in these Proceedings represent a significant review of the status of the technical base for the engineering design of the next step RFP devices being developed in the US, Europe, and Japan, as of this date.

  7. Numerical Estimation of Frictional Torques with Rate and State Friction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arun K. Singh; T. N. Singh

    2015-01-20

    In this paper, numerical estimation of frictional torques is carried out of a rotary elastic disc on a hard and rough surface under different rotating conditions. A one dimensional spring- mass rotary system is numerically solved under the quasistatic condition with the rate and state dependent friction model. It is established that torque of frictional strength as well as torque of steady dynamic stress increases with radius and found to be maximum at the periphery of the disc. Torque corresponding to frictional strength estimated using the analytical solution matches closely with the simulation only in the case of high stiffness of the connecting spring. In steady relaxation simulation, a steadily rotating disc is suddenly stopped and relaxational angular velocity and corresponding frictional torque decreases with both steady angular velocity and stiffness of the connecting spring in the velocity strengthening regime. In velocity weakening regime, in contrast, torque of relaxation stress deceases but relaxation velocity increases. The reason for the contradiction is explained.

  8. Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Software Engineering and Artificial Intelligence for High Energy and Nuclear Physics, eds. B. Denby and D. PerretGallix, International Journal of Modern

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lunds Universitet,

    on Software Engineering and Artificial Intelligence for High Energy and Nuclear Physics, Pisa, Italy, April 3Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Software Engineering and Artificial Intelligence for High Energy and Nuclear Physics, eds. B. Denby and D. Perret­Gallix, International Journal

  9. International Collaborations on Engineered Barrier Systems: Brief Overview of SKB-EBS Activities.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jove-Colon, Carlos F.

    2015-10-01

    Research collaborations with international partners on the behavior and performance of engineered barrier systems (EBS) are an important aspect of the DOE-NE Used Fuel Disposition Campaign strategy in the evaluation of disposal design concepts. These international partnerships are a cost-effective way of engaging in key R&D activities with common goals resulting in effective scientific knowledge exchanges thus enhancing existing and future research programs in the USA. This report provides a brief description of the activities covered by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) EBS Task Force (TF) (referred hereafter as SKB EBS TF) and potential future directions for engagement of the DOE-NE UFDC program in relevant R&D activities. Emphasis is given to SKB EBS TF activities that are still ongoing and aligned to the UFDC R&D program. This include utilization of data collected in the bentonite rock interaction experiment (BRIE) and data sets from benchmark experiments produced by the chemistry or “C” part of the SKB EBS TF. Potential applications of information generated by this program include comparisons/tests between model and data (e.g., reactive diffusion), development and implementation of coupled-process models (e.g., HM), and code/model benchmarking.

  10. Validation of a Small Engine Based Procedure for Studying Performance...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Studying Performance of Engine Lube Oils, Ionic Liquids as Lubricants andor Lubricant Additives, Opportunities for Engine Friction Reduction and Durable Design Validation...

  11. Journal of Hydraulic Research Vol. 00, No. 0 (2006), pp. 14 2006 International Association of Hydraulic Engineering and Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feltham, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Journal of Hydraulic Research Vol. 00, No. 0 (2006), pp. 1­4 © 2006 International Association of Hydraulic Engineering and Research On the Nusselt number for frazil ice growth--a correction to "Frazil in the fluid dissipate the energy cascading down from turbulent eddies at larger scales, and therefore

  12. Mathematics is an international language at the core of science, technology, and engineering. It is also utilized in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saldin, Dilano

    Mathematics is an international language at the core of science, technology, and engineering. It is one of the oldest and most funda- mental sciences. The beauty of mathematics is reflected in patterns. The fundamentals of mathematics underlie an endless number of processes in all types of businesses. For example

  13. The Expro Engineering Sponsorship Programme Expro International Group is an upstream oil and gas sector service company

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Painter, Kevin

    The Expro Engineering Sponsorship Programme Expro International Group is an upstream oil and gas and process flow from high-value oil and gas wells, from exploration and appraisal through to mature field for the development and delivery of innovative technologies to meet the needs of the oil and gas industry globally

  14. 10th International Conference on Construction Applications of Virtual Reality, 2010 WEB SERVICES IN ARCHITECTURALAND CIVIL ENGINEERING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    10th International Conference on Construction Applications of Virtual Reality, 2010 1 WEB SERVICES developments in information modeling and web services will have significant impacts in engineering design computing model become popular, web-based software services and business models are emerging. This note

  15. This journal aims to publish internationally-leading research across the full breadth of structural engineering. Papers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mottram, Toby

    NOW AVAILABLE! This journal aims to publish internationally-leading research across the fullResearch Journal of The Institution of Structural Engineers ES 2586 Structures Journal_Structures Journal 03 PAPErs NOW AVAILABLE www.elsevier.com/locate/structures #12;StructuresResearch Journal of The Institution

  16. Nitrogen enriched combustion of a natural gas internal combustion engine to reduce NO.sub.x emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Biruduganti, Munidhar S. (Naperville, IL); Gupta, Sreenath Borra (Naperville, IL); Sekar, R. Raj (Naperville, IL); McConnell, Steven S. (Shorewood, IL)

    2008-11-25

    A method and system for reducing nitrous oxide emissions from an internal combustion engine. An input gas stream of natural gas includes a nitrogen gas enrichment which reduces nitrous oxide emissions. In addition ignition timing for gas combustion is advanced to improve FCE while maintaining lower nitrous oxide emissions.

  17. The Fifth International Symposium on Computational Wind Engineering (CWE2010) Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA May 23-27, 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chow, Fotini Katopodes

    the siting of wind turbines to predictions of flow in urban terrain for contaminant dispersion. MesoscaleThe Fifth International Symposium on Computational Wind Engineering (CWE2010) Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA May 23-27, 2010 Accurate wind characterization in complex terrain using the immersed boundary

  18. EngOpt 2012 -International Conference on Engineering Optimization Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1-5 July 2012.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cruz, Frederico

    EngOpt 2012 - International Conference on Engineering Optimization Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1-5 July, 39401-089 - Montes Claros - MG, Brazil E-mail: nilson.brito@unimontes.br Departamento de Matem´atica, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, 35400-000 - Ouro Preto - MG, Brazil E-mail: anderson

  19. Proceedings of ASME 2011 5th International Conference on Energy Sustainability & 9th Fuel Cell Science, Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    internal combustion engines (ICE) [3, 4], e.g., green- house gas and air pollution emissions, beside economical issues associated with petroleum-based fuels [3], e.g., price fluctuations due to increasing side, the batteries are responsible for power supply at low pow

  20. Skin friction and pressure: the "footprints" of turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Protas, Bartosz

    been a flurry of activity in controlling both laminar and turbulent flows in certain idealized settings, and to begin to shed light on how to control fluid flow in practical engineering applications with modelSkin friction and pressure: the "footprints" of turbulence Thomas R. Bewley and Bartosz Protas Flow

  1. Project Report Friction Measurement and Lubricating of Rotary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müftü, Sinan

    ME5656 Project Report Friction Measurement and Lubricating of Rotary Silicon MEMS Device Yifeng Lu and fascinating topic in both mechanical and electrical engineering domains for decades with the revolutionary property of silicon wafer is not such admired as its other features aforesaid. Rotary MEMS device based

  2. In situ control of lubricant properties for reduction of power cylinder friction through thermal barrier coating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Molewyk, Mark Allen

    2014-01-01

    Lowering lubricant viscosity to reduce friction generally carries a side effect of increased metal-metal contact in mixed or boundary lubrication, for example near top ring reversal along the engine cylinder liner. A ...

  3. Mechanical Energy and Power Systems Laboratory Mechanical Energy and Power Systems Laboratory Proceedings of the ASME 2009 International Mechanical Engineering Conference and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van de Ven, James D.

    in the past, re- cent developments in Stirling engine technology utilizing rolling diaphragm seals piston Stirling [2] engine, it was decided that a rolling diaphragm seal could be used to effectively Proceedings of the ASME 2009 International Mechanical Engineering Conference and Exposition ASME/IMECE 2009

  4. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Frictional systems subjected to oscillating loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Awtar, Shorya

    behaviour of tectonic plates [35]; they determine the rebound behaviour of bodies in oblique impact[37 or to repetitive operations and the energy dissipated in friction under these circumstances is an important measure for more energy dissipation than internal material damping, but the effective damping in such cases is noto

  5. The effect of surface finish on piston ring-pack performance in advanced reciprocating engine systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jocsak, Jeffrey (Jeffrey Alan)

    2005-01-01

    Frictional losses in the piston ring-pack of an engine account for approximately 20% of the total frictional losses within an engine. Methods of surface texture optimization were investigated to reduce piston ring-pack ...

  6. A cycle simulation of coal particle fueled reciprocating internal-combustion engines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosegay, Kenneth Harold

    1982-01-01

    - Summary of Experimental Diesel Engine Operation on Solid Coal Fuels Page Table 2 - Property Data for Coal (Char) Particles . . 23 Table 3 - Summary of the Combustion Model and Reaction Constants 40 Table 4 ? Specifications of the Base Case Engine... Efforts The first attempt to operate a solid particle fueled piston engine was performed nearly a century ago by Rudolf Diesel, inventor of the compression-ignition engine. Since then, at least a dozen separate attempts to oper- ate diesel engines...

  7. An Analysis of the Impact of Selected Fuel Thermochemical Properties on Internal Combustion Engine Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szybist, James P; Chakravathy, Kalyana; Daw, C Stuart

    2012-01-01

    In this study we model the effects of 23 different fuels on First and Second Law thermodynamic efficiency of an adiabatic internal combustion engine. First Law efficiency is calculated using lower heating value (LHV) while Second Law efficiency is calculated with exergy, which represents the inherent chemical energy available to produce propulsion. We find that First Law efficiency can deviate by as much as nine percentage points between fuels while Second Law efficiency exhibits a much smaller degree of variability. We also find that First and Second Law efficiency can be nearly the same for some fuels (methane and ethane) but differ substantially for other fuels (hydrogen and ethanol). The differences in First and Second Law efficiency are due to differences in LHV and exergy for a given fuel. In order to explain First Law efficiency differences between fuels as well as the differences between LHV and exergy, we introduce a new term: the molar expansion ratio (MER), defined as the ratio of product moles to reactant moles for complete stoichiometric combustion. We find that the MER is a useful expression for providing a physical explanation for fuel-specific efficiency differences as well as differences between First and Second Law efficiency. First and Second Law efficiency are affected by a number of other fuel-specific thermochemical properties, such as the ratio of specific heat and dissociation of combustion products.

  8. Peak mass and dynamical friction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Del Popolo; M. Gambera

    1995-06-09

    We show how the results given by several authors relatively to the mass of a density peak are changed when small scale substructure induced by dynamical friction are taken into account. The peak mass obtained is compared to the result of Peacock \\& Heavens (1990) and to the peak mass when dynamical friction is absent to show how these effects conspire to reduce the mass accreted by the peak.

  9. Intern experience at Fluor Engineers, Inc., Houston Division: an internship report 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buranawong Sowaprux, 1958-

    2013-03-13

    was to allow the author to become familiar with project planning and control management in the petrochemical engineering and construction industry. The author held the position of Associate Cost/Scheduling Engineer and worked on two refinery...

  10. The Department of Chemical Engineering's graduate program at Texas Tech University is dynamic and internationally visible.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rock, Chris

    RESEARCH The Department of Chemical Engineering's graduate program at Texas Tech University and Sustainability · Polymers and Materials · Simulation and Modeling in Chemical Engineering GRADUATE PROGRAMS of Science in Chemical Engineering A written thesis and a minimum of 24 hours of graduate-level coursework

  11. Stratified charge combustion system and method for gaseous fuel internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhoades, W.A. Jr.

    1986-03-11

    This patent describes a stratified charge combustion system for use in a gaseous fuel internal combustion engine. This system consists of: (a) a combustion chamber; (b) an ignition; (c) a gaseous fuel injection valve assembly in communication with the combustion chamber and in spaced relationship from the ignition source with a portion of the inside surfaces extending between the fuel injection valve assembly and the ignition source. The fuel valve assembly defines an entry port for the entrance of gaseous fuel, the entry port is recessed outside of a fixed inside surface. (d) means for pressuring the gaseous fuel prior to injection; and (e) a curved transitional surface extending from the entry port toward the portion of the inside surfaces extending between the fuel injection valve assembly and the ignition source. The curved transitional surface curves away from the direction of the entry port. The curved transitional surface has a curvature for the particular direction and configuration of the entry port. The particular configuration of the portion of the inside surfaces extends between the injection valve assembly and the ignition source. The particular arrangment of the fuel injection valve assembly in the combustion chamber, and for the particular pressure of the gaseous fuel is to produce the Coanda Effect in the injected gaseous fuel flow after it passes through the entry port and follows the curved transitional surface under the Coanda Effect. As the curved transitional surface curves away from the direction of the entry port, a flow is produced of the gaseous fuel that clings to and follows the particular configuration of the inside surfaces to the ignition source.

  12. Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Software Engineering and Artificial Intelligence for High Energy and Nuclear Physics, eds. B. Denby and D. PerretGallix, International Journal of Modern

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peterson, Carsten

    Intelligence for High Energy and Nuclear Physics, eds. B. Denby and D. Perret­Gallix, International Journal on Software Engineering and Artificial Intelligence for High Energy and Nuclear Physics, Pisa, Italy, April 3

  13. Proceedings of the 2008 ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michalek, Jeremy J.

    in a competitive market. We propose an efficient approach to new product design accounting for competitor pricing product design case studies from the marketing and engineering design literature. We find implementation for new product design problems in competitive markets. Keywords: Design Optimization; Nash

  14. Enhancing trappable antiproton populations through deceleration and frictional cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zolotorev, Max

    2013-01-01

    Wojciechowski, “Frictional cooling: Experimental re- sults,”and status of frictional cooling,” Nu- clear Physics B 149,through deceleration and frictional cooling M. Zolotorev, A.

  15. Development and Demonstration of a Fuel-Efficient HD Engine (DOE SuperTruck Program)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Discusses engine efficiency contributions of enhanced fuel injection rematched to new piston geometry, improved charge air system, revised base engine components reduce friction and turbocompounding

  16. 12th International Conference on Applications of Statistics and Probability in Civil Engineering, ICASP12 Vancouver, Canada, July 12-15, 2015

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Jack W.

    goals that structures should achieve. Despite the significant uncertainty in future ground motion oc12th International Conference on Applications of Statistics and Probability in Civil Engineering of deriving seismic design response spectra for use in structural engineering design checks. The proposed

  17. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN ENGINEERING Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng 2006; 68:192209

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frey, Pascal

    Equipment, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, People Laboratory of Structural Analysis for Industrial Equipment, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, People's Republic of China. E-mail: guanzhq@dlut.edu.cn Contract

  18. JOINT CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS 7th International Conference on Urban Earthquake Engineering (7CUEE) &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Jack W.

    in performance-based earthquake engineering to predict the response of a structure subjected to the earthquake are computed using the Boore and Atkinson (2008) ground-motion prediction model for a scenario earthquake engineering to predict the response of a structure subjected to the earthquake ground motions. It is important

  19. Catalytic combustion in internal combustion engines: A possible explanation for the Woschni effect in thermally-insulated diesel engines. Interim report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, R.L.

    1996-11-15

    This report describes research undertaken to determine if catalytic combustion effects occur with the use of zirconia (ZrO{sub 2}) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), or other coatings, in diesel engines, and if so, whether these effects have significant impact upon engine combustion, fuel economy, or pollutant emissions. A simple furnace system was used to identify catalytic combustion effects in the ignition and combustion of propane/air mixtures over catalyst-doped m-ZrO{sub 2} spheres. Three classes of catalysts were examined: zirconia-stabilizing oxides (CeO{sub 2}, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MgO), transition metal oxides (Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), and noble metals (Pt). Each class exhibited characteristic combustion effects, with the ignition temperature increasing, e.g., from approximately 2000 deg C for Pt to 5500 deg C for the stabilizing oxides. The results suggest that the Woschni effect, a controversial phenomenon wherein thermal-insulating measures are postulated to actually increase heat transfer from the diesel combustion chamber, may be only a manifestation of catalytic combustion. Previous research on catalytic combustion in internal combustion engines is briefly reviewed and discussed. An earlier version of this report is to be published in J. Surface and Coatings Technology as `Catalytic Combustion Effects on m-ZrO{sub 2} Doped with Various Metal Nitrates.`

  20. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Internal Combustion Engine Energy Retention (ICEER)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by National Renewable Energy Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Internal...

  1. Effects of friction factor and slip factor on the performance of a centrifugal slurry pump 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheth, Ketankumar Kantilal

    1985-01-01

    EFFECTS OF FRICTION FACTOR AND SLIP FACTOR ON THE PERFORMANCE OF A CENTRIFUGAL SLURRY PUMP A Thesis by KETANKUMAR KANTILAL SHETH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1985 Ma]or Sub]ect: Mechanical Engineering EFFECTS OF FRICTION FACTOR AND SLIP FACTOR ON THE PERFORMANCE OF A CENTRIFUGAL SLURRY PUMP A Thesis by KETANKUMAR KANTILAL SHETH Approved as to style and content by...

  2. Rubber friction on ice and snow surfaces 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skouvaklis, Gerasimos

    2011-06-28

    The friction of rubber on ice and snow surfaces is complex. Deeper scientific understanding is important for optimising performance of tyres in winter. Rubber, ice and snow systems exhibit frictional behaviour which ...

  3. Dynamics of sliding mechanisms in nanoscale friction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yim, Shon W., 1973-

    2002-01-01

    Nanotribology is the study of friction and wear at the nanoscale, with relevance to such applications as micromechanical systems (MEMS) and thin, hard coatings. For these systems, classical laws of friction are inappropriate ...

  4. DEPARTMENTS Architecture & Civil Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burton, Geoffrey R.

    DEPARTMENTS Architecture & Civil Engineering Biology & Biochemistry Chemical Engineering Chemistry Computer Science Economics Education Electronic & Electrical Engineering Politics, Languages and International Studies School of Management Mathematical Sciences Mechanical Engineering (Sports Engineering

  5. High-speed video observation and on-line measurements of oil aeration in an internal combustion engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manz, Devon L

    2005-01-01

    Along the oil's journey through the oil lube system, the oil lubricates, cools, removes impurities, supports load, and minimizes friction. At the end of the oil's journey it returns to the sump where it remains nearly ...

  6. ENGINEERING

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ENGINEERING the Future of ENERGY Regional University Alliance National Energy Technology Laboratory Office of Research and Development The Future of Energy The time to redraw...

  7. Engineering

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Includes Engineering Standards Manual, Master Specifications Index, Drafting Manual, Design Guides, and more. IHS Standards Expert login information Collections include ANSI,...

