California at Davis, University of
Capacity Demand Power (GW) Hour of the Day The "Dip" Electricity Demand in Electricity Demand Every weekday, Japan's electricity use dips about 6 GW at 12 but it also shows that: · Behavior affects naHonal electricity use in unexpected ways
Niles, Augusta (Augusta L.)
Capacity strategy has established methods of dealing with uncertainty in future demand. This project advances the concept of capacity strategy under conditions of uncertainty in cases where capacity is the primary source ...
Earle, Robert; Kahn, Edward P.; Macan, Edo
Critical peak pricing and peak time rebate programs offer benefits by increasing system reliability, and therefore, reducing capacity needs of the electric power system. These benefits, however, decrease substantially as the size of the programs grows relative to the system size. More flexible schemes for deployment of demand response can help address the decreasing returns to scale in capacity value, but more flexible demand response has decreasing returns to scale as well. (author)
1 Optimal Demand Response Capacity of Automatic Lighting Control Seyed Ataollah Raziei and Hamed-mails: email@example.com and firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract--Demand response programs seek to ad- just the normal prior studies have extensively studied the capacity of offering demand response in buildings
The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.
The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.
electricity. In this manner, demand side management is directly integrated into the wholesale capacity marketcapacity market U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Florida Reliability Coordinating Council incremental auctions independent electricity
LBNL-5319E Assessing the Control Systems Capacity for Demand Response in California Industries in this report was coordinated by the Demand Response Research Center and funded by the California Energy of the Demand Response Research Center Industrial Controls Experts Working Group: · Jim Filanc, Southern
Kim, H.; Baltazar, J. C.; Haberl, J. S.; Yazdani, B.
This report is the continuation of the previous 2011 Statewide Electricity Savings report from code-compliant, single-family residences built between 2002 and 2009. Statewide electricity and electric demand savings achieved from the adoption...
of integrating demand response and energy efficiencyand D. Kathan (2009), Demand Response in U.S. ElectricityFRAMEWORKS THAT PROMOTE DEMAND RESPONSE 3.1. Demand Response
DECC aggregator managed portfolio automated demand responseaggregator designs their own programs, and offers demand responseaggregator is responsible for designing and implementing their own demand response
Scott, K. Rebecca
World crude oil and natural gas: a demand and supply model.analysis of the demand for oil in the Middle East. EnergyEstimates elasticity of demand for crude oil, not gasoline.
Scott, K. Rebecca
World crude oil and natural gas: a demand and supply model.analysis of the demand for oil in the Middle East. EnergyEstimates elasticity of demand for crude oil, not gasoline.
Scott, K. Rebecca
H. , and James M. Gri¢ n. 1983. Gasoline demand in the OECDof dynamic demand for gasoline. Journal of Econometrics 77(An empirical analysis of gasoline demand in Denmark using
Scott, K. Rebecca
shift in the short-run price elasticity of gasoline demand.A meta-analysis of the price elasticity of gasoline demand.2007. Consumer demand un- der price uncertainty: Empirical
Scott, K. Rebecca
Sterner. 1991. Analysing gasoline demand elasticities: A2011. Measuring global gasoline and diesel price and incomeMutairi. 1995. Demand for gasoline in Kuwait: An empirical
Kim, H.; Baltazar, J.C.; Haberl, J.; Lewis, C.; Yazdani, B.
ELECTRICITY AND DEMAND CAPACITY SAVINGS FROM THE IMPLEMENTATION OF IECC CODE IN TEXAS: ANALYSIS FOR SINGLE?FAMILY RESIDENCES 11th International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations New York City, October 18 ? 20, 2011 Hyojin Kim Research... Statewide Electricity and Demand Savings from the IECC Code in TX 11th ICEBO Conference Oct. 18 ? 20, 2011 2 Outline Introduction Methodology Base?Case Building Results Summary Statewide Electricity and Demand Savings from the IECC Code in TX 11th...
The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world`s dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group`s thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.
The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world`s dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group`s thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.
retail regulatory authority prohibit such activity. Demand response integration into US wholesale power marketsretail or wholesale level. 17 While demand response began participating at scale in wholesale power markets
Scott, K. Rebecca
A Joint Model of the Global Crude Oil Market and the U.S.Noureddine. 2002. World crude oil and natural gas: a demandelasticity of demand for crude oil, not gasoline. Results
Scott, K. Rebecca
A Joint Model of the Global Crude Oil Market and the U.S.Noureddine. 2002. World crude oil and natural gas: a demandelasticity of demand for crude oil, not gasoline. Results
Scott, K. Rebecca
global gasoline and diesel price and income elasticities.shift in the short-run price elasticity of gasoline demand.Habits and Uncertain Relative Prices: Simulating Petrol Con-
Shen, Bo; Ghatikar, Girish; Ni, Chun Chun; Dudley, Junqiao; Martin, Phil; Wikler, Greg
Demand response (DR) is a load management tool which provides a cost-effective alternative to traditional supply-side solutions to address the growing demand during times of peak electrical load. According to the US Department of Energy (DOE), demand response reflects “changes in electric usage by end-use customers from their normal consumption patterns in response to changes in the price of electricity over time, or to incentive payments designed to induce lower electricity use at times of high wholesale market prices or when system reliability is jeopardized.” 1 The California Energy Commission (CEC) defines DR as “a reduction in customers’ electricity consumption over a given time interval relative to what would otherwise occur in response to a price signal, other financial incentives, or a reliability signal.” 2 This latter definition is perhaps most reflective of how DR is understood and implemented today in countries such as the US, Canada, and Australia where DR is primarily a dispatchable resource responding to signals from utilities, grid operators, and/or load aggregators (or DR providers).
This dissertation addresses two topics. The first topic is strategic dynamic supply chain reconfiguration (DSCR) problem, in which the proposed capacity configuration network is employed in the second topic: healthcare facility location and capacity...
and S. DAVID WU Manufacturing Logistics Institute, Department of Industrial and Manufacturing Systems semiconductor manufacturer: marketing managers reserve capacity from manufacturing based on product demands, while attempting to maximize profit; manufacturing managers allocate capacity to competing marketing
Wong-Kcomt, J. B.; Turner, W. C.
is made up by auxiliary boilers. 2. Isolated Operation, Thermal Load Following: the system is sized to match or exceed the maximum thermal load. Any electrical load deficit is made up by auxiliary generator. 3. Electrically Baseloaded, the system... is sized to meet - or slightly exceed the minimum electrical demand. 4. Thermally Baseloaded, the system is sized to meet - or slightly exceed the minimum thermal demand. 5. Maximum Legal System Size, as determined by the Public Utilities...
Jordan, Rhonda LeNai
This research develops a novel approach to long-term power system capacity expansion planning for developing countries by incorporating endogenous demand dynamics resulting from social processes of technology adoption. ...
Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann
This report summarizes San Diego Gas& Electric Company?s collaboration with the Demand Response Research Center to develop and test automation capability for the Capacity Bidding Program in 2007. The report describes the Open Automated Demand Response architecture, summarizes the history of technology development and pilot studies. It also outlines the Capacity Bidding Program and technology being used by an aggregator that participated in this demand response program. Due to delays, the program was not fully operational for summer 2007. However, a test event on October 3, 2007, showed that the project successfully achieved the objective to develop and demonstrate how an open, Web?based interoperable automated notification system for capacity bidding can be used by aggregators for demand response. The system was effective in initiating a fully automated demand response shed at the aggregated sites. This project also demonstrated how aggregators can integrate their demand response automation systems with San Diego Gas& Electric Company?s Demand Response Automation Server and capacity bidding program.
1 Using heat demand prediction to optimise Virtual Power Plant production capacity Vincent Bakker that generate electricity (and heat) at the kilowatt level, which allows them to be installed in households distributed electricity generation (micro-generation e.g. solar cells, micro Combined Heat and Power (micro
Bertini, Robert L.
Keywords: Congestion mitigation Emissions reductions Vehicle emissions Traffic management a b s t r a c t Capacity, demand, and vehicle based emissions reduction strategies are compared for sev- eral pollutants congested arterials. Advanced-efficiency vehicles with emissions rates that are less sensitive to congestion
Ghatikar, Girish; McKane, Aimee; Goli, Sasank; Therkelsen, Peter; Olsen, Daniel
California's electricity markets are moving toward dynamic pricing models, such as real-time pricing, within the next few years, which could have a significant impact on an industrial facility's cost of energy use during the times of peak use. Adequate controls and automated systems that provide industrial facility managers real-time energy use and cost information are necessary for successful implementation of a comprehensive electricity strategy; however, little is known about the current control capacity of California industries. To address this gap, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, in close collaboration with California industrial trade associations, conducted a survey to determine the current state of controls technologies in California industries. This,study identifies sectors that have the technical capability to implement Demand Response (DR) and Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR). In an effort to assist policy makers and industry in meeting the challenges of real-time pricing, facility operational and organizational factors were taken into consideration to generate recommendations on which sectors Demand Response efforts should be focused. Analysis of the survey responses showed that while the vast majority of industrial facilities have semi- or fully automated control systems, participation in Demand Response programs is still low due to perceived barriers. The results also showed that the facilities that use continuous processes are good Demand Response candidates. When comparing facilities participating in Demand Response to those not participating, several similarities and differences emerged. Demand Response-participating facilities and non-participating facilities had similar timings of peak energy use, production processes, and participation in energy audits. Though the survey sample was smaller than anticipated, the results seemed to support our preliminary assumptions. Demonstrations of Auto-Demand Response in industrial facilities with good control capabilities are needed to dispel perceived barriers to participation and to investigate industrial subsectors suggested of having inherent Demand Response potential.
Impacts of Reduced Electricity Demand. Part 1. MethodologyImpacts of Reduced Electricity Demand. Part 1. MethodologyFigure 3: Commercial electricity demand with and without the
pdf. ———. 2011b. Residential Demand Module of the Nationaland the Commercial and Residential Demand Modules (DOE EIAcommercial and residential electricity demand projections
S. Kiliccote. Estimating Demand Response Load Impacts: in California. Demand Response Research Center, Lawrence and Techniques for Demand Response. LBNL Report 59975.
program, demand response aggregator, demand response vii WITH AN AGGREGATOR USING OPEN AUTOMATED DEMAND RESPONSE ThisWith an Aggregator Using Open Automated Demand Response is
in emissions, primary energy, capacity and composition ofin primary energy use, emissions and capacity and the changei.e. energy, upper plots) and capacity variables. The plots
Kim, H.; Baltazar, J.C.; Haberl, J.
This paper presents estimates of the statewide electricity and electric demand savings achieved from the adoption of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) for single-family residences in Texas and includes the corresponding increase...
5: Periods of Elevated Electricity Demand 8am-12pm 12pm-2pmC-8: Diurnal Variations in Electricity Demand Figure C-9:Variations in Electricity Demand Figure C-10: Seasonal
Protocol for Building Automation and Control Networks. Protocol for Building Automation and Control Networks, Demand Response Automation Server Demand Response Research
1 How Increased Crude Oil Demand by China and India Affects the International Market. Abstract The global crude oil market is characterised by complex interactions between demand and supply. The question that we address in this paper is how increased demand for crude oil by China and India affects
of 2007 that defined 6,102 megawatts (MW) of new demand- and supply-side resources now eligible to compete in the market. Approximately 40 percent—or 2,483 MW—of the new, qualified projects are demand-side resources such as demand response, energy...
ngcc nuclear coal ngcc nuclear other peaking renewable otherpeaking renewable Terawatt- hours Terawatt-hoursnuclear other peaking renewable Marginal Capacity Starting
Since the 1990s, China has experienced tremendous growth in its transportation sector. By the end of 2010, China's road infrastructure had emerged as the second-largest transportation system in the world after the United States. Passenger vehicle sales are dramatically increasing from a little more than half a million in 2000, to 3.7 million in 2005, to 13.8 million in 2010. This represents a twenty-fold increase from 2000 to 2010. The unprecedented motorization development in China led to a significant increase in oil demand, which requires China to import progressively more petroleum from other countries, with its share of petroleum imports exceeding 50% of total petroleum demand since 2009. In response to growing oil import dependency, the Chinese government is adopting a broad range of policies, including promotion of fuel-efficient vehicles, fuel conservation, increasing investments in oil resources around the world, and many others.
Brophy Haney, A.; Jamasb, Tooraj; Pollitt, Michael G.
in the context of investing in demand-side participation. Innovative forms of metering allow for more detailed information to be collected on electricity consumption; communications technology facilitates greater interaction between the end-user and the rest... of the electricity supply chain; and both information and interaction allow for end-users to become more actively involved in the electricity market by, for example, responding to price signals and information on consumption patterns. 2 Smaller electricity users...
We study a manufacturing firm that builds a product to stock to meet a random demand. If there is a positive surplus of finished goods, the customers make their purchases without delay and leave. If there is a backlog, the ...
Levy, Tal Z. (Tal Ze'ev)
Historically, electricity consumption has been largely insensitive to short term spot market conditions, requiring the equating of supply and demand to occur almost exclusively through changes in production. Large scale ...
2012. Addressing Electricity Demand through Demand Response:has been driving up the electricity demand while widespreadexperiences in addressing electricity demand This section is
Dooley, James J.
Whether there is sufficient geologic CO2 storage capacity to allow CCS to play a significant role in mitigating climate change has been the subject of debate since the 1990s. This paper presents a meta- analysis of a large body of recently published literature to derive updated estimates of the global deep geologic storage resource as well as the potential demand for this geologic CO2 storage resource over the course of this century. This analysis reveals that, for greenhouse gas emissions mitigation scenarios that have end-of-century atmospheric CO2 concentrations of between 350 ppmv and 725 ppmv, the average demand for deep geologic CO2 storage over the course of this century is between 410 GtCO2 and 1,670 GtCO2. The literature summarized here suggests that -- depending on the stringency of criteria applied to calculate storage capacity – global geologic CO2 storage capacity could be: 35,300 GtCO2 of “theoretical” capacity; 13,500 GtCO2 of “effective” capacity; 3,900 GtCO2, of “practical” capacity; and 290 GtCO2 of “matched” capacity for the few regions where this narrow definition of capacity has been calculated. The cumulative demand for geologic CO2 storage is likely quite small compared to global estimates of the deep geologic CO2 storage capacity, and therefore, a “lack” of deep geologic CO2 storage capacity is unlikely to be an impediment for the commercial adoption of CCS technologies in this century.
Underground single-shell waste storage tanks located at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, generate gaseous mixtures that could be ignited, challenging the structural integrity of the tanks. The structural capacity of the single-shell tanks to internal pressure is estimated through nonlinear finite-element structural analyses of the reinforced concrete tank. To determine their internal pressure capacity, designs for both the million-gallon and the half-million-gallon tank are evaluated on the basis of gross structural instability.
K.C. Mares, D. Shroyer. , 2010. Demand Response andOpen Automated Demand Response Opportunities for DataProcessing Industry Demand Response Participation: A Scoping
Factory capacity limits Machine dependencies Employee scheduling Raw material availability Other internal operations (and also possibly the actions of other suppliers that supply raw materials) and at an international workshop at the multi-agent conference (AAMAS'06). Manufacturer Customer demand Penalties for non
the ongoing pilot demand-side management (DSM) programs ina comprehensive demand-side management (DSM) pilot program,a directive on demand-side management (DSM) in late 2010.
of preferred resources, placing energy efficiency and demandPromoting Energy Efficiency as a Cost-Effective Resource infor energy efficiency and demand response resources. Peak
International Journal "Information Technologies and Knowledge" Vol.2 / 2008360 [Marr, Hütt, 2005] C. Marr, M. Hütt. Topology regulates pattern formation capacity of binary cellular automata on graphs
Crow, Ben; Singh, Nirvikar
hydro. International Hydro Power and Dam Construction.suggested) Supply of hydro-electric power * Supply of waterrights ? Supply of hydro-electric power ? Supply of water
Haney, Aoife Brophy; Jamasb, Tooraj; Platchkov, Laura M.; Pollitt, Michael G.
annual GHG emissions, and 40% of all energy consumption (UNEP, 2009). Furthermore, there is wide evidence of the cost- effectiveness of energy efficiency measures as compared to renewable programmes (IEA, 2006). In parallel, load growth; increased... of International Energy Agency (IEA) publications have also looked at energy use trends (IEA, 2007; IEA, 2008); reviewed the implementation of energy efficiencies policies in general (IEA, 2009b); and in the residential sector in particular (IEA, 2008...
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames City of",6,1,"Omaha Public PowerOECD/IEA - 2008Wellhead PriceConsumption by9" ,"Released:3a. January Monthly Peak HourB
Managing Increased Charging Demand Carrie Giles ICF International, Supporting the Workplace Charging Challenge Workplace Charging Challenge Do you already own an EV? Are you...
Keyser, M.; Long, D.; Jung, Y. S.; Pesaran, A.; Darcy, E.; McCarthy, B.; Patrick, L.; Kruger, C.
This presentation describes a cell-level test method that simulates an emergent internal short circuit, produces consistent and reproducible test results, can establish the locations and temperatures/power/SOC conditions where an internal short circuit will result in thermal runaway, and provides relevant data to validate internal short circuit models.
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Paris
Published every other year, Uranium Resources, Production, and Demand, or the "Red Book" as it is commonly known, is jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency. It is the recognised world reference on uranium and is based on official information received from 43 countries. This 21st edition presents the results of a thorough review of world uranium supplies and demand as of 1st January 2005 and provides a statistical profile of the world uranium industry in the areas of exploration, resource estimates, production and reactor-related requirements. It provides substantial new information from all major uranium production centres in Africa, Australia, Central Asia, Eastern Europe and North America. Projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related uranium requirements through 2025 are provided as well as a discussion of long-term uranium supply and demand issues. This edition focuses on recent price and production increases that could signal major c...
Grantees may use funds to coordinate with electricity supply companies and utilities to reduce energy demands on their power systems. These demand reduction programs are usually coordinated through...
2/28/2014 1 Algorithms Demands and Bounds Applications of Flow Networks Design and Analysis of Algorithms Andrei Bulatov Algorithms Demands and Bounds 12-2 Lower Bounds The problem can be generalized) capacities (ii) demands (iii) lower bounds A circulation f is feasible if (Capacity condition) For each e E
we deeply analyzed the world's main region market conditions that including the product price, profit, capacity, production, capacity utilization, supply, demand and industry...
Aden, Nathaniel; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina
This study analyzes China's coal industry by focusing on four related areas. First, data are reviewed to identify the major drivers of historical and future coal demand. Second, resource constraints and transport bottlenecks are analyzed to evaluate demand and growth scenarios. The third area assesses the physical requirements of substituting coal demand growth with other primary energy forms. Finally, the study examines the carbon- and environmental implications of China's past and future coal consumption. There are three sections that address these areas by identifying particular characteristics of China's coal industry, quantifying factors driving demand, and analyzing supply scenarios: (1) reviews the range of Chinese and international estimates of remaining coal reserves and resources as well as key characteristics of China's coal industry including historical production, resource requirements, and prices; (2) quantifies the largest drivers of coal usage to produce a bottom-up reference projection of 2025 coal demand; and (3) analyzes coal supply constraints, substitution options, and environmental externalities. Finally, the last section presents conclusions on the role of coal in China's ongoing energy and economic development. China has been, is, and will continue to be a coal-powered economy. In 2007 Chinese coal production contained more energy than total Middle Eastern oil production. The rapid growth of coal demand after 2001 created supply strains and bottlenecks that raise questions about sustainability. Urbanization, heavy industrial growth, and increasing per-capita income are the primary interrelated drivers of rising coal usage. In 2007, the power sector, iron and steel, and cement production accounted for 66% of coal consumption. Power generation is becoming more efficient, but even extensive roll-out of the highest efficiency units would save only 14% of projected 2025 coal demand for the power sector. A new wedge of future coal consumption is likely to come from the burgeoning coal-liquefaction and chemicals industries. If coal to chemicals capacity reaches 70 million tonnes and coal-to-liquids capacity reaches 60 million tonnes, coal feedstock requirements would add an additional 450 million tonnes by 2025. Even with more efficient growth among these drivers, China's annual coal demand is expected to reach 3.9 to 4.3 billion tonnes by 2025. Central government support for nuclear and renewable energy has not reversed China's growing dependence on coal for primary energy. Substitution is a matter of scale: offsetting one year of recent coal demand growth of 200 million tonnes would require 107 billion cubic meters of natural gas (compared to 2007 growth of 13 BCM), 48 GW of nuclear (compared to 2007 growth of 2 GW), or 86 GW of hydropower capacity (compared to 2007 growth of 16 GW). Ongoing dependence on coal reduces China's ability to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions growth. If coal demand remains on a high growth path, carbon dioxide emissions from coal combustion alone would exceed total US energy-related carbon emissions by 2010. Within China's coal-dominated energy system, domestic transportation has emerged as the largest bottleneck for coal industry growth and is likely to remain a constraint to further expansion. China has a low proportion of high-quality reserves, but is producing its best coal first. Declining quality will further strain production and transport capacity. Furthermore, transporting coal to users has overloaded the train system and dramatically increased truck use, raising transportation oil demand. Growing international imports have helped to offset domestic transport bottlenecks. In the long term, import demand is likely to exceed 200 million tonnes by 2025, significantly impacting regional markets.
This report provides information on current international petroleum production, demand, imports, and stocks. World oil demand and OECD demand data are presented for the years 1970 thru 1995.
Kim, H; Baltazar, J.C.; Haberl, J.
