National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for internal combustion maglev

  1. Rotary internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Le, L.K.

    1990-11-20

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine comprising; a rotary compressor mechanism; a rotary expander mechanism; and combustion chamber means disposed between the compressor mechanism and the expander mechanism, whereby compressed air is delivered to the combustion chamber through the compressor discharge port, and pressurized gas is delivered from the combustion chamber into the expander mechanism through the pressurized gas intake port.

  2. Internal combustion rotary engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, S.P.

    1993-08-24

    An internal combustion rotary engine is described comprising: an internal combustion chamber wherein a combustible fuel-air mixture is ignited for producing a driving gas flow; a central rotor having an outer surface in which at least one group of curved channels circumferentially-and-axially extending without radially extending through the central rotor; and at least one annular rotor each enclosing the central rotor having an inner surface in which a corresponding number of curved channels circumferentially-and-axially extending without radially extending through the annular rotor; when the curved channels in the central rotor communicate with the curved channels in the annular rotor, the driving gas flow circumferentially-and-axially passing between the outer surface of the central rotor and the inner surface of the annular rotor for rotating the central rotor and the annular rotor in opposite directions.

  3. Rotary internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray, J.L.

    1993-07-20

    A multi bank power plant is described comprising at least a first and a second rotary internal combustion engine connectable together in series, each of the engines comprising: a housing; a cam track internally disposed within the housing and adapted to receive a cam follower; an engine block disposed within the housing and rotatable about a central axis; an output shaft extending axially from each the engine block, each output shaft being coaxial with the other; means for coupling the output shafts together so that the output shafts rotate together in the same direction at the same speed; at least one radially arranged cylinder assembly on each block, each cylinder assembly including a cylinder having a longitudinal axis extending generally radially outwardly from the rotational axis of the block, the cylinder including means defining an end wall, a piston member disposed within the cylinder and adapted to reciprocate within the cylinder; a combustion chamber, means permitting periodic introduction of air and fuel into the combustion chamber, means for causing combustion of a compressed mixture of air and fuel within the combustion chamber, means permitting periodic exhaust of products of combustion of air and fuel from the combustion chamber, and means for imparting forces and motions of the piston within the cylinder to and from the cam track, the means comprising a cam follower operatively connected to the piston; wherein the cam track includes at least a first segment and at least a second segment thereof, the first segment having a generally positive slope wherein the segment has a generally increasing radial distance from the rotational axis of the engine block whereby as a piston moves outwardly in a cylinder on a power stroke while the cam follower is in radial register with the cam track segment, the reactive force of the respective cam follower against the cam track segment acts in a direction tending to impart rotation to the engine block.

  4. Nanoparticle Emissions from Internal Combustion Engines | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nanoparticle Emissions from Internal Combustion Engines Nanoparticle Emissions from Internal Combustion Engines 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference...

  5. Rotary internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray, J.L.; Mosca, J.O.

    1992-02-25

    This patent describes a rotary internal combustion engine. It includes a housing; a cam track internally disposed within the housing and adapted to receive a cam follower; an engine block disposed within the housing, the engine block being relatively rotatable within the housing about a central axis; means connectable to an external drive member for translating the relative rotation of the engine block with respect to the housing into useful work; at least one radially arranged cylinder assembly on the block, each cylinder assembly including a cylinder having a longitudinal axis extending generally radially outwardly from the rotational axis of the block, the cylinder including means defining an end wall, a piston member disposed within the cylinder and adapted to reciprocate within the cylinder; the piston, cylinder and cylinder end wall together.

  6. Internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, H.G.; Speer, S.

    1991-12-31

    This patent describes improvement in a 2-cycle, diesel cycle internal combustion engine comprising a single in-line engine block, internal wall surfaces defining at least one cylinder within the engine block, the central longitudinal axis of each cylinder being within a common plane extending longitudinally of the engine block, the axially extending internal wall surface of each cylinder being closed at one end and having at least one air intake port therethrough, a piston axially and reciprocally movable within each cylinder over a permitted stroke distance, so as to alternately cover and expose each air intake port for a finite time period; an exhaust port at the closed end of the cylinder above the piston, and a mechanically operated valve for opening and closing such exhaust port located immediately adjacent such port, a substantially rigid connecting rod pivotably connected at one end of each piston, and a crankshaft, rotatably connected to the second end of each connecting rod, such that the crankshaft is caused to rotate connecting means between the piston and the connecting rod. The improvement comprises the diameter of the cylinder is greater than the permitted stroke distance of the piston within the cylinder, and the axis of the crankshaft is parallel to and laterally offset from the common plane by a distance sufficient to form an angle alpha between the connecting rod and the axis of the cylinder, when the piston is at top-dead center, of at least about 12 degrees, such that the time during which each air intake port is exposed is increased when the direction of crankshaft rotation is opposite to the direction of the crankshaft offset from the common plane.

  7. International combustion engines; Applied thermosciences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferguson, C.R.

    1985-01-01

    Focusing on thermodynamic analysis - from the requisite first law to more sophisticated applications - and engine design, this book is an introduction to internal combustion engines and their mechanics. It covers the many types of internal combustion engines, including spark ignition, compression ignition, and stratified charge engines, and examines processes, keeping equations of state simple by assuming constant specific heats. Equations are limited to heat engines and later applied to combustion engines. Topics include realistic equations of state, stroichiometry, predictions of chemical equilibrium, engine performance criteria, and friction, which is discussed in terms of the hydrodynamic theory of lubrication and experimental methods such as dimensional analysis.

  8. Steam boosted internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, M.A.

    1987-01-20

    A device is described to supplement the power produced by burning fuel in an internal combustion engine with steam, the device comprising: a means for producing a constant flow of water past a boiler means; a means for allowing the water to flow in the direction of the boiler; a boiler means external to the internal combustion engine to convert the water into superheated steam; a means for controlling the pressure of the water such that the water pressure is greater than the pressure of the steam produced by the boiler; and a means for injection of the superheated steam directly into a cylinder of the internal combustion engine, a means for producing a constant flow of water at a pressure greater than the pressure of the superheated steam, wherein the constant flow means at greater pressure comprises a chamber with a gaseous component, with the gaseous component being of constant volume and exerting constant pressure upon water within the chamber.

  9. Plasmatron Fuel Reformer Development and Internal Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Applications Plasmatron Fuel Reformer Development and Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle Applications 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference...

  10. Stratified charge internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skopil, A.O.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine. It comprises: a main cylinder, a main piston within the main cylinder, and means for delivering a combustible charge into the main cylinder; a smaller idle cylinder, and idle piston within the idle cylinder, and means for delivering a combustible charge into the idle cylinder; an ignition passageway leading from the idle cylinder to the main cylinder; and an ignition device within the ignition passageway operable to ignite a compressed charge discharged by the idle cylinder into the ignition passageway. The passageway being positioned to discharge the ignited compressed charge from the idle cylinder into the main cylinder to ignite the compressed charge within the main cylinder.

  11. Internal combustion engine with rotary combustion chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, C.N.; Cross, P.C.

    1986-09-23

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine comprising: a block having at least one cylindrical wall surrounding a piston chamber, piston means located in the piston chamber means operable to reciprocate the piston means in the chamber, head means mounted on the block covering the chamber. The head means has an air and fuel intake passage, and exhaust gas passage, a rotary valve assembly operatively associated with the head means for controlling the flow of air and fuel into the rotary valve assembly and piston chamber and the flow of exhaust gas from rotary valve assembly and the piston chamber. The means has a housing with a bore open to the piston chamber accommodating the rotary valve assembly, the valve assembly comprising a cylindrical sleeve located in the bore, the sleeve having an inner surface, an ignition hole, and intake and exhaust ports aligned with the intake passage and exhaust gas passage, spark generating means mounted on the housing operable to generate a spark. The rotatable valving means is located within the sleeve for controlling the flow of air and fuel into the rotary valve assembly and piston chamber and the flow of exhaust gases out of the rotary valve assembly and piston chamber.

  12. Free Energy and Internal Combustion Engine Cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    William D. Harris

    2012-01-11

    The performance of one type (Carnot) of Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) cycle is analyzed within the framework of thermodynamic free energies. ICE performance is different from that of an External Combustion Engine (ECE) which is dictated by Carnot's rule.

  13. Free Energy and Internal Combustion Engine Cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, William D

    2012-01-01

    The performance of one type (Carnot) of Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) cycle is analyzed within the framework of thermodynamic free energies. ICE performance is different from that of an External Combustion Engine (ECE) which is dictated by Carnot's rule.

  14. Internal combustion engine fuel feed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cochard, P.; Guicherd, C.

    1980-02-19

    In a method and apparatus for controlling the fuel feed to a stratified-charge internal combustion engine, from idle up to the position corresponding with the maximum flow of air, the overall richness (Rg) of the combustible mixture is reduced by acting simultaneously upon the flow of fuel feeding the main chamber and upon the flow of fuel injected into the auxiliary chamber. For higher loads the maximum flow of air is kept constant and rg is increased by continuing to act upon both fuel flows. By keeping the richness of the mixture in the auxiliary chamber substantially constant, it is possible to obtain the best compromise between the performance of the engine and the emission of pollutant gases.

  15. Rotary reciprocating internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogren, W.

    1992-06-23

    This patent describes a rotary reciprocating internal combustion engine. It comprises a housing which comprises a cylindrical head with two end and frame plates mounted on both ends of the head enclose the head, the head including a pair of fuel into ports and a pair of exhaust ports, a pair of ring gears; a rotor axially aligned in the cylindrical head and comprising a set of four radially extending cylinders and pistons reciprocable in the cylinders; a power take off shaft fixed to the crank support plates and axially aligned with the rotor; oiling means for oiling the rotary engine; and a set of eight crank gears.

  16. Advancing Internal Combustion Engine Simulations using Sensitivity...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advancing Internal Combustion Engine Simulations using Sensitivity Analysis PI Name: Sibendu Som PI Email: ssom@anl.gov Institution: Argonne National Laboratory Allocation Program:...

  17. Injector tip for an internal combustion engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shyu, Tsu Pin; Ye, Wen

    2003-05-20

    This invention relates to a the tip structure of a fuel injector as used in a internal combustion engine. Internal combustion engines using Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) technology require a tip structure that directs fuel spray in a downward direction. This requirement necessitates a tip design that is capable of withstanding mechanical stresses associated with the design.

  18. Internal combustion engine and method for control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brennan, Daniel G

    2013-05-21

    In one exemplary embodiment of the invention an internal combustion engine includes a piston disposed in a cylinder, a valve configured to control flow of air into the cylinder and an actuator coupled to the valve to control a position of the valve. The internal combustion engine also includes a controller coupled to the actuator, wherein the controller is configured to close the valve when an uncontrolled condition for the internal engine is determined.

  19. Rotary valve internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bunk, P.H.

    1989-03-28

    A rotary valve internal combustion engine is described, comprising: an engine block; at least one cylinder in the engine block; at least one cylinder having a top end; cylinder head means located adjacent the top end of at least one cylinder, the cylinder head means having a cylindrically shaped cavity therein, the cylindrically shaped cavity being oriented in perpendicular relation to at least one cylinder; a piston sealingly mounted in at least one cylinder for reciprocable movement therein, the reciprocable movement including an intake stroke and an exhaust stroke; engine shaft means rotatably mounted to the engine block; means within the engine block for converting the reciprocable movement of the piston into rotary motion of the engine shaft means; a cylinder port located at the top end of at least one cylinder; a rotary valve rotatably mounted in the cylindrically shaped cavity; means connected with the engine shaft means for rotating the rotary valve in a predetermined synchronization with the reciprocable movement of the piston; aspiration means in the rotary valve for selectively aspirating at least one cylinder during the intake an exhaust strokes; and a spark plug removably mounted within the rotary valve and rotatable therewith.

  20. Internal combustion engine injection superheated steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahoney, F.G.

    1991-01-22

    This patent describes a method for introducing water vapor to the combustion chambers of an internal combustion engine. It comprises: introducing a metered amount of liquid water into a heat exchanger; contacting the heat exchanger directly with hot exhaust gases emanating from the exhaust manifold; maintaining the water in the heat exchanger for a period sufficient to vaporize the water into steam and superheat same; reducing pressure and increasing temperature to create superheated steam; introducing the superheated steam into the air supply proximate to the air induction system, upstream of any carburetion, of the internal combustion engine.

  1. 2.61 Internal Combustion Engines, Spring 2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heywood, John B.

    Fundamentals of how the design and operation of internal combustion engines affect their performance, operation, fuel requirements, and environmental impact. Study of fluid flow, thermodynamics, combustion, heat transfer ...

  2. Jet plume injection and combustion system for internal combustion engines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oppenheim, Antoni K. (Kensington, CA); Maxson, James A. (Berkeley, CA); Hensinger, David M. (Albany, CA)

    1993-01-01

    An improved combustion system for an internal combustion engine is disclosed wherein a rich air/fuel mixture is furnished at high pressure to one or more jet plume generator cavities adjacent to a cylinder and then injected through one or more orifices from the cavities into the head space of the cylinder to form one or more turbulent jet plumes in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition of the rich air/fuel mixture in the cavity of the jet plume generator. The portion of the rich air/fuel mixture remaining in the cavity of the generator is then ignited to provide a secondary jet, comprising incomplete combustion products which are injected into the cylinder to initiate combustion in the already formed turbulent jet plume. Formation of the turbulent jet plume in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition has been found to yield a higher maximum combustion pressure in the cylinder, as well as shortening the time period to attain such a maximum pressure.

  3. Jet plume injection and combustion system for internal combustion engines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oppenheim, A.K.; Maxson, J.A.; Hensinger, D.M.

    1993-12-21

    An improved combustion system for an internal combustion engine is disclosed wherein a rich air/fuel mixture is furnished at high pressure to one or more jet plume generator cavities adjacent to a cylinder and then injected through one or more orifices from the cavities into the head space of the cylinder to form one or more turbulent jet plumes in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition of the rich air/fuel mixture in the cavity of the jet plume generator. The portion of the rich air/fuel mixture remaining in the cavity of the generator is then ignited to provide a secondary jet, comprising incomplete combustion products which are injected into the cylinder to initiate combustion in the already formed turbulent jet plume. Formation of the turbulent jet plume in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition has been found to yield a higher maximum combustion pressure in the cylinder, as well as shortening the time period to attain such a maximum pressure. 24 figures.

  4. Two phase exhaust for internal combustion engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vuk, Carl T. (Denver, IA)

    2011-11-29

    An internal combustion engine having a reciprocating multi cylinder internal combustion engine with multiple valves. At least a pair of exhaust valves are provided and each supply a separate power extraction device. The first exhaust valves connect to a power turbine used to provide additional power to the engine either mechanically or electrically. The flow path from these exhaust valves is smaller in area and volume than a second flow path which is used to deliver products of combustion to a turbocharger turbine. The timing of the exhaust valve events is controlled to produce a higher grade of energy to the power turbine and enhance the ability to extract power from the combustion process.

  5. Control system for supercharged internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawamura, H.

    1988-05-24

    A control system for controlling an internal combustion engine is described having a supercharge including a rotatable shaft and an exhaust turbine driven by exhaust gas. The control system comprising: a rotary electric machine mounted on the rotatable shaft of the supercharger for imposing a load on the exhaust turbine of the supercharger; setting means for setting an engine brake mode of the internal combustion engine; and operating means for operating the rotary electric machine when the engine brake mode is set by the setting means.

  6. Multiple vane rotary internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pangman, E.L.

    1994-01-11

    A three-piece housing enclosing a cavity has rotatably mounted therein a rotor having a plurality of slots, each slot supporting a vane. Each vane has a retention end guided in its revolution around the rotor by an internal, non-circular vane retention track. Two adjacent vanes define opposite sides of a combustion chamber, while the housing and the portion of the rotor between the adjacent vanes form the remaining surfaces of the combustion chamber. Each combustion chamber is rotated past an intake port, a diagonal plasma bleed-over groove, and an exhaust port to accomplish the phases of a combustion cycle. Fuel ignition is provided to more than one combustion chamber at a time by expanding gases passing through a plasma bleed-over groove and being formed into a vortex that ignites and churns the charge in a succeeding combustion chamber. Exhaust gases remaining after primary evacuation are removed by a secondary evacuation system utilizing a venturi creating negative pressure which evacuates the combustion chamber. Lubrication is circulated through the engine without the use of a lubricant pump. The centrifugal force of the rotating rotor causes the lubricant therein to be pressurized thereby drawing additional lubricant into the closed system and forcing lubricant within the engine to be circulated. 9 figs.

  7. Fuel injector nozzle for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klomp, E.D.; Peters, B.D.

    1990-06-12

    This patent describes a fuel injection nozzle for a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. It comprises: a nozzle body with at least one fuel flow opening therethrough for feed fuel to the chamber, a resilient diaphragm normally sealing the opening and having orifice means therein for further atomizing and directing the pulses into the chamber, fastening means for fixing the diaphragm to the body so that diaphragm can deflect by a predetermined amount under low engine load operating conditions so that a wide angle cone of atomized fuel is injected into and generally at one end of the combustion chamber for the stratified charge thereof and deflect by an amount greater than the first amount of deflection under high engine load operating conditions. A narrow spray cone of atomized fuel is injected in a deeper pattern into and throughout the combustion chamber for optimizing the charge thereof and fuel burns under the low and high load engine operating conditions.

  8. Starting apparatus for internal combustion engines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dyches, G.M.; Dudar, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    This report is a patent description for a system to start an internal combustion engine. Remote starting and starting by hearing impaired persons are addressed. The system monitors the amount of current being drawn by the starter motor to determine when the engine is started. When the engine is started the system automatically deactivates the starter motor. Five figures are included.

  9. H2 Internal Combustion Engine Research Towards 45% efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Internal Combustion Engine Research Towards 45% efficiency and Tier2-Bin5 emissions H2 Internal Combustion Engine Research Towards 45% efficiency and Tier2-Bin5 emissions 2009 DOE...

  10. Twenty-Seventh Symposium (International) on Combustion/The Combustion Institute, 1998/pp. 28152820 FINGERING INSTABILITY IN SOLID FUEL COMBUSTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moses, Elisha

    2815 Twenty-Seventh Symposium (International) on Combustion/The Combustion Institute, 1998/pp. 2815­2820 FINGERING INSTABILITY IN SOLID FUEL COMBUSTION: THE CHARACTERISTIC SCALES OF THE DEVELOPED STATE ORY ZIK, Israel We present new results on the fingering instability in solid fuel combustion. The instability

  11. Publications on maglev technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, J.L.; Coffey, H.T.; Rote, D.M.; Wang, Z.

    1991-12-01

    Magnetically levitated passenger-transportation vehicles, using attractive and repulsive magnetic forces, are currently in the development or prototype-revenue stages in Japan and Germany. The basic principles of these technologies have been understood for several decades, but their practical applications awaited advances in high-power electronic devices, modern controls, superconducting magnets, and improvements in our transportation infrastructures. A considerable amount of work was devoted to magnetic-levitation (maglev) transportation system in the late 1960s and the 1970s. Detailed development was sustained primarily in Germany and Japan. This listing of publications was begun as the initial phase of a design study for a maglev development facility sponsored by the State of Illinois. The listing has been continually updated under programs sponsored by the Federal Railroad Administration and the US Army Corps of Engineers. In 1991, the National Maglev Initiative issued 27 contracts for the study of technical issues related to maglev and four contracts for the definition of maglev systems. In December 1991, the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act was enacted, mandating the development of a US-designed maglev system in a six-year period. This listing is offered as an aid to those working on these projects, to help them locate technical papers on relevant technologies. The design and installation of a maglev transportation system will require the efforts of workers in many disciplines, from electronics to economics to safety. Accordingly, the references have been grouped in 14 different sections to expedite review of the listing. In many case, the references are annotated to indicate the general content of the papers. Abstracts are not available. A list of information services from which the listed documents might be obtained and an author index are provided.

  12. Internal combustion engine with sustained power stroke

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNair, R.J.

    1980-09-09

    A four stroke cycle internal combustion engine is presented having a sustained power stroke which results from a delayed mixing of a stratified charge. Use of delayed mixing of an overall stoichiometric air-fuel mixture results in formation of a low amount of the oxides of nitrogen. Delayed mixing of the stratified charge is achieved by placement of at least one Helmholtz resonator cavity in the head or closed end of each combustion chamber. The Helmholtz resonator cavity communicates with the top end of the main combustion chamber via a narrow slot. On the intake stroke of each engine cylinder, the main chamber is filled with a slightly fuel rich gaseous charge while the companion Helmholtz resonator cavity is filled with air. During the compression stroke some of the rich air-fuel mixture is forced into the resonator cavity via the communicating slot. At or near tdc, the air-fuel mixture in the main chamber is ignited. As the flame front progresses across the chamber a rapid increase in pressure serves not only to power the piston, but also to initiate a resonant reaction in the Helmholtz resonator cavity which results in a transfer of the unburned gases therein into the main combustion chamber. This both sustains the power stroke and at the same time lowers the peak flame temperature in the main chamber.

  13. Internal combustion engine with integral intercooler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poore, B.B.; Beitel, H.V.; Weinert, S.

    1990-11-06

    This patent describes a liquid-cooled internal combustion engine. It comprises: a cylinder block; a cylinder head attached to the block and having formed therein a combustion air inlet, a coolant supply passage, a coolant return passage and an air supply passage for receiving turbocharged air; an intercooler having a coolant inlet and a coolant outlet; a first conduit communicating the intercooler coolant inlet with the coolant supply passage; a second conduit communicating the intercooler coolant outlet with the coolant return passage; a cover attachable to the cylinder head, the cover completely enclosing the intercooler and the first and second conduits; and the cover, the cylinder head and the intercooler being arranged so that turbocharged air flows from the air supply passage to the air inlet via the intercooler.

  14. Findings of Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine Durability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrett Beauregard

    2010-12-31

    Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine (HICE) technology takes advantage of existing knowledge of combustion engines to provide a means to power passenger vehicle with hydrogen, perhaps as an interim measure while fuel cell technology continues to mature. This project seeks to provide data to determine the reliability of these engines. Data were collected from an engine operated on a dynamometer for 1000 hours of continuous use. Data were also collected from a fleet of eight (8) full-size pickup trucks powered with hydrogen-fueled engines. In this particular application, the data show that HICE technology provided reliable service during the operating period of the project. Analyses of engine components showed little sign of wear or stress except for cylinder head valves and seats. Material analysis showed signs of hydrogen embrittlement in intake valves.

  15. Internal combustion engine using premixed combustion of stratified charges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marriott, Craig D. (Rochester Hills, MI); Reitz, Rolf D. (Madison, WI

    2003-12-30

    During a combustion cycle, a first stoichiometrically lean fuel charge is injected well prior to top dead center, preferably during the intake stroke. This first fuel charge is substantially mixed with the combustion chamber air during subsequent motion of the piston towards top dead center. A subsequent fuel charge is then injected prior to top dead center to create a stratified, locally richer mixture (but still leaner than stoichiometric) within the combustion chamber. The locally rich region within the combustion chamber has sufficient fuel density to autoignite, and its self-ignition serves to activate ignition for the lean mixture existing within the remainder of the combustion chamber. Because the mixture within the combustion chamber is overall premixed and relatively lean, NO.sub.x and soot production are significantly diminished.

  16. The Role of the Internal Combustion Engine in our Energy Future...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Internal Combustion Engine in our Energy Future The Role of the Internal Combustion Engine in our Energy Future Reviews heavy-duty vehicle market, alternatives to internal...

  17. Internal combustion engine utilizing stratified charge combustion process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Artman, N.G.

    1991-07-16

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine in which a piston is reciprocal alternately toward and from the upper end of a cylinder within a variable volume space adjacent to such end, a cylinder head having a face in closing relation with such cylinder end and containing a precombustion chamber with a sidewall having an inner periphery constructed about an axis extending upwardly from the cylinder and the periphery having an open lower end in two-way communication through the face with the variable volume space, the lower open end being smaller in diameter than the diameter of the cylinder, the upper end of the chamber having an air inlet passage closable by a valve, the chamber being operable when the valve is open and attendant to movement of the piston downwardly from the upper cylinder end to receive from the inlet passage a main inlet air stream and conduct the same downwardly therein and discharge the same through the open end downwardly therein and discharge the same through the open end downwardly into the variable volume space.

  18. Integrated CHP/Advanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    to meet local air quality authority emissions restrictions. Integrated Combined Heat and PowerAdvanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine System for Landfill Gas to...

  19. Magnetic Damping For Maglev

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhu, S.; Cai, Y.; Rote, D.M.; Chen, S.S.

    1998-01-01

    Magnetic damping is one of the important parameters that control the response and stability of maglev systems. An experimental study to measure magnetic damping directly is presented. A plate attached to a permanent magnet levitated on a rotating drum was tested to investigate the effect of various parameters, such as conductivity, gap, excitation frequency, and oscillation amplitude, on magnetic damping. The experimental technique is capable of measuring all of the magnetic damping coefficients, some of which cannot be measured indirectly.

  20. Internal combustion engine utilizing stratified charge combustion process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Artman, N.G.

    1988-11-15

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine having a main air inlet passage communicating at an end thereof through the face of an cylinder head with an alternately expandable and contractable variable volume space in an end of a cylinder closed by such head, there being within the cylinder head a precombustion chamber forming a section of such passage and interposed between the space and an upstream portion of the passage, the chamber having a principal axis extending between opposite ends thereof and of which ends one is an air inlet and having a valve seat through which the chamber is communicative with the upstream passage portion and of which ends the other is an open end through which the passage has two-way communication with the space and is disposed to discharge air from the chamber into the space axially of the cylinder, the combination of air deflecting means in the chamber and operable during expansion of the space to modulate the flow of intake air passing through the chamber into the space into the form of a stream composed of a core portion flowing axially of the cylinder into the space and of a tubular portion encircling the core portion and flowing helically thereabout, fuel delivery means operable during a fuel injection period commencing during expansion of the space and subsequent to entry of a leading portion of the air stream into the space to inject evaporative fuel into the passage and into a trailing portion of the air stream therein at a rate to mix and form therewith an air-fuel mixture lean in fuel richness than flows within and at least partially through the chamber en route to the space during the expansion thereof. The fuel delivery means being operable to increase the volume of the trailing air stream portion mixed with fuel by advancing the starting time of the fuel injection period to increase the length of such period measured in units of space expansion.

  1. Internal combustion engine with compound air compression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul, M.A.; Paul, A.

    1991-10-15

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine in combination with a compound air compression system. It comprises: a reciprocator with at least one cylinder, at least one piston reciprocal in the cylinder and a combustion chamber formed in substantial part by portions of the piston and cylinder, the reciprocator having a drive shaft; a rotary compressor having a drive shaft mechanically coupled to the drive shaft of the reciprocator, the rotary compressor having a Wankel-type, three-lobe, epitrochiodal configuration sides having a conduit conjected to the reciprocator for supplying compressed air to the reciprocator; a turbocharged with a gas turbine and a turbocompressor, the turbocompressor having an air conduit connected to the expander side of the rotary compressor; and a bypass conduit with a valve means connecting the turbocharger to the reciprocator for supplying compressed air directly to the reciprocator wherein the drive shaft of the reciprocator and the drive shaft of the compressor have connecting means for transmitting mechanical energy to the reciprocator at mid to high operating speeds of the engine when the turbocharge supplies compressed air to the rotary compressor and, at least in part, drives the rotary compressor.

  2. Starting apparatus for internal combustion engines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dyches, Gregory M. (Barnwell, SC); Dudar, Aed M. (Augusta, GA)

    1997-01-01

    An internal combustion engine starting apparatus uses a signal from a curt sensor to determine when the engine is energized and the starter motor should be de-energized. One embodiment comprises a transmitter, receiver, computer processing unit, current sensor and relays to energize a starter motor and subsequently de-energize the same when the engine is running. Another embodiment comprises a switch, current transducer, low-pass filter, gain/comparator, relay and a plurality of switches to energize and de-energize a starter motor. Both embodiments contain an indicator lamp or speaker which alerts an operator as to whether a successful engine start has been achieved. Both embodiments also contain circuitry to protect the starter and to de-energize the engine.

  3. Method and device for diagnosing and controlling combustion instabilities in internal combustion engines operating in or transitioning to homogeneous charge combustion ignition mode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, Robert M [Knoxville, TN; Daw, Charles S [Knoxville, TN; Green, Johney B [Knoxville, TN; Edwards, Kevin D [Knoxville, TN

    2008-10-07

    This invention is a method of achieving stable, optimal mixtures of HCCI and SI in practical gasoline internal combustion engines comprising the steps of: characterizing the combustion process based on combustion process measurements, determining the ratio of conventional and HCCI combustion, determining the trajectory (sequence) of states for consecutive combustion processes, and determining subsequent combustion process modifications using said information to steer the engine combustion toward desired behavior.

  4. Variable camshaft timing for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butterfield, R.P.; Smith, F.R.; Dembosky, S.K.

    1991-09-10

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine. It comprises a rotatable crankshaft; a camshaft, the camshaft being rotatable about its longitudinal central axis and being subject to a unidirectionally acting torque during the rotation thereof; first means mounted on the camshaft, the first means being oscillatable with respect to the camshaft about the longitudinal central axis of the camshaft at least through a limited arc; second means keyed to the camshaft for rotation therewith; rotary movement transmitting means interconnecting the crankshaft and one of the first means and the second means for transmitting rotary movement from the crankshaft to the camshaft; a first hydraulic cylinder having a body end pivotably attached to one of the first means and the second means and a piston end pivotably attached to the other of the first means and the second means; a second hydraulic cylinder having a body end pivotably attached to the one of the first means and the second means and a piston end pivotably attached to the other of the first means and the second means, the second hydraulic cylinder and the first hydraulic cylinder being disposed to act in opposite directions.

  5. Optimal internal combustion engine tuning utilizing perturbation/correlation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brian Daniel Pautler

    2003-01-01

    This thesis addresses the application of the perturbation/correlation method to optimizing the torque output of internal combustion engines. This application was inspired by observations of the limitations in current techniques of the automotive...

  6. Modeling piston skirt lubrication in internal combustion engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bai, Dongfang, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    Ever-increasing demand for reduction of the undesirable emissions from the internal combustion engines propels broader effort in auto industry to design more fuel efficient engines. One of the major focuses is the reduction ...

  7. Four stroke concentric oscillating rotary vane internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seno, C.L.

    1992-02-11

    This patent describes a four stroke concentric oscillating rotary vane internal combustion engine made up of a pair of cranking mechanisms, a pair of forced porting mechanisms, an output shaft mechanism, a stator, a rotor, four arcuate combustion chambers and longitudinal and transverse grooves for lubrication and dynamic sealing. It comprises the pair of cranking mechanisms control the oscillating rotary motion of the rotor, each cranking mechanism comprising: one end; the pair of forced porting mechanisms control the forced porting of air into and combustion by-products from the combustion chambers, each forced porting mechanism: products from the combustion chambers; the output shaft mechanism orchestrating and coordinating the synchronized iterative operations of the cranking.

  8. High efficiency stoichiometric internal combustion engine system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winsor, Richard Edward (Waterloo, IA); Chase, Scott Allen (Cedar Falls, IA)

    2009-06-02

    A power system including a stoichiometric compression ignition engine in which a roots blower is positioned in the air intake for the engine to control air flow. Air flow is decreased during part power conditions to maintain the air-fuel ratio in the combustion chamber of the engine at stoichiometric, thus enabling the use of inexpensive three-way catalyst to reduce oxides of nitrogen. The roots blower is connected to a motor generator so that when air flow is reduced, electrical energy is stored which is made available either to the roots blower to temporarily increase air flow or to the system electrical load and thus recapture energy that would otherwise be lost in reducing air flow.

  9. Apparatus for photocatalytic destruction of internal combustion engine emissions during cold start

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janata, Jiri (Richland, WA); McVay, Gary L. (Richland, WA); Peden, Charles H. (West Richland, WA); Exarhos, Gregory J. (Richland, WA)

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the destruction of emissions from an internal combustion engine wherein a substrate coated with TiO.sub.2 is exposed to a light source in the exhaust system of an internal combustion engine thereby catalyzing oxidation/reduction reactions between gaseous hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and oxygen in the exhaust of the internal combustion engine.

  10. Fuel injector nozzle for an internal combustion engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cavanagh, Mark S. (Bloomington, IL); Urven, Jr., Roger L. (Colona, IL); Lawrence, Keith E. (Peoria, IL)

    2008-11-04

    A direct injection fuel injector includes a nozzle tip having a plurality of passages allowing fluid communication between an inner nozzle tip surface portion and an outer nozzle tip surface portion and directly into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. A first group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in a first common plane. A second group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in at least a second common plane substantially parallel to the first common plane. The second group has more passages than the first group.

  11. Fuel injector nozzle for an internal combustion engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cavanagh, Mark S. (Bloomington, IL); Urven, Jr., Roger L. (Colona, IL); Lawrence, Keith E. (Peoria, IL)

    2011-03-22

    A direct injection fuel injector includes a nozzle tip having a plurality of passages allowing fluid communication between an inner nozzle tip surface portion and an outer nozzle tip surface portion and directly into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. A first group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in a first common plane. A second group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in at least a second common plane substantially parallel to the first common plane. The second group has more passages than the first group.

  12. Fuel Injector Nozzle For An Internal Combustion Engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cavanagh, Mark S. (Bloomington, IL); Urven, Jr.; Roger L. (Colona, IL); Lawrence, Keith E. (Peoria, IL)

    2006-04-25

    A direct injection fuel injector includes a nozzle tip having a plurality of passages allowing fluid communication between an inner nozzle tip surface portion and an outer nozzle tip surface portion and directly into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. A first group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in a first common plane. A second group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in at least a second common plane substantially parallel to the first common plane. The second group has more passages than the first group.