  8. Intern experience at Walton & Associates/Consulting Engineers, Inc.: an internship report 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blaschke, J. D. (Joseph D.)

    2013-03-13

    (20) different engineering projects during the internship period. Thirteen (13) of the projects were completed during 1982, and the remaining seven (7) were carried into 1983 to completion. Nine (9) of the projects were categorized...

  9. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN ENGINEERING Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng 2006; 68:10311051

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frangi, Attilio

    Engineering, Politecnico of Milano, P.za Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan, Italy. E-mail: attilio.frangi@polimi.it Contract/grant sponsor: EU `Design for Micro & Nano Manufacture (PATENT-DfMM)' Network of Excellence

  10. Design of an internally pressurized aerostatic journal bearing for thermoacoustic engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hail, Claudio U

    2015-01-01

    In this study an aerostatic journal bearing for reciprocating free pistons was designed for application with thermoacoustic engines. By taking advantage of the maxima and minima of the oscillating pressures inside the ...

  11. International Symposium on Air Breathing Engines, 8th, Cincinnati, OH, June 14-19, 1987, Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Billig, F.S.

    1987-01-01

    The present conference on air-breathing aircraft engine technology considers topics in inlet design, radial-flow turbomachinery, fuel injection and combustion systems, axial flow compressor design and performance, ramjet configurations, turbine flow phenomena, engine control and service life, fluid flow-related problems, engine diagnostic methods, propfan design, combustor performance and pollutant chemistry, combustion dynamics, and engine system analysis. Attention is given to thrust-vectoring systems, supersonic missile air intakes, three-dimensional centrifugal compressors, airblast atomizers, secondary flows in axial flow compressors, axial compressor blade tip clearance flows, hydrogen scramjets with sidewall injection, the performance of a variable-geometry turbine, advanced tip clearance control systems, rotary jet mixing, fan blade aeroelastic behavior, flow dynamics in combustion processes, and the technology of low cost turbomachinery.

  12. Intern experience at the U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station: an internship report 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crowson, Roger Dale, 1949-

    2013-03-13

    in calibration tests---------------- 25 13. Pulse generator prior to firing-------------------------------- 26 14. Pulse generator after firing------------------------------------ 27 15. Pulse train array for calibration tests---------------------- 30 16... of Engineers FFT Fast Fourier Transform FM Frequency modulation KT Kiloton OCE Office, Chief of Engineers Pb Lead pC Picocoulomb RMS Root mean square value SHAPE Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers, Europe SL Structures Laboratory, WES SMD Structural...

  13. Performance, Efficiency, and Emissions Characterization of Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines Fueled with Hydrogen/Natural Gas Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby S. Chapman; Amar Patil

    2007-06-30

    Hydrogen is an attractive fuel source not only because it is abundant and renewable but also because it produces almost zero regulated emissions. Internal combustion engines fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG) are operated throughout a variety of industries in a number of mobile and stationary applications. While CNG engines offer many advantages over conventional gasoline and diesel combustion engines, CNG engine performance can be substantially improved in the lean operating region. Lean operation has a number of benefits, the most notable of which is reduced emissions. However, the extremely low flame propagation velocities of CNG greatly restrict the lean operating limits of CNG engines. Hydrogen, however, has a high flame speed and a wide operating limit that extends into the lean region. The addition of hydrogen to a CNG engine makes it a viable and economical method to significantly extend the lean operating limit and thereby improve performance and reduce emissions. Drawbacks of hydrogen as a fuel source, however, include lower power density due to a lower heating value per unit volume as compared to CNG, and susceptibility to pre-ignition and engine knock due to wide flammability limits and low minimum ignition energy. Combining hydrogen with CNG, however, overcomes the drawbacks inherent in each fuel type. Objectives of the current study were to evaluate the feasibility of using blends of hydrogen and natural gas as a fuel for conventional natural gas engines. The experiment and data analysis included evaluation of engine performance, efficiency, and emissions along with detailed in-cylinder measurements of key physical parameters. This provided a detailed knowledge base of the impact of using hydrogen/natural gas blends. A four-stroke, 4.2 L, V-6 naturally aspirated natural gas engine coupled to an eddy current dynamometer was used to measure the impact of hydrogen/natural gas blends on performance, thermodynamic efficiency and exhaust gas emissions in a reciprocating four stroke cycle engine. The test matrix varied engine load and air-to-fuel ratio at throttle openings of 50% and 100% at equivalence ratios of 1.00 and 0.90 for hydrogen percentages of 10%, 20% and 30% by volume. In addition, tests were performed at 100% throttle opening, with an equivalence ratio of 0.98 and a hydrogen blend of 20% to further investigate CO emission variations. Data analysis indicated that the use of hydrogen/natural gas fuel blend penalizes the engine operation with a 1.5 to 2.0% decrease in torque, but provided up to a 36% reduction in CO, a 30% reduction in NOX, and a 5% increase in brake thermal efficiency. These results concur with previous results published in the open literature. Further reduction in emissions can be obtained by retarding the ignition timing.

  14. Integrated Advanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine System for Increased Utilization of Gaseous Opportunity Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratapas, John; Zelepouga, Serguei; Gnatenko, Vitaliy; Saveliev, Alexei; Jangale, Vilas; Li, Hailin; Getz, Timothy; Mather, Daniel

    2013-08-31

    The project is addressing barriers to or opportunities for increasing distributed generation (DG)/combined heat and power (CHP) use in industrial applications using renewable/opportunity fuels. This project brings together novel gas quality sensor (GQS) technology with engine management for opportunity fuels such as landfill gas, digester gas and coal bed methane. By providing the capability for near real-time monitoring of the composition of these opportunity fuels, the GQS output can be used to improve the performance, increase efficiency, raise system reliability, and provide improved project economics and reduced emissions for engines used in distributed generation and combined heat and power.

  15. Air-fuel ratio controller for a turbocharged internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serve, J.V.; Eckard, D.W.

    1988-09-13

    This patent describes an air-fuel ratio controller for a gaseous-fueled, turbo-charged engine having an air manifold, a gas manifold, and a turbine inlet. The controller consists of: means for controlling air manifold pressure, comprising means for providing an air manifold pressure set point signal based on gas manifold pressure and engine RPM's and at least one constant input; and means for controlling turbine inlet temperature, the means comprising means for modulating the slope of the set point signal for the air manifold pressure controller.

  16. International Affairs International Services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyers, Steven D.

    Chemistry Business Administration Electrical EngineeringI International Affairs International Services Fall 0.2% Denmark 4 0.3% Dominica 2 0.1% Dominican Republic 3 0.2% Ecuador 10 0.7% Egypt 10 0.7% El

  17. Modelling of friction stir welding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colegrove, Paul Andrew

    the operator does not require the skills required for arc welding. • No edge preparation, shielding gas or filler metal is required. (Although shielding gas is used for some high temperature materials.) • Low distortion, shrinkage and residual stresses... is Friction Stir Processing, where material is processed (without being welded) to improve its mechanical properties. This enables the casting of components that are cun'ently machined with the clitical areas being processed to improve their hardness and...

  18. CIRP International Conference on Life Cycle Engineering, Leuven, May 31 Electrical Energy Requirements for Manufacturing Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gutowski, Timothy

    Department of Mechanical Engineering Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 Abstract into a single plot. The analysis is cast in an exergy framework. The results show: 1) the specific energy. Keywords Energy, Exergy, Manufacturing Processes 1 INTRODUCTION Manufacturing processes include a wide

  19. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN ENGINEERING Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng 2009; 78:863882

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masud, Arif

    of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, U.S.A. 2Department of Civil and Materials Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607, U.S.A. SUMMARY A multiscale computational framework the atomic structure locally and generate localized force fields. Formation energy of vacancy is evaluated

  20. Proceedings of OMAE08 27th International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manuel, Lance

    OF LONG-TERM OFFSHORE WIND TURBINE LOADS P. Agarwal Dept. of Civil, Arch., and Env. Engineering University of wind turbines--onshore or offshore--the prediction of extreme loads associated with a target return pe not adequately represent waves in shal- low waters where most offshore wind turbines are being sited

  1. JOINT CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS 7th International Conference on Urban Earthquake Engineering (7CUEE) &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Jack W.

    velocity pulses are of interest to engineers designing systems close to active faults. These ground motions effects are a special class of ground motions that are particularly challenging to characterize 94305 shrey@stanford.edu, bakerjw@stanford.edu Abstract: Near-fault ground motions containing strong

  2. ICED'07/840 1 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ENGINEERING DESIGN, ICED'07

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SCIENCES ET DE L'INDUSTRIE, PARIS, FRANCE PRODUCT INNOVATION FOR INTERDISCIPLINARY DESIGN UNDER CHANGING requirements, design strategies, product innovation, interdisciplinary teams 1 INTRODUCTION The design process Engineering and Computer Science ABSTRACT It is crucial for the development of high quality products

  3. 1 Copyright 2010 by ASME Proceedings of the ASME 2010 International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IN COLLECTIVE PRODUCT INNOVATION Jitesh H. Panchal School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering Washington of the questions in enabling successful collective product innovation is: "How can activities of a large number applicability for collective product innovation because they are based on self-organizing communities as opposed

  4. Proceedings of 2000 IMECE The 2000 International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirtz, Richard A.

    A HYBRID THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE HEAT SINK Ning Zheng and R. A. Wirtz Mechanical Engineering Department of a design optimization algorithm into a thermal performance model of the TES-hybrid heat sink results into the module cooler will allow for a smaller cooling system that is sized for some intermediate heat load. Then

  5. Proceedings of FuelCell2009 Seventh International Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technology Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    of Engineering & Natural Sciences Sabanci University Istanbul, Turkey ABSTRACT In a PEMFC, feeding dry hydrogen nearest the outlet as shown in the neutron imaging of a 53 cm2 PEMFC. This method allows in Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) reduces the overall system cost, weight and volume due to reduced need

  6. Air Charge Control for Turbocharged Spark Ignition Engines with Internal Exhaust Gas Recirculation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    ) in the drivability of a turbocharged Spark Ignition Direct Injection (SIDI) engine equipped with dual cam phasing, typically reduces fuel and NOx emissions.The benefits of the high level of iEGR for fuel consumption come with the air- path control loop, Air-to-Fuel Ratio (AFR) is regulated in the fuel path using feedback

  7. 1 Copyright 2012 by ASME Proceedings of the ASME 2012 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams II, Robert L.

    of touch and forces in humans. Haptic interfaces provide force and touch feedback from virtual models, interact with animations, and feel the results. The overall system aims to increase teaching and learning, engineering mechanics courses, virtual reality, force feedback 1. INTRODUCTION Haptics is related to the sense

  8. Proceedings of IMECE05 2005 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brennan, Sean

    criteria in practice even though their theoretical design and evaluation shows otherwise. Robust control November 5-11, 2005, Orlando, Florida IMECE2005-81885 SIMPLIFYING ROBUST CONTROL DESIGNS OF PARAMETRIC and Nuclear Engineering The Pennsylvania State University 314 Leonhard Building University Park, PA 16802

  9. The Breadth of Mechanical Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fabrikant, Sara Irina

    , Couplings Bearings Seals Fasteners #12;Power Generation Fossil Fuel, Nuclear, Solar, Wind Boilers, Turbines Composites Corrosion / Friction Coatings Ceramics Building Materials (Wood, Cement, etc.) #12;Combustion.) Dynamic Industrial fluid power Piping Flumes Compressible Flow #12;Manufacturing Engineering / Materials

  10. Proceedings of the ASME Fuel Cell Division 2000: The 2000 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chao-Yang

    Proceedings of the ASME Fuel Cell Division ­ 2000: The 2000 ASME International Mechanical ANALYSIS OF TRANSPORT AND REACTION IN PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS Sukkee Um and C.Y. Wang exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells with a Nafion 117 membrane and an interdigitated flow field

  11. Proceedings of OMAE2008: The 27th International Conference on Offshore Mechanics & Arctic Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Proceedings of OMAE2008: The 27th International Conference on Offshore Mechanics & Arctic Taggart BP America Production Mike Campbell 2H Offshore Inc. ABSTRACT In an effort to more effectively instrumented several of them on a number of mobile offshore drilling units (MODUs) and offshore production

  12. Electrical generation plant design practice intern experience at Power Systems Engineering, Inc.: an internship report 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Ting-Zern Joe, 1950-

    2013-03-13

    MULTIPLYING FACTORS FOR SYMMETRICAL CURRENT RATING BASIS DEVICES BY JL j. I n.i N/A 7306 Power System s Engineering, Inc. 2i.i Ick [lelt JcUf,c\\r 0-kDf FFu4s S e {w{)6 E{XS{?X0 I S63?6S i.O 1.1 MULTIPLYING FACTORS [ie ??????????? o... Power System s Engineering, Inc. 2i.i Ick [lelt JcUf,c\\r 0-kDf FFu4s 03I)6 3 ?X?{.?X0wr 76n?X0w 30 ?63 [6?6)0. [?ruuu ?0r 3n7 0J6S?3) {.n7?{0X?X0w .? 3XS 06?26S30?S6 ? ? ? ? I ? [ ? ?cc? 36?.X?06 ?X?{.?X0wr U 76n?X0wr ? ? ????? 0J6S?3...

  13. Method and device for diagnosing and controlling combustion instabilities in internal combustion engines operating in or transitioning to homogeneous charge combustion ignition mode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, Robert M [Knoxville, TN; Daw, Charles S [Knoxville, TN; Green, Johney B [Knoxville, TN; Edwards, Kevin D [Knoxville, TN

    2008-10-07

    This invention is a method of achieving stable, optimal mixtures of HCCI and SI in practical gasoline internal combustion engines comprising the steps of: characterizing the combustion process based on combustion process measurements, determining the ratio of conventional and HCCI combustion, determining the trajectory (sequence) of states for consecutive combustion processes, and determining subsequent combustion process modifications using said information to steer the engine combustion toward desired behavior.

  14. Proceedings of IDETC/CIE 2009 ASME 2009 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Font, Josep Maria

    Department of Mechanical Engineering McGill University Montr´eal H3A 2K6, Qu´ebec, Canada E-mail: jozsef of the kinetic energy and the dynamic equations at topology transition. It will be shown that the config- urationN Generalized non-ideal impulses. ¯fR Generalized constraint impulses. T Kinetic energy of the system. Ta

  15. Rubber friction on (apparently) smooth lubricated surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Mofidi; B. Prakash; B. N. J. Persson; O. Albohl

    2007-10-18

    We study rubber sliding friction on hard lubricated surfaces. We show that even if the hard surface appears smooth to the naked eye, it may exhibit short wavelength roughness, which may give the dominant contribution to rubber friction. That is, the observed sliding friction is mainly due to the viscoelastic deformations of the rubber by the substrate surface asperities. The presented results are of great importance for rubber sealing and other rubber applications involving (apparently) smooth surfaces.

  16. Modelling of friction stir spot welding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reilly, Aidan

    2013-07-09

    1.2 Friction stir process descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.2.1 Friction stir welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.2.2 Friction stir spot welding (FSSW) . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.2.3 Pinless FSSW... processes . . . . . . . 25 2.3.5 Empirical testing and validation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 vii 2.3.6 Microstructural modelling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 2.3.7 Modelling of related non-welding processes . . . . . . . 42 2.4 Constitutive data...

  17. Rotary engine design: Analysis and developments; Proceedings of the International Congress and Exposition, Detroit, MI, Feb. 27-Mar. 3, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The present conference on the development status of Wankel cycle rotary engine design discusses stratified-charge rotary engine features, techniques for noise and vibration reduction in rotary engines, testing methods for insulated rotary engine components, cyclic combustion variation in rotary engines, and a combustion model for homogeneous charge natural gas rotary engines. Also discussed are fuel-air mixing and distribution in a direct-injection stratified-charge rotary engine, the 'rotary-vee' engine design concept, strain measurements in a rotary engine housing, and a comparison of computed and measured pressure in a premixed-charge natural gas-fueled rotary engine.

  18. Tailoring the frictional properties of granular media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sonia Utermann; Philipp Aurin; Markus Benderoth; Cornelius Fischer; Matthias Schröter

    2011-08-04

    A method of modifying the roughness of soda-lime glass spheres is presented, with the purpose of tuning inter-particle friction. The effect of chemical etching on the surface topography and the bulk frictional properties of grains is systematically investigated. The surface roughness of the grains is measured using white light interferometry and characterised by the lateral and vertical roughness length scales. The underwater angle of repose is measured to characterise the bulk frictional behaviour. We observe that the co-efficient of friction depends on the vertical roughness length scale. We also demonstrate a bulk surface roughness measurement using a carbonated soft drink.

  19. Engineering Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maroncelli, Mark

    Engineering Engineering Technology & A T P E N N S T A T E 2 0 1 0 ­ 2 0 1 1 #12;2 Join us at penn state! Since 1896, Penn State has been a leader in engineering and engineering technology education varieties of engineering and engineering technology majors found anywhere in the United States. This means

  20. WTEC Panel Report on International Assessment of Research and Development in Simulation-Based Engineering and Science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glotzer, S. C.; Kim, S.; Cummings, P. T.; Deshmukh, A.; Head-Gordon, M.; Karniadakis, G.; Petzold, L.; Sagui, C.; Shinozuka, M.

    2013-07-30

    This WTEC panel report assesses the international research and development activities in the field of Simulation- Based Engineering and Science (SBE&S). SBE&S involves the use of computer modeling and simulation to solve mathematical formulations of physical models of engineered and natural systems. SBE&S today has reached a level of predictive capability that it now firmly complements the traditional pillars of theory and experimentation/observation. As a result, computer simulation is more pervasive today – and having more impact – than at any other time in human history. Many critical technologies, including those to develop new energy sources and to shift the cost-benefit factors in healthcare, are on the horizon that cannot be understood, developed, or utilized without simulation. A panel of experts reviewed and assessed the state of the art in SBE&S as well as levels of activity overseas in the broad thematic areas of life sciences and medicine, materials, and energy and sustainability; and in the crosscutting issues of next generation hardware and algorithms; software development; engineering simulations; validation, verification, and uncertainty quantification; multiscale modeling and simulation; and SBE&S education. The panel hosted a U.S. baseline workshop, conducted a bibliometric analysis, consulted numerous experts and reports, and visited 59 institutions and companies throughout East Asia and Western Europe to explore the active research projects in those institutions, the computational infrastructure used for the projects, the funding schemes that enable the research, the collaborative interactions among universities, national laboratories, and corporate research centers, and workforce needs and development for SBE&S.