-02-01 STATEWIDE ELECTRICITY AND DEMAND CAPACITY SAVINGS FROM THE INTERNATIONAL ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE (IECC) ADOPTION FOR SINGLE-FAMILY RESIDENCES IN TEXAS (2002-2009) Hyojin Kim Juan-Carlos Baltazar, Ph.D. Jeff Haberl, Ph.D., P... SUMMARY Statewide electricity and electric demand savings achieved from the adoption of the different International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) versions for single-family residences in Texas and the corresponding construction cost increases over...
Provisioning in Datacenter Networks for Full Bandwidth Communication Wenda Ni*, Changcheng Huang*, and Jing Wu.email@example.com@ieee.org Abstract-Recent advances in datacenter network design have enabled full bandwidth communication based, and under k arbitrary link failures. We derive the minimum link capacity required on two typical datacenter
Hess, J. Richard; Lamers, Patrick; Roni, Mohammad S.; Jacobson, Jacob J.; Heath, Brendi
Logistical barrier are tied to feedstock harvesting, collection, storage and distribution. Current crop harvesting machinery is unable to selectively harvest preferred components of cellulosic biomass while maintaining acceptable levels of soil carbon and minimizing erosion. Actively managing biomass variability imposes additional functional requirements on biomass harvesting equipment. A physiological variation in biomass arises from differences in genetics, degree of crop maturity, geographical location, climatic events, and harvest methods. This variability presents significant cost and performance risks for bioenergy systems. Currently, processing standards and specifications for cellulosic feedstocks are not as well-developed as for mature commodities. Biomass that is stored with high moisture content or exposed to moisture during storage is susceptible to spoilage, rotting, spontaneous combustion, and odor problems. Appropriate storage methods and strategies are needed to better define storage requirements to preserve the volume and quality of harvested biomass over time and maintain its conversion yield. Raw herbaceous biomass is costly to collect, handle, and transport because of its low density and fibrous nature. Existing conventional, bale-based handling equipment and facilities cannot cost-effectively deliver and store high volumes of biomass, even with improved handling techniques. Current handling and transportation systems designed for moving woodchips can be inefficient for bioenergy processes due to the costs and challenges of transporting, storing, and drying high-moisture biomass. The infrastructure for feedstock logistics has not been defined for the potential variety of locations, climates, feedstocks, storage methods, processing alternatives, etc., which will occur at a national scale. When setting up biomass fuel supply chains, for large-scale biomass systems, logistics are a pivotal part in the system. Various studies have shown that long-distance international transport by ship is feasible in terms of energy use and transportation costs, but availability of suitable vessels and meteorological conditions (e.g., winter time in Scandinavia and Russia) need to be considered. However, local transportation by truck (both in biomass exporting and importing countries) may be a high-cost factor, which can influence the overall energy balance and total biomass costs.
..................................................................................................................................... 2 Power System Requirements: Capacity, Energy, and FlexibilitySixth Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan Chapter 12: Capacity and Flexibility Resources................................................... 2 Capacity: Meeting Peak Demand
for the determination of the optimum program level to be included in the IRP. The demand-side management options wereDSM Program Development. The demand-side resource options were developed using a combination Practices Manual: Economic Analysis of Demand-side Programs and Projects.2 The proposed DSM programs
InDemandInDemandInDemand Energize Your Career You can join the next generation of workers who in Energy #12;#12;In Demand | 1 No, this isn't a quiz...but if you answered yes to any or all and Training Administration wants you to have this publication, In Demand: Careers in Energy. It will let you
VideoonDemandVideoonDemandVideoonDemand Columbia's Video on Demand Testbed and Interoperability Experiment Columbia's Video on Demand Testbed and Interoperability Experiment S.-F. Chang and A Columbia UniversityColumbia University www.www.ctrctr..columbiacolumbia..eduedu/advent/advent #12;VideoonDemandVideoonDemandVideoonDemand
#12;VideoonDemandVideoonDemandVideoonDemand Columbia's Video on Demand Testbed and Interoperability Experiment Columbia's Video on Demand Testbed and Interoperability Experiment H.H. KalvaKalva, A.www.eeee..columbiacolumbia..eduedu/advent/advent #12;VideoonDemandVideoonDemandVideoonDemand VoD Testbed ArchitectureVoD Testbed Architecture Video
1 Global Climate Change and Demand for Energy Tyson Research Center and International Center et al. Climate Variability and Climate Change: The New Climate Dice http://data, 2012 Tyson Research Center International Center for Advanced Research and Sustainability (I
McCarthy, Ryan W.
CA-N demand Variable cost Generation/Demand (MW) CA-SSnapshots of capacity, costs, generation, and GHG emissionsand provide low-cost generation for California. When they
unit water requirement of coal-fired electricity generationin electricity demand. Coal-fired power generation accounted12, the absolute amount of coal-fired capacity grew at an
THE STATE OF DEMAND RESPONSE IN CALIFORNIA Prepared For: California Energy in this report. #12; ABSTRACT By reducing system loads during criticalpeak times, demand response (DR) can.S. and internationally and lay out ideas that could help move California forward. KEY WORDS demand response, peak
LBNL-3047E Demand Response and Open Automated Demand Response Opportunities for Data Centers G described in this report was coordinated by the Demand Response Research Center and funded by the California. Demand Response and Open Automated Demand Response Opportunities for Data Centers. California Energy
The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is a computer modeling system developed by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The NEMS produces integrated forecasts for energy markets in the United States by achieving a general equilibrium solution for energy supply and demand. Currently, for each year during the period from 1990 through 2010, the NEMS describes energy supply, conversion, consumption, and pricing. The Electricity Market Module (EMM) is the electricity supply component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). The supply of electricity is a conversion activity since electricity is produced from other energy sources (e.g., fossil, nuclear, and renewable). The EMM represents the generation, transmission, and pricing of electricity. The EMM consists of four main submodules: Electricity Capacity Planning (ECP), Electricity Fuel Dispatching (EFD), Electricity Finance and Pricing (EFP), and Load and Demand-Side Management (LDSM). The ECP evaluates changes in the mix of generating capacity that are necessary to meet future demands for electricity and comply with environmental regulations. The EFD represents dispatching (i.e., operating) decisions and determines how to allocate available capacity to meet the current demand for electricity. Using investment expenditures from the ECP and operating costs from the EFD, the EFP calculates the price of electricity, accounting for state-level regulations involving the allocation of costs. The LDSM translates annual demands for electricity into distributions that describe hourly, seasonal, and time-of-day variations. These distributions are used by the EFD and the ECP to determine the quantity and types of generating capacity that are required to insure reliable and economical supplies of electricity. The EMM also represents nonutility suppliers and interregional and international transmission and trade. These activities are included in the EFD and the ECP.
-of-supply and DR 15 minutes DaysHoursSeconds Adjustments of planned production Prognosis errors Excess capacity in demand to prices. Similar to Least-cost planning and demand-side management. DR differs by using prices: Curtailment of load, Direct load control, e.g. central control of electric comfort heating. Reservation prices
High Temperatures & Electricity Demand An Assessment of Supply Adequacy in California Trends.......................................................................................................1 HIGH TEMPERATURES AND ELECTRICITY DEMAND.....................................................................................................................7 SECTION I: HIGH TEMPERATURES AND ELECTRICITY DEMAND ..........................9 BACKGROUND
The global demand surge that rescued world crude oil prices in 1994 will continue through 1995 and at least sustain, if not increase, worldwide drilling activity. Although average world crude oil prices at the end of 1994 were somewhat higher than a year earlier, the average price for all of last year was down from that of 1993. Production capacity remained sufficient to meet the growing need for crude, and the potential for return of Iraqi exports, embargoed by the United Nations since August 1990, lingered over the market. For several years the average world export crude oil price fluctuated seasonally within the range of $16--20/bbl. This band appears to have dropped to $13--17/bbl. The paper discusses economic growth rates; worldwide demand; worldwide supply; worldwide supply outlook; prices; and international drilling activity.
Advanced Demand Responsive Lighting Host: Francis Rubinstein Demand Response Research Center demand responsive lighting systems Importance of dimming New wireless controls technologies · Advanced Demand Responsive Lighting (commenced March 2007) #12;Objectives · Provide up-to-date information
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Drop-on-demand Extraction from a Water Meniscus by a High Field Pulse P. Atten, A. Ouiguini, J. Raisin of a small drop electrically neutral. The experimental results of water drops extraction in oil are presented, France Abstract- As a part of a study of electrocoalescence of water droplets in oil, the controlled
A First Look at Colocation Demand Response Shaolei Ren Florida International University Mohammad A. Islam Florida International University ABSTRACT Large data centers can participate in demand response, the existing research has only considered demand response by owner-operated data centers (e.g., Google
Yuen, Ming Kwan
Hanan. 1982. Operations research and capacity expansionEngi- neering and Operations Research Department forstochastic demands. Operations Research 40 pp. S210–S216.
De Borger, Bruno; Van Dender, Kurt
Dender, Kurt. 2004. “Duopoly prices under congested access,”of demand on capacities and prices, see (3), has been madefacilities, even when price discrimination is allowed. r dq
by rapid innovation and volatile demands. Capacity reservation provides a risk sharing mechanism, manufacturers are confronted with capital intensive facilities and highly skilled labor, operating under long. Physical expansion of manufacturing capacity involves enormous risk. This involves building new facil
Squicciarini, Anna Cinzia
neither distribution costs nor distribution-capacity constraints. II. THE CLEARING PRICE FOR LINEAR DEMAND-RESPONSE-sensitive demand. In turn, based on this demand response, the suppliers determine their optimal prices
stream_source_info ESL-IC-09-11-05.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 14615 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IC-09-11-05.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Demand Response... 4 An Innovative Solution to Get the Ball Rolling ? Demand Response (DR) ? Monitoring Based Commissioning (MBCx) EnerNOC has a solution involving two complementary offerings. ESL-IC-09-11-05 Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference...
Digital Addressable Lighting Interface Demand Responseof Demand-Responsive Lighting in Offices with and without2010). Using Dimmable Lighting for Regulation Capacity and
Forsyth, Peter A.
the underlying risk factor in the bandwidth market, and then apply real options theory to the upgrade decision, this real options approach has not been used pre- viously in the area of network capacity planning--uncertain demand for capacity, real options, net- work planning I. INTRODUCTION In the past, bandwidth was traded
This International Energy Outlook presents historical data from 1970 to 1993 and EIA`s projections of energy consumption and carbon emissions through 2015 for 6 country groups. Prospects for individual fuels are discussed. Summary tables of the IEO96 world energy consumption, oil production, and carbon emissions projections are provided in Appendix A. The reference case projections of total foreign energy consumption and of natural gas, coal, and renewable energy were prepared using EIA`s World Energy Projection System (WEPS) model. Reference case projections of foreign oil production and consumption were prepared using the International Energy Module of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). Nuclear consumption projections were derived from the International Nuclear Model, PC Version (PC-INM). Alternatively, nuclear capacity projections were developed using two methods: the lower reference case projections were based on analysts` knowledge of the nuclear programs in different countries; the upper reference case was generated by the World Integrated Nuclear Evaluation System (WINES)--a demand-driven model. In addition, the NEMS Coal Export Submodule (CES) was used to derive flows in international coal trade. As noted above, foreign projections of electricity demand are now projected as part of the WEPS. 64 figs., 62 tabs.
as energy monitoring, building automation systems and loadhave the necessary building automation systems, it is likely
Scott, K. Rebecca
capita terms. When crude oil prices are used, these are thedriven by the world crude oil price rather than by exchange-how consumers think about oil prices and price expectations,
Scott, K. Rebecca
capita terms. When crude oil prices are used, these are theprices are driven by oil prices, moreover, and oil isby ‡uctuations in the crude oil price. The overall mean real
Pacific Gas and Electric power purchase agreement peak timein structure to a power purchase agreement (PPA) that athe need to purchase high-priced power, all customers in a
for decades. In the US, load management and interruptible/primary interest in load management was driven in part byresponse (DR) is a load management tool which provides a
Scott, K. Rebecca
shock), it is the world crude oil price that must change insuggesting that the crude oil price might be somewhatper capita terms. When crude oil prices are used, these are
Scott, K. Rebecca
shock), it is the world crude oil price that must change inin the instruments based on crude oil prices. Unfortunately,per capita terms. When crude oil prices are used, these are
benefits of Demand Side Management (DSM) are insufficient toefficiency, demand side management (DSM) cost effectivenessResearch Center Demand Side Management Demand Side Resources
Platchkov, Laura M.; Pollitt, Michael G.
25 3.3.2 Electrification of personal transport New sources of electricity demand may emerge which substantially change the total demand for electricity and the way electricity is consumed by the household. The Tesla Roadster12 stores 53 k... substantial battery storage capacity to the electricity grid, both when stationary at home and when at work. They may thus be very useful in providing short term back-up at system demand peaks or for dumping electricity to the batteries when supply is at a...
Tables describing consumption and prices by sector and census division for 2006 - includes residential demand, commercial demand, and industrial demand
The SP-100 program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop the technology necessary for space nuclear power systems for military and civil application. During FY86 and 87, the NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology Program was devised to maintain the momentum of promising technology advancement efforts started during Phase I of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the chances for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for future space applications. In FY88, the Advanced Technology Program was incorporated into NASA`s new Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The CSTI Program was established to provide the foundation for technology development in automation and robotics, information, propulsion, and power. The CSTI High Capacity Power Program builds on the technology efforts of the SP-100 program, incorporates the previous NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology project, and provides a bridge to NASA Project Pathfinder. The elements of CSTI High Capacity Power development include Conversion Systems, Thermal Management, Power Management, System Diagnostics, and Environmental Interactions. Technology advancement in all areas, including materials, is required to assure the high reliability and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall program will develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems as well as allowing mission independence from solar and orbital attitude requirements. Several recent advancements in CSTI High Capacity power development will be discussed.
Hua, Xia, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
This project examines a production station that faces fluctuating demand with seasonal pattern. The cumulative capacity exceeds the cumulative demand in a one year period; however, its weekly capacity is not able to meet ...
Sussex, University of
/ Daniele&Rotolo& D.Rotolo@sussex.ac.uk/ Associate(Editors& Area& Florian&Kern& Energy& F.Kern@sussex.ac.ukReviving'demand+pull'perspec2ves:' The'effect'of'demand'uncertainty'and' stagnancy'on'R&D'strategy'which'case'the'Associate'Editors'may'decide'to'skip'internal'review'process.' Website' SWPS:'www.sussex.ac.uk
Dennis Hill; Kurt Swenson; Carl Tuura; Jim Simon; Robert Vermette; Gilberto Marcha; Steve Kelly; David Wells; Ed Palmer; Kuo Yu; Tram Nguyen; Juliam Migliavacca
According to a 2008 report issued by the United States Geological Survey, North Dakota and Montana have an estimated 3.0 to 4.3 billion barrels of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil in an area known as the Bakken Formation. With the size and remoteness of the discovery, the question became 'can a business case be made for increasing refining capacity in North Dakota?' And, if so what is the impact to existing players in the region. To answer the question, a study committee comprised of leaders in the region's petroleum industry were brought together to define the scope of the study, hire a consulting firm and oversee the study. The study committee met frequently to provide input on the findings and modify the course of the study, as needed. The study concluded that the Petroleum Area Defense District II (PADD II) has an oversupply of gasoline. With that in mind, a niche market, naphtha, was identified. Naphtha is used as a diluent used for pipelining the bitumen (heavy crude) from Canada to crude markets. The study predicted there will continue to be an increase in the demand for naphtha through 2030. The study estimated the optimal configuration for the refinery at 34,000 barrels per day (BPD) producing 15,000 BPD of naphtha and a 52 percent refinery charge for jet and diesel yield. The financial modeling assumed the sponsor of a refinery would invest its own capital to pay for construction costs. With this assumption, the internal rate of return is 9.2 percent which is not sufficient to attract traditional investment given the risk factor of the project. With that in mind, those interested in pursuing this niche market will need to identify incentives to improve the rate of return.
Rabie, Ahmed Ibrahim El Said
such as the requirement to meet the new dynamic regulations in the Safe Drinking Water Act and the Clean Water Act. This includes providing sufficient capacity to satisfy uncertain and changing water demands, maintaining consistent water quality, and identifying...
Reps, Thomas W.
1 DEMAND INTERPROCEDURAL PROGRAM ANALYSIS USING LOGIC DATABASES Thomas W. Reps Computer Sciences@cs.wisc.edu ABSTRACT This paper describes how algorithms for demand versions of inerprocedural program analysis for all elements of the program. This paper concerns the solution of demand versions of interprocedural
Demand Response Assessment INTRODUCTION This appendix provides more detail on some of the topics raised in Chapter 4, "Demand Response" of the body of the Plan. These topics include 1. The features, advantages and disadvantages of the main options for stimulating demand response (price mechanisms
This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; stocks from 1973 through 1995, and trade from 1985 through 1995.
This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.
Creti, Anna; Fabra, Natalia
and design of electricity capacity markets. Our work has twoMarkets for Electricity capacity markets, and so, when thesemain features of electricity capacity markets. We have used
· Owns and operates over 1,300 megawatts of nuclear, hydroelectric, solar, and wind generation assets · Increasingly less capacity and flexibility of its hydroelectric resources · EN's Pilot provides BPA 35 MW
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Paris
With several countries currently building nuclear power plants and planning the construction of more to meet long-term increases in electricity demand, uranium resources, production and demand remain topics of notable interest. In response to the projected growth in demand for uranium and declining inventories, the uranium industry – the first critical link in the fuel supply chain for nuclear reactors – is boosting production and developing plans for further increases in the near future. Strong market conditions will, however, be necessary to trigger the investments required to meet projected demand. The "Red Book", jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, is a recognised world reference on uranium. It is based on information compiled in 40 countries, including those that are major producers and consumers of uranium. This 23rd edition provides a comprehensive review of world uranium supply and demand as of 1 January 2009, as well as data on global ur...
Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David S.; Motegi, Naoya; Bourassa, Norman
Fully-Automated Demand Response Test in Large Facilities14in DR systems. Demand Response using HVAC in Commercialof Fully Automated Demand Response in Large Facilities”
F) Enhanced ACP Date RAA ACP Demand Response – SpinningReserve Demonstration Demand Response – Spinning Reservesupply spinning reserve. Demand Response – Spinning Reserve
Demand Response Programs for Oregon Utilities Public Utility Commission May 2003 Public Utility ....................................................................................................................... 1 Types of Demand Response Programs............................................................................ 3 Demand Response Programs in Oregon
Reed, Derek D.
Operant behavioral economics investigates the relation between environmental constraint and reinforcer consumption. The standard approach to quantifying this relation is through the use of behavioral economic demand curves. ...
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear,DecadeYear Jan Feb Mar Apr MayDecade Year-0Decade Year-00 0 03ae
Burke, Robert B.; Henderson, Michael I.; Widergren, Steven E.
The paper describes the demand response programs developed and in operation in New England, and the revised designs for participation in the forward capacity market. This description will include how energy efficiency, demand-side resources, and distributed generation are eligible to participate in this new forward capacity market. The paper will also discuss various methods that can be used to configure and communicate with demand response resources and important concerns in specifying interfaces that accommodate multiple technologies and allow technology choice and evolution.
Fetters, J. L.; Teets, S. J.
The Demand Management Plan set forth in this paper has proven to be a viable action to reduce a 3 million per year electric bill at the Columbus Works location of Western Electric. Measures are outlined which have reduced the peak demand 5% below...
Sigrin, B.; Sullivan, P.; Ibanez, E.; Margolis, R.
An important emerging issue is the estimation of renewables' contributions to reliably meeting system demand, or their capacity value. While the capacity value of thermal generation can be estimated easily, assessment of wind and solar requires a more nuanced approach due to resource variability. Reliability-based methods, particularly, effective load-carrying capacity (ELCC), are considered to be the most robust techniques for addressing this resource variability. The Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) capacity expansion model and other long-term electricity capacity planning models require an approach to estimating CV for generalized PV and system configurations with low computational and data requirements. In this paper we validate treatment of solar photovoltaic (PV) capacity value by ReEDS capacity expansion model by comparing model results to literature for a range of energy penetration levels. Results from the ReEDS model are found to compare well with both comparisons--despite not being resolved at an hourly scale.
to DR impacts that lower energy and capacity prices, improvedue to reduced wholesale energy and capacity prices; (5)DR impacts that lower energy and capacity prices, improve
While there is general agreement that demand response (DR) is a valued component in a utility resource plan, there is a lack of consensus regarding how to value DR. Establishing the value of DR is a prerequisite to determining how much and what types of DR should be implemented, to which customers DR should be targeted, and a key determinant that drives the development of economically viable DR consumer technology. Most approaches for quantifying the value of DR focus on changes in utility system revenue requirements based on resource plans with and without DR. This ''utility centric'' approach does not assign any value to DR impacts that lower energy and capacity prices, improve reliability, lower system and network operating costs, produce better air quality, and provide improved customer choice and control. Proper valuation of these benefits requires a different basis for monetization. The review concludes that no single methodology today adequately captures the wide range of benefits and value potentially attributed to DR. To provide a more comprehensive valuation approach, current methods such as the Standard Practice Method (SPM) will most likely have to be supplemented with one or more alternative benefit-valuation approaches. This report provides an updated perspective on the DR valuation framework. It includes an introduction and four chapters that address the key elements of demand response valuation, a comprehensive literature review, and specific research recommendations.
