National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for intermediate geography zone

  1. Effects of Porous Medium Heterogeneity on Vadose Zone Desiccation: Intermediate-scale Laboratory Experiments and Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oostrom, Martinus; Freedman, Vicky L.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Dane, Jacob H.; Truex, Michael J.

    2012-11-01

    Soil desiccation (drying), involving water evaporation induced by dry gas injection, is a potentially robust vadose zone remediation process to limit contaminant transport through the vadose zone. A series of four intermediate-scale flow cell experiments was conducted in homogeneous and simple layered heterogeneous porous medium systems to investigate the effects of heterogeneity on desiccation of unsaturated porous media. The permeability ratios of porous medium layers ranged from about five to almost two orders of magnitude. The insulated flow cell was equipped with twenty humidity and temperature sensors and a dual-energy gamma system was used to determine water saturations at various times. The multiphase code STOMP was used to simulate the desiccation process. Results show that injected dry gas flowed predominantly in the higher permeability layer and delayed water removal from the lower permeability material. For the configurations tested, water vapor diffusion from the lower to the higher permeability zone was considerable over the duration of the experiments, resulting in much larger relative humidity values of the outgoing air than based on permeability ratios alone. Acceptable numerical matches with the experimental data were obtained when an extension of the saturation-capillary pressure relation below the residual water saturation was used. The agreements between numerical and experimental results suggest that the correct physics are implemented in the simulator and that the thermal and hydraulic properties of the porous media, flow cell wall and insulation materials were properly represented.

  2. Fresnel zone plate stacking in the intermediate field for high efficiency focusing in the hard X-ray regime

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gleber, Sophie -Charlotte; Wojcik, Michael; Liu, Jie; Roehrig, Chris; Cummings, Marvin; Vila-Comamala, Joan; Li, Kenan; Lai, Barry; Shu, Deming; Vogt, Stefan

    2014-11-05

    Focusing efficiency of Fresnel zone plates (FZPs) for X-rays depends on zone height, while the achievable spatial resolution depends on the width of the finest zones. FZPs with optimal efficiency and sub-100-nm spatial resolution require high aspect ratio structures which are difficult to fabricate with current technology especially for the hard X-ray regime. A possible solution is to stack several zone plates. To increase the number of FZPs within one stack, we first demonstrate intermediate-field stacking and apply this method by stacks of up to five FZPs with adjusted diameters. Approaching the respective optimum zone height, we maximized efficiencies formore »high resolution focusing at three different energies, 10, 11.8, and 25 keV.« less

  3. DOE Announces Webinars on Geography of Alternative Fuels, Wind...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Geography of Alternative Fuels, Wind Siting Considerations, and More DOE Announces Webinars on Geography of Alternative Fuels, Wind Siting Considerations, and More February 12, ...

  4. ARM - SGP Intermediate Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Intermediate Facility SGP Related Links Virtual Tour Facilities and Instruments Central Facility Boundary Facility Extended Facility Intermediate Facility Radiometric Calibration Facility Geographic Information ES&H Guidance Statement Operations Science Field Campaigns Visiting the Site SGP Fact Sheet Images Information for Guest Scientists Contacts SGP Intermediate Facility For over 20 years, 3 intermediate facilities, within 6.2 miles (10 km) of the Central Facility, provided a

  5. Carbon Geography: The Political Economy of Congressional Support for

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Legislation Intended to Mitigate Greenhouse Gas Production (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Carbon Geography: The Political Economy of Congressional Support for Legislation Intended to Mitigate Greenhouse Gas Production Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Carbon Geography: The Political Economy of Congressional Support for Legislation Intended to Mitigate Greenhouse Gas Production Over the last five years, the U.S Congress has voted on several pieces of legislation intended to

  6. DOE Announces Webinars on Geography of Alternative Fuels, Wind Siting

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Considerations, and More | Department of Energy Geography of Alternative Fuels, Wind Siting Considerations, and More DOE Announces Webinars on Geography of Alternative Fuels, Wind Siting Considerations, and More February 12, 2015 - 3:34pm Addthis EERE offers webinars to the public on a range of subjects, from adopting the latest energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies, to training for the clean energy workforce. Webinars are free; however, advanced registration is typically

  7. Intermediate future forecasting system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gass, S.I.; Murphy, F.H.; Shaw, S.H.

    1983-12-01

    The purposes of the Symposium on the Department of Energy's Intermediate Future Forecasting System (IFFS) were: (1) to present to the energy community details of DOE's new energy market model IFFS; and (2) to have an open forum in which IFFS and its major elements could be reviewed and critiqued by external experts. DOE speakers discussed the total system, its software design, and the modeling aspects of oil and gas supply, refineries, electric utilities, coal, and the energy economy. Invited experts critiqued each of these topics and offered suggestions for modifications and improvement. This volume documents the proceedings (papers and discussion) of the Symposium. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each presentation for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  8. Compact intermediates in RNA folding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodson, S.A. (JHU)

    2011-12-14

    Large noncoding RNAs fold into their biologically functional structures via compact yet disordered intermediates, which couple the stable secondary structure of the RNA with the emerging tertiary fold. The specificity of the collapse transition, which coincides with the assembly of helical domains, depends on RNA sequence and counterions. It determines the specificity of the folding pathways and the magnitude of the free energy barriers to the ensuing search for the native conformation. By coupling helix assembly with nascent tertiary interactions, compact folding intermediates in RNA also play a crucial role in ligand binding and RNA-protein recognition.

  9. EffectsIntermediateEthanolBlends.pdf | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EffectsIntermediateEthanolBlends.pdf EffectsIntermediateEthanolBlends.pdf EffectsIntermediateEthanolBlends.pdf PDF icon EffectsIntermediateEthanolBlends.pdf More Documents &...

  10. Zone separator for multiple zone vessels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, John B. (Grand Junction, CO)

    1983-02-01

    A solids-gas contact vessel, having two vertically disposed distinct reaction zones, includes a dynamic seal passing solids from an upper to a lower zone and maintaining a gas seal against the transfer of the separate treating gases from one zone to the other, and including a stream of sealing fluid at the seal.