  1. Chapter 8: Advancing Clean Transportation and Vehicle Systems and Technologies | Internal Combustion Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a lCaribElectricSouthApplying caulk toRoadmapsMaterialsActionsInternal

  2. Quantum Otto cycle with inner friction: finite-time and disorder effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Alecce; F. Galve; N. Lo Gullo; L. Dell'Anna; F. Plastina; R. Zambrini

    2015-07-13

    The concept of inner friction, by which a quantum heat engine is unable to follow adiabatically its strokes and thus dissipates useful energy, is illustrated in an exact physical model where the working substance consists of an ensemble of misaligned spins interacting with a magnetic field and performing the Otto cycle. The effect of this static disorder under a finite-time cycle gives a new perspective of the concept of inner friction under realistic settings. We investigate the efficiency and power of this engine and relate its performance to the amount of friction from misalignment and to the temperature difference between heat baths. Finally we propose an alternative experimental implementation of the cycle where the spin is encoded in the degree of polarization of photons.

  3. C. P. Kumar /International Journal of Modern Sciences and Engineering Technology (IJMSET) ISSN 2349-3755; Available at https://www.ijmset.com

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, C.P.

    C. P. Kumar /International Journal of Modern Sciences and Engineering Technology (IJMSET) ISSN 2349 of purposes, including irrigation, drinking and manufacturing. Groundwater is also the source of a large, development and management at state and national levels aims to meet the groundwater requirement for drinking

  4. Panel on Microgrids Systems International Conference on System of Systems Engineering, April 16-18, 2007 San Antonio Abstract--Application of individual distributed generators can

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Panel on Microgrids Systems International Conference on System of Systems Engineering, April 16 a system approach which views generation and associated loads as a subsystem or a "microgrid". The sources verification of the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) microgrid control concepts

  5. P. Ulloa, "Overview of Food Waste Composting in the U.S." Internal Report, Earth Engineering Center, Columbia University, July 2008.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    P. Ulloa, "Overview of Food Waste Composting in the U.S." Internal Report, Earth Engineering Center, Columbia University, July 2008. 1 Overview of Food Waste Composting in the U.S. According to the State Solid Waste (MSW) generated in the U.S. (387 million tons). Food Waste in the United States Residential

  6. Theory and Simulation of Friction and Lubrication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mueser, Martin

    Theory and Simulation of Friction and Lubrication M.H. M¨user Department of Applied Mathematics and Simulation of Friction and Lubrication, Lect. Notes Phys. 704, 65­104 (2006) DOI 10.1007/3-540-35284-8 4 c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 4.2 Physics and Chemistry of Lubricant Additives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 References

  7. Crawling scallop: Friction-based locomotion with one degree of freedom Gregory L. Wagner n

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lauga, Eric

    for the fluid (the Stokes equation) and states that in order to achieve self-propulsion, a body at low Reynolds Lauga 1 Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California San Diego, 9500 Crawling Friction-based locomotion a b s t r a c t Fluid-based locomotion at low Reynolds number is subject

  8. ENGINEERING

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansas Nuclear Profile 2010 KansasMarketsHanford TankENGINEERING the Future

  9. Friction Stir Additive Manufacturing for High Structural Performance...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Friction Stir Additive Manufacturing as a potential route to achieve high performing structures James Withers MER Corporation Rajiv S. Mishra Center for Friction Stir Processing,...

  10. Material flow during friction stir welding: A thermo-mechanically...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Material flow during friction stir welding: A thermo-mechanically fully coupled CFD study Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Material flow during friction stir welding: A...

  11. Nanoscale friction properties of graphene and graphene oxide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale friction properties of graphene and graphene oxide Title Nanoscale friction properties of graphene and graphene oxide Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication...

  12. Velocity dependence of friction of confined polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. M. Sivebaek; V. N. Samoilov; B. N. J. Persson

    2009-11-18

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: (a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate, and (b) polymer sliding on polymer. We discuss the velocity dependence of the frictional shear stress for both cases. In our simulations, the polymer films are very thin (approx. 3 nm), and the solid walls are connected to a thermostat at a short distance from the polymer slab. Under these circumstances we find that frictional heating effects are not important, and the effective temperature in the polymer film is always close to the thermostat temperature. In the first setup (a), for hydrocarbons with molecular lengths from 60 to 1400 carbon atoms, the shear stresses are nearly independent of molecular length, but for the shortest hydrocarbon C20H42 the frictional shear stress is lower. In all cases the frictional shear stress increases monotonically with the sliding velocity. For polymer sliding on polymer [case (b)] the friction is much larger, and the velocity dependence is more complex. For hydrocarbons with molecular lengths from 60 to 140 C-atoms, the number of monolayers of lubricant increases (abruptly) with increasing sliding velocity (from 6 to 7 layers), leading to a decrease of the friction. Before and after the layering transition, the frictional shear stresses are nearly proportional to the logarithm of sliding velocity. For the longest hydrocarbon (1400 C-atoms) the friction shows no dependence on the sliding velocity, and for the shortest hydrocarbon (20 C-atoms) the frictional shear stress increases nearly linearly with the sliding velocity.

  13. Dynamical Friction on extended perturbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. Esquivel; B. Fuchs

    2008-04-01

    Following a wave-mechanical treatment we calculate the drag force exerted by an infinite homogeneous background of stars on a perturber as this makes its way through the system. We recover Chandrasekhar's classical dynamical friction (DF) law with a modified Coulomb logarithm. We take into account a range of models that encompasses all plausible density distributions for satellite galaxies by considering the DF exerted on a Plummer sphere and a perturber having a Hernquist profile. It is shown that the shape of the perturber affects only the exact form of the Coulomb logarithm. The latter converges on small scales, because encounters of the test and field stars with impact parameters less than the size of the massive perturber become inefficient. We confirm this way earlier results based on the impulse approximation of small angle scatterings.

  14. Dynamical Friction on extended perturbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Esquivel, O

    2008-01-01

    Following a wave-mechanical treatment we calculate the drag force exerted by an infinite homogeneous background of stars on a perturber as this makes its way through the system. We recover Chandrasekhar's classical dynamical friction (DF) law with a modified Coulomb logarithm. We take into account a range of models that encompasses all plausible density distributions for satellite galaxies by considering the DF exerted on a Plummer sphere and a perturber having a Hernquist profile. It is shown that the shape of the perturber affects only the exact form of the Coulomb logarithm. The latter converges on small scales, because encounters of the test and field stars with impact parameters less than the size of the massive perturber become inefficient. We confirm this way earlier results based on the impulse approximation of small angle scatterings.

  15. Ionic Liquids as Novel Engine Lubricants or Lubricant Additives

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Bench test results showed that compared with fully-formulated engine oils, selected low-viscosity ionic liquids, used as neat lubricants or basestock, produced significantly lower friction and engine wear

  16. An Integrated Surface Engineering Technology Development for Improving Energy Efficiency of Engine Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen Hsu; Liming Chang; Huan Zhan

    2009-05-31

    Frictional losses are inherent in most practical mechanical systems. The ability to control friction offers many opportunities to achieve energy conservation. Over the years, materials, lubricants, and surface modifications have been used to reduce friction in automotive and diesel engines. However, in recent years, progress in friction reduction technology has slowed because many of the inefficiencies have been eliminated. A new avenue for friction reduction is needed. Designing surfaces specifically for friction reduction with concomitant enhanced durability for various engine components has emerged recently as a viable opportunity due to advances in fabrication and surface finishing techniques. Recently, laser ablated dimples on surfaces have shown friction reduction properties and have been demonstrated successfully in conformal contacts such as seals where the speed is high and the load is low. The friction reduction mechanism in this regime appears to depend on the size, patterns, and density of dimples in the contact. This report describes modeling efforts in characterizing surface textures and understanding their mechanisms for enhanced lubrication under high contact pressure conditions. A literature survey is first presented on the development of descriptors for irregular surface features. This is followed by a study of the hydrodynamic effects of individual micro-wedge dimples using the analytical solution of the 1-D Reynolds equation and the determination of individual components of the total friction resistance. The results obtained provide a better understanding of the dimple orientation effects and the approach which may be used to further compare the friction reduction provided by different texture patterns.

  17. FAST OPTICAL VARIABILITY OF A NAKED-EYE BURST-MANIFESTATION OF THE PERIODIC ACTIVITY OF AN INTERNAL ENGINE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beskin, G.; Karpov, S.; Bondar, S.; Greco, G.; Guarnieri, A.; Bartolini, C.; Piccioni, A.

    2010-08-10

    We imaged the position of the naked-eye burst, GRB080319B, before, during, and after its gamma-ray activity with sub-second temporal resolution using the TORTORA wide-field camera. The burst optical prompt emission, which reached 5.3 mag, has been detected, and its periodic optical variability has been discovered in the form of four equidistant flashes with a duration of several seconds. We also detected a strong correlation (r {approx} 0.82) between optical and gamma-ray light curves with a 2 s delay of the optical emission with respect to the gamma-ray emission. The revealed temporal structure of the optical light curve in comparison with the gamma-ray light curve can be interpreted in the framework of the model of shell collisions in the ejecta containing a significant neutron component. All observed emission features reflect the non-stationary behavior of the burst internal engine-supposedly, a hyperaccreting solar-mass black hole formed in the collapse of a massive stellar core.

  18. Investigation of a rotary valving system with variable valve timing for internal combustion engines: Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cross, P.C.; Hansen, C.N.

    1994-11-18

    The objective of the program was to provide a functional demonstration of the Hansen Rotary Valving System with Variable Valve timing (HRVS/VVT), capable of throttleless inlet charge control, as an alternative to conventional poppet-valves for use in spark ignited internal combustion engines. The goal of this new technology is to secure benefits in fuel economy, broadened torque band, vibration reduction, and overhaul accessibility. Additionally, use of the variable valve timing capability to vary the effective compression ratio is expected to improve multi-fuel tolerance and efficiency. Efforts directed at the design of HRVS components proved to be far more extensive than had been anticipated, ultimately requiring that proof-trial design/development work be performed. Although both time and funds were exhausted before optical or ion-probe types of in-cylinder investigation could be undertaken, a great deal of laboratory data was acquired during the course of the design/development work. This laboratory data is the basis for the information presented in this Final Report.

  19. Method and apparatus utilizing valve throttling and charge stratification in the operation of an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burandt, C.O.

    1988-02-16

    In an internal combustion engine this patent describes means forming a combustion chamber, a spark plug in the chamber, a piston disposed in the chamber for reciprocable movement toward and away from the spark plug, a valve member, circular seat means for the valve member, means for varying the lift of the valve member, a generally cylindrical shroud corresponding generally to the size of the seat means. The cylindrical shroud is relieved only in the direction of the spark plug so that, when the valve member is moved relative to the shroud by the lift-varying means, a stratified mixture of air and fuel is directed toward the spark plug until the lift-varying means causes the valve member to pass beyond the shroud so that during the initial lift of the valve member the stratified air and fuel mixture is directed solely toward the spark plug until the valve member passes beyond the shroud and the air and fuel mixture is directed generally through a 360/sup 0/ arc after the valve member passes beyond the shroud, and means limiting the lift of the valve member so that it does not pass the shroud during lighter loads, whereby the air and fuel mixture is directed primarily toward the spark plug until the valve member passes beyond the shroud.

  20. Plasmatron Fuel Reformer Development and Internal Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Applications Plasmatron Fuel Reformer Development and Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle Applications 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference...

  1. INTERNATIONAL UNION OF OPERATING ENGINEERS NATIONAL HAZMAT PROGRAM - ADAMANT CIRCULAR SAW OENHP{number_sign}: 2001-05, VERSION A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2002-01-01

    Florida International University's (FIU) Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) evaluated five saws for their effectiveness in cutting up specially prepared fiberglass-reinforced plywood crates. These crates were built as surrogates for crates that presently hold radioactive contaminated glove boxes at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Los Alamos facility. The Adamant circular saw was assessed on August 14, 2001. During the FIU test of efficacy, a team from the Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program (OENHP) evaluated the occupational safety and health issues associated with this technology. The Adamant was only used during a limited ''test'' on a regular plywood crate due to safety considerations of the tool for this application. The Adamant circular saw, a counter-rotating twin-cutter, constructed with blades that work differently than conventional cutting wheels with twin blades, each rotating in opposite directions. It is used to cut wood and metals. Each blade is approximately 8 3/4 inches in diameter with a maximum cutting depth of 2 1/2 inches. The machine has two rotation speeds: 1,900 and 2,900 rotations per minute (rpm). The saw is operated with an interlocked, guarded trigger switch located at the end of the saw opposite the cutting blades. To operate the saw, the safety interlock must be depressed prior to powering the saw with the trigger control. The saw is supported by a handle at the front of the saw near the cutting blades. The top part of the blades is guarded near the handle, with approximately three-fourths of the face of the blades exposed. The Adamant circular saw is an innovative technology used to cut metals and wood. Its safety features include: interlocking switch for powering the saw, overload indicator and shutoff, and an electronic brake that stops the engine immediately when the start button is released. The top part of the blades is guarded near the motor. With approximately three-fourths of the face of the blades open, the operator is exposed to the potential risk of serious and minor cuts and abrasions when using and handling the saw. There is also potential for damage to the blades if the saw is not stored properly. Without guarding on the lower part of the blades, these can be damaged if the saw is dropped or rested on the cutting blades. Based upon the industrial hygiene sampling conducted for the other four saws demonstrated at FIU, noise levels, nuisance dust, and airborne fiberglass may be a problem when using this technology for the cutting of fiberglass-reinforced plywood crates. No industrial hygiene sampling was conducted while the Adamant saw was in use. Engineering controls should be used to eliminate these problems whenever possible. Where this is not possible, administrative controls, training, and proper personal protective equipment (PPE) should be used. Respirators should be used if engineering controls do not sufficiently control the dust or fiberglass generated. Respirators should be equipped with an organic vapor and acid gas cartridge with High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter, since during the demonstration, the workers complained of an odd smell, which may have been the breakdown of the fiberglass.

  2. ENHANCED IGNITION FOR I.C. ENGINES WITH PREMIXED CHARGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dale, J.D.

    2013-01-01

    Oper·atEngines- Flame Initiation orInternal Combustion Engines," SAE Paper 760764. Wyczalek, F.an Internal Combustion Engine,'' Combusti and Flame Vol. 31,

  3. Modeling of liner finish effects on oil control ring lubrication in internal combustion engines based on deterministic method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Haijie

    2008-01-01

    Twin-land oil control ring is widely used in the automotive diesel engines, and is gaining more and more applications in the modern designs of gasoline engines. Its interaction with the cylinder liner surface accounts for ...

  4. College of Engineering and Science ENGINEERING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuart, Steven J.

    81 College of Engineering and Science COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE The College of Engineering.clemson.edu. Minors Engineering and science students can complement their majors by selecting minor concentrations of study. Available minors include Bioengineering, Environmental Engineering, International Engi- neering

  5. Stirling engine with pressurized crankcase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corey, John A.

    1988-01-01

    A two piston Stirling engine wherein the pistons are coupled to a common crankshaft via bearing means, the pistons include pad means to minimize friction between the pistons and the cylinders during reciprocation of the pistons, means for pressurizing the engine crankcase, and means for cooling the crankshaft and the bearing means eliminating the need for oil in the crankcase.

  6. INTERNATIONAL UNION OF OPERATING ENGINEERS NATIONAL HAZMAT PROGRAM - DEWALT RECIPROCATING SAW OENHP{number_sign}: 2001-01, VERSION A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2002-01-31

    Florida International University's (FIU) Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) evaluated five saws for their effectiveness in cutting specially prepared fiberglass-reinforced plywood crates. These crates were built as surrogates for crates that presently hold radioactively contaminated glove boxes at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Los Alamos facility. The DeWalt reciprocating saw was assessed on August 13, 2001. During the FIU test of efficacy, a team from the Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program (OENHP) evaluated the occupational safety and health issues associated with this technology. The DeWalt reciprocating saw is a hand-held industrial tool used for cutting numerous materials, including wood and various types of metals depending upon the chosen blade. Its design allows for cutting close to floors, corners, and other difficult areas. An adjustable shoe sets the cut at three separate depths. During the demonstration for the dismantling of the fiberglass-reinforced plywood crate, the saw was used for extended continuous cutting, over a period of approximately two hours. The dismantling operation involved vertical and horizontal cuts, saw blade changes, and material handling. During this process, operators experienced vibration to the hand and arm in addition to a temperature rise on the handgrip. The blade of the saw is partially exposed during handling and fully exposed during blade changes. Administrative controls, such as duty time of the operators and the machine, operator training, and personal protective equipment (PPE), such as gloves, should be considered when using the saw in this application. Personal noise sampling indicated that both workers were exposed to noise levels exceeding the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Action Level of 85 decibels (dBA) with time-weighted averages (TWA's) of 88.3 and 90.6 dBA. Normally, a worker would be placed in a hearing conservation program if his TWA was greater than the Action Level. In this case, however, monitoring was conducted during a simulation, not during the actual work conducted at the worksite. Additional sampling should be conducted at the worksite to determine the actual noise levels for the workers. Until it is determined that the actual TWA's are less than the Action Level, the workers should use PPE. A training program on the proper use and wearing of the selected PPE should be provided to each worker. Nuisance dust monitoring yielded a concentration of 10.69 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m{sup 3}). Although this is less than the OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 15 mg/m{sup 3}, it is above the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists' (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV) of 10 mg/m{sup 3}. Fiberglass dust monitoring yielded a fiber count of 1.7 fibers per cubic centimeter (f/cc). This is above the PEL and the TLV of 1.0 f/cc. Therefore, controls should be implemented (engineering or PPE) to reduce the workers' exposure to the dust. Respirators should be used if engineering controls do not sufficiently control the dust or fiberglass generated. Respirators should be equipped with an organic vapor and acid gas cartridge with a High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter, since during the demonstration, the workers complained of an odd smell, which may have been from the breakdown of the fiberglass.

  7. Friction Stir Processing for Efficient Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mr. Christopher B. Smith; Dr. Oyelayo Ajayi

    2012-01-31

    Friction at contacting surfaces in relative motion is a major source of parasitic energy loss in machine systems and manufacturing processes. Consequently, friction reduction usually translates to efficiency gain and reduction in energy consumption. Furthermore, friction at surfaces eventually leads to wear and failure of the components thereby compromising reliability and durability. In order to reduce friction and wear in tribological components, material surfaces are often hardened by a variety of methods, including conventional heat treatment, laser surface hardening, and thin-film coatings. While these surface treatments are effective when used in conjunction with lubrication to prevent failure, they are all energy intensive and could potentially add significant cost. A new concept for surface hardening of metallic materials and components is Friction Stir Processing (FSP). Compared to the current surface hardening technologies, FSP is more energy efficient has no emission or waste by products and may result in better tribological performance. FSP involves plunging a rotating tool to a predetermined depth (case layer thickness) and translating the FSP tool along the area to be processed. This action of the tool produces heating and severe plastic deformation of the processed area. For steel the temperature is high enough to cause phase transformation, ultimately forming hard martensitic phase. Indeed, FSP has been used for surface modification of several metals and alloys so as to homogenize the microstructure and refine the grain size, both of which led to improved fatigue and corrosion resistance. Based on the effect of FSP on near-surface layer material, it was expected to have beneficial effects on friction and wear performance of metallic materials. However, little or no knowledge existed on the impact of FSP concerning friction and wear performance the subject of the this project and final report. Specifically for steel, which is the most dominant tribological material, FSP can replace the current conventional surface hardening techniques used for friction and wear performance. Friction Stir Link Inc. (FSL) is teamed with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to develop and optimize FSP for friction and wear performance enhancement. The ultimate goal is to offer FSP and an effective alternative to some of the current energy intensive and high-cost surface hardening processes.