  13. Fuel injector nozzle for an internal combustion engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cavanagh, Mark S. (Bloomington, IL); Urven, Jr., Roger L. (Colona, IL); Lawrence, Keith E. (Peoria, IL)

    2007-11-06

    A direct injection fuel injector includes a nozzle tip having a plurality of passages allowing fluid communication between an inner nozzle tip surface portion and an outer nozzle tip surface portion and directly into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. A first group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in a first common plane. A second group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in at least a second common plane substantially parallel to the first common plane. The second group has more passages than the first group.

  14. Internal Combustion Engine Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuelsof EnergyApril 2014 | DepartmentDepartment ofInsuranceof EnergyInternal

  15. Review of internal combustion engine combustion chamber process studies at NASA Lewis Research Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, H.J.

    1984-01-01

    The performance of internal combustion stratified-charge engines is highly dependent on the in-cylinder fuel-air mixing processes occurring in these engines. Current research concerning the in-cylinder airflow characteristics of rotary and piston engines is presented. Results showing the output of multidimensional models, laser velocimetry measurements and the application of a holographic optical element are described. Models which simulate the four-stroke cycle and seal dynamics of rotary engines are also discussed.

  16. Enhanced Efficiency of Internal Combustion Engines By Employing Spinning Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geyko, Vasily; Fisch, Nathaniel

    2014-02-27

    The efficiency of the internal combustion engine might be enhanced by employing spinning gas. A gas spinning at near sonic velocities has an effectively higher heat capacity, which allows practical fuel cycles, which are far from the Carnot efficiency, to approach more closely the Carnot efficiency. A gain in fuel efficiency of several percent is shown to be theoretically possible for the Otto and Diesel cycles. The use of a flywheel, in principle, could produce even greater increases in the efficiency.

  17. Stratified charge combustion system and method for gaseous fuel internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhoades, W.A. Jr.

    1986-03-11

    This patent describes a stratified charge combustion system for use in a gaseous fuel internal combustion engine. This system consists of: (a) a combustion chamber; (b) an ignition; (c) a gaseous fuel injection valve assembly in communication with the combustion chamber and in spaced relationship from the ignition source with a portion of the inside surfaces extending between the fuel injection valve assembly and the ignition source. The fuel valve assembly defines an entry port for the entrance of gaseous fuel, the entry port is recessed outside of a fixed inside surface. (d) means for pressuring the gaseous fuel prior to injection; and (e) a curved transitional surface extending from the entry port toward the portion of the inside surfaces extending between the fuel injection valve assembly and the ignition source. The curved transitional surface curves away from the direction of the entry port. The curved transitional surface has a curvature for the particular direction and configuration of the entry port. The particular configuration of the portion of the inside surfaces extends between the injection valve assembly and the ignition source. The particular arrangment of the fuel injection valve assembly in the combustion chamber, and for the particular pressure of the gaseous fuel is to produce the Coanda Effect in the injected gaseous fuel flow after it passes through the entry port and follows the curved transitional surface under the Coanda Effect. As the curved transitional surface curves away from the direction of the entry port, a flow is produced of the gaseous fuel that clings to and follows the particular configuration of the inside surfaces to the ignition source.

  18. Modeling the lubrication of the piston ring pack in internal combustion engines using the deterministic method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Haijie

    2011-01-01

    Piston ring packs are used in internal combustion engines to seal both the high pressure gas in the combustion chamber and the lubricant oil in the crank case. The interaction between the piston ring pack and the cylinder ...

  19. Nitrogen enriched combustion of a natural gas internal combustion engine to reduce NO.sub.x emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Biruduganti, Munidhar S. (Naperville, IL); Gupta, Sreenath Borra (Naperville, IL); Sekar, R. Raj (Naperville, IL); McConnell, Steven S. (Shorewood, IL)

    2008-11-25

    A method and system for reducing nitrous oxide emissions from an internal combustion engine. An input gas stream of natural gas includes a nitrogen gas enrichment which reduces nitrous oxide emissions. In addition ignition timing for gas combustion is advanced to improve FCE while maintaining lower nitrous oxide emissions.

  20. Coal-water slurry fuel internal combustion engine and method for operating same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McMillian, Michael H. (Fairmont, WV)

    1992-01-01

    An internal combustion engine fueled with a coal-water slurry is described. About 90 percent of the coal-water slurry charge utilized in the power cycle of the engine is directly injected into the main combustion chamber where it is ignited by a hot stream of combustion gases discharged from a pilot combustion chamber of a size less than about 10 percent of the total clearance volume of main combustion chamber with the piston at top dead center. The stream of hot combustion gases is provided by injecting less than about 10 percent of the total coal-water slurry charge into the pilot combustion chamber and using a portion of the air from the main combustion chamber that has been heated by the walls defining the pilot combustion chamber as the ignition source for the coal-water slurry injected into the pilot combustion chamber.

  1. Spherical rotary valve assembly for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coates, G.J.

    1991-02-05

    This patent describes an improved rotary intake valve for use in a rotary valved internal combustion engine. It comprises: a drum body of spherical section formed by two parallel planar side walls of a sphere disposed about a center thereof thereby defining a spherically-shaped end wall and formed with a shaft receiving aperture, the drum body formed with a circularly-shaped cavity in a side wall thereof and with a channel extending between the circularly-shaped cavity and an aperture formed in the spherically-shaped end wall.

  2. Apparatus for photocatalytic destruction of internal combustion engine emissions during cold start

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janata, J.; McVay, G.L.; Peden, C.H.; Exarhos, G.J.

    1998-07-14

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for the destruction of emissions from an internal combustion engine wherein a substrate coated with TiO{sub 2} is exposed to a light source in the exhaust system of an internal combustion engine thereby catalyzing oxidation/reduction reactions between gaseous hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and oxygen in the exhaust of the internal combustion engine. 4 figs.

  3. Partially-Premixed Flames in Internal Combustion Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert W. Pitz; Michael C. Drake; Todd D. Fansler; Volker Sick

    2003-11-05

    This was a joint university-industry research program funded by the Partnerships for the Academic-Industrial Research Program (PAIR). The research examined partially premixed flames in laboratory and internal combustion engine environments at Vanderbilt University, University of Michigan, and General Motors Research and Development. At Vanderbilt University, stretched and curved ''tubular'' premixed flames were measured in a unique optically accessible burner with laser-induced spontaneous Raman scattering. Comparisons of optically measured temperature and species concentration profiles to detailed transport, complex chemistry simulations showed good correspondence at low-stretch conditions in the tubular flame. However, there were significant discrepancies at high-stretch conditions near flame extinction. The tubular flame predictions were found to be very sensitive to the specific hydrogen-air chemical kinetic mechanism and four different mechanisms were compared. In addition, the thermo-diffusive properties of the deficient reactant, H2, strongly affected the tubular flame structure. The poor prediction near extinction is most likely due to deficiencies in the chemical kinetic mechanisms near extinction. At the University of Michigan, an optical direct-injected engine was built up for laser-induced fluorescence imaging experiments on mixing and combustion under stratified charge combustion conditions with the assistance of General Motors. Laser attenuation effects were characterized both experimentally and numerically to improve laser imaging during the initial phase of the gasoline-air mixture development. Toluene was added to the isooctane fuel to image the fuel-air equivalence ratio in an optically accessible direct-injected gasoline engine. Temperature effects on the toluene imaging of fuel-air equivalence ratio were characterized. For the first time, oxygen imaging was accomplished in an internal combustion engine by combination of two fluorescence trackers, toluene and 3-pentanone. With this method, oxygen, fuel and equivalence ratio were measured in the cylinder. At General Motors, graduate students from the University of Michigan and Vanderbilt University worked with GM researchers to develop high-speed imaging methods for optically accessible direct-injection engines. Spark-emission spectroscopy was combined with high-speed spectrally-resolved combustion imaging in a direct-injected engine.

  4. Twenty-Seventh Symposium (International) on Combustion/The Combustion Institute, 1998/pp. 693702 COMPUTATIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF A FORCED, TIME-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, Marshall B.

    's cyclic history. Introduction Most practical combustion systems, such as gas turbines and industrial693 Twenty-Seventh Symposium (International) on Combustion/The Combustion Institute, 1998/pp. 693 systems that help bridge the gap between laminar and turbulent combustion. In this study, we investigate

  5. 1 Copyright 2003 by ASME 17th International Conference on Fluidised Bed Combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    1 Copyright © 2003 by ASME 17th FBC 17th International Conference on Fluidised Bed Combustion May COMBUSTION OF HIGH-PVC SOLID WASTE WITH HCl RECOVERY Loay Saeed, Antti Tohka, Ron Zevenhoven* Helsinki.zevenhoven@hut.fi * Corresponding author ABSTRACT A process for two-stage combustion of high-PVC solid waste with HCl recovery

  6. Implementation of cargo MagLev in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, Chris R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Peterson, Dean E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Leung, Eddie M [MAGTEC ENGINEERING

    2008-01-01

    Numerous studies have been completed in the United States, but no commercial MagLev systems have been deployed. Outside the U.S., MagLev continues to attract funding for research, development and implementation. A brief review of recent global developments in MagLev technology is given followed by the status of MagLev in the U.S. The paper compares the cost of existing MagLev systems with other modes of transport, notes that the near-term focus of MagLev development in the U.S. should be for cargo, and suggests that future MagLev systems should be for very high speed cargo. The Los Angeles to Port of Los Angeles corridor is suggested as a first site for implementation. The benefits of MagLev are described along with suggestions on how to obtain funding.

  7. Mitigating the effect of siloxanes on internal combustion engines using landfill gasses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Besmann, Theodore M

    2015-01-06

    A waste gas combustion method that includes providing a combustible fuel source, in which the combustible fuel source is composed of at least methane and siloxane gas. A sodium source or magnesium source is mixed with the combustible fuel source. Combustion of the siloxane gas of the combustible fuel source produces a silicon containing product. The sodium source or magnesium source reacts with the silicon containing product to provide a sodium containing glass or sodium containing silicate, or a magnesium containing silicate. By producing the sodium containing glass or sodium containing silicate, or the magnesium containing silicate, or magnesium source for precipitating particulate silica instead of hard coating, the method may reduce or eliminate the formation of silica deposits within the combustion chamber and the exhaust components of the internal combustion engine.

  8. Mitigating the effect of siloxanes on internal combustion engines using landfill gasses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Besmann, Theodore M

    2014-01-21

    A waste gas combustion method that includes providing a combustible fuel source, in which the combustible fuel source is composed of at least methane and siloxane gas. A sodium source or magnesium source is mixed with the combustible fuel source. Combustion of the siloxane gas of the combustible fuel source produces a silicon containing product. The sodium source or magnesium source reacts with the silicon containing product to provide a sodium containing glass or sodium containing silicate, or a magnesium containing silicate. By producing the sodium containing glass or sodium containing silicate, or the magnesium containing silicate, or magnesium source for precipitating particulate silica instead of hard coating, the method may reduce or eliminate the formation of silica deposits within the combustion chamber and the exhaust components of the internal combustion engine.

  9. Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2013-05-21

    An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger having a low pressure turbine outlet in fluid communication with an exhaust gas conduit. The turbocharger also includes a low pressure compressor intake and a high pressure compressor outlet in communication with an intake air conduit. An exhaust gas recirculation conduit fluidly communicates with the exhaust gas conduit to divert a portion of exhaust gas to a low pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extending between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and an engine intake system for delivery of exhaust gas thereto. A high pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extends between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and the compressor intake and delivers exhaust gas to the compressor for mixing with a compressed intake charge for delivery to the intake system.

  10. Traveling-Wave Thermoacoustic Engines With Internal Combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiland, Nathan Thomas (Blacksburg, VA); Zinn, Ben T. (Atlanta, GA); Swift, Gregory William (Sante Fe, NM)

    2004-05-11

    Thermoacoustic devices are disclosed wherein, for some embodiments, a combustion zone provides heat to a regenerator using a mean flow of compressible fluid. In other embodiments, burning of a combustible mixture within the combustion zone is pulsed in phase with the acoustic pressure oscillations to increase acoustic power output. In an example embodiment, the combustion zone and the regenerator are thermally insulated from other components within the thermoacoustic device.

  11. Development of High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Spark-Ignition and Compression-Ignition Internal Combustion Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marriott, Craig; Gonzalez, Manual; Russell, Durrett

    2011-06-30

    This report summarizes activities related to the revised STATEMENT OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES (SOPO) dated June 2010 for the Development of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion engine Designs for Spark-Ignition and Compression-Ignition Internal Combustion Engines (COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NUMBER DE-FC26-05NT42415) project. In both the spark- (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) development activities covered in this program, the goal was to develop potential production-viable internal combustion engine system technologies that both reduce fuel consumption and simultaneously met exhaust emission targets. To be production-viable, engine technologies were also evaluated to determine if they would meet customer expectations of refinement in terms of noise, vibration, performance, driveability, etc. in addition to having an attractive business case and value. Prior to this activity, only proprietary theoretical / laboratory knowledge existed on the combustion technologies explored The research reported here expands and develops this knowledge to determine series-production viability. Significant SI and CI engine development occurred during this program within General Motors, LLC over more than five years. In the SI program, several engines were designed and developed that used both a relatively simple multi-lift valve train system and a Fully Flexible Valve Actuation (FFVA) system to enable a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion process. Many technical challenges, which were unknown at the start of this program, were identified and systematically resolved through analysis, test and development. This report documents the challenges and solutions for each SOPO deliverable. As a result of the project activities, the production viability of the developed clean combustion technologies has been determined. At this time, HCCI combustion for SI engines is not considered production-viable for several reasons. HCCI combustion is excessively sensitive to control variables such as internal dilution level and charge temperature. As a result, HCCI combustion has limited robustness when variables exceed the required narrow ranges determined in this program. HCCI combustion is also not available for the entire range of production engine speeds and loads, (i.e., the dynamic range is limited). Thus, regular SI combustion must be employed for a majority of the full dynamic range of the engine. This degrades the potential fuel economy impact of HCCI combustion. Currently-available combustion control actuators for the simple valve train system engine do not have the authority for continuous air - fuel or torque control for managing the combustion mode transitions between SI and HCCI and thus, require further refinement to meet customer refinement expectations. HCCI combustion control sensors require further development to enable robust long-term HCCI combustion control. Finally, the added technologies required to effectively manage HCCI combustion such as electric cam phasers, central direct fuel injection, cylinder pressure sensing, high-flow exhaust gas recirculation system, etc. add excessive on-engine cost and complexity that erodes the production-viability business

  12. Twenty-Seventh Symposium (International) on Combustion/The Combustion Institute, 1998/pp. 10571064 UNSTEADY FLAMELET MODELING OF TURBULENT HYDROGEN-AIR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pitsch, Heinz

    1057 Twenty-Seventh Symposium (International) on Combustion/The Combustion Institute, 1998/pp. 1057-air diffusion flame. An unsteady flamelet is solved interactively with a CFD solver for the tur- bulent flow Modeling of combustion in turbulent diffusion flames has been shown to be already rather success- ful [1

  13. Turbocharged two-stroke internal combustion engine with four-stroke capability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burrahm, R.W.

    1990-03-13

    This patent describes, in a turbocharged two-stroke internal combustion engine without crankcase scavenging and having means for operating the exhaust valves in accordance with either two-stroke or four-stroke operation, a means for enabling the intake of combustible gas into cylinders of the engine during four-stroke operation through a port in each cylinder from a combustible gas source. It comprises: a valve mounted on each port responsive to pressure within the cylinder.

  14. Internal combustion engine system and method with reduced noxious emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munk, M.

    1988-03-22

    For use in conjunction with a combustion-based system including a combustion chamber having an exhaust, a source of input air and a source of fuel for providing input air and fuel to the combustion chamber, and means communicating with the combustion chamber for obtaining power from the combustion; the improvement is described comprising: an ultrasonic fogging device communicating with the input air, the fogging device being adapted to receive a fogger air supply and fogger water supply, and to generate a fog in the source of input air which has a droplet size of the order of ten microns or less, and evaporates to dryness in the input air; means for sensing noxious emissions in exhaust gases from the combustion chamber; and means for controlling the fogging device in accordance with the sensed noxious emissions.

  15. A thermodynamic analysis of the rotary-vee internal combustion engine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bailey, Stephen Glenn

    1994-01-01

    The rotary-vee is a novel and unusual two-stroke cycle internal combustion engine. The rotary-vee engine is unique in that the combustion chamber and port design is very similar to a reciprocating two stroke engine, however, all of the components...

  16. Microwave-Assisted Ignition for Improved Internal Combustion Engine Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeFilippo, Anthony Cesar

    2013-01-01

    of Flame Speed by Intense Microwave Radiation. ” CombustionLimits of Gasoline Using a Microwave- Assisted Spark Plug. ”Krage, M. K. (1984) "Microwave Effects on Premixed Flames."

  17. Evaluation and silicon nitride internal combustion engine components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voldrich, W. (Allied-Signal Aerospace Co., Torrance, CA (United States). Garrett Ceramic Components Div.)

    1992-04-01

    The feasibility of silicon nitride (Si[sub 3]N[sub 4]) use in internal combustion engines was studied by testing three different components for wear resistance and lower reciprocating mass. The information obtained from these preliminary spin rig and engine tests indicates several design changes are necessary to survive high-stress engine applications. The three silicon nitride components tested were valve spring retainers, tappet rollers, and fuel pump push rod ends. Garrett Ceramic Components' gas-pressure sinterable Si[sub 3]N[sub 4] (GS-44) was used to fabricate the above components. Components were final machined from densified blanks that had been green formed by isostatic pressing of GS-44 granules. Spin rig testing of the valve spring retainers indicated that these Si[sub 3]N[sub 4] components could survive at high RPM levels (9,500) when teamed with silicon nitride valves and lower spring tension than standard titanium components. Silicon nitride tappet rollers showed no wear on roller O.D. or I.D. surfaces, steel axles and lifters; however, due to the uncrowned design of these particular rollers the cam lobes indicated wear after spin rig testing. Fuel pump push rod ends were successful at reducing wear on the cam lobe and rod end when tested on spin rigs and in real-world race applications.

  18. Emission control system and method for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Owens, L.

    1980-06-03

    Fresh air is introduced into the exhaust pipe leading to the muffler for an internal combustion engine, while the air and exhaust gas mixture is cooled, not only in the muffler but also in a circuitous tube which extends from the muffler to the normal discharge or tail pipe and in which a special cooler may be installed. From the outlet of the special cooling tube, which faces forwardly, a portion of the air and exhaust gas mixture, now cooled, is led from a Y-connection to the intake tube of the air filter, so that the air and exhaust gas mixture will be introduced into the intake system prior to the carburetor. A rearwardly slanting arm of the Y-connection connects the front end of the special cooling pipe with the normal tail pipe. The carburetor has one or more air bleed tubes leading into the mixture passage at or below the butterfly valves, so that at idling speeds, a small amount of fresh air is introduced, irrespective of the position of the butterfly valves, to overcome any tendency for the engine, when idling, to cough or sputter due to the introduction of an air and exhaust gas mixture to the air filter intake.

  19. Rotational position detecting device for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ushida, M.; Nakamura, Y.; Abe, K.

    1986-11-04

    This patent describes a device for detecting the rotational position of an internal combustion engine of the type that has a cam shaft extending outwardly from the engine through a wall of the engine block and a rotary member fixed to the cam shaft and driven therewith by a crankshaft of the engine. The device comprises: reference position information means and angular position information means both fixed to the end face of the driven rotary member remote from the wall of the engine block. In this way, the reference position and angular position information means are both moved among circular paths when the rotary member is rotated. The reference position and angular position information means are disposed at different radial distances from the axis of the driven rotary member; a reference position sensor and an angular position sensor respectively disposed to face the circular paths of the reference position and angular position information means; a housing fixed to the engine block to cover the driven rotary member and support the sensors; the housing having an end wall formed therein with an opening coaxial with the cam shaft; the cam shaft having an outer end portion extending outwardly beyond the driven rotary member into and through the opening; and a bearing mounted in the opening to rotatably receive the outer end portion of the cam shaft and position the housing with respect to the cam shaft.

  20. Effects of lubricant viscosity and surface texturing on ring-pack performance in internal combustion engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takata, Rosalind (Rosalind Kazuko), 1978-

    2006-01-01

    The piston ring-pack contributes approximately 25% of the mechanical losses in an internal combustion engine. Both lubricant viscosity and surface texturing were investigated in an effort to reduce this ring-pack friction ...

  1. Modeling the structural behavior of the piston rings under different boundary conditions in internal combustion engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Dian

    2010-01-01

    In the process of designing internal combustion engine, piston ring plays an important role in fulfilling the requirements of camber gas sealing, friction reduction and lubrication oil consumption. The goal of this thesis ...

  2. Piston ring design for reduced friction in modern internal combustion engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smedley, Grant, 1978-

    2004-01-01

    Piston ring friction losses account for approximately 20% of the total mechanical losses in modern internal combustion engines. A reduction in piston ring friction would therefore result in higher efficiency, lower fuel ...

  3. Water distillation using waste engine heat from an internal combustion engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mears, Kevin S

    2006-01-01

    To meet the needs of forward deployed soldiers and disaster relief personnel, a mobile water distillation system was designed and tested. This system uses waste engine heat from the exhaust flow of an internal combustion ...

  4. Computations and modeling of oil transport between piston lands and liner in internal combustion engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, Tianshi

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of lubricating oil in internal combustion engines is a continuous interest for engine developers and remains to be one of the least understood areas. A better understanding on oil transport is critical to ...

  5. Numerical modeling of piston secondary motion and skirt lubrication in internal combustion engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McClure, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    Internal combustion engines dominate transportation of people and goods, contributing significantly to air pollution, and requiring large amounts of fossil fuels. With increasing public concern about the environment and ...

  6. Workshop on technology issues of superconducting Maglev transportation systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wegrzyn, J.E. ); Shaw, D.T. )

    1991-09-27

    There exists a critical need in the United States to improve its ground transportation system. One suggested system that offers many advantages over the current transportation infrastructure is Maglev. Maglev represents the latest evolution in very high and speed ground transportation, where vehicles are magnetically levitated, guided, and propelled over elevated guideways at speeds of 300 miles per hour. Maglev is not a new concept but is, however, receiving renewed interest. The objective of this workshop was to further promote these interest by bringing together a small group of specialists in Maglev technology to discuss Maglev research needs and to identify key research issues to the development of a successful Maglev system. The workshop was organized into four sessions based on the following technical areas: Materials, Testing, and Shielding; Magnet Design and Cryogenic Systems; Propulsion and Levitation Systems; and, System Control and Integration.

  7. H2 Internal Combustion Engine Research | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in Bethesda, Maryland. merit08wallner.pdf More Documents & Publications High-Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Engine via Fuel Reactivity Control H2...

  8. Compounded turbocharged rotary internal combustion engine fueled with natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenkins, P.E.

    1992-10-15

    This patent describes a compounded engine. It comprises: a first Wankel engine having a housing with a trochoidal inner surface containing a generally triangular shaped rotor, the engine containing a fuel supply system suitable for operating the engine with natural gas as a fuel; a turbocharge compressing air for combustion by the engine, the turbocharger being driven by the exhaust gases which exit from the engine; a combustion chamber in fluid communication with the exhaust from the engine after that exhaust has passed through the turbocharger, the chamber having an ignition device suitable for igniting hydrocarbons in the engine exhaust, whereby the engine timing, and the air and fuel mixture of the engine are controlled so that when the engine exhaust reaches the combustion chamber the exhaust contains a sufficient amount of oxygen and hydrocarbons to enable ignition and combustion of the engine exhaust in the combustion chamber without the addition of fuel or air, and whereby the engine operating conditions are controlled to vary the performance of the secondary combustor; and a controllable ignition device to ignite the exhaust gases in the combustion chamber at predetermined times.

  9. Power and efficiency limits for internal combustion engines via methods of finite-time thermodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berry, R. Stephen

    Power and efficiency limits for internal combustion engines via methods of finite publication 17 June 1993) Analytical expressionsfor the upper bounds of power and efficiency of an internal and expensiveto compute and analyze.2If we are interestedin maximum power output or in maximum effi- ciency

  10. Internal combustion engine system and method with reduced noxious emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munk, M.

    1987-05-26

    An improved turbine apparatus is described comprising: a turbine power generator, including a source of input air, and a source of fuel, a compressor which receives the input air, a combustion chamber which receives air from the output of the compressor and fuel from the source of fuel, a turbine which receives exhaust gases from the combustion chamber; and an electrical generator mechanically coupled with the turbine. A fogging device communicates with the input air. The fogging device is adapted to receive a fogger air supply and a fogger water supply, and to generate a fog in the input air; means for sensing noxious emissions in the exhaust gases; and means for controlling the fogging device in accordance with the sensed noxious emissions.

  11. Internal combustion engine system with fog injection and heat exchange

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munk, M.

    1987-10-27

    An improved turbine apparatus is described comprising: a turbine power generator, including a source of input air, and a source of fuel, a compressor which receives the input air, a combustion chamber which receives air from the output of the compressor and fuel from the source of fuel, a turbine which receives exhaust gases from the combustion chamber; and an electrical generator mechanically coupled with the turbine; a fogging device communicating with the input air. The fogging device is adapted to receive a fogger air supply and a fogger water supply, and to generate a fog in the input air, an adjustable heat exchanger for exchanging heat from the exhaust of the turbine to the input air to be fogged; and means for adjusting the level of heat exchange of the heat exchanger in accordance with properties of the input air and the level of fog being generated.

  12. Catalytic combustion in internal combustion engines: A possible explanation for the Woschni effect in thermally-insulated diesel engines. Interim report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, R.L.

    1996-11-15

    This report describes research undertaken to determine if catalytic combustion effects occur with the use of zirconia (ZrO{sub 2}) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), or other coatings, in diesel engines, and if so, whether these effects have significant impact upon engine combustion, fuel economy, or pollutant emissions. A simple furnace system was used to identify catalytic combustion effects in the ignition and combustion of propane/air mixtures over catalyst-doped m-ZrO{sub 2} spheres. Three classes of catalysts were examined: zirconia-stabilizing oxides (CeO{sub 2}, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MgO), transition metal oxides (Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), and noble metals (Pt). Each class exhibited characteristic combustion effects, with the ignition temperature increasing, e.g., from approximately 2000 deg C for Pt to 5500 deg C for the stabilizing oxides. The results suggest that the Woschni effect, a controversial phenomenon wherein thermal-insulating measures are postulated to actually increase heat transfer from the diesel combustion chamber, may be only a manifestation of catalytic combustion. Previous research on catalytic combustion in internal combustion engines is briefly reviewed and discussed. An earlier version of this report is to be published in J. Surface and Coatings Technology as `Catalytic Combustion Effects on m-ZrO{sub 2} Doped with Various Metal Nitrates.`

  13. Side branch absorber for exhaust manifold of two-stroke internal combustion engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, Ralph E. (San Antonio, TX); Broerman, III, Eugene L. (San Antonio, TX); Bourn, Gary D. (Laramie, WY)

    2011-01-11

    A method of improving scavenging operation of a two-stroke internal combustion engine. The exhaust pressure of the engine is analyzed to determine if there is a pulsation frequency. Acoustic modeling is used to design an absorber. An appropriately designed side branch absorber may be attached to the exhaust manifold.

  14. Wavelet Analysis of Cycle-to-Cycle Pressure Variations in an Internal Combustion Engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asok K. Sen; Grzegorz Litak; Rodolfo Taccani; Robert Radu

    2006-07-19

    Using a continuous wavelet transform we have analyzed the cycle-to-cycle variations of pressure in an internal combustion engine. The time series of maximum pressure variations are examined for different loading and their wavelet power spectrum is calculated for each load. From the wavelet power spectrum we detected the presence of long, intermediate and short-term periodicities in the pressure signal. It is found that depending on the load, the long and intermediate-term periodicities may span several cycles, whereas the short-period oscillations tend to appear intermittently. Knowledge of these periodicities may be useful to develop effective control strategies for efficient combustion.

  15. Preliminary design for a maglev development facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coffey, H.T.; He, J.L.; Chang, S.L.; Bouillard, J.X.; Chen, S.S.; Cai, Y.; Hoppie, L.O.; Lottes, S.A.; Rote, D.M.; Zhang, Z.Y.; Myers, G.; Cvercko, A.; Williams, J.R.

    1992-04-01

    A preliminary design was made of a national user facility for evaluating magnetic-levitation (maglev) technologies in sizes intermediate between laboratory experiments and full-scale systems. A technical advisory committee was established and a conference was held to obtain advice on the potential requirements of operational systems and how the facility might best be configured to test these requirements. The effort included studies of multiple concepts for levitating, guiding, and propelling maglev vehicles, as well as the controls, communications, and data-acquisition and -reduction equipment that would be required in operating the facility. Preliminary designs for versatile, dual 2-MVA power supplies capable of powering attractive or repulsive systems were developed. Facility site requirements were identified. Test vehicles would be about 7.4 m (25 ft) long, would weigh form 3 to 7 metric tons, and would operate at speeds up to 67 m/s (150 mph) on a 3.3-km (2.05-mi) elevated guideway. The facility would utilize modular vehicles and guideways, permitting the substitution of levitation, propulsion, and guideway components of different designs and materials for evaluation. The vehicle would provide a test cell in which individual suspension or propulsion components or subsystems could be tested under realistic conditions. The system would allow economical evaluation of integrated systems under varying weather conditions and in realistic geometries.

  16. Proceedings of the sixth international conference on fluidized bed combustion. Volume II. Technical sessions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-08-01

    The Sixth International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion was held April 9-11, 1980, at the Atlanta Hilton, Atlanta, Georgia. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Electric Power Research Institute, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Tennessee Valley Authority. The papers covered recent developments in atmospheric and pressurized fluidized-bed combustion, especially the design, operation and control of pilot and demonstration plants. The cleanup of combustion products and the erosion, corrosion and fouling of gas turbines was emphasized also. Fifty-five papers from Volume 2 of the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; five papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  17. Internal combustion engine system having a power turbine with a broad efficiency range

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whiting, Todd Mathew; Vuk, Carl Thomas

    2010-04-13

    An engine system incorporating an air breathing, reciprocating internal combustion engine having an inlet for air and an exhaust for products of combustion. A centripetal turbine receives products of the combustion and has a housing in which a turbine wheel is rotatable. The housing has first and second passages leading from the inlet to discrete, approximately 180.degree., portions of the circumference of the turbine wheel. The passages have fixed vanes adjacent the periphery of the turbine wheel and the angle of the vanes in one of the passages is different than those in the other so as to accommodate different power levels providing optimum approach angles between the gases passing the vanes and the blades of the turbine wheel. Flow through the passages is controlled by a flapper valve to direct it to one or the other or both passages depending upon the load factor for the engine.

  18. Method for reducing peak phase current and decreasing staring time for an internal combustion engine having an induction machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Amey, David L. (Birmingham, MI); Degner, Michael W. (Farmington Hills, MI)

    2002-01-01

    A method for reducing the starting time and reducing the peak phase currents for an internal combustion engine that is started using an induction machine starter/alternator. The starting time is reduced by pre-fluxing the induction machine and the peak phase currents are reduced by reducing the flux current command after a predetermined period of time has elapsed and concurrent to the application of the torque current command. The method of the present invention also provides a strategy for anticipating the start command for an internal combustion engine and determines a start strategy based on the start command and the operating state of the internal combustion engine.

  19. Proceedings of the sixth international conference on fluidized bed combustion. Volume III. Technical sessions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-08-01

    The Sixth International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion was held April 9-11, 1980, at the Atlanta Hilton, Atlanta, Georgia. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Electric Power Research Institute, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Tennessee Valley Authority. Forty-five papers from Vol. III of the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. Two papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  20. Internal combustion engine with rotary valve assembly having variable intake valve timing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, C.N.; Cross, P.C.

    1995-12-12

    An internal combustion engine has rotary valves associated with movable shutters operable to vary the closing of intake air/fuel port sections to obtain peak volumetric efficiency over the entire range of speed of the engine. The shutters are moved automatically by a control mechanism that is responsive to the RPM of the engine. A foot-operated lever associated with the control mechanism is also used to move the shutters between their open and closed positions. 21 figs.

  1. Method and systems for power control of internal combustion engines using individual cycle cut-off

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fedorenko, Y.; Korzhov, M.; Filippov, A.; Atamanenko, N.

    1996-09-01

    A new method of controlling power has been developed for improving efficiency and emissions performance of internal combustion engines at partial load. The method involves cutting-off some of the work cycles, as the load decreases, to obtain required power. Theoretical and experimental material is presented to illustrate the underlying principle, the implementation means and the results for the 4- and 8-cylinder piston engine and a twin rotor Wankel engine applications.

  2. Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion. Volume 1. Plenary sessions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-08-01

    The Sixth International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion was held at the Atlanta Hilton, Atlanta, Georgia, April 9-11, 1980. The papers in this volume involved presentation of the research and development programs of the US (US DOE, TVA, EPRI and US EPA), United Kingdom, Federal Republic of Germany and the People's Republic of China. Eight papers from Vol. 1 (Plenary Sessions) of the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  3. Internal combustion engine with rotary valve assembly having variable intake valve timing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hansen, Craig N. (Eden Prairie, MN); Cross, Paul C. (Shorewood, MN)

    1995-01-01

    An internal combustion engine has rotary valves associated with movable shutters operable to vary the closing of intake air/fuel port sections to obtain peak volumetric efficiency over the entire range of speed of the engine. The shutters are moved automatically by a control mechanism that is responsive to the RPM of the engine. A foot-operated lever associated with the control mechanism is also used to move the shutters between their open and closed positions.