  11. Intermediate Energy Infobook Activities (29 Activities)

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    Information about Intermediate Energy Infobook, 29 student activities on energy basics for grades 5-8.

  12. Intermediate hearth repair technique at Thyssen Stahl AG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kowalski, W.; Bachhofen, H.J.; Ruether, P.; Ballewski, T.

    1996-12-31

    Nowadays various techniques for the fastest possible intermediate repair and/or emplacement of refractory materials above the tuyere level allow a significant extension of furnace campaign life. The latter are hence now exclusively determined by the service life of the hearth. The improvement of hearth monitoring and the estimation of residual brick strength of the refractory lining on the basis of temperature measurements in the hearth enable the location of individual zones of premature wear. These measurement methods, which were developed by Thyssen Stahl AG, aid the decision to undertake selective repair of the hearth. Three areas of repair are differentiated: taphole zone; hearth wall, localized; and hearth wall, extensive. This hearth repair method is described in this report using the example of hearth refurbishing blast furnace 8, Hamborn.

  13. Characterization of protein folding intermediates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, P.S.

    1986-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of a protein is encoded in its linear sequence of amino acids. Studies of protein folding are aimed at understanding the nature of this code which translates one-dimensional information to three-dimensions. It is now well-established that protein folding intermediates exist and can be populated significantly under some conditions. A method to characterize kinetic folding intermediates is described. The method takes advantage of the decrease in exchange rates between amide protons (i.e., peptide backbone NH) and solvent water protons, when the amide proton is involved in structure. The feasibility of using amide proton exchange to pulse-label proteins during folding has been demonstrated using (/sup 3/H)-H/sub 2/O. The results with ribonuclease A (RNase A) support a framework model for folding, in which the secondary structure of a protein is formed before tertiary structure changes are complete. Extension of these studies using NMR should permit characterization of early secondary structure folding frameworks.

  14. Protein Vivisection Reveals Elusive Intermediates in Folding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Zhongzhou; Sosnick, Tobin R. (UC)

    2010-05-25

    Although most folding intermediates escape detection, their characterization is crucial to the elucidation of folding mechanisms. Here, we outline a powerful strategy to populate partially unfolded intermediates: A buried aliphatic residue is substituted with a charged residue (e.g., Leu {yields} Glu{sup -}) to destabilize and unfold a specific region of the protein. We applied this strategy to ubiquitin, reversibly trapping a folding intermediate in which the {beta}5-strand is unfolded. The intermediate refolds to a native-like structure upon charge neutralization under mildly acidic conditions. Characterization of the trapped intermediate using NMR and hydrogen exchange methods identifies a second folding intermediate and reveals the order and free energies of the two major folding events on the native side of the rate-limiting step. This general strategy may be combined with other methods and have broad applications in the study of protein folding and other reactions that require trapping of high-energy states.

  15. Enol Intermediates Unexpectedly Found in Flames

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enol Intermediates Unexpectedly Found in Flames Enol Intermediates Unexpectedly Found in Flames Print Wednesday, 27 July 2005 00:00 For those studying flame chemistry and the properties of combustion intermediates by means of molecular beam mass spectrometry, the addition of tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) from a synchrotron to photoionize the beam for mass spectrometry makes for a powerful technique capable of differentiating between isomers with the same molecular weight and composition. With

  16. Enol Intermediates Unexpectedly Found in Flames

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    output, high-concentration intermediates, and major products. However, for improving combustion efficiency and controlling pollution, it is necessary to understand flame...

  17. Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate Print In the earth's troposphere, which blankets the planet surface where we live and breathe, dust particles, gas molecules,...

  18. Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    quantities. Because Criegee intermediates have long been thought to play a key role in atmospheric chemistry, the announcement of a method to directly measure their reactivity...

  19. Experiments in intermediate energy physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dehnhard, D.

    2003-02-28

    Research in experimental nuclear physics was done from 1979 to 2002 primarily at intermediate energy facilities that provide pion, proton, and kaon beams. Particularly successful has been the work at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) on unraveling the neutron and proton contributions to nuclear ground state and transition densities. This work was done on a wide variety of nuclei and with great detail on the carbon, oxygen, and helium isotopes. Some of the investigations involved the use of polarized targets which allowed the extraction of information on the spin-dependent part of the triangle-nucleon interaction. At the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) we studied proton-induced charge exchange reactions with results of importance to astrophysics and the nuclear few-body problem. During the first few years, the analysis of heavy-ion nucleus scattering data that had been taken prior to 1979 was completed. During the last few years we created hypernuclei by use of a kaon beam at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and an electron beam at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab). The data taken at BNL for a study of the non-mesonic weak decay of the A particle in a nucleus are still under analysis by our collaborators. The work at JLab resulted in the best resolution hypernuclear spectra measured thus far with magnetic spectrometers.

  20. ASHRAE Climate Zones | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search Subtype A Subtype B Subtype C Climate Zone Number 1 Zone 1A Zone 1B NA Climate Zone Number 2 Zone 2A Zone 2B NA Climate Zone Number 3 Zone 3A Zone 3B Zone...