  8. E-Alerts: Combustion, engines, and propellants (reciprocation and rotating combustion engines). E-mail newsletter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-04-01

    Design, performance, and testing of reciprocating and rotating engines of various configurations for all types of propulsion. Includes internal and external combustion engines; engine exhaust systems; engine air systems components; engine structures; stirling and diesel engines.

  9. International College of Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harman, Neal.A.

    and manufacturing to energy and environment to health and sport, driven by the world-class academics in our reputation world-wide, through significantly increasing our research income, and we have established ­ or SPECIFIC ­ is an academic and industrial consortium led by Swansea University with Tata Steel as the main

  10. Time dependent friction in a free gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cristiano Fanelli; Francesco Sisti; Gabriele V. Stagno

    2015-09-08

    We consider a body immersed in a perfect gas, moving under the action of a constant force E along the x axis . We assume the gas to be described by the mean-field approximation and interacting elastically with the body, we study the friction exerted by the gas on the body fixed at constant velocities. The dynamic in this setting was studied in previous papers for object with simple shape, showing new features in the dynamic but not in the friction term. The case of more general shape of the body was left out for further difficulties, we believe indeed that there are actually non trivial issues to be faced for these more general cases. To show this and in the in the spirit of getting a more realistic perspective in the study of friction problems, in this paper we focused our attention on the friction term itself, studying its behavior on a body with a more general kind of concavity and fixed at constant velocities. We derive the expression of the friction term for constant velocities, we show how it is time dependent and we give its exact estimate in time. Finally we use this result to show the absence of a stationary velocity in the actual dynamic of such a body.

  11. International Junior Researcher and Engineer Workshop on Hydraulic Structures, 2006, J. Matos and H. Chanson (Eds), Report CH61/06, Div. of Civil Eng., The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia -ISBN 1864998687

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirpka, Olaf Arie

    ON OVERTOPPABLE EARTH DAMS Rüdiger Siebel Institute of Hydraulic Engineering, Universität Stuttgart, Germany of protection layers on overtoppable earth dams The hydraulic loads that occur during overtopping induce someInternational Junior Researcher and Engineer Workshop on Hydraulic Structures, 2006, J. Matos and H

  12. Industrial Engineering Coop/Intern Walt Disney Parks & Resorts Want to be part of a worldclass organization, learning new skills that you can apply in the "real world"? How

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdichevsky, Victor

    Industrial Engineering Coop/Intern Walt Disney Parks & Resorts Want to be part admission to theme parks and all the shopping and restaurants you can get your hands on? If this doesn't sound like your typical Industrial Engineering position, that's because it's not! Our program

  13. A. Burns, A. Kusiak, and T. Letsche, Mining Transformed Data Sets, Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Knowledge-Based Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems, M.Gh. Negoita, R.J.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kusiak, Andrew

    . Letsche, Mining Transformed Data Sets, Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Knowledge-BasedA. Burns, A. Kusiak, and T. Letsche, Mining Transformed Data Sets, Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Knowledge-Based Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems, M.Gh. Negoita, R

  14. Friction forces on atoms after acceleration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francesco Intravaia; Vanik E. Mkrtchian; Stefan Buhmann; Stefan Scheel; Diego A. R. Dalvit; Carsten Henkel

    2015-02-04

    The aim of this paper is to revisit the calculation of atom-surface quantum friction in the quantum field theory formulation put forward by Barton [New J. Phys. 12 (2010) 113045]. We show that the power dissipated into field excitations and the associated friction force depend on how the atom is boosted from being initially at rest to a configuration in which it is moving at constant velocity (v) parallel to the planar interface. In addition, we point out that there is a subtle cancellation between the one-photon and part of the two-photon dissipating power, resulting in a leading order contribution to the frictional power which goes as v^4. These results are also confirmed by an alternative calculation of the average radiation force, which scales as v^3.

  15. Observing and modeling nonlinear dynamics in an internal combustion engine Engineering Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-8088

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tennessee, University of

    of combustion irregularities. Economic and regulatory pressures are pushing engine manufacturers to operate with lean fueling and exhaust-gas recirculation EGR to increase fuel economy and minimize NOx emissions. CV increases with lean fueling and EGR and actually limits the potential benefits which can be derived from

  16. High fidelity frictional models for MEMS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpick, Robert W. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Reedy, Earl David, Jr.; Bitsie, Fernando; de Boer, Maarten Pieter; Corwin, Alex David; Ashurst, William Robert (Auburn University, Auburn, AL); Jones, Reese E.; Subhash, Ghatu S. (Michigan Technological Institute, Houghton, MI); Street, Mark D. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Sumali, Anton Hartono; Antoun, Bonnie R.; Starr, Michael James; Redmond, James Michael; Flater, Erin E. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI)

    2004-10-01

    The primary goals of the present study are to: (1) determine how and why MEMS-scale friction differs from friction on the macro-scale, and (2) to begin to develop a capability to perform finite element simulations of MEMS materials and components that accurately predicts response in the presence of adhesion and friction. Regarding the first goal, a newly developed nanotractor actuator was used to measure friction between molecular monolayer-coated, polysilicon surfaces. Amontons law does indeed apply over a wide range of forces. However, at low loads, which are of relevance to MEMS, there is an important adhesive contribution to the normal load that cannot be neglected. More importantly, we found that at short sliding distances, the concept of a coefficient of friction is not relevant; rather, one must invoke the notion of 'pre-sliding tangential deflections' (PSTD). Results of a simple 2-D model suggests that PSTD is a cascade of small-scale slips with a roughly constant number of contacts equilibrating the applied normal load. Regarding the second goal, an Adhesion Model and a Junction Model have been implemented in PRESTO, Sandia's transient dynamics, finite element code to enable asperity-level simulations. The Junction Model includes a tangential shear traction that opposes the relative tangential motion of contacting surfaces. An atomic force microscope (AFM)-based method was used to measure nano-scale, single asperity friction forces as a function of normal force. This data is used to determine Junction Model parameters. An illustrative simulation demonstrates the use of the Junction Model in conjunction with a mesh generated directly from an atomic force microscope (AFM) image to directly predict frictional response of a sliding asperity. Also with regards to the second goal, grid-level, homogenized models were studied. One would like to perform a finite element analysis of a MEMS component assuming nominally flat surfaces and to include the effect of roughness in such an analysis by using a homogenized contact and friction models. AFM measurements were made to determine statistical information on polysilicon surfaces with different roughnesses, and this data was used as input to a homogenized, multi-asperity contact model (the classical Greenwood and Williamson model). Extensions of the Greenwood and Williamson model are also discussed: one incorporates the effect of adhesion while the other modifies the theory so that it applies to the case of relatively few contacting asperities.

  17. Integrated Combined Heat and Power/Advanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine System for Landfill Gas to Power Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2009-02-01

    Gas Technology Institute will collaborate with Integrated CHP Systems Corporation, West Virginia University, Vronay Engineering Services, KAR Engineering Associates, Pioneer Air Systems, and Energy Concepts Company to recover waste heat from reciprocating engines. The project will integrate waste heat recovery along with gas clean-up technology system improvements. This will address fuel quality issues that have hampered expanded use of opportunity fuels such as landfill gas, digester biogas, and coal mine methane. This will enable increased application of CHP using renewable and domestically derived opportunity fuels.

  18. Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels II...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels II Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels II 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle...

  19. IMPROVING MIX DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF PERMEABLE FRICTION COURSE MIXTURES 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez Lugo, Allex Eduardo

    2012-02-14

    Permeable friction course (PFC), or new generation open-graded friction course (OGFC) mixtures, are hot mix asphalt (HMA) characterized by high total air voids (AV) content (minimum 18 %) as compared to the most commonly ...

  20. Cylinder Pressures and Vibration in Internal Combustion Engine Condition G O Chandroth, A J C Sharkey and N E Sharkey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharkey, Amanda

    ­stroke high speed diesel engine. The explosion of the hydrocarbon­air mixture within the complex geometry has a strong correlation with the cylinder pressures. Unlike pressures the method of measurement

  1. 1 Copyright 2007 by ASME Proceedings of the ASME 2007 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences & Computers and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michalek, Jeremy J.

    various regulation scenarios. Keywords: Design Optimization; Discrete Choice Analysis; Logit; Game Theory. INTRODUCTION Automobile manufacturers aim to produce vehicle designs that earn market share and maximize designers and engineers. Market research and econometric methods, such as conjoint analysis and discrete

  2. Characterization and modeling of the fundamental aspects of oil transport in the piston ring pack of internal combustion engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thirouard, Benoist (Benoist Pierre), 1972-

    2001-01-01

    Engine oil consumption is one of the primary interests for the automotive industry in controlling emissions and reducing service cost. Due to a lack of understanding of the mechanisms of oil transport along the piston, ...

  3. ORIGINAL PAPER Experimental Characterization of Micro-Friction on a Mica

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by friction- induced wear [8­11]. The effects of friction are also rele- vant in many other application areas

  4. Critical length limiting super-low friction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ming Ma; Andrea Benassi; Andrea Vanossi; Michael Urbakh

    2015-01-02

    Since the demonstration of super-low friction (superlubricity) in graphite at nanoscale, one of the main challenges in the field of nano- and micro-mechanics was to scale this phenomenon up. A key question to be addressed is to what extent superlubricity could persist, and what mechanisms could lead to its failure. Here, using an edge-driven Frenkel-Kontorova model, we establish a connection between the critical length above which superlubricity disappears and both intrinsic material properties and experimental parameters. A striking boost in dissipated energy with chain length emerges abruptly due to a high-friction stick-slip mechanism caused by deformation of the slider leading to a local commensuration with the substrate lattice. We derived a parameter-free analytical model for the critical length that is in excellent agreement with our numerical simulations. Our results provide a new perspective on friction and nano-manipulation and can serve as a theoretical basis for designing nano-devices with super-low friction, such as carbon nanotubes.

  5. INTERNATIONAL UNION OF OPERATING ENGINEERS NATIONAL HAZMAT PROGRAM - PORTER-CABLE CIRCULAR SAW OENHP: 2001-04, VERSION A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2002-01-15

    Florida International University's (FIU) Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) evaluated five saws for their effectiveness in cutting specially prepared fiberglass-reinforced plywood crates. These crates were built as surrogates for crates that presently hold radioactively contaminated glove boxes at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Los Alamos facility. The Porter-Cable circular saw was assessed on August 15-16, 2001 (Porter-Cable No.1 and Porter-Cable No.2, respectively). During the FIU test of efficacy, a team from the Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program (OENHP) evaluated the occupational safety and health issues associated with this technology. The Porter-Cable saw is a straightforward machine for cutting wood of varying thickness. The blade is fully guarded with a fixed upper and a lower retractable guard. The lower guard retracts as the blade engages the work piece. The unit is operated with an on/off guarded trigger switch and is supported with a handgrip mounted near the front of the saw. The saw is equipped with a directional nozzle, which aims sawdust away from the operator and the line of cut. An optional vacuum system, attached to the directional nozzle, is used to remove and collect dust. During the demonstration of Porter-Cable No.1, personal noise sampling indicated that one worker was under and one was at the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Action Level of 85 decibels (dBA) with time-weighted averages (TWA's) of 82.7 and 84.6 dBA, respectively. During the demonstration of Porter-Cable No.2, however, both workers did exceed the Action Level with TWA's of 89.7 and 90.0 dBA. These data are not entirely representative as they were gathered during a simulation and not at the actual worksite. Additional sampling should be conducted on-site, but the workers should wear hearing protection until it is determined that it is no longer necessary. The total nuisance dust sample for Porter-Cable No.1 was 3.53 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m{sup 3}), which is lower than the OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 15 mg/m{sup 3} and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists' (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV) of 10 mg/m{sup 3}. Porter-Cable No.2's nuisance dust results yielded a value of 22.05 mg/m{sup 3}, which is over the PEL and TLV. The fiber analysis for the first demonstration yielded 12.9 fibers per cubic centimeter (f/cc), which is much higher than the PEL of 1 f/cc. Galson Laboratories considered the fiber analysis for the second demonstration void due to the overloading of dust on the filter. Kickback, the sudden reaction to a pinched blade, is possible with this saw and could cause the saw to lift up and out of the work piece and toward the operator. Proper work position and firm control of the saw minimizes the potential for a sprain or strain. Care needs to be exercised to support the work piece properly and to not force the tool.

  6. INTERNATIONAL UNION OF OPERATING ENGINEERS NATIONAL HAZMAT PROGRAM - EVOLUTION 180 CIRCULAR SAW OENHP: 2001-03, VERSION A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2002-01-25

    Florida International University's (FIU) Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) evaluated five saws for their effectiveness in cutting specially prepared fiberglass-reinforced plywood crates. These crates were built as surrogates for crates that presently hold radioactively contaminated gloveboxes at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Los Alamos facility. The Evolution 180 circular saw was assessed on August 14, 2001. During the FIU test of efficacy, a team from the Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program (OENHP) evaluated the occupational safety and health issues associated with this technology. The Evolution 180 is a portable, metal cutting circular saw with a 7-inch diameter blade. The blade is contained within the main housing and has a retractable lower blade guard to prevent operator access to the blade during operation and shutdown. The saw is equipped with a chip collector. The maximum cutting thickness for metal is one-quarter inch and can cut steel tubing and pipe 2 inches in diameter. The unit is operated with an on/off guarded trigger switch and is supported with the hand guide mounted to the side of the saw. An adjustable lever sets the depth of the cut. The machine's circuitry will automatically shut the saw motor off if excessive overload is detected during operation. The one-half hour demonstration involved vertical and horizontal cuts and blade changes. During this process, operators experienced binding of the saw. This caused the blade to become hot, causing the sawdust collected in the chip collector to smoke. Care should be exercised to use the appropriate blade for the application, operator training, and personal protective equipment (PPE). Personal noise sampling indicated that neither worker was over the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Action Level of 85 decibels (dBA) with time-weighted averages (TWA's) of 69.1 and 68.8 dBA. The personal noise sample taken during the special demonstration with the stainless steel plate had a TWA of 69.8 dBA. These data are not entirely representative as they were gathered during a simulation and not at the actual worksite. Additional sampling should be conducted on-site, but the workers should wear hearing protection until it is determined that it is no longer necessary. The total nuisance dust sample for the Evolution 180 circular saw was 3.5 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m{sup 3}), which is lower than the OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 15 mg/m{sup 3} and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists' (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV) of 10 mg/m{sup 3}. The fiber analysis yielded 1.74 fibers per cubic centimeter (f/cc), which is above the PEL of 1 f/cc. Although the nuisance dust levels were low, fiberglass dust levels were higher than the PEL. Since fiberglass dust is known to be a strong skin irritant and a possible human carcinogen, the workers should continue to wear appropriate suits and gloves, as well as a full-face air-purifying respirator. The respirator should be equipped with a combination organic vapor and acid gas cartridge in combination with a High Particulate Air (HEPA) filter, since particulate filter, since during the demonstration, the workers complained of an odd smell, which may have been from the breakdown of the fiberglass.

  7. Heat transfer and friction in a square channel with one-wall or two-wall rib turbulators 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jie Joy

    1991-01-01

    of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1991 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering HEAT TRANSFER AND FRICTION IN A SQUARE CHANNEI WITH ONE-WAIL OR TWO-WALL RIB TURBULATORS A Thesis by JIE JOY HUANG Approved as to style snd content by: J. C. Han (Chair.... , Shanghai Institute of Mechanical Engineering Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. J. C, Han This experimental program studies the effect of the wall heat flux ratio on the local heat transfer distributions and pressure drop in a square channel...

  8. Friction and Wear Enhancement of Titanium Alloy Engine Components...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    through Surface Modification (Agreement ID:23284) Project ID:18518 Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Can hard coatings and lubricant anti-wear additives work together?...

  9. Friction Modeling for Lubricated Engine and Drivetrain Components |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015ExecutiveFluorescent LampFort Collins,47328 Vol.2for DOEFresno

  10. Friction and Wear Enhancement of Titanium Alloy Engine Components |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015ExecutiveFluorescent LampFort Collins,47328 Vol.2forDepartment

  11. Friction and Wear Enhancement of Titanium Alloy Engine Components |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015ExecutiveFluorescent LampFort Collins,47328 Vol.2forDepartmentDepartment

  12. Engineering Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis President APS Neil E. Hejny Engineering Manager Raytheon Joseph W. Jackson Director Retrofit Manager Brooks-PRI Bill Twardy Manager, Research for SRP SRP Sam Werner IBM John Wood Hardware Design

  13. Correlations to predict frictional pressure loss of hydraulic-fracturing slurry in coiled tubing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, S.; Zhoi, Y.X.; Bailey, M.; Hernandez, J.

    2009-08-15

    Compared with conventional-tubing fracturing, coiled-tubing (CT) fracturing has several advantages. CT fracturing has become an effective stimulation technique for multizone oil and gas wells. It is also an attractive production-enhancement method for multiseam coalbed-methane wells, and wells with bypassed zones. The excessive frictional pressure loss through CT has been a concern in fracturing. The small diameter of the string limits the cross-sectional area open to flow. Furthermore, the tubing curvature causes secondary flow and results in extra flow resistance. This increased frictional pressure loss results in high surface pumping pressure. The maximum possible pump rate and sand concentration, therefore, have to be reduced. To design a CT fracturing job properly, it is essential to predict the frictional pressure loss through the tubing accurately. This paper presents correlations for the prediction of frictional pressure loss of fracturing slurries in straight tubing and CT. They are developed on the basis of full-scale slurry-flow tests with 11/2-in. CT and slurries prepared with 35 lbm/1,000 gal of guar gel. The extensive experiments were conducted at the full-scale CT-flow test facility. The proposed correlations have been verified with the experimental data and actual field CT-fracturing data. Case studies of wells recently fractured are provided to demonstrate the application of the correlations. The correlations will be useful to the CT engineers in their hydraulics design calculations.