This report presents a new approach to estimating the marginal utility sector impacts associated with electricity demand reductions. The method uses publicly available data and provides results in the form of time series of impact factors. The input data are taken from the Energy Information Agency's Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) projections of how the electric system might evolve in the reference case, and in a number of side cases that incorporate different effciency and other policy assumptions. The data published with the AEO are used to define quantitative relationships between demand-side electricity reductions by end use and supply-side changes to capacity by plant type, generation by fuel type and emissions of CO2, Hg, NOx and SO2. The impact factors define the change in each of these quantities per unit reduction in site electricity demand. We find that the relative variation in these impacts by end use is small, but the time variation can be significant.
such as wind, solar, and electric vehicles as well as dispatchable loads and microgrids. Many of these resources will be "behind-the-meter" (i.e., demand resources) and...
The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world, in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.
international energy supply/demand in 2050, China, India andStorage (CCS) J energy including China and India, growing ""
This monthly publication provides current data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the OECD. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries.
. These enhancements pose demanding operation conditions on the battery, emphasizing the importance of this com- ponentRoBM2 : Measurement of Battery Capacity in Mobile Robot Systems Nestor Lucas1 , Cosmin Codrea1. With battery driven robot systems performing very sophisti- cated tasks, increasing demands on the power supply
No. ER06-615-000 CAISO Demand Response Resource User Guide -8 2.1. Demand Response Provides a Range of Benefits to8 2.2. Demand Response Benefits can be Quantified in Several
Zhigilei, Leonid V.
Principle of equipartition of energy Heat capacity of ideal and real gases Heat capacity of solids: Dulong and internal energy of 3/2kBT. The molar internal energy U=3/2NAkBT=3/2RT and the molar heat capacity under to the heat capacity can be considered classically only if En ~ h Energy leve
Optimal Demand Response Libin Jiang Steven Low Computing + Math Sciences Electrical Engineering Caltech Oct 2011 #12;Outline Caltech smart grid research Optimal demand response #12;Global trends 1
....................................................................................................1-16 Energy Consumption Data...............................................1-15 Data Sources for Energy Demand Forecasting ModelsCALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION ENERGY DEMAND FORECAST METHODS REPORT Companion Report
Estimating a Demand System with Nonnegativity Constraints: Mexican Meat Demand Amos Golan* Jeffrey an almost ideal demand system for five types of meat using cross-sectional data from Mexico, where most households did not buy at least one type of meat during the survey week. The system of demands is shown
Peer-Assisted On-Demand Streaming: Characterizing Demands and Optimizing Supplies Fangming Liu Abstract--Nowadays, there has been significant deployment of peer-assisted on-demand streaming services over the Internet. Two of the most unique and salient features in a peer-assisted on-demand streaming
#12;Sources: China National Bureau of Statistics; U.S. Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Outlook. Overview:Overview: Energy Use in China and the U.S.Energy Use in China and the U.S. 5 0Energy Demand in China Lynn Price Staff Scientist February 2, 2010 #12;Founded in 1988 Focused
McCarthy, Ryan; Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M.
fraction of residential and commercial demands, leading16 Residential electricity demand endspecific residential electricity demands into electricity
Demand Forecast INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY A 20-year forecast of electricity demand is a required in electricity demand is, of course, crucial to determining the need for new electricity resources and helping of any forecast of electricity demand and developing ways to reduce the risk of planning errors
Peltier, R.; Shuster, E.; McNemar, A.; Stiegel, G.J.; Murphy, J.
Population shifts, growing electricity demand, and greater competition for water resources have heightened interest in the link between energy and water. The US Energy Information Administration projects a 22% increase in US installed generating capacity by 2030. Of the 259 GE of new capacity expected to have come on-line by then, more than 192 GW will be thermoelectric and thus require some water for cooling. Our challenge will become balancing people's needs for power and for water. 1 ref., 7 figs.
refinery as of January 1, 2006 Tables 1 Number and Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by PAD District and State as of January 1, 2006 PDF 2 Production Capacity of...
Radziszowski, Stanislaw P.
Shannon Capacity Ramsey Numbers Old links between Shannon and Ramsey New links between Shannon and Ramsey Bounds on Shannon Capacity and Ramsey Numbers from Product of Graphs Xiaodong Xu1 Stanislaw Institute of Technology, NY, USA March 2014 1/24 #12;Shannon Capacity Ramsey Numbers Old links between
The International Energy Outlook 1998 (IEO98) presents an assessment by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the outlook for international energy markets through 2020. Projections in IEO98 are displaced according to six basic country groupings. The industrialized region includes projections for four individual countries -- the United States, Canada, Mexico, and Japan -- along with the subgroups Western Europe and Australasia (defined as Australia, New Zealand, and the US Territories). The developing countries are represented by four separate regional subgroups: developing Asia, Africa, Middle East, and Central and South America. China and India are represented in developing Asia. New to this year`s report, country-level projections are provided for Brazil -- which is represented in Central and South America. Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union (EE/FSU) are considered as a separate country grouping. The report begins with a review of world trends in energy demand. Regional consumption projections for oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear power, and renewable energy (hydroelectricity, geothermal, wind, solar, and other renewables) are presented in five fuel chapters, with a review of the current status of each fuel on a worldwide basis. Summary tables of the IEO98 projections for world energy consumption, carbon emissions, oil production, and nuclear power generating capacity are provided in Appendix A. 88 figs., 77 tabs.
Rubinstein, Francis; Kiliccote, Sila
The objective of this scoping study is: (1) to identify current market drivers and technology trends that can improve the demand responsiveness of commercial building lighting systems and (2) to quantify the energy, demand and environmental benefits of implementing lighting demand response and energy-saving controls strategies Statewide. Lighting systems in California commercial buildings consume 30 GWh. Lighting systems in commercial buildings often waste energy and unnecessarily stress the electrical grid because lighting controls, especially dimming, are not widely used. But dimmable lighting equipment, especially the dimming ballast, costs more than non-dimming lighting and is expensive to retrofit into existing buildings because of the cost of adding control wiring. Advances in lighting industry capabilities coupled with the pervasiveness of the Internet and wireless technologies have led to new opportunities to realize significant energy saving and reliable demand reduction using intelligent lighting controls. Manufacturers are starting to produce electronic equipment--lighting-application specific controllers (LAS controllers)--that are wirelessly accessible and can control dimmable or multilevel lighting systems obeying different industry-accepted protocols. Some companies make controllers that are inexpensive to install in existing buildings and allow the power consumed by bi-level lighting circuits to be selectively reduced during demand response curtailments. By intelligently limiting the demand from bi-level lighting in California commercial buildings, the utilities would now have an enormous 1 GW demand shed capability at hand. By adding occupancy and light sensors to the remotely controllable lighting circuits, automatic controls could harvest an additional 1 BkWh/yr savings above and beyond the savings that have already been achieved. The lighting industry's adoption of DALI as the principal wired digital control protocol for dimming ballasts and increased awareness of the need to standardize on emerging wireless technologies are evidence of this transformation. In addition to increased standardization of digital control protocols controller capabilities, the lighting industry has improved the performance of dimming lighting systems over the last two years. The system efficacy of today's current dimming ballasts is approaching that of non-dimming program start ballasts. The study finds that the benefits of applying digital controls technologies to California's unique commercial buildings market are enormous. If California were to embark on an concerted 20 year program to improve the demand responsiveness and energy efficiency of commercial building lighting systems, the State could avoid adding generation capacity, improve the elasticity of the grid, save Californians billion of dollars in avoided energy charges and significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit theCovalent Bonding Low-Cost2DepartmentDelta Dental Claim Form PDF iconDemand
Graves, Stephen C.
and sufficient capacity to meet market demands. However, capacity planning is a very challenging task for manyCapacity Planning in a General Supply Chain with Multiple Contract Types Single Period Model Xin Huang · Stephen C. Graves Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts
Revelation on Demand Nicolas Anciaux 1 · Mehdi Benzine1,2 · Luc Bouganim1 · Philippe Pucheral1 "revelation on demand". Keywords: Confidentiality and privacy, Secure device, Data warehousing, Indexing model
by popular demand: Addiction II PSY/NEU338:Animal learning and decision making: Psychological, size of other non-drug rewards, and cost (but ultimately the demand is inelastic, or at least
Management Programs CATEE Conference October, 2012 Agenda Outline I. General Demand Response Definition II. General Demand Response Program Rules III. CenterPoint Commercial Program IV. CenterPoint Residential Programs V. Residential Discussion... Points Demand Response Definition of load management per energy efficiency rule 25.181: ? Load control activities that result in a reduction in peak demand, or a shifting of energy usage from a peak to an off-peak period or from high-price periods...
This document is a monthly publication which provides current data on international oil production,demand,imports and stocks. This report has four sections which contain time series data on world oil production and oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Also included is oil supply/demand balance information for the world, and data on oil imports and trade by OECD countries.
This presentation, presented in July 2008, addressed greenhouse gas reduction goals on high electric demand days. Presenter was Art Diem of the State and Local Capacity Building Branch at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
Halvorsen, Anne (Anne Fire)
Increases in ridership are outpacing capacity expansions in a number of transit systems. By shifting their focus to demand management, agencies can instead influence how customers use the system, getting more out of the ...
Serrano Berthet, Rodrigo
There is a consensus that citizen oversight, or the capacity of citizens to demand accountability, over government programs improves program performance. Yet little is known about the conditions that enable citizens/beneficiaries ...
Chord on Demand Alberto Montresor University of Bologna, Italy firstname.lastname@example.org M´ark Jelasity to solve a specific task on demand. We introduce T- CHORD, that can build a Chord network efficiently to solve a specific task on demand. Existing join protocols are not designed to handle the massive
Supply Chain Supernetworks with Random Demands June Dong and Ding Zhang Department of Marketing of three tiers of decision-makers: the manufacturers, the distributors, and the retailers, with the demands equilibrium model with electronic commerce and with random demands for which modeling, qualitative analysis
Chord on Demand Alberto Montresor University of Bologna, Italy email@example.com Mark Jelasity to solve a specific task on demand. We introduce T- CHORD, that can build a Chord network efficiently on demand. Existing join protocols are not designed to handle the massive concurrency involved in a jump
ERCOT Demand Response Paul Wattles Senior Analyst, Market Design & Development, ERCOT Whitacre;Definitions of Demand Response · `The short-term adjustment of energy use by consumers in response to price to market or reliability conditions.' (NAESB) #12;Definitions of Demand Response · The common threads
Assessment of Demand Response Resource Potentials for PGE and Pacific Power Prepared for: Portland January 15, 2004 K:\\Projects\\2003-53 (PGE,PC) Assess Demand Response\\Report\\Revised Report_011504.doc #12;#12;quantec Assessment of Demand Response Resource Potentials for I-1 PGE and Pacific Power I. Introduction
Capacity Building Because public health agencies must maintain the resources to respond to public health challenges, critical situations and emergencies, the Oak Ridge Institute...
Sigrin, B.; Sullivan, P.; Ibanez, E.; Margolis, R.
An important issue for electricity system operators is the estimation of renewables' capacity contributions to reliably meeting system demand, or their capacity value. While the capacity value of thermal generation can be estimated easily, assessment of wind and solar requires a more nuanced approach due to the resource variability. Reliability-based methods, particularly assessment of the Effective Load-Carrying Capacity, are considered to be the most robust and widely-accepted techniques for addressing this resource variability. This report compares estimates of solar PV capacity value by the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) capacity expansion model against two sources. The first comparison is against values published by utilities or other entities for known electrical systems at existing solar penetration levels. The second comparison is against a time-series ELCC simulation tool for high renewable penetration scenarios in the Western Interconnection. Results from the ReEDS model are found to compare well with both comparisons, despite being resolved at a super-hourly temporal resolution. Two results are relevant for other capacity-based models that use a super-hourly resolution to model solar capacity value. First, solar capacity value should not be parameterized as a static value, but must decay with increasing penetration. This is because -- for an afternoon-peaking system -- as solar penetration increases, the system's peak net load shifts to later in the day -- when solar output is lower. Second, long-term planning models should determine system adequacy requirements in each time period in order to approximate LOLP calculations. Within the ReEDS model we resolve these issues by using a capacity value estimate that varies by time-slice. Within each time period the net load and shadow price on ReEDS's planning reserve constraint signals the relative importance of additional firm capacity.
The purpose of this report is to describe modifications to the Electricity Capacity Planning Submodule (ECP) for the Annual Energy Outlook 1996. It describes revisions to enhance the representation of planned maintenance, incorporate technological improvements in operating efficiencies, revise the algorithm for determining international firm power imports, and include risk premiums for new plant construction.
Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Scheibner, Karl F. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA)
The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.
In this work we compute the capacities and the pragmatic capacities of military-standard shaped-offset quadrature phase-shift keying (SOQPSK-MIL) and aeronautical telemetry SOQPSK (SOQPSK-TG). In the pragmatic approach, SOQPSK is treated as a...
Babac, Gulru; Reese, Jason M.
We present a “Knudsen heat capacity” as a more appropriate and useful fluid property in micro/nanoscale gas systems than the constant pressure heat capacity. At these scales, different fluid processes come to the fore that are not normally observed at the macroscale. For thermodynamic analyses that include these Knudsen processes, using the Knudsen heat capacity can be more effective and physical. We calculate this heat capacity theoretically for non-ideal monatomic and diatomic gases, in particular, helium, nitrogen, and hydrogen. The quantum modification for para and ortho hydrogen is also considered. We numerically model the Knudsen heat capacity using molecular dynamics simulations for the considered gases, and compare these results with the theoretical ones.
The report provides a look at the past, present, and future state of the market for demand/load response based upon market price signals. It is intended to provide significant value to individuals and companies who are considering participating in demand response programs, energy providers and ISOs interested in offering demand response programs, and consultants and analysts looking for detailed information on demand response technology, applications, and participants. The report offers a look at the current Demand Response environment in the energy industry by: defining what demand response programs are; detailing the evolution of program types over the last 30 years; discussing the key drivers of current initiatives; identifying barriers and keys to success for the programs; discussing the argument against subsidization of demand response; describing the different types of programs that exist including:direct load control, interruptible load, curtailable load, time-of-use, real time pricing, and demand bidding/buyback; providing examples of the different types of programs; examining the enablers of demand response programs; and, providing a look at major demand response programs.
Demand for Multifamily Building Upgrades Generating Demand for Multifamily Building Upgrades Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange Call Series: Generating Demand for...
raising transportation oil demand. Growing internationalcoal by wire could reduce oil demand by stemming coal roadEastern oil production. The rapid growth of coal demand
of Energy demand-side management energy information systemdemand response. Demand-side management (DSM) program goalsa goal for demand-side management (DSM) coordination and
Rubinstein, Francis; Kiliccote, Sila
3 2.1 Demand-Side Managementbuildings. The demand side management framework is discussedIssues 2.1 Demand-Side Management Framework Forecasting
LBNL Commercial and Residential Demand Response Overview ofmarket . Residential demand reduction programs have beenin the domain of residential demand response. There are a
Kiliccote, Sila; Global Energy Partners; Pacific Gas and Electric Company
their partnership in demand response automation research andand Techniques for Demand Response. LBNL Report 59975. Mayof Fully Automated Demand Response in Large Facilities.
8.4 Demand Response Integration . . . . . . . . . . .for each day type for the demand response study - moderatefor each day type for the demand response study - deep
Watson, David S.; Kiliccote, Sila; Motegi, Naoya; Piette, Mary Ann
Fully Automated Demand Response Tests in Large Facilities”of Fully Automated Demand Response in Large Facilities”,was coordinated by the Demand Response Research Center and
Rubinstein, Francis; Kiliccote, Sila
2 2.0 Demand ResponseFully Automated Demand Response Tests in Large Facilities,was coordinated by the Demand Response Research Center and
and D. Kathan (2009). Demand Response in U.S. ElectricityEnergy Financial Group. Demand Response Research Center [2008). Assessment of Demand Response and Advanced Metering.
Like HECO actual utility demand response implementations canindustry-wide utility demand response applications tend toobjective. Figure 4. Demand Response Objectives 17
23 ii Retail Demand Response in SPP List of Figures and10 Figure 3. Demand Response Resources by11 Figure 4. Existing Demand Response Resources by Type of
Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response Demand Response in U.S. Electricity Markets: Empirical Evidence 2009 Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool (January...
Barat, and D. Watson. 2007. Demand Response Spinning ReserveKueck, and B. Kirby. 2009. Demand Response Spinning Reserveand B. Kirby. 2012. The Demand Response Spinning Reserve
McCarthy, Ryan; Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M.
duty fuel demand in alternate scenarios. ..for light-duty fuel demand in alternate scenarios. Minimum52 Heavy-duty vehicle fuel demand for each alternate
McCarthy, Ryan; Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M.
2006-2016: Staff energy demand forecast (Revised SeptemberCEC (2005b) Energy demand forecast methods report.California energy demand 2003-2013 forecast. California
The purpose of this report is to analyze monthly natural gas wellhead productive capacity in the lower 48 States from 1980 through 1992 and project this capacity from 1993 through 1995. For decades, natural gas supplies and productive capacity have been adequate to meet demand. In the 1970`s the capacity surplus was small because of market structure (split between interstate and intrastate), increasing demand, and insufficient drilling. In the early 1980`s, lower demand, together with increased drilling, led to a large surplus capacity as new productive capacity came on line. After 1986, this large surplus began to decline as demand for gas increased, gas prices fell, and gas well completions dropped sharply. In late December 1989, the decline in this surplus, accompanied by exceptionally high demand and temporary weather-related production losses, led to concerns about the adequacy of monthly productive capacity for natural gas. These concerns should have been moderated by the gas system`s performance during the unusually severe winter weather in March 1993 and January 1994. The declining trend in wellhead productive capacity is expected to be reversed in 1994 if natural gas prices and drilling meet or exceed the base case assumption. This study indicates that in the low, base, and high drilling cases, monthly productive capacity should be able to meet normal production demands through 1995 in the lower 48 States (Figure ES1). Exceptionally high peak-day or peak-week production demand might not be met because of physical limitations such as pipeline capacity. Beyond 1995, as the capacity of currently producing wells declines, a sufficient number of wells and/or imports must be added each year in order to ensure an adequate gas supply.
Ismail, I.A.H. (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries, Vienna (Austria))
To meet projected world oil demand, almost all members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) have embarked on ambitious capacity expansion programs aimed at increasing oil production capabilities. These expansion programs are in both new and existing oil fields. In the latter case, the aim is either to maintain production or reduce the production decline rate. However, the recent price deterioration has led some major OPEC producers, such as Saudi Arabia and Iran, to revise downward their capacity plans. Capital required for capacity expansion is considerable. Therefore, because the primary source of funds will come from within each OPEC country, a reasonably stable and relatively high oil price is required to obtain enough revenue for investing in upstream projects. This first in a series of two articles discusses the present OPEC capacity and planned expansion in the Middle East. The concluding part will cover the expansion plans in the remaining OPEC countries, capital requirements, and environmental concerns.
meetings and workshops convened to develop content for the Demand Response Technology Roadmap. The project team has developed this companion document in the interest of providing...
Daoud, A.; Leduc, M. A.; Baribeault, J.; Lavigne, K.; Chenard, S.; Poulin, A.; Martel, S.; Bendaoud, A.
? ICEBO2013 Demand response in Quebec?s CI buildings: potential and strategies Team: Ahmed Daoud, Ph.D, project manager Marie-Andr?e Leduc, MSc., ing, task manager Jean Baribeault, ing, researcher Karine Lavigne, MSc.A., ing, researcher Sylvain... Proceedings of the 13th International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Montreal, Quebec, October 8-11, 2013 Demand response in CI buildings ESL-IC-13-10-20a Proceedings of the 13th International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations...
Supply Chain Supernetworks With Random Demands June Dong Ding Zhang School of Business State Field Warehouses: stocking points Customers, demand centers sinks Production/ purchase costs Inventory Customer Demand Customer Demand Retailer OrdersRetailer Orders Distributor OrdersDistributor Orders
Wilson, James F.
In ISO New England and PJM it was assumed that sponsors of new capacity projects would offer them into the newly established forward centralized capacity markets at prices based on their levelized net cost of new entry, or ''Net CONE.'' But the FCCMs have not operated in the way their proponents had expected. To clear up the CONEfusion, FCCM designs should be reconsidered to adapt them to the changing circumstances and to be grounded in realistic expectations of market conduct. (author)
& Driving Demand Collaborative - Social Media Tools & Strategies Marketing & Driving Demand Collaborative - Social Media Tools & Strategies Presentation slides from the Better...
Data Collection for Demand-side Management for QualifyingPrepared by Demand-side Management Task Force of the
Honeywell Demonstrates Automated Demand Response Benefits for Utility, Commercial, and Industrial Customers Honeywell Demonstrates Automated Demand Response Benefits for Utility,...
Acknowledgments SUMMARY Electricity Demand ElectricityAdverse Impacts ELECTRICITY DEMAND . . . .Demand forElectricity Sales Electricity Demand by Major Utility
Alkadi, Nasr E; Starke, Michael R
Many demand response resources are technically capable of providing ancillary services. In some cases, they can provide superior response to generators, as the curtailment of load is typically much faster than ramping thermal and hydropower plants. Analysis and quantification of demand response resources providing ancillary services is necessary to understand the resources economic value and impact on the power system. Methodologies used to study grid integration of variable generation can be adapted to the study of demand response. In the present work, we describe and illustrate a methodology to construct detailed temporal and spatial representations of the demand response resource and to examine how to incorporate those resources into power system models. In addition, the paper outlines ways to evaluate barriers to implementation. We demonstrate how the combination of these three analyses can be used to translate the technical potential for demand response providing ancillary services into a realizable potential.
capacity prices Lower energy prices Participant Reduced svc$42 million); lxi Reduced energy prices during tight supply+ Reduced wholesale energy prices due to sustained energy
Major airports in the United States and around the world have seen an increase in congestion-related delays over the past few years. Because airport congestion is caused by an imbalance between available capacity and demand, ...