  1. Enol Intermediates Unexpectedly Found in Flames

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enol Intermediates Unexpectedly Found in Flames Print For those studying flame chemistry and the properties of combustion intermediates by means of molecular beam mass spectrometry, the addition of tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) from a synchrotron to photoionize the beam for mass spectrometry makes for a powerful technique capable of differentiating between isomers with the same molecular weight and composition. With the help of a unique experimental apparatus, an international team of

  2. Enol Intermediates Unexpectedly Found in Flames

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enol Intermediates Unexpectedly Found in Flames Print For those studying flame chemistry and the properties of combustion intermediates by means of molecular beam mass spectrometry, the addition of tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) from a synchrotron to photoionize the beam for mass spectrometry makes for a powerful technique capable of differentiating between isomers with the same molecular weight and composition. With the help of a unique experimental apparatus, an international team of

  3. Enol Intermediates Unexpectedly Found in Flames

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enol Intermediates Unexpectedly Found in Flames Print For those studying flame chemistry and the properties of combustion intermediates by means of molecular beam mass spectrometry, the addition of tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) from a synchrotron to photoionize the beam for mass spectrometry makes for a powerful technique capable of differentiating between isomers with the same molecular weight and composition. With the help of a unique experimental apparatus, an international team of

  4. Enol Intermediates Unexpectedly Found in Flames

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enol Intermediates Unexpectedly Found in Flames Print For those studying flame chemistry and the properties of combustion intermediates by means of molecular beam mass spectrometry, the addition of tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) from a synchrotron to photoionize the beam for mass spectrometry makes for a powerful technique capable of differentiating between isomers with the same molecular weight and composition. With the help of a unique experimental apparatus, an international team of

  5. Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate Print Wednesday, 25 January 2012 00:00 In the earth's troposphere, which blankets the planet surface where we live and breathe, dust particles, gas molecules, water vapor, and sunlight provide the ingredients for a multitude of chemical reactions that can generate effects ranging from clouds and smog to acid rain and climate change. In 1949, chemist Rudolf Criegee proposed a novel chemical

  6. Data requirements for intermediate energy nuclear applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pearlstein, S.

    1990-01-01

    Several applications that include spallation neutron sources, space radiation effects, biomedical isotope production, accelerator shielding and radiation therapy make use of intermediate energy nuclear data extending to several GeV. The overlapping data needs of these applications are discussed in terms of what projectiles, targets and reactions are of interest. Included is a discussion of what is generally known about these data and what is needed to facilitate their use in intermediate energy applications. 40 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Enol Intermediates Unexpectedly Found in Flames

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enol Intermediates Unexpectedly Found in Flames Print For those studying flame chemistry and the properties of combustion intermediates by means of molecular beam mass spectrometry, the addition of tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) from a synchrotron to photoionize the beam for mass spectrometry makes for a powerful technique capable of differentiating between isomers with the same molecular weight and composition. With the help of a unique experimental apparatus, an international team of

  8. Enol Intermediates Unexpectedly Found in Flames

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enol Intermediates Unexpectedly Found in Flames Print For those studying flame chemistry and the properties of combustion intermediates by means of molecular beam mass spectrometry, the addition of tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) from a synchrotron to photoionize the beam for mass spectrometry makes for a powerful technique capable of differentiating between isomers with the same molecular weight and composition. With the help of a unique experimental apparatus, an international team of

  9. Enol Intermediates Unexpectedly Found in Flames

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enol Intermediates Unexpectedly Found in Flames Print For those studying flame chemistry and the properties of combustion intermediates by means of molecular beam mass spectrometry, the addition of tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) from a synchrotron to photoionize the beam for mass spectrometry makes for a powerful technique capable of differentiating between isomers with the same molecular weight and composition. With the help of a unique experimental apparatus, an international team of

  10. Renewable Energy Renaissance Zones

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    For the purposes of renaissance zone designation, “renewable energy facility” means a facility that creates energy, fuels, or chemicals directly from the wind, the sun, trees, grasses, bio-solids,...

  11. Deep Vadose Zone - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Long-Range Deep Vadose Zone Program Plan, (Rev. 0) - (PDF) Implementation Plan for the Deep Vadose Zone Applied Field Research Center (DVZ-AFRC) - (PDF) Ecology's groundwater...

  12. A Thermoelectric Generator with an Intermediate Heat Exchanger...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Thermoelectric Generator with an Intermediate Heat Exchanger for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery System A Thermoelectric Generator with an Intermediate Heat Exchanger for...

  13. Ubiquity of linear resistivity at intermediate temperature in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ubiquity of linear resistivity at intermediate temperature in bad metals Prev Next Title: Ubiquity of linear resistivity at intermediate temperature in bad metals Authors: ...

  14. Ubiquity of linear resistivity at intermediate temperature in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ubiquity of linear resistivity at intermediate temperature in bad metals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ubiquity of linear resistivity at intermediate temperature in ...

  15. Sandia Energy - CRF: First Direct Detection of QOOH Intermediate...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of QOOH Intermediate Shows Long Lifetime of Key Species Previous Next CRF: First Direct Detection of QOOH Intermediate Shows Long Lifetime of Key Species Authors J.D....

  16. Integrating NABC bio-oil intermediates into the petroleum refinery...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Integrating NABC bio-oil intermediates into the petroleum refinery Integrating NABC bio-oil intermediates into the petroleum refinery Breakout Session 2: Frontiers and Horizons ...

  17. Enol Intermediates Unexpectedly Found in Flames

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by a crossed tunable VUV beam. Photoions are mass-analyzed using a time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer (MS). The luminous zone of the flame shown here (just to left...

  18. Global diversity and geography of soil fungi. Minus one widespread group

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schadt, Christopher Warren; Rosling, Anna

    2015-04-15

    In their research article Global diversity and geography of soil fungi Tedersoo et al. (28 November, 2014) present a compelling study regarding patterns of biodiversity of fungi, at a scale unprecedented to date for fungal biogeographical studies. The study demonstrates strong global biogeographic patterns in richness and community composition of soil fungi, what concerns us with the study is what we don t see. Unfortunately this study underestimates fungal diversity of at least one key group of soil fungi due to reliance on a single traditional primer with known flaws, and as a consequence the overall relative abundance of fungalmore » groups may also be skewed.« less

  19. Geography of Existing and Potential Alternative Fuel Markets in the United States

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Geography of Existing and Potential Alternative Fuel Markets in the United States Caley Johnson and Dylan Hettinger Technical Report NREL/TP-5400-60891 November 2014 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at www.nrel.gov/publications. Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 National

  20. Intermediate Temperature SOFC Operation Using Lanthanum Gallate Electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elangovan, S.; Balagopal, S. Hartvigsen, J.; Tipmer, M.; Larsen, D.