  4. Modeling engine oil vaporization and transport of the oil vapor in the piston ring pack on internal combustion engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Yeunwoo, 1973-

    2004-01-01

    A model was developed to study engine oil vaporization and oil vapor transport in the piston ring pack of internal combustion engines. With the assumption that the multi-grade oil can be modeled as a compound of several ...

  5. 8th i-CIPEC8th International Conference/Exhibition on Combustion, Incineration/Pyrolysis, Emission and Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    8th i-CIPEC8th International Conference/Exhibition on Combustion, Incineration/Pyrolysis, Emission Pyrolysis and Gasification / New Materials / New Processes ·Waste-to-Energy Conversion Traditional as well

  6. NE]NL~GY r. ORNL/Sub/80-1 386/ &02 C)aS^" B ~Assessment of Internal Combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    NE]NL~GY r. ORNL/Sub/80-1 386/ &02 C)aS^" B ~Assessment of Internal Combustion LAn COMBUSTION ENGINES AS DRIVERS FOR HEAT PUMPS FINAL REPORT Date Published: January 1984 Report Prepared

  7. Internal combustion engines for alcohol motor fuels: a compilation of background technical information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blaser, Richard

    1980-11-01

    This compilation, a draft training manual containing technical background information on internal combustion engines and alcohol motor fuel technologies, is presented in 3 parts. The first is a compilation of facts from the state of the art on internal combustion engine fuels and their characteristics and requisites and provides an overview of fuel sources, fuels technology and future projections for availability and alternatives. Part two compiles facts about alcohol chemistry, alcohol identification, production, and use, examines ethanol as spirit and as fuel, and provides an overview of modern evaluation of alcohols as motor fuels and of the characteristics of alcohol fuels. The final section compiles cross references on the handling and combustion of fuels for I.C. engines, presents basic evaluations of events leading to the use of alcohols as motor fuels, reviews current applications of alcohols as motor fuels, describes the formulation of alcohol fuels for engines and engine and fuel handling hardware modifications for using alcohol fuels, and introduces the multifuel engines concept. (LCL)

  8. Apparatus and method for operating internal combustion engines from variable mixtures of gaseous fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heffel, James W.; Scott, Paul B.

    2003-09-02

    An apparatus and method for utilizing any arbitrary mixture ratio of multiple fuel gases having differing combustion characteristics, such as natural gas and hydrogen gas, within an internal combustion engine. The gaseous fuel composition ratio is first sensed, such as by thermal conductivity, infrared signature, sound propagation speed, or equivalent mixture differentiation mechanisms and combinations thereof which are utilized as input(s) to a "multiple map" engine control module which modulates selected operating parameters of the engine, such as fuel injection and ignition timing, in response to the proportions of fuel gases available so that the engine operates correctly and at high efficiency irrespective of the gas mixture ratio being utilized. As a result, an engine configured according to the teachings of the present invention may be fueled from at least two different fuel sources without admixing constraints.

  9. Apparatus and method for operating internal combustion engines from variable mixtures of gaseous fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heffel, James W. (Lake Matthews, CA); Scott, Paul B. (Northridge, CA); Park, Chan Seung (Yorba Linda, CA)

    2011-11-01

    An apparatus and method for utilizing any arbitrary mixture ratio of multiple fuel gases having differing combustion characteristics, such as natural gas and hydrogen gas, within an internal combustion engine. The gaseous fuel composition ratio is first sensed, such as by thermal conductivity, infrared signature, sound propagation speed, or equivalent mixture differentiation mechanisms and combinations thereof which are utilized as input(s) to a "multiple map" engine control module which modulates selected operating parameters of the engine, such as fuel injection and ignition timing, in response to the proportions of fuel gases available so that the engine operates correctly and at high efficiency irrespective of the gas mixture ratio being utilized. As a result, an engine configured according to the teachings of the present invention may be fueled from at least two different fuel sources without admixing constraints.

  10. System for lubrication of a brake air compressor associated with a turbocharged internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, J.C.

    1992-10-13

    This patent describes a system for use with a vehicle which includes a turbocharged internal combustion engine having a lubricating system wherein lubricating oil from an engine oil reservoir is circulated within the engine and also to and from an associated brake system air compressor which supplies compressed air for operation of the vehicle air braking system. This patent describes improvement in passing supercharged air to an oil crankcase of the air compressor to cause lubricating oil to drain therefrom and return to the engine oil reservoir.

  11. An Analysis of the Impact of Selected Fuel Thermochemical Properties on Internal Combustion Engine Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szybist, James P; Chakravathy, Kalyana; Daw, C Stuart

    2012-01-01

    In this study we model the effects of 23 different fuels on First and Second Law thermodynamic efficiency of an adiabatic internal combustion engine. First Law efficiency is calculated using lower heating value (LHV) while Second Law efficiency is calculated with exergy, which represents the inherent chemical energy available to produce propulsion. We find that First Law efficiency can deviate by as much as nine percentage points between fuels while Second Law efficiency exhibits a much smaller degree of variability. We also find that First and Second Law efficiency can be nearly the same for some fuels (methane and ethane) but differ substantially for other fuels (hydrogen and ethanol). The differences in First and Second Law efficiency are due to differences in LHV and exergy for a given fuel. In order to explain First Law efficiency differences between fuels as well as the differences between LHV and exergy, we introduce a new term: the molar expansion ratio (MER), defined as the ratio of product moles to reactant moles for complete stoichiometric combustion. We find that the MER is a useful expression for providing a physical explanation for fuel-specific efficiency differences as well as differences between First and Second Law efficiency. First and Second Law efficiency are affected by a number of other fuel-specific thermochemical properties, such as the ratio of specific heat and dissociation of combustion products.

  12. Method and apparatus for advanced staged combustion utilizing forced internal recirculation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rabovitser, Iosif K.; Knight, Richard A.; Cygan, David F.; Nester, Serguei; Abbasi, Hamid A.

    2003-12-16

    A method and apparatus for combustion of a fuel in which a first-stage fuel and a first-stage oxidant are introduced into a combustion chamber and ignited, forming a primary combustion zone. At least about 5% of the total heat output produced by combustion of the first-stage fuel and the first-stage oxidant is removed from the primary combustion zone, forming cooled first-stage combustion products. A portion of the cooled first-stage combustion products from a downstream region of the primary combustion zone is recirculated to an upstream region of primary combustion zone. A second-stage fuel is introduced into the combustion chamber downstream of the primary combustion zone and ignited, forming a secondary combustion zone. At least about 5% of the heat from the secondary combustion zone is removed. In accordance with one embodiment, a third-stage oxidant is introduced into the combustion chamber downstream of the secondary combustion zone, forming a tertiary combustion zone.

  13. Modeling of reciprocating internal combustion engines for power generation and heat recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yun, Kyung Tae; Cho, Heejin; Luck, Rogelio; Mago, Pedro J.

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents a power generation and heat recovery model for reciprocating internal combustion engines (ICEs). The purpose of the proposed model is to provide realistic estimates of performance/efficiency maps for both electrical power output and useful thermal output for various capacities of engines for use in a preliminary CHP design/simulation process. The proposed model will serve as an alternative to constant engine efficiencies or empirical efficiency curves commonly used in the current literature for simulations of CHP systems. The engine performance/efficiency calculation algorithm has been coded to a publicly distributed FORTRAN Dynamic Link Library (DLL), and a user friendly tool has been developed using Visual Basic programming. Simulation results using the proposed model are validated against manufacturer’s technical data.

  14. System and method for conditioning intake air to an internal combustion engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sellnau, Mark C.

    2015-08-04

    A system for conditioning the intake air to an internal combustion engine includes a means to boost the pressure of the intake air to the engine and a liquid cooled charge air cooler disposed between the output of the boost means and the charge air intake of the engine. Valves in the coolant system can be actuated so as to define a first configuration in which engine cooling is performed by coolant circulating in a first coolant loop at one temperature, and charge air cooling is performed by coolant flowing in a second coolant loop at a lower temperature. The valves can be actuated so as to define a second configuration in which coolant that has flowed through the engine can be routed through the charge air cooler. The temperature of intake air to the engine can be controlled over a wide range of engine operation.

  15. Method and apparatus to clean the intake system of an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hein, S.R.; Clack, S.R.; Burrows, J.L.

    1991-02-05

    This patent describes an apparatus for cleaning the intake system of an internal combustion engine. It comprises: an air metering block having air passage means therein including an air outlet; an adapter means to connect the outlet of the air metering block to the intake system of the engine; air inlet means in the block communicating with the air passage means, an adjustment means within the air metering block for controlling the amount of air introduced into the air passage means; an injector means for connection to the intake system of an engine for injecting a solvent into the intake system of the engine; and a control means for controlling the injector means to vary the amount of solvent injected into the intake system of the engine by the injector means.

  16. COMBUSTION-GENERATED INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollowell, C.D.

    2011-01-01

    Pollutants from Indoor Combustion Sources: I. Field Measure-Characteristics in Two Stage Combustion, paper presented atInternational) on Combustion, August, 1974, Tokyo, Japan. 8

  17. Using Biofuel Tracers to Study Alternative Combustion Regimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mack, John Hunter; Flowers, Daniel L.; Buchholz, Bruce A.; Dibble, Robert W.

    2006-01-01

    1979. J.B. Heywood, Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals.Ignition Engine with Optimal Combustion Control. ” US PatentIntroduction to Internal Combustion Engines (3rd Edition).

  18. Maglev vehicles and superconductor technology: Integration of high-speed ground transportation into the air travel system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, L.R.; Rote, D.M.; Hull, J.R.; Coffey, H.T.; Daley, J.G.; Giese, R.F.

    1989-04-01

    This study was undertaken to (1) evaluate the potential contribution of high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) to the technical and economic feasibility of magnetically levitated (maglev) vehicles, (2) determine the status of maglev transportation research in the United States and abroad, (3) identify the likelihood of a significant transportation market for high-speed maglev vehicles, and (4) provide a preliminary assessment of the potential energy and economic benefits of maglev systems. HTSCs should be considered as an enhancing, rather than an enabling, development for maglev transportation because they should improve reliability and reduce energy and maintenance costs. Superconducting maglev transportation technologies were developed in the United States in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Federal support was withdrawn in 1975, but major maglev transportation programs were continued in Japan and West Germany, where full-scale prototypes now carry passengers at speeds of 250 mi/h in demonstration runs. Maglev systems are generally viewed as very-high-speed train systems, but this study shows that the potential market for maglev technology as a train system, e.g., from one downtown to another, is limited. Rather, aircraft and maglev vehicles should be seen as complementing rather than competing transportation systems. If maglev systems were integrated into major hub airport operations, they could become economical in many relatively high-density US corridors. Air traffic congestion and associated noise and pollutant emissions around airports would also be reduced. 68 refs., 26 figs., 16 tabs.

  19. Evaluation and silicon nitride internal combustion engine components. Final report, Phase I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voldrich, W. [Allied-Signal Aerospace Co., Torrance, CA (United States). Garrett Ceramic Components Div.

    1992-04-01

    The feasibility of silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) use in internal combustion engines was studied by testing three different components for wear resistance and lower reciprocating mass. The information obtained from these preliminary spin rig and engine tests indicates several design changes are necessary to survive high-stress engine applications. The three silicon nitride components tested were valve spring retainers, tappet rollers, and fuel pump push rod ends. Garrett Ceramic Components` gas-pressure sinterable Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} (GS-44) was used to fabricate the above components. Components were final machined from densified blanks that had been green formed by isostatic pressing of GS-44 granules. Spin rig testing of the valve spring retainers indicated that these Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} components could survive at high RPM levels (9,500) when teamed with silicon nitride valves and lower spring tension than standard titanium components. Silicon nitride tappet rollers showed no wear on roller O.D. or I.D. surfaces, steel axles and lifters; however, due to the uncrowned design of these particular rollers the cam lobes indicated wear after spin rig testing. Fuel pump push rod ends were successful at reducing wear on the cam lobe and rod end when tested on spin rigs and in real-world race applications.

  20. Modeling the performance of the piston ring-pack with consideration of non-axisymmetric characteristics of the power cylinder system in internal combustion engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Liang, 1971-

    2005-01-01

    The performance of the piston ring-pack is directly associated with the friction, oil consumption, wear, and blow-by in internal combustion engines. Because of non-axisymmetric characteristics of the power cylinder system, ...

  1. Application of advanced hydrocarbon characterization and its consequences on future fuel properties and advanced combustion research

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Research on future fuels chemistry and effects on combustion in advanced internal combustion engines

  2. Investigation of spark discharge processes and ignition systems for spark-ignited internal combustion engines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khare, Yogesh Jayant

    2000-01-01

    Spark ignition of the air-fuel mixture at the appropriate time is important for successful flame initiation and complete combustion thereafter without unnecessary emissions. The physical and chemical reactions taking place between the spark plug...

  3. COMBUSTION OF COAL IN AN OPPOSED FLOW DIFFUSION BURNER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chin, W.K.

    2010-01-01

    J.M. , liThe F1uidised Combustion of Coal," Sixteenth Sm osium {International} on Combustion, August 1976 (to beof Various Polymers Under Combustion Conditions," Fourteenth

  4. COMBUSTION SOURCES OF UNREGULATED GAS PHASE NITROGENEOUS SPECIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthews, Ronald D.

    2013-01-01

    SAE Paper 750173, 1975. L. , Fifteenth Symposium Combustion,The Combustion Institute, International Pittsburgh, on 64.chemistry of products of combustion: nitrogenous The

  5. A cycle simulation of coal particle fueled reciprocating internal-combustion engines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosegay, Kenneth Harold

    1982-01-01

    - Summary of Experimental Diesel Engine Operation on Solid Coal Fuels Page Table 2 - Property Data for Coal (Char) Particles . . 23 Table 3 - Summary of the Combustion Model and Reaction Constants 40 Table 4 ? Specifications of the Base Case Engine... Efforts The first attempt to operate a solid particle fueled piston engine was performed nearly a century ago by Rudolf Diesel, inventor of the compression-ignition engine. Since then, at least a dozen separate attempts to oper- ate diesel engines...

  6. Method and apparatus utilizing valve throttling and charge stratification in the operation of an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burandt, C.O.

    1988-02-16

    In an internal combustion engine this patent describes means forming a combustion chamber, a spark plug in the chamber, a piston disposed in the chamber for reciprocable movement toward and away from the spark plug, a valve member, circular seat means for the valve member, means for varying the lift of the valve member, a generally cylindrical shroud corresponding generally to the size of the seat means. The cylindrical shroud is relieved only in the direction of the spark plug so that, when the valve member is moved relative to the shroud by the lift-varying means, a stratified mixture of air and fuel is directed toward the spark plug until the lift-varying means causes the valve member to pass beyond the shroud so that during the initial lift of the valve member the stratified air and fuel mixture is directed solely toward the spark plug until the valve member passes beyond the shroud and the air and fuel mixture is directed generally through a 360/sup 0/ arc after the valve member passes beyond the shroud, and means limiting the lift of the valve member so that it does not pass the shroud during lighter loads, whereby the air and fuel mixture is directed primarily toward the spark plug until the valve member passes beyond the shroud.

  7. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Internal Combustion Engine Energy Retention (ICEER)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by National Renewable Energy Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Internal...

  8. Studying the Internal Ballistics of a Combustion Driven Potato Cannon using High-speed Video

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Courtney, E D S

    2013-01-01

    A potato cannon was designed to accommodate several different experimental propellants and have a transparent barrel so the movement of the projectile could be recorded on high-speed video (at 2000 frames per second). Both combustion chamber and barrel were made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Five experimental propellants were tested: propane (C3H8), acetylene (C2H2), ethanol (C2H6O), methanol (CH4O), and butane (C4H10). The amount of each experimental propellant was calculated to approximate a stoichometric mixture and considering the Upper Flammability Limit (UFL) and the Lower Flammability Limit (LFL), which in turn were affected by the volume of the combustion chamber. Cylindrical projectiles were cut from raw potatoes so that there was an airtight fit, and each weighed 50 (+/- 0.5) grams. For each trial, position as a function of time was determined via frame by frame analysis. Five trials were taken for each experimental propellant and the results analyzed to compute velocity and acceleration as functions...

  9. Path planning during combustion mode switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jiang, Li; Ravi, Nikhil

    2015-12-29

    Systems and methods are provided for transitioning between a first combustion mode and a second combustion mode in an internal combustion engine. A current operating point of the engine is identified and a target operating point for the internal combustion engine in the second combustion mode is also determined. A predefined optimized transition operating point is selected from memory. While operating in the first combustion mode, one or more engine actuator settings are adjusted to cause the operating point of the internal combustion engine to approach the selected optimized transition operating point. When the engine is operating at the selected optimized transition operating point, the combustion mode is switched from the first combustion mode to the second combustion mode. While operating in the second combustion mode, one or more engine actuator settings are adjusted to cause the operating point of the internal combustion to approach the target operating point.

  10. COMBUSTION-GENERATED INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollowell, C.D.

    2010-01-01

    x A Emission Characteristics in Two Stage Combustion. PaperInternational) on Combustion, Tokyo (August, 1974). Chang,fll , J I ___F J "J LBL-S9lS COMBUSTION-GENERATED INDOOR AIR

  11. Development of Compact Gaseous Sensors with Internal Reference for Monitoring O2 and NOx in Combustion Environments

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Compact sensors have been developed to allow for real-time monitoring of O2 and NOx during combustion.

  12. Vehicle Technologies Office: Advanced Combustion Strategies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) funds research focused on developing a greater understanding of engine combustion and how emissions form within engine cylinders. This work includes research on low temperature combustion, dilute (lean-burn) gasoline combustion, and clean diesel combustion, all of which can substantially contribute to increasing efficiency and lowering emissions in internal combustion engines.

  13. Design and fabrication of a maglev linear actuator capable of nanopositioning 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maheshwari, Himanshu

    2002-01-01

    with the size of the magnets and the coils determined by the electromagnetic analysis. Three of these actuators in the 6-DOF maglev instrument will have sufficient force capacity to levitate and accelerate the moving part mass of 0.22 Kg. We also characterized...

  14. CATALYZED COMBUSTION IN A FLAT PLATE BOUNDARY LAYER I. EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENTS AND COMPARISON WITH NUMERICAL CALCULATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robben, R.

    2010-01-01

    l~ Roberts, "Catathermal Combustion: A New Process for Lm'l-significant gas phase combustion is induced by the presenceInternational) on Combustion (to be published), The

  15. THE COMBUSTION OF SOLVENT REPINED COAL IN AN OPPOSED FLOW DIFFUSION FLAME

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chin, W.K.

    2011-01-01

    pyrolysis of various polymers under combustion conditions.Fourteenth Symposium (International) on Combustion,The Combustion Institute Pittsburgh, 1177. Chin, W.K. and

  16. CATALYZED COMBUSTION IN A FLAT PLATE BOUNDARY LAYER II. NUMERICAL CALCULATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schefer, R.

    2010-01-01

    D.G. , Fourteenth Sympo- sium (International) on Combustion,The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 107 (1973). Wilson,Program for Calculation of Combustion Reaction Equilibrium

  17. Assuring safety in high-speed magnetically levitated (maglev) systems : the need for a system safety approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ota, Shuichiro Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic levitation is a railway technology that enables vehicles to be magnetically suspended above their tracks. Although this technology is still under development, magnetically levitated (maglev) systems have great ...

  18. Flexible system development strategies for the Chuo Shinkansen Maglev Project : dealing with uncertain demand and R&D outcomes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ishii, Masaki, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2007-01-01

    As a large-scale, long-term transportation project, the Chuo Shinkansen Maglev Project in Japan includes various uncertainties. Among them, two major uncertainties are identified in this thesis: the uncertainty of demand ...

  19. Chapter 8: Advancing Clean Transportation and Vehicle Systems and Technologies | Internal Combustion Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a lCaribElectricSouthApplying caulk toRoadmapsMaterialsActionsInternal

  20. Investigation of a rotary valving system with variable valve timing for internal combustion engines: Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cross, P.C.; Hansen, C.N.

    1994-11-18

    The objective of the program was to provide a functional demonstration of the Hansen Rotary Valving System with Variable Valve timing (HRVS/VVT), capable of throttleless inlet charge control, as an alternative to conventional poppet-valves for use in spark ignited internal combustion engines. The goal of this new technology is to secure benefits in fuel economy, broadened torque band, vibration reduction, and overhaul accessibility. Additionally, use of the variable valve timing capability to vary the effective compression ratio is expected to improve multi-fuel tolerance and efficiency. Efforts directed at the design of HRVS components proved to be far more extensive than had been anticipated, ultimately requiring that proof-trial design/development work be performed. Although both time and funds were exhausted before optical or ion-probe types of in-cylinder investigation could be undertaken, a great deal of laboratory data was acquired during the course of the design/development work. This laboratory data is the basis for the information presented in this Final Report.

  1. Proceedings of ASME 2012 Internal Combustion Engine Division Spring Technical Conference May 69, 2012, Torino, Piemonte, Italy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    but the evo- lution of the combustion phasing is governed by the interactions between engine cycles mass. ivo,ivc Intake valve opening/closing. evo,evc Exhaust valve opening/closing. nvo Negative valve overlap (evc­ivo). m,n Sub/superscripts denoting the main combustion period (ivc­evo) and the nvo period

  2. Performance, Efficiency, and Emissions Characterization of Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines Fueled with Hydrogen/Natural Gas Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby S. Chapman; Amar Patil

    2007-06-30

    Hydrogen is an attractive fuel source not only because it is abundant and renewable but also because it produces almost zero regulated emissions. Internal combustion engines fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG) are operated throughout a variety of industries in a number of mobile and stationary applications. While CNG engines offer many advantages over conventional gasoline and diesel combustion engines, CNG engine performance can be substantially improved in the lean operating region. Lean operation has a number of benefits, the most notable of which is reduced emissions. However, the extremely low flame propagation velocities of CNG greatly restrict the lean operating limits of CNG engines. Hydrogen, however, has a high flame speed and a wide operating limit that extends into the lean region. The addition of hydrogen to a CNG engine makes it a viable and economical method to significantly extend the lean operating limit and thereby improve performance and reduce emissions. Drawbacks of hydrogen as a fuel source, however, include lower power density due to a lower heating value per unit volume as compared to CNG, and susceptibility to pre-ignition and engine knock due to wide flammability limits and low minimum ignition energy. Combining hydrogen with CNG, however, overcomes the drawbacks inherent in each fuel type. Objectives of the current study were to evaluate the feasibility of using blends of hydrogen and natural gas as a fuel for conventional natural gas engines. The experiment and data analysis included evaluation of engine performance, efficiency, and emissions along with detailed in-cylinder measurements of key physical parameters. This provided a detailed knowledge base of the impact of using hydrogen/natural gas blends. A four-stroke, 4.2 L, V-6 naturally aspirated natural gas engine coupled to an eddy current dynamometer was used to measure the impact of hydrogen/natural gas blends on performance, thermodynamic efficiency and exhaust gas emissions in a reciprocating four stroke cycle engine. The test matrix varied engine load and air-to-fuel ratio at throttle openings of 50% and 100% at equivalence ratios of 1.00 and 0.90 for hydrogen percentages of 10%, 20% and 30% by volume. In addition, tests were performed at 100% throttle opening, with an equivalence ratio of 0.98 and a hydrogen blend of 20% to further investigate CO emission variations. Data analysis indicated that the use of hydrogen/natural gas fuel blend penalizes the engine operation with a 1.5 to 2.0% decrease in torque, but provided up to a 36% reduction in CO, a 30% reduction in NOX, and a 5% increase in brake thermal efficiency. These results concur with previous results published in the open literature. Further reduction in emissions can be obtained by retarding the ignition timing.

  3. NUMERICAL MODELING OF TURBULENT FLOW IN A COMBUSTION TUNNEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghoniem, A.F.

    2013-01-01

    1VJcDona·ld, H. (1979) Combustion r 1 iodeJ·ing in Two and1979) Practical Turbulent-Combustion Interaction Models forInternation on Combustors. Combustion The 17th Symposium

  4. AN EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL STUDY OF HEAT TRANSFER WITH COMBUSTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heperkan, Hasan A.

    2013-01-01

    HDyna.mics of the Exothermic Process in Combustion,n 15thSymposium (International) on Combustion, Tokyo, 1974. H, S.Methods L Glassman, Combustion, Academic Press, 1977. D. J.

  5. Formation mechanisms of combustion chamber deposits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Brien, Christopher J. (Christopher John)

    2001-01-01

    Combustion chamber deposits are found in virtually all internal combustion engines after a few hundred hours of operation. Deposits form on cylinder, piston, and head surfaces that are in contact with fuel-air mixture ...

  6. Proceedings of the 1996 spring technical conference of the ASME Internal Combustion Engine Division. Volume 2: Engine design and engine systems; ICE-Volume 26-2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uzkan, T.

    1996-12-31

    Although the cost of the petroleum crude has not increased much within the last decade, the drive to develop internal combustion engines is still continuing. The basic motivation of this drive is to reduce both emissions and costs. Recent developments in computer chip production and information management technology have opened up new applications in engine controls and monitoring. The development of new information is continuing at a rapid pace. Some of these research and development results were presented at the 1996 Spring Technical Conference of the ASME Internal Combustion Engine Division in Youngstown, Ohio, April 21--24, 1996. The papers presented covered various aspects of the design, development, and application of compression ignition and spark ignition engines. The conference was held at the Holiday Inn Metroplex Complex and hosted by Altronic Incorporated of Girard, Ohio. The written papers submitted to the conference have been published in three conference volumes. Volume 2 includes the papers on the topics of engine design, engine systems, and engine user experience.

  7. Sealed Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-05-12

    This information sheet discusses the benefits of sealed combustion appliance units in order to ensure good indoor air quality.

  8. Method and apparatus for active control of combustion rate through modulation of heat transfer from the combustion chamber wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roberts, Jr., Charles E.; Chadwell, Christopher J.

    2004-09-21

    The flame propagation rate resulting from a combustion event in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine is controlled by modulation of the heat transfer from the combustion flame to the combustion chamber walls. In one embodiment, heat transfer from the combustion flame to the combustion chamber walls is mechanically modulated by a movable member that is inserted into, or withdrawn from, the combustion chamber thereby changing the shape of the combustion chamber and the combustion chamber wall surface area. In another embodiment, heat transfer from the combustion flame to the combustion chamber walls is modulated by cooling the surface of a portion of the combustion chamber wall that is in close proximity to the area of the combustion chamber where flame speed control is desired.

  9. Oscillatory Flame Response in Acoustically Coupled Fuel Droplet Combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sevilla Esparza, Cristhian Israel

    2013-01-01

    CombustionCombustion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Coupled Droplet Combustion . . . . . . . . . . . . Burning

  10. Second Law Analysis of Constant Temperature Diesel Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Druecke, Dr. Ben [University of Wisconsin; Foster, Prof. Dave [University of Wisconsin; Klein, Prof. Sandy [University of Wisconsin; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Chakravarthy, Veerathu K [ORNL; Graves, Ronald L [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    The results from a second law analysis of a constant temperature diesel combustion process are presented and show that this process is not significantly more reversible than conventional combustion. In addition to quantifying the total availability destruction in combustion, the magnitudes of the combustion irreversibilities attributable to each irreversible subprocess (mixing, oxidation and internal heat transfer) were determined. The primary contributor to combustion irreversibilities is the thermal interaction of reacting and non-reacting species during the oxidation and internal thermal energy transfer subprocesses. Increasing combustion temperature significantly decreases availability destruction by making the oxidation and internal thermal energy transfer processes more reversible. While increasing combustion temperature decreases combustion irreversibility, it also results in an increase in exhaust temperature. A tradeoff exists between large availability destruction at low combustion temperatures and large amounts of availability discarded in the exhaust at high combustion temperatures. The optimum amount of work was found to occur for a combustion temperature of approximately 1600 K.

  11. Predictive modeling of combustion processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharma, Sandeep, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01

    Recently, there has been an increasing interest in improving the efficiency and lowering the emissions from operating combustors, e.g. internal combustion (IC) engines and gas turbines. Different fuels, additives etc. are ...

  12. Rotary-reciprocal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blount, D.H.

    1992-10-06

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine of the rotary-reciprocal type. It comprises a housing formed with a peripheral wall; a rotor; and a shaft for the rotor.

  13. Preheated Combustion Air (International Fact Sheet), Energy Tips-Process Heating, Process Heating Tip Sheet #1c

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-10-01

    This English/Chinese international tip sheet provides information for optimizing industrial process heating systems and includes measurements in metric units.

  14. MN Center for Renewable Energy: Cellulosic Ethanol, Optimization of Bio-fuels in Internal Combustion Engines, & Course Development for Technicians in These Areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Frey

    2009-02-22

    This final report for Grant #DE-FG02-06ER64241, MN Center for Renewable Energy, will address the shared institutional work done by Minnesota State University, Mankato and Minnesota West Community and Technical College during the time period of July 1, 2006 to December 30, 2008. There was a no-cost extension request approved for the purpose of finalizing some of the work. The grant objectives broadly stated were to 1) develop educational curriculum to train technicians in wind and ethanol renewable energy, 2) determine the value of cattails as a biomass crop for production of cellulosic ethanol, and 3) research in Optimization of Bio-Fuels in Internal Combustion Engines. The funding for the MN Center for Renewable Energy was spent on specific projects related to the work of the Center.

  15. Computational Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westbrook, C K; Mizobuchi, Y; Poinsot, T J; Smith, P J; Warnatz, J

    2004-08-26

    Progress in the field of computational combustion over the past 50 years is reviewed. Particular attention is given to those classes of models that are common to most system modeling efforts, including fluid dynamics, chemical kinetics, liquid sprays, and turbulent flame models. The developments in combustion modeling are placed into the time-dependent context of the accompanying exponential growth in computer capabilities and Moore's Law. Superimposed on this steady growth, the occasional sudden advances in modeling capabilities are identified and their impacts are discussed. Integration of submodels into system models for spark ignition, diesel and homogeneous charge, compression ignition engines, surface and catalytic combustion, pulse combustion, and detonations are described. Finally, the current state of combustion modeling is illustrated by descriptions of a very large jet lifted 3D turbulent hydrogen flame with direct numerical simulation and 3D large eddy simulations of practical gas burner combustion devices.

  16. Advanced Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2013-03-05

    Topics covered in this presentation include: the continued importance of coal; related materials challenges; combining oxy-combustion & A-USC steam; and casting large superalloy turbine components.

  17. Combustion Noise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dowling, Ann P.; Mahmoudi, Yasser

    2014-01-01

    Combustion noise is becoming increasingly important as a major noise source in aeroengines and ground based gas turbines. This is partially because advances in design have reduced the other noise sources, and partially because next generation...

  18. Applied combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1993-12-31

    From the title, the reader is led to expect a broad practical treatise on combustion and combustion devices. Remarkably, for a book of modest dimension, the author is able to deliver. The text is organized into 12 Chapters, broadly treating three major areas: combustion fundamentals -- introduction (Ch. 1), thermodynamics (Ch. 2), fluid mechanics (Ch. 7), and kinetics (Ch. 8); fuels -- coal, municipal solid waste, and other solid fuels (Ch. 4), liquid (Ch. 5) and gaseous (Ch. 6) fuels; and combustion devices -- fuel cells (Ch. 3), boilers (Ch. 4), Otto (Ch. 10), diesel (Ch. 11), and Wankel (Ch. 10) engines and gas turbines (Ch. 12). Although each topic could warrant a complete text on its own, the author addresses each of these major themes with reasonable thoroughness. Also, the book is well documented with a bibliography, references, a good index, and many helpful tables and appendices. In short, Applied Combustion does admirably fulfill the author`s goal for a wide engineering science introduction to the general subject of combustion.

  19. Method of combustion for dual fuel engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, B.D.; Confer, G.L.; Zujing Shen; Hapeman, M.J.; Flynn, P.L.

    1993-12-21

    Apparatus and a method of introducing a primary fuel, which may be a coal water slurry, and a high combustion auxiliary fuel, which may be a conventional diesel oil, into an internal combustion diesel engine comprises detecting the load conditions of the engine, determining the amount of time prior to the top dead center position of the piston to inject the main fuel into the combustion chamber, and determining the relationship of the timing of the injection of the auxiliary fuel into the combustion chamber to achieve a predetermined specific fuel consumption, a predetermined combustion efficiency, and a predetermined peak cylinder firing pressure. 19 figures.

  20. Method of combustion for dual fuel engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Bertrand D. (Erie, PA); Confer, Gregory L. (Erie, PA); Shen, Zujing (Erie, PA); Hapeman, Martin J. (Edinboro, PA); Flynn, Paul L. (Fairview, PA)

    1993-12-21

    Apparatus and a method of introducing a primary fuel, which may be a coal water slutty, and a high combustion auxiliary fuel, which may be a conventional diesel oil, into an internal combustion diesel engine comprises detecting the load conditions of the engine, determining the amount of time prior to the top dead center position of the piston to inject the main fuel into the combustion chamber, and determining the relationship of the timing of the injection of the auxiliary fuel into the combustion chamber to achieve a predetermined specific fuel consumption, a predetermined combustion efficiency, and a predetermined peak cylinder firing pressure.

  1. TransRapid TR-07 maglev-spectrum magnetic field effects on daily pineal indoleamine metabolic rhythms in rodents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Groh, K.R.