  14. GEDC2011GEDC2011 I t ti l E i Ed tiI t ti l E i Ed tiInternational Engineer EducationInternational Engineer Education

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ge, Zigang

    Partners COMAC ALSTOMCOMAC ALSTOM EDF PSA S hl b EADSSchlumberger EADS Total Orangeg SAFRAN Ernst & Young)Chinese MOE (Excellent Engineer Project) Chinese Alliance for SinoFrench EduCoop. SinoEurope Engedu expert committee Chinese MOST (Joint Lab LIA2MCIS Chinese MOST (Joint Lab LIA2MCIS Chinese Alliance for Sino

  15. 1 Copyright 2014 by ASME Proceedings of the ASME 2014 33rd International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. In this paper, the WEC-Sim code is used to model a point absorber WEC Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to develop WEC-Sim, a publicly, Offshore and Arctic Engineering OMAE2014 June 8­13, 2014, San Francisco, California USA OMAE2014

  16. Volume 47 Number 5 September/October 2013 TheInternational,InterdisciplinarySocietyDevotedtoOceanandMarineEngineering,Science,andPolicy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Stephen L.

    of Anne Karin Magnusson); Carnegie Wave Energy's© submerged buoy off western Australia; and (overhead,InterdisciplinarySocietyDevotedtoOceanandMarineEngineering,Science,andPolicy Journal The State of Technology in 2013 #12;Front Cover: A global perspective highlighting some of the key technology advances described in this issue (insets left-to-right): An artist's depiction of a fully

  17. Proceedings of ASME 2012 Internal Combustion Engine Division Spring Technical Conference May 69, 2012, Torino, Piemonte, Italy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    but the evo- lution of the combustion phasing is governed by the interactions between engine cycles mass. ivo,ivc Intake valve opening/closing. evo,evc Exhaust valve opening/closing. nvo Negative valve overlap (evc­ivo). m,n Sub/superscripts denoting the main combustion period (ivc­evo) and the nvo period

  18. Kuiper Belt evolution due to dynamical friction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Del Popolo; E. Spedicato; M. Gambera

    1999-05-04

    In this paper we study the role of dynamical friction on the evolution of a population of large objects ($m>10^{22}$ g) at heliocentric distances $>70$ AU in the Kuiper Belt. We show that the already flat distribution of these objects must flatten further due to non-spherically symmetric distribution of matter in the Kuiper Belt. Moreover the dynamical drag, produced by dynamical friction, causes objects of masses $\\geq 10^{24} g$ to lose angular momentum and to fall through more central regions in a timescale $\\approx 10^9 yr$. This mechanism is able to transport inwards objects of the size of Pluto, supposing it was created beyond 50 AU, according to a Stern & Colwell's (1997b) suggestion.

  19. Control of friction at the nanoscale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barhen, Jacob; Braiman, Yehuda Y.; Protopopescu, Vladimir

    2010-04-06

    Methods and apparatus are described for control of friction at the nanoscale. A method of controlling frictional dynamics of a plurality of particles using non-Lipschitzian control includes determining an attribute of the plurality of particles; calculating an attribute deviation by subtracting the attribute of the plurality of particles from a target attribute; calculating a non-Lipschitzian feedback control term by raising the attribute deviation to a fractionary power .xi.=(2m+1)/(2n+1) where n=1, 2, 3 . . . and m=0, 1, 2, 3 . . . , with m strictly less than n and then multiplying by a control amplitude; and imposing the non-Lipschitzian feedback control term globally on each of the plurality of particles; imposing causes a subsequent magnitude of the attribute deviation to be reduced.

  20. T H E 5 TM INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INTELLIGENT&ADVANCED SYSTEMS A Conference of WORLD ENGINEERING, SCIENCE &TECHNOLOGYCONGRESS (ESTCON)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chong, Edwin K. P.

    T H E 5 TM INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INTELLIGENT&ADVANCED SYSTEMS A Conference of WORLD Society Conference Editorial Board, and on program/ organizing committees for several conferences, including the IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC), American Control Conference (ACC), IEEE

  1. Frictional cooling of positively charged particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel Greenwald; Allen Caldwell

    2011-11-14

    One of the focuses of research and development towards the construction of a muon collider is muon beam preparation. Simulation of frictional cooling shows that it can achieve the desired emittance reduction to produce high-luminosity muon beams. We show that for positively charged particles, charge exchange interactions necessitate significant changes to schemes previously developed for negatively charged particles. We also demonstrate that foil-based schemes are not viable for positive particles.

  2. Low-energy muons via frictional cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu Bao; Allen Caldwell; Daniel Greenwald; Guoxing Xia

    2010-01-18

    Low-energy muon beams are useful for a range of physics experiments. We consider the production of low-energy muon beams with small energy spreads using frictional cooling. As the input beam, we take a surface muon source such as that at the Paul Scherrer Institute. Simulations show that the efficiency of low energy muon production can potentially be raised to 1%, which is significantly higher than that of current schemes.

  3. Friction- and wear-reducing coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhu, Dong (Farmington Hills, MI); Milner, Robert (Warren, MI); Elmoursi, Alaa AbdelAzim (Troy, MI)

    2011-10-18

    A coating includes a first layer of a ceramic alloy and a second layer disposed on the first layer and including carbon. The coating has a hardness of from 10 to 20 GPa and a coefficient of friction of less than or equal to 0.12. A method of coating a substrate includes cleaning the substrate, forming the first layer on the substrate, and depositing the second layer onto the first layer to thereby coat the substrate.

  4. Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering The presentation will first review emerging joint time in Mechanical Engineering and Engineering Science from the Technical University in Athens, Greece and his, vehicle engineering, bio-mechanics, and composite materials. He is Editor-in-Chief of the International

  5. Mutual Friction in Superfluid Neutron Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Andersson; T. Sidery; G. L. Comer

    2005-10-03

    We discuss vortex-mediated mutual friction in the two-fluid model for superfluid neutron star cores. Our discussion is based on the general formalism developed by Carter and collaborators, which makes due distinction between transport velocity and momentum for each fluid. This is essential for an implementation of the so-called entrainment effect, whereby the flow of one fluid imparts momentum in the other and vice versa. The mutual friction follows by balancing the Magnus force that acts on the quantised neutron vortices with a resistive force due to the scattering of electrons off of the magnetic field with which each vortex core is endowed. We derive the form of the macroscopic mutual friction force which is relevant for a model based on smooth-averaging over a collection of vortices. We discuss the coefficients that enter the expression for this force, and the timescale on which the two interpenetrating fluids in a neutron star core are coupled. This discussion confirms that our new formulation accords well with previous work in this area.

  6. Design, Construction, and Validation of an In-Cylinder Pressure Recording System for Internal Combustion Engine Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mangus, Michael D.

    2012-05-31

    Pressure Profile and Indicated Performance Parameters 77 Figure 39. Real-Time Block Diagram: Displaying Pressure and Indicated Performance Data 79 Figure 40. Pressure vs. Engine Crank Angle for Motoring Curve, JP-8, UCO Biodiesel..., and ULSD 85 Figure 41. Heat Release Rate for UCO Biodiesel From Heat Release Code 87 vii Figure 42. Pressure (bar) vs. Crank Angle (deg) for 0%-load over One Revolution 90 Figure 43. Pressure (bar) vs. Crank Angle (deg) for 0%-load...

  7. ENHANCED IGNITION FOR I.C. ENGINES WITH PREMIXED CHARGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dale, J.D.

    2013-01-01

    N, A. Features of Carburetor Engines With Torch Ignition,"D. A. "Carburetor Type Internal Combustion Engine With

  8. Job: ID Job Title Employer End Date Majors/Concentrations Class Level 56903 Engineer/Est

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Hai

    Intern Mass. Electric Construction Co. Industrial 11/25/2014 Civil Engineering, Applied Mechanics, Civil Engineering (Wireless Networks), Industrial and Systems Engineering, Industrial and Systems Engineering, Industrial and Systems Engineering (Information Systems Engineering), Engineering Management, Health Systems

  9. MN Center for Renewable Energy: Cellulosic Ethanol, Optimization of Bio-fuels in Internal Combustion Engines, & Course Development for Technicians in These Areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Frey

    2009-02-22

    This final report for Grant #DE-FG02-06ER64241, MN Center for Renewable Energy, will address the shared institutional work done by Minnesota State University, Mankato and Minnesota West Community and Technical College during the time period of July 1, 2006 to December 30, 2008. There was a no-cost extension request approved for the purpose of finalizing some of the work. The grant objectives broadly stated were to 1) develop educational curriculum to train technicians in wind and ethanol renewable energy, 2) determine the value of cattails as a biomass crop for production of cellulosic ethanol, and 3) research in Optimization of Bio-Fuels in Internal Combustion Engines. The funding for the MN Center for Renewable Energy was spent on specific projects related to the work of the Center.

  10. Women in Science & Engineering Leadership Institute (WISELI)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    Engineering, Chemistry Internal Advisor Linda Greene, Associate Vice Chancellor for Faculty and Staff Programs#12;Women in Science & Engineering Leadership Institute (WISELI) Research institute formed of Engineering (deans' suite) Central coordination of all ADVANCE activities #12;Women in Science & Engineering

  11. Velocity tuning of friction with two trapped atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gangloff, Dorian; Counts, Ian; Jhe, Wonho; Vuleti?, Vladan

    2015-01-01

    Friction is the basic, ubiquitous mechanical interaction between two surfaces that results in resistance to motion and energy dissipation. In spite of its technological and economic significance, our ability to control friction remains modest, and our understanding of the microscopic processes incomplete. At the atomic scale, mismatch between the two contacting crystal lattices can lead to a reduction of stick-slip friction (structural lubricity), while thermally activated atomic motion can give rise to a complex velocity dependence, and nearly vanishing friction at sufficiently low velocities (thermal lubricity). Atomic force microscopy has provided a wealth of experimental results, but limitations in the dynamic range, time resolution, and control at the single-atom level have hampered a full quantitative description from first principles. Here, using an ion-crystal friction emulator with single-atom, single substrate-site spatial resolution and single-slip temporal resolution, we measure the friction force...

  12. Geological Engineering Geological Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wehlau, David

    1 Geological Engineering l 1 Geological Engineering www.geol.ca Queen's Geological Engineering Vicki Remenda, PEng ­ GEOENG Head Department of Geological Sciences and Geological Engineering Miller Hall Welcome to... Orientation CLASS OF 2018 What is Geological Engineering ? Geological Engineering

  13. Study of autoignition in a premixed charge, internal combustion engine using comprehensive chemical kinetics: experiments and predictions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dimpelfeld, P.M.

    1985-01-01

    A model is developed to predict autoignition in a premixed charge engine. Experimental data are obtained with spark ignition and premixed charge compression ignition. Seven fuels are examined: methane, ethane, propane, n-butane, methanol, ethylene, and propylene. Binary fuel mixtures are also examined, as are the effects of engine speed, equivalence ratio, load, and compression ratio. An initial temperature correction must be used to accurately predict the observed time of autoignition. Analysis of spark-ignited data show that the fuels fall into two groups, depending on the temperature correction ranging from 35 K to 80 K: methane, propane, n-butane, and methanol. Three fuels fall into the group with a temperature correction ranging from 110K and 140K: ethane, ethylene, and propylene. The rate of pressure rise during compression ignition is controlled by varying the fuel-air equivalence ratio. The effects of compression ratio and load on the rate and load on the rate of pressure rise are also examined. The predicted rates of temperature rise during compression ignition are compared to the observed rates of temperature rise.

  14. A Workshop to Identify Research Needs and Impacts in Predictive Simulation for Internal Combustion Engines (PreSICE)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing ToolInternationalReportOffice | DepartmentVery1, in:QuarterlyA SolarAA View from

  15. Friction of different monolayer lubricants in MEMs interfaces.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpick, Robert W. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Street, Mark D.; Ashurst, William Robert; Corwin, Alex David

    2006-01-01

    This report details results from our last year of work (FY2005) on friction in MEMS as funded by the Campaign 6 program for the Microscale Friction project. We have applied different monolayers to a sensitive MEMS friction tester called the nanotractor. The nanotractor is also a useful actuator that can travel {+-}100 {micro}m in 40 nm steps, and is being considered for several MEMS applications. With this tester, we can find static and dynamic coefficients of friction. We can also quantify deviations from Amontons' and Coulomb's friction laws. Because of the huge surface-to-volume ratio at the microscale, surface properties such as adhesion and friction can dominate device performance, and therefore such deviations are important to quantify and understand. We find that static and dynamic friction depend on the monolayer lubricant applied. The friction data can be modeled with a non-zero adhesion force, which represents a deviation from Amontons' Law. Further, we show preliminary data indicating that the adhesion force depends not only on the monolayer, but also on the normal load applied. Finally, we also observe slip deflections before the transition from static to dynamic friction, and find that they depend on the monolayer.

  16. ORNL researchers tune friction in ionic solids at the nanoscale...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    friction at will and thus controlling mechanical energy losses and wear of a microelectromechanical system's parts has enormous implications for applied energy research and opens...

  17. Micro- and macroscale coefficients of friction of cementitious materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lomboy, Gilson; Sundararajan, Sriram; Wang, Kejin

    2013-12-15

    Millions of metric tons of cementitious materials are produced, transported and used in construction each year. The ease or difficulty of handling cementitious materials is greatly influenced by the material friction properties. In the present study, the coefficients of friction of cementitious materials were measured at the microscale and macroscale. The materials tested were commercially-available Portland cement, Class C fly ash, and ground granulated blast furnace slag. At the microscale, the coefficient of friction was determined from the interaction forces between cementitious particles using an Atomic Force Microscope. At the macroscale, the coefficient of friction was determined from stresses on bulk cementitious materials under direct shear. The study indicated that the microscale coefficient of friction ranged from 0.020 to 0.059, and the macroscale coefficient of friction ranged from 0.56 to 0.75. The fly ash studied had the highest microscale coefficient of friction and the lowest macroscale coefficient of friction. -- Highlights: •Microscale (interparticle) coefficient of friction (COF) was determined with AFM. •Macroscale (bulk) COF was measured under direct shear. •Fly ash had the highest microscale COF and the lowest macroscale COF. •Portland cement against GGBFS had the lowest microscale COF. •Portland cement against Portland cement had the highest macroscale COF.

  18. Analytical Framework to Evaluate Emission Control Systems for Marine Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jayaram, Varalakshmi

    2010-01-01

    J. , Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals. March 31stfrom a large ship diesel engine. Atmos. Environ. 2009, 43 (low-speed marine diesel engine. Aerosol Sci. Technol. 2007,

  19. The 22nd International Photovoltaic Science and Engineering Conference, November 05-09, 2012, Hangzhou, China Now with Siemens AG, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, D-81739 Munich, GERMANY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Institute for Solar Energy Research Hamelin (ISFH), Am Ohrberg 1, D-31860 Emmerthal, GERMANY 2 Institute aims to reduce material costs of solar cells and PV modules by using thinner silicon materials.[1The 22nd International Photovoltaic Science and Engineering Conference, November 05-09, 2012

  20. Vadcard L., Luengo V., Embedding knowledge in the design of an orthopaedic surgery learning environment, In : CALIE04, International Conference on Computer Aided Learning in Engineering education, Grenoble: 16-18 fvrier 2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Vadcard L., Luengo V., Embedding knowledge in the design of an orthopaedic surgery learning environment, In : CALIE04, International Conference on Computer Aided Learning in Engineering education, Grenoble: 16-18 février 2004 1 Embedding knowledge in the design of an orthopaedic surgery learning

  1. International Symposium on Air Breathing Engines, 9th, Athens, Greece, Sept. 3-8, 1989, Proceedings. Volumes 1 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Billig, F.S.

    1989-01-01

    The conference presents papers on the National Aerospace Plane Program, highly loaded axial flow compressors, Swedish philosophy in aeroengine development, the active control of engine instabilities, and turbulent free shear layer mixing and combustion. Consideration is also given to direct and hybrid solutions of three-dimensional flow in axial radial turbomachines using the mean stream surface method, the numerical simulation of turbomachinery flows with a simple ONERA model of viscous effects, and the combustion characteristics of a boron-fueled SFRJ with aft burner. Other topics include studies on the influence of Mach number on profile losses of a reaction turbine cascade, flow in compressor interstage ducts, and full-scale liquid fuel ramjet combustor tests.

  2. Engineering Technician

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Alternate Title(s):Civil Engineering Technician; Electrical Engineering Technician; Mechanical Engineering Technician; Environmental Engineering Technician

  3. 18 International Journal of Biomaterials Research and Engineering, 1(1), 18-31, January-March 2011 Copyright 2011, IGI Global. Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of IGI Global is prohibited.Copyright 2011, IG

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Jian

    18 International Journal of Biomaterials Research and Engineering, 1(1), 18-31, January-March 2011 biomaterial is one of the major goalsinthefieldoftissueengineeringCUPOMCusedinvariousconditions.DevelopmentofCUPOMCshouldexpandthechoices ofavailablebiodegradableelastomersforvariousbiomedicalapplicationssuchassofttissueengineering. DOI: 10.4018/ijbre.2011010102 #12;International Journal of Biomaterials Research and Engineering

  4. Lubricant-Friendly, Superhard and Low-Friction Coatings by Design...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lubricant-Friendly, Superhard and Low-Friction Coatings by Design Lubricant-Friendly, Superhard and Low-Friction Coatings by Design Superhard and low-friction coatings and surface...

  5. Friction and Adhesion Hysteresis between Surfactant Monolayers in Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klein, Jacob

    Friction and Adhesion Hysteresis between Surfactant Monolayers in Water Wuge H. Briscoe Physical friction between two surfaces in adhesive contact with the loading­unloading adhesion hysteresis between with a double-chained quaternary ammonium surfactant in intimate adhesive contact in water. This enables us

  6. Penetration rate prediction for percussive drilling via dry friction model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krivtsov, Anton M.

    Penetration rate prediction for percussive drilling via dry friction model Anton M. Krivtsov a of percussive drilling assuming a dry friction mechanism to explain the experimentally observed drop in pene in drilling research is a fall of pene- tration rate for higher static loads. This is known both

  7. Surface Science Letters Friction between a-Al2O3(0 0 0 1) surfaces and the effects of surface hydroxylation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Katherine Yanhang

    hydroxylation Dongshan Wei a , Yanhang Zhang a,b,* a Department of Mechanical Engineering, Boston University hydroxylation a b s t r a c t Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to study the friction between hydroxylated a- Al2O3(0 0 0 1) surfaces at the temperature of 300 K. Effects of the degree of surface

  8. Nonlocal microscopic theory of quantum friction between parallel metallic slabs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Despoja, Vito

    2011-05-15

    We present a new derivation of the friction force between two metallic slabs moving with constant relative parallel velocity, based on T=0 quantum-field theory formalism. By including a fully nonlocal description of dynamically screened electron fluctuations in the slab, and avoiding the usual matching-condition procedure, we generalize previous expressions for the friction force, to which our results reduce in the local limit. Analyzing the friction force calculated in the two local models and in the nonlocal theory, we show that for physically relevant velocities local theories using the plasmon and Drude models of dielectric response are inappropriate to describe friction, which is due to excitation of low-energy electron-hole pairs, which are properly included in nonlocal theory. We also show that inclusion of dissipation in the nonlocal electronic response has negligible influence on friction.