Salminen, Jason Bryan
As economies develop and trade routes change, investment in port infrastructure is essential to maintain the necessary capacity for an efficiently functioning port system and to meet expected demand for all types of cargo. ...
This report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports and exports, and stocks. World oil production and historical data are also presented.
Directional drilling has begun this fall for a $68.5 million, approximately 110,000 b/d expansion of Central Florida Pipeline Co.`s refined products line from Tampa to Orlando. The drilling started in August and is scheduled to conclude this month, crossing under seven water bodies in Hillsborough, Polk, and Osceola counties. The current 6 and 10-in. system provides more than 90% of the petroleum products used in Central Florida, according to Central Florida Pipeline. Its additional capacity will meet the growing region`s demand for gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel. The new pipeline, along with the existing 10-in. system, will increase total annual capacity from 30 million bbl (82,192 b/d) to approximately 70 million bbl (191,781 b/d). The older 6-in. line will be shutdown when the new line is operating fully. The steps of pipeline installation are described.
Maddigan, R. J.; Chern, W. S.; Gallagher, C. A.
In order to anticipate the need for generating capacity, utility planners must estimate the future growth in electricity demand. The need for demand forecasts is no less important for the nation's Rural Electric Cooperatives (RECs) than it is for the investor-owned utilities. The RECs serve an historically agrarian region; therefore, the irrigation sector accounts for a significant portion of the western RECs' total demand. A model is developed of the RECs' demand for electricity used in irrigation. The model is a simultaneous equation system which focuses on both the short-run utilization of electricity in irrigation and the long-run determination of the number of irrigators using electricity. Irrigation demand is described by a set of equations in which the quantity of electricity demanded, the average electricity price, the number of irrigation customers, and the ratio of electricity to total energy used for irrigation are endogenous. The structural equations are estimated using pooled state-level data for the period 1961-1977. In light of the model's results, the impact of changes in relative energy prices on irrigation can be examined.
Over the past several years, interest in large-scale control of peak energy demand and total consumption has increased. While motivated by a number of factors, this interest has primarily been spurred on the demand side by the increasing cost of energy and, on the supply side by the limited ability of utilities to build sufficient electricity generation capacity to meet unrestrained future demand. To address peak electricity use Demand Response (DR) systems are being proposed to motivate reductions in electricity use through the use of price incentives. DR systems are also be design to shift or curtail energy demand at critical times when the generation, transmission, and distribution systems (i.e. the 'grid') are threatened with instabilities. To be effectively deployed on a large-scale, these proposed DR systems need to be automated. Automation will require robust and efficient data communications infrastructures across geographically dispersed markets. The present availability of widespread Internet connectivity and inexpensive, reliable computing hardware combined with the growing confidence in the capabilities of distributed, application-level communications protocols suggests that now is the time for designing and deploying practical systems. Centralized computer systems that are capable of providing continuous signals to automate customers reduction of power demand, are known as Demand Response Automation Servers (DRAS). The deployment of prototype DRAS systems has already begun - with most initial deployments targeting large commercial and industrial (C & I) customers. An examination of the current overall energy consumption by economic sector shows that the C & I market is responsible for roughly half of all energy consumption in the US. On a per customer basis, large C & I customers clearly have the most to offer - and to gain - by participating in DR programs to reduce peak demand. And, by concentrating on a small number of relatively sophisticated energy consumers, it has been possible to improve the DR 'state of the art' with a manageable commitment of technical resources on both the utility and consumer side. Although numerous C & I DR applications of a DRAS infrastructure are still in either prototype or early production phases, these early attempts at automating DR have been notably successful for both utilities and C & I customers. Several factors have strongly contributed to this success and will be discussed below. These successes have motivated utilities and regulators to look closely at how DR programs can be expanded to encompass the remaining (roughly) half of the state's energy load - the light commercial and, in numerical terms, the more important residential customer market. This survey examines technical issues facing the implementation of automated DR in the residential environment. In particular, we will look at the potential role of home automation networks in implementing wide-scale DR systems that communicate directly to individual residences.
Wolfe, Robert W. (Wilkinsburg, PA)
A multi-cylinder compressor 10 particularly useful in connection with northern climate heat pumps and in which different capacities are available in accordance with reversing motor 16 rotation is provided with an eccentric cam 38 on a crank pin 34 under a fraction of the connecting rods, and arranged for rotation upon the crank pin between opposite positions 180.degree. apart so that with cam rotation on the crank pin such that the crank throw is at its normal maximum value all pistons pump at full capacity, and with rotation of the crank shaft in the opposite direction the cam moves to a circumferential position on the crank pin such that the overall crank throw is zero. Pistons 24 whose connecting rods 30 ride on a crank pin 36 without a cam pump their normal rate with either crank rotational direction. Thus a small clearance volume is provided for any piston that moves when in either capacity mode of operation.
A multi-cylinder compressor particularly useful in connection with northern climate heat pumps and in which different capacities are available in accordance with reversing motor rotation is provided with an eccentric cam on a crank pin under a fraction of the connecting rods, and arranged for rotation upon the crank pin between opposite positions 180[degree] apart so that with cam rotation on the crank pin such that the crank throw is at its normal maximum value all pistons pump at full capacity, and with rotation of the crank shaft in the opposite direction the cam moves to a circumferential position on the crank pin such that the overall crank throw is zero. Pistons whose connecting rods ride on a crank pin without a cam pump their normal rate with either crank rotational direction. Thus a small clearance volume is provided for any piston that moves when in either capacity mode of operation. 6 figs.
Greg Mines; Jay Nathwani; Christopher Richard; Hillary Hanson; Rachel Wood
The capacity factors recently provided by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) indicated this plant performance metric had declined for geothermal power plants since 2008. Though capacity factor is a term commonly used by geothermal stakeholders to express the ability of a plant to produce power, it is a term frequently misunderstood and in some instances incorrectly used. In this paper we discuss how this capacity factor is defined and utilized by the EIA, including discussion on the information that the EIA requests from operations in their 923 and 860 forms that are submitted both monthly and annually by geothermal operators. A discussion is also provided regarding the entities utilizing the information in the EIA reports, and how those entities can misinterpret the data being supplied by the operators. The intent of the paper is to inform the facility operators as the importance of the accuracy of the data that they provide, and the implications of not providing the correct information.
Huang, Longbo; Ramchandran, Kannan
In this paper, we consider the problem of optimal demand response and energy storage management for a power consuming entity. The entity's objective is to find an optimal control policy for deciding how much load to consume, how much power to purchase from/sell to the power grid, and how to use the finite capacity energy storage device and renewable energy, to minimize his average cost, being the disutility due to load- shedding and cost for purchasing power. Due to the coupling effect of the finite size energy storage, such problems are challenging and are typically tackled using dynamic programming, which is often complex in computation and requires substantial statistical information of the system dynamics. We instead develop a low-complexity algorithm called Demand Response with Energy Storage Management (DR-ESM). DR-ESM does not require any statistical knowledge of the system dynamics, including the renewable energy and the power prices. It only requires the entity to solve a small convex optimization pr...
McCarthy, Ryan; Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M.
demands. Residential and commercial demand has a significantDemand by Sector Residential Peak Demand (MW) Commercialwe convert residential electricity demand based upon climate
Methodologies used to study grid integration of variable generation can be adapted to the study of demand response. In the present work, we describe and implement a methodology to construct detailed temporal and spatial representations of demand response resources and to incorporate those resources into power system models. In addition, the paper outlines ways to evaluate barriers to implementation. We demonstrate how the combination of these three analyses can be used to assess economic value of the realizable potential of demand response for ancillary services.
Calloway, Terry Marshall
nts on the demand. Of course the demand of a real a1r cond1t1oner has lower and upper bounds equal to 0 and 0 , respec- u tively. A constra1ned system can be simulated numerically, but there 1s no explicit system response formula s1m11ar... sect1on. It may now be instruct1ve to relate this model to that of Jones and Bri ce  . The average demand pred1 cted by their model is the expected value of the product of a load response factor 0 and a U sw1tching process H(t), which depends...
Reichard Megwinoff, H?tor Nicolas
This thesis investigates the seasonality of demand in air transportation. It presents three methods for computing seasonal indices. One of these methods, the Periodic Average Method, is selected as the most appropriate for ...
Monitoring in an Agent-Based Smart Home, Proceedings of theConference on Smart Homes and Health Telematics, September,Smart Meter Motion sensors Figure 1: Schematic of the Demand Response Electrical Appliance Manager in a Home.
LaFrance, Jeffrey T; Pope, Rulon D.
Dover Publications 1972. Barnett, W.A. and Y.W. Lee. “TheEconometrica 53 (1985): 1421- Barnett, W.A. , Lee, Y.W. ,Laurent demand systems (Barnett and Lee 1985; Barnett, Lee,
Model Documentation - Documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Residential Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and FORTRAN source code.
O'Neill, M. L.
Demand-Side Management is an organizational tool that has proven successful in various realms of the ever changing business world in the past few years. It combines the multi-faceted desires of the customers with the increasingly important...
Eto, Joseph H.; Nelson-Hoffman, Janine; Torres, Carlos; Hirth,Scott; Yinger, Bob; Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Bernier, Clark; Wright,Roger; Barat, A.; Watson, David S.
The Demand Response Spinning Reserve project is a pioneeringdemonstration of how existing utility load-management assets can providean important electricity system reliability resource known as spinningreserve. Using aggregated demand-side resources to provide spinningreserve will give grid operators at the California Independent SystemOperator (CAISO) and Southern California Edison (SCE) a powerful, newtool to improve system reliability, prevent rolling blackouts, and lowersystem operating costs.
A. Barat, D. Watson. 2006 Demand Response Spinning ReserveKueck, and B. Kirby 2008. Demand Response Spinning ReserveReport 2009. Open Automated Demand Response Communications
Standardized Automated Demand Response Signals. Presented atand Automated Demand Response in Industrial RefrigeratedActions for Industrial Demand Response in California. LBNL-
Optimal Demand Response and Power Flow Steven Low Computing + Math Sciences Electrical Engineering #12;Outline Optimal demand response n With L. Chen, L. Jiang, N. Li Optimal power flow n With S. Bose;Optimal demand response Model Results n Uncorrelated demand: distributed alg n Correlated demand
Self-adaptive Cloud Capacity Planning Yexi Jiang, Chang-shing Perng, Tao Li, Rong Chang Schoolfirstname.lastname@example.org Abstract--The popularity of cloud service spurs the increas- ing demands of cloud resources to the cloud a new method for cloud capacity planning with the goal of fully utilizing the physical resources, as we
This study focuses on measuring the patterns of production and pricing of the major oil-exporting countries over the past decade. It conducts a series of empirical investigations, relying largely on quarterly data, into the determinants of the distribution of oil liftings in the OPEC areas, including the significance of relative crude oil price incentives, the stability of oil prices and market shares, the components of the residual demand for OPEC oil with emphasis on fluctuations in speculative demand for oil inventories, the impact of effective capacity utilization and speculative demand on major price escalations, and the sensitivity of Saudi Arabian price preferences to evolving net demand reaction to higher oil prices and to the share it is able to retain of the OPEC market. The background for this analysis is provided by a review of the historical evolution of oil and energy consumption, production and development patterns during the postwar era, and the reversal of theoretical frameworks for analyzing the international oil market are described, and the rationale for the noncompetitive view of oil prices and production in major exporting countries is detailed. Finally, the transformation of the structure of crude oil marketing over the past decade is analyzed, emphasizing growing competitive trends in the industry mixed with residual oligopolistic tendencies.
relatively high economic/demographic growth, relatively low electricity and natural gas rates REVISED CALIFORNIA ENERGY DEMAND FORECAST 20122022 Volume 1: Statewide Electricity Demand Bill Junker Manager DEMAND ANALYSIS OFFICE Sylvia Bender Deputy Director ELECTRICITY SUPPLY ANALYSIS
high economic/demographic growth, relatively low electricity and natural gas rates, and relatively low CALIFORNIA ENERGY DEMAND 20142024 REVISED FORECAST Volume 2: Electricity Demand Manager DEMAND ANALYSIS OFFICE Sylvia Bender Deputy Director ELECTRICITY SUPPLY ANALYSIS DIVISION
relatively high economic/demographic growth, relatively low electricity and natural gas rates CALIFORNIA ENERGY DEMAND 20142024 FINAL FORECAST Volume 1: Statewide Electricity Demand Gough Office Manager DEMAND ANALYSIS OFFICE Sylvia Bender Deputy Director ELECTRICITY SUPPLY ANALYSIS
Barat, and D. Watson. 2007. Demand Response Spinning ReserveKueck, and B. Kirby. 2009. Demand Response Spinning ReserveFormat of 2009-2011 Demand Response Activity Applications.
The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international oil data. This report is published for the use of Members of Congress, Federal agencies, State agencies, industry, and the general public. Publication of this report is in keeping with responsibilities given the Energy Information Administration in Public Law 95-91. The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995.
Sandholm, Tuomas W.
FORECAST COMBINATION IN REVENUE MANAGEMENT DEMAND FORECASTING SILVIA RIEDEL A thesissubmitted Combination in RevenueManagement Demand Forecasting Abstract The domain of multi level forecastcombination
Generating Demand for Multifamily Building Upgrades Generating Demand for Multifamily Building Upgrades Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange Call Series: Generating...
demand response: ? Distribution utility ? ISO ? Aggregator (demand response less obstructive and inconvenient for the customer (particularly if DR resources are aggregated by a load aggregator).
McCarthy, Ryan; Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M.
annual per-capita electricity consumption by demand15 California electricity consumption projections by demandannual per-capita electricity consumption by demand
California Long-term Energy Efficiency Strategic Plan. B-2 Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response> B-4 Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response
Energy Efficiency, Demand Response, and Peak Load Managementdemand response, and load management programs in the Ebefore they undertake load management and demand response
Huang, Yanfeng Anna
Sales and operational planning that incorporates unconstrained demand forecasts has been expected to improve long term corporate profitability. Companies are considering such unconstrained demand forecasts in their decisions ...
> B-2 Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response> B-4 Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Responseand integration is: Energy efficiency, energy conservation,
Generating Demand for Multifamily Building Upgrades Generating Demand for Multifamily Building Upgrades May 14, 2015 12:30PM to 2:00PM EDT Learn more...
Demand Response Programs Oregon Public Utility Commission January 6, 2005 Mike Koszalka Director;Demand Response Results, 2004 Load Control Cool Keeper ID Irrigation Load Control Price Responsive
Chan, Shueng-Han Gary
Hierarchical Storage Systems for OnDemand Video Servers \\Lambday ShuengHan Gary Chan Fouad Ademand video servers based on hierarchical storage system offer highcapacity and lowcost video storage to be displayed. We have studied the architecture and performance of a hierarchical storage system for an on
Balat, M. [Sila Science, Trabzon (Turkey)
The aim of the present article is to investigate Turkey's energy demand and the contribution of domestic energy sources to energy consumption. Turkey, the 17th largest economy in the world, is an emerging country with a buoyant economy challenged by a growing demand for energy. Turkey's energy consumption has grown and will continue to grow along with its economy. Turkey's energy consumption is high, but its domestic primary energy sources are oil and natural gas reserves and their production is low. Total primary energy production met about 27% of the total primary energy demand in 2005. Oil has the biggest share in total primary energy consumption. Lignite has the biggest share in Turkey's primary energy production at 45%. Domestic production should be to be nearly doubled by 2010, mainly in coal (lignite), which, at present, accounts for almost half of the total energy production. The hydropower should also increase two-fold over the same period.
The 1990s, especially the middle years, have witnessed a dramatic turnaround in the growth of liquefied-natural-gas demand which has tracked equally strong natural-gas demand growth. This trend was underscored late last year by several annual studies of world LNG demand and shipping. As 1998 began, however, economic turmoil in Asian financial markets has clouded near-term prospects for LNG in particular and all energy in general. But the extent of damage to energy markets is so far unclear. A study by US-based Institute of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL, reveals that LNG imports worldwide have climbed nearly 8%/year since 1980 and account for 25% of all natural gas traded internationally. In the mid-1970s, the share was only 5%. In 1996, the most recent year for which complete data are available, world LNG trade rose 7.7% to a record 92 billion cu m, outpacing the overall consumption for natural gas which increased 4.7% in 1996. By 2015, says the IGT study, natural-gas use would surpass coal as the world`s second most widely used fuel, after petroleum. Much of this growth will occur in the developing countries of Asia where gas use, before the current economic crisis began, was projected to grow 8%/year through 2015. Similar trends are reflected in another study of LNG trade released at year end 1997, this from Ocean Shipping Consultants Ltd., Surrey, U.K. The study was done too early, however, to consider the effects of the financial problems roiling Asia.
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired SolarAbout / Transforming Y-12Capacity-Forum Sign In About | Careers |
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is willing to reveal the aggregate response (according to his company's policy) to the customer dataRevelation on Demand Nicolas Anciaux 1 · Mehdi Benzine1,2 · Luc Bouganim1 · Philippe Pucheral1 time to support epidemiological studies. In these and many other situations, aggregate data or partial
1 Demand Response Providing Ancillary Services: A Comparison of Opportunities and Challenges in US to operate (likely price takers) Statistical reliability (property of large aggregations of small resources size based on Mid-Atlantic Reserve Zone #12;Market Rules: Resource Size Min. Size (MW) Aggregation
Hostick, Donna J.; Belzer, David B.; Hadley, Stanton W.; Markel, Tony; Marnay, Chris; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW
This paper describes the development of end-use electricity projections and load curves that were developed for the Renewable Electricity (RE) Futures Study (hereafter RE Futures), which explored the prospect of higher percentages (30% ? 90%) of total electricity generation that could be supplied by renewable sources in the United States. As input to RE Futures, two projections of electricity demand were produced representing reasonable upper and lower bounds of electricity demand out to 2050. The electric sector models used in RE Futures required underlying load profiles, so RE Futures also produced load profile data in two formats: 8760 hourly data for the year 2050 for the GridView model, and in 2-year increments for 17 time slices as input to the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model. The process for developing demand projections and load profiles involved three steps: discussion regarding the scenario approach and general assumptions, literature reviews to determine readily available data, and development of the demand curves and load profiles.
Milutinovic, Milan, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Kuwait is an arid country located in the Middle East, with limited access to water resources. Yet water demand per capita is much higher than in other countries in the world, estimated to be around 450 L/capita/day. There ...
related to on-demand data broadcasting. We look at the problem of data broadcasting in an environment where clients make explicit requests to the server. The server broadcasts requested data items to all the clients, including those who have not requested...
Demand control ventilation (DCV) measures carbon dioxide concentrations in return air or other strategies to measure occupancy, and accurately matches the ventilation requirement. This system reduces ventilation when spaces are vacant or at lower than peak occupancy. When ventilation is reduced, energy savings are accrued because it is not necessary to heat, cool, or dehumidify as much outside air.
DEMAND . . . .Demand for Electricity and Power PeakDemand . . • . . ELECTRICITY REQUIREMENTS FOR AGRICULTUREResults . . Coriclusions ELECTRICITY SUPPLY Hydroelectric
Interoperable Automated Demand Response Infrastructure,study of automated demand response in wastewater treatmentopportunities for demand response control strategies in
Report 2009. Open Automated Demand Response Communicationsand Techniques for Demand Response. California Energyand S. Kiliccote. Estimating Demand Response Load Impacts:
McKane, Aimee T.
and Techniques for Demand Response, report for theand Reliability Demand Response Programs: Final Report.Demand Response
Aggregator Programs. Demand Response Measurement andIncorporating Demand Response into Western Interconnection13 Demand Response Dispatch
of 2 GW), or 86 GW of hydropower capacity (compared to 2007capacity displayed above hydropower in this figure. 3.3.1.load factor 86 GW of hydropower capacity @ 50% load factor
Upply Chain Supernetworks with Random Demands June Dong & Ding Zhang School of Business State Warehouses: stocking points Field Warehouses: stocking points Customers, demand centers sinks Production Commerce and Value Chain Management, 1998 Customer Demand Customer Demand Retailer OrdersRetailer Orders
#12;#12;2008 Assessment of Demand Response and Advanced Metering Staff Report Federal Energy metering penetration and potential peak load reduction from demand response have increased since 2006. Significant activity to promote demand response or to remove barriers to demand response occurred at the state
Electric utilities in the Western world have increasingly realized that load commitments can be met not only by constructing new generating plants but also by influencing electricity demand. This demand-side management (DSM) process requires that electric utilities promote measures on the customer's side of the meter to directly or indirectly influence electricity consumption to meet desired load objectives. An important demand-side option to achieve these load objectives is innovative electricity pricing, both by itself and as a financial incentive for other demand-site measures. This study explores electricity pricing as a DSM strategy, addressing four questions in the process: What is the Western experience with DSM in general and electricity pricing in particular Do innovative pricing strategies alter the amount and pattern of electricity consumption Do the benefits of these pricing strategies outweigh the costs of implementation What are future directions in electricity pricing Although DSM can be used to promote increases in electricity consumption for electric utilities with excess capacity as well as to slow demand growth for capacity-short utilities, emphasis here is placed on the latter. The discussion should be especially useful for electric utilities in developing countries that are exploring alternatives to capacity expansion to meet current and future electric power demand.