    1993-06-01

    This study examined the effects on pineal function of magnetic field (MF) exposures (ac and dc components) similar to those produced by the TransRapid TR-07 and other electromagnetic maglev systems (EMS). Rats were entrained to a light-dark cycle and then exposed to a continuous, or to an inverted, intermittent (on = 45 s, off = 15 s, induced current = 267 G/s) simulated multifrequency ac and dc magnetic field (MF) at 1 or 7 times the TR-07 maglev vehicle MF intensity for 2 hr. Other groups of rats were exposed to only the ac or the dc-component of the maglev MF. For comparison, one group was exposed to an inverted, intermittent 60-Hz MF. Each group was compared to an unexposed group of rats for changes in pineal melatonin and serotonin-N-acetyltransferase (NAT). MF exposures at an intensity equivalent to that produced by the TR-07 vehicle had no effect on melatonin or NAT compared with sham-exposed animals under any of the conditions examined. However, 7X TR-07-level continuous 2-h MF exposures significantly depressed pineal NAT by 45%. Pineal melatonin was also depressed 33--43% by a continuous 7X TR-07 MF exposure and 28% by an intermittent 60-Hz 850-mG MF, but the results were not statically significant. This study demonstrates that intermittent, combined ac and dc MFs similar to those produced by the TR-07 EMS maglev vehicle alter the normal circadian rhythm of pineal indoleamine metabolism. The pineal regulatory enzyme NAT was more sensitive to MF exposure than melatonin and may be a more desirable measure of the biological effects of MF exposure.

  2. TransRapid TR-07 maglev-spectrum magnetic field effects on daily pineal indoleamine metabolic rhythms in rodents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Groh, K.R.

    1993-01-01

    This study examined the effects on pineal function of magnetic field (MF) exposures (ac and dc components) similar to those produced by the TransRapid TR-07 and other electromagnetic maglev systems (EMS). Rats were entrained to a light-dark cycle and then exposed to a continuous, or to an inverted, intermittent (on = 45 s, off = 15 s, induced current = 267 G/s) simulated multifrequency ac and dc magnetic field (MF) at 1 or 7 times the TR-07 maglev vehicle MF intensity for 2 hr. Other groups of rats were exposed to only the ac or the dc-component of the maglev MF. For comparison, one group was exposed to an inverted, intermittent 60-Hz MF. Each group was compared to an unexposed group of rats for changes in pineal melatonin and serotonin-N-acetyltransferase (NAT). MF exposures at an intensity equivalent to that produced by the TR-07 vehicle had no effect on melatonin or NAT compared with sham-exposed animals under any of the conditions examined. However, 7X TR-07-level continuous 2-h MF exposures significantly depressed pineal NAT by 45%. Pineal melatonin was also depressed 33--43% by a continuous 7X TR-07 MF exposure and 28% by an intermittent 60-Hz 850-mG MF, but the results were not statically significant. This study demonstrates that intermittent, combined ac and dc MFs similar to those produced by the TR-07 EMS maglev vehicle alter the normal circadian rhythm of pineal indoleamine metabolism. The pineal regulatory enzyme NAT was more sensitive to MF exposure than melatonin and may be a more desirable measure of the biological effects of MF exposure.

  3. A Workshop to Identify Research Needs and Impacts in Predictive Simulation for Internal Combustion Engines (PreSICE)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing ToolInternationalReportOffice | DepartmentVery1, in:QuarterlyA SolarAA View from

  4. Sandia Energy - Turbulent Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Combustion Home Transportation Energy Predictive Simulation of Engines Reacting Flow Experiments Turbulent Combustion Turbulent CombustionAshley Otero2015-10-30T01:39:47+00...

  5. COMBUSTION RESEARCH - FY-1979

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,

    2012-01-01

    Optical Measurement of Combustion Products by Zeeman Atomicand T. Hadeishi • . . • . • . • • . • Combustion Sources offrom Pulverized Coal Combustion J. Pennucci, R. Greif, F.

  6. Comment/Rebuttal Comments on "Electrorheology Leads to Efficient Combustion" by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gülder, Ömer L.

    Comment/Rebuttal Comments on "Electrorheology Leads to Efficient Combustion" by Tao et al. O¨ mer L of combustion in general and internal combustion (IC) engine combustion technology in particular. Given posit that "because combustion starts at the interface between fuel and air and most harmful emissions

  7. Sandia Energy - DISI Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DISI Combustion Home Transportation Energy Predictive Simulation of Engines Combustion Chemistry DISI Combustion DISI CombustionAshley Otero2015-10-28T02:44:30+00:00...

  8. Sandia Energy - Spray Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Spray Combustion Home Transportation Energy Predictive Simulation of Engines Engine Combustion Fuels Spray Combustion Spray CombustionAshley Otero2015-10-28T02:17:06+00:00 Fuel...

  9. Sandia Energy - Spray Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Spray Combustion Home Transportation Energy Predictive Simulation of Engines Engine Combustion Heavy Duty Spray Combustion Spray CombustionAshley Otero2015-10-28T02:00:56+00:00...

  10. Turbulent combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Talbot, L.; Cheng, R.K. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Turbulent combustion is the dominant process in heat and power generating systems. Its most significant aspect is to enhance the burning rate and volumetric power density. Turbulent mixing, however, also influences the chemical rates and has a direct effect on the formation of pollutants, flame ignition and extinction. Therefore, research and development of modern combustion systems for power generation, waste incineration and material synthesis must rely on a fundamental understanding of the physical effect of turbulence on combustion to develop theoretical models that can be used as design tools. The overall objective of this program is to investigate, primarily experimentally, the interaction and coupling between turbulence and combustion. These processes are complex and are characterized by scalar and velocity fluctuations with time and length scales spanning several orders of magnitude. They are also influenced by the so-called {open_quotes}field{close_quotes} effects associated with the characteristics of the flow and burner geometries. The authors` approach is to gain a fundamental understanding by investigating idealized laboratory flames. Laboratory flames are amenable to detailed interrogation by laser diagnostics and their flow geometries are chosen to simplify numerical modeling and simulations and to facilitate comparison between experiments and theory.

  11. Engine combustion and flow diagnostics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-31

    This informative publication discusses the application of diagnostic techniques to internal combustion engines. The papers included fall into three broad categories: flow diagnostics, combustion diagnostics, and fuel spray diagnostics. Contents include: controlling combustion in a spark ignition engine by quantitative fuel distribution; a model for converting SI engine flame arrival signals into flame contours; in-cylinder diesel flame imaging compared with numerical computations; ignition and early soot formation in a DI diesel engine using multiple 2-D imaging diagnostics; investigation of diesel sprays using diffraction-based droplet sizing; fuel distribution effects on the combustion of a direct-injection stratified-charge engine; and 2-D measurements of the liquid phase temperature in fuel sprays.

  12. Method and system for controlled combustion engines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oppenheim, A. K. (Berkeley, CA)

    1990-01-01

    A system for controlling combustion in internal combustion engines of both the Diesel or Otto type, which relies on establishing fluid dynamic conditions and structures wherein fuel and air are entrained, mixed and caused to be ignited in the interior of a multiplicity of eddies, and where these structures are caused to sequentially fill the headspace of the cylinders.

  13. Regenerative combustion device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    West, Phillip B.

    2004-03-16

    A regenerative combustion device having a combustion zone, and chemicals contained within the combustion zone, such as water, having a first equilibrium state, and a second combustible state. Means for transforming the chemicals from the first equilibrium state to the second combustible state, such as electrodes, are disposed within the chemicals. An igniter, such as a spark plug or similar device, is disposed within the combustion zone for igniting combustion of the chemicals in the second combustible state. The combustion products are contained within the combustion zone, and the chemicals are selected such that the combustion products naturally chemically revert into the chemicals in the first equilibrium state following combustion. The combustion device may thus be repeatedly reused, requiring only a brief wait after each ignition to allow the regeneration of combustible gasses within the head space.

  14. Light Duty Combustion Research: Advanced Light-Duty Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Light Duty Combustion Research: Advanced Light-Duty Combustion Experiments Light Duty Combustion Research: Advanced Light-Duty Combustion Experiments 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and...

  15. Advanced Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2013-03-11

    The activity reported in this presentation is to provide the mechanical and physical property information needed to allow rational design, development and/or choice of alloys, manufacturing approaches, and environmental exposure and component life models to enable oxy-fuel combustion boilers to operate at Ultra-Supercritical (up to 650{degrees}C & between 22-30 MPa) and/or Advanced Ultra-Supercritical conditions (760{degrees}C & 35 MPa).

  16. Vehicle Technologies Office: Materials for High-Efficiency Combustion...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    work to improve the efficiency of advanced internal combustion engines for automotive, light trucks, and heavy-truck applications by 25% to 50%. However, many of these...

  17. Engine Valve Actuation For Combustion Enhancement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reitz, Rolf Deneys (Madison, WI); Rutland, Christopher J. (Madison, WI); Jhavar, Rahul (Madison, WI)

    2004-05-18

    A combustion chamber valve, such as an intake valve or an exhaust valve, is briefly opened during the compression and/or power strokes of a 4-stroke combustion cycle in an internal combustion engine (in particular, a diesel or CI engine). The brief opening may (1) enhance mixing withing the combustion chamber, allowing more complete oxidation of particulates to decrease engine emissions; and/or may (2) delay ignition until a more desirable time, potentially allowing a means of timing ignition in otherwise difficult-to-control conditions, e.g., in HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) conditions.

  18. Engine valve actuation for combustion enhancement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reitz, Rolf Deneys (Madison, WI); Rutland, Christopher J. (Madison, WI); Jhavar, Rahul (Madison, WI)

    2008-03-04

    A combustion chamber valve, such as an intake valve or an exhaust valve, is briefly opened during the compression and/or power strokes of a 4-strokes combustion cycle in an internal combustion engine (in particular, a diesel or CI engine). The brief opening may (1) enhance mixing withing the combustion chamber, allowing more complete oxidation of particulates to decrease engine emissions; and/or may (2) delay ignition until a more desirable time, potentially allowing a means of timing ignition in otherwise difficult-to-control conditions, e.g., in HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) conditions.

  19. Catalytic Methane Reduction in the Exhaust Gas of Combustion Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    Catalytic Methane Reduction in the Exhaust Gas of Combustion Engines Peter Mauermann1,* , Michael Dornseiffer6 , Frank Amkreutz6 1 Institute for Combustion Engines , RWTH Aachen University, Schinkelstr. 8, D of the hydrocarbon exhaust of internal combustion engines. In contrast to other gaseous hydrocarbons, significant

  20. Simulation of lean premixed turbulent combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    turbulent methane combustion. Proc. Combust. Inst. , 29:in premixed turbulent combustion. Proc. Combust. Inst. ,for zero Mach number combustion. Combust. Sci. Technol. ,

  1. Pulse enhanced fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, B.; Golan, L. [South Carolina Energy Research and Development Center, Clemson, SC (United States); Toma, M.; Mansour, M. [Manufacturing and Technology Conversion International, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Various technologies are available for the combustion of high-sulfur, high-ash fuels, particularly coal. From performance, economic and environmental standpoints, fluidized bed combustion (FBC) is the leading candidate for utilization of high sulfur coals. ThermoChem, Inc., and the South Carolina Energy Research and Development Center (SCERDC) are installing a hybrid fluidized bed combustion system at Clemson University. This hybrid system, known as the Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor (PAFBC), will augment the University`s steam system by providing 50--60,000 lbs/hr of saturated process steam. The PAFBC, developed by Manufacturing and Technology Conversion International, Inc., (MTCI), integrates a pulse combustor with a bubbling-bed-type atmospheric fluidized bed coal combustor. The pulse combustion system imparts an acoustic effect that enhances combustion efficiency, SO{sub 2} capture, low NO{sub x} emissions, and heat transfer efficiency in the fluidized bed. These benefits of pulse combustion result in modestly sized PAFBC units with high throughput rates and lower costs when compared to conventional fluidized bed units.

  2. Combustion & Health 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, W.

    2012-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-KT-12-10-18.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 4107 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-KT-12-10-18.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 FFCOMBUSTION & HEALTH... Winifred J. Hamilton, PhD, SM Clear Air Through Energy Efficiency (CATEE) Galveston, TX October 9?11, 2012 FFCOMBUSTION & HEALTH FFCOMBUSTION: THE THREAT ? Biggest threat to world ecosystems (and to human health) ? Combustion of fossil fuels...

  3. Sandia Energy - Combustion Kinetics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Kinetics Home Transportation Energy Predictive Simulation of Engines Combustion Chemistry Combustion Kinetics Combustion KineticsAshley Otero2015-10-28T02:45:13+00:00 The...

  4. Sandia Energy - DISI Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Home Transportation Energy Predictive Simulation of Engines Engine Combustion Automotive DISI Combustion DISI CombustionAshley Otero2015-10-28T02:06:42+00:00 DISI engine in...

  5. Observing and modeling nonlinear dynamics in an internal combustion engine Engineering Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-8088

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tennessee, University of

    of combustion irregularities. Economic and regulatory pressures are pushing engine manufacturers to operate with lean fueling and exhaust-gas recirculation EGR to increase fuel economy and minimize NOx emissions. CV increases with lean fueling and EGR and actually limits the potential benefits which can be derived from

  6. Combustion and Flame 143 (2005) 613628 www.elsevier.com/locate/combustflame

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, Marshall B.

    2005-01-01

    combustion devices include gas turbines, furnaces, and internal combustion engines. While pre- mixedCombustion and Flame 143 (2005) 613­628 www.elsevier.com/locate/combustflame Soot formation volume fractions, as the fuel fraction increases. 2005 The Combustion Institute. Published by Elsevier

  7. Partially Premixed Combustion | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Partially Premixed Combustion Partially Premixed Combustion Published materials on partial premixed combustion (PPC) combined with Volvo's own combustion research provides...

  8. Combustion chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, N.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This research is concerned with the development and use of sensitivity analysis tools to probe the response of dependent variables to model input variables. Sensitivity analysis is important at all levels of combustion modeling. This group`s research continues to be focused on elucidating the interrelationship between features in the underlying potential energy surface (obtained from ab initio quantum chemistry calculations) and their responses in the quantum dynamics, e.g., reactive transition probabilities, cross sections, and thermal rate coefficients. The goals of this research are: (i) to provide feedback information to quantum chemists in their potential surface refinement efforts, and (ii) to gain a better understanding of how various regions in the potential influence the dynamics. These investigations are carried out with the methodology of quantum functional sensitivity analysis (QFSA).

  9. Combustion Control 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riccardi, R. C.

    1984-01-01

    American industry is responding to the challenges of high fuel prices, intense international competition, and a renewed emphasis on quality. To meet these demands, industry has looked at many opportunities--some have been cost effective, some...

  10. E-Alerts: Combustion, engines, and propellants (reciprocation and rotating combustion engines). E-mail newsletter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-04-01

    Design, performance, and testing of reciprocating and rotating engines of various configurations for all types of propulsion. Includes internal and external combustion engines; engine exhaust systems; engine air systems components; engine structures; stirling and diesel engines.

  11. Chaotic Combustion in Spark Ignition Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Wendeker; J. Czarnigowski; G. Litak; K. Szabelski

    2002-12-27

    We analyse the combustion process in a spark ignition engine using the experimental data of an internal pressure during the combustion process and show that the system can be driven to chaotic behaviour. Our conclusion is based on the observation of unperiodicity in the time series, suitable stroboscopic maps and a complex structure of a reconstructed strange attractor. This analysis can explain that in some circumstances the level of noise in spark ignition engines increases considerably due to nonlinear dynamics of a combustion process.

  12. COAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, J.

    2013-01-01

    90e COAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION J. Wrathall, T.of coal during combustion. The process involves the additionCOAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION Lawrence Berkeley

  13. Transport Properties for Combustion Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, N.J.

    2010-01-01

    a critical role in combustion processes just as chemicalparameters are essential for combustion modeling; molecularwith Application to Combustion. Transport Theor Stat 2003;

  14. Effect of market fuel variation and cetane improvers on CAI combustion in a GDI engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cedrone, Kevin David

    2010-01-01

    There is continued interest in improving the fuel conversion efficiency of internal combustion engines and simultaneously reducing their emissions. One promising technology is that of Controlled Auto Ignition (CAI) combustion. ...

  15. Combustion 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Levasseur; S. Goodstine; J. Ruby; M. Nawaz; C. Senior; F. Robson; S. Lehman; W. Blecher; W. Fugard; A. Rao; A. Sarofim; P. Smith; D. Pershing; E. Eddings; M. Cremer; J. Hurley; G. Weber; M. Jones; M. Collings; D. Hajicek; A. Henderson; P. Klevan; D. Seery; B. Knight; R. Lessard; J. Sangiovanni; A. Dennis; C. Bird; W. Sutton; N. Bornstein; F. Cogswell; C. Randino; S. Gale; Mike Heap

    2001-06-30

    This report is a presentation of work carried out on Phase II of the HIPPS program under DOE contract DE-AC22-95PC95144 from June 1995 to March 2001. The objective of this report is to emphasize the results and achievements of the program and not to archive every detail of the past six years of effort. These details are already available in the twenty-two quarterly reports previously submitted to DOE and in the final report from Phase I. The report is divided into three major foci, indicative of the three operational groupings of the program as it evolved, was restructured, or overtaken by events. In each of these areas, the results exceeded DOE goals and expectations. HIPPS Systems and Cycles (including thermodynamic cycles, power cycle alternatives, baseline plant costs and new opportunities) HITAF Components and Designs (including design of heat exchangers, materials, ash management and combustor design) Testing Program for Radiative and Convective Air Heaters (including the design and construction of the test furnace and the results of the tests) There are several topics that were part of the original program but whose importance was diminished when the contract was significantly modified. The elimination of the subsystem testing and the Phase III demonstration lessened the relevance of subtasks related to these efforts. For example, the cross flow mixing study, the CFD modeling of the convective air heater and the power island analysis are important to a commercial plant design but not to the R&D product contained in this report. These topics are of course, discussed in the quarterly reports under this contract. The DOE goal for the High Performance Power Plant System ( HIPPS ) is high thermodynamic efficiency and significantly reduced emissions. Specifically, the goal is a 300 MWe plant with > 47% (HHV) overall efficiency and {le} 0.1 NSPS emissions. This plant must fire at least 65% coal with the balance being made up by a premium fuel such as natural gas. To achieve these objectives requires a change from complete reliance of coal-fired systems on steam turbines (Rankine cycles) and moving forward to a combined cycle utilizing gas turbines (Brayton cycles) which offer the possibility of significantly greater efficiency. This is because gas turbine cycles operate at temperatures well beyond current steam cycles, allowing the working fluid (air) temperature to more closely approach that of the major energy source, the combustion of coal. In fact, a good figure of merit for a HIPPS design is just how much of the enthalpy from coal combustion is used by the gas turbine. The efficiency of a power cycle varies directly with the temperature of the working fluid and for contemporary gas turbines the optimal turbine inlet temperature is in the range of 2300-2500 F (1260-1371 C). These temperatures are beyond the working range of currently available alloys and are also in the range of the ash fusion temperature of most coals. These two sets of physical properties combine to produce the major engineering challenges for a HIPPS design. The UTRC team developed a design hierarchy to impose more rigor in our approach. Once the size of the plant had been determined by the choice of gas turbine and the matching steam turbine, the design process of the High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF) moved ineluctably to a down-fired, slagging configuration. This design was based on two air heaters: one a high temperature slagging Radiative Air Heater (RAH) and a lower temperature, dry ash Convective Air Heater (CAH). The specific details of the air heaters are arrived at by an iterative sequence in the following order:-Starting from the overall Cycle requirements which set the limits for the combustion and heat transfer analysis-The available enthalpy determined the range of materials, ceramics or alloys, which could tolerate the temperatures-Structural Analysis of the designs proved to be the major limitation-Finally the commercialization issues of fabrication and reliability, availability and maintenance. The program that has s

  16. Solution Combustion Synthesis Impregnated Layer Combustion Synthesis is a Novel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukasyan, Alexander

    Solution Combustion Synthesis Impregnated Layer Combustion Synthesis is a Novel Methodology Engineering University of Notre Dame University of Notre Dame #12;Outline: Overview of combustion synthesis Reaction system Combustion front analaysis Theoretical model results Conclusions Acknowledgements #12

  17. Multi-stage combustion using nitrogen-enriched air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, Larry E.; Anderson, Brian L.

    2004-09-14

    Multi-stage combustion technology combined with nitrogen-enriched air technology for controlling the combustion temperature and products to extend the maintenance and lifetime cycles of materials in contact with combustion products and to reduce pollutants while maintaining relatively high combustion and thermal cycle efficiencies. The first stage of combustion operates fuel rich where most of the heat of combustion is released by burning it with nitrogen-enriched air. Part of the energy in the combustion gases is used to perform work or to provide heat. The cooled combustion gases are reheated by additional stages of combustion until the last stage is at or near stoichiometric conditions. Additional energy is extracted from each stage to result in relatively high thermal cycle efficiency. The air is enriched with nitrogen using air separation technologies such as diffusion, permeable membrane, absorption, and cryogenics. The combustion method is applicable to many types of combustion equipment, including: boilers, burners, turbines, internal combustion engines, and many types of fuel including hydrogen and carbon-based fuels including methane and coal.

  18. COMBUSTION RESEARCH - FY-1979

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,

    2012-01-01

    relative to combustion in the single-pulse engine. FOOTNOTEto engine combustion have been conducted in a single- pulsecombustion in engines conducted in our laboratory by the use of the single pulse

  19. COMBUSTION RESEARCH - FY-1979

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,

    2012-01-01

    boundary layer for propane/air combustion on a platinumDuring FY 1979 the combustion of lean propane/ air mixturescombustion characteristics of a two-dimensional flow of premixed propane/

  20. Vehicle Technologies Office: 2014 Advanced Combustion Engine Annual Progress Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This report describes the progress made in the research and development projects supported by the Advanced Combustion Engine subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office in 2014. Research focuses on addressing critical barriers to commercializing higher efficiency, very low emissions advanced internal combustion engines for passenger and commercial vehicles.

  1. Advanced Combustion and Emission Control Technical Team Roadmap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-06-01

    The Advanced Combustion and Emission Control (ACEC) Technical Team is focused on removing technical barriers to the commercialization of advanced, high-efficiency, emission-compliant internal combustion (IC) engines for light-duty vehicle powertrains (i.e., passenger car, minivan, SUV, and pickup trucks).

  2. Advanced Combustion Engine R&D: Goals, Strategies, and Top Accomplishm...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Although internal combustion engines have been used for more than a century, significant improvements in energy efficiency and emissions reduction are still possible. In fact,...

  3. FY2012 Annual Progress Report for Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2013-02-01

    Annual report on the work of the the Advanced Combustion Engine R&D subprogram. The Advanced Combustion Engine R&D subprogram supports the Vehicle Technologies Office mission by removing the critical technical barriers to commercialization of advanced internal combustion engines (ICEs) for passenger and commercial vehicles that meet future federal emissions regulations.

  4. Supersonic combustion engine and method of combustion initiation and distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stickler, D.B.; Ballantyne, A.; Kyuman Jeong.

    1993-06-29

    A supersonic combustion ramjet engine having a combustor with a combustion zone intended to channel gas flow at relatively high speed therethrough, the engine comprising: means for substantially continuously supplying fuel into the combustion zone; and means for substantially instantaneously igniting a volume of fuel in the combustion zone for providing a spatially controlled combustion distribution, the igniting means having means for providing a diffuse discharge of energy into the volume, the volume extending across a substantially complete cross-sectional area of the combustion zone, the means for discharging energy being capable of generating free radicals within the volume of reactive fuel in the combustion zone such that fuel in the volume can initiate a controlled relatively rapid combustion of fuel in the combustion zone whereby combustion distribution in relatively high speed gas flows through the combustion zone can be initiated and controlled without dependence upon a flame holder or relatively high local static temperature in the combustion zone.

  5. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    Ashlines: To promote and support the commercially viable and environmentally sound recycling of coal combustion byproducts for productive uses through scientific research, development, and field testing.

  6. Low NOx combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kobayashi; Hisashi (Putnam Valley, NY), Bool, III; Lawrence E. (Aurora, NY)

    2007-06-05

    Combustion of hydrocarbon liquids and solids is achieved with less formation of NOx by feeding a small amount of oxygen into the fuel stream.

  7. Light Duty Efficient, Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald Stanton

    2010-12-31

    Cummins has successfully completed the Light Duty Efficient Clean Combustion (LDECC) cooperative program with DoE. This program was established in 2007 in support of the Department of Energy's Vehicles Technologies Advanced Combustion and Emissions Control initiative to remove critical barriers to the commercialization of advanced, high efficiency, emissions compliant internal combustion (IC) engines for light duty vehicles. Work in this area expanded the fundamental knowledge of engine combustion to new regimes and advanced the knowledge of fuel requirements for these diesel engines to realize their full potential. All of the following objectives were met with fuel efficiency improvement targets exceeded: (1) Improve light duty vehicle (5000 lb. test weight) fuel efficiency by 10.5% over today's state-of-the-art diesel engine on the FTP city drive cycle; (2) Develop and design an advanced combustion system plus aftertreatment system that synergistically meets Tier 2 Bin 5 NOx and PM emissions standards while demonstrating the efficiency improvements; (3) Maintain power density comparable to that of current conventional engines for the applicable vehicle class; and (4) Evaluate different fuel components and ensure combustion system compatibility with commercially available biofuels. Key accomplishments include: (1) A 25% improvement in fuel efficiency was achieved with the advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system compared to the 10.5% target; (2) An 11% improvement in fuel efficiency was achieved with the advanced LDECC engine and no NOx aftertreamtent system; (3) Tier 2 Bin 5 and SFTP II emissions regulations were met with the advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system; (4) Tier 2 Bin 5 emissions regulations were met with the advanced LDECC engine and no NOx aftertreatment, but SFTP II emissions regulations were not met for the US06 test cycle - Additional technical barriers exist for the no NOx aftertreatment engine; (5) Emissions and efficiency targets were reached with the use of biodiesel. A variety of biofuel feedstocks (soy, rapeseed, etc.) was investigated; (6) The advanced LDECC engine with low temperature combustion was compatible with commercially available biofuels as evaluated by engine performance testing and not durability testing; (7) The advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system is the engine system architecture that is being further developed by the Cummins product development organization. Cost reduction and system robustness activities have been identified for future deployment; (8) The new engine and aftertreatment component technologies are being developed by the Cummins Component Business units (e.g. fuel system, turbomachinery, aftertreatment, electronics, etc.) to ensure commercial viability and deployment; (9) Cummins has demonstrated that the technologies developed for this program are scalable across the complete light duty engine product offerings (2.8L to 6.7L engines); and (10) Key subsystems developed include - sequential two stage turbo, combustions system for low temperature combustion, novel SCR aftertreatment system with feedback control, and high pressure common rail fuel system. An important element of the success of this project was leveraging Cummins engine component technologies. Innovation in component technology coupled with system integration is enabling Cummins to move forward with the development of high efficiency clean diesel products with a long term goal of reaching a 40% improvement in thermal efficiency for the engine plus aftertreatment system. The 40% improvement is in-line with the current light duty vehicle efficiency targets set by the 2010 DoE Vehicle Technologies MYPP and supported through co-operative projects such as the Cummins Advanced Technology Powertrains for Light-Duty Vehicles (ATP-LD) started in 2010.

  8. Light Duty Efficient, Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stanton, Donald W

    2011-06-03

    Cummins has successfully completed the Light Duty Efficient Clean Combustion (LDECC) cooperative program with DoE. This program was established in 2007 in support of the Department of Energy’s Vehicles Technologies Advanced Combustion and Emissions Control initiative to remove critical barriers to the commercialization of advanced, high efficiency, emissions compliant internal combustion (IC) engines for light duty vehicles. Work in this area expanded the fundamental knowledge of engine combustion to new regimes and advanced the knowledge of fuel requirements for these diesel engines to realize their full potential. All of the following objectives were met with fuel efficiency improvement targets exceeded: 1. Improve light duty vehicle (5000 lb. test weight) fuel efficiency by 10.5% over today’s state-ofthe- art diesel engine on the FTP city drive cycle 2. Develop & design an advanced combustion system plus aftertreatment system that synergistically meets Tier 2 Bin 5 NOx and PM emissions standards while demonstrating the efficiency improvements. 3. Maintain power density comparable to that of current conventional engines for the applicable vehicle class. 4. Evaluate different fuel components and ensure combustion system compatibility with commercially available biofuels. Key accomplishments include: ? A 25% improvement in fuel efficiency was achieved with the advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system compared to the 10.5% target ? An 11% improvement in fuel efficiency was achieved with the advanced LDECC engine and no NOx aftertreamtent system ? Tier 2 Bin 5 and SFTP II emissions regulations were met with the advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system ? Tier 2 Bin 5 emissions regulations were met with the advanced LDECC engine and no NOx aftertreatment, but SFTP II emissions regulations were not met for the US06 test cycle – Additional technical barriers exist for the no NOx aftertreatment engine ? Emissions and efficiency targets were reached with the use of biodiesel. A variety of biofuel feedstocks (soy, rapeseed, etc.) was investigated. ? The advanced LDECC engine with low temperature combustion was compatible with commercially available biofuels as evaluated by engine performance testing and not durability testing. ? The advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system is the engine system architecture that is being further developed by the Cummins product development organization. Cost reduction and system robustness activities have been identified for future deployment. ? The new engine and aftertreatment component technologies are being developed by the Cummins Component Business units (e.g. fuel system, turbomachinery, aftertreatment, electronics, etc.) to ensure commercial viability and deployment ? Cummins has demonstrated that the technologies developed for this program are scalable across the complete light duty engine product offerings (2.8L to 6.7L engines) ? Key subsystems developed include – sequential two stage turbo, combustions system for low temperature combustion, novel SCR aftertreatment system with feedback control, and high pressure common rail fuel system An important element of the success of this project was leveraging Cummins engine component technologies. Innovation in component technology coupled with system integration is enabling Cummins to move forward with the development of high efficiency clean diesel products with a long term goal of reaching a 40% improvement in thermal efficiency for the engine plus aftertreatment system. The 40% improvement is in-line with the current light duty vehicle efficiency targets set by the 2010 DoE Vehicle Technologies MYPP and supported through co-operative projects such as the Cummins Advanced Technology Powertrains for Light- Duty Vehicles (ATP-LD) started in 2010.

  9. Combustion Analysis Software Package for Internal Combustion Engines -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D BGene NetworkNuclearDNP

  10. COMBUSTION SOURCES OF NITROGEN COMPOUNDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Nancy J.

    2011-01-01

    Rasmussen, R.A. (1976). Combustion as a source of nitrousx control for stationary combustion sources. Prog. Energy,CA, March 3-4, 1977 COMBUSTION SOURCES OF NITROGEN COMPOUNDS

  11. Fifteenth combustion research conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1993-06-01

    The BES research efforts cover chemical reaction theory, experimental dynamics and spectroscopy, thermodynamics of combustion intermediates, chemical kinetics, reaction mechanisms, combustion diagnostics, and fluid dynamics and chemically reacting flows. 98 papers and abstracts are included. Separate abstracts were prepared for the papers.

  12. Past experiences with automotive external combustion engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amann, C.A.

    1999-07-01

    GMR (General Motors Research Laboratories, now GM R and D Center) has a history of improving the internal combustion engine, especially as it relates to automotive use. During the quarter century from 1950--75, considerable effort was devoted to evaluating alternative powerplants based on thermodynamic cycles different from those on which the established spark-ignition and diesel engines are founded. Two of these, the steam engine and the Stirling engine, incorporated external combustion. Research on those two alternatives is reviewed. Both were judged to fall short of current needs for commercial success as prime movers for conventional automotive vehicles.

  13. Optimized Algorithms Boost Combustion Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimized Algorithms Boost Combustion Research Optimized Algorithms Boost Combustion Research Methane Flame Simulations Run 6x Faster on NERSC's Hopper Supercomputer November 25,...

  14. ALS Evidence Confirms Combustion Theory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Evidence Confirms Combustion Theory ALS Evidence Confirms Combustion Theory Print Wednesday, 22 October 2014 11:43 Researchers recently uncovered the first step in the process that...

  15. Fuels and Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion Engines Fuels and Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion Engines 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

  16. Combustion and Magnetohydrodynamic Processes in Advanced Pulse Detonation Rocket Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cole, Lord Kahil

    2012-01-01

    CombustionEquations . . . . . . . . . . Combustion and Ionizationpulsating detonations. Combustion Theory and Modeling, 9:

  17. Theoretical studies on hydrogen ignition and droplet combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Del Álamo, Gonzalo

    2006-01-01

    1.2 Droplet Combustion . . . . . . . . . . . . .Combustion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Lewis, B. and von Elbe, G. Combustion, Flames and Explosions

  18. Stratified cross combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhoads, J.L.

    1981-06-23

    A piston engine is provided in which adjacent cylinder pairs share a common combustion chamber and the pistons are mounted to reciprocate substantially in phase, one of the pistons in each piston pair receiving a rich mixture which is ignited by a sparkplug in that cylinder, with the other cylinder in the cylinder pair being passive in its preferred form, and receiving through a separate intake valve either pure air or a leaner mixture into which the combusted richer mixture pours, insuring that the greatest combustion possible resulting in the greatest percentage of carbon dioxide formation as opposed to carbon monoxide is created.

  19. Dry low combustion system with means for eliminating combustion noise

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verdouw, Albert J.; Smith, Duane; McCormick, Keith; Razdan, Mohan K.

    2004-02-17

    A combustion system including a plurality of axially staged tubular premixers to control emissions and minimize combustion noise. The combustion system includes a radial inflow premixer that delivers the combustion mixture across a contoured dome into the combustion chamber. The axially staged premixers having a twist mixing apparatus to rotate the fluid flow and cause improved mixing without causing flow recirculation that could lead to pre-ignition or flashback.