    2005-01-27

    This presentation discusses intermediate temperature SOFC operation using lanthanum gallate electrolyte.

  1. Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    J.D. Savee, D.L. Osborn, S.S. Vasu, C.J. Percival, D.E. Shallcross, and C.A. Taatjes, "Direct Kinetic Measurements of Criegee Intermediate (CH2OO) Formed by Reaction of CH2I...

  2. Vadose zone water fluxmeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Faybishenko, Boris A.

    2005-10-25

    A Vadose Zone Water Fluxmeter (WFM) or Direct Measurement WFM provides direct measurement of unsaturated water flow in the vadose zone. The fluxmeter is a cylindrical device that fits in a borehole or can be installed near the surface, or in pits, or in pile structures. The fluxmeter is primarily a combination of tensiometers and a porous element or plate in a water cell that is used for water injection or extraction under field conditions. The same water pressure measured outside and inside of the soil sheltered by the lower cylinder of the fluxmeter indicates that the water flux through the lower cylinder is similar to the water flux in the surrounding soil. The fluxmeter provides direct measurement of the water flow rate in the unsaturated soils and then determines the water flux, i.e. the water flow rate per unit area.

  3. Enterprise Zone | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Jump to: navigation, search This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleEnterpriseZone&oldid542697"...

  4. Contaminants in Vadose Zone Environments

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Deep Vadose Zone – Applied Field Research Initiative (DVZ-AFRI) partnered with the Vadose Zone Journal to create a special section of the journal's November 2012 issue.

  5. Renewable liquid reflecting zone plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toor, Arthur; Ryutov, Dmitri D.

    2003-12-09

    A renewable liquid reflecting zone plate. Electrodes are operatively connected to a dielectric liquid in a circular or other arrangement to produce a reflecting zone plate. A system for renewing the liquid uses a penetrable substrate.

  6. Radiant zone heated particulate filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-12-27

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter including an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A radiant zoned heater includes N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones includes M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones, restricts exhaust gas flow in a portion of the PM filter that corresponds to the selected one of the N zones, and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  7. Santa Clara County- Zoning Ordinance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Santa Clara County's Zoning Ordinance includes standards for wind and solar structures for residential, agricultural, and commercial uses.

  8. partially oxidized combustion interme-diates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    partially oxidized combustion interme-diates - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste

  9. Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate Print In the earth's troposphere, which blankets the planet surface where we live and breathe, dust particles, gas molecules, water vapor, and sunlight provide the ingredients for a multitude of chemical reactions that can generate effects ranging from clouds and smog to acid rain and climate change. In 1949, chemist Rudolf Criegee proposed a novel chemical pathway for one such reaction, known as ozonolysis: the destruction of alkenes (a type

  10. Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate Print In the earth's troposphere, which blankets the planet surface where we live and breathe, dust particles, gas molecules, water vapor, and sunlight provide the ingredients for a multitude of chemical reactions that can generate effects ranging from clouds and smog to acid rain and climate change. In 1949, chemist Rudolf Criegee proposed a novel chemical pathway for one such reaction, known as ozonolysis: the destruction of alkenes (a type

  11. Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate Print In the earth's troposphere, which blankets the planet surface where we live and breathe, dust particles, gas molecules, water vapor, and sunlight provide the ingredients for a multitude of chemical reactions that can generate effects ranging from clouds and smog to acid rain and climate change. In 1949, chemist Rudolf Criegee proposed a novel chemical pathway for one such reaction, known as ozonolysis: the destruction of alkenes (a type

  12. Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate Print In the earth's troposphere, which blankets the planet surface where we live and breathe, dust particles, gas molecules, water vapor, and sunlight provide the ingredients for a multitude of chemical reactions that can generate effects ranging from clouds and smog to acid rain and climate change. In 1949, chemist Rudolf Criegee proposed a novel chemical pathway for one such reaction, known as ozonolysis: the destruction of alkenes (a type

  13. Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate Print In the earth's troposphere, which blankets the planet surface where we live and breathe, dust particles, gas molecules, water vapor, and sunlight provide the ingredients for a multitude of chemical reactions that can generate effects ranging from clouds and smog to acid rain and climate change. In 1949, chemist Rudolf Criegee proposed a novel chemical pathway for one such reaction, known as ozonolysis: the destruction of alkenes (a type

  14. Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate Print In the earth's troposphere, which blankets the planet surface where we live and breathe, dust particles, gas molecules, water vapor, and sunlight provide the ingredients for a multitude of chemical reactions that can generate effects ranging from clouds and smog to acid rain and climate change. In 1949, chemist Rudolf Criegee proposed a novel chemical pathway for one such reaction, known as ozonolysis: the destruction of alkenes (a type

  15. Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate Print In the earth's troposphere, which blankets the planet surface where we live and breathe, dust particles, gas molecules, water vapor, and sunlight provide the ingredients for a multitude of chemical reactions that can generate effects ranging from clouds and smog to acid rain and climate change. In 1949, chemist Rudolf Criegee proposed a novel chemical pathway for one such reaction, known as ozonolysis: the destruction of alkenes (a type

  16. Liquid zone seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klebanoff, Leonard E. (Dublin, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A seal assembly that provides a means for establishing multiple pressure zones within a system. The seal assembly combines a plate extending from the inner wall of a housing or inner enclosure that intersects with and is immersed in the fluid contained in a well formed in a tray contained within the enclosure. The fluid is a low vapor pressure oil, chemically inert and oxidation resistant. The use of a fluid as the sealing component provides a seal that is self-healing and mechanically robust not subject to normal mechanical wear, breakage, and formation of cracks or pinholes and decouples external mechanical vibrations from internal structural members.