Paying customers to refrain from purchasing products they want seems to run counter to the normal operation of markets. Demand response should be interpreted not as a supply-side resource but as a secondary market that attempts to correct the misallocation of electricity among electric users caused by regulated average rate tariffs. In a world with costless metering, the DR solution results in inefficiency as measured by deadweight losses. (author)
The International Petroleum Statistics Report is a monthly publication that provides current international data. The report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent 12 months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1996; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1996; and OECD trade from 1986 through 1996.
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACT EVALUATIONIntroducing theActivation byIs a SmallIsotopeIsrael:
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets See full2% of domestic oilInterimJim
The Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Program (formerly know as Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative, ASCI) has led the world in capability computing for the last ten years. Capability computing is defined as a world-class platform (in the Top10 of the Top500.org list) with scientific simulations running at scale on the platform. Example systems are ASCI Red, Blue-Pacific, Blue-Mountain, White, Q, RedStorm, and Purple. ASC applications have scaled to multiple thousands of CPUs and accomplished a long list of mission milestones on these ASC capability platforms. However, the computing demands of the ASC and Stockpile Stewardship programs also include a vast number of smaller scale runs for day-to-day simulations. Indeed, every 'hero' capability run requires many hundreds to thousands of much smaller runs in preparation and post processing activities. In addition, there are many aspects of the Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP) that can be directly accomplished with these so-called 'capacity' calculations. The need for capacity is now so great within the program that it is increasingly difficult to allocate the computer resources required by the larger capability runs. To rectify the current 'capacity' computing resource shortfall, the ASC program has allocated a large portion of the overall ASC platforms budget to 'capacity' systems. In addition, within the next five to ten years the Life Extension Programs (LEPs) for major nuclear weapons systems must be accomplished. These LEPs and other SSP programmatic elements will further drive the need for capacity calculations and hence 'capacity' systems as well as future ASC capability calculations on 'capability' systems. To respond to this new workload analysis, the ASC program will be making a large sustained strategic investment in these capacity systems over the next ten years, starting with the United States Government Fiscal Year 2007 (GFY07). However, given the growing need for 'capability' systems as well, the budget demands are extreme and new, more cost effective ways of fielding these systems must be developed. This Tri-Laboratory Linux Capacity Cluster (TLCC) procurement represents the ASC first investment vehicle in these capacity systems. It also represents a new strategy for quickly building, fielding and integrating many Linux clusters of various sizes into classified and unclassified production service through a concept of Scalable Units (SU). The programmatic objective is to dramatically reduce the overall Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) of these 'capacity' systems relative to the best practices in Linux Cluster deployments today. This objective only makes sense in the context of these systems quickly becoming very robust and useful production clusters under the crushing load that will be inflicted on them by the ASC and SSP scientific simulation capacity workload.
LPG supplies for international trade will increase sharply through 2000 and begin to outstrip demand by 1997 or 1998. This outlook depends on several production projects proceeding as planned. Leading the way to increased volumes are projects in Algeria, Nigeria, and Australia, among others. Purvin and Gertz, Dallas, projected this trend earlier this year at an international LPG seminar near Houston. Representatives from LPG-supplying countries also presented information to support this view and subsequently supplied more specifics to OGJ in response to questions. This paper discusses this information. Trends in Africa, Australia, North America, and South America are forecast.
Liu, Guodong; Tomsovic, Kevin
It has been widely accepted that demand response will play an important role in reliable and economic operation of future power systems and electricity markets. Demand response can not only influence the prices in the energy market by demand shifting, but also participate in the reserve market. In this paper, we propose a full model of demand response in which demand flexibility is fully utilized by price responsive shiftable demand bids in energy market as well as spinning reserve bids in reserve market. A co-optimized day-ahead energy and spinning reserve market is proposed to minimize the expected net cost under all credible system states, i.e., expected total cost of operation minus total benefit of demand, and solved by mixed integer linear programming. Numerical simulation results on the IEEE Reliability Test System show effectiveness of this model. Compared to conventional demand shifting bids, the proposed full demand response model can further reduce committed capacity from generators, starting up and shutting down of units and the overall system operating costs.
Sheppy, M.; Gentile-Polese, L.
This report addresses gaps in actionable knowledge that would help reduce the plug load capacities designed into buildings. Prospective building occupants and real estate brokers lack accurate references for plug and process load (PPL) capacity requirements, so they often request 5-10 W/ft2 in their lease agreements. Limited initial data, however, suggest that actual PPL densities in leased buildings are substantially lower. Overestimating PPL capacity leads designers to oversize electrical infrastructure and cooling systems. Better guidance will enable improved sizing and design of these systems, decrease upfront capital costs, and allow systems to operate more energy efficiently. The main focus of this report is to provide industry with reliable, objective third-party guidance to address the information gap in typical PPL densities for commercial building tenants. This could drive changes in negotiations about PPL energy demands.
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II) byMultidayAlumni > The2/01/12 Page 1NEWSSupportcoal demand seen below
Scaling Microblogging Services with Divergent Traffic Demands Tianyin Xu, Yang Chen, Lei Jiao, Ben-server architecture has not scaled with user demands, lead- ing to server overload and significant impairment
Michel Meulpolder Managing Supply and Demand of Bandwidth in Peer-to-Peer Communities #12;#12;Managing Supply and Demand of Bandwidth in Peer-to-Peer Communities Proefschrift ter verkrijging van de
relatively high economic/demographic growth, relatively low electricity and natural gas rates REVISED CALIFORNIA ENERGY DEMAND FORECAST 20122022 Volume 2: Electricity Demand by Utility OFFICE Sylvia Bender Deputy Director ELECTRICITY SUPPLY ANALYSIS DIVISION Robert P
/demographic growth, relatively low electricity and natural gas rates, and relatively low efficiency program CALIFORNIA ENERGY DEMAND 20122022 FINAL FORECAST Volume 1: Statewide Electricity Manager Bill Junker Manager DEMAND ANALYSIS OFFICE Sylvia Bender Deputy Director ELECTRICITY SUPPLY
incorporates relatively high economic/demographic growth, relatively low electricity and natural gas rates CALIFORNIA ENERGY DEMAND 20142024 FINAL FORECAST Volume 2: Electricity Demand Sylvia Bender Deputy Director ELECTRICITY SUPPLY ANALYSIS DIVISION Robert P. Oglesby Executive
incorporates relatively high economic/demographic growth, relatively low electricity and natural gas rates CALIFORNIA ENERGY DEMAND 20122022 FINAL FORECAST Volume 2: Electricity Demand OFFICE Sylvia Bender Deputy Director ELECTRICITY SUPPLY ANALYSIS DIVISION Robert P
Solar in Demand Solar in Demand June 15, 2012 - 10:23am Addthis Kyle Travis, left and Jon Jackson, with Lighthouse Solar, install microcrystalline PV modules on top of Kevin...
Demand fluctuations will bias the measurement of productivity and efficiency. This dissertation described three ways to characterize the effect of demand fluctuations. First, a two-dimensional efficiency decomposition (2DED) of profitability...
Dooley, E. S.; Heffington, W. M.
Demand and duty factors have been measured for selected equipment (air compressors, electric furnaces, injection molding machines, centrifugal loads, and others) in industrial plants. Demand factors for heavily loaded air ...
Summarizes existing research and discusses current practices, opportunities, and barriers to coordinating energy efficiency and demand response programs.
Zabolio, Dow Joseph
OF THE DEMAND CURVE 30 31 35 39 Model Development Results 39 45 VI CONTROLLER DESIGN AND COSTS 49 Description of Controller Production and Installation Costs 49 50 VII SYSTEM EVALUATION AND ECONOMICS 53 System Response and Degree of Control... Patterns 9 Typical Winter Diurnal Patterns 10 Trace of Marginal Pump Efficiency and Hourly Demand 11 Original Demand Distribution and Possible Redistributions 33 34 40 41 43 46 12 Typical Nodal Responses to Demand Change 54 ix LIST OF TABLES...
The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.
The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1994; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1994; and OECD trade from 1984 through 1994.
The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. Word oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1985 through 1995.
The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for the world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1995; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1995; and OECD trade from 1084 through 1994.
Demand Queries with Preprocessing Uriel Feige and Shlomo Jozeph May 1, 2014 )>IJH=?J Given a set of items and a submodular set-function f that determines the value of every subset of items, a demand query, the value of S minus its price. The use of demand queries is well motivated in the context of com
DemandDriven Pointer Analysis Nevin Heintze Research, Agere Systems (formerly Lucent Technologies analysis of a pro gram or program component. In this paper we introduce a demanddriven approach for pointer analysis. Specifically, we describe a demanddriven flowinsensitive, subsetbased, context
Opportunities and Challenges for Data Center Demand Response Adam Wierman Zhenhua Liu Iris Liu of renewable energy into the grid as well as electric power peak-load shaving: data center demand response. Data center demand response sits at the intersection of two growing fields: energy efficient data
Bustamante, Fabián E.
60 Mobile applications constantly demand additional memory, and traditional designs increase but also e-mail, Internet access, digital camera features, and video on demand. With feature expansion demanding additional storage and memory in all com- puting devices, DRAM and flash memory densities
Adapton: Composable, Demand-Driven Incremental Computation CS-TR-5027 -- July 12, 2013 Matthew A demands on the program output; that is, if a program input changes, all depen- dencies will be recomputed. To address these problems, we present cdd ic , a core calculus that applies a demand-driven seman- tics
Heap Assumptions on Demand Andreas Podelski1 , Andrey Rybalchenko2 , and Thomas Wies1 1 University analysis produces heap assumptions on demand to eliminate counterexamples, i.e., non-terminating abstract of a non-terminating abstract computation, i.e., it applies shape analysis on demand. The shape analysis
Demand And Response Transportation Rider's Guide http://www.virginia.edu/parking/disabilities/dart Version 14.5 (8/13/14) Welcome DART Rider: The Demand and Response Transportation (DART) Service rides: #12;Demand And Response Transportation Rider's Guide http
Almeroth, Kevin C.
Scaling Microblogging Services with Divergent Traffic Demands Tianyin Xu1 , Yang Chen1 , Lei Jiao1 client-server architecture has not scaled with user demands, leading to server overload and significant #12;Scaling Microblogging Services with Divergent Traffic Demands 21 producing effective predictions
Optimal demand response: problem formulation and deterministic case Lijun Chen, Na Li, Libin Jiang load through real-time demand response and purchases balancing power on the spot market to meet the aggregate demand. Hence optimal supply procurement by the LSE and the consumption decisions by the users
Precision On Demand: An Improvement in Probabilistic Hashing Igor Melatti, Robert Palmer approach Precision on Demand or POD). #12;This paper provides a scientific evaluation of the pros and cons time likely to increase by a factor of 1.8 or less. #12;Precision On Demand: An Improvement
ADAPTON: Composable, Demand- Driven Incremental Computation Abstract Many researchers have proposed important drawbacks. First, recomputation is oblivious to specific demands on the program output; that is ic , a core calculus that applies a demand-driven semantics to incremental computa- tion, tracking
On the Convergence of Statistical Techniques for Inferring Network Traffic Demands Alberto Medina1 of traffic demands in a communication net- work enables or enhances a variety of traffic engineering and net set of these demands is prohibitively expensive because of the huge amounts of data that must
Heap Assumptions on Demand Andreas Podelski1 , Andrey Rybalchenko2 , and Thomas Wies1 1 University checker and shape analysis. The shape analysis pro- duces heap assumptions on demand to eliminate.e., it applies shape analysis on demand. The shape analysis produces a heap assumption, which is an assertion
Montréal, Université de
ATM for Video and Audio on Demand David Greaves. University of Cambridge and ATM Ltd. email: djg fast, particularly for video- on-demand. These digital streams require constant-rate digi- tal channels of the Cambridge Digital Interactive Television Trial, where Video and Audio on demand are transported to the Home
Precision On Demand: An Improvement in Probabilistic Hashing Igor Melatti, Robert Palmer approach Precision on Demand or POD). #12; This paper provides a scientific evaluation of the pros and cons time likely to increase by a factor of 1.8 or less. #12; Precision On Demand: An Improvement
Demandness in Rewriting and Narrowing Sergio Antoy1 and Salvador Lucas2 1 Computer Science by a strategy to compute a step. The notion of demandness provides a suitable framework for pre- senting that the notion of demandness is both atomic and fundamental to the study of strategies. 1 Introduction Modern
Resolution on Demand Bianka BuschbeckWolf Universit¨at Stuttgart Report 196 May 1997 #12; May 1997¨ur den Inhalt dieser Arbeit liegt bei der Autorin. #12; Resolution on Demand Abstract Following the strategy of resolution on demand, the transfer component triggers inference processes in analysis
PROTOTYPE IMPLEMENTATION OF A DEMAND DRIVEN NETWORK MONITORING ARCHITECTURE Augusto Ciuffoletti for demand driven monitoring, named gd2, that can be potentially integrated in the gLite framework. We capable of managing the scalability challenge offered by a Grid environment: i) demand driven
Pricing Cloud Bandwidth Reservations under Demand Uncertainty Di Niu, Chen Feng, Baochun Li's utility depends not only on its bandwidth usage, but more importantly on the portion of its demand that can be made by all tenants and the cloud provider, even with the presence of demand uncertainty
trends in China, India, Eastern Europe and other developing areas. China oil demand +104% by 2030, India 2000 2020 2040 2060 Supply demand Energy UWM-CUTS 14 U.S. DOE viewpoint, source:http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/FTPROOT/features/longterm.pdf#search='oilTransportation Energy: Supply, Demand and the Future http://www.uwm.edu/Dept/CUTS//2050/energy05
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Modeling Energy Demand Aggregators for Residential Consumers G. Di Bella, L. Giarr`e, M. Ippolito, A. Jean-Marie, G. Neglia and I. Tinnirello § January 2, 2014 Abstract Energy demand aggregators- response paradigm. When the energy provider needs to reduce the current energy demand on the grid, it can
Perez, Richard R.
INTEGRATION OF PV IN DEMAND RESPONSE PROGRAMS Prepared by Richard Perez et al. NREL subcontract the case that distributed PV generation deserves a substantial portion of the credit allotted to demand response programs. This is because PV generation acts as a catalyst to demand response, markedly enhancing
Chase, Jeffrey S.
Chapter 1 Demand Response for Computing Centers Jerey S. Chase Duke University 1.1 Introduction ............................................................... 3 1.2 Demand Response in the Emerging Smart Grid .......................... 5 1.2.1 Importance of Demand Response for Energy E ciency .......... 6 1.2.2 The Role of Renewable Energy
Response to changes in demand/supply through improved marketing 21.2 http with the mill consuming 450 000 m3 , amounting to 30% of total plywood log demand in 1995. The composites board, statistics of demand and supply of wood, costs and competitiveness were analysed. The reactions
Response to changes in demand/supply through improved marketing 21.2 #12;#12;111 Impacts of changes log demand in 1995. The composites board mills operating in Korea took advantage of flexibility environment changes on the production mix, some economic indications, statistics of demand and supply of wood
Demand Response and Ancillary Services September 2008 #12;© 2008 EnerNOC, Inc. All Rights Reserved programs The purpose of this presentation is to offer insight into the mechanics of demand response and industrial demand response resources across North America in both regulated and restructured markets As of 6
Demand Response Resources in Pacific Northwest Chuck Goldman Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory email@example.com Pacific Northwest Demand Response Project Portland OR May 2, 2007 #12;Overview · Typology Annual Reports Journal articles/Technical reports #12;Demand Response Resources · Incentive
LBNL-62226 Demand Responsive Lighting: A Scoping Study F. Rubinstein, S. Kiliccote Energy Environmental Technologies Division January 2007 #12;LBNL-62226 Demand Responsive Lighting: A Scoping Study in this report was coordinated by the Demand Response Research Center and funded by the California Energy
LBNL-2294E Barrier Immune Radio Communications for Demand Response F. Rubinstein, G. Ghatikar, J Ann Piette of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's (LBNL) Demand Response Research Center (DRRC and Environment's (CIEE) Demand Response Emerging Technologies Development (DRETD) Program, under Work for Others
THE STATE OF DEMAND RESPONSE IN CALIFORNIA Prepared For: California Energy in this report. #12; ABSTRACT By reducing system loads during criticalpeak times, demand response can help reduce the threat of planned rotational outages. Demand response is also widely regarded as having
Pumped Storage, Fuel Cells and Distributed Generation. TheNuclear Power Pumped Storage Fuel Cells Renewable Sources
Protocol for Building Automation and Control Networks. Protocol for Building Automation and Control Networks, Protocol for building Automation and Controls Networks.
and industrial facilities. The long?term vision is to embed the automation Industrial/Agricultural/Water End?Use Energy Efficiency Renewable Energy Technologies Transportation The Automation
is fraction of total electricity consumption for commercialy) ! calculate total electricity consumption for the end-useis fraction of total electricity consumption for residential
event are broadcast by a web services server through the common signal using a web services client application. control systems. A Web Services software or smart
types Oil & Gas Steam and Combustion Turbine/Diesel. Diesel.of Oil & Gas Steam plus Combustion Combustio Turbine/Diesel,Natural Gas Steam Combined Cycle Combustion Turbine/Diesel
refrigeration generation type coal nuclear ngcc renewableby fuel type. %TWh Reduction Commercial coal ngcc nuclearType and Technology : Electricity : Electric Power Electric Power Projections for EMM Region : Electricity : Emissions Quantity Liquid Fuels Natural Gas Steam Coal
The crude slate is likely to become heavier in the future with greater reliance on bitumens, tar sands, heavy oils, and eventually possibly shale oil. Under standard refining processes these crude oil sources produce a ...
implementation in energy management systems. This effort linked to energy management control systems (EMCS) 4 or Systems Energy Management and Control Systems Electric
sector such as coal production, liquid fuels production etc.Quantity Liquid Fuels Natural Gas Steam Coal Nuclear
2011).pdf. ———. 2012a. “Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) 2012. ”2013. “Annual Energy Outlook - Model Documentation. ”forecast, the Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) (DOE EIA 2012a).
This paper reports on pumped storage plants which have become an effective way for some utility companies that derive power from hydroelectric facilities to economically store baseload energy during off-peak hours for use during peak hourly demands. According to the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in Palo Alto, Calif., 36 of these plants provide approximately 20 gigawatts, or about 3 percent of U.S. generating capacity. During peak-demand periods, utilities are often stretched beyond their capacity to provide power and must therefore purchase it from neighboring utilities. Building new baseload power plants, typically nuclear or coal-fired facilities that run 24 hours per day seven days a week, is expensive, about $1500 per kilowatt, according to Robert Schainker, program manager for energy storage at the EPRI. Schainker the that building peaking plants at $400 per kilowatt, which run a few hours a day on gas or oil fuel, is less costly than building baseload plants. Operating them, however, is more expensive because peaking plants are less efficient that baseload plants.
Allen, E.L.; Edmonds, J.A.
Since World War II, US energy demand has grown more rapidly than population, so that per capita consumption of energy was about 60% higher in 1978 than in 1947. Population growth and the expansion of per capita real incomes have led to a greater use of energy. The aging of the US population is expected to increase per capita energy consumption, despite the increase in the proportion of persons over 65, who consume less energy than employed persons. The sharp decline in the population under 18 has led to an expansion in the relative proportion of population in the prime-labor-force age groups. Employed persons are heavy users of energy. The growth of the work force and GNP is largely attributable to the growing participation of females. Another important consequence of female employment is the growth in ownership of personal automobiles. A third factor pushing up labor-force growth is the steady influx of illegal aliens.
Demande de casier 20142015 1. Demande (à remplir par l'élève) Nom : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Demande l'attribution d'un casier pour y déposer) : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . En cas d'acceptation de ma demande, je retirerai ma clé contre un chèque de caution d'un montant de
DEMANDE DE CONGE Cette demande doit être effectuée un mois avant le début du semestre. Date de la demande .......................................................... NOM-mail .......................................................................................................................................................................... @etu.unige.ch Demande à être mis au bénéfice d'un congé pour le(s) semestre(s) suivant(s) (2 semestres
Risk Management for Video-on-Demand Servers leveraging Demand Forecast Di Niu, Hong Xu, Baochun Lifirstname.lastname@example.org Shuqiao Zhao Multimedia Development Group UUSee, Inc. email@example.com ABSTRACT Video-on-demand (VoD) servers are usually over-provisioned for peak demands, incurring a low average resource effi- ciency
Sastry, S. Shankar
Secure Demand Shaping for Smart Grid On constructing probabilistic demand response schemes. Developing novel schemes for demand response in smart electric gird is an increasingly active research area/SCADA for demand response in smart infrastructures face the following dilemma: On one hand, in order to increase
model to determine possible airline responses (in the aggregate) to increasing in operating costs transportation. During the past three decades airspace and airport capacity has not grown in step with demand)1 . The failure to increase capacity at the same rate as the growth in demand will result in unreliable service
Renewable energy spillage, operating costs and capacity requirements for the multi-area casemore in the case of deeper renewable energy integration, duerenewable energy spillage, operating costs and capacity requirements for the four case
McKane, Aimee T.