  20. Reaction and diffusion in turbulent combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pope, S.B. [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The motivation for this project is the need to obtain a better quantitative understanding of the technologically-important phenomenon of turbulent combustion. In nearly all applications in which fuel is burned-for example, fossil-fuel power plants, furnaces, gas-turbines and internal-combustion engines-the combustion takes place in a turbulent flow. Designers continually demand more quantitative information about this phenomenon-in the form of turbulent combustion models-so that they can design equipment with increased efficiency and decreased environmental impact. For some time the PI has been developing a class of turbulent combustion models known as PDF methods. These methods have the important virtue that both convection and reaction can be treated without turbulence-modelling assumptions. However, a mixing model is required to account for the effects of molecular diffusion. Currently, the available mixing models are known to have some significant defects. The major motivation of the project is to seek a better understanding of molecular diffusion in turbulent reactive flows, and hence to develop a better mixing model.

  1. Sandia Combustion Research: Technical review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-07-01

    This report contains reports from research programs conducted at the Sandia Combustion Research Facility. Research is presented under the following topics: laser based diagnostics; combustion chemistry; reacting flow; combustion in engines and commercial burners; coal combustion; and industrial processing. Individual projects were processed separately for entry onto the DOE databases.

  2. Four Lectures on Turbulent Combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Norbert

    Four Lectures on Turbulent Combustion N. Peters Institut f¨ur Technische Mechanik RWTH Aachen Turbulent Combustion: Introduction and Overview 1 1.1 Moment Methods in Modeling Turbulence with Combustion and Velocity Scales . . . . . . . . . . . 11 1.4 Regimes in Premixed Turbulent Combustion

  3. Sandia Energy - Sandia Expands an International Collaboration...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia Expands an International Collaboration and Web Database on Engine Fuel Spray Combustion Research Home Energy Transportation Energy CRF Facilities Partnership News Energy...

  4. A combustion model for IC engine combustion simulations with multi-component fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ra, Youngchul; Reitz, Rolf D.

    2011-01-15

    Reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms for the oxidation of representative surrogate components of a typical multi-component automotive fuel have been developed and applied to model internal combustion engines. Starting from an existing reduced mechanism for primary reference fuel (PRF) oxidation, further improvement was made by including additional reactions and by optimizing reaction rate constants of selected reactions. Using a similar approach to that used to develop the reduced PRF mechanism, reduced mechanisms for the oxidation of n-tetradecane, toluene, cyclohexane, dimethyl ether (DME), ethanol, and methyl butanoate (MB) were built and combined with the PRF mechanism to form a multi-surrogate fuel chemistry (MultiChem) mechanism. The final version of the MultiChem mechanism consists of 113 species and 487 reactions. Validation of the present MultiChem mechanism was performed with ignition delay time measurements from shock tube tests and predictions by comprehensive mechanisms available in the literature. A combustion model was developed to simulate engine combustion with multi-component fuels using the present MultiChem mechanism, and the model was applied to simulate HCCI and DI engine combustion. The results show that the present multi-component combustion model gives reliable performance for combustion predictions, as well as computational efficiency improvements through the use of reduced mechanism for multi-dimensional CFD simulations. (author)

  5. Advanced Combustion FAQs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The advantage of these advanced combustion systems is that the high concentration of CO2 in the flue gas reduces the cost and improves the performance of the CO2 capture...

  6. Combustion Air Control 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughart, C. L.

    1979-01-01

    to 100%. If the air and fuel controls are on automatic but the flue gas oxygen content cannot be lowered to 4% oxygen without the boiler smoking, burner problems may be suspected. The trouble may be traced to dirty or improperly assembled oil guns..., combustion air distribution problems, vaporizing steam control problems, oil viscosity, or flow control problems. It is very important to have all oil guns operating properly before proceeding with a combustion test. The minimum stack gas oxygen level you...

  7. Distributed ignition method and apparatus for a combustion engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Willi, Martin L.; Bailey, Brett M.; Fiveland, Scott B.; Gong, Weidong

    2006-03-07

    A method and apparatus for operating an internal combustion engine is provided. The method comprises the steps of introducing a primary fuel into a main combustion chamber of the engine, introducing a pilot fuel into the main combustion chamber of the engine, determining an operating load of the engine, determining a desired spark plug ignition timing based on the engine operating load, and igniting the primary fuel and pilot fuel with a spark plug at the desired spark plug ignition timing. The method is characterized in that the octane number of the pilot fuel is lower than the octane number of the primary fuel.

  8. Pulsed jet combustion generator for premixed charge engines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oppenheim, A. K. (Berkeley, CA); Stewart, H. E. (Alameda, CA); Hom, K. (Hercules, CA)

    1990-01-01

    A method and device for generating pulsed jets which will form plumes comprising eddie structures, which will entrain a fuel/air mixture from the head space of an internal combustion engine, and mixing this fuel/air mixture with a pre-ignited fuel/air mixture of the plumes thereby causing combustion of the reactants to occur within the interior of the eddie structures.

  9. Sandia Energy - Pressurized Combustion and Gasification

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    oxy-fuel combustion. However, properly designing new pressurized combustion burners and boilers requires accurate data on coal devolatilization and combustion rates...

  10. Development of Advanced Combustion Technologies for Increased...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Investigation of fuel effects on low-temperature combustion, particularly HCCI PCCI combustion deer09gehrke.pdf More Documents & Publications The Role of Advanced Combustion in...

  11. Engine Combustion Network (ECN): Global sensitivity analysis...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Engine Combustion Network (ECN): Global sensitivity analysis of Spray A for different combustion vessels Title Engine Combustion Network (ECN): Global sensitivity analysis of Spray...

  12. Vehicle Technologies Office: 2014 Advanced Combustion Engine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2014 Advanced Combustion Engine Annual Progress Report Vehicle Technologies Office: 2014 Advanced Combustion Engine Annual Progress Report The Advanced Combustion Engine research...

  13. Constant Volume During Combustion | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Constant Volume During Combustion Constant Volume During Combustion This presentation covers constant volume during combustion and discusses how it can alter the kinematics of...

  14. Vehicle Technologies Office: 2014 Advanced Combustion Engine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Combustion Engine Annual Progress Report Vehicle Technologies Office: 2014 Advanced Combustion Engine Annual Progress Report The Advanced Combustion Engine research and...

  15. COMBUSTION-GENERATED INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollowell, C.D.

    2011-01-01

    Ext. 6782 Combustion -Generated Indoor Air Pollution Craigcontrol of air pollution from indoor combustion sources. Ifocused on combustion-generated indoor air pollution, namely

  16. Coal Combustion Products | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Coal Combustion Products Coal Combustion Products Coal combustion products (CCPs) are solid materials produced when coal is burned to generate electricity. Since coal provides the...

  17. Two-stage Ignition as an Indicator of Low Temperature Combustion in a Late Injection Pre-mixed Compression Ignition Control Strategy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bittle, Joshua

    2011-02-22

    Internal combustion engines have dealt with increasingly restricted emissions requirements. After-treatment devices are successful in bringing emissions into compliance, but in-cylinder combustion control can reduce their burden by reducing engine...

  18. Combustion chamber noise suppressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Livingston, A.M.

    1986-08-19

    A combustion chamber is described for a hot fog generating machine comprising a hollow cylindrical combustion chamber shell having a closure plate at one end and outlet means at the opposite end for directing hot combustion gasses to a fogging nozzle, air inlet means disposed adjacent the outlet means, fuel inlet means and ignition means mounted in the closure plate and liner means disposed concentrically within the cylindrical combustion chamber for controlling the flow of air and combustion gasses within the shell. The liner means includes a liner base having a frustroconical configuration with the smaller diameter end thereof disposed in communication with the outlet means and with the larger diameter end thereof disposed in spaced relation to the shell, circumferentially spaced, longitudinally extending fins extending outwardly from the liner base intermediate the liner base and the shell, a cylindrical liner midsection having circumferentially spaced fins extending outwardly therefrom between the midsection and the shell with the fins supporting the midsection on the larger diameter end of the liner base.

  19. Nanoparticle Emissions from Internal Combustion Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    to 30 fold! HOWEVER, 1979 roadway measurments made on behind a truck powered by an engine of the same Mainly Light-Duty Spark Ignition Mainly Heavy-Duty Diesel Nanoparticles in the atmosphere appear

  20. Pneumatic starter for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristof, J.J.; Elwer, M.

    1989-07-11

    A starter arrangement for an engine is described which consists of: a fluid actuated rotary vane motor which is adapted to engage an associated engine, the rotary motor having a hub and at least one blade which is slidably mounted in the hub and is made from a fiber reinforced plastic material to reduce friction, and wherein at least one blade has a wear surface made of the same material; a housing including a sleeve in which the rotary motor is positioned, the sleeve having on its inner surface a hard metallic coating to reduce friction, wherein the sleeve inner surface coating comprises a chromium electrocuting having a hardness which measures at least 70 on the Rockwell C hardness scale and a microfinish of less than 10 micro-inches R.M.S.; and, a relay valve means for selectively providing a pressurized operating fluid to the rotary motor, wherein the blade material and the sleeve inner surface coating cooperate to enable the motor to rotate in the sleeve with a minimum of friction thereby obviating the need for a lubricating system for the starter arrangement.

  1. Pneumatic starter for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristoff, J.J.; Elwer, M.

    1992-05-12

    This patent describes a starter arrangement for an engine. It comprises a fluid actuated rotary vane motor which is adapted to engage an associated engine, the rotary motor having a hub and at least one blade which is slidably mounted in the hub and is made from a fiber reinforced plastic material to reduce friction, and wherein the at least one blade has a wear surface made of the same material; a housing including a sleeve in which the rotary motor is positioned, (a relay valve means for selectively providing a pressurized operating fluid to the rotary motor,) wherein the blade material and the sleeve inner surface coating cooperate to enable the motor to rotate in the sleeve with a minimum of friction thereby obviating the need for a lubricating system for the starter arrangement.

  2. Internal Combustion Efficiency | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation CurrentHenryInhibitingInteractive Jobs Interactive JobsInterlibrary

  3. Combustible structural composites and methods of forming combustible structural composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daniels, Michael A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Heaps, Ronald J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Steffler, Eric D (Idaho Falls, ID); Swank, William D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-08-30

    Combustible structural composites and methods of forming same are disclosed. In an embodiment, a combustible structural composite includes combustible material comprising a fuel metal and a metal oxide. The fuel metal is present in the combustible material at a weight ratio from 1:9 to 1:1 of the fuel metal to the metal oxide. The fuel metal and the metal oxide are capable of exothermically reacting upon application of energy at or above a threshold value to support self-sustaining combustion of the combustible material within the combustible structural composite. Structural-reinforcing fibers are present in the composite at a weight ratio from 1:20 to 10:1 of the structural-reinforcing fibers to the combustible material. Other embodiments and aspects are disclosed.

  4. Combustible structural composites and methods of forming combustible structural composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daniels, Michael A.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Steffler, Eric D.; Swank, W. David

    2013-04-02

    Combustible structural composites and methods of forming same are disclosed. In an embodiment, a combustible structural composite includes combustible material comprising a fuel metal and a metal oxide. The fuel metal is present in the combustible material at a weight ratio from 1:9 to 1:1 of the fuel metal to the metal oxide. The fuel metal and the metal oxide are capable of exothermically reacting upon application of energy at or above a threshold value to support self-sustaining combustion of the combustible material within the combustible structural composite. Structural-reinforcing fibers are present in the composite at a weight ratio from 1:20 to 10:1 of the structural-reinforcing fibers to the combustible material. Other embodiments and aspects are disclosed.

  5. DNS of inhomogeneous reactants premixed combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Kian Min

    2015-02-03

    of the combustion. This ushers in a new mode of combustion, called the inhomogeneous reactants premixed combustion. The present study investigates the effects of inhomogeneous reactants on premixed combustion, specifically on the interactions of an initially...

  6. Studies in combustion dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koszykowski, M.L. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this program is to develop a fundamental understanding and a quantitative predictive capability in combustion modeling. A large part of the understanding of the chemistry of combustion processes comes from {open_quotes}chemical kinetic modeling.{close_quotes} However, successful modeling is not an isolated activity. It necessarily involves the integration of methods and results from several diverse disciplines and activities including theoretical chemistry, elementary reaction kinetics, fluid mechanics and computational science. Recently the authors have developed and utilized new tools for parallel processing to implement the first numerical model of a turbulent diffusion flame including a {open_quotes}full{close_quotes} chemical mechanism.

  7. Thermal ignition combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kamo, Roy (Columbus, IN); Kakwani, Ramesh M. (Columbus, IN); Valdmanis, Edgars (Columbus, IN); Woods, Melvins E. (Columbus, IN)

    1988-01-01

    The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m.degree. C. and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg.degree. C. with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber.

  8. Thermal ignition combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kamo, R.; Kakwani, R.M.; Valdmanis, E.; Woods, M.E.

    1988-04-19

    The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m C and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg C with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber. 8 figs.

  9. Pulse enhanced fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, B.

    1996-12-31

    Information is outlined on pulse enhanced fluidized bed combustion. The following topics are discussed: what is pulse enhanced fluidized bed combustion?; pulse combustors; pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustor (PAFBC); advantages of PAFBC; performance advantages; PAFBC facts; and PAFBC contact points.

  10. Enhancing Transportation Energy Security through Advanced Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transportation Energy Security through Advanced Combustion and Fuels Technologies Enhancing Transportation Energy Security through Advanced Combustion and Fuels Technologies 2005...

  11. Proceedings of the Combustion Institute. Volume 30

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2005-01-15

    Papers discussed combustion theory and modelling, turbulent combustion, laser diagnostics and control, chemical kinetics, computational combustion, flames, detonations, droplet combustion, catalysis/materials synthesis, pulse detonations engines, diagnosis, engine combustion, heterogeneous combustion, pollutants (PAH and soot), kinetics, flame diagnosis, propulsion, laminar diffusion flames, lifted turbulent flames, nanoparticles, premixed turbulent flames, solid oxide fuel cells, laminar flames, stationary power systems, and plasma supported flames.

  12. Packed Bed Combustion: An Overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hallett, William L.H.

    Packed Bed Combustion: An Overview William Hallett Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Université d'Ottawa - University of Ottawa #12;Packed Bed Combustion - University of Ottawa - CICS 2005 Introduction air fuel feedproducts xbed grate Packed Bed Combustion: fairly large particles of solid fuel on a grate, air supplied

  13. Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robben, F.A.

    1984-10-19

    A method and device are claimed for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reduced pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robben, Franklin A. (Berkeley, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A method and device for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reduced pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal.

  15. Renewable Energy Laboratory Development for Biofuels Advanced Combustion Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soloiu, Valentin

    2012-03-31

    The research advanced fundamental science and applied engineering for increasing the efficiency of internal combustion engines and meeting emissions regulations with biofuels. The project developed a laboratory with new experiments and allowed investigation of new fuels and their combustion and emissions. This project supports a sustainable domestic biofuels and automotive industry creating economic opportunities across the nation, reducing the dependence on foreign oil, and enhancing U.S. energy security. The one year period of research developed fundamental knowledge and applied technology in advanced combustion, emissions and biofuels formulation to increase vehicle's efficiency. Biofuelsâ?? combustion was investigated in a Compression Ignition Direct Injection (DI) to develop idling strategies with biofuels and an Indirect Diesel Injection (IDI) intended for auxiliary power unit.

  16. FY2011 Annual Progress Report for Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2011-12-01

    Annual Progress Report for the Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development (R&D) subprogram supporting the mission of the Vehicle Technologies Program by removing the critical technical barriers to commercialization of advanced internal combustion engines (ICEs) for passenger and commercial vehicles that meet future federal emissions regulations.

  17. Combustion powered linear actuator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, Gary J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-09-04

    The present invention provides robotic vehicles having wheeled and hopping mobilities that are capable of traversing (e.g. by hopping over) obstacles that are large in size relative to the robot and, are capable of operation in unpredictable terrain over long range. The present invention further provides combustion powered linear actuators, which can include latching mechanisms to facilitate pressurized fueling of the actuators, as can be used to provide wheeled vehicles with a hopping mobility.

  18. The Diesel Combustion Collaboratory: Combustion Researchers Collaborating over the Internet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. M. Pancerella; L. A. Rahn; C. Yang

    2000-02-01

    The Diesel Combustion Collaborator (DCC) is a pilot project to develop and deploy collaborative technologies to combustion researchers distributed throughout the DOE national laboratories, academia, and industry. The result is a problem-solving environment for combustion research. Researchers collaborate over the Internet using DCC tools, which include: a distributed execution management system for running combustion models on widely distributed computers, including supercomputers; web-accessible data archiving capabilities for sharing graphical experimental or modeling data; electronic notebooks and shared workspaces for facilitating collaboration; visualization of combustion data; and video-conferencing and data-conferencing among researchers at remote sites. Security is a key aspect of the collaborative tools. In many cases, the authors have integrated these tools to allow data, including large combustion data sets, to flow seamlessly, for example, from modeling tools to data archives. In this paper the authors describe the work of a larger collaborative effort to design, implement and deploy the DCC.

  19. Pressure-gain combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richards, G.A.; Yip, J.; Gemmen, R.S.; Janus, M.C.; Norton, T. [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States); Rogers, W.A. [EG and G Washington Analytical Services Center, Inc., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1993-11-01

    Pulse combustion has been proposed for gas turbine applications in many early articles and more recently has been demonstrated to produce so-called ``pressure-gain`` in a small gas turbine. The basic concept is that the oscillatory combustion occurs as a constant-volume process, producing a gain in the stagnation pressure of air flowing through the combustor, rather than the pressure loss associated with conventional, steady combustion. If properly utilized, this pressure-gain could enhance simple-cycle gas turbine efficiency several percent, depending on the operating conditions. In addition, pulse combustors have demonstrated relatively low NO{sub x} pollutant levels in some applications. The combined potential for higher cycle efficiency and lower pollutant levels is the basis for the present investigation. Tests in progress at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) have considered a baseline pulse combustor configuration that has shown good oscillating performance, low NO{sub x} emissions, but disappointing results in terms of pressure-gain. However, a combination of numeric simulations and test data suggest that pressure-gain can be produced by a select combination of operating conditions and combustor geometry, but is especially sensitive to the combustor inlet geometry. Tests in progress will evaluate the effect of inlet geometry and operating pressure on both pollutant emissions and pressure-gain.

  20. Combustion air preheating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wells, T.A.; Petterson, W.C.

    1986-10-14

    This patent describes a process for steam cracking hydrocarbons to cracked gases in a tubular furnace heated by burning a mixture of fuel and combustion air and subsequently quenching the cracked gases. Waste heat is recovered in the form of high pressure steam and the combustion air is preheated prior to introduction into the furnace. The improvement described here comprises: (a) superheating the high pressure steam and expanding at least a portion of the superheated high pressure steam through a first turbine to produce shaft work and superheated medium pressure steam at a temperature between 260/sup 0/ and 465/sup 0/ C.; (b) expanding at least a portion of the superheated medium pressure steam through a second turbine to produce shaft work and low pressure steam at a temperature between 120/sup 0/ and 325/sup 0/ C.; and (c) preheating the combustion air by indirect heat exchange with at least a portion of the superheated medium pressure stream and at least a portion of the low pressure steam.

  1. Advanced Combustion Technology to Enable High Efficiency Clean...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology to Enable High Efficiency Clean Combustion Advanced Combustion Technology to Enable High Efficiency Clean Combustion Summary of advanced combustion research at Cummins...

  2. US DRIVE Advanced Combustion and Emission Control Technical Team...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Combustion, (2) Dilute Gasoline combustion, and (3) Clean Diesel Combustion. acecroadmapjune2013.pdf More Documents & Publications Overview of the Advanced Combustion Engine...

  3. Fuel Effects on Mixing-Controlled Combustion Strategies for High...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mixing-Controlled Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion Engines Fuel Effects on Mixing-Controlled Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion...

  4. Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean Combustion Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean Combustion Applied low temperature combustion to the Navistar...

  5. Assessment of Combustion and Turbulence Models for the Simulation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion and Turbulence Models for the Simulation of Combustion Processes in a DI Diesel Engine Assessment of Combustion and Turbulence Models for the Simulation of Combustion...

  6. Low-Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High-Efficiency Clean...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Low-Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High-Efficiency Clean Combustion 2010 DOE Vehicle...

  7. Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean Combustion Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean Combustion 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program...

  8. Coal Combustion Products Extension Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarunjit S. Butalia; William E. Wolfe

    2006-01-11

    This final project report presents the activities and accomplishments of the ''Coal Combustion Products Extension Program'' conducted at The Ohio State University from August 1, 2000 to June 30, 2005 to advance the beneficial uses of coal combustion products (CCPs) in highway and construction, mine reclamation, agricultural, and manufacturing sectors. The objective of this technology transfer/research program at The Ohio State University was to promote the increased use of Ohio CCPs (fly ash, FGD material, bottom ash, and boiler slag) in applications that are technically sound, environmentally benign, and commercially competitive. The project objective was accomplished by housing the CCP Extension Program within The Ohio State University College of Engineering with support from the university Extension Service and The Ohio State University Research Foundation. Dr. Tarunjit S. Butalia, an internationally reputed CCP expert and registered professional engineer, was the program coordinator. The program coordinator acted as liaison among CCP stakeholders in the state, produced information sheets, provided expertise in the field to those who desired it, sponsored and co-sponsored seminars, meetings, and speaking at these events, and generally worked to promote knowledge about the productive and proper application of CCPs as useful raw materials. The major accomplishments of the program were: (1) Increase in FGD material utilization rate from 8% in 1997 to more than 20% in 2005, and an increase in overall CCP utilization rate of 21% in 1997 to just under 30% in 2005 for the State of Ohio. (2) Recognition as a ''voice of trust'' among Ohio and national CCP stakeholders (particularly regulatory agencies). (3) Establishment of a national and international reputation, especially for the use of FGD materials and fly ash in construction applications. It is recommended that to increase Ohio's CCP utilization rate from 30% in 2005 to 40% by 2010, the CCP Extension Program be expanded at OSU, with support from state and federal agencies, utilities, trade groups, and the university, to focus on the following four specific areas of promise: (a) Expanding use in proven areas (such as use of fly ash in concrete); (b) Removing or reducing regulatory and perceptual barriers to use (by working in collaboration with regulatory agencies); (c) Developing new or under-used large-volume market applications (such as structural fills); and (d) Placing greater emphasis on FGD byproducts utilization.

  9. IR-laser initiated combustion -- A step toward complete combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laghai, A.; Nabavi, S.H.; Servati, H.B.; Syed, F.

    1996-09-01

    The new global environmental regulations for reducing the engine emissions from both moving and stationary sources, as well as improvement in fuel economy are the major motifs to obtain a perfect combustion process and exhaust aftertreatment methods. Infrared (IR)-Laser initiated combustion provides a very high initial temperature, which produces propagation of a turbulent thermopressure pulse that results in a fast burning and improved combustion. The role of IR is to maximize the heat generation efficiency.

  10. CYCLE-BY-CYCLE COMBUSTION VARIATIONS IN SPARK-IGNITED ENGINES Engineering Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN 37831-8088 USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tennessee, University of

    CYCLE-BY-CYCLE COMBUSTION VARIATIONS IN SPARK-IGNITED ENGINES C.S. DAW Engineering Technology-2053 USA ABSTRACT Under constant nominal operating conditions, internal combustion engines can exhibit sub- stantial variation in combustion efficiency from one cycle to the next. Previous researchers have attempted

  11. Integrated Combined Heat and Power/Advanced Reciprocating Internal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combined Heat and PowerAdvanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine System for Landfill Gas to Power Applications Development of an Improved Modular Landfill Gas Cleanup and...

  12. Combustion Characteristics of a Two-Stroke Large Bore Natural Gas Spark-Ignited Engine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffin, Aaron A

    2015-07-30

    Naturally, there are complex interactions among internal combustion engine parameters such as in-cylinder pressure, emissions, speed, and load. These basic relationships are studied in a naturally aspirated, spark-ignited, two-stroke, large...

  13. Vehiculos de combustible flexible: brindando opciones en combustible...

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    actualizada para convertidores de combustible alternativo de la EPA en su sitio web, www.epa.govotaq certdearmfrcisd0602.pdf. El E85 afecta el desempeo del...

  14. Advanced Combustion Technology to Enable High Efficiency Clean Combustion

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Summary of advanced combustion research at Cummins to explore strategies for fuel economy improvements (PCCI and HECC) and redced engine-out NOx emissions.

  15. Influence of the Combustion Energy Release on Surface Accelerations of an HCCI Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Massey, Jeffery A; Eaton, Scott J; Wagner, Robert M

    2009-01-01

    Large cyclic variability along with increased combustion noise present in low temperature combustion (LTC) modes of internal combustion engines has driven the need for fast response, robust sensors for diagnostics and feedback control. Accelerometers have been shown as a possible technology for diagnostics and feedback control of advanced LTC operation in internal combustion engines. To make better use of this technology, an improved understanding is necessary of the effect of energy release from the combustion process on engine surface vibrations. This study explores the surface acceleration response for a single-cylinder engine operating with homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion. Preliminary investigation of the engine surface accelerations is conducted using a finite element analysis of the engine cylinder jacket along with consideration of cylindrical modes of the engine cylinder. Measured in-cylinder pressure is utilized as a load input to the FE model to provide an initial comparison of the computed and measured surface accelerations. Additionally, the cylindrical cavity resonant modes of the engine geometry are computed and the in-cylinder pressure frequency content is examined to verify this resonant behavior. Experimental correlations between heat release and surface acceleration metrics are then used to identify specific acceleration frequency bands in which characteristics of the combustion heat release process is detected with minimal structural resonant influence. Investigation of a metric capable of indicting combustion phasing is presented. Impact of variations in the combustion energy release process on the surface accelerations is discussed.

  16. High speed maglev design

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rote, D.M.; Jianliang He; Coffey, H.

    1993-10-19

    A propulsion and stabilization system for an inductive repulsion type magnetically levitated vehicle which is propelled and suspended by a system which includes dividing the superconducting magnets into two types: a strong field magnet which is located vertically below the vehicle for propulsion and guidance and a weak field superconducting magnet located at the ends of the vehicle for levitation and added guidance. Several proposed embodiments exist for the placement of the magnetic field shielding: locating the shielding on the vehicle, locating the shielding on the guideway, and locating the shielding on the guideway and adding shielding to the vertical undercarriage. In addition, the separation between the vehicle and the guideway can be controlled to reduce the exposure of the passenger cabin to magnetic fields. 4 figures.

  17. High speed maglev design

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rote, Donald M. (Lagrange, IL); He, Jianliang (Woodridge, IL); Coffey, Howard (Darien, IL)

    1993-01-01

    A propulsion and stabilization system for an inductive repulsion type magnetically levitated vehicle which is propelled and suspended by a system which includes dividing the superconducting magnets into two types: a strong field magnet which is located vertically below the vehicle for propulsion and guidance and a weak field superconducting magnet located at the ends of the vehicle for levitation and added guidance. Several proposed embodiments exist for the placement of the magnetic field shielding: locating the shielding on the vehicle, locating the shielding on the guideway, and locating the shielding on the guideway and adding shielding to the vertical undercarriage. In addition, the separation between the vehicle and the guideway can be controlled to reduce the exposure of the passenger cabin to magnetic fields.

  18. Tire gassification and combustion system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nance, D.; Towne, G.A.

    1992-04-07

    This patent describes a system for disposing of a material such as vehicle tires and similar substantially organic matter and generating useful heat therefrom. It comprises gasification means for holding an amount of the material to be disposed while the material is allowed to partially combust and for containing combustible gas produced thereby, the gasification means comprising a substantially air tight gasification chamber having at least one access way for inserting the material therein; inlet means for receiving a controlled amount of oxygen containing gas into the gasification means, the inlet means comprising a tuyere disposed in the air tight gasification chamber and a blower connected to the tuyere; removal means for removing the combustible gas from the gasification means, the removal means comprising a gas outlet located above the tuyere in the gasification chamber such that substantially amounts of the combustible gases produced by the partially combusted material exits through the gas outlet; primary combustion means for receiving and mixing the combustible gas removed from the gasification means with an oxygen containing gas and burning the combustible gas; and means for directing the combustion products to a heat utilizing device.

  19. ALS Evidence Confirms Combustion Theory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Evidence Confirms Combustion Theory Print Researchers recently uncovered the first step in the process that transforms gas-phase molecules into solid particles like soot and...

  20. Sandia Energy - Applied Turbulent Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and they form the basis for the creation of validated submodels that bridge fundamental energy sciences with applied device engineering and optimization. Turbulent-combustion-lab...

  1. Structure and Combustion of Magnegases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. M. Santilli; A. K. Aringazin

    2001-12-20

    In this paper, we study the structure and combustion of magnegases$^{TM}$ (Patented and International Patents Pending), new clean fuels developed by one of us (R.M.S.) [1], which are produced as byproducts of recycling nonradioactive liquid feedstock such as antifreeze waste, engine oil waste, town sewage, crude oil, etc., and generally vary with the liquid used for their production. A new technology, called PlasmaArcFlow\\tm, flows the waste through a submerged electric arc between conventional electrodes. The arc decomposes the liquid molecules into their atomic constituents, and forms a plasma in the immediate vicinity of the electrodes at about 10,000$^o$ F. The technology then moves the plasma away from the electrodes, and controls its recombination into environmentally acceptable fuels. The new fuels possess a ew chemical structure first identified by one of us (R.M.S.), which is characterized by clusters of ordinary molecules and atoms under a new bond of electromagnetic nature. These clusters constitute a new chemical species different than the conventional molecules, since they are stable at ordinary conditions while exhibiting no infrared signature (other than those of conventional molecular constituents), thus confirming that the bond is not of valence type. For this reason the new chemical species is called ''Santilli's electromagnecules'' or ''magnecules''.

  2. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziemkiewicz, Paul; Vandivort, Tamara; Pflughoeft-Hassett, Debra; Chugh, Y Paul; Hower, James

    2008-08-31

    Each year, over 100 million tons of solid byproducts are produced by coal-burning electric utilities in the United States. Annual production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts continues to increase as the result of more stringent sulfur emission restrictions. In addition, stricter limits on NOx emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act have resulted in utility burner/boiler modifications that frequently yield higher carbon concentrations in fly ash, which restricts the use of the ash as a cement replacement. Controlling ammonia in ash is also of concern. If newer, “clean coal” combustion and gasification technologies are adopted, their byproducts may also present a management challenge. The objective of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to develop and demonstrate technologies to address issues related to the recycling of byproducts associated with coal combustion processes. A goal of CBRC is that these technologies, by the year 2010, will lead to an overall ash utilization rate from the current 34% to 50% by such measures as increasing the current rate of FGD byproduct use and increasing in the number of uses considered “allowable” under state regulations. Another issue of interest to the CBRC would be to examine the environmental impact of both byproduct utilization and disposal. No byproduct utilization technology is likely to be adopted by industry unless it is more cost-effective than landfilling. Therefore, it is extremely important that the utility industry provide guidance to the R&D program. Government agencies and privatesector organizations that may be able to utilize these materials in the conduct of their missions should also provide input. The CBRC will serve as an effective vehicle for acquiring and maintaining guidance from these diverse organizations so that the proper balance in the R&D program is achieved.

  3. Hybrid fluidized bed combuster

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kantesaria, Prabhudas P. (Windsor, CT); Matthews, Francis T. (Poquonock, CT)

    1982-01-01

    A first atmospheric bubbling fluidized bed furnace is combined with a second turbulent, circulating fluidized bed furnace to produce heat efficiently from crushed solid fuel. The bed of the second furnace receives the smaller sizes of crushed solid fuel, unreacted limestone from the first bed, and elutriated solids extracted from the flu gases of the first bed. The two-stage combustion of crushed solid fuel provides a system with an efficiency greater than available with use of a single furnace of a fluidized bed.

  4. Sandia Energy - Engine Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid youOxygen GenerationTechnologiesEnergy ConversionEngine Combustion Home

  5. Sandia Energy - Combustion Kinetics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II) byMultidayAlumniProjects Caterpillar, SandiaCombustion Kinetics Home

  6. Sandia Energy - Spray Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II)GeothermalFuel Magnetization and Laser(TSPEARSolarSpray Combustion Home

  7. Sandia Energy - Spray Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II)GeothermalFuel Magnetization and Laser(TSPEARSolarSpray Combustion

  8. Combustion Catalysts in Industry- An Update 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merrell, G. A.; Knight, R. S.

    1985-01-01

    combustibles in the refuse and help a plant attain emissions compliance requirements that are not always achieved with pollution-control equipment. Combustion catalysts promote the combustion process by lowering the ignition temperature of the fuel, allowing...

  9. COMBUSTION-GENERATED INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollowell, C.D.

    2010-01-01

    of indoor combustion-generated air pollution in residen-LBL-S9lS COMBUSTION-GENERATED INDOOR AIR POLLUTION Dr. C. D.L,BL-5918 COMBUSTION-GENERATED INDOOR AIR POLLUTION C. D.

  10. Rotary reciprical combustion engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blount, D.H.

    1992-10-20

    This patent describes a rotary-reciprocal combustion engine having a cycle which includes the four strokes of intake, compression, expansion and exhaustion, the engine. It comprises: a housing formed with a peripheral wall with side walls, a rotor in the housing, the inner surface of the peripheral inner wall being cylindrical; a shaft; mounted in the center of the housing, passing through the rotor's hub and extending through the side walls of the housing, the hub having means to allow the rotor to reciprocate on the shaft while the shaft is rotating with the rotor; a reciprocal and rotary guide having means to guide the rotary and reciprocal motions of the rotor while keeping the rotor's piston in continuous sealing contact with the cylinder chamber walls and varying the volume of the cylinder chambers enabling a compression of a gaseous mixture to take place after aspirating a gaseous mixture; an ignition system having means for igniting compressed gaseous mixture and expansion of the cylinder chambers due to pressure of the combustion products.