  17. Saturated Zone Colloid Transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H. S. Viswanathan

    2004-10-07

    This scientific analysis provides retardation factors for colloids transporting in the saturated zone (SZ) and the unsaturated zone (UZ). These retardation factors represent the reversible chemical and physical filtration of colloids in the SZ. The value of the colloid retardation factor, R{sub col} is dependent on several factors, such as colloid size, colloid type, and geochemical conditions (e.g., pH, Eh, and ionic strength). These factors are folded into the distributions of R{sub col} that have been developed from field and experimental data collected under varying geochemical conditions with different colloid types and sizes. Attachment rate constants, k{sub att}, and detachment rate constants, k{sub det}, of colloids to the fracture surface have been measured for the fractured volcanics, and separate R{sub col} uncertainty distributions have been developed for attachment and detachment to clastic material and mineral grains in the alluvium. Radionuclides such as plutonium and americium sorb mostly (90 to 99 percent) irreversibly to colloids (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170025], Section 6.3.3.2). The colloid retardation factors developed in this analysis are needed to simulate the transport of radionuclides that are irreversibly sorbed onto colloids; this transport is discussed in the model report ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]). Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this scientific analysis especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste-degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and americium may be irreversibly attached to colloids for the time scales of interest. A section of this report will also discuss the validity of using microspheres as analogs to colloids in some of the lab and field experiments used to obtain the colloid retardation factors. In addition, a small fraction of colloids travels with the groundwater without any significant retardation. Radionuclides irreversibly sorbed onto this fraction of colloids also transport without retardation. The transport times for these radionuclides will be the same as those for nonsorbing radionuclides. The fraction of nonretarding colloids developed in this analysis report is used in the abstraction of SZ and UZ transport models in support of the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA). This analysis report uses input from two Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) analysis reports. This analysis uses the assumption from ''Waste Form and In-Drift Colloids-Associated Radionuclide Concentrations: Abstraction and Summary'' that plutonium and americium are irreversibly sorbed to colloids generated by the waste degradation processes (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170025]). In addition, interpretations from RELAP analyses from ''Saturated Zone In-Situ Testing'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170010]) are used to develop the retardation factor distributions in this analysis.

  18. Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 Updated Feb 2009...

  19. Fact Sheet: Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends Fact Sheet: Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends October 7, 2008 - 4:14pm Addthis In August 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a test program to assess the potential impacts of higher intermediate ethanol blends on conventional vehicles and other engines that rely on gasoline. The test program focuses specifically on the effects of intermediate blends of E15 and E20-gasoline blended with 15 and 20 percent ethanol, respectively-on

  20. Thermoelectric power generator with intermediate loop

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bell, Lon E; Crane, Douglas Todd

    2013-05-21

    A thermoelectric power generator is disclosed for use to generate electrical power from heat, typically waste heat. An intermediate heat transfer loop forms a part of the system to permit added control and adjustability in the system. This allows the thermoelectric power generator to more effectively and efficiently generate power in the face of dynamically varying temperatures and heat flux conditions, such as where the heat source is the exhaust of an automobile, or any other heat source with dynamic temperature and heat flux conditions.

  1. Thermoelectric power generator with intermediate loop

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bel,; Lon E.; Crane, Douglas Todd

    2009-10-27

    A thermoelectric power generator is disclosed for use to generate electrical power from heat, typically waste heat. An intermediate heat transfer loop forms a part of the system to permit added control and adjustability in the system. This allows the thermoelectric power generator to more effectively and efficiently generate power in the face of dynamically varying temperatures and heat flux conditions, such as where the heat source is the exhaust of an automobile, or any other heat source with dynamic temperature and heat flux conditions.

  2. Dead Zones in LX-17 and PBX 9502

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Souers, P C; Andreski, H G; Batteux, J; Bratton, B; Cabacungan, C; Cook, III, C F; Fletcher, S; Garza, R; Grimsley, D; Handly, J; Hernandez, A; McMaster, P; Molitoris, J D; Palmer, R; Prindiville, J; Rodriguez, J; Schneberk, D; Wong, B; Vitello, P

    2005-09-06

    Pin and X-ray corner-turning data have been taken on ambient LX-17 and PBX 9052, and the results are listed in tables as an aid to future modeling. The results have been modeled at 4 zones/mm with a reactive flow approach that varies the burn rate as a function of pressure. A single rate format is used to simulate failure and detonation in different pressure regimes. A pressure cut-off must also be reached to initiate the burn. Corner-turning and failure are modeled using an intermediate pressure rate region, and detonation occurs at high pressure. The TATB booster is also modeled using reactive flow, and X-ray tomography is used to partition the ram-pressed hemisphere into five different density regions. The model reasonably fits the bare corner-turning experiment but predicts a smaller dead zone with steel confinement, in contradiction with experiment. The same model also calculates the confined and unconfined cylinder detonation velocities and predicts the failure of the unconfined cylinder at 3.75 mm radius. The PBX 9502 shows a smaller dead zone than LX-17. An old experiment that showed a large apparent dead zone in Comp B was repeated with X-ray transmission and no dead zone was seen. This confirms the idea that a variable burn rate is the key to modeling. The model also produces initiation delays, which are shorter than those found in time-to-detonation.

  3. Breathing zone air sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tobin, John (Bethel Park, PA)

    1989-01-01

    A sampling apparatus is provided which comprises a sampler for sampling air in the breathing zone of a wearer of the apparatus and a support for the sampler preferably in the form of a pair of eyeglasses. The sampler comprises a sampling assembly supported on the frame of the eyeglasses and including a pair of sample transport tubes which are suspended, in use, centrally of the frame so as to be disposed on opposite sides of the nose of the wearer and which each include an inlet therein that, in use, is disposed adjacent to a respective nostril of the nose of the wearer. A filter holder connected to sample transport tubes supports a removable filter for filtering out particulate material in the air sampled by the apparatus. The sample apparatus is connected to a pump for drawing air into the apparatus through the tube inlets so that the air passes through the filter.

  4. City of Austin- Zoning Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Zoning Code also allows for preservation plans in historic districts to incorporate sustainability measures such as solar technologies and other energy generation and efficiency measures.

  5. Western Renewable Energy Zones (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hein, J.

    2011-06-01

    This presentation summarizes recent developments and trends pertaining to competitive renewable energy zones, transmission planning and the integration of renewable generation resources.