13 Table 2. Demand Side Management Framework for IndustrialDR Strategies The demand-side management (DSM) frameworkpresented in Table 2. Demand Side Management Framework for
Piette, Mary Ann
Interoperable Automated Demand Response Infrastructure.and Techniques for Demand Response. LBNL Report 59975. Mayand Communications for Demand Response and Energy Efficiency
Dudley, June Han
of Fully Automated Demand Response in Large Facilities. Fully Automated Demand Response Tests in Large Facilities. Open Automated Demand Response Communication Standards:
warming and electricity demand: A study of California.Extreme Heat, and Electricity Demand in California Norman L.high temperature and electricity demand for air-conditioned
with Residential Electricity Demand in India's Future - How2008). The Boom of Electricity Demand in the residential2005). Forecasting Electricity Demand in Developing
McCarthy, Ryan; Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M.
Figure 16 Annual peak electricity demand by sector. Tableincludes an hourly electricity demand (i.e. power) profileof aggregating sectoral electricity demands into a statewide
McCarthy, Ryan W.
fuel efficiency and electricity demand assumptions used into added vehicle electricity demand in the BAU (no IGCC)to added vehicle electricity demand in the Mixed technology
SAN ANTONIO SPURS DEMAND FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY SAN ANTONIO SPURS DEMAND FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY SAN ANTONIO SPURS DEMAND FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY As a city that experiences seasonal...
2007). Coping with Residential Electricity Demand in India'sResidential Electricity Demand in China –Can EfficiencyBoom of Electricity Demand in the residential sector in the
Peirson. 1998. Residential energy demand and the interactionresponse of residential cooling energy demand to climaterise in residential and commercial electricity demand can be
Robinson, Michael, 2008, "Demand Response in Midwest ISOPresentation at MISO Demand Response Working Group Meeting,Coordination of Retail Demand Response with Midwest ISO
Herter, Karen; Levy, Roger; Wilson, John; Rosenfeld, Arthur
Roger. 2002. Using Demand Response to Link Wholesale andfor advanced metering, demand response, and dynamic pricing.EPRI. 2001. Managing Demand-Response To Achieve Multiple
Goodin. 2009. “Open Automated Demand Response Communicationsin Demand Response for Wholesale Ancillary Services. ” InOpen Automated Demand Response Demonstration Project. LBNL-
Piette, Mary Ann
A. Barat, D. Watson. Demand Response Spinning ReserveOpen Automated Demand Response Communication Standards:Dynamic Controls for Demand Response in a New Commercial
Reliability Corporation. Demand response data task force:Energy. Benefits of demand response in electricity marketsAssessment of demand response & advanced metering, staff
C. McParland, Open Automated Demand Response Communicationsand Open Automated Demand Response", Grid Interop Forum,Testing of Automated Demand Response for Integration of
Piette, Mary Ann
and Techniques for Demand Response. May 2007. LBNL-59975.to facilitate automating demand response actions at the Interoperable Automated Demand Response Infrastructure,
and Open Automated Demand Response. In Grid Interop Forum.work was sponsored by the Demand Response Research Center (load-management.php. Demand Response Research Center (2009).
Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, Dave; Sezgen, Osman; Motegi, Naoya
of Fully Automated Demand Response in Large Facilities"Management and Demand Response in Commercial Buildings", L Band Commissioning Issues from an Automated Demand Response.
McCarthy, Ryan; Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M.
CEC (2005b) Energy demand forecast methods report.growth in California energy demands forecast in the baseline2006-2016: Staff energy demand forecast (Revised September
Working Group (FUPWG) Fall 2008 meeting-discusses the National Assessment of Demand Response study, the National Action Plan for Demand Response, and demand response as...
Choi, Jason Jinho
The thesis explores inventory management principles in the context of a storage capacity constrained warehouse. Amgen Inc. is building a new manufacturing facility in Singapore. Due to internal raw material warehouse ...
Hill, Wendell T.
CAPACITY BUILDING ACTIVITIES School of Public Health Dean Principal Investigator Community Advisory System Faculty & Students School of Public Health Faculty & Students Prince George's County Washington, D.C. Community Members Practitioners, Residents and Public Health Professionals Research Projects Forum (CAC
Dimeo, Robert M.
Requirements, possible alternatives & international NEUTRON SCATTERING DETECTORS for Rob Dimeo NIST neutron scattering instruments are the most demanding require background low #12;#12;The Helium-3 Supply Crisis Alternative Techniques to Helium-3 based Detectors for Neutron Scattering Applications
Sarmiento, Juan Ojeda
This project describes the electricity demand and energy consumption management system and its application to the Smelter Plant of Southern Peru. It is composted of an hourly demand-forecasting module and of a simulation component for a plant electrical system. The first module was done using dynamic neural networks, with backpropagation training algorithm; it is used to predict the electric power demanded every hour, with an error percentage below of 1%. This information allows management the peak demand before this happen, distributing the raise of electric load to other hours or improving those equipments that increase the demand. The simulation module is based in advanced estimation techniques, such as: parametric estimation, neural network modeling, statistic regression and previously developed models, which simulates the electric behavior of the smelter plant. These modules allow the proper planning because it allows knowing the behavior of the hourly demand and the consumption patterns of the plant, in...
The International Energy Annual presents information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu). Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Data are provided on crude oil refining capacity and electricity installed capacity by type. Prices are included for selected crude oils and for refined petroleum products in selected countries. Population and Gross Domestic Product data are also provided.
Koomey, Jonathan; Brown, Richard E.
Peak power demand issues have come to the fore recently because of the California electricity crisis. Uncertainties surrounding the reliability of electric power systems in restructured markets as well as security worries are the latest reasons for such concerns, but the issues surrounding peak demand are as old as the electric utility system itself. The long lead times associated with building new capacity, the lack of price response in the face of time-varying costs, the large difference between peak demand and average demand, and the necessity for real-time delivery of electricity all make the connection between system peak demand and system reliability an important driver of public policy in the electric utility sector. This exploratory option paper was written at the request of Jerry Dion at the U.S.Department of Energy (DOE). It is one of several white papers commissioned in 2002 exploring key issues of relevance to DOE. This paper explores policy-relevant issues surrounding peak demand, to help guide DOE's research efforts in this area. The findings of this paper are as follows. In the short run, DOE funding of deployment activities on peak demand can help society achieve a more economically efficient balance between investments in supply and demand-side technologies. DOE policies can promote implementation of key technologies to ameliorate peak demand, through government purchasing, technology demonstrations, and improvements in test procedures, efficiency standards, and labeling programs. In the long run, R&D is probably the most important single leverage point for DOE to influence the peak demand issue. Technologies for time-varying price response hold great potential for radically altering the way people use electricity in buildings, but are decades away from widespread use, so DOE R&D and expertise can make a real difference here.
UTILITY DEMAND-SIDE EVALUATION METHODOLOGIES* Nat Treadway Public Utility Commission of Texas Austin, Texas ABSTRACT The electric. util ity industry's demand-side management programs can be analyzed ?from various points of view using a standard... cost and certification proceedings. A s~andard benefit-cost methodology analyzes demand-slde management programs from various ~oints of view. The benefit-cost methodology now ln use by several electric utilities and the * The views presented...
Rubinstein, Francis; Kiliccote, Sila
3 3.0 Previous Experience with Demand Responsive Lighting11 4.3. Prevalence of Lighting13 4.4. Impact of Title 24 on Lighting
Rollout Scenario Analysis Geographically Based Hydrogen Demand and Infrastructure Rollout Scenario Analysis Presentation by Margo Melendez at the 2010-2025 Scenario Analysis for...
Analysis Geographically Based Hydrogen Demand and Infrastructure Analysis Presentation by NREL's Margo Melendez at the 2010 - 2025 Scenario Analysis for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles...
Li, Dan, Ph. D. University of Rochester
Demand planning affects the subsequent business activities including distribution center operational planning and management. Today's competitive environment requires distribution centers to rapidly respond to changes in ...
January 16, 2011 Conference Call transcript: "Marketing & Driving Demand: Social Media Tools & Strategies," from the U.S. Department of Energy. Conference call transcript More...
Integration of Demand Side Management, Distributed Generation, Renewable Energy Sources, and Energy Storages: State-of-the-Art Report, Volume 1, Main Report Jump to: navigation,...
Jul 5, 2013 ... Optimization of Demand Response Through Peak Shaving. G. Zakeri(g.zakeri *** at*** auckland.ac.nz) D. Craigie(David.Craigie ***at*** ...
National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency Energy efficiency programson energy efficiency program types, see National Action PlanNational Action Plan for Energy Efficiency Most demand response programs
ERCOT grid serves 85% of Texas load over 40K+ miles transmission line. Demand response: voluntary load response, load resources, controllable load resources, and emergency interruptible load service.
Demand Response Roadmap Project Final Report 39 5. Developing a Roadmap Actionproject was to develop a “roadmap” to guide the Hawaiian
Jun 19, 2013 ... efficient linear programming formulation for the demand response of such a consumer who could be a price taker, industrial or commercial user ...
BPA-Energy-Northwest-launch-demand-response-pilot Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search News & Us Expand News & Us Projects & Initiatives Expand...
conditioning. Figure 2: Wireless discharge air temperatureWireless Demand Response Controls for HVAC Systems Cliffordcontrol software and wireless hardware that could enable
McCarthy, Ryan; Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M.
Forecasts of California transportation energy demand, 2005-alternative transportation energy pathways on California’salternative transportation energy pathways on California’s
Technical Report: Reducing Logistics Footprints and Replenishment Demands: Nano-engineered Silica Aerogels a Proven Method for Water Treatment Citation Details In-Document Search...
Hadley, Mark D.; Clements, Samuel L.; Carroll, Thomas E.
While holistically defining the smart grid is a challenge, one area of interest is demand-response. In 2009, the Department of Energy announced over $4 billion in grant and project funding for the Smart Grid. A significant amount of this funding was allotted to utilities for cost sharing projects to deploy Smart Grid technologies, many of whom have deployed and are deploying advanced metering infrastructure (AMI). AMI is an enabler to increase the efficiency of utilities and the bulk power grid. The bulk electrical system is unique in that it produces electricity as it is consumed. Most other industries have a delay between generation and consumption. This aspect of the power grid means that there must be enough generation capacity to meet the highest demand whereas other industries could over produce during off-peak times. This requires significant investment in generation capacity to cover the few days a year of peak consumption. Since bulk electrical storage doesn't yet exist at scale another way to curb the need for new peak period generation is through demand-response; that is to incentivize consumers (demand) to curtail (respond) electrical usage during peak periods. Of the various methods proposed for enabling demand-response, this paper will focus on the communication requirements for creating an energy market using transactional controls. More specifically, the paper will focus on the communication requirements needed to send the peak period notices and receive the response back from the consumers.
100000$ Appeld'offrespublic 1 Demanded'approvisionnement 25000$àDemanded'approvisionnementet Appeld'offresurinvitationou 3soumissions 2 5000$àDemanded'approvisionnementet Appeld services reliés Services de professionnels 3000$àDemanded'approvisionnementet 1soumission 2 4
......................................................................... 11 3. Demand Side Management (DSM) Program Impacts................................... 13 4. Demand Sylvia Bender Manager DEMAND ANALYSIS OFFICE Scott W. Matthews Chief Deputy Director B.B. Blevins Forecast Methods and Models ....................................................... 14 5. Demand-Side
Meyers, Steven D.
Chemistry Business Administration Electrical EngineeringI International Affairs International Services Fall 0.2% Denmark 4 0.3% Dominica 2 0.1% Dominican Republic 3 0.2% Ecuador 10 0.7% Egypt 10 0.7% El
Research Strategy 2006-2009 International Policy Energy Adaptation International Development Coasts Change Research. Our strategy builds upon our previous work on integrated assessment, energy, adaptation of time. In this spirit, the Centre reconfirms its vision statement: "The Tyndall Centre is the UK network
Aligning Program Demand with Contractor's Seasonal Fluctuations Strategies for Aligning Program Demand with Contractor's Seasonal Fluctuations Better Buildings Neighborhood Program...
Grossmann, Ignacio E.
inputs: electricity prices, demand data, configuration slates · Each representative week is repeated1 Optimal Multi-scale Capacity Planning under Hourly Varying Electricity Prices Sumit Mitra Ignacio;2 Motivation of this work · Deregulation of the electricity markets caused electricity prices to be highly
for a large population of Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) for demand response applications. We consider both costs. I. INTRODUCTION The number of Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) is ex- pected to be more than onePlanning and Control of Electric Vehicles Using Dynamic Energy Capacity Models Jianzhe Liu*, Sen Li
Perez, Richard R.
PV AND GRID RELIABILITY: AVAILABILITY OF PV POWER DURING CAPACITY SHORTFALLS Richard Perez events caused by high, localized demand and inability for the grid operators to deliver local power at photovoltaic (PV) power availability during major summer 1999-2000 power outages in the United States. We
Worldwide Energy Efficiency Action through Capacity Building and Training (WEACT) Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Worldwide Energy Efficiency Action through Capacity Building and...
THE PERFORMANCE OF QUEUING THEORETIC VIDEO ON DEMAND ALGORITHMS BOURAS C.(1)(2), GAROFALAKIS J.(1,Greece KEYWORDS Video On Demand (VOD), Performance of Algorithms, Simulation, Modeling ABSTRACT Video On Demand on state-of-the-art technologies is Video On Demand (VOD). A Video On Demand System provides on demand
CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION SUMMER 2007 ELECTRICITY SUPPLY AND DEMAND OUTLOOK DRAFTSTAFFREPORT May ELECTRICITY ANALYSIS OFFICE Sylvia Bender Acting Deputy Director ELECTRICITY SUPPLY ANALYSIS DIVISION B. B assessment of the capability of the physical electricity system to provide power to meet electricity demand
: electricity consumption, adjustment market, demand response, information asymmetry JEL codes: D11, D21, Q41 in the consumption of electric energy by retail customers from their expected consumption inDemand response in adjustment markets for electricity Claude Crampes and Thomas-Olivier Léautier
Bateman, Ian J.
MODELLING WOODLAND RECREATION DEMAND USING GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS: A BENEFIT TRANSFER;MODELLING WOODLAND RECREATION DEMAND USING GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS: A BENEFIT TRANSFER STUDY by Ian Research Promotion Fund. ISSN 0967-8875 #12;Abstract This paper utilizes geographical information systems
prices through the changes in their supply/demand.2 Thus, to study how market participants trade can have interesting implications on the observed behavior of intraday volume, volatility and prices: November 15, 2004. This Draft: April 8, 2006 Abstract The supply/demand of a security in the market
Sergii Strelchuk; Jonathan Oppenheim
There are only two known kinds of zero-capacity channels. The first kind produces entangled states that have positive partial transpose, and the second one - states that are cloneable. We consider the family of 'hybrid' quantum channels, which lies in the intersection of the above classes of channels and investigate its properties. It gives rise to the first explicit examples of the channels, which create bound entangled states that have the property of being cloneable to the arbitrary finite number of parties. Hybrid channels provide the first example of highly cloneable binding entanglement channels, for which known superactivation protocols must fail - superactivation is the effect where two channels each with zero quantum capacity having positive capacity when used together. We give two methods to construct a hybrid channel from any binding entanglement channel. We also find the low-dimensional counterparts of hybrid states - bipartite qubit states which are extendible and possess two-way key.
Winter, J.; Dudenhoefer, J.; Juhasz, A.; Schwarze, G.; Patterson, R.; Ferguson, D.; Titran, R.; Schmitz, P.; Vandersande, J.
The SP-100 Space Nuclear Power Program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop technology for military and civil applications. Starting in 1986, NASA has funded a technology program to maintain the momentum of promising aerospace technology advancement started during Phase I of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the changes for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for a wide range of future space applications. The elements of the CSTI High Capacity Power Project include Systems Analysis, Stirling Power Conversion, Thermoelectric Power Conversion, Thermal Management, Power Management, Systems Diagnostics, Environmental Interactions, and Material/Structural Development. Technology advancement in all elements is required to provide the growth capability, high reliability and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall project with develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems compatible with the SP-100 reactor which facilitates operation during lunar and planetary day/night cycles as well as allowing spacecraft operation at any attitude or distance from the sun. Significant accomplishments in all of the project elements will be presented, along with revised goals and project timelines recently developed.
Current and projected capacity of wind power installations (of wind speed (left) and wind power pro- duction (right) forelectricity prices (left) and wind power production (right)
Goldman, Charles; Reid, Michael; Levy, Roger; Silverstein, Alison
This paper reviews the relationship between energy efficiency and demand response and discusses approaches and barriers to coordinating energy efficiency and demand response. The paper is intended to support the 10 implementation goals of the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency's Vision to achieve all cost-effective energy efficiency by 2025. Improving energy efficiency in our homes, businesses, schools, governments, and industries - which consume more than 70 percent of the nation's natural gas and electricity - is one of the most constructive, cost-effective ways to address the challenges of high energy prices, energy security and independence, air pollution, and global climate change. While energy efficiency is an increasingly prominent component of efforts to supply affordable, reliable, secure, and clean electric power, demand response is becoming a valuable tool in utility and regional resource plans. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) estimated the contribution from existing U.S. demand response resources at about 41,000 megawatts (MW), about 5.8 percent of 2008 summer peak demand (FERC, 2008). Moreover, FERC recently estimated nationwide achievable demand response potential at 138,000 MW (14 percent of peak demand) by 2019 (FERC, 2009).2 A recent Electric Power Research Institute study estimates that 'the combination of demand response and energy efficiency programs has the potential to reduce non-coincident summer peak demand by 157 GW' by 2030, or 14-20 percent below projected levels (EPRI, 2009a). This paper supports the Action Plan's effort to coordinate energy efficiency and demand response programs to maximize value to customers. For information on the full suite of policy and programmatic options for removing barriers to energy efficiency, see the Vision for 2025 and the various other Action Plan papers and guides available at www.epa.gov/eeactionplan.
#12;2 #12;Patterns of crude demand: Future patterns of demand for crude oil as a func- tion;5 Summary The crude oil market is actually experiencing dramatic changes on a world wide scale. Most schemes, and/or change quality of the feedstock (crude). Demand for crude oil is growing, especially
Demand response (DR) resources present a potentially important source of grid flexibility particularly on future systems with high penetrations of variable wind and solar power generation. However, managed loads in grid models are limited by data availability and modeling complexity. This presentation focuses on the value of co-optimized DR resources to provide energy and ancillary services in a production cost model. There are significant variations in the availabilities of different types of DR resources, which affect both the operational savings as well as the revenue for each DR resource. The results presented include the system-wide avoided fuel and generator start-up costs as well as the composite revenue for each DR resource by energy and operating reserves. In addition, the revenue is characterized by the capacity, energy, and units of DR enabled.
Mubayi, V.; Leigh, R.W.; Bright, R.N.
This paper is devoted to an exploration of the important issues facing the Russian power generation system and its evolution in the foreseeable future and the kinds of modeling approaches that capture those issues. These issues include, for example, (1) trade-offs between investments in upgrading and refurbishment of existing thermal (fossil-fired) capacity and safety enhancements in existing nuclear capacity versus investment in new capacity, (2) trade-offs between investment in completing unfinished (under construction) projects based on their original design versus investment in new capacity with improved design, (3) incorporation of demand-side management options (investments in enhancing end-use efficiency, for example) within the planning framework, (4) consideration of the spatial dimensions of system planning including investments in upgrading electric transmission networks or fuel shipment networks and incorporating hydroelectric generation, (5) incorporation of environmental constraints and (6) assessment of uncertainty and evaluation of downside risk. Models for exploring these issues include low power shutdown (LPS) which are computationally very efficient, though approximate, and can be used to perform extensive sensitivity analyses to more complex models which can provide more detailed answers but are computationally cumbersome and can only deal with limited issues. The paper discusses which models can usefully treat a wide range of issues within the priorities facing decision makers in the Russian power sector and integrate the results with investment decisions in the wider economy.
Mathieu, Johanna L.
Energy and power capacity of 1,000 heterogeneous ACs or heatthe hourly energy and power capacity for 1,000 heterogeneousparticipating in wholesale energy, capacity, and ancillary
Mathieu, Johanna L.
Energy and power capacity of 1,000 heterogeneous ACs or heatthe hourly energy and power capacity for 1,000 heterogeneousparticipating in wholesale energy, capacity, and ancillary
The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1992; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1992: and OECD trade from 1982 through 1992.
though) as the deflnition of outage capacity in (2.4). Telatar conjectured that the optimal input covariance matrix Q is a diagonal matrix with the power equally shared among a subset of the transmit antennas . Furthermore, the higher the rate... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 B. Outage Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 III PSK CONSTRAINED MIMO CAPACITY : : : : : : : : : : : : 13 A. PSK Constrained MIMO Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 1. The Covariance Matrix...
to resource contention and algorithmic overhead for load management . Knowledge about the server capacity
Donnelly, Matt; Trudnowski, Daniel J.; Mattix, S.; Dagle, Jeffery E.
The research documented within this report examines the use of autonomous demand response to provide primary frequency response in an interconnected power grid. The work builds on previous studies in several key areas: it uses a large realistic model (i.e., the interconnection of the western United States and Canada); it establishes a set of metrics that can be used to assess the effectiveness of autonomous demand response; and it independently adjusts various parameters associated with using autonomous demand response to assess effectiveness and to examine possible threats or vulnerabilities associated with the technology.
The FERC study concludes that U.S. peak demand can be reduced by as much as 188 GW -- roughly 20 percent -- under the most aggressive scenario. More moderate -- and realistic -- scenarios produce smaller but still significant reductions in peak demand. The FERC report is quick to point out that these are estimates of the potential, not projections of what could actually be achieved. The main varieties of demand response programs include interruptible tariffs, direct load control (DLC), and a number of pricing schemes.