  11. Utilization ROLE OF COAL COMBUSTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    , materials left after combustion of coal in conventional and/ or advanced clean-coal technology combustors and advanced clean-coal technology combustors. This paper describes various coal combustion products produced (FGD) products from pulverized coal and advanced clean-coal technology combustors. Over 70% of the CCPs

  12. Closed loop air cooling system for combustion turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huber, David John (North Canton, OH); Briesch, Michael Scot (Orlando, FL)

    1998-01-01

    Convective cooling of turbine hot parts using a closed loop system is disclosed. Preferably, the present invention is applied to cooling the hot parts of combustion turbine power plants, and the cooling provided permits an increase in the inlet temperature and the concomitant benefits of increased efficiency and output. In preferred embodiments, methods and apparatus are disclosed wherein air is removed from the combustion turbine compressor and delivered to passages internal to one or more of a combustor and turbine hot parts. The air cools the combustor and turbine hot parts via convection and heat is transferred through the surfaces of the combustor and turbine hot parts.

  13. Integrated Nozzle Flow, Spray, Combustion, & Emission Modeling...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nozzle Flow, Spray, Combustion, & Emission Modeling using KH-ACT Primary Breakup Model & Detailed Chemistry Integrated Nozzle Flow, Spray, Combustion, & Emission Modeling using...

  14. Sandia Energy - Particle Ignition and Char Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of CO2 and H2O (from flue gas recirculation) create very different physical and chemical properties of the combustion medium, influencing coal ignition and combustion rates....

  15. Optimizing Low Temperature Diesel Combustion | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Optimizing Low Temperature Diesel Combustion Optimizing Low Temperature Diesel Combustion Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle Technologies "Mega" Merit Review 2008 on...

  16. Hydrogen engine and combustion control process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swain, Michael R. (Coral Gables, FL); Swain, Matthew N. (Miami, FL)

    1997-01-01

    Hydrogen engine with controlled combustion comprises suction means connected to the crankcase reducing or precluding flow of lubricating oil or associated gases into the combustion chamber.

  17. Thermodynamic Advantages of Low Temperature Combustion Engines...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advantages of Low Temperature Combustion Engines Including the Use of Low Heat Rejection Concepts Thermodynamic Advantages of Low Temperature Combustion Engines Including the Use...

  18. Combustion Model for Engine Concept Development | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Model for Engine Concept Development Combustion Model for Engine Concept Development Presentation shows how 1-cylinder testing, 3D combustion CFD and 1D gas exchange with an...

  19. Particle Sensor for Diesel Combustion Monitoring | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sensor for Diesel Combustion Monitoring Particle Sensor for Diesel Combustion Monitoring 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: University of...

  20. Improved Solvers for Advanced Engine Combustion Simulation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Document:  ace076_mcnenly_2013_o.pdfTechnology Area: Advanced Combustion; Combustion and Emissions ControlPresenter: Matthew McNenlyPresenting Organization: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory ...

  1. Theoretical studies on hydrogen ignition and droplet combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Del Álamo, Gonzalo

    2006-01-01

    the combustion of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Combustionfor carbon-monoxide hydrogen oxygen kinetics. Combustion

  2. Call for Posters 3. International Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Norbert

    for Biosustainability, Technical University of Denmark Jay Keasling, Professor at the Dept. of Chemical and Biochemical to further optimize the energy conversion in the internal combustion engine and thereby reduce the dependency and their production, which is based on renewable raw materials and new combustion processes. In 2013, for the first

  3. Droplet Combustion and Non-Reactive Shear-Coaxial Jets with Transverse Acoustic Excitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teshome, Sophonias

    2012-01-01

    Related Works in Droplet Combustion . . . . . . . .of Acoustics on Droplet Combustion . . . . . . . . . . . .Fuel Droplet Combustion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  4. Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean Combustion

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Applied low temperature combustion to the Navistar 6.4L V8 engine with 0.2g NOx/bhp-hr operation attained at the rated 16.5 BMEP

  5. The Combustion Institute 5001 Baum Boulevard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tennessee, University of

    The Combustion Institute 5001 Baum Boulevard Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA 15213-1851 CENTRAL STATES SECTION OF THE COMBUSTION INSTITUTE CALL FOR PAPERS TECHNICAL MEETING - SPRING 2002 COMBUSTION 7-9, 2002 #12;CENTRAL STATES SECTION OF THE COMBUSTION INSTITUTE www.cssci.org CALL FOR PAPERS

  6. COMBUSTION SYNTHESIS OF ADVANCED MATERIALS: PRINCIPLESAND APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukasyan, Alexander

    COMBUSTION SYNTHESIS OF ADVANCED MATERIALS: PRINCIPLESAND APPLICATIONS Arvind Varma, Alexander S. Gasless Combustion SynthesisFrom Elements B. Combustion Synthesis in Gas-Solid Systems C. Products of Thermite-vpe SHS D. Commercial Aspects IV. Theoretical Considerations A. Combustion Wave Propagation Theory

  7. High Efficiency, Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald Stanton

    2010-03-31

    Energy use in trucks has been increasing at a faster rate than that of automobiles within the U.S. transportation sector. According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) Annual Energy Outlook (AEO), a 23% increase in fuel consumption for the U.S. heavy duty truck segment is expected between 2009 to 2020. The heavy duty vehicle oil consumption is projected to grow between 2009 and 2050 while light duty vehicle (LDV) fuel consumption will eventually experience a decrease. By 2050, the oil consumption rate by LDVs is anticipated to decrease below 2009 levels due to CAFE standards and biofuel use. In contrast, the heavy duty oil consumption rate is anticipated to double. The increasing trend in oil consumption for heavy trucks is linked to the vitality, security, and growth of the U.S. economy. An essential part of a stable and vibrant U.S. economy is a productive U.S. trucking industry. Studies have shown that the U.S. gross domestic product (GDP) is strongly correlated to freight transport. Over 90% of all U.S. freight tonnage is transported by diesel power and over 75% is transported by trucks. Given the vital role that the trucking industry plays in the economy, improving the efficiency of the transportation of goods was a central focus of the Cummins High Efficient Clean Combustion (HECC) program. In a commercial vehicle, the diesel engine remains the largest source of fuel efficiency loss, but remains the greatest opportunity for fuel efficiency improvements. In addition to reducing oil consumption and the dependency on foreign oil, this project will mitigate the impact on the environment by meeting US EPA 2010 emissions regulations. Innovation is a key element in sustaining a U.S. trucking industry that is competitive in global markets. Unlike passenger vehicles, the trucking industry cannot simply downsize the vehicle and still transport the freight with improved efficiency. The truck manufacturing and supporting industries are faced with numerous challenges to reduce oil consumption and greenhouse gases, meet stringent emissions regulations, provide customer value, and improve safety. The HECC program successfully reduced engine fuel consumption and greenhouse gases while providing greater customer valve. The US EPA 2010 emissions standard poses a significant challenge for developing clean diesel powertrains that meet the DoE Vehicle Technologies Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) for fuel efficiency improvement while remaining affordable. Along with exhaust emissions, an emphasis on heavy duty vehicle fuel efficiency is being driven by increased energy costs as well as the potential regulation of greenhouse gases. An important element of the success of meeting emissions while significantly improving efficiency is leveraging Cummins component technologies such as fuel injection equipment, aftertreatment, turbomahcinery, electronic controls, and combustion systems. Innovation in component technology coupled with system integration is enabling Cummins to move forward with the development of high efficiency clean diesel products with a long term goal of reaching a 55% peak brake thermal efficiency for the engine plus aftertreatment system. The first step in developing high efficiency clean products has been supported by the DoE co-sponsored HECC program. The objectives of the HECC program are: (1) To design and develop advanced diesel engine architectures capable of achieving US EPA 2010 emission regulations while improving the brake thermal efficiency by 10% compared to the baseline (a state of the art 2007 production diesel engine). (2) To design and develop components and subsystems (fuel systems, air handling, controls, etc) to enable construction and development of multi-cylinder engines. (3) To perform an assessment of the commercial viability of the newly developed engine technology. (4) To specify fuel properties conducive to improvements in emissions, reliability, and fuel efficiency for engines using high-efficiency clean combustion (HECC) technologies. To demonstrate the technology is compatible with B2

  8. Combustion Science for Cleaner Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmed, Musahid

    2014-10-17

    Musahid Ahmed discusses how he and his team use the Advanced Light Source (ALS) to study combustion chemistry at our '8 Big Ideas' Science at the Theater event on October 8th, 2014, in Oakland, California.

  9. Loop-bed combustion apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shang, Jer-Yu (Fairfax, VA); Mei, Joseph S. (Morgantown, WV); Slagle, Frank D. (Kingwood, WV); Notestein, John E. (Morgantown, WV)

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a combustion apparatus in the configuration of a oblong annulus defining a closed loop. Particulate coal together with a sulfur sorbent such as sulfur or dolomite is introduced into the closed loop, ignited, and propelled at a high rate of speed around the loop. Flue gas is withdrawn from a location in the closed loop in close proximity to an area in the loop where centrifugal force imposed upon the larger particulate material maintains these particulates at a location spaced from the flue gas outlet. Only flue gas and smaller particulates resulting from the combustion and innerparticle grinding are discharged from the combustor. This structural arrangement provides increased combustion efficiency due to the essentially complete combustion of the coal particulates as well as increased sulfur absorption due to the innerparticle grinding of the sorbent which provides greater particle surface area.

  10. ALS Evidence Confirms Combustion Theory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in incomplete combustion of organic matter (e.g., in engines and incinerators, when biomass burns in forest fires). PAHs may also be abundant in the universe, and are...

  11. Combustion modeling in waste tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, C.; Unal, C.; Travis, J.R. |

    1997-08-01

    This paper has two objectives. The first one is to repeat previous simulations of release and combustion of flammable gases in tank SY-101 at the Hanford reservation with the recently developed code GASFLOW-II. The GASFLOW-II results are compared with the results obtained with the HMS/TRAC code and show good agreement, especially for non-combustion cases. For combustion GASFLOW-II predicts a steeper pressure rise than HMS/TRAC. The second objective is to describe a so-called induction parameter model which was developed and implemented into GASFLOW-II and reassess previous calculations of Bureau of Mines experiments for hydrogen-air combustion. The pressure time history improves compared with the one-step model, and the time rate of pressure change is much closer to the experimental data.

  12. Pilot fuel ignited stratified charge rotary combustion engine and fuel injector therefor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loyd, R. W.

    1980-02-12

    For a pilot fuel ignited stratified charge rotary, internal combustion engine, the fuel injection system and a fuel injector therefor comprises a fuel injector having plural discharge ports with at least one of the discharge ports located to emit a ''pilot'' fuel charge (relatively rich fuel-air mixture) into a passage in the engine housing, which passage communicates with the engine combustion chambers. An ignition element is located in the passage to ignite the ''pilot'' fuel (a relatively rich fuel-air mixture) flowing through the passage. At least one other discharge port of the fuel injector is in substantially direct communication with the combustion chambers of the engine to emit a main fuel charge into the latter. The ignited ''pilot'' fuelair mixture, when ignited, flashes into the combustion chambers to ignite the main, relatively lean, fuel-air mixture which is in the combustion chambers.

  13. Reducing mode circulating fluid bed combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, Yung-Yi (Katy, TX); Sadhukhan, Pasupati (Katy, TX); Fraley, Lowell D. (Sugarland, TX); Hsiao, Keh-Hsien (Houston, TX)

    1986-01-01

    A method for combustion of sulfur-containing fuel in a circulating fluid bed combustion system wherein the fuel is burned in a primary combustion zone under reducing conditions and sulfur captured as alkaline sulfide. The reducing gas formed is oxidized to combustion gas which is then separated from solids containing alkaline sulfide. The separated solids are then oxidized and recycled to the primary combustion zone.

  14. Aerovalve pulse combustion: Technical note

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richards, G.A.; Gemmen, R.S.; Narayanaswami, L.

    1994-07-01

    The authors present a mathematical model and an experimental investigation of aerodynamically valved pulse combustion. The model uses a control-volume approach to solve conservation laws in several regions of a pulse combustor. Mixing between the fresh charge and combustion products is modeled as a two-step process, with the mixing occurring slowly for a specified eddy time during each cycle, and then changing to a higher rate. Results of model simulations demonstrate that eddy time plays a significant role in determining the frequency and amplitude of combustion oscillation. The authors show that short eddy times produce steady, rather than pulsating, combustion. And they show that changes to the mixing process alter the temperature-species history of combustion gases in a manner that could prevent or promote the formation of nitrogen oxides, depending on specific mixing rates. The relatively simple control-volume approach used in this model allows rapid investigation of a wide range of geometric and operating parameters, and also defines characteristic length and time scales relevant to aerovalve pulse combustion. Experimental measurements compare favorably to model predictions. The authors place particular emphasis on time-averaged pressure differences through the combustor, which act as an indicator of pressure gain performance. They investigate both operating conditions and combustor geometry, and they show that a complex interaction between the inlet and exit flows of a combustor makes it difficult to produce general correlations among the various parameters. They use a scaling rule to produce a combustor geometry capable of producing pressure gain.

  15. Co-combustion feasibility study. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Handcock, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    This report investigates the technical and economic feasibility of co-combusting municipal sewage sludge produced by the Saratoga County Sewer District No. 1 with paper mill sludge produced by the Cottrell Paper Company, Encore Paper Company, International Paper Company, Mohawk Paper Mills, and TAGSONS Papers at the Saratoga County Sewer District No. 1`s secondary wastewater treatment plant and recovering any available energy products. The co-combustion facility would consist of sludge and wood chip storage and conveying systems, belt filter presses, screw presses, fluidized-bed incinerators, venturi scrubbers and tray cooling systems, ash dewatering facilities, heat recovery steam generators, gas-fired steam superheaters, and a back-pressure steam turbine system. Clean waste wood chips would be used as an auxiliary fuel in the fluidized-bed incinerators. It is recommended that the ash produced by the proposed facility be beneficially used, potentially as a raw material in the manufacture of cement and/or as an interim barrier layer in landfills.

  16. FY2009 Annual Progress Report for Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2009-12-01

    Fiscal Year 2009 Annual Progress Report for the Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development (R&D) subprogram. The Advanced Combustion Engine R&D subprogram supports the mission of the VTP program by removing the critical technical barriers to commercialization of advanced internal combustion engines (ICEs) for passenger and commercial vehicles that meet future Federal emissions regulations. Dramatically improving the efficiency of ICEs and enabling their introduction in conventional as well as hybrid electric vehicles is the most promising and cost-effective approach to increasing vehicle fuel economy over the next 30 years.

  17. Compression ignition engine having fuel system for non-sooting combustion and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bazyn, Timothy; Gehrke, Christopher

    2014-10-28

    A direct injection compression ignition internal combustion engine includes a fuel system having a nozzle extending into a cylinder of the engine and a plurality of spray orifices formed in the nozzle. Each of the spray orifices has an inner diameter dimension of about 0.09 mm or less, and define inter-orifice angles between adjacent spray orifice center axes of about 36.degree. or greater such that spray plumes of injected fuel from each of the spray orifices combust within the cylinder according to a non-sooting lifted flame and gas entrainment combustion pattern. Related methodology is also disclosed.

  18. FY2010 Annual Progress Report for Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Gurpreet

    2010-12-01

    The Advanced Combustion Engine R&D subprogram supports the mission of the Vehicle Technologies Program by removing the critical technical barriers to commercialization of advanced internal combustion engines (ICEs) for passenger and commercial vehicles that meet future Federal emissions regulations. Dramatically improving the efficiency of ICEs and enabling their introduction in conventional as well as hybrid electric vehicles is the most promising and cost-effective approach to increasing vehicle fuel economy over the next 30 years.

  19. Research in Industrial Combustion Systems - Current and Future R&D 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rebello, W. J.; Keller, J. G.

    1987-01-01

    recuperators, regenerators, waste heat boilers, heat pumps, etc. Fuel savings can also be achieved by improving the efficiency of the combustion process where the internal energy in the fuel is converted to thermal energy. An applied research and develop... Opportunity Assessment", DOE/DIP positionnpaper, June 1983. 2. Lukasiewicz, M.A., "Industrial Utilization R&D Status Report '85-'86, GRI, September 1986. 3. Lukasiewicz, M.A.,"Industrial Combustion Technologies" Symp.Proc., ASM, April 29, '86...

  20. Multicylinder Diesel Engine for Low Temperature Combustion Operation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Low Temperature Combustion Operation Multicylinder Diesel Engine for Low Temperature Combustion Operation Fuel injection strategies to extend low temperature combustion...

  1. Advanced High Efficiency Clean Diesel Combustion with Low Cost...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency Clean Diesel Combustion with Low Cost for Hybrid Engines Advanced High Efficiency Clean Diesel Combustion with Low Cost for Hybrid Engines Clean, in-cylinder combustion...

  2. COMBUSTION RESEARCH PROGRAM. CHAPTER FROM ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT ANNUAL REPORT 1977

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2011-01-01

    of combustion systems while minimizing the pollutionthe combustion process to reduce the associa- ted pollution.combustion problems. Several are directly related to pollution

  3. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    The Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) program was developed as a focused program to remove and/or minimize the barriers for effective management of over 123 million tons of coal combustion byproducts (CCBs) annually generated in the USA. At the time of launching the CBRC in 1998, about 25% of CCBs were beneficially utilized while the remaining was disposed in on-site or off-site landfills. During the ten (10) year tenure of CBRC (1998-2008), after a critical review, 52 projects were funded nationwide. By region, the East, Midwest, and West had 21, 18, and 13 projects funded, respectively. Almost all projects were cooperative projects involving industry, government, and academia. The CBRC projects, to a large extent, successfully addressed the problems of large-scale utilization of CCBs. A few projects, such as the two Eastern Region projects that addressed the use of fly ash in foundry applications, might be thought of as a somewhat smaller application in comparison to construction and agricultural uses, but as a novel niche use, they set the stage to draw interest that fly ash substitution for Portland cement might not attract. With consideration of the large increase in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum in response to EPA regulations, agricultural uses of FGD gypsum hold promise for large-scale uses of a product currently directed to the (currently stagnant) home construction market. Outstanding achievements of the program are: (1) The CBRC successfully enhanced professional expertise in the area of CCBs throughout the nation. The enhanced capacity continues to provide technology and information transfer expertise to industry and regulatory agencies. (2) Several technologies were developed that can be used immediately. These include: (a) Use of CCBs for road base and sub-base applications; (b) full-depth, in situ stabilization of gravel roads or highway/pavement construction recycled materials; and (c) fired bricks containing up to 30%-40% F-fly ash. Some developed technologies have similar potential in the longer term. (3) Laboratory studies have been completed that indicate that much higher amounts of fly ash could be added in cement-concrete applications under some circumstances. This could significantly increase use of fly ash in cement-concrete applications. (4) A study of the long-term environmental effects of structural fills in a surface mine in Indiana was completed. This study has provided much sought after data for permitting large-volume management options in both beneficial as well as non-beneficial use settings. (5) The impact of CBRC on CCBs utilization trends is difficult to quantify. However it is fair to say that the CBRC program had a significant positive impact on increased utilization of CCBs in every region of the USA. Today, the overall utilization of CCBs is over 43%. (6) CBRC-developed knowledge base led to a large number of other projects completed with support from other sources of funding. (7) CBRC research has also had a large impact on CCBs management across the globe. Information transfer activities and visitors from leading coal producing countries such as South Africa, Australia, England, India, China, Poland, Czech Republic and Japan are truly noteworthy. (8) Overall, the CBRC has been a truly successful, cooperative research program. It has brought together researchers, industry, government, and regulators to deal with a major problem facing the USA and other coal producing countries in the world.

  4. Turbulent Combustion in SDF Explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhl, A L; Bell, J B; Beckner, V E

    2009-11-12

    A heterogeneous continuum model is proposed to describe the dispersion and combustion of an aluminum particle cloud in an explosion. It combines the gas-dynamic conservation laws for the gas phase with a continuum model for the dispersed phase, as formulated by Nigmatulin. Inter-phase mass, momentum and energy exchange are prescribed by phenomenological models. It incorporates a combustion model based on the mass conservation laws for fuel, air and products; source/sink terms are treated in the fast-chemistry limit appropriate for such gasdynamic fields, along with a model for mass transfer from the particle phase to the gas. The model takes into account both the afterburning of the detonation products of the C-4 booster with air, and the combustion of the Al particles with air. The model equations were integrated by high-order Godunov schemes for both the gas and particle phases. Numerical simulations of the explosion fields from 1.5-g Shock-Dispersed-Fuel (SDF) charge in a 6.6 liter calorimeter were used to validate the combustion model. Then the model was applied to 10-kg Al-SDF explosions in a an unconfined height-of-burst explosion. Computed pressure histories are compared with measured waveforms. Differences are caused by physical-chemical kinetic effects of particle combustion which induce ignition delays in the initial reactive blast wave and quenching of reactions at late times. Current simulations give initial insights into such modeling issues.

  5. Method and apparatus for detecting combustion instability in continuous combustion systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, Kelly J.; Thornton, Jimmy D.; Richards, George A.; Straub, Douglas L.

    2006-08-29

    An apparatus and method to sense the onset of combustion stability is presented. An electrode is positioned in a turbine combustion chamber such that the electrode is exposed to gases in the combustion chamber. A control module applies a voltage potential to the electrode and detects a combustion ionization signal and determines if there is an oscillation in the combustion ionization signal indicative of the occurrence of combustion stability or the onset of combustion instability. A second electrode held in a coplanar but spaced apart manner by an insulating member from the electrode provides a combustion ionization signal to the control module when the first electrode fails. The control module broadcasts a notice if the parameters indicate the combustion process is at the onset of combustion instability or broadcasts an alarm signal if the parameters indicate the combustion process is unstable.

  6. APBF Effects on Combustion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing ToolInternationalReportOffice |4-01r2.pdf AL2004-01r2.pdfAL2 ofFOR A CLEAN2-B4-BBattelle

  7. Combustion instability modeling and analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santoro, R.J.; Yang, V.; Santavicca, D.A.; Sheppard, E.J.

    1995-12-31

    It is well known that the two key elements for achieving low emissions and high performance in a gas turbine combustor are to simultaneously establish (1) a lean combustion zone for maintaining low NO{sub x} emissions and (2) rapid mixing for good ignition and flame stability. However, these requirements, when coupled with the short combustor lengths used to limit the residence time for NO formation typical of advanced gas turbine combustors, can lead to problems regarding unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, as well as the occurrence of combustion instabilities. The concurrent development of suitable analytical and numerical models that are validated with experimental studies is important for achieving this objective. A major benefit of the present research will be to provide for the first time an experimentally verified model of emissions and performance of gas turbine combustors. The present study represents a coordinated effort between industry, government and academia to investigate gas turbine combustion dynamics. Specific study areas include development of advanced diagnostics, definition of controlling phenomena, advancement of analytical and numerical modeling capabilities, and assessment of the current status of our ability to apply these tools to practical gas turbine combustors. The present work involves four tasks which address, respectively, (1) the development of a fiber-optic probe for fuel-air ratio measurements, (2) the study of combustion instability using laser-based diagnostics in a high pressure, high temperature flow reactor, (3) the development of analytical and numerical modeling capabilities for describing combustion instability which will be validated against experimental data, and (4) the preparation of a literature survey and establishment of a data base on practical experience with combustion instability.

  8. Chemical kinetics and combustion modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, J.A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this program is to gain qualitative insight into how pollutants are formed in combustion systems and to develop quantitative mathematical models to predict their formation rates. The approach is an integrated one, combining low-pressure flame experiments, chemical kinetics modeling, theory, and kinetics experiments to gain as clear a picture as possible of the process in question. These efforts are focused on problems involved with the nitrogen chemistry of combustion systems and on the formation of soot and PAH in flames.

  9. Combustion synthesis method and products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holt, J.B.; Kelly, M.

    1993-03-30

    Disclosed is a method of producing dense refractory products, comprising: (a) obtaining a quantity of exoergic material in powder form capable of sustaining a combustion synthesis reaction; (b) removing absorbed water vapor therefrom; (c) cold-pressing said material into a formed body; (d) plasma spraying said formed body with a molten exoergic material to form a coat thereon; and (e) igniting said exoergic coated formed body under an inert gas atmosphere and pressure to produce self-sustained combustion synthesis. Also disclosed are products produced by the method.

  10. Engine Combustion Network Experimental Data

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Maintained by the Engine Combustion Department of Sandia National Laboratories, data currently available on the website includes reacting and non-reacting sprays in a constant-volume chamber at conditions typical of diesel combustion. The data are useful for model development and validation because of the well-defined boundary conditions and the wide range of conditions employed. A search utility displays data based on experimental conditions such as ambient temperature, ambient density, injection pressure, nozzle size, fuel, etc. Experiment-related visualizations are also available. The search utility for experimental data is located at http://public.ca.sandia.gov/ecn/cvdata/frameset.html (Specialized Interface)

  11. Combustion heater for oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallon, R.; Walton, O.; Lewis, A.E.; Braun, R.

    1983-09-21

    A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650 to 700/sup 0/C for use as a process heat source.

  12. Combustion heater for oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallon, Richard G. (Livermore, CA); Walton, Otis R. (Livermore, CA); Lewis, Arthur E. (Los Altos, CA); Braun, Robert L. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650.degree.-700.degree. C. for use as a process heat source.

  13. Computation of azimuthal combustion instabilities in an helicopter combustion chamber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicoud, Franck

    to compute azimuthal combustion instabilities is presented. It requires a thermoacoustic model using a n is investigated. Introduction Thermoacoustic instabilities result from the coupling between unstationary low CPU time cost. A thermoacoustic model is used to solve the wave equation in reactive media

  14. Effects of Advanced Combustion Technologies on Particulate Matter...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Combustion Technologies on Particulate Matter Emissions Characteristics Effects of Advanced Combustion Technologies on Particulate Matter Emissions Characteristics...

  15. Combustion Synthesis of Silicon Carbide 389 Combustion Synthesis of Silicon Carbide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukasyan, Alexander

    Combustion Synthesis of Silicon Carbide 389 X Combustion Synthesis of Silicon Carbide Alexander S. Mukasyan University of Notre Dame USA 1. Introduction Combustion synthesis (CS) is an effective technique by which combustion synthesis can occur: self - propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) and volume

  16. Supersonic combustion studies using a multivariate quadrature based method for combustion modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raman, Venkat

    Supersonic combustion studies using a multivariate quadrature based method for combustion modeling function (PDF) of thermochemical variables can be used for accurately computing the combustion source term of predictive models for supersonic combustion is a critical step in design and development of scramjet engines

  17. Combustor nozzle for a fuel-flexible combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haynes, Joel Meier (Niskayuna, NY); Mosbacher, David Matthew (Cohoes, NY); Janssen, Jonathan Sebastian (Troy, NY); Iyer, Venkatraman Ananthakrishnan (Mason, OH)

    2011-03-22

    A combustor nozzle is provided. The combustor nozzle includes a first fuel system configured to introduce a syngas fuel into a combustion chamber to enable lean premixed combustion within the combustion chamber and a second fuel system configured to introduce the syngas fuel, or a hydrocarbon fuel, or diluents, or combinations thereof into the combustion chamber to enable diffusion combustion within the combustion chamber.

  18. Reduced No.sub.x combustion method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Delano, Mark A. (Briarcliff Manor, NY)

    1991-01-01

    A combustion method enabling reduced NO.sub.x formation wherein fuel and oxidant are separately injected into a combustion zone in a defined velocity relation, combustion gases are aspirated into the oxidant stream prior to intermixture with the fuel, and the fuel is maintained free from contact with oxygen until the intermixture.

  19. Fifteen Lectures on Laminar and Turbulent Combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Norbert

    Fifteen Lectures on Laminar and Turbulent Combustion N. Peters RWTH Aachen Ercoftac Summer School in Combustion Systems 1 Lecture 2: Calculation of Adiabatic Flame Temperatures and Chemical Equilibria 20: Laminar Diffusion Flames: Different Flow Geometries 156 Lecture 11: Turbulent Combustion: Introduction

  20. Pressure Gain Combustion Rotating Detonation Engines (RDE)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pressure Gain Combustion Rotating Detonation Engines (RDE) Dr. Chris Brophy, David Dausen, Lee Van Houtte Students LT Culwell, ENS Khol, Robert Wright, Andrew Chaves Rocket Propulsion & Combustion Lab-based combustion to extract increase thermodynamic cycle efficiency for work/thrust apps. · Higher Enthalpy

  1. BEP Proposal: Towards Cleaner Industrial Combustion -

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vuik, Kees

    BEP Proposal: Towards Cleaner Industrial Combustion - How to Reduce the Formation of Pollutants furnace fired by the combustion of natural gas. The chemical reaction of the gas and oxygen mixture releases heat and side products such as water and carbon monoxide. The combustion also produces undesired

  2. Combustion joining of refractory materials: Carboncarbon composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukasyan, Alexander

    Combustion joining of refractory materials: Carbon­carbon composites Jeremiah D.E. White Department­carbon composite is achieved by employing self-sustained, oxygen-free, high-temperature combustion reactions to a used "core" to produce a brake that meets the performance specifications. The combustion-joining (CJ

  3. Limestone calcination during pulsating combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James, R.E. III (Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (United States)); Richards, G.A. (USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States))

    1992-01-01

    METC is currently conducting research on enhanced calcination during pulsating combustion as part of the Heat Engines program. It has been shown elsewhere that rapid, high temperature calcination will result in a calcined product with relatively large surface area, as desired for sulfur capture. It is proposed that such a process may occur during pulsating combustion where the oscillating pressure/velocity field around a particle increases the heat/mass transfer to and from the particle. To test this hypothesis, calcination tests in progress at METC use a novel form of pulse combustion called thermal'' pulse combustion, operating at 60000 BTUH, 100 Hz, and 5--15 psig peak-to- peak amplitude. Two configurations are being studied during the testing: one configuration is injection of sorbent into a refractory lined drop tube being heated by the pulse combustor, and the other configuration is injection of the sorbent into the pulse combustor through its centerbody and along the tailpipe at various positions. To understand the observed behavior, a characterization study of the pulse combustor is being conducted. Different flow rates, equivalence ratios, and injection positions are being tested.

  4. Structural Analysis of Combustion Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tóth, J; Zsély, I

    2013-01-01

    Using ReactionKinetics, a Mathematica based package a few dozen detailed models for combustion of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and methanol are investigated. Essential structural characteristics are pulled out, and similarities and differences of the mechanisms are highlighted. These investigations can be used before or parallel with usual numerical investigations, such as pathway analysis, sensitivity analysis, parameter estimation, or simulation.

  5. Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray Chamberland; Aku Raino; David Towle

    2006-09-30

    For more than two decades, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has developed a range of low cost, in-furnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes ALSTOM's internally developed TFS 2000 firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). As of 2004, more than 200 units representing approximately 75,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with ALSTOM low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coals to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coals, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing (retrofit) boiler equipment. If enacted, proposed Clear Skies legislation will, by 2008, require an average, effective, domestic NOx emissions rate of 0.16 lb/MMBtu, which number will be reduced to 0.13 lb/MMBtu by 2018. Such levels represent a 60% and 67% reduction, respectively, from the effective 2000 level of 0.40 lb/MMBtu. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. In light of these needs, ALSTOM, in cooperation with the DOE, is developing an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner which, when integrated with ALSTOM's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems, will provide a means to achieve less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx at less than 3/4 the cost of an SCR with low to no impact on balance of plant issues when firing a high volatile bituminous coal. Such coals can be more economic to fire than subbituminous or Powder River Basin (PRB) coals, but are more problematic from a NOx control standpoint as existing firing system technologies do not provide a means to meet current or anticipated regulations absent the use of an SCR. The DOE/ALSTOM program performed large pilot scale combustion testing in ALSTOM's Industrial Scale Burner Facility (ISBF) at its U.S. Power Plant Laboratories facility in Windsor, Connecticut. During this work, the near-field combustion environment was optimized to maximize NOx reduction while minimizing the impact on unburned carbon in ash, slagging and fouling, corrosion, and flame stability/turn-down under globally reducing conditions. Initially, ALSTOM utilized computational fluid dynamic modeling to evaluate a series of burner and/or near field stoichiometry controls in order to screen promising design concepts in advance of the large pilot scale testing. The third and final test, to be executed, will utilize several variants of the best nozzle tip configuration and compare performance with 3 different coals. The fuels to be tested will cover a wide range of coals commonly fired at US utilities. The completion of this work will provide sufficient data to allow ALSTOM to design, construct, and demonstrate a commercial version of an enhanced combustion low NOx pulverized coal burner. A preliminary cost/performance analysis of the developed enhanced combustion low NOx burner applied to ALSTOM's state-of-the-art TFS 2000 firing system was performed to show that the burner enhancements is a cost effective means to reduce NOx.

  6. Characterizing dilute combustion instabilities in a multi-cylinder spark-ignited engine using symbolic analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; FINNEY, Charles E A [ORNL; Kaul, Brian C [ORNL; Edwards, Kevin Dean [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Spark-ignited internal combustion engines have evolved considerably in recent years in response to increasingly stringent regulations for emissions and fuel-economy. One new advanced engine strategy utilizes high levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to reduce combustion temperatures, thereby increasing thermodynamic efficiency and reducing nitrogen oxide emissions. While this strategy can be highly effective, it also poses major control and design challenges due to the large combustion oscillations that develop at sufficiently high EGR levels. Previous research has documented that combustion instabilities can propagate between successive engine cycles in individual cylinders via self-generated feedback of reactive species and thermal energy in the retained residual exhaust gases. In this work, we use symbolic analysis to characterize multi-cylinder combustion oscillations in an experimental engine operating with external EGR. At low levels of EGR, intra-cylinder oscillations are clearly visible and appear to be associated with brief, intermittent coupling among cylinders. As EGR is increased further, a point is reached where all four cylinders lock almost completely in phase and alternate simultaneously between two distinct bi-stable combustion states. From a practical perspective, it is important to understand the causes of this phenomenon and develop diagnostics that might be applied to ameliorate its effects. We demonstrate here that two approaches for symbolizing the engine combustion measurements can provide useful probes for characterizing these instabilities.