  6. Deep Vadose Zone Field Activities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    HANFORD ADVISORY BOARD, RAP March 6, 2013 Presented by: John Morse DEEP VADOSE ZONE ACTIVITIES Page 2 Deep Vadose Zone Areas Page 3 Deep Vadose Zone Field Activities FY 2014 Fieldwork Began in 2011 Page 4 Deep Vadose Zone Field Activities, Continued Page 5 0 20,000 40,000 60,000 80,000 100,000 120,000 0 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 Cumulative Gallons Removed Weekly Gallons Removed Perched Water Removal Shut down to address increased contamination levels and replace submersible pump Page 6 0

  7. Kinetic advantage of controlled intermediate nuclear fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo Xiaoming

    2012-09-26

    The dominated process of controlled fusion is to let nuclei gain enough kinetic energy to overcome Coulomb barrier. As a result, a fusion scheme can consider two factors in its design: to increase kinetic energy of nuclei and to alter the Coulomb barrier. Cold Fusion and Hot fusion are all one-factor schemes while Intermediate Fusion is a twofactors scheme. This made CINF kinetically superior. Cold Fusion reduces deuteron-deuteron distance, addressing Coulomb barrier, and Hot Fusion heat up plasma into extreme high temperature, addressing kinetic energy. Without enough kinetic energy made Cold Fusion skeptical. Extreme high temperature made Hot Fusion very difficult to engineer. Because CIFN addresses both factors, CIFN is a more promising technique to be industrialized.

  8. Intermediate Ethanol Blends Catalyst Durability Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, Brian H; Sluder, Scott; Knoll, Keith; Orban, John; Feng, Jingyu

    2012-02-01

    In the summer of 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a test program to evaluate the potential impacts of intermediate ethanol blends (also known as mid-level blends) on legacy vehicles and other engines. The purpose of the test program was to develop information important to assessing the viability of using intermediate blends as a contributor to meeting national goals for the use of renewable fuels. Through a wide range of experimental activities, DOE is evaluating the effects of E15 and E20 - gasoline blended with 15% and 20% ethanol - on tailpipe and evaporative emissions, catalyst and engine durability, vehicle driveability, engine operability, and vehicle and engine materials. This report provides the results of the catalyst durability study, a substantial part of the overall test program. Results from additional projects will be reported separately. The principal purpose of the catalyst durability study was to investigate the effects of adding up to 20% ethanol to gasoline on the durability of catalysts and other aspects of the emissions control systems of vehicles. Section 1 provides further information about the purpose and context of the study. Section 2 describes the experimental approach for the test program, including vehicle selection, aging and emissions test cycle, fuel selection, and data handling and analysis. Section 3 summarizes the effects of the ethanol blends on emissions and fuel economy of the test vehicles. Section 4 summarizes notable unscheduled maintenance and testing issues experienced during the program. The appendixes provide additional detail about the statistical models used in the analysis, detailed statistical analyses, and detailed vehicle specifications.

  9. Recent advances in modeling fission cross sections over intermediate

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    structures (Conference) | SciTech Connect modeling fission cross sections over intermediate structures Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Recent advances in modeling fission cross sections over intermediate structures More accurate fission cross section calculations in presence of underlying intermediate structure are strongly desired. This paper recalls the common approximations used below the fission threshold and quantifies their impact. In particular, an exact expanded R-matrix

  10. Kondo universality, energy scales, and intermediate valence in plutonium

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Kondo universality, energy scales, and intermediate valence in plutonium Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Kondo universality, energy scales, and intermediate valence in plutonium On the basis of the concepts of an intermediate-valence (IV) regime, an analysis is carried out of macroscopic properties of the {alpha} and {delta} phases of plutonium, as well as of several model systems based on rare earth elements. Within a

  11. Intermediate SCADA Security Training Course Slides (September 2006) |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy Intermediate SCADA Security Training Course Slides (September 2006) Intermediate SCADA Security Training Course Slides (September 2006) Presentation for Intermediate SCADA Security, SS-2 SANS SCADA Summit, September 28-29, 2006. The class enabled attendees to develop an understanding of tools and methods that can be used to discover and identify system vulnerabilities (CIP-005 R3.2, CIP-005 R4, & CIP-007 R8); develop mitigation strategies for resolving these issues

  12. Candelabra and Intermediate Base Lamps Enforcement Policy Statement |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy Candelabra and Intermediate Base Lamps Enforcement Policy Statement Candelabra and Intermediate Base Lamps Enforcement Policy Statement July 1, 2011 - 5:00pm Addthis The Department issued guidance today advising manufacturers, importers and private labelers that DOE will not enforce the energy conservation standards and compliance certification requirements for candelabra and intermediate base lamps until January 1, 2012. Addthis Related Articles DOE Opens Investigation

  13. Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    117 Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 - Updated February 2009 Prepared by Keith Knoll Brian West Wendy Clark...

  14. The low and intermediate mass dilepton and photon results

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ruan, Lijuan

    2014-10-18

    I summarize and discuss some of the experimental results on the low and intermediate mass dileptons and direct photons presented at Quark Matter 2014.

  15. Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Non-Road Engines, Report 1 … Updated Feb 2009 | Department of Energy Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 … Updated Feb 2009 Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 … Updated Feb 2009 Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 … Updated Feb 2009 PDF

  16. Climate Zones | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Building America » Climate Zones Climate Zones Building America determines building practices based on climate zones to achieve the most energy savings in a home. This page offers some general guidelines on the definitions of the various climate regions based on heating degree-days, average temperatures, and precipitation. You can also view the Guide to Determining Climate Regions by County. Hot-Humid A hot-humid climate is generally defined as a region that receives more than 20 in. (50 cm) of

  17. Climate Zone 1B | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Subtype B. Climate Zone 1B is defined as Dry with IP Units 9000 < CDD50F and SI Units 5000 < CDD10C . The following places are categorized as class 1B climate zones:...