Rising oil supplies in 1997 will relax some of the market tightness that drove up crude prices last year. Worldwide demand for petroleum products in 1996 rose faster than anticipated and faster than supply from outside the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. This increased demand for OPEC oil and pushed up prices for crude. At year end, the world export price of crude was up more than 25% from the same period a year earlier. Market conditions will change in 1997. While worldwide economic growth will continue to boost demand for energy and petroleum, non-OPEC petroleum supply will grow even more. Increases in North Sea and Latin American production will help boost non-OPEC output by 1.9 million b/d. And revenues from 1996 production gains will make additional investment possible in exploration and production. The paper discusses world economic growth, world oil demand, worldwide supply, supply outlook, prices and international drilling.
July 29, 2008 Berkeley Lab lecture: Arun Majumdar, Director of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division, discusses current and future projections of economic growth, population, and global energy demand and supply, and explores the implications of these trends for the environment.
Fisk, William J.
columns indicate the energy and cost savings for demand class size. (The energy costs of classroom ventilation $6.2 M in increased energy costs. Further VR increases
Li, Xiangming, 1966-
This thesis examines two important issues in economic development: exchange rates and electricity demand and addresses methodological issues of using time series and panel data analysis to investigate important policy ...
This study is a multi-national laboratory effort to assess the potential value of demand response and energy storage to electricity systems with different penetration levels of variable renewable...
Industrial facilities universally struggle with escalating energy costs. EnerNOC will demonstrate how commercial, industrial, and institutional end-users can capitalize on their existing assets—at no cost and no risk. Demand response, the voluntary...
United States. Annex 8 provides a list of software tools for analysing various aspects of demand response, distributed generation, smart grid and energy storage. Annex 9 is a list...
supervised data preparation. Steven Mac and Keith O'Brien prepared the historical energy consumption data. Nahid Movassagh forecasted consumption for the agriculture and water pumping CALIFORNIA ENERGY DEMAND 2014-2024 PRELIMINARY FORECAST Volume 1
and technology options should have general application across systems. However, MECO has unprecedented levels of wind energywind, solar, and clean energy initiatives have introduced many changes and created uncertainties that complicate utility demand response technology
and Retails Electricity Markets in SPP The Southwest Powerand Retails Electricity Markets in SPP.3 2.1 Wholesale Markets in the Southwest PowerRetail Demand Response in SPP Wholesale Markets in the Southwest Power
This paper aims to interpret Demand-Side Management (DSM) activity and to point out its problems, adopting microeconomics as an analytical tool. Two major findings follow. first, the cost-benefit analysis currently in use ...
Coal mine owners and investors say that supply and demand are now finally in balance. But coal consumers find that both spot tonnage and new contract coal come at a much higher price.
Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Wise, Marshall A.; Calvin, Katherine V.
Energy, water and land are scarce resources, critical to humans. Developments in each affect the availability and cost of the others, and consequently human prosperity. Measures to limit greenhouse gas concentrations will inevitably exact dramatic changes on energy and land systems and in turn alter the character, magnitude and geographic distribution of human claims on water resources. We employ the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), an integrated assessment model to explore the interactions of energy, land and water systems in the context of alternative policies to limit climate change to three alternative levels: 2.5 Wm-2 (445 ppm CO2-e), 3.5 Wm-2 (535 ppm CO2-e) and 4.5 Wm-2 (645 ppm CO2-e). We explore the effects of two alternative land-use emissions mitigation policy options—one which taxes terrestrial carbon emissions equally with fossil fuel and industrial emissions, and an alternative which only taxes fossil fuel and industrial emissions but places no penalty on land-use change emissions. We find that increasing populations and economic growth could be anticipated to almost triple demand for water for agricultural systems across the century even in the absence of climate policy. In general policies to mitigate climate change increase agricultural demands for water still further, though the largest changes occur in the second half of the century, under both policy regimes. The two policies examined profoundly affected both the sources and magnitudes of the increase in irrigation water demands. The largest increases in agricultural irrigation water demand occurred in scenarios where only fossil fuel emissions were priced (but not land-use change emission) and were primarily driven by rapid expansion in bioenergy production. In these scenarios water demands were large relative to present-day total available water, calling into question whether it would be physically possible to produce the associated biomass energy. We explored the potential of improved water delivery and irrigation system efficiencies. These could potentially reduce demands substantially. However, overall demands remained high under our fossil-fuel-only tax policy. In contrast, when all carbon was priced, increases in agricultural water demands were smaller than under the fossil-fuel-only policy and were driven primarily by increased demands for water by non-biomass crops such as rice. Finally we estimate the geospatial pattern of water demands and find that regions such as China, India and other countries in south and east Asia might be expected to experience greatest increases in water demands.?
and Regional Transmission Organizations are the ?air traffic controllers? of the bulk electric power grids 4 Power supply (generation) must match load (demand) CATEE Conference October 10, 2012 ? The fundamental concept behind ERCOT operations... changes or incentives.? (FERC) ? ?Changes in electric use by demand-side resources from their normal consumption patterns in response to changes in the price of electricity, or to incentive payments designed to induce lower electricity use at times...
Marks, Gary; Wilcox, Edmund; Olsen, Daniel; Goli, Sasank
California agricultural irrigation consumes more than ten billion kilowatt hours of electricity annually and has significant potential for contributing to a reduction of stress on the grid through demand response, permanent load shifting, and energy efficiency measures. To understand this potential, a scoping study was initiated for the purpose of determining the associated opportunities, potential, and adoption challenges in California agricultural irrigation. The primary research for this study was conducted in two ways. First, data was gathered and parsed from published sources that shed light on where the best opportunities for load shifting and demand response lie within the agricultural irrigation sector. Secondly, a small limited survey was conducted as informal face-to-face interviews with several different California growers to get an idea of their ability and willingness to participate in permanent load shifting and/or demand response programs. Analysis of the data obtained from published sources and the survey reveal demand response and permanent load shifting opportunities by growing region, irrigation source, irrigation method, grower size, and utility coverage. The study examines some solutions for demand response and permanent load shifting in agricultural irrigation, which include adequate irrigation system capacity, automatic controls, variable frequency drives, and the contribution from energy efficiency measures. The study further examines the potential and challenges for grower acceptance of demand response and permanent load shifting in California agricultural irrigation. As part of the examination, the study considers to what extent permanent load shifting, which is already somewhat accepted within the agricultural sector, mitigates the need or benefit of demand response for agricultural irrigation. Recommendations for further study include studies on how to gain grower acceptance of demand response as well as other related studies such as conducting a more comprehensive survey of California growers.
Neubauer, J.; Simpson, M.
Commercial facility utility bills are often a strong function of demand charges -- a fee proportional to peak power demand rather than total energy consumed. In some instances, demand charges can constitute more than 50% of a commercial customer's monthly electricity cost. While installation of behind-the-meter solar power generation decreases energy costs, its variability makes it likely to leave the peak load -- and thereby demand charges -- unaffected. This then makes demand charges an even larger fraction of remaining electricity costs. Adding controllable behind-the-meter energy storage can more predictably affect building peak demand, thus reducing electricity costs. Due to the high cost of energy storage technology, the size and operation of an energy storage system providing demand charge management (DCM) service must be optimized to yield a positive return on investment (ROI). The peak demand reduction achievable with an energy storage system depends heavily on a facility's load profile, so the optimal configuration will be specific to both the customer and the amount of installed solar power capacity. We explore the sensitivity of DCM value to the power and energy levels of installed solar power and energy storage systems. An optimal peak load reduction control algorithm for energy storage systems will be introduced and applied to historic solar power data and meter load data from multiple facilities for a broad range of energy storage system configurations. For each scenario, the peak load reduction and electricity cost savings will be computed. From this, we will identify a favorable energy storage system configuration that maximizes ROI.
The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenate, ethanol value, and gasoline specifications. For combined-regions outside California summer ethanol demand is dominated by conventional gasoline (CG) because the premised share of reformulated gasoline (RFG) production is relatively low and because CG offers greater flexibility for blending high vapor pressure components like ethanol. Vapor pressure advantages disappear for winter CG, but total ethanol used in winter RFG remains low because of the low RFG production share. In California, relatively less ethanol is used in CG because the RFG production share is very high. During the winter in California, there is a significant increase in use of ethanol in RFG, as ethanol displaces lower-vapor-pressure ethers. Estimated U.S. ethanol demand is a function of the refiner value of ethanol. For example, ethanol demand for reference conditions in year 2010 is 2 billion gallons per year (BGY) at a refiner value of $1.00 per gallon (1996 dollars), and 9 BGY at a refiner value of $0.60 per gallon. Ethanol demand could be increased with higher oil prices, or by changes in gasoline specifications for oxygen content, sulfur content, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), and octane numbers.
Gray, McMahan L. (Pittsburgh, PA); Champagne, Kenneth J. (Fredericktown, PA); Soong, Yee (Monroeville, PA); Filburn, Thomas (Granby, CT)
A method is provided for making low-cost CO.sub.2 sorbents that can be used in large-scale gas-solid processes. The improved method entails treating an amine to increase the number of secondary amine groups and impregnating the amine in a porous solid support. The method increases the CO.sub.2 capture capacity and decreases the cost of utilizing an amine-enriched solid sorbent in CO.sub.2 capture systems.
Grossmann, Ignacio E.
An Operational Model for Optimal NonDispatchable Demand Response for Continuous PowerintensiveFACTS, $ Demand Response Energy Storage HVDC Industrial Customer PEV Renewable Energy Source: U.S.-Canada Power: To balance supply and demand of a power system, one can manipulate both: supply and demand demand response
Auslander, David; Culler, David; Wright, Paul; Lu, Yan; Piette, Mary
The goal of the 2.5 year Distributed Intelligent Automated Demand Response (DIADR) project was to reduce peak electricity load of Sutardja Dai Hall at UC Berkeley by 30% while maintaining a healthy, comfortable, and productive environment for the occupants. We sought to bring together both central and distributed control to provide “deep” demand response1 at the appliance level of the building as well as typical lighting and HVAC applications. This project brought together Siemens Corporate Research and Siemens Building Technology (the building has a Siemens Apogee Building Automation System (BAS)), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (leveraging their Open Automated Demand Response (openADR), Auto-Demand Response, and building modeling expertise), and UC Berkeley (related demand response research including distributed wireless control, and grid-to-building gateway development). Sutardja Dai Hall houses the Center for Information Technology Research in the Interest of Society (CITRIS), which fosters collaboration among industry and faculty and students of four UC campuses (Berkeley, Davis, Merced, and Santa Cruz). The 141,000 square foot building, occupied in 2009, includes typical office spaces and a nanofabrication laboratory. Heating is provided by a district heating system (steam from campus as a byproduct of the campus cogeneration plant); cooling is provided by one of two chillers: a more typical electric centrifugal compressor chiller designed for the cool months (Nov- March) and a steam absorption chiller for use in the warm months (April-October). Lighting in the open office areas is provided by direct-indirect luminaries with Building Management System-based scheduling for open areas, and occupancy sensors for private office areas. For the purposes of this project, we focused on the office portion of the building. Annual energy consumption is approximately 8053 MWh; the office portion is estimated as 1924 MWh. The maximum peak load during the study period was 1175 kW. Several new tools facilitated this work, such as the Smart Energy Box, the distributed load controller or Energy Information Gateway, the web-based DR controller (dubbed the Central Load-Shed Coordinator or CLSC), and the Demand Response Capacity Assessment & Operation Assistance Tool (DRCAOT). In addition, an innovative data aggregator called sMAP (simple Measurement and Actuation Profile) allowed data from different sources collected in a compact form and facilitated detailed analysis of the building systems operation. A smart phone application (RAP or Rapid Audit Protocol) facilitated an inventory of the building’s plug loads. Carbon dioxide sensors located in conference rooms and classrooms allowed demand controlled ventilation. The extensive submetering and nimble access to this data provided great insight into the details of the building operation as well as quick diagnostics and analyses of tests. For example, students discovered a short-cycling chiller, a stuck damper, and a leaking cooling coil in the first field tests. For our final field tests, we were able to see how each zone was affected by the DR strategies (e.g., the offices on the 7th floor grew very warm quickly) and fine-tune the strategies accordingly.
. WHAT IS DEMAND RESPONSE? Demand response is a change in customers' demand for electricity corresponding. Demand response as defined here does not include involuntary curtailment imposed on electricity users to conditions in wholesale power markets, its electricity demand is not. This situation has a number of adverse
Roles and prospect of nuclear power in China’s energy supply70% load factor 48 GW of nuclear power capacity @ 90% loadnear LNG import terminals. Nuclear power IEA, World Energy
pollution. With coal and liquid transport fuel deficits in26 3.6. Coal-to-liquids and coal-to-70 million tonnes and coal-to-liquids capacity reaches 60
This brochure addresses gaps in actionable knowledge that can help reduce the plug load capacities designed into buildings. Prospective building occupants and real estate brokers lack accurate references for plug and process load (PPL) capacity requirements, so they often request 5-10 W/ft2 in their lease agreements. This brochure should be used to make these decisions so systems can operate more energy efficiently; upfront capital costs will also decrease. This information can also be used to drive changes in negotiations about PPL energy demands. It should enable brokers and tenants to agree about lower PPL capacities. Owner-occupied buildings will also benefit. Overestimating PPL capacity leads designers to oversize electrical infrastructure and cooling systems.
Sustainability Training for Realtors in High Demand Washington: Sustainability Training for Realtors in High Demand March 6, 2014 - 5:50pm Addthis Demand has been high for a free...
Forecasting Market Demand for New Telecommunications Services: An Introduction Peter Mc in demand forecasting for new communication services. Acknowledgments: The writing of this paper commenced employers or consultancy clients. KEYWORDS: Demand Forecasting, New Product Marketing, Telecommunica- tions
Maggs, Bruce M.
A Methodology for Estimating Interdomain Web Traffic Demand Anja Feldmann , Nils Kammenhuber-varying) interdomain HTTP traffic demand matrix pairing several hundred thousand blocks of client IP addresses, Traffic demand, Interdomain, Es- timation 1. INTRODUCTION The reliable estimation and prediction
Auffhammer, Maximilian; Blumstein, Carl; Fowlie, Meredith
EPRI). 1984. ”Demand Side Management. Vol. 1:Overview of Key1993. ”Industrial Demand-Side Management Programs: What’sJ. Kulick. 2004. ”Demand side management and energy e?ciency
Data Collection for Demand-side Management for QualifyingPrepared by Demand-side Management Task Force of the4. Status of Demand Side Management in Midwest ISO 5.
Epstein, G.; D'Antonio, M.; Schmidt, C.; Seryak, J.; Smith, C.
, there are also huge opportunities for demand response in the industrial sector. This paper describes some of the demand response initiatives that are currently active in New York State, explaining applicability of industrial facilities. Next, we discuss demand...
Russell, B. D.; Heller, R. P.; Perry, L. W.
Energy Management systems and particularly demand controllers are becoming more popular as commercial and light industrial operations attempt to reduce their electrical usage and demand. Numerous techniques are used to control energy use and demand...
Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David; Motegi, Naoya; Kiliccote, Sila; Linkugel, Eric
4 9 . Piette et at Automated Demand Response Strategies andDynamic Controls for Demand Response in New and ExistingFully Automated Demand Response Tests in Large Facilities"
Povinelli, Richard J.
-- Domain knowledge is an essential factor for forecasting energy demand. This paper introduces a method knowledge substantially improves energy demand forecasting accuracy. However, domain knowledge may differ. The first stage automatically captures energy demand forecasting domain knowledge through nonlinear
Floor-space forecast to 2050 Gross demand for energy Macro-Floor-space forecast to 2050 Gross demand for energy Macro-Floor-space forecast to 2050 Gross demand for energy Macro-
1 PIER: Demand Response Research Center Director, Mary Ann Piette Program Development and Outreach Response Research Plan #12;2 Demand Response Research Center Objective Scope Stakeholders Develop, prioritize, conduct and disseminate multi- institutional research to facilitate Demand Response. Technologies
LBNL-6560E Analysis of Open Automated Demand Response Deployments in California and Guidelines The work described in this report was coordinated by the Demand Response Research. #12; #12;Abstract This report reviews the Open Automated Demand Response
Brandt, Adam R.; Farrell, Alexander E.
based on projections of future prices and future demand.with demand projections, corresponding oil price series areoil price path associated with the IMAGE demand projection
Bauer, E.K. (ed.)
For the international sector, a table of data is first presented followed by corresponding graph of the data for the following: (1) Iran: crude oil capacity, production, and shut-in, 1974 to February 1980; (2) Saudi Arabia (same as Iran); (3) OPEC (ex-Iran and Saudi Arabia); capacity, production, and shut-in, 1974 to January 1980; (4) non-OPEC Free World and US production of crude oil, 1973 to January 1980; (5) oil stocks: Free World, US, Japan, and Europe (landed), 1973 to 1979; (6) petroleum consumption by industrial countries, 1973 to October 1979; (7) USSR crude oil production, 1974 to February 1980; (8) Free World and US nuclear generation capacity, 1973 to January 1980. For the United States, the same data format is used for the following: (a) US imports of crude oil and products 1973 to January 1980; (b) landed cost of Saudi Arabia crude oil in current and 1974 dollars, 1974 to October 1979; (c) US trade in coal, 1973 to 1979; (d) summary of US merchandise trade, 1976 to January 1980; and (e) US energy/GNP ratio (in 1972 dollars), 1947 to 1979.
Tippee, B.; Beck, R.J.
Rising oil consumption is challenging the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries production quota--but not the group`s ability to meet demand. In the second half of 1995, the oil market will continue to need more oil from OPEC members than the group claims to be willing to produce with its quota at 24.52 million b/d. If the quota really limited supply, ingredients would be in place for a significant price hike. Growth in a non-OPEC production intensities temptations on OPEC members to cheat on quotas and has become a key factor in the market. OPEC producers have seen that if they don`t meet incremental demand at the current price, other producers will. OPEC eventually will have to raise its quota or acknowledge that the artificial production limit lacks meaning. At present, the only real limit to supply is production capacity, which remains in excess relative to demand and which has demonstrated its ability to grow both within and outside of OPEC when prices rise. The paper discusses worldwide trends, pressures on OPEC, world crude prices, US prices, natural gas prices, US energy demand, natural gas use, gas supply, US demand for petroleum products, imports, and inventories.
Valin, Hugo; Sands, Ronald; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique; Nelson, Gerald; Ahammad, Helal; Blanc, Elodie; Bodirsky, Benjamin; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Havlik, Petr; Heyhoe, Edwina; Kyle, G. Page; Mason d'Croz, Daniel; Paltsev, S.; Rolinski, Susanne; Tabeau, Andrzej; van Meijl, Hans; von Lampe, Martin; Willenbockel, Dirk
Understanding the capacity of agricultural systems to feed the world population under climate change requires a good prospective vision on the future development of food demand. This paper reviews modeling approaches from ten global economic models participating to the AgMIP project, in particular the demand function chosen and the set of parameters used. We compare food demand projections at the horizon 2050 for various regions and agricultural products under harmonized scenarios. Depending on models, we find for a business as usual scenario (SSP2) an increase in food demand of 59-98% by 2050, slightly higher than FAO projection (54%). The prospective for animal calories is particularly uncertain with a range of 61-144%, whereas FAO anticipates an increase by 76%. The projections reveal more sensitive to socio-economic assumptions than to climate change conditions or bioenergy development. When considering a higher population lower economic growth world (SSP3), consumption per capita drops by 9% for crops and 18% for livestock. Various assumptions on climate change in this exercise do not lead to world calorie losses greater than 6%. Divergences across models are however notable, due to differences in demand system, income elasticities specification, and response to price change in the baseline.
We develop a model of the dynamic structure of capacity factor risk. It incorporates the risk that the capacity factor may vary widely from year-to-year, and also the risk that the reactor may be permanently shutdown prior ...
Cognition has a severely limited capacity: Adult humans can retain only about four items “in mind”. This limitation is fundamental to human brain function: Individual capacity is highly correlated with intelligence measures ...
Blake, Christopher Graham
The capacity of the bosonic channel with additive Gaussian noise is unknown, but there is a known lower bound that is conjectured to be the capacity. We have quantified the gap that exists between this known achievable ...
Agreement Template for Energy Conservation and Demand Side Management Services Agreement Template for Energy Conservation and Demand Side Management Services Template agreement...
Structuring Rebate and Incentive Programs for Sustainable Demand Structuring Rebate and Incentive Programs for Sustainable Demand Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Peer...
Using Mobile Applications to Generate Customer Demand Using Mobile Applications to Generate Customer Demand Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange Call Series: Using...
Reducing Energy Demand in Buildings Through State Energy Codes Reducing Energy Demand in Buildings Through State Energy Codes Building Codes Project for the 2013 Building...
Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters A water heater's energy...
Response to several FOIA requests - Renewable Energy. Demand for Fossil Fuels Response to several FOIA requests - Renewable Energy. Demand for Fossil Fuels Response to several FOIA...
and wind generation technologies. A variety of approaches can be deployed, including demand response, which can be used to shift demand to periods of greater renewable output,...
Strategies for Marketing and Driving Demand for Commercial Financing Products Strategies for Marketing and Driving Demand for Commercial Financing Products Better Buildings...
Agreement for Energy Conservation and Demand Side Management Services Template Agreement for Energy Conservation and Demand Side Management Services Template Document features a...
Tool Improves Electricity Demand Predictions to Make More Room for Renewables Tool Improves Electricity Demand Predictions to Make More Room for Renewables October 3, 2011 -...
Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) presentation on demand response as power system resources before the Electicity Advisory Committee, October 29, 2010 Demand Response as...
Implementation Proposal for the National Action Plan on Demand Response - July 2011 Implementation Proposal for the National Action Plan on Demand Response - July 2011 Report to...
SGDP Report Now Available: Interoperability of Demand Response Resources Demonstration in NY (February 2015) SGDP Report Now Available: Interoperability of Demand Response...
Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters A water heater's...
Can Automotive Battery Recycling Help Meet Lithium Demand? Title Can Automotive Battery Recycling Help Meet Lithium Demand? Publication Type Presentation Year of Publication 2013...
Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David; Motegi, Naoya; Kiliccote, Sila; Linkugel, Eric
efficiency, daily peak load management and demand response.Loads Efficiency, Daily Load Management and Demand ResponseOperations Peak Load Management (Daily) - TOU Savings - Peak
Oct 29, 2010 ... sion, both Demand Response (DR) strategy and intermittent renewable ... Key Words: unit commitment, demand response, wind energy, robust ...
Demand Response and Smart Metering Policy Actions Since the Energy Policy Act of 2005: A Summary for State Officials Demand Response and Smart Metering Policy Actions Since the...
China-Transportation Demand Management in Beijing: Mitigation of Emissions in Urban Transport Jump to: navigation, search Name Transportation Demand Management in Beijing -...
Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters March 10, 2015 -...
Demand Response and Energy Storage Integration Study - Past Workshops Demand Response and Energy Storage Integration Study - Past Workshops The project was initiated and informed...
Report: Interoperability of Demand Response Resources Demonstration in NY (February 2015) SGDP Report: Interoperability of Demand Response Resources Demonstration in NY (February...
ASSESSMENT OF VARIABLE EFFECTS OF SYSTEMS WITH DEMAND RESPONSE RESOURCES BY ANUPAMA SUNIL KOWLI B of consumers - called demand response resources (DRRs) - whose role has become increasingly important
Report Now Available: Interoperability of Demand Response Resources Demonstration in NY (February 2015) SGDP Report Now Available: Interoperability of Demand Response Resources...
Brandemuehl, M.J.; Braun, J.E.
The overall objective of this work was to evaluate typical energy requirements associated with alternative ventilation control strategies for constant-air-volume (CAV) systems in commercial buildings. The strategies included different combinations of economizer and demand-controlled ventilation, and energy analyses were performed for four typical building types, eight alternative ventilation systems, and twenty US climates. Only single-zone buildings were considered so that simultaneous heating and cooling did not exist. The energy savings associated with economizer and demand-controlled ventilation strategies were found to be very significant for both heating and cooling. In general, the greatest savings in electrical usage for cooling with the addition of demand-controlled ventilation occur in situations where the opportunities for economizer cooling are less. This is true for warm and humid climates and for buildings that have relatively low internal gains (i.e., low occupant densities). As much as 20% savings in electrical energy for cooling were possible with demand-controlled ventilation. The savings in heating energy associated with demand-controlled ventilation were generally much larger but were strongly dependent upon the building type and occupancy schedule. Significantly greater savings were found for buildings with highly variable occupancy schedules and large internal gains (i.e., restaurants) as compared with office buildings. In some cases, the primary heating energy was virtually eliminated by demand-controlled ventilation as compared with fixed ventilation rates. For both heating and cooling, the savings associated with demand-controlled ventilation are dependent on the fixed minimum ventilation rate of the base case at design conditions.
The objectives of this scoping study were to develop and test control software and wireless hardware that could enable closed-loop, zone-temperature-based demand response in buildings that have either pneumatic controls or legacy digital controls that cannot be used as part of a demand response automation system. We designed a SOAP client that is compatible with the Demand Response Automation Server (DRAS) being used by the IOUs in California for their CPP program, design the DR control software, investigated the use of cellular routers for connecting to the DRAS, and tested the wireless DR system with an emulator running a calibrated model of a working building. The results show that the wireless DR system can shed approximately 1.5 Watts per design CFM on the design day in a hot, inland climate in California while keeping temperatures within the limits of ASHRAE Standard 55: Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy.
Lu, Shuai; Samaan, Nader A.; Diao, Ruisheng; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Jin, Chunlian; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Zhang, Yu; Kirkham, Harold
Demand response has been recognized as an essential element of the smart grid. Frequency response, regulation and contingency reserve functions performed traditionally by generation resources are now starting to involve demand side resources. Additional benefits from demand response include peak reduction and load shifting, which will defer new infrastructure investment and improve generator operation efficiency. Technical approaches designed to realize these functionalities can be categorized into centralized control and decentralized control, depending on where the response decision is made. This paper discusses these two control philosophies and compares their relative advantages and disadvantages in terms of delay time, predictability, complexity, and reliability. A distribution system model with detailed household loads and controls is built to demonstrate the characteristics of the two approaches. The conclusion is that the promptness and reliability of decentralized control should be combined with the predictability and simplicity of centralized control to achieve the best performance of the smart grid.
Fisk, William J.; Mendell, Mark J.; Davies, Molly; Eliseeva, Ekaterina; Faulkner, David; Hong, Tienzen; Sullivan, Douglas P.
This document summarizes a research effort on demand controlled ventilation and classroom ventilation. The research on demand controlled ventilation included field studies and building energy modeling. Major findings included: ? The single-location carbon dioxide sensors widely used for demand controlled ventilation frequently have large errors and will fail to effectively control ventilation rates (VRs).? Multi-location carbon dioxide measurement systems with more expensive sensors connected to multi-location sampling systems may measure carbon dioxide more accurately.? Currently-available optical people counting systems work well much of the time but have large counting errors in some situations. ? In meeting rooms, measurements of carbon dioxide at return-air grilles appear to be a better choice than wall-mounted sensors.? In California, demand controlled ventilation in general office spaces is projected to save significant energy and be cost effective only if typical VRs without demand controlled ventilation are very high relative to VRs in codes. Based on the research, several recommendations were developed for demand controlled ventilation specifications in the California Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards.The research on classroom ventilation collected data over two years on California elementary school classrooms to investigate associations between VRs and student illness absence (IA). Major findings included: ? Median classroom VRs in all studied climate zones were below the California guideline, and 40percent lower in portable than permanent buildings.? Overall, one additional L/s per person of VR was associated with 1.6percent less IA. ? Increasing average VRs in California K-12 classrooms from the current average to the required level is estimated to decrease IA by 3.4percent, increasing State attendance-based funding to school districts by $33M, with $6.2 M in increased energy costs. Further VR increases would provide additional benefits.? Confirming these findings in intervention studies is recommended. ? Energy costs of heating/cooling unoccupied classrooms statewide are modest, but a large portion occurs in relatively few classrooms.
Information Capacity of Energy Harvesting Sensor Nodes R Rajesh CABS, DRDO Bangalore, India Email by which the harvested energy is used. We find its Shannon capacity when it is transmitting its observations over an AWGN channel and show that the capacity achieving energy management policies are related
Braun, J.E.; Brandemuehl, M.J.
The overall objective of this work was to evaluate typical energy requirements associated with alternative ventilation control strategies. The strategies included different combinations of economizer and demand-controlled ventilation controls and energy analyses were performed for a range of typical buildings, systems, and climates. Only single zone buildings were considered, so that simultaneous heating and cooling did not exist. The energy savings associated with economizer and demand-controlled ventilation strategies were found to be very significant for both heating and cooling. In general, the greatest savings in electrical usage for cooling with the addition of demand-controlled ventilation occur in situations where the opportunities for economizer cooling are less. This is true for warm and humid climates, and for buildings that have low relative internal gains (i.e., low occupant densities). As much as 10% savings in electrical energy for cooling were possible with demand-controlled ventilation. The savings in heating energy associated with demand-controlled ventilation were generally much larger, but were strongly dependent upon the occupancy schedule. Significantly greater savings were found for buildings with highly variable occupancy schedules (e.g., stores and restaurants) as compared with office buildings. In some cases, the primary heating energy was reduced by a factor of 10 with demand-controlled ventilation as compared with fixed ventilation rates.
The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, exports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data beginning in 1985, and monthly data for the most recent two years. Section 2 presents an oil supply/demand balance for world. This balance is presented in quarterly intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade for the years 1970 through 1992; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1992; and OECD trade from 1982 through 1992.
The International Petroleum Statistics Report presents data on international oil production, demand, imports, and stocks. The report has four sections. Section 1 contains time series data on world oil production, and on oil demand and stocks in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This section contains annual data intervals for the most recent two years. Section 3 presents data on oil imports by OECD countries. This section contains annual data for the most recent year, quarterly data for the most recent two quarters, and monthly data for the most recent twelve months. Section 4 presents annual time series data on world oil production and oil stocks, demand, and trade in OECD countries. World oil production and OECD demand data are for the years 1970 through 1996; OECD stocks from 1973 through 1996; and OECD trade from 1986 through 1996. 4 figs., 48 tabs.
in Energy Economics, SEEC, University of Surrey, UK, 2010; the 11th IAEE European Conference, Vilnius strategy. One of the Department of Energy's missions are to promote energy efficiency to help the NationUS Residential Energy Demand and Energy Efficiency: A Stochastic Demand Frontier Approach Massimo
Victor, A.; Brodkorb, M.
• Provides periodic energy consumption reports Demand-Side Energy Management • Compares actual energy cost against defined dynamic targets • Alerts responsible personnel when corrective action is needed • Provides a list of recommended actions... stream_source_info ESL-IE-06-05-24.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 17485 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name ESL-IE-06-05-24.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Real-Time Demand Side Energy...
Demand Response Pilot CATEE 12-17-13 ESL-KT-13-12-21 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 Disclaimer The information contained in this report has been obtained from sources which Constellation New... services along with other information about our business is available online at constellation.com. ESL-KT-13-12-21 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 Demand Response in ERCOT CATEE 121313 - Tim Carter...
stream_source_info ESL-IE-92-04-16.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 25669 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IE-92-04-16.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 INDUSTRIAL DEMAND.... Utilities may intervene to shape the load of their customers through demand-side management programs. In doing so, they can improve the efficiency of their system. Historically, utilities in Texas have offered industrial customers energy audits and other...
stream_source_info ESL-KT-13-12-53.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 4780 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name ESL-KT-13-12-53.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Demand Response Initiatives... and Toyota combined. • Schools & Universities contributed 6 MW’s of Demand Response in 2013. 2013 DR Participants Trinity University - $5,654 Fort Sam ISD - $18,860 Judson ISD - $45,540 Alamo Colleges - $98,222 UTSA - $168,572 ESL-KT-13-12-53 CATEE 2013...
Blomo, Vito James
(percentage) responsiveness of price to changes (usually one percent) in quantity. Assuming a linear demand function, flexibility is shown to be less than one in the upper half of the function, equal to one (unitary) at the midpoint, and greater than one...SEASONAL DEMAND AND SUPPLY ANALYSIS OF TURKEYS A Thesis by VITO JAMES BLOMO Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1972 Ma)or Sub...
McKane, Aimee; Rhyne, Ivin; Lekov, Alex; Thompson, Lisa; Piette, MaryAnn
In 2006, the Public Interest Energy Research Program (PIER) Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory initiated research into Automated Demand Response (OpenADR) applications in California industry. The goal is to improve electric grid reliability and lower electricity use during periods of peak demand. The purpose of this research is to begin to define the relationship among a portfolio of actions that industrial facilities can undertake relative to their electricity use. This ?electricity value chain? defines energy management and demand response (DR) at six levels of service, distinguished by the magnitude, type, and rapidity of response. One element in the electricity supply chain is OpenADR, an open-standards based communications system to send signals to customers to allow them to manage their electric demand in response to supply conditions, such as prices or reliability, through a set of standard, open communications. Initial DRRC research suggests that industrial facilities that have undertaken energy efficiency measures are probably more, not less, likely to initiate other actions within this value chain such as daily load management and demand response. Moreover, OpenADR appears to afford some facilities the opportunity to develop the supporting control structure and to"demo" potential reductions in energy use that can later be applied to either more effective load management or a permanent reduction in use via energy efficiency. Under the right conditions, some types of industrial facilities can shift or shed loads, without any, or minimal disruption to operations, to protect their energy supply reliability and to take advantage of financial incentives.1 In 2007 and 2008, 35 industrial facilities agreed to implement OpenADR, representing a total capacity of nearly 40 MW. This paper describes how integrated or centralized demand management and system-level network controls are linked to OpenADR systems. Case studies of refrigerated warehouses and wastewater treatment facilities are used to illustrate OpenADR load reduction potential. Typical shed and shift strategies include: turning off or operating compressors, aerator blowers and pumps at reduced capacity, increasing temperature set-points or pre-cooling cold storage areas and over-oxygenating stored wastewater prior to a DR event. This study concludes that understanding industrial end-use processes and control capabilities is a key to support reduced service during DR events and these capabilities, if DR enabled, hold significant promise in reducing the electricity demand of the industrial sector during utility peak periods.
McKane, Aimee; Rhyne, Ivin; Piette, Mary Ann; Thompson, Lisa; Lekov, Alex
In 2006, the Public Interest Energy Research Program (PIER) Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory initiated research into Automated Demand Response (OpenADR) applications in California industry. The goal is to improve electric grid reliability and lower electricity use during periods of peak demand. The purpose of this research is to begin to define the relationship among a portfolio of actions that industrial facilities can undertake relative to their electricity use. This 'electricity value chain' defines energy management and demand response (DR) at six levels of service, distinguished by the magnitude, type, and rapidity of response. One element in the electricity supply chain is OpenADR, an open-standards based communications system to send signals to customers to allow them to manage their electric demand in response to supply conditions, such as prices or reliability, through a set of standard, open communications. Initial DRRC research suggests that industrial facilities that have undertaken energy efficiency measures are probably more, not less, likely to initiate other actions within this value chain such as daily load management and demand response. Moreover, OpenADR appears to afford some facilities the opportunity to develop the supporting control structure and to 'demo' potential reductions in energy use that can later be applied to either more effective load management or a permanent reduction in use via energy efficiency. Under the right conditions, some types of industrial facilities can shift or shed loads, without any, or minimal disruption to operations, to protect their energy supply reliability and to take advantage of financial incentives. In 2007 and 2008, 35 industrial facilities agreed to implement OpenADR, representing a total capacity of nearly 40 MW. This paper describes how integrated or centralized demand management and system-level network controls are linked to OpenADR systems. Case studies of refrigerated warehouses and wastewater treatment facilities are used to illustrate OpenADR load reduction potential. Typical shed and shift strategies include: turning off or operating compressors, aerator blowers and pumps at reduced capacity, increasing temperature set-points or pre-cooling cold storage areas and over-oxygenating stored wastewater prior to a DR event. This study concludes that understanding industrial end-use processes and control capabilities is a key to support reduced service during DR events and these capabilities, if DR enabled, hold significant promise in reducing the electricity demand of the industrial sector during utility peak periods.
Global Energy Partners; Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Kiliccote, Sila; Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Wikler, Greg; Prijyanonda, Joe; Chiu, Albert
Demand Response (DR) can be defined as actions taken to reduce electric loads when contingencies, such as emergencies and congestion, occur that threaten supply-demand balance, or market conditions raise supply costs. California utilities have offered price and reliability DR based programs to customers to help reduce electric peak demand. The lack of knowledge about the DR programs and how to develop and implement DR control strategies is a barrier to participation in DR programs, as is the lack of automation of DR systems. Most DR activities are manual and require people to first receive notifications, and then act on the information to execute DR strategies. Levels of automation in DR can be defined as follows. Manual Demand Response involves a labor-intensive approach such as manually turning off or changing comfort set points at each equipment switch or controller. Semi-Automated Demand Response involves a pre-programmed demand response strategy initiated by a person via centralized control system. Fully-Automated Demand Response does not involve human intervention, but is initiated at a home, building, or facility through receipt of an external communications signal. The receipt of the external signal initiates pre-programmed demand response strategies. We refer to this as Auto-DR (Piette et. al. 2005). Auto-DR for commercial and industrial facilities can be defined as fully automated DR initiated by a signal from a utility or other appropriate entity and that provides fully-automated connectivity to customer end-use control strategies. One important concept in Auto-DR is that a homeowner or facility manager should be able to 'opt out' or 'override' a DR event if the event comes at time when the reduction in end-use services is not desirable. Therefore, Auto-DR is not handing over total control of the equipment or the facility to the utility but simply allowing the utility to pass on grid related information which then triggers facility defined and programmed strategies if convenient to the facility. From 2003 through 2006 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and the Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) developed and tested a series of demand response automation communications technologies known as Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR). In 2007, LBNL worked with three investor-owned utilities to commercialize and implement Auto-DR programs in their territories. This paper summarizes the history of technology development for Auto-DR, and describes the DR technologies and control strategies utilized at many of the facilities. It outlines early experience in commercializing Auto-DR systems within PG&E DR programs, including the steps to configure the automation technology. The paper also describes the DR sheds derived using three different baseline methodologies. Emphasis is given to the lessons learned from installation and commissioning of Auto-DR systems, with a detailed description of the technical coordination roles and responsibilities, and costs.
Munk, Jeffrey D.; Jackson, Roderick K.; Odukomaiya, Adewale; Gehl, Anthony C.
Variable capacity heat pumps are an emerging technology offering significant energy savings potential and improved efficiency. With conventional single-speed systems, it is important to appropriately size heat pumps for the cooling load as over-sizing would result in cycling and insufficient latent capacity required for humidity control. These appropriately sized systems are often under-sized for the heating load and require inefficient supplemental electric resistance heat to meet the heating demand. Variable capacity heat pumps address these shortcomings by providing an opportunity to intentionally size systems for the dominant heating season load without adverse effects of cycling or insufficient dehumidification in the cooling season. This intentionally-sized system could result in significant energy savings in the heating season, as the need for inefficient supplemental electric resistance heat is drastically reduced. This is a continuation of a study evaluating the energy consumption of variable capacity heat pumps installed in two unoccupied research homes in Farragut, a suburb of Knoxville, Tennessee. In this particular study, space conditioning systems are intentionally sized for the heating season loads to provide an opportunity to understand and evaluate the impact this would have on electric resistance heat use and dehumidification. The results and conclusions drawn through this research are valid and specific for portions of the Southeastern and Midwestern United States falling in the mixed-humid climate zone. While other regions in the U.S. do not experience this type of climate, this work provides a basis for, and can help understand the implications of other climate zones on residential space conditioning energy consumption. The data presented here will provide a framework for fine tuning residential building EnergyPlus models that are being developed.
Madaeni, S. H.; Sioshansi, R.; Denholm, P.
This study estimates the capacity value of a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant at a variety of locations within the western United States. This is done by optimizing the operation of the CSP plant and by using the effective load carrying capability (ELCC) metric, which is a standard reliability-based capacity value estimation technique. Although the ELCC metric is the most accurate estimation technique, we show that a simpler capacity-factor-based approximation method can closely estimate the ELCC value. Without storage, the capacity value of CSP plants varies widely depending on the year and solar multiple. The average capacity value of plants evaluated ranged from 45%?90% with a solar multiple range of 1.0-1.5. When introducing thermal energy storage (TES), the capacity value of the CSP plant is more difficult to estimate since one must account for energy in storage. We apply a capacity-factor-based technique under two different market settings: an energy-only market and an energy and capacity market. Our results show that adding TES to a CSP plant can increase its capacity value significantly at all of the locations. Adding a single hour of TES significantly increases the capacity value above the no-TES case, and with four hours of storage or more, the average capacity value at all locations exceeds 90%.
of deploying advanced coal power in the Chinese context,”12 2.6. International coal prices and12 III. Chinese Coal
IEA. (2007) World Energy Outlook 2007. Pan Kexi. (2005) “TheIEA 2008, various years. World Energy Outlook. Paris: OECD/2006). International Energy Outlook 2006. Washington DC:
electricity and natural gas rates, and relatively low efficiency program and self: Electricity Demand by Utility Planning Area MAY 2013 CEC-200-2013-004-SD-V2 Sylvia Bender Deputy Director ELECTRICITY SUPPLY ANALYSIS DIVISION Robert P. Oglesby Executive
to monitor system status for leaks and losses, energy management, Preventative Maintenance work and implement energy Conservation and Demand Management (CDM) plans starting in 2014. Requirementsofthe/replacements and minor construction projects to ensure energy efficient equipment is selected for systems and design
Growth in U.S. energy use is linked to population growth through increases in demand for housing, commercial floorspace, transportation, manufacturing, and services. This affects not only the level of energy use, but also the mix of fuels and consumption by sector.
signal · Reinforces conservation program efforts in areas such as insulation and heat pumps Voluntary DR Commercial & Industrial DR Pilot Internet communication/control of imbedded load control devices on up storage Commercial & Industrial DR Pilot (8 customers)* · Open Automated Demand Response Communication
results: demand response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Institute. “Automated Demand Response Today”. In: (2012). [Energy. “Benefits of demand response in electricity markets
Wholesale Electricity Demand Response Program Comparison,J. (2009) Open Automated Demand Response Communicationsin Demand Response for Wholesale Ancillary Services.
The installed battery has an energy capacity of 4 MWh and aof 6.5%. It is the energy capacity of the electric storage (and Lost Savings by Energy Capacity The technical parameters
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Bottleneck Links, Variable Demand, and the Tragedy of the Commons Richard Cole£ Yevgeniy DodisÝ Tim demand to resources whose performance degrades with increasing congestion. While fundamental of a resource and the demand for that resource. This coupling motivates allowing demand to vary with congestion