  7. Numerical approaches to combustion modeling. Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics. Vol. 135

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oran, E.S.; Boris, J.P. )

    1991-01-01

    Various papers on numerical approaches to combustion modeling are presented. The topics addressed include; ab initio quantum chemistry for combustion; rate coefficient calculations for combustion modeling; numerical modeling of combustion of complex hydrocarbons; combustion kinetics and sensitivity analysis computations; reduction of chemical reaction models; length scales in laminar and turbulent flames; numerical modeling of laminar diffusion flames; laminar flames in premixed gases; spectral simulations of turbulent reacting flows; vortex simulation of reacting shear flow; combustion modeling using PDF methods. Also considered are: supersonic reacting internal flow fields; studies of detonation initiation, propagation, and quenching; numerical modeling of heterogeneous detonations, deflagration-to-detonation transition to reactive granular materials; toward a microscopic theory of detonations in energetic crystals; overview of spray modeling; liquid drop behavior in dense and dilute clusters; spray combustion in idealized configurations: parallel drop streams; comparisons of deterministic and stochastic computations of drop collisions in dense sprays; ignition and flame spread across solid fuels; numerical study of pulse combustor dynamics; mathematical modeling of enclosure fires; nuclear systems.

  8. Modeling of Laser-Induced Metal Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boley, C D; Rubenchik, A M

    2008-02-20

    Experiments involving the interaction of a high-power laser beam with metal targets demonstrate that combustion plays an important role. This process depends on reactions within an oxide layer, together with oxygenation and removal of this layer by the wind. We present an analytical model of laser-induced combustion. The model predicts the threshold for initiation of combustion, the growth of the combustion layer with time, and the threshold for self-supported combustion. Solutions are compared with detailed numerical modeling as benchmarked by laboratory experiments.

  9. Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Towle; Richard Donais; Todd Hellewell; Robert Lewis; Robert Schrecengost

    2007-06-30

    For more than two decades, Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom) has developed a range of low cost, infurnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes Alstom's internally developed TFS 2000{trademark} firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy. As of the date of this report, more than 270 units representing approximately 80,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with Alstom low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coal to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coal, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing boiler equipment. On March 10, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR). CAIR requires 25 Eastern states to reduce NOx emissions from the power generation sector by 1.7 million tons in 2009 and 2.0 million tons by 2015. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. The overall objective of the work is to develop an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner, which, when integrated with Alstom's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems will provide a means to achieve: Less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a high volatile Eastern or Western bituminous coal, Less than 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a subbituminous coal, NOx reduction costs at least 25% lower than the costs of an SCR, Validation of the NOx control technology developed through large (15 MWt) pilot scale demonstration, and Documentation required for economic evaluation and commercial application. During the project performance period, Alstom performed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and large pilot scale combustion testing in its Industrial Scale Burner Facility (ISBF) at its U.S. Power Plant Laboratories facility in Windsor, Connecticut in support of these objectives. The NOx reduction approach was to optimize near-field combustion to ensure that minimum NOx emissions are achieved with minimal impact on unburned carbon in ash, slagging and fouling, corrosion, and flame stability/turn-down. Several iterations of CFD and combustion testing on a Midwest coal led to an optimized design, which was extensively combustion tested on a range of coals. The data from these tests were then used to validate system costs and benefits versus SCR. Three coals were evaluated during the bench-scale and large pilot-scale testing tasks. The three coals ranged from a very reactive subbituminous coal to a moderately reactive Western bituminous coal to a much less reactive Midwest bituminous coal. Bench-scale testing was comprised of standard ASTM properties evaluation, plus more detailed characterization of fuel properties through drop tube furnace testing and thermogravimetric analysis. Bench-scale characterization of the three test coals showed that both NOx emissions and combustion performance are a strong function of coal properties. The more reactive coals evolved more of their fuel bound nitrogen in the substoichiometric main burner zone than less reactive coal, resulting in the potential for lower NOx emissions. From a combustion point of view, the more reactive coals also showed lower carbon in ash and CO values than the less reactive coal at any given main burner zone stoichiometry. According to bench-scale results, the subbituminous coal was found to be the most amenable to both low NOx, and acceptably low combustibles in the flue gas, in an air staged low NOx system. The Midwest bituminous coal, by contrast, was predicted to be the most challenging of the three coals, with the Western bituminous coal predicted to beh

  10. Combustion diagnostic for active engine feedback control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Green, Jr., Johney Boyd (Knoxville, TN); Daw, Charles Stuart (Knoxville, TN); Wagner, Robert Milton (Knoxville, TN)

    2007-10-02

    This invention detects the crank angle location where combustion switches from premixed to diffusion, referred to as the transition index, and uses that location to define integration limits that measure the portions of heat released during the combustion process that occur during the premixed and diffusion phases. Those integrated premixed and diffusion values are used to develop a metric referred to as the combustion index. The combustion index is defined as the integrated diffusion contribution divided by the integrated premixed contribution. As the EGR rate is increased enough to enter the low temperature combustion regime, PM emissions decrease because more of the combustion process is occurring over the premixed portion of the heat release rate profile and the diffusion portion has been significantly reduced. This information is used to detect when the engine is or is not operating in a low temperature combustion mode and provides that feedback to an engine control algorithm.

  11. Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ojeda, William de

    2010-07-31

    The project which extended from November 2005 to May of 2010 demonstrated the application of Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) with engine out NOx levels of 0.2 g/bhp-hr throughout the program target load of 12.6bar BMEP. The project showed that the range of loads could be extended to 16.5bar BMEP, therefore matching the reference lug line of the base 2007 MY Navistar 6.4L V8 engine. Results showed that the application of LTC provided a dramatic improvement over engine out emissions when compared to the base engine. Furthermore LTC improved thermal efficiency by over 5% from the base production engine when using the steady state 13 mode composite test as a benchmark. The key enablers included improvements in the air, fuel injection, and cooling systems made in Phases I and II. The outcome was the product of a careful integration of each component under an intelligent control system. The engine hardware provided the conditions to support LTC and the controller provided the necessary robustness for a stable combustion. Phase III provided a detailed account on the injection strategy used to meet the high load requirements. During this phase, the control strategy was implemented in a production automotive grade ECU to perform cycle-by-cycle combustion feedback on each of the engine cylinders. The control interacted on a cycle base with the injection system and with the Turbo-EGR systems according to their respective time constants. The result was a unique system that could, first, help optimize the combustion system and maintain high efficiency, and secondly, extend the steady state results to the transient mode of operation. The engine was upgraded in Phase IV with a Variable Valve Actuation system and a hybrid EGR loop. The impact of the more versatile EGR loop did not provide significant advantages, however the application of VVA proved to be an enabler to further extend the operation of LTC and gain considerable benefits in fuel economy and soot reduction. Finally, the transient demonstration was performed in Phase IV. The project demonstrated the achievement of meeting US10 emissions without NOx aftertreatment. The successful execution of the project has served to highlight the effectiveness of closely matched combustion predictive tools to engine testing. It has further served to highlight the importance of key technologies and future areas of research and development. In this regard, recommendations are made towards further improvements in the areas of engine hardware, fuel injection systems, controls and fuels.

  12. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESEARCH Int. J. Energy Res. 2005; 29:11331151

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weidner, John W.

    to compete with the currently used power sources (e.g. internal combustion engines) PEMFCs must operate overINTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESEARCH Int. J. Energy Res. 2005; 29:1133­1151 Published online

  13. Emissions of trace gases and aerosols during the open combustion of biomass in the laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMeeking, Gavin R.

    2009-01-01

    mercury emissions during biomass combustion: Controllingin biomass smoke from residential wood combustion: Emissions1997), Emissions from smoldering combustion of biomass

  14. Determination of temperature and concentration from radiometric measurements in combustion systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ren, Tao

    2015-01-01

    vii Spectral Bands for Combustion Gases . . . . . .Spectral Bands for Combustion Gases . . . . . . . . . 1.1.3for combustion gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  15. Combustion synthesis continuous flow reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maupin, G.D.; Chick, L.A.; Kurosky, R.P.

    1998-01-06

    The present invention is a reactor for combustion synthesis of inorganic powders. The reactor includes a reaction vessel having a length and a first end and a second end. The reaction vessel further has a solution inlet and a carrier gas inlet. The reactor further has a heater for heating both the solution and the carrier gas. In a preferred embodiment, the reaction vessel is heated and the solution is in contact with the heated reaction vessel. It is further preferred that the reaction vessel be cylindrical and that the carrier gas is introduced tangentially into the reaction vessel so that the solution flows helically along the interior wall of the reaction vessel. As the solution evaporates and combustion produces inorganic material powder, the carrier gas entrains the powder and carries it out of the reactor. 10 figs.

  16. Coal combustion by wet oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bettinger, J.A.; Lamparter, R.A.; McDowell, D.C.

    1980-11-15

    The combustion of coal by wet oxidation was studied by the Center for Waste Management Programs, of Michigan Technological University. In wet oxidation a combustible material, such as coal, is reacted with oxygen in the presence of liquid water. The reaction is typically carried out in the range of 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 353/sup 0/C (650/sup 0/F) with sufficient pressure to maintain the water present in the liquid state, and provide the partial pressure of oxygen in the gas phase necessary to carry out the reaction. Experimental studies to explore the key reaction parameters of temperature, time, oxidant, catalyst, coal type, and mesh size were conducted by running batch tests in a one-gallon stirred autoclave. The factors exhibiting the greatest effect on the extent of reaction were temperature and residence time. The effect of temperature was studied from 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 260/sup 0/C (500/sup 0/F) with a residence time from 600 to 3600 seconds. From this data, the reaction activation energy of 2.7 x 10/sup 4/ calories per mole was determined for a high-volatile-A-Bituminous type coal. The reaction rate constant may be determined at any temperature from the activation energy using the Arrhenius equation. Additional data were generated on the effect of mesh size and different coal types. A sample of peat was also tested. Two catalysts were evaluated, and their effects on reaction rate presented in the report. In addition to the high temperature combustion, low temperature desulfurization is discussed. Desulfurization can improve low grade coal to be used in conventional combustion methods. It was found that 90% of the sulfur can be removed from the coal by wet oxidation with the carbon untouched. Further desulfurization studies are indicated.

  17. Homogeneous catalysts in hypersonic combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harradine, D.M.; Lyman, J.L.; Oldenborg, R.C.; Pack, R.T.; Schott, G.L.

    1989-01-01

    Density and residence time both become unfavorably small for efficient combustion of hydrogen fuel in ramjet propulsion in air at high altitude and hypersonic speed. Raising the density and increasing the transit time of the air through the engine necessitates stronger contraction of the air flow area. This enhances the kinetic and thermodynamic tendency of H/sub 2/O to form completely, accompanied only by N/sub 2/ and any excess H/sub 2/(or O/sub 2/). The by-products to be avoided are the energetically expensive fragment species H and/or O atoms and OH radicals, and residual (2H/sub 2/ plus O/sub 2/). However, excessive area contraction raises air temperature and consequent combustion-product temperature by adiabatic compression. This counteracts and ultimately overwhelms the thermodynamic benefit by which higher density favors the triatomic product, H/sub 2/O, over its monatomic and diatomic alternatives. For static pressures in the neighborhood of 1 atm, static temperature must be kept or brought below ca. 2400 K for acceptable stability of H/sub 2/O. Another measure, whose requisite chemistry we address here, is to extract propulsive work from the combustion products early in the expansion. The objective is to lower the static temperature of the combustion stream enough for H/sub 2/O to become adequately stable before the exhaust flow is massively expanded and its composition ''frozen.'' We proceed to address this mechanism and its kinetics, and then examine prospects for enhancing its rate by homogeneous catalysts. 9 refs.

  18. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    During this first quarter, a lab-scale water-cooled pulse combustor was designed, fabricated, and integrated with old pilot-scale PAFBC test systems. Characterization tests on this pulse combustor firing different kinds of fuel -- natural gas, pulverized coal and fine coal -- were conducted (without fluidized bed operation) for the purpose of finalizing PAFBC full-scale design. Steady-state tests were performed. Heat transfer performance and combustion efficiency of a coal-fired pulse combustor were evaluated.

  19. TOXIC SUBSTANCES FROM COAL COMBUSTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolker, A.; Sarofim, A.F.; Palmer, C.A.; Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P.; Lighty, J.; Veranth, J.; Helble, J.J.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Ames, M.R.; Finkelman, R.; Mamani-Paco, M.; Sterling, R.; Mroczkowsky, S.J.; Panagiotou, T.; Seames, W.

    1999-05-10

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 identify a number of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) as candidates for regulation. Should regulations be imposed on HAP emissions from coal-fired power plants, a sound understanding of the fundamental principles controlling the formation and partitioning of toxic species during coal combustion will be needed. With support from the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), the Electric Power Research Institute, and VTT (Finland), Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) has teamed with researchers from USGS, MIT, the University of Arizona (UA), the University of Kentucky (UK), the University of Connecticut (UC), the University of Utah (UU) and the University of North Dakota Energy and Environ-mental Research Center (EERC) to develop a broadly applicable emissions model useful to regulators and utility planners. The new Toxics Partitioning Engineering Model (ToPEM) will be applicable to all combustion conditions including new fuels and coal blends, low-NOx combustion systems, and new power generation plants. Development of ToPEM will be based on PSI's existing Engineering Model for Ash Formation (EMAF). This report covers the reporting period from 1 January 1999 to 31 March 1999. During this period, a full Program Review Meeting was held at the University of Arizona. At this meeting, the progress of each group was reviewed, plans for the following 9 month period were discussed, and action items (principally associated with the transfer of samples and reports among the various investigators) were identified.

  20. Is combustion of plastics desirable?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piasecki, B.; Rainey, D.; Fletcher, K.

    1998-07-01

    Managing waste will always entail some tradeoffs. All of the three options--recycling, landfilling and combustion--have some disadvantages. Even landfilling, which produces no emissions, fails to take advantage of the energy value inherent in plastic. Waste combustion, on the other hand, recovers the energy in plastic materials and reduces the volume of disposed solid waste by up to 90% of its initial preburn volumes. However, this management option generates emissions and produces an ash residue that must be managed. As demonstrated by recent test burns, improvements in combustion and air-pollution-control technology have dramatically reduced the health risks from emissions and ash. Recent studies have shown that plastics--in quantities even higher than those normally found in municipal solid waste--do not adversely affect levels of emissions or the quality of ash from waste-to-energy facilities. In addition, waste-to-energy facilities may be a relatively economical source of fuel, and may be a more economic solution to waste management than the other available options. A waste-to-energy plant generally produces electricity that is sold to the electric utilities for approximately six cents per kilowatt-hour, a rate that is competitive with those offered by nuclear power plants and power plants that generate energy by burning fossil fuels.

  1. COMBUSTION RESEARCH Chapter from the Energy and Environment Division Annual Report 1980

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2013-01-01

    Heat Transfer with Combustion R. Greif, H. Heperkan, J.H. Stewart . • . • • . COMBUSTION CHEMISTRY AND POLLUTANTInternational) on Combustion, The Combustion institute,

  2. Industrial Combustion Vision: A Vision by and for the Industrial Combustion Community

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1998-05-01

    The Industrial Combustion Vision is the result of a collaborative effort by manufacturers and users of burners, boilers, furnaces, and other process heating equipment. The vision sets bold targets for tomorrow's combustion systems.

  3. Researchers create successful predictions of combustion reaction...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    pressure-dependent chemical reaction rates, an important breakthrough in combustion and atmospheric chemistry that is expected to benefit auto and engine manufacturers, oil and...

  4. Pyrolysis reactor and fluidized bed combustion chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Green, Norman W. (Upland, CA)

    1981-01-06

    A solid carbonaceous material is pyrolyzed in a descending flow pyrolysis reactor in the presence of a particulate source of heat to yield a particulate carbon containing solid residue. The particulate source of heat is obtained by educting with a gaseous source of oxygen the particulate carbon containing solid residue from a fluidized bed into a first combustion zone coupled to a second combustion zone. A source of oxygen is introduced into the second combustion zone to oxidize carbon monoxide formed in the first combustion zone to heat the solid residue to the temperature of the particulate source of heat.

  5. A Generalized Pyrolysis Model for Combustible Solids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lautenberger, Chris

    2007-01-01

    combustion chemistry is not all that well understood, experimental data [212] for the spontaneous ignition delay time of a lean propane/

  6. Combustion with reduced carbon in the ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kobayashi, Hisashi; Bool, III, Lawrence E.

    2005-12-27

    Combustion of coal in which oxygen is injected into the coal as it emerges from burner produces ash having reduced amounts of carbon.

  7. A Generalized Pyrolysis Model for Combustible Solids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lautenberger, Chris

    2007-01-01

    fluid mechanics, heat transfer, radiation, and combustion toJ.R. , Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer . Third Edition,to account for radiation heat transfer across pores. The

  8. Theoretical studies of combustion dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowman, J.M. [Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The basic objectives of this research program are to develop and apply theoretical techniques to fundamental dynamical processes of importance in gas-phase combustion. There are two major areas currently supported by this grant. One is reactive scattering of diatom-diatom systems, and the other is the dynamics of complex formation and decay based on L{sup 2} methods. In all of these studies, the authors focus on systems that are of interest experimentally, and for which potential energy surfaces based, at least in part, on ab initio calculations are available.

  9. Advanced Combustion | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsicloudden DocumentationAccommodationsRegister /Advanced EnergyCombustion Advanced

  10. Sandia Energy - Applied Turbulent Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II) byMultidayAlumni >ScientificApplied Turbulent Combustion Home

  11. Combustion and Magnetohydrodynamic Processes in Advanced Pulse Detonation Rocket Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cole, Lord Kahil

    2012-01-01

    Combustion and Magnetohydrodynamic Processes in Advanced PulseCombustion and Magnetohydrodynamic Processes in Advanced PulseCombustion Theory and Modeling, 9:159170, [16] Jean-Luc Cambier. Development of numerical tools for pulse

  12. An Energy Analysis of the Catalytic Combustion Burner 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Q.; Zhang, S.; Duan, Z.; Zhou, Q.

    2006-01-01

    The gas boilers of conventional flame always produce varying degrees of combustion products NOx and CO, which pollute the environment and waste energy. As a new way of combustion, catalytic combustion breaks the flammable limits of conventional...

  13. NUMERICAL MODELING OF TURBULENT FLOW IN A COMBUSTION TUNNEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghoniem, A.F.

    2013-01-01

    of turbulent combustion in a 1 ean propane~a1 of high sp r mturbulent combustion stabilized behind a step in a propane~combustion behind a step at R while Su corresponding to a propane-

  14. The Measurement and Application of Electric Effects in Combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, Daniel Corrigan

    2015-01-01

    radiation on a propane-air flame”. In: Combustion and Flameradiation on a propane-air flame”. In: Combustion and Flamein premixed propane–air flames”. In: Combustion and Flame

  15. Vehicle Technologies Office: 2011 Advanced Combustion R&D Annual...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion R&D Annual Progress Report Vehicle Technologies Office: 2011 Advanced Combustion R&D Annual Progress Report Annual report on the work of the the Advanced Combustion...

  16. Vehicle Technologies Office: 2009 Advanced Combustion R&D Annual...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9 Advanced Combustion R&D Annual Progress Report Vehicle Technologies Office: 2009 Advanced Combustion R&D Annual Progress Report The Advanced Combustion Engine R&D subprogram...

  17. COMBUSTION RESEARCH PROGRAM. CHAPTER FROM ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT ANNUAL REPORT 1977

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2011-01-01

    Applied to Turbulent Combustion Flows J. W. Daily and C.Metals from Pulverized Coal Combustion P. Sherman and F.Applied to Turbulent Combustion Flows J. W. Daily and C.

  18. Improved high speed maglev design

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rote, D.M.; He, Jianliang; Coffey, H.T.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses a propulsion and stabilization system for an inductive repulsion type magnetically levitated vehicle which is propelled and suspended by a system which includes dividing the superconducting magnets into two types: a strong field magnet which is located vertically below the vehicle for propulsion and guidance and a weak field superconducting magnet located at the ends of the vehicle for levitation and added guidance. Several proposed embodiments exist for the placement of the magnetic field shielding: locating the shielding on the vehicle, locating the shielding on the guideway, and locating the shielding on the guideway and adding shielding to the vertical undercarriage. In addition, the separation between the be vehicle and the guideway can be controlled to reduce the exposure of the passenger cabin to magnetic fields.

  19. NETL- High-Pressure Combustion Research Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-07-08

    NETL's High-Pressure Combustion Facility is a unique resource within the National Laboratories system. It provides the test capabilities needed to evaluate new combustion concepts for high-pressure, high-temperature hydrogen and natural gas turbines. These concepts will be critical for the next generation of ultra clean, ultra efficient power systems.

  20. Sandia combustion research program: Annual report, 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmer, R.E.; Sanders, B.R.; Ivanetich, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    More than a decade ago, in response to a national energy crisis, Sandia proposed to the US Department of Energy a new, ambitious program in combustion research. Our strategy was to apply the rapidly increasing capabilities in lasers and computers to combustion science and technology. Shortly thereafter, the Combustion Research Facility (CRF) was established at Sandia's Livermore location. Designated a ''User Facility,'' the charter of the CRF was to develop and maintain special-purpose resources to support a nationwide initiative--involving US universities, industry, and national laboratories--to improve our understanding and control of combustion. This report includes descriptions of several research projects which have been stimulated by Working Groups and involve the on-site participation of industry scientists. DOE's Industry Technology Fellowship Program has been instrumental in the success of some of the joint efforts. The remainder of this report presents research results of calendar year 1987, separated thematically into nine categories. Refereed journal articles appearing in print during 1987, along with selected other publications, are included at the end of Section 10. In addition to our ''traditional'' research--chemistry, reacting flow, diagnostics, engine combustion, and coal combustion--you will note continued progress in somewhat recent themes: pulse combustion, high temperature materials, and energetic materials, for example. Moreover, we have just started a small, new effort to understand combustion-related issues in the management of toxic and hazardous materials.

  1. NETL- High-Pressure Combustion Research Facility

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-06-26

    NETL's High-Pressure Combustion Facility is a unique resource within the National Laboratories system. It provides the test capabilities needed to evaluate new combustion concepts for high-pressure, high-temperature hydrogen and natural gas turbines. These concepts will be critical for the next generation of ultra clean, ultra efficient power systems.

  2. Coal slurry combustion and technology. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Volume II contains papers presented at the following sessions of the Coal Slurry Combustion and Technology Symposium: (1) bench-scale testing; (2) pilot testing; (3) combustion; and (4) rheology and characterization. Thirty-three papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (ATT)

  3. Oxy-coal Combustion Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Wendt; E. Eddings; J. Lighty; T. Ring; P. Smith; J. Thornock; Y. Jia, W. Morris; J. Pedel; D. Rezeai; L. Wang; J. Zhang; K. Kelly

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this project is to move toward the development of a predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for pilot-scale, single-burner, oxy-coal operation. This validation research brings together multi-scale experimental measurements and computer simulations. The combination of simulation development and validation experiments is designed to lead to predictive tools for the performance of existing air fired pulverized coal boilers that have been retrofitted to various oxy-firing configurations. In addition, this report also describes novel research results related to oxy-combustion in circulating fluidized beds. For pulverized coal combustion configurations, particular attention is focused on the effect of oxy-firing on ignition and coal-flame stability, and on the subsequent partitioning mechanisms of the ash aerosol. To these ends, the project has focused on the following: â?¢ The development of reliable Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of oxy-coal flames using the Direct Quadrature Method of Moments (DQMOM) (Subtask 3.1). The simulations were validated for both non-reacting particle-laden jets and oxy-coal flames. â?¢ The modifications of an existing oxy-coal combustor to allow operation with high levels of input oxygen to enable in-situ laser diagnostic measurements as well as the development of strategies for directed oxygen injection (Subtask 3.2). Flame stability was quantified for various burner configurations. One configuration that was explored was to inject all the oxygen as a pure gas within an annular oxygen lance, with burner aerodynamics controlling the subsequent mixing. â?¢ The development of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) for identification of velocity fields in turbulent oxy-coal flames in order to provide high-fidelity data for the validation of oxy-coal simulation models (Subtask 3.3). Initial efforts utilized a laboratory diffusion flame, first using gas-fuel and later a pulverized-coal flame to ensure the methodology was properly implemented and that all necessary data and image-processing techniques were fully developed. Success at this stage of development led to application of the diagnostics in a large-scale oxy-fuel combustor (OFC). â?¢ The impact of oxy-coal-fired vs. air-fired environments on SO{sub x} (SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}) emissions during coal combustion in a pilot-scale circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) (Subtask 3.4). Profiles of species concentration and temperature were obtained for both conditions, and profiles of temperature over a wide range of O{sub 2} concentration were studied for oxy-firing conditions. The effect of limestone addition on SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} emissions were also examined for both air- and oxy- firing conditions. â?¢ The investigation of O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} environments on SO{sub 2 emissions during coal combustion in a bench-scale single-particle fluidized-bed reactor (Subtask 3.5). Moreover, the sulfation mechanisms of limestone in O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} environments were studied, and a generalized gassolid and diffusion-reaction single-particle model was developed to study the effect of major operating variables. â?¢ The investigation of the effect of oxy-coal combustion on ash formation, particle size distributions (PSD), and size-segregated elemental composition in a drop-tube furnace and the 100 kW OFC (Subtask 3.6). In particular, the effect of coal type and flue gas recycle (FGR, OFC only) was investigated.

  4. Favre- and Reynolds-averaged velocity measurements: interpreting PIV and LDA measurements in combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamal, M. Mustafa; Balusamy, Saravanan; Zhou, Ruigang; Hochgreb, Simone

    2014-07-04

    for their financial contributions to this work. References [1] F. Seffrin; F. Fuest; D. Geyer; A. Dreizler, Combust. Flame 157 (2) (2010) 384-396 [2] G. Kuenne; F. Seffrin; F. Fuest; T. Stahler; A. Ketelheun; D. Geyer; J. Janicka; A. Dreizler, Combust. Flame... . M. Kamal; C. Duwig; S. Balusamy; R. Zhou; S. Hochgreb, in: Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo, GT2014-26222, Dusseldorf, Germany, accepted, 2014.  14     [6] T. Nomura; Y. Takahashi; T. Ishima; T. Obokata, in: 12th International Symposium...

  5. Microwave-Assisted Ignition for Improved Internal Combustion Engine Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeFilippo, Anthony Cesar

    2013-01-01

    potential energy savings associated with using ethanol fuelas a fuel comes from the potential for life-cycle energy

  6. Microwave-Assisted Ignition for Improved Internal Combustion Engine Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeFilippo, Anthony Cesar

    2013-01-01

    as lowered costs of clean, renewable energy sources willcost of using oil may delay its economical replacement by clean renewable energies

  7. ADVANCED INTERNAL COMBUSTION ELECTRICAL GENERATOR Peter Van Blarigan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . This is due to the fact that the fuel energy is converted to heat at constant volume when the working fluid. The objective of this project is to provide a high efficiency means of renewable hydrogen-based fuel utilization for renewable hydrogen-based fuel utilization. A full-scale prototype will be produced in collaboration

  8. Plasmatron Fuel Reformer Development and Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Massachusetts Institute of Technology

  9. Vaporizer design criteria for ethanol fueled internal combustion engines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ariyaratne, Arachchi Rallage

    1985-01-01

    to gasoline. Rogowski and Taylor (1941) showed that alcohol could be used as an anti-knock agent for gasoline, but that alcohol could not compete economically with petroleum fuels as an engine fuel. These and many other studies show the potential... been identified in conversion of diesel engines of farm tractors for using alcohol fuels. Distillation at atmospheric pressure does not yield 200 proof ethanol, (Winston, 1981), so with present technology, ethanol produced on farms is aqueous. A...

  10. Microwave-Assisted Ignition for Improved Internal Combustion Engine Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeFilippo, Anthony Cesar

    2013-01-01

    technology will reveal additional energy sources including ocean waves, plant cellulose, high- altitude wind, andtechnologies for accommodating intermittent, distributed energy sources such as solar and windTechnology has unlocked utilization of atomic energy, water potential energy, solar energy, wind

  11. Microwave-Assisted Ignition for Improved Internal Combustion Engine Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeFilippo, Anthony Cesar

    2013-01-01

    wants cheap energy, but nobody wants a wind turbine whirringfrom energy sources include dams breaking, wind turbineswind energy, and the earth’s heat through respective advances in nuclear fission, hydroelectric dams, photovoltaic solar panels, wind turbines,

  12. Throttle valve control device for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ejiri, Y.; Ito, T.

    1988-05-31

    In a throttle valve control device for controlling a position of an engine throttle valve secured to a rotary shaft, which includes a control unit operative to produce a first electrical signal in accordance with a movement of an engine accelerator and an electro-mechanical force transducer operative to impart a first rotational torque to the rotary shaft and thereby to the throttle valve, the first rotational torque corresponding to the first electrical signal, the improvement is described comprising: a throttle valve returning means operative to produce a second rotational torque for biasing the throttle valve to a fully closed position irrespective of the movement of the engine accelerator and means responsive to the second electrical signal to transmit the second rotational torque to the rotary shaft irrespective of the movement of the engine accelerator.

  13. Rotary internal combustion engine and method of operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ballinger, M.S.

    1988-05-03

    A rotor is formed to include recesses each of which engages a portion of a rotary piston. The remaining portions of the rotary pistons project radially outwardly from the periphery of the rotor to a position contiguous the inner surface of a peripheral stator wall. The peripheral stator wall includes endwardly projecting lobes. The lobes are elongated axially of the engine and present convex surfaces of circular curvature which conform in size and shape to concave pockets formed in side portion of the rotary pistons. During rotation of the rotary assembly the piston pockets move into and then out from a meshing engagement with the lobes. One of the lobes carries an igniter. An explosive lean mixture is drawn into the side pocket of a piston as the piston moves past an inlet opening. This mixture is compressed by the engagement of the piston pocket and the lobe. Ignition of the compressed charged creates an explosive force acting on the rotor assembly, causing it to rotate.

  14. H2 Internal Combustion Engine Research Towards 45% efficiency and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancing Programs | DepartmentINDUSTRIALH-Tank Farm

  15. Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Refinery and Chemical Plant...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Flexible Combustion System for Refinery and Chemical Plant Process Heaters - Fact Sheet 2014 Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Refinery and Chemical Plant Process Heaters - Fact...

  16. Sandia Energy - Heavy Duty Low-Temperature & Diesel Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    reduce engine-out emissions. These approaches could allow advanced diesel combustion or low-temperature combustion strategies with potential for enabling both increased fuel...

  17. High Efficiency Clean Combustion for Heavy-Duty Engine

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Explore advancements in engine combustion systems using high-efficiency clean combustion (HECC) techniques to minimize engine-out emissions while optimizing fuel economy.

  18. Catalyst for Improving the Combustion Efficiency of Petroleum...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Improving the Combustion Efficiency of Petroleum Fuels in Diesel Engines Catalyst for Improving the Combustion Efficiency of Petroleum Fuels in Diesel Engines 2005 Diesel...

  19. A University Consortium on High Pressure, Lean Combustion for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Pressure, Lean Combustion for Efficient and Clean IC Engines (UM - lead, MIT, UCB) A University Consortium on High Pressure, Lean Combustion for Efficient and Clean IC Engines...

  20. Computationally Efficient Modeling of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Computationally Efficient Modeling of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Engines Computationally Efficient Modeling of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Engines...

  1. Variable Valve Actuation for Advanced Mode Diesel Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Valve Actuation for Advanced Mode Diesel Combustion Variable Valve Actuation for Advanced Mode Diesel Combustion Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle Technologies...

  2. Municipal Waste Combustion (New Mexico) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Municipal Waste Combustion (New Mexico) Municipal Waste Combustion (New Mexico) < Back Eligibility Investor-Owned Utility Local Government MunicipalPublic Utility Rural Electric...

  3. ¿Aceite vegetal puro como combustible diesel? (Straight Vegetable...

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    sobre combustibles alternativos y vehculos de combustibles alternativos. El sitio web de la Oficina de Eficiencia Energtica y de Energa Renovable del DOE, www.eere....

  4. Vehicle Technologies Office: 2010 Advanced Combustion R&D Annual...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Combustion R&D Annual Progress Report Vehicle Technologies Office: 2010 Advanced Combustion R&D Annual Progress Report 2010advcombustionengine.pdf More Documents &...

  5. Vehicle Technologies Office: 2008 Advanced Combustion R&D Annual...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Combustion R&D Annual Progress Report Vehicle Technologies Office: 2008 Advanced Combustion R&D Annual Progress Report 2008advcombustionengine.pdf More Documents &...

  6. Unregulated Emissions from High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Modes...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Unregulated Emissions from High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Modes - ORNL-FEERC Unregulated Emissions from High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Modes - ORNL-FEERC Poster presentation at...

  7. Characterization of Particulate Emissions from GDI Engine Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Particulate Emissions from GDI Engine Combustion with Alcohol-blended Fuels Characterization of Particulate Emissions from GDI Engine Combustion with Alcohol-blended Fuels Analysis...

  8. Idling Emissions Reduction Technology with Low Temperature Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Idling Emissions Reduction Technology with Low Temperature Combustion of DI Biodiesel and PFI n-Butanol Idling Emissions Reduction Technology with Low Temperature Combustion of DI...