  18. Cohesive Zone Model User Element

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2007-04-17

    Cohesive Zone Model User Element (CZM UEL) is an implementation of a Cohesive Zone Model as an element for use in finite element simulations. CZM UEL computes a nodal force vector and stiffness matrix from a vector of nodal displacements. It is designed for structural analysts using finite element software to predict crack initiation, crack propagation, and the effect of a crack on the rest of a structure.

  19. GridZone | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: GridZone Sector: Efficiency, Services, Transmission Technology: Smart Grid, Energy Storage, Energy Security ParentHolding Organization: GridZone Limited Company...

  20. Transition Zone Geothermal Region | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Unknown Planned Capacity 1 Geothermal Areas within the Transition Zone Geothermal Region Energy Generation Facilities within the Transition Zone Geothermal Region Geothermal Power...

  1. Wetlands and Riparian Zones | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wetlands and Riparian Zones Jump to: navigation, search Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleWetlandsandRiparianZones&oldid612217...

  2. Applied Field Research Initiative Deep Vadose Zone

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    in vadose zone environments * Overcomes heterogeneous distribution * Penetrates low-permeability, contaminant source zones Use of Foam Delivery Technology in the subsurface (not to...

  3. FOAM: NOVEL DELIVERY TECHNOLOGY FOR REMEDIATION OF VADOSE ZONE ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jansik, Danielle P.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Zhong, Lirong; Wu, Yuxin; Foote, Martin; Zhang, Z. F.; Hubbard, Susan

    2011-07-05

    Deep vadose zone environments can be a primary source and pathway for contaminant migration to groundwater. These environments present unique characterization and remediation challenges that necessitate scrutiny and research. The thickness, depth, and intricacies of the deep vadose zone, combined with a lack of understanding of the key subsurface processes (e.g., biogeochemical and hydrologic) affecting contaminant migration, make it difficult to create validated conceptual and predictive models of subsurface flow dynamics and contaminant behavior across multiple scales. These factors also make it difficult to design and deploy sustainable remedial approaches and monitor long-term contaminant behavior after remedial actions. Functionally, the methods for addressing contamination must remove and/or reduce transport of contaminants. This problem is particularly challenging in the arid western United States where the vadose zone is hundreds of feet thick, rendering transitional excavation methods exceedingly costly and ineffective. Delivery of remedial amendments is one of the most challenging and critical aspects for all remedy-based approaches. The conventional approach for delivery is through injection of aqueous remedial solutions. However, heterogeneous deep vadose zone environments present hydrologic and geochemical challenges which limit the effectiveness. Because the flow of solution infiltration is dominantly controlled by gravity and suction, injected liquid preferentially percolates through highly permeable pathways, by-passing low-permeability zones which frequently contain the majority of contamination. Moreover, the wetting front can readily mobilize and enhance contaminant transport to the underlying aquifer prior to stabilization. Development of innovative, in-situ technologies may be the only way to meet remedial action objectives and long-term stewardship goals. Surfactants can be used to lower the liquid surface tension and create stabile foams, which readily penetrate low permeability zones. Although surfactant foams have been utilized for subsurface mobilization efforts in the oil and gas industry, so far, the concept of using foams as a delivery mechanism for transporting remedial amendments into deep vadose zone environments to stabilize metal and long-lived radionuclide contaminants has not been explored. Foam flow can be directed by pressure gradients, rather than being dominated by gravity; and, foam delivery mechanisms limit the volume of water (< 5% vol.) required for remedy delivery and emplacement, thus mitigating contaminant mobilization. We will present the results of a numerical modeling and integrated laboratory- / intermediate-scale investigation to simulate, develop, demonstrate, and monitor (i.e. advanced geophysical techniques and advanced predictive biomarkers) foam-based delivery of remedial amendments to remediate metals and radionuclides in vadose zone environments.

  4. Adams County, Washington ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Adams County, Washington ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Number Climate Zone...

  5. Criegee intermediates in the indoor environment. New insights

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shallcross, D. E.; Taatjes, C. A.; Percival, C. J.

    2014-03-25

    Criegee intermediates are formed in the ozonolysis of alkenes and play an important role in indoor chemistry, notably as a source of OH radicals. Recent studies have shown that these Criegee intermediates react very quickly with NO2, SO2, and carbonyls, and in this study, steady-state calculations are used to inspect the potential impact of these data on indoor chemistry. It is shown that these reactions could accelerate NO3 formation and SO2 removal in the indoor environment significantly. In addition, reaction between Criegee intermediates and halogenated carbonyls could provide a significant loss process indoors, where currently one does not exist.

  6. Deep Vadose Zone | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Deep Vadose Zone Deep Vadose Zone The Mission of the Deep Vadose Zone Applied Field Research Initiative is to protect water resources across the DOE complex over the long-term by developing effective solutions to solve DOE's most challenging deep vadose zone characterization, remediation, monitoring, and prediction challenges. PDF icon Deep Vadose Zone More Documents & Publications Remediation of Mercury and Industrial Contaminants Hanford Site C Tank Farm Meeting Summary - May 2010 Advanced

  7. Zoning and Permitting Resources | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Zoning and Permitting Resources Zoning and Permitting Resources Zoning and permitting is commonly controlled by local governments and may be applicable to both residential and commercial properties. However, the state may regulate the scope of local zoning laws. For instance, some states have passed laws limiting the ability of local governments to prohibit or unreasonably regulate the installation and operation of renewable energy systems. Zoning laws may also be structured to encourage energy

  8. Intermediate connector for stacked organic light emitting devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    D'Andrade, Brian

    2013-02-12

    A device is provided, having an anode, a cathode, and an intermediate connector disposed between the anode and the cathode. A first organic layer including an emissive sublayer is disposed between the anode and the intermediate connector, and a second including an emissive sublayer is disposed between the intermediate connector and the cathode. The intermediate connector includes a first metal having a work function lower than 4.0 eV and a second metal having a work function lower than 5.0 eV. The work function of the first metal is at least 0.5 eV less than the work function of the second metal. The first metal is in contact with a sublayer of the second organic layer that includes a material well adapted to receive holes from a low work function metal.

  9. Kondo universality, energy scales, and intermediate valence in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    On the basis of the concepts of an intermediate-valence (IV) regime, an analysis is carried out of macroscopic properties of the alpha and delta phases of plutonium, as well as ...

  10. Structures of the Ribosome in Intermediate States of Ratcheting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structures of the Ribosome in Intermediate States of Ratcheting Structures of the Ribosome in Intermediate States of Ratcheting Print Wednesday, 31 March 2010 00:00 Protein synthesis is conducted by the ribosome: a megadalton sized complex responsible for making proteins from amino acids. Translation-the conversion of a three letter nucleic acid code (a codon) in a messenger RNA (mRNA) into an amino acid sequence-is essential to gene expression. For this reason, translational accuracy is

  11. A Thermoelectric Generator with an Intermediate Heat Exchanger for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Automotive Waste Heat Recovery System | Department of Energy A Thermoelectric Generator with an Intermediate Heat Exchanger for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery System A Thermoelectric Generator with an Intermediate Heat Exchanger for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery System Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010. PDF icon p-20_kim.pdf More Documents & Publications Low and high Temperature

  12. Recent advances in modeling fission cross sections over intermediate

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    structures (Conference) | SciTech Connect modeling fission cross sections over intermediate structures Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Recent advances in modeling fission cross sections over intermediate structures × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in

  13. Ubiquity of linear resistivity at intermediate temperature in bad metals

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Ubiquity of linear resistivity at intermediate temperature in bad metals Title: Ubiquity of linear resistivity at intermediate temperature in bad metals Authors: Boyd, G. R. ; Zlatić, V. ; Freericks, J. K. Publication Date: 2015-02-20 OSTI Identifier: 1181226 Grant/Contract Number: SC0007091; FG02-08ER46542 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Physical Review B Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 91; Journal Issue: 7; Journal ID: ISSN

  14. Property:Buildings/ModelClimateZone | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Climate Zone 7A Climate Zone 7B Climate Zone 8A Climate Zone 8B Pages using the property "BuildingsModelClimateZone" Showing 12 pages using this property. G General Merchandise...

  15. Overlap zoned electrically heated particulate filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Chapman, Mark R [Brighton, MI

    2011-07-19

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter that includes an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A zoned heater is arranged spaced from the upstream end and comprises N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones comprises M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one, and wherein the N zones and the M sub-zones are arranged in P layers, where P is an integer greater than one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  16. Intermediate-scale tests of sodium interactions with calcite and dolomite aggregate concretes. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randich, E.; Acton, R.U.

    1983-09-01

    Two intermediate-scale tests were performed to compare the behavior of calcite and dolomite aggregate concretes when attacked by molten sodium. The tests were performed as part of an interlaboratory comparison between Sandia National Laboratories and Hanford Engineering Development Laboratories. Results of the tests at Sandia National Laboratories are reported here. The results show that both concretes exhibit similar exothermic reactions with molten sodium. The large difference in reaction vigor suggested by thermodynamic considerations of CO/sub 2/ release from calcite and dolomite was not realized. Penetration rates of 1.4 to 1.7 mm/min were observed for short periods of time with reaction zone temperatures in excess of 800/sup 0/C during the energetic attack. The penetration was not uniform over the entire sodium-concrete contact area. Rapid attack may be localized due to inhomogeneities in the concrete. The chemical reaction zone is less then one cm thick for the calcite concrete but is about seven cm thick for the dolomite concrete.

  17. Unsaturated Zone and Saturated Zone Transport Properties (U0100)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Conca

    2000-12-20

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) summarizes transport properties for the lower unsaturated zone hydrogeologic units and the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain and provides a summary of data from the Busted Butte Unsaturated Zone Transport Test (UZTT). The purpose of this report is to summarize the sorption and transport knowledge relevant to flow and transport in the units below Yucca Mountain and to provide backup documentation for the sorption parameters decided upon for each rock type. Because of the complexity of processes such as sorption, and because of the lack of direct data for many conditions that may be relevant for Yucca Mountain, data from systems outside of Yucca Mountain are also included. The data reported in this AMR will be used in Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) calculations and as general scientific support for various Process Model Reports (PMRs) requiring knowledge of the transport properties of different materials. This report provides, but is not limited to, sorption coefficients and other relevant thermodynamic and transport properties for the radioisotopes of concern, especially neptunium (Np), plutonium (Pu), Uranium (U), technetium (Tc), iodine (I), and selenium (Se). The unsaturated-zone (UZ) transport properties in the vitric Calico Hills (CHv) are discussed, as are colloidal transport data based on the Busted Butte UZTT, the saturated tuff, and alluvium. These values were determined through expert elicitation, direct measurements, and data analysis. The transport parameters include information on interactions of the fractures and matrix. In addition, core matrix permeability data from the Busted Butte UZTT are summarized by both percent alteration and dispersion.

  18. Pore-Water Extraction from Unsaturated Porous Media: Intermediate-Scale Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oostrom, Martinus; Truex, Michael J.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Tartakovsky, Guzel D.

    2014-08-15

    As a remedial approach, vacuum-induced pore-water extraction offers the possibility of contaminant and water removal from the vadose zone, which may be beneficial in reducing the flux of vadose zone contaminants to groundwater. Vadose zone water extraction is being considered at the Hanford Site in Washington State as a means to remove technetium-99 contamination from low permeability sediments with relatively high water contents. A series of intermediate-scale laboratory experiments have been conducted to improve the fundamental understanding and limitations of the technique. Column experiments were designed to investigate the relations between imposed suctions, water saturations, and water production. Flow cell experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of high-permeability layers and near-well compaction on pore-water extraction efficiency. Results show that water extraction from unsaturated systems can be achieved in low permeability sediments, provided that the initial water saturations are relatively high. The presence of a high-permeability layer decreased the yield, and compaction near the well screen had a limited effect on overall performance. In all experiments, large pressure gradients were observed near the extraction screen. Minimum requirements for water extraction include an imposed vacuum