  9. Friction Stir Welding High Strength Low Alloy Steel using a Multilayer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Friction Stir Welding High Strength Low Alloy Steel using a Multilayer Approach Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Friction Stir Welding High Strength Low Alloy Steel using...

  10. Multiyear Program Plan: Reducing Friction and Wear in Heavy Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.R. Fessler; G.R. Fenske

    1999-12-13

    As described in its multiyear program plan for 1998-2000, the Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) envisions the development of a fuel-flexible, energy-efficient, near-zero-emissions, heavy-duty U.S. diesel engine technology devolving into all truck classes as a real and viable strategy for reducing energy requirements for commercial transport services and the rapidly growing multipurpose vehicle market (pickups, vans, and sport utility vehicles). Implementation of the OHVT program plan will have significant national benefits in energy savings, cleaner air, more jobs, and increased gross domestic product (GDP). Successful implementation will reduce the petroleum consumption of Class 1-8 trucks by 1.4 million barrels of oil per day by 2020 and over 1.8 million by 2030, amounting to a reduction in highway petroleum consumption of 13.2% and 18.6%, respectively. All types of regulated emissions will be reduced, that is, 20% drop in PM10 emissions (41,000 metric tons per year) by 203 0, 17% reduction in CO2 greenhouse gases (205 million metric tons per year), 7% reduction in NOx, 20% reduction in NMHC, and 30% reduction in CO. An increase of 15,000 jobs by 2020 is expected, as is an increase of $24 billion in GDP. The strategy of OHVT is to focus primarily on the diesel engine since it has numerous advantages. It has the highest efficiency of any engine today, 45% versus 30% for production gasoline engines; and it can be made more efficient at least to 55% and possibly up to 63%. It is the engine of choice for heavy vehicles (trucks), because it offers power, efficiency, durability, and reliability and is used extensively in rail, marine, and off-road applications. Its emission can be ultra-low to near zero, and the production infrastructure is already in place. The primary goals of OHVT are as follows: (1) Develop by 2002 the diesel-engine enabling technologies to support large-scale industry dieselization of light trucks, achieving a 35% fuel efficiency improvement over equivalent gasoline-fueled trucks. (2) Develop by 2004 the enabling technology for a Class 7-8 truck with a fuel efficiency of 10 mpg (at 65 mph) that will meet prevailing emission standards, using either diesel or a liquid alternative fuel. (3) Develop by 2006 diesel engines with fuel flexibility and a thermal efficiency of 55% with liquid alternative fuels, and a thermal efficiency of 55% with dedicated gaseous fuels. (4) Develop a methodology for analyzing and evaluating the operation of a heavy vehicle as an integrated system, considering such factors as engine efficiency; emissions; rolling resistance; aerodynamic drag; friction, wear, and lubrication effects; auxiliary power units; material substitutions for reducing weight; and other sources of parasitic energy losses. Overarching these considerations is the need to preserve system functionality, cost, competitiveness, reliability, durability, and safety.

  11. Engineering Electrical &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hickman, Mark

    Computer Engineering Electrical & Electronic Engineering Mechatronics Engineering Mechanical Engineering Civil Engineering Natural Resources Engineering Forest Engineering Chemical & Process Engineering ELECTIVE 2 Required Engineering Intermediate Year 2011 Eight Required Courses Chart: 120 points College

  12. Engineering Electrical &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hickman, Mark

    Computer Engineering Electrical & Electronic Engineering Mechatronics Engineering Mechanical Engineering Civil Engineering Natural Resources Engineering Forest Engineering Chemical & Process Engineering ELECTIVE 2 Required Engineering Intermediate Year 2012 Eight Required Courses Chart: 120 points College

  13. Electrical & Computer Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electrical & Computer Engineering 2014-2015AcademicYearHandbook Doctor of Philosophy in Electrical is for the internal use of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Carnegie Mellon University only permission of the Department Head of Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. #12;2 Table

  14. Electrical & Computer Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electrical & Computer Engineering 2014-2015StudentHandbook For students entering the Masters of Science in Electrical & Computer Engineering: Pittsburgh, Silicon Valley, Rwanda, or Technology Enhanced, 2014 #12;This document is for the internal use of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

  15. Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    into an existing platform is presented. Dr. Abdel Ra'ouf Mayyas is an Assistant Professor of Automotive Engineering Platform Abdel Ra'ouf Mayyas Automotive Engineering Arizona State University August 29, 2014 at 1:30pmD in 2010 from Automotive Engineering Department at Clemson University ­ International Center for Automotive

  16. Dynamical friction force exerted on spherical bodies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. Esquivel; B. Fuchs

    2007-04-30

    We present a rigorous calculation of the dynamical friction force exerted on a spherical massive perturber moving through an infinite homogenous system of field stars. By calculating the shape and mass of the polarization cloud induced by the perturber in the background system, which decelerates the motion of the perturber, we recover Chandrasekhar's drag force law with a modified Coulomb logarithm. As concrete examples we calculate the drag force exerted on a Plummer sphere or a sphere with the density distribution of a Hernquist profile. It is shown that the shape of the perturber affects only the exact form of the Coulomb logarithm. The latter converges on small scales, because encounters of the test and field stars with impact parameters less than the size of the massive perturber become inefficient. We confirm this way earlier results based on the impulse approximation of small angle scatterings.

  17. Dynamical friction force exerted on spherical bodies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Esquivel, O

    2007-01-01

    We present a rigorous calculation of the dynamical friction force exerted on a spherical massive perturber moving through an infinite homogenous system of field stars. By calculating the shape and mass of the polarization cloud induced by the perturber in the background system, which decelerates the motion of the perturber, we recover Chandrasekhar's drag force law with a modified Coulomb logarithm. As concrete examples we calculate the drag force exerted on a Plummer sphere or a sphere with the density distribution of a Hernquist profile. It is shown that the shape of the perturber affects only the exact form of the Coulomb logarithm. The latter converges on small scales, because encounters of the test and field stars with impact parameters less than the size of the massive perturber become inefficient. We confirm this way earlier results based on the impulse approximation of small angle scatterings.

  18. Frictional granular mechanics: A variational approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holtzman, R.; Silin, D.B.; Patzek, T.W.

    2009-10-16

    The mechanical properties of a cohesionless granular material are evaluated from grain-scale simulations. Intergranular interactions, including friction and sliding, are modeled by a set of contact rules based on the theories of Hertz, Mindlin, and Deresiewicz. A computer generated, three-dimensional, irregular pack of spherical grains is loaded by incremental displacement of its boundaries. Deformation is described by a sequence of static equilibrium configurations of the pack. A variational approach is employed to find the equilibrium configurations by minimizing the total work against the intergranular loads. Effective elastic moduli are evaluated from the intergranular forces and the deformation of the pack. Good agreement between the computed and measured moduli, achieved with no adjustment of material parameters, establishes the physical soundness of the proposed model.

  19. Motifs of Networks from Frictional Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. O. Ghaffari; R. P. Young

    2011-12-30

    We have developed different network approaches to analyze complex patterns of frictional interfaces (contact area developments). Network theory is a fundamental tool for the modern understanding of complex systems in which, by a simple graph representation, the elementary units of a system become nodes, and their mutual interactions become links. With this transformation of a system into a network space, many properties of the system's structure and dynamics can be inferred. The rupture sequence of shear fractures were studied using a transformation form of contact patterns to complex networks; subsequently, sub-graph abundance within the corresponding networks was analyzed. To distinguish the different roles of collective deformation of an interface's elements, pure and non-pure contact patches (i.e., aperture) were mapped onto the nodes. The contact patches were connected with each other by using measurements of similarities as well as constrained geometrical distance and amount of net-contact area per patch, which yielded directed and non-directed networks. A universal trend in sub-graph distribution was observed. We confirmed that super-family phenomena are independent from rupture types in shear processes (as well as in slow or sub-Rayleigh fronts). Furthermore, global features of frictional interfaces as well as shear strength or hydraulic properties were scaled with motifs evolution. In particular, it was found that more common transitive motifs indicate residual shear strength stages, where fluctuations of stored potential energy surrounding rupture tip were minimal. Our approaches were tested over different available data sets, and it was found that discrete as well as real-time contact measurements resulted in the same universal patterns of sub-graphs

  20. Engineering Engineering Education

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simaan, Nabil

    E School of Engineering Engineering Education in a University Setting 292 Degree Programs in Engineering 294 Special Programs 296 Honors 298 Academic Regulations 300 Courses of Study 305 Engineering of Engineering is the largest and oldest private engineering school in the South. Classes offering engineering

  1. Frictional anisotropy under boundary lubrication: effect of surface texture.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ajayi, O. O.; Erck, R. A.; Lorenzo-Martin, C.; Fenske, G. R.; Energy Systems

    2009-06-15

    The friction coefficient was measured under boundary lubrication with a ball-on-flat contact configuration in unidirectional sliding. The ball was smooth and hardened 52100 steel. Discs were made from case-carburized and hardened 4620, annealed 1080, and 1018 steels with directionally ground surfaces. A synthetic lubricant of stock polyalphaolefin was used for testing. During testing with each material, a frictional spike was observed whenever the ball slid parallel to the grinding ridge on the disc surface. The average friction coefficient for all tests was about 0.1, which is typical for the boundary lubrication regime. The magnitude of the frictional spikes, which reached as high as a friction coefficient of 0.25, and their persistence depended on the hardness of the disc surface. On the basis of elastohydrodynamic theory, coupled with the observation of severe plastic deformation on the ridges parallel to the sliding direction, the frictional spike could be due to localized plastic deformation on the disc surface at locations of minimal thickness for the lubricant fluid film. This hypothesis was further supported by lack of frictional spikes in tests using discs coated with a thin film of diamond-like carbon, in which plastic deformation is minimal.

  2. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine(s)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pike, Edward

    2014-03-31

    The objective of the Cummins ARES program, in partnership with the US Department of Energy (DOE), is to develop advanced natural gas engine technologies that increase engine system efficiency at lower emissions levels while attaining lower cost of ownership. The goals of the project are to demonstrate engine system achieving 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) in three phases, 44%, 47% and 50% (starting baseline efficiency at 36% BTE) and 0.1 g/bhp-hr NOx system out emissions (starting baseline NOx emissions at 2 – 4 g/bhp-hr NOx). Primary path towards above goals include high Brake Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP), improved closed cycle efficiency, increased air handling efficiency and optimized engine subsystems. Cummins has successfully demonstrated each of the phases of this program. All targets have been achieved through application of a combined set of advanced base engine technologies and Waste Heat Recovery from Charge Air and Exhaust streams, optimized and validated on the demonstration engine and other large engines. The following architectures were selected for each Phase: Phase 1: Lean Burn Spark Ignited (SI) Key Technologies: High Efficiency Turbocharging, Higher Efficiency Combustion System. In production on the 60/91L engines. Over 500MW of ARES Phase 1 technology has been sold. Phase 2: Lean Burn Technology with Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) System Key Technologies: Advanced Ignition System, Combustion Improvement, Integrated Waste Heat Recovery System. Base engine technologies intended for production within 2 to 3 years Phase 3: Lean Burn Technology with Exhaust and Charge Air Waste Heat Recovery System Key Technologies: Lower Friction, New Cylinder Head Designs, Improved Integrated Waste Heat Recovery System. Intended for production within 5 to 6 years Cummins is committed to the launch of next generation of large advanced NG engines based on ARES technology to be commercialized worldwide.

  3. Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hovanski, Yuri; Grant, Glenn J.; Santella, M. L.

    2009-11-13

    Friction stir spot welding techniques were developed to successfully join several advanced high strength steels. Two distinct tool materials were evaluated to determine the effect of tool materials on the process parameters and joint properties. Welds were characterized primarily via lap shear, microhardness, and optical microscopy. Friction stir spot welds were compared to the resistance spot welds in similar strength alloys by using the AWS standard for resistance spot welding high strength steels. As further comparison, a primitive cost comparison between the two joining processes was developed, which included an evaluation of the future cost prospects of friction stir spot welding in advanced high strength steels.

  4. Power-law friction in closely-packed granular materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takahiro Hatano

    2007-05-08

    In order to understand the nature of friction in closely-packed granular materials, a discrete element simulation on granular layers subjected to isobaric plain shear is performed. It is found that the friction coefficient increases as the power of the shear rate, the exponent of which does not depend on the material constants. Using a nondimensional parameter that is known as the inertial number, the power-law can be cast in a generalized form so that the friction coefficients at different confining pressures collapse on the same curve. We show that the volume fraction also obeys a power-law.

  5. Adaptive controller for regenerative and friction braking system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davis, Roy I. (Ypsilanti, MI)

    1990-01-01

    A regenerative and friction braking system for a vehicle having one or more roadwheels driven by an electric traction motor includes a driver responsive device for producing a brake demand signal having a magnitude corresponding to the level of braking force selected by the driver and friction and regenerative brakes operatively connected with the roadwheels of the vehicle. A system according to this invention further includes control means for operating the friction and regenerative braking subsystems so that maximum brake torques sustainable by the roadwheels of the vehicle without skidding or slipping will not be exceeded.

  6. Adaptive controller for regenerative and friction braking system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davis, R.I.

    1990-10-16

    A regenerative and friction braking system for a vehicle having one or more road wheels driven by an electric traction motor includes a driver responsive device for producing a brake demand signal having a magnitude corresponding to the level of braking force selected by the driver and friction and regenerative brakes operatively connected with the road wheels of the vehicle. A system according to this invention further includes control means for operating the friction and regenerative braking subsystems so that maximum brake torques sustainable by the road wheels of the vehicle without skidding or slipping will not be exceeded. 8 figs.

  7. A Master equation for force distributions in polydisperse frictional particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuniyasu Saitoh; Vanessa Magnanimo; Stefan Luding

    2015-05-28

    An incremental evolution equation, i.e. a Master equation in statistical mechanics, is introduced for force distributions in polydisperse frictional particle packings. As basic ingredients of the Master equation, the conditional probability distributions of particle overlaps are determined by molecular dynamics simulations. Interestingly, tails of the distributions become much narrower in the case of frictional particles than frictionless particles, implying that correlations of overlaps are strongly reduced by microscopic friction. Comparing different size distributions, we find that the tails are wider for the wider distribution.

  8. Delft University of Technology Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vuik, Kees

    conditions and the equation for dissipation of wave energy due to bottom friction and wave breaking. ChapterDelft University of Technology Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science

  9. MEEN 681 SEMINAR SERIES-FALL 2015 DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Behmer, Spencer T.

    . Gellerstedt, Jr. Chair in Bioengineering and Georgia Research Alliance Eminent Scholar in the Wallace H of Pennsylvania "Nanoscale Factors Controlling Friction and Lubrication: From 2D Materials to Engine Oil" Co

  10. MANUFACTURING ENGINEERING Manufacturing engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MANUFACTURING ENGINEERING Manufacturing engineering transforms raw materials, parts, and operations, following a well- organized plan for each activity. Manufacturing engineering involves designing assuring a competitive level of productivity. The manufacturing engineering curriculum at WSU focuses

  11. Does hydrologic circulation mask frictional heat on faults after large earthquakes?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fulton, Patrick M.; Harris, Robert N.; Saffer, Demian M.; Brodsky, Emily E.

    2010-01-01

    geothermal gradient super- imposed with a temperature anomaly expected from frictional heating defined by equations

  12. Friction, Adhesion, and Deformation: Dynamic Measurements with the Atomic Force Phil Attard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Attard, Phil

    Friction, Adhesion, and Deformation: Dynamic Measurements with the Atomic Force Microscope Phil. Adhesion Sci. Technol. 16, 753­791 (2002).) Running title: Friction, Adhesion, and Deformation Abstract for the friction force microscope, quantitative measurements of friction and the ef- fect of adhesion, measurement

  13. [In Proceedings of 1st International Workshop on Web Engineering, Brisbane, Australia, April 1998.] Scenarios of Web-Based User Interfaces for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Jun

    components of a software engineering environment through the use of the Web/Java technology, the CORBA technology, to give the software engineers (i.e., the users of the environment) a look-and-feel similar. In this paper, we look at ways to integrate the Web technology into software engineering environments

  14. Structural connections in plywood friction-fit construction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, Mali E. (Mali Esther)

    2014-01-01

    CNC mills allow precise fabrication of planar parts with embedded joinery which can be assembled into complex 3D geometries without the use of foreign mechanical fasteners. This thesis studies the behavior of the friction-fit ...

  15. Friction of partially embedded vertically aligned carbon nanofibers inside elastomers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aksak, Burak; Sitti, Metin; Cassell, Alan; Li, Jun; Meyyappan, Meyya; Callen, Phillip [NanoRobotics Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California 94035 (United States); NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas 77058 (United States)

    2007-08-06

    Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers partially embedded inside polyurethane (eVACNFs) are proposed as a robust high friction fibrillar material with a compliant backing. Carbon nanofibers with 50-150 nm in diameter and 20-30 {mu}m in length are vertically grown on silicon and transferred completely inside an elastomer by vacuum molding. By using time controlled and selective oxygen plasma etching, fibers are partially released up to 5 {mu}m length. Macroscale friction experiments show that eVACNFs exhibit reproducible effective friction coefficients up to 1. Besides high friction, the proposed fabrication method improves fiber-substrate bond strength, and enables uniform height nanofibers with a compliant backing.

  16. The role of lubricant molecular shape in microscopic friction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oleg M. Braun; Nicola Manini; Erio Tosatti

    2008-10-10

    With the help of a simple two-dimensional model we simulate the tribological properties of a thin lubricant film consisting of linear (chain) molecules in the ordinary soft-lubricant regime. We find that friction generally increases with chain length, in agreement with their larger bulk viscosity. When comparing the tribological properties of molecules which stick bodily to the substrates with others carrying a single sticking termination, we find that the latter generally yield a larger friction than the former.

  17. Yield criteria for quasibrittle and frictional materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davide Bigoni; Andrea Piccolroaz

    2010-10-09

    A new yield/damage function is proposed for modelling the inelastic behaviour of a broad class of pressure-sensitive, frictional, ductile and brittle-cohesive materials. The yield function allows the possibility of describing a transition between the shape of a yield surface typical of a class of materials to that typical of another class of materals. This is a fundamental key to model the behaviour of materials which become cohesive during hardening (so that the shape of the yield surface evolves from that typical of a granular material to that typical of a dense material), or which decrease cohesion due to damage accumulation. The proposed yield function is shown to agree with a variety of experimental data relative to soil, concrete, rock, metallic and composite powders, metallic foams, porous metals, and polymers. The yield function represents a single, convex and smooth surface in stress space approaching as limit situations well-known criteria and the extreme limits of convexity in the deviatoric plane. The yield function is therefore a generalization of several criteria, including von Mises, Drucker-Prager, Tresca, modified Tresca, Coulomb-Mohr, modified Cam-clay, and --concerning the deviatoric section-- Rankine and Ottosen. Convexity of the function is proved by developing two general propositions relating convexity of the yield surface to convexity of the corresponding function. These propositions are general and therefore may be employed to generate other convex yield functions.

  18. International Conference on Geotechnical Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    with laboratory and in-situ testing of the problematic layer. The mobilized strength can be used to assess- analysis can still involve uncertainties, e.g. failure surface, slope geometry, pore-water pressures, use to the direction of maximum movement. The cross-sections should include all relevant materials and structures. 3

  19. International Power Engineering Research Collaborations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gross, George

    - disciplinary projects. Index Terms Collaborative Research and Educa- tion, Renewable Energy, Market Mechanisms have major impacts on the topics of research projects and the education of the new generation of power (LEG) is very active in joint research projects, co- advising of PhD students and exchange of permanent

  20. Ceramics Technology Project database: September 1991 summary report. [Materials for piston ring-cylinder liner for advanced heat/diesel engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keyes, B.L.P.

    1992-06-01

    The piston ring-cylinder liner area of the internal combustion engine must withstand very-high-temperature gradients, highly-corrosive environments, and constant friction. Improving the efficiency in the engine requires ring and cylinder liner materials that can survive this abusive environment and lubricants that resist decomposition at elevated temperatures. Wear and friction tests have been done on many material combinations in environments similar to actual use to find the right materials for the situation. This report covers tribology information produced from 1986 through July 1991 by Battelle columbus Laboratories, Caterpillar Inc., and Cummins Engine Company, Inc. for the Ceramic Technology Project (CTP). All data in this report were taken from the project's semiannual and bimonthly progress reports and cover base materials, coatings, and lubricants. The data, including test rig descriptions and material characterizations, are stored in the CTP database and are available to all project participants on request. Objective of this report is to make available the test results from these studies, but not to draw conclusions from these data.

  1. Reykjavik University International Prospectus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karlsson, Brynjar

    with leading companies and international collaborators to provide our students with strong academic foundations of Computer Science, School of Science and Engineering and School of Law. We also host a number of research of Computer Science School of Law School of Science and Engineering ISE - Iceland School of Energy RU Open

  2. Innovation through Visualisation Requirements Engineering Diagrams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salustri, Filippo A.

    Withstand Internal Forces Receive Input Torque Input Shaft Carrier Deliver Output Torque Increase Torque Decrease Speed Lower Friction Losses Transmit Reaction Forces Output Shaft Sun Planet 1 Planet 2 Ring Ground BearingBearing Bearing Input Shaft Carrier Sun Planet 1 Planet 2 Ring Output Shaft Bearing Bearing

  3. CAREERS at the International

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Gus

    for cooperation in the nuclear field committed to promoting safe, secure and peaceful uses of nuclear technologyMembersHaveExpertiseintheFollowingFields: Accounting/Finance Nuclear Energy Agriculture Nuclear Engineering Computer Sciences Nuclear Medicine EnergyCAREERS at the IAEA International Employment Opportunities at the International Atomic Energy

  4. HEAT INPUT AND POST WELD HEAT TREATMENT EFFECTS ON REDUCED-ACTIVATION FERRITIC/MARTENSITIC STEEL FRICTION STIR WELDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Wei; Chen, Gaoqiang; Chen, Jian; Yu, Xinghua; Frederick, David Alan; Feng, Zhili

    2015-01-01

    Reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels are an important class of structural materials for fusion reactor internals developed in recent years because of their improved irradiation resistance. However, they can suffer from welding induced property degradations. In this paper, a solid phase joining technology friction stir welding (FSW) was adopted to join a RAFM steel Eurofer 97 and different FSW parameters/heat input were chosen to produce welds. FSW response parameters, joint microstructures and microhardness were investigated to reveal relationships among welding heat input, weld structure characterization and mechanical properties. In general, FSW heat input results in high hardness inside the stir zone mostly due to a martensitic transformation. It is possible to produce friction stir welds similar to but not with exactly the same base metal hardness when using low power input because of other hardening mechanisms. Further, post weld heat treatment (PWHT) is a very effective way to reduce FSW stir zone hardness values.

  5. Engineering Magnetic Anisotropy in Nanostructured 3d and 4f Ferromagnets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsu, Chin-Jui

    2012-01-01

    International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition,Taiwan B.S. , Mechanical Engineering National Cheng KungM.S. , Power Mechanical Engineering National Tsing Hua

  6. Displacer for Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, A. T.

    1985-12-24

    In a Stirling engine and the like, a displacer piston having a plurality of internal baffles and insulation so as to prevent undesired heat transfer across the displacer piston.

  7. INTERNATIONAL UNION OF OPERATING ENGINEERS NATIONAL HAZMAT PROGRAM - MILWAUKEE WORM DRIVE CIRCULAR SAW OENHP{number_sign}: 2001-02, VERSION A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2002-01-05

    Florida International University's (FIU) Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) evaluated five saws for their effectiveness in cutting specially prepared fiberglass-reinforced plywood crates. These crates were built as surrogates for crates that presently hold radioactively contaminated glove boxes at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Los Alamos facility. The Milwaukee worm drive circular saw was assessed on August 14, 2001. During the FIU test of efficacy, a team from the Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program (OENHP) evaluated the occupational safety and health issues associated with this technology. The Milwaukee worm drive circular saw is a hand-held tool with a 7 1/4-inch diameter circular blade for cutting wood. The saw contains a fixed upper and a retractable lower blade guard to prevent access to the blade during use. The unit is operated with an on/off guarded trigger switch; and is supported with a handgrip mounted on top of the saw. An adjustable lever sets the depth of cut. The retractable blade guard permits blind or plunge cuts and protects from blade access during shutdown and blade coast. Kickback, the sudden reaction to a pinched blade, is possible when using this saw and could cause the saw to lift up and out of the work piece toward the operator. Proper work position and firm control of the saw minimizes the potential for a sprain or strain. Care needs to be exercised to support the work piece properly and to not force the tool. Personal noise sampling indicated that one worker was near the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Action Level of 85 decibels (dBA) while the other was at the Action Level with time-weighted averages (TWA's) of 82.7 and 84.6 dBA, respectively. These data are not entirely representative as they were gathered during a simulation and not at the actual worksite. Additional sampling should be conducted on-site, but the workers should wear hearing protection until it is determined that it is no longer necessary. Air sampling was performed while the workers dismantled the fiberglass-reinforced crates. The total nuisance dust sample for the Milwaukee circular saw was 36.07 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m{sup 3}), which is much higher than the OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 15 mg/m{sup 3} and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists' (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV) of 10 mg/m{sup 3}. Galson Laboratories considered the fiber analysis void due to the overloading of the filter. The PEL for fiberglass is 1 fiber per cubic centimeter (f/cc).

  8. Friction and Pressure-Dependence of Force Chain Communities in Granular Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuming Huang; Karen E. Daniels

    2015-08-23

    Granular materials transmit stress via a network of force chains. Despite the importance of these chains to characterizing the stress state and dynamics of the system, there is no common framework for quantifying their their properties. Recently, attention has turned to the tools of network science as a promising route to such a description. In this paper, we apply community detection techniques to numerically-generated packings of spheres over a range of interparticle friction coefficients and confining pressures. In order to extract chain-like features, we use a modularity maximization with a recently-developed geographical null model \\cite{Bassett2015}, and optimize the technique to detect branched structures by minimizing the normalized convex hull of the detected communities. We characterize the force chain communities by their size (number of particles), network strength (internal forces), and normalized convex hull ratio (sparseness). We find the that the first two exhibit an approximately linear correlation and are therefore largely redundant. For both pressure $P$ and interparticle friction $\\mu$, we observe crossovers in behavior. For $\\mu \\lesssim 0.1$, the packings exhibit more sensitivity to pressure. In addition, we identify a crossover pressure where the frictional dependence switches from having more large/strong communities at low $\\mu$ vs. high $\\mu$. We explain these phenomena by comparison to the spatial distribution of communities along the vertical axis of the system. These results provide new tools for considering the mesoscale structure of a granular system and pave the way for reduced descriptions based on the force chain structure.

  9. Proceedings of ASME 2010 3rd Joint US-European Fluids Engineering Summer Meeting and 8th International Conference on Nanochannels, Microchannels, and Minichannels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Jianming

    Proceedings of ASME 2010 3rd Joint US-European Fluids Engineering Summer Meeting and 8th. CFDShip-Iowa version 4 is one of leading RANS codes for a wide range of ship hydrodynamics applications of this method. 1 Copyright c 2010 by ASME Proceedings of the ASME 2010 3rd Joint US-European Fluids Engineering

  10. Gas-Fired Reciprocating Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The reciprocating, or piston-driven, engine is a widespread and well-known technology. Also called internal combustion engines, reciprocating engines require fuel, air, compression, and a combustion source to function. Depending on the ignition source, they generally fall into two categories: (1) spark-ignited engines, typically fueled by gasoline or natural gas, and (2) compression-ignited engines, typically fueled by diesel oil fuel.

  11. 33engineering EnginEEring and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, Stephan

    33engineering EnginEEring and ThE builT EnvironmEnT www.wits.ac.za/ebe #12;34 guide for applicants 2015 The study of Engineering Career opportunities for engineers are limitless and extend beyond the formal engineering sector. A career in engineering requires special talents ­ engineers need

  12. The Schroedinger equation with friction from the quantum trajectory perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garashchuk, Sophya; Dixit, Vaibhav; Gu Bing; Mazzuca, James [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208 (United States)

    2013-02-07

    Similarity of equations of motion for the classical and quantum trajectories is used to introduce a friction term dependent on the wavefunction phase into the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. The term describes irreversible energy loss by the quantum system. The force of friction is proportional to the velocity of a quantum trajectory. The resulting Schroedinger equation is nonlinear, conserves wavefunction normalization, and evolves an arbitrary wavefunction into the ground state of the system (of appropriate symmetry if applicable). Decrease in energy is proportional to the average kinetic energy of the quantum trajectory ensemble. Dynamics in the high friction regime is suitable for simple models of reactions proceeding with energy transfer from the system to the environment. Examples of dynamics are given for single and symmetric and asymmetric double well potentials.

  13. Quantum Friction: Cooling Quantum Systems with Unitary Time Evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aurel Bulgac; Michael McNeil Forbes; Kenneth J. Roche; Gabriel Wlaz?owski

    2013-05-29

    We introduce a type of quantum dissipation -- local quantum friction -- by adding to the Hamiltonian a local potential that breaks time-reversal invariance so as to cool the system. Unlike the Kossakowski-Lindblad master equation, local quantum friction directly effects unitary evolution of the wavefunctions rather than the density matrix: it may thus be used to cool fermionic many-body systems with thousands of wavefunctions that must remain orthogonal. In addition to providing an efficient way to simulate quantum dissipation and non-equilibrium dynamics, local quantum friction coupled with adiabatic state preparation significantly speeds up many-body simulations, making the solution of the time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation significantly simpler than the solution of its stationary counterpart.

  14. LLNL Small-Scale Friction sensitivity (BAM) Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, L.R.; Foltz, M.F.

    1996-06-01

    Small-scale safety testing of explosives, propellants and other energetic materials, is done to determine their sensitivity to various stimuli including friction, static spark, and impact. Testing is done to discover potential handling problems for either newly synthesized materials of unknown behavior, or materials that have been stored for long periods of time. This report describes the existing {open_quotes}BAM{close_quotes} Small-Scale Friction Test, and the methods used to determine the friction sensitivity pertinent to handling energetic materials. The accumulated data for the materials tested is not listed here - that information is in a database. Included is, however, a short list of (1) materials that had an unusual response, and (2), a few {open_quotes}standard{close_quotes} materials representing the range of typical responses usually seen.

  15. Wear and friction behavior of metal impregnated microporous carbon composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goller, G.; Koty, D.P.; Tewari, S.N.; Singh, M.; Tekin, A.

    1996-11-01

    Metal-matrix composites have been prepared by pressure-infiltration casting of copper-base alloy melts into microporous carbon preforms. The carbon preforms contained varying proportions of amorphous carbon and graphite. Load dependence of the wear and friction behavior of the composite pins has been examined under ambient conditions against cast-iron plates, using a pin-on-plate reciprocating wear tester. The wear resistance of the composite is significantly improved, as compared with the base alloy. Contrary to the normally expected behavior, the addition of graphite to the amorphous carbon does not reduce the friction coefficient, especially at high loads. The wear and friction behavior of the composites is very sensitive to the size and distribution of the microstructural constituents.

  16. Enabling the Next Generation of High Efficiency Engines | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Next Generation of High Efficiency Engines Enabling the Next Generation of High Efficiency Engines Discusses challenges and opportunities for next generation internal...

  17. Friction and Wear Behavior of Ultrahigh Molecular Weight Polyethylene as a Function of Crystallinity in the Presence of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Zhiqun

    Friction and Wear Behavior of Ultrahigh Molecular Weight Polyethylene as a Function: In this study, the friction and wear behavior of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) were evaluated Words: ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), crystallinity, friction, wear, phospholipid

  18. ENGINEERING Master of Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toronto, University of

    ENGINEERING GRADUATE STUDIES MEng Master of Engineering #12;"If you're considering an MEng program chose the MEng program at U of T." DOM LEE, MEng STUDENT #12;TAKE YOUR ENGINEERING CAREER TO THE NEXT knowledge. But to get ahead in today's workplace, engineers also have to communicate, manage, innovate

  19. FRICTION STIR SPOT WELDING OF 6016 ALUMINUM ALLOY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishra, Rajiv S.; Webb, S.; Freeney, T. A.; Chen, Y. L.; Gayden, X.; Grant, Glenn J.; Herling, Darrell R.

    2007-01-08

    Friction stir spot welding (FSSW) of 6016 aluminum alloy was evaluated with conventional pin tool and new off-center feature tools. The off-center feature tool provides significant control over the joint area. The tool rotation rate was varied between 1000 and 2500 rpm. Maximum failure strength was observed in the tool rotation range of 1200-1500 rpm. The results are interpreted in the context of material flow in the joint and influence of thermal input on microstructural changes. The off-center feature tool concept opens up new possibilities for plunge-type friction stir spot welding.

  20. Friction at Soft Polymer Surfaces: Lubrication Effect of Oil Impregnation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manoj K. Chaudhury; Katherine Vorvolakos; David Malotky

    2015-08-06

    The modes of attachments, detachments and relaxations of molecules of rubbers and gels on solid surfaces are keys to understanding their frictional properties. An early stochastic model of polymer relaxations on surfaces was given by Schallamach, which has now evolved in various ways. A review of these developments is presented along with the experimental data that elucidate the kinetic friction of smooth rubber against smooth surfaces. These soft rubbers exhibit various types of instabilities while sliding on surfaces. A few examples of these instabilities are provided.

  1. Experimental Investigations of Improving Bushing Quality and Joining Sheet Metals in Friction Drilling 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Su, Kuan-Yu

    2015-05-11

    Friction drilling is a novel hole-making process performed on thin-walled sheet metals. The friction between a rapid-rotating conical tool and a sheet metal generates heat to soften the work material and penetrate it to ...

  2. Effects of mechanical properties and surface friction on elasto-plastic sliding contact

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dao, Ming

    Effects of mechanical properties and surface friction on elasto-plastic sliding contact S functions, for various contact conditions, that relate elasto-plastic properties (Young's modulus, yield reserved. Keywords: Frictional sliding; Scratch test; Elasto-plastic properties; Contact mechanics

  3. College of Engineering College of Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    College of Engineering College of Engineering Office in Engineering Building, Room 202 (970) 491 UNDERGRADUATE MAJORS Biomedical Engineering Chemical and Biological Engineering Civil Engineering Computer Engineering Electrical Engineering Engineering Science Environmental Engineering Mechanical Engineering

  4. Computational Investigation of Hardness Evolution During Friction-Stir Welding of AA5083 and AA2139

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grujicic, Mica

    Computational Investigation of Hardness Evolution During Friction-Stir Welding of AA5083 and AA2139 coupled thermo-mechanical finite-element analysis of the friction-stir welding (FSW) process developed, finite-element analysis, friction- stir welding, hardness prediction 1. Introduction Having a more mobile

  5. An accurate elasto-plastic frictional tangential forcedisplacement model for granular-flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vu-Quoc, Loc

    An accurate elasto-plastic frictional tangential force­displacement model for granular for both elastic and plastic deformations together with interfacial friction occurring in collisions of spherical particles. This elasto-plastic frictional TFD model, with its force-driven version presented in [L

  6. Friction and Heat Transfer Characteristics of Silica and CNT Nanofluids in a Tube Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kostic, Milivoje M.

    Friction and Heat Transfer Characteristics of Silica and CNT Nanofluids in a Tube Flow MILIVOJE M@niu.edu * www.kostic.niu.edu Abstract: - An apparatus for exploring friction and heat transfer characteristics flow. Initial turbulent friction and heat transfer measurements for silica and carbon nanotube (CNT

  7. Lateral position detection and control for friction stir systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fleming, Paul (Boulder, CO); Lammlein, David (Houston, TX); Cook, George E. (Brentwood, TN); Wilkes, Don Mitchell (Nashville, TN); Strauss, Alvin M. (Nashville, TN); Delapp, David (Ashland City, TN); Hartman, Daniel A. (Santa Fe, NM)

    2010-12-14

    A friction stir system for processing at least a first workpiece includes a spindle actuator coupled to a rotary tool comprising a rotating member for contacting and processing the first workpiece. A detection system is provided for obtaining information related to a lateral alignment of the rotating member. The detection system comprises at least one sensor for measuring a force experienced by the rotary tool or a parameter related to the force experienced by the rotary tool during processing, wherein the sensor provides sensor signals. A signal processing system is coupled to receive and analyze the sensor signals and determine a lateral alignment of the rotating member relative to a selected lateral position, a selected path, or a direction to decrease a lateral distance relative to the selected lateral position or selected path. In one embodiment, the friction stir system can be embodied as a closed loop tracking system, such as a robot-based tracked friction stir welding (FSW) or friction stir processing (FSP) system.

  8. Friction stir method for forming structures and materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feng, Zhili (Knoxville, TN); David, Stan A. (Knoxville, TN); Frederick, David Alan (Harriman, TN)

    2011-11-22

    Processes for forming an enhanced material or structure are disclosed. The structure typically includes a preform that has a first common surface and a recess below the first common surface. A filler is added to the recess and seams are friction stir welded, and materials may be stir mixed.

  9. Thermo-Wetting and Friction Reduction Characterization of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hidrovo, Carlos H.

    such surfaces include frost prevention on aircraft flight surfaces to self-cleaning features on solar energy Microtextured superhydrophobic surfaces have shown potential in friction reduction applications and could the Cassie state even under elevated pressure drops by increasing the temperature in the gas layer

  10. ORIGINAL PAPER Modeling of Thermal-Assisted Dislocation Friction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marks, Laurence D.

    ORIGINAL PAPER Modeling of Thermal-Assisted Dislocation Friction Y. Liao · L. D. Marks Received: 25 decades of research has shown that for bulk crys- talline materials the fundamental unit of plasticity of misfit dislocations to include the effect of thermally activated transitions across barriers. We obtain

  11. "PriceDispersionandInformationalFrictions: EvidencefromSupermarketPurchases"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    information is indeed important and that local market power is potentially high. We also show that a full may be too strong. Unannounced sales are a common supermarket practice. As we show, retailers retailers'assortment decisions.1 To verify whether price information frictions are indeed preva- lent, we

  12. Stress field at a sliding frictional contact: Experiments and calculations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adda-Bedia, Mokhtar

    Stress field at a sliding frictional contact: Experiments and calculations J. Scheibert Ã,1 , A and tangential stress fields at the base of a rough elastomer film in contact with a smooth glass cylinder in steady sliding. This geometry allows for a direct comparison between the stress profiles measured along

  13. Engine intake system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kanesaka, H.

    1989-02-07

    An intake system is described for an internal combustion engine, the system comprising: an intake passage having an intake port and an inertial supercharging intake pipe leading to the intake port; an intake valve mounted in the intake port and operatively connected to the engine for alternately opening and closing the intake port; a rotary valve operatively connected to the engine and disposed in the intake passage intermediate the inertial supercharging intake pipe and the intake port. The rotary valve is rotatable for opening and closing the intake passage, and timing adjusting means operatively connected to the engine and to the rotary valve for retarding the opening of the rotary valve relative to the opening of the intake valve at low engine speeds, and for advancing the opening of the rotary valve at high engine speeds, whereby the retarding and advancing of the opening of the rotary valve enables inertial supercharging in the intake pipe at both low and high engine speeds.

  14. Sandia Energy - Sandia Expands an International Collaboration...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia Expands an International Collaboration and Web Database on Engine Fuel Spray Combustion Research Home Energy Transportation Energy CRF Facilities Partnership News Energy...

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING UNDERGRADUATEHANDBOOK #12;Environmental Engineering 2015-2016 2015-16 UNDERGRADUATE HANDBOOK FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING MISSION STATEMENT FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING PROGRAM · Educate the next generation of environmental engineering professionals and assist in the education

  16. Environmental Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elimelech, Menachem

    ;Beacon for Outstanding Environmental Engineering Education and Research Environmental EngineeringEnvironmental Engineering at the Fall 2014 #12;Environmental Engineering at Yale began in 1998 in environmental, biological, and engineering sciences and guided by the University's global perspective. In 2010

  17. To appear in International Journal of Advances in Engineering Sciences and Applied Mathematics (2010). Critical Observations for the Evaluation of Cement Hydration Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bentz, Dale P.

    2010-01-01

    (2010). Critical Observations for the Evaluation of Cement Hydration Models Dale P. Bentz Engineering of computer models for cement hydration and microstructure development, with an explicit consideration of experimental observations concerning the influence of water-to-cement ratio, cement particle size distribution

  18. Proceedings of Proceedings of the ASME 2012 6th International Conference on Energy Sustainability & 10th Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technology Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    , San Diego, USA ESFuelCell2012-91307 DRAFT: OPTIMIZATION OF PURGE CYCLE FOR DEAD-ENDED ANODE FUEL CELL the purge interval at given operating conditions can optimize the fuel cell efficiency and hy- drogen loss & 10th Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technology Conference ESFuelCell2012 July 23-July 26, 2012

  19. This paper to be published in the Proceedings of the 1996 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation For more information, contact: Roger Quinn, Associate Professor Mechanical Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Causey, Gregory C.

    in customer demand for its products and services and make a profit'' 1 . ``Today factories are coming on line from an ever­changing, customer­driven product line. Figure 1: Agile Workcell A definition of ``agile and Automation For more information, contact: Roger Quinn, Associate Professor ­ Mechanical Engineering Case

  20. This paper to be published in the Proceedings of the 1996 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation For more information, contact: Roger Quinn, Associate Professor -Mechanical Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Causey, Gregory C.

    in customer demand for its products and services and make a profit"1 . "Today factories are coming on line from an ever-changing, customer-driven product line. Figure 1: Agile Workcell A definition of "agile and Automation For more information, contact: Roger Quinn, Associate Professor - Mechanical Engineering Case

  1. Introduction Systems Engineering Fundamentals ENGINEERING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rhoads, James

    Introduction Systems Engineering Fundamentals i SYSTEMS ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTALS January 2001;Systems Engineering Fundamentals Introduction ii #12;Introduction Systems Engineering Fundamentals iii ............................................................................................................................................. iv PART 1. INTRODUCTION Chapter 1. Introduction to Systems Engineering Management

  2. COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING Biological Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING Biological Engineering Undergraduate Class of 2013 Post-Graduation Report The Department Biological and Environmental Engineering (BEE) offers a bachelor degree program in Biological Engineering and a bachelor degree program in Environmental Engineering. Cornell Career Services surveys

  3. Bench wear testing of engine power cylinder components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patterson, D.J.; Hill, S.H.; Tung, S.C.

    1993-02-01

    A need exists for an accurate and repeatable friction and wear bench test for engine power cylinder components that more closely relates to engine test results. Current research and development includes investigation of new engine designs, materials, coatings and surface treatments for reduced weight, longer life, higher operating temperature, and reduced friction. Alternative fuels being examined include alcohols and gaseous fuels, as well as reformulated gasolines and distillate fuels. Concurrently, new lubricants are being formulated for the new engine and fuel combinations. Because of the enormous cost and time of developing commercial engine, fuel and lubricant combinations by means of engine testing alone, much interest is being focused on more representative and repeatable bench tests. This paper examines some known bench testers employing either rotary or reciprocating motion for evaluating the friction, wear, and durability of material couples. Information is presented on experience and practice with one rotary (Falex type) and two reciprocating testers (Cameron-Plint and a new design, the EMA-L59). Some correlation with engine data is given.

  4. International Policy International Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Andrew

    Research Strategy 2006-2009 International Policy Energy Adaptation International Development Coasts Change Research. Our strategy builds upon our previous work on integrated assessment, energy, adaptation of time. In this spirit, the Centre reconfirms its vision statement: "The Tyndall Centre is the UK network

  5. Tokyo Tech International Symposium on Education Reform Best Practices for Realization of WorldClass Science and Engineering Higher Education Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : Necessity for Education Reform 3. New Education System 4. Expected Results after the Reforms #12;Tokyo Tech of Tokyo Tech: Necessity for Education Reform 3. New Education System 4. Expected Results afterTokyo Tech International Symposium on Education Reform Best Practices for Realization of World

  6. Fact or friction: Inferring rheology from nonvolcanic tremor and low-frequency earthquakes on the deep San Andreas fault

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    friction, by crystal plasticity, pressure solution, or somemechanism of olivine crystal plasticity of olivine at 500 ?

  7. Efficiency Improvement through Reduction in Friction and Wear in Powertrain Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Killian

    2009-09-30

    The objective of this project is to improve the efficiency of truck drivelines through reduction of friction and parasitic losses in transmission and drive axles. Known efficiencies for these products exceeded 97 percent, so the task was not trivial. The project relied on a working relationship between modeling and hardware testing. Modeling was to shorten the development cycle by guiding the selection of materials, processes and strategies. Bench top and fixture tests were to validate the models. Modeling was performed at a world class, high academic level, but in the end, modeling did not impact the hardware development as much as intended. Insights leading to the most significant accomplishments came from bench top and fixture tests and full scale dynamometer tests. A key development in the project was the formulation of the implementation strategy. Five technical elements with potential to minimize friction and parasitic losses were identified. These elements included churning, lubrication, surface roughness, coatings and textures. An interesting fact is that both Caterpillar and Eaton independently converged on the same set of technical elements in formulating their implementation strategies. Exploiting technical elements of the implementation strategy had a positive impact on transmission and drive axle efficiencies. During one dynamometer test of an Eaton Best Tech 1 transmission, all three gear ranges tested: Under drive, direct drive and over drive, showed efficiencies greater than 99 percent. Technology boosts to efficiency for transmissions reached 1 percent, while efficiency improvements to drive axle pushed 2 percent. These advancements seem small, but the accomplishment is large considering that these products normally run at greater than 97 percent efficiency. Barriers and risks to implementing these technology elements are clear. Schemes using a low fill sump and spray tubes endanger the gears and bearings by lubricant starvation. Gear coatings have exhibited durability issues, stripping away under conditions less demanding than 750,000 miles in service on the road. Failed coatings compound the problem by contaminating the lubricant with hard particles. Under the most severe conditions, super finished surfaces may polish further, reaching a surface roughness unable to support the critical oil film thickness. Low viscosity and low friction lubricants may not protect the gears and bearings adequately leading to excessive pitting, wear and noise. Additives in low friction oils may not stay in solution or suspended thus settling to the bottom and unavailable when they are needed most. Technical barriers and risks can be overcome through engineering, but two barriers remain formidable: (1) cost of the technology and (2) convincing fleet owners that the technology provides a tangible benefit. Dry sumps lower lubricant operating temperatures so the removal of heat exchangers and hoses and reduced demand on engine cooling systems justify their use. The benefits of surface texturing are varied and remain unproven. Lubricant costs seem manageable, but the cost of super finishing and gear coating are high. These are issues of scale and processing technology. Going across the board with gear super finishing and coating will reduce costs. Pushing the envelope to applications with higher torque and higher power density should drive the adoption of these technologies. Fleet owners are an educated and seasoned lot. Only technology measureable in dollars returned is used on truck fleets. To convince fleet owners of the benefit of these technologies, new precision in measuring fuel efficiency must be introduced. Legislation for a minimum standard in truck miles per gallon would also enable the use of these technologies. Improving the efficiency of truck transmissions and axle will make a noticeable impact on the fuel consumption by heavy vehicles in the United States. However, the greatest benefit will come when all the individual efficiency technologies like hybrid power, aerodynamic fairings, auxiliary power units, super

  8. New Directions in Engines-- The Road Ahead

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The future of internal combustion engines will depend on improved technology and significant evolution as new alternatives enter the mix as an impaact or regulation

  9. Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) for Mg...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project (Part 1) Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) for Mg: International Pilot Project (Part 1) 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit...

  10. Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) for Mg...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    lm012li2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) for Mg: International Pilot Project Integrated Computational Materials...

  11. Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) for Mg...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    lm012li2012o.pdf More Documents & Publications Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) for Mg: International Pilot Project Integrated Computational Materials...

  12. Caterpillar, Argonne undertake cooperative virtual engine design...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    project By Jared Sagoff * June 30, 2014 Tweet EmailPrint ARGONNE, Ill - Internal combustion engines are poised for dramatic breakthroughs in improving efficiency with lower...

  13. Friction Stir Spot Welding of DP780 Carbon Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santella, M. L.; Hovanski, Yuri; Frederick, Alan; Grant, Glenn J.; Dahl, Michael E.

    2009-09-15

    Friction stir spot welds were made in uncoated and galvannneled DP780 sheets using polycrystalline boron nitride stir tools. The tools were plunged at either a single continuous rate or in two segments consisting of a relatively high rate followed by a slower rate of shorter depth. Welding times ranged from 1-10 s. Increasing tool rotation speed from 800 to 1600 rpm increased strength values. The 2-segment welding procedures also produced higher strength joints. Average lap-shear strengths exceeding 10.3 kN were consistently obtained in 4 s on both the uncoated and the galvannealed DP780. The likelihood of diffusion and mechanical interlocking contributing to bond formation was supported by metallographic examinations. A cost analysis based on spot welding in automobile assembly showed that for friction stir spot welding to be economically competitive with resistance spot welding the cost of stir tools must approach that of resistance spot welding electrode tips.

  14. Quantum Vacuum Friction in Highly Magnetized Neutron Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnaud Dupays; Carlo Rizzo; Dimitar Bakalov; Giovanni F. Bignami

    2008-04-25

    In this letter we calculate the energy loss of highly magnetized neutron star due to friction with quantum vacuum, namely Quantum Vacuum Friction (QVF). Taking into account one-loop corrections in the effective Heisenberg-Euler Lagrangian of the light-light interaction, we derive an analytic expression for QVF allowing us to consider magnetic field at the surface of the star as high as $10^{11} $T. In the case of magnetars with high magnetic field above the QED critical field, we show that the energy loss by QVF dominates the energy loss process. This has important consequences, in particular on the inferred value of the magnetic field. This also indicates the need for independent measurements of magnetic field, energy loss rate, and of the braking index to fully characterize magnetars.

  15. Micro-beam friction liner and method of transferring energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mentesana, Charles (Leawood, KS)

    2007-07-17

    A micro-beam friction liner adapted to increase performance and efficiency and reduce wear in a piezoelectric motor or actuator or other device using a traveling or standing wave to transfer energy in the form of torque and momentum. The micro-beam friction liner comprises a dense array of micro-beam projections having first ends fixed relative to a rotor and second ends projecting substantially toward a plurality of teeth of a stator, wherein the micro-beam projections are compressed and bent during piezoelectric movement of the stator teeth, thereby storing the energy, and then react against the stator teeth to convert the stored energy stored to rotational energy in the rotor.

  16. Critical-like Features of Stress Response in Frictional Packings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdullah Cakir; Leonardo E. Silbert

    2015-02-25

    The mechanical response of static, unconfined, overcompressed face centred cubic, granular arrays is studied using large-scale, discrete element method simulations. Specifically, the stress response due to the application of a localised force perturbation - the Green function technique - is obtained in granular packings generated over several orders of magnitude in both the particle friction coefficient and the applied forcing. We observe crossover behaviour in the mechanical state of the system characterised by the changing nature of the resulting stress response. The transition between anisotropic and isotropic stress response exhibits critical-like features through the identification of a diverging length scale that distinguishes the spatial extent of anisotropic regions from those that display isotropic behaviour. A multidimensional phase diagram is constructed that parameterises the response of the system due to changing friction and force perturbations.

  17. Stress Response in Confined Arrays of Frictional and Frictionless Particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdullah Cakir; Leonardo E. Silbert

    2011-07-29

    Stress transmission inside three dimensional granular packings is investigated using computer simulations. Localized force perturbation techniques are implemented for frictionless and frictional shallow, ordered, granular arrays confined by solid boundaries for a range of system sizes. Stress response profiles for frictional packings agree well with the predictions for the semi-infinite half plane of classical isotropic elasticity theory down to boxes of linear dimensions of approximately forty particle diameters and over several orders of magnitude in the applied force. The response profiles for frictionless packings exhibit a transitional regime to strongly anisotropic features with increasing box size. The differences between the nature of the stress response are shown to be characterized by very different particle displacement fields.

  18. Dynamical Friction on Star Clusters near the Galactic Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, S S; Kim, Sungsoo S.; Morris, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Numerical simulations of the dynamical friction suffered by a star cluster near the Galactic center have been performed with a parallelized tree code. Gerhard (2001) has suggested that dynamical friction, which causes a cluster to lose orbital energy and spiral in towards the galactic center, may explain the presence of a cluster of very young stars in the central parsec, where star formation might be prohibitively difficult owing to strong tidal forces. The clusters modeled in our simulations have an initial total mass of 10^5-10^6 Msun and initial galactocentric radii of 2.5-30 pc. We have identified a few simulations in which dynamical friction indeed brings a cluster to the central parsec, although this is only possible if the cluster is either very massive (~10^6 Msun), or is formed near the central parsec ( 10^6 Msun pc-3). The initial core collapse and segregation of massive stars into the cluster core, which typically happens on a much shorter time scale than that characterizing the dynamical inspiral...

  19. Dynamical Friction on Star Clusters near the Galactic Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sungsoo S. Kim; Mark Morris

    2003-07-14

    Numerical simulations of the dynamical friction suffered by a star cluster near the Galactic center have been performed with a parallelized tree code. Gerhard (2001) has suggested that dynamical friction, which causes a cluster to lose orbital energy and spiral in towards the galactic center, may explain the presence of a cluster of very young stars in the central parsec, where star formation might be prohibitively difficult owing to strong tidal forces. The clusters modeled in our simulations have an initial total mass of 10^5-10^6 Msun and initial galactocentric radii of 2.5-30 pc. We have identified a few simulations in which dynamical friction indeed brings a cluster to the central parsec, although this is only possible if the cluster is either very massive (~10^6 Msun), or is formed near the central parsec ( 10^6 Msun pc-3). The initial core collapse and segregation of massive stars into the cluster core, which typically happens on a much shorter time scale than that characterizing the dynamical inspiral of the cluster toward the Galactic center, can provide the requisite high density. Furthermore, because it is the cluster core which is most likely to survive the cluster disintegration during its journey inwards, this can help account for the observed distribution of presumably massive HeI stars in the central parsec.

  20. Stress Field at a Sliding Frictional Contact: Experiments and Calculations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Julien Scheibert; Alexis Prevost; Georges Debrégeas; Eytan Katzav; Mohktar Adda-Bedia

    2009-05-12

    A MEMS-based sensing device is used to measure the normal and tangential stress fields at the base of a rough elastomer film in contact with a smooth glass cylinder in steady sliding. This geometry allows for a direct comparison between the stress profiles measured along the sliding direction and the predictions of an original \\textit{exact} bidimensional model of friction. The latter assumes Amontons' friction law, which implies that in steady sliding the interfacial tangential stress is equal to the normal stress times a pressure-independent dynamic friction coefficient $\\mu_d$, but makes no further assumption on the normal stress field. Discrepancy between the measured and calculated profiles is less than 14% over the range of loads explored. Comparison with a test model, based on the classical assumption that the normal stress field is unchanged upon tangential loading, shows that the exact model better reproduces the experimental profiles at high loads. However, significant deviations remain that are not accounted for by either calculations. In that regard, the relevance of two other assumptions made in the calculations, namely (i) the smoothness of the interface and (ii) the pressure-independence of $\\mu_d$ is briefly discussed.