  9. Development of Fuel-Flexible Combustion Systems Utilizing Opportunity...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel-Flexible Combustion Systems Utilizing Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines - Fact Sheet, May 2014 Development of Fuel-Flexible Combustion Systems Utilizing Opportunity Fuels in...

  10. Combustion Turbine CHP System for Food Processing Industry -...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion Turbine CHP System for Food Processing Industry - Presentation by Frito-Lay North America, June 2011 Combustion Turbine CHP System for Food Processing Industry -...

  11. Fuel Formulation Effects on Diesel Fuel Injection, Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Formulation Effects on Diesel Fuel Injection, Combustion, Emissions and Emission Control Fuel Formulation Effects on Diesel Fuel Injection, Combustion, Emissions and Emission...

  12. A University Consortium on Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) for High Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission Engines A University Consortium on Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) for High Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission...

  13. Building America Webinar: Solutions for Combustion Safety in...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Building America Webinar: Solutions for Combustion Safety in Existing Homes Building America Webinar: Solutions for Combustion Safety in Existing Homes December 16, 2015 3:00PM to...

  14. Hydrogen Assisted Diesel Combustion in a Common Rail Turbodiesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Assisted Diesel Combustion in a Common Rail Turbodiesel Engine Hydrogen Assisted Diesel Combustion in a Common Rail Turbodiesel Engine This study measured the effects of hydrogen...

  15. Heavy-Duty Low Temperature Combustion Development Activities...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Temperature Combustion Development Activities at Caterpillar Heavy-Duty Low Temperature Combustion Development Activities at Caterpillar Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel...

  16. Syngas Enhanced High Efficiency Low Temperature Combustion for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Enhanced High Efficiency Low Temperature Combustion for Clean Diesel Engines Syngas Enhanced High Efficiency Low Temperature Combustion for Clean Diesel Engines A significant...

  17. Vehicle Technologies Office: 2008 Advanced Combustion R&D Annual...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion R&D Annual Progress Report Vehicle Technologies Office: 2008 Advanced Combustion R&D Annual Progress Report 2008advcombustionengine.pdf More Documents & Publications...

  18. Demonstrating Optimum HCCI Combustion with Advanced Control Technology...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Optimum HCCI Combustion with Advanced Control Technology Demonstrating Optimum HCCI Combustion with Advanced Control Technology Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel...

  19. Combustion, Efficiency, and Fuel Effects in a Spark-Assisted...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion, Efficiency, and Fuel Effects in a Spark-Assisted HCCI Gasoline Engine Combustion, Efficiency, and Fuel Effects in a Spark-Assisted HCCI Gasoline Engine 2004 Diesel...

  20. Exploring Advanced Combustion Regimes for Efficiency and Emissions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Exploring Advanced Combustion Regimes for Efficiency and Emissions Exploring Advanced Combustion Regimes for Efficiency and Emissions 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: Oak Ridge...

  1. Use of Low Cetane Fuel to Enable Low Temperature Combustion

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Document:  ace011_ciatti_2013_o.pdfTechnology Area: Advanced Combustion; Combustion and Emissions ControlPresenter: Steve CiattiPresenting Organization: Argonne National Laboratory (ANL...

  2. Particulate Produced from Advanced Combustion Operation in a...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Produced from Advanced Combustion Operation in a Compression Ignition Engine Particulate Produced from Advanced Combustion Operation in a Compression Ignition Engine Determine...

  3. Code Gaps and Future Research Needs of Combustion Safety: Building...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Code Gaps and Future Research Needs of Combustion Safety: Building America Expert Meeting Update Code Gaps and Future Research Needs of Combustion Safety: Building America Expert...

  4. Computationally Efficient Modeling of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Document:  ace012_flowers_2013_o.pdfTechnology Area: Advanced Combustion; Combustion and Emissions ControlPresenter: Dan FlowersPresenting Organization: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL...

  5. Advanced Diesel Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emissions Advanced Diesel Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emissions Poster presented at the 16th Directions...

  6. CRADA with Cummins on Characterization and Reduction of Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cummins on Characterization and Reduction of Combustion Variations CRADA with Cummins on Characterization and Reduction of Combustion Variations 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

  7. Evaluation of High Efficiency Clean Combustion (HECC) Strategies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Efficiency Clean Combustion (HECC) Strategies for Meeting Future Emissions Regulations in Light-Duty Engines Evaluation of High Efficiency Clean Combustion (HECC) Strategies...

  8. Singular perturbation problem in boundary/fractional combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-08-18

    reaction-diffusion equation, where the reaction term is of combustion type. ... Free boundary problem, combustion theory, boundary reaction- diffusion, fractional ...

  9. Vehicle Technologies Office: 2010 Advanced Combustion R&D Annual...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    10 Advanced Combustion R&D Annual Progress Report Vehicle Technologies Office: 2010 Advanced Combustion R&D Annual Progress Report 2010advcombustionengine.pdf More Documents &...

  10. Modeling of HCCI and PCCI Combustion Processes | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HCCI and PCCI Combustion Processes Modeling of HCCI and PCCI Combustion Processes 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters...

  11. Overview of Sonex Combustion Systems (SCS) for DI Engines | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sonex Combustion Systems (SCS) for DI Engines Overview of Sonex Combustion Systems (SCS) for DI Engines The SCS system has undergone computational and experimental verification and...

  12. Enabling High Efficiency Low Temperature Combustion by Adaptive...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Temperature Combustion by Adaptive In-Situ Jet Cooling Enabling High Efficiency Low Temperature Combustion by Adaptive In-Situ Jet Cooling A new approach, called...

  13. Oxygen-Enriched Combustion for Military Diesel Engine Generators...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oxygen-Enriched Combustion for Military Diesel Engine Generators Oxygen-Enriched Combustion for Military Diesel Engine Generators Substantial increases in brake power and...

  14. Advanced Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Prepared for the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Advanced Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Prepared for the Clean Air Task Force under a grant from...................................................................................... 3 2. Current Status of Post-Combustion Capture

  15. 3-D Combustion Simulation Strategy Status, Future Potential,...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion Simulation Strategy Status, Future Potential, and Application Issues 3-D Combustion Simulation Strategy Status, Future Potential, and Application Issues 2004 Diesel...

  16. Dilute Clean Diesel Combustion Achieves Low Emissions and High...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dilute Clean Diesel Combustion Achieves Low Emissions and High Efficiency While Avoiding Control Problems of HCCI Dilute Clean Diesel Combustion Achieves Low Emissions and High...

  17. Advancement in Fuel Spray and Combustion Modeling for Compression...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advancement in Fuel Spray and Combustion Modeling for Compression Ignition Engine Applications Advancement in Fuel Spray and Combustion Modeling for Compression Ignition Engine...

  18. Numerical Modeling of PCCI Combustion | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PCCI Combustion Numerical Modeling of PCCI Combustion 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Lawrence Livermore National LaboratoryUniversity of...

  19. CFD Combustion Modeling with Conditional Moment Closure using Tabulated Chemistry

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A method is presented that allows for efficient conditional moment closure combustion simulations through the use of a progress variable based parameterization of the combustion chemistry.

  20. CFD Combustion Modeling with Conditional Moment Closure using...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion Modeling with Conditional Moment Closure using Tabulated Chemistry CFD Combustion Modeling with Conditional Moment Closure using Tabulated Chemistry A method is...

  1. Accurate Predictions of Fuel Effects on Combustion and Emissions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on Combustion and Emissions in Engines Using CFD Simulations With Detailed Fuel Chemistry Accurate Predictions of Fuel Effects on Combustion and Emissions in Engines Using...

  2. Vehicle Technologies Office: 2012 Advanced Combustion R&D Annual...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Vehicle Technologies Office: 2012 Advanced Combustion R&D Annual Progress Report Vehicle Technologies Office: 2012 Advanced Combustion R&D Annual Progress Report Annual report on...

  3. Improve Your Boiler's Combustion Efficiency | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Improve Your Boiler's Combustion Efficiency This tip sheet outlines how to improve boiler combustion efficiency as part of an optimized steam system. STEAM TIP SHEET 4 Improve...

  4. Improve Your Boiler's Combustion Efficiency, Energy Tips: STEAM...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4 Improve Your Boiler's Combustion Efficiency Combustion Efficiency Operating your boiler with an optimum amount of excess air will minimize heat loss up the stack and improve...

  5. Modeling Combustion Control for High Power Diesel Mode Switching...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion Control for High Power Diesel Mode Switching Modeling Combustion Control for High Power Diesel Mode Switching Poster presentation given at the 16th Directions in...

  6. Large Eddy Simulation (LES) Applied to Advanced Engine Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Engine Combustion Research Large Eddy Simulation (LES) Applied to Advanced Engine Combustion Research 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies...

  7. Factors Affecting HCCI Combustion Phasing for Fuels with Single...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Affecting HCCI Combustion Phasing for Fuels with Single- and Dual-Stage Chemistry Factors Affecting HCCI Combustion Phasing for Fuels with Single- and Dual-Stage Chemistry 2004...

  8. Glow Plug Integrated Piezo-Ceramic Combustion Sensor for Diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Glow Plug Integrated Piezo-Ceramic Combustion Sensor for Diesel Engines Glow Plug Integrated Piezo-Ceramic Combustion Sensor for Diesel Engines 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions...

  9. Guide to Low-Emission Boiler and Combustion Equipment Selection...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Emission Boiler and Combustion Equipment Selection Guide to Low-Emission Boiler and Combustion Equipment Selection The guide provides background information about various types...

  10. Heavy-Duty Engine Combustion Optimization for High Thermal Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion Optimization for High Thermal Efficiency Targeting EPA 2010 Emissions Heavy-Duty Engine Combustion Optimization for High Thermal Efficiency Targeting EPA 2010 Emissions...

  11. Enabling Low Temperature Combustion Through Thermo-Chemical Recuperati...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Temperature Combustion Through Thermo-Chemical Recuperation Enabling Low Temperature Combustion Through Thermo-Chemical Recuperation Poster presentation from the 2007 Diesel...

  12. Improving Combustion Software to Solve Detailed Chemical Kinetics...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion Software to Solve Detailed Chemical Kinetics for HECC Improving Combustion Software to Solve Detailed Chemical Kinetics for HECC 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program...

  13. Low Temperature Combustion with Thermo-chemical Recuperation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Temperature Combustion with Thermo-chemical Recuperation to Maximize In-use Engine Efficiency Low Temperature Combustion with Thermo-chemical Recuperation to Maximize In-use...

  14. Combustion, Control, and Fuel Effects in a Spark Assisted HCCI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Combustion, Control, and Fuel Effects in a Spark Assisted HCCI Engine Equipped with Variable Valve Timing Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Combustion, Control, and Fuel...

  15. Dry low NOx combustion system with pre-mixed direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zuo, Baifang; Johnson, Thomas; Ziminsky, Willy; Khan, Abdul

    2013-12-17

    A combustion system includes a first combustion chamber and a second combustion chamber. The second combustion chamber is positioned downstream of the first combustion chamber. The combustion system also includes a pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle. The pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle extends through the first combustion chamber into the second combustion chamber.

  16. 2003 Laser Diagnostic in Combustion Conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark G. Allen

    2004-09-10

    The GRC Laser Diagnostics in Combustion aims at bringing together scientists and engineers working in the front edge of research and development to discuss and find new ways to solve problems connected to combustion diagnostics. Laser-based techniques have proven to be very efficient tools for studying combustion processes thanks to features as non-intrusiveness in combination with high spatial and temporal resolution. Major tasks for the community are to develop and apply techniques for quantitative measurements with high precision e.g of species concentrations, temperatures, velocities and particles characteristics (size and concentration). These issues are of global interest, considering that the major part of the World's energy conversion comes from combustion sources and the influence combustion processes have on the environment and society.

  17. Combustion Properties of Biomass Flash Pyrolysis Oils: Final Project Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. R. Shaddix; D. R. Hardesty

    1999-04-01

    Thermochemical pyrolysis of solid biomass feedstocks, with subsequent condensation of the pyrolysis vapors, has been investigated in the U.S. and internationally as a means of producing a liquid fuel for power production from biomass. This process produces a fuel with significantly different physical and chemical properties from traditional petroleum-based fuel oils. In addition to storage and handling difficulties with pyrolysis oils, concern exists over the ability to use this fuel effectively in different combustors. The report endeavors to place the results and conclusions from Sandia's research into the context of international efforts to utilize pyrolysis oils. As a special supplement to this report, Dr. Steven Gust, of Finland's Neste Oy, has provided a brief assessment of pyrolysis oil combustion research efforts and commercialization prospects in Europe.

  18. Real-time combustion controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lindner, J.S.; Shepard, W.S.; Etheridge, J.A.; Jang, P.R.; Gresham, L.L.

    1997-02-04

    A method and system are disclosed for regulating the air to fuel ratio supplied to a burner to maximize the combustion efficiency. Optical means are provided in close proximity to the burner for directing a beam of radiation from hot gases produced by the burner to a plurality of detectors. Detectors are provided for sensing the concentration of, inter alia, CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O. The differences between the ratios of CO to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O to CO are compared with a known control curve based on those ratios for air to fuel ratios ranging from 0.85 to 1.30. The fuel flow is adjusted until the difference between the ratios of CO to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O to CO fall on a desired set point on the control curve. 20 figs.

  19. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    The design of the Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor (PAFBC) as described in the Quarterly Report for the period April--June, 1992 was reviewed and minor modifications were included. The most important change made was in the coal/limestone preparation and feed system. Instead of procuring pre-sized coal for testing of the PAFBC, it was decided that the installation of a milling system would permit greater flexibility in the testing with respect to size distributions and combustion characteristics in the pulse combustor and the fluid bed. Particle size separation for pulse combustor and fluid bed will be performed by an air classifier. The modified process flow diagram for the coal/limestone handling system is presented in Figure 1. The modified process flow diagrams of the fluidized bed/steam cycle and ash handling systems are presented in Figures 2 and 3, respectively.

  20. Fluidized-bed combustion fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rich, J.W. Jr.

    1990-10-09

    This patent describes a process for producing from a solid carbonaceous refuse a high ash fuel for use in a circulating fluidized-bed combustion chamber. It comprises separating from the refuse a carbonaceous portion having an ash content in a selected range percent by weight; separating the carbonaceous portion into first and second fractions, the first fraction being at or above a selected size; crushing the first fraction; and combining the crushed first fraction with the second fraction. Also described is a process wherein the selected ash content range is between about 30 percent and about 50 percent, by weight. Also described is a process wherein the selected size is above about 1/4 inch.

  1. Accounting for Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Biomass Energy Combustion (released in AEO2010)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions from the combustion of biomass to produce energy are excluded from the energy-related CO2 emissions reported in Annual Energy Outlook 2010. According to current international convention, carbon released through biomass combustion is excluded from reported energy-related emissions. The release of carbon from biomass combustion is assumed to be balanced by the uptake of carbon when the feedstock is grown, resulting in zero net emissions over some period of time]. However, analysts have debated whether increased use of biomass energy may result in a decline in terrestrial carbon stocks, leading to a net positive release of carbon rather than the zero net release assumed by its exclusion from reported energy-related emissions.

  2. Evolution of Westinghouse heavy-duty power generation and industrial combustion turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scalzo, A.J.; Bannister, R.L.; DeCorso, M.; Howard, G.S.

    1996-04-01

    This paper reviews the evolution of heavy-duty power generation and industrial combustion turbines in the United States from a Westinghouse Electric Corporation perspective. Westinghouse combustion turbine genealogy began in March of 1943 when the first wholly American designed and manufactured jet engine went on test in Philadelphia, and continues today in Orlando, Florida, with the 230 MW, 501G combustion turbine. In this paper, advances in thermodynamics, materials, cooling, and unit size will be described. Many basic design features such as two-bearing rotor, cold-end drive, can-annular internal combustors, CURVIC{sup 2} clutched turbine disks, and tangential exhaust struts have endured successfully for over 40 years. Progress in turbine technology includes the clean coal technology and advanced turbine systems initiatives of the US Department of Energy.

  3. Misfire tolerant combustion-powered actuation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM); Fischer, Gary J. (Albuquerque, NM); Marron, Lisa C. (Albuquerque, NM); Kuehl, Michael A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a combustion-powered actuator that is suitable for intermittent actuation, that is suitable for use with atmospheric pressure carburetion, and that requires little electrical energy input. The present invention uses energy from expansion of pressurized fuel to effectively purge a combustion chamber, and to achieve atmospheric pressure carburetion. Each purge-fill-power cycle can be independent, allowing the actuator to readily tolerate misfires. The present invention is suitable for use with linear and rotary operation combustion chambers, and is suitable for use in a wide variety of applications.

  4. Annual Report: Advanced Combustion (30 September 2012)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hawk, Jeffrey; Richards, George

    2012-09-30

    The Advanced Combustion Project addresses fundamental issues of fire-side and steam-side corrosion and materials performance in oxy-fuel combustion environments and provides an integrated approach into understanding the environmental and mechanical behavior such that environmental degradation can be ameliorated and long-term microstructural stability, and thus, mechanical performance can lead to longer lasting components and extended power plant life. The technical tasks of this effort are Oxy-combustion Environment Characterization, Alloy Modeling and Life Prediction, and Alloy Manufacturing and Process Development.

  5. Pulse combustion: an assessment of opportunities for increased efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brenchley, D.L.; Bomelburg, H.J.

    1984-12-01

    The results of a literature review on pulse combustion are discussed. Current, near-future, and potential opportunities for pulse combustion applications are summarized, and the barriers to developing and using pulse combustion technology are discussed, along with research and development needs. Also provided are the proceedings of a pulse combustion workshop held in May, 1984 in Seattle, Washington. (LEW)

  6. Using Biofuel Tracers to Study Alternative Combustion Regimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mack, John Hunter; Flowers, Daniel L.; Buchholz, Bruce A.; Dibble, Robert W.

    2006-01-01

    blending fuels with different properties can yield small changes in combustion timing. Using fuel components

  7. Impact of Variable Valve Timing on Low Temperature Combustion

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Documents effects of variable valve actuation in implementing low temperature combustion in production engine platform.

  8. Using Biofuel Tracers to Study Alternative Combustion Regimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mack, John Hunter; Flowers, Daniel L.; Buchholz, Bruce A.; Dibble, Robert W.

    2006-01-01

    Section B (NIMB) Using Biofuel Tracers to Study Alternativeinjection. We investigate biofuel HCCI combustion, and use

  9. Predicting combustion properties of hydrocarbon fuel mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldsmith, Claude Franklin, III

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis, I applied computational quantum chemistry to improve the accuracy of kinetic mechanisms that are used to model combustion chemistry. I performed transition state theory calculations for several reactions ...

  10. Oil shale retorting and combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitrolo, Augustine A. (Fairmont, WV); Mei, Joseph S. (Morgantown, WV); Shang, Jerry Y. (Fairfax, VA)

    1983-01-01

    The present invention is directed to the extraction of energy values from l shale containing considerable concentrations of calcium carbonate in an efficient manner. The volatiles are separated from the oil shale in a retorting zone of a fluidized bed where the temperature and the concentration of oxygen are maintained at sufficiently low levels so that the volatiles are extracted from the oil shale with minimal combustion of the volatiles and with minimal calcination of the calcium carbonate. These gaseous volatiles and the calcium carbonate flow from the retorting zone into a freeboard combustion zone where the volatiles are burned in the presence of excess air. In this zone the calcination of the calcium carbonate occurs but at the expense of less BTU's than would be required by the calcination reaction in the event both the retorting and combustion steps took place simultaneously. The heat values in the products of combustion are satisfactorily recovered in a suitable heat exchange system.

  11. Advanced Computational Methods for Turbulence and Combustion...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of premixed lean fuels for clean, efficient combustion devices such as low-swirl burners. Over 80% of energy consumed in the U.S. occurs via the burning of fossil fuels in...

  12. Preheated Combustion Air; Industrial Technologies Program (ITP...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to improve efficiency and productivity is to preheat the combustion air going to the burners. The source of this heat energy is the exhaust gas stream, which leaves the process...

  13. State of Industrial Fluidized Bed Combustion 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mesko, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    A new combustion technique has been developed in the last decade that permits the burning of low quality coal, lignite and other fuels, while maintaining stack emissions within State and Federal limits. Low quality fuels can be burned directly...

  14. State of Fluidized Bed Combustion Technology 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pope, M.

    1979-01-01

    A new combustion technology has been developed in the last decade that permits the burning of low quality coal, lignite and other fuels, while maintaining stack emissions within State and Federal EPA limits. Low quality fuels can be burned...

  15. Combustion characteristics of alternative liquid fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chong, Cheng Tung

    2011-11-08

    atomizer are investigated using a phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) under non-reacting conditions. The droplet size and velocity distribution of biodiesels are compared to conventional fuels. For spray combustion investigations, a generic gas turbine...

  16. Active combustion control : modeling, design and implementation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Sungbae, 1973-

    2004-01-01

    Continuous combustion systems common in propulsion and power generation applications are susceptible to thermoacoustic instability, which occurs under lean burn conditions close to the flammability where most emissions and ...

  17. Fluid Bed Combustion Applied to Industrial Waste 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mullen, J. F.; Sneyd, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    Because of its unique ability to handle a wide variety of liquids and solids in an energy efficient and environmentally acceptable manner, fluid bed combustion is being increasingly applied to the utilization of waste materials and low grade fuels...

  18. Vortex driven flame dynamics and combustion instability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Altay, Hurrem Murat

    2005-01-01

    Combustion instability in premixed combustors mostly arises due to the coupling between heat release rate dynamics and system acoustics. It is crucial to understand the instability mechanisms to design reliable, high ...

  19. Engine combustion control via fuel reactivity stratification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reitz, Rolf Deneys; Hanson, Reed M.; Splitter, Derek A.; Kokjohn, Sage L.

    2015-07-14

    A compression ignition engine uses two or more fuel charges having two or more reactivities to control the timing and duration of combustion. In a preferred implementation, a lower-reactivity fuel charge is injected or otherwise introduced into the combustion chamber, preferably sufficiently early that it becomes at least substantially homogeneously dispersed within the chamber before a subsequent injection is made. One or more subsequent injections of higher-reactivity fuel charges are then made, and these preferably distribute the higher-reactivity matter within the lower-reactivity chamber space such that combustion begins in the higher-reactivity regions, and with the lower-reactivity regions following thereafter. By appropriately choosing the reactivities of the charges, their relative amounts, and their timing, combustion can be tailored to achieve optimal power output (and thus fuel efficiency), at controlled temperatures (and thus controlled NOx), and with controlled equivalence ratios (and thus controlled soot).

  20. Flex-flame burner and combustion method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soupos, Vasilios (Chicago, IL); Zelepouga, Serguei (Hoffman Estates, IL); Rue, David M. (Chicago, IL); Abbasi, Hamid A. (Naperville, IL)

    2010-08-24

    A combustion method and apparatus which produce a hybrid flame for heating metals and metal alloys, which hybrid flame has the characteristic of having an oxidant-lean portion proximate the metal or metal alloy and having an oxidant-rich portion disposed above the oxidant lean portion. This hybrid flame is produced by introducing fuel and primary combustion oxidant into the furnace chamber containing the metal or metal alloy in a substoichiometric ratio to produce a fuel-rich flame and by introducing a secondary combustion oxidant into the furnace chamber above the fuel-rich flame in a manner whereby mixing of the secondary combustion oxidant with the fuel-rich flame is delayed for a portion of the length of the flame.

  1. Advanced Combustion Concepts - Enabling Systems and Solutions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    advanced control concepts and enabling system to manage multi-modemulti-fuel combustion events and achieve an up to 30 percent fuel economy improvement deer11yilmaz.pdf...

  2. Smouldering Combustion Phenomena in Science and Technology 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rein, Guillermo

    Smouldering is the slow, low-temperature, flameless form of combustion of a condensed fuel. It poses safety and environmental hazards and allows novel technological application but its fundamentals remain mostly unknown ...

  3. Combustion systems for power-MEMS applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spadaccini, Christopher M. (Christopher Michael), 1974-

    2004-01-01

    As part of an effort to develop a micro-scale gas turbine engine for power generation and micro-propulsion applications, this thesis presents the design, fabrication, experimental testing, and modeling of the combustion ...

  4. Control of NOx by combustion process modifications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ber?, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental study was carried out to determine lower bounds of NOx emission from staged combustion of a 0.7%N #6 fuel oil. Thermodynamic and chemical kinetic calculations have shown minimum NOx emissions ...

  5. Optimization of Advanced Diesel Engine Combustion Strategies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. ace020reitz2010o.pdf More Documents & Publications Optimization of Advanced Diesel Engine Combustion Strategies Optimization of Advanced Diesel...

  6. Engine combustion control via fuel reactivity stratification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reitz, Rolf Deneys; Hanson, Reed M; Splitter, Derek A; Kokjohn, Sage L

    2013-12-31

    A compression ignition engine uses two or more fuel charges having two or more reactivities to control the timing and duration of combustion. In a preferred implementation, a lower-reactivity fuel charge is injected or otherwise introduced into the combustion chamber, preferably sufficiently early that it becomes at least substantially homogeneously dispersed within the chamber before a subsequent injection is made. One or more subsequent injections of higher-reactivity fuel charges are then made, and these preferably distribute the higher-reactivity matter within the lower-reactivity chamber space such that combustion begins in the higher-reactivity regions, and with the lower-reactivity regions following thereafter. By appropriately choose the reactivities of the charges, their relative amounts, and their timing, combustion can be tailored to achieve optimal power output (and thus fuel efficiency), at controlled temperatures (and thus controlled NOx), and with controlled equivalence ratios (and thus controlled soot).

  7. Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves, Vol. 46, No. 3, pp. , 2010 Combustion of Heterogeneous Nanostructural Systems (Review)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukasyan, Alexander

    Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves, Vol. 46, No. 3, pp. ­, 2010 Combustion of Heterogeneous submitted November 26, 2009. The current status of research in the field of combustion of heterogeneous mechanisms of combustion in such systems and prospects of their further applications are discussed. Key words

  8. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 34 (2008) 377416 Discrete reaction waves: Gasless combustion of solid powder mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukasyan, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 34 (2008) 377­416 Discrete reaction waves: Gasless combustion of solid powder mixtures A.S. Mukasyana,Ã, A.S. Rogachevb a Department of Chemical Abstract This review considers a specific domain in combustion science, so-called discrete combustion waves

  9. Oxygen Enriched Combustion System Performance Study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, S. L.; Kwan, Y.; Abele, A. R.; Silver, L. S.; Kobayashi, H.

    1987-01-01

    i ndustri al furnaces, such as gl ass melting furnaces, appear to be the most promising appli cations for oxygen enriched combustion. In these applications, the principal energy savings results from minimizing the fuel energy required to heat... with non-water cooled refractory burner til es. The Oxytherm Burner was developed jointly by Maxon and Corning Glass for application of oxygen/fuel combustion in glass furnaces. This burner is also a non-water cooled refractory design with a specially...

  10. Coal-Fired Fluidized Bed Combustion Cogeneration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thunem, C.; Smith, N.

    1985-01-01

    BED COMBUSTION COGENERATION Cabot Thunem, P.E Norm Smith, P.E. Stanley Consultants, Inc. Muscatine, Iowa ABSTRACT The availability of an environmentally accep table multifuel technology, such as fluidized bed combustion, has encouraged many... steam producers/ users to investigate switching from oil or gas to coal. Changes in federal regulations encouraging cogeneration have further enhanced the economic incentives for primary fuel switching. However, this addition of cogeneration...

  11. Digital image processing of coal stream combustion 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gopalakrishnan, Chengappalli Periyasamy

    1994-01-01

    DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING OF COAL STREAM COMBUSTION A Thesis by CHENGAPPALLI PERIYASAMY GOPALAKRISHNAN Submitted to Texas A k M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style... and content by: a yan Annama at (Chair of Committee) en (Member) Norman C. Gris old (Member) George Peterson (Head of Department) May 1994 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering ABSTRACT Digital Image Processing of Coal Stream Combustion. (May 1994...

  12. Building America Expert Meeting. Combustion Safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brand, Larry

    2013-03-01

    This is an overview of "The Best Approach to Combustion Safety in a Direct Vent World," held June 28, 2012, in San Antonio, TX. The objective of this Expert Meeting was to identify gaps and barriers that need to be addressed by future research, and to develop data-driven technical recommendations for code updates so that a common approach for combustion safety can be adopted by all members of the building energy efficiency and code communities.

  13. Building America Expert Meeting: Combustion Safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brand, L.

    2013-03-01

    This is a meeting overview of 'The Best Approach to Combustion Safety in a Direct Vent World', held June 28, 2012, in San Antonio, Texas. The objective of this Expert Meeting was to identify gaps and barriers that need to be addressed by future research, and to develop data-driven technical recommendations for code updates so that a common approach for combustion safety can be adopted by all members of the building energy efficiency and code communities.

  14. Dust Combustion Safety Issues for Fusion Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. C. Cadwallader

    2003-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a safety research task to identify the safety issues and phenomenology of metallic dust fires and explosions that are postulated for fusion experiments. There are a variety of metal dusts that are created by plasma erosion and disruptions within the plasma chamber, as well as normal industrial dusts generated in the more conventional equipment in the balance of plant. For fusion, in-vessel dusts are generally mixtures of several elements; that is, the constituent elements in alloys and the variety of elements used for in-vessel materials. For example, in-vessel dust could be composed of beryllium from a first wall coating, tungsten from a divertor plate, copper from a plasma heating antenna or diagnostic, and perhaps some iron and chromium from the steel vessel wall or titanium and vanadium from the vessel wall. Each of these elements has its own unique combustion characteristics, and mixtures of elements must be evaluated for the mixture’s combustion properties. Issues of particle size, dust temperature, and presence of other combustible materials (i.e., deuterium and tritium) also affect combustion in air. Combustion in other gases has also been investigated to determine if there are safety concerns with “inert” atmospheres, such as nitrogen. Several coolants have also been reviewed to determine if coolant breach into the plasma chamber would enhance the combustion threat; for example, in-vessel steam from a water coolant breach will react with metal dust. The results of this review are presented here.

  15. Combustion kinetics and reaction pathways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klemm, R.B.; Sutherland, J.W. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This project is focused on the fundamental chemistry of combustion. The overall objectives are to determine rate constants for elementary reactions and to elucidate the pathways of multichannel reactions. A multitechnique approach that features three independent experiments provides unique capabilities in performing reliable kinetic measurements over an exceptionally wide range in temperature, 300 to 2500 K. Recent kinetic work has focused on experimental studies and theoretical calculations of the methane dissociation system (CH{sub 4} + Ar {yields} CH{sub 3} + H + Ar and H + CH{sub 4} {yields} CH{sub 3} + H{sub 2}). Additionally, a discharge flow-photoionization mass spectrometer (DF-PIMS) experiment is used to determine branching fractions for multichannel reactions and to measure ionization thresholds of free radicals. Thus, these photoionization experiments generate data that are relevant to both reaction pathways studies (reaction dynamics) and fundamental thermochemical research. Two distinct advantages of performing PIMS with high intensity, tunable vacuum ultraviolet light at the National Synchrotron Light Source are high detection sensitivity and exceptional selectivity in monitoring radical species.

  16. International Affairs International Services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyers, Steven D.

    Chemistry Business Administration Electrical EngineeringI International Affairs International Services Fall 0.2% Denmark 4 0.3% Dominica 2 0.1% Dominican Republic 3 0.2% Ecuador 10 0.7% Egypt 10 0.7% El

  17. International Policy International Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Andrew

    Research Strategy 2006-2009 International Policy Energy Adaptation International Development Coasts Change Research. Our strategy builds upon our previous work on integrated assessment, energy, adaptation of time. In this spirit, the Centre reconfirms its vision statement: "The Tyndall Centre is the UK network

  18. Towards a coherent European approach for taxation of combustible waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubois, Maarten

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: • Current European waste taxes do not constitute a level playing field. • Integrating waste incineration in EU ETS avoids regional tax competition. • A differentiated incineration tax is a second-best instrument for NO{sub x} emissions. • A tax on landfilled incineration residues stimulates ash treatment. - Abstract: Although intra-European trade of combustible waste has grown strongly in the last decade, incineration and landfill taxes remain disparate within Europe. The paper proposes a more coherent taxation approach for Europe that is based on the principle of Pigovian taxation, i.e. the internalization of environmental damage costs. The approach aims to create a level playing field between European regions while reinforcing incentives for sustainable management of combustible waste. Three important policy recommendations emerge. First, integrating waste incineration into the European Emissions Trading System for greenhouse gases (EU ETS) reduces the risk of tax competition between regions. Second, because taxation of every single air pollutant from waste incineration is cumbersome, a differentiated waste incineration tax based on NO{sub x} emissions can serve as a second-best instrument. Finally, in order to strengthen incentives for ash treatment, a landfill tax should apply for landfilled incineration residues. An example illustrates the coherence of the policy recommendations for incineration technologies with diverse environmental effects.

  19. Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, Volume 28, 2000/pp. 20292037 EXTINCTION AND AUTOIGNITION OF n-HEPTANE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pitsch, Heinz

    . J. CURRAN2 1 Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering University of California at San reactors, and concentration histories of a number of species in plug-flow and jet-stirred reactors for octane rating in internal combustion engines. It has a cetane number of ap- proximately 56, which

  20. ME 6990 -Combustion Catalog Data: ME 6990: Combustion. Sem. 2. Class 3, Credit 3 (el.).

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Panchagnula, Mahesh

    2. Fluid Mechanics (ME 3720) or equivalent 3. Heat Transfer (ME 3710) or equivalent Topics: 1 and evaluation of practical combustion devices. Prerequisites by Topic: 1. Thermodynamics (ME 3220) or equivalent. Combustion models. (1 week) 5. Detonations. (1 week) 6. Deflagrations. (2 weeks) 7. Non premixed flames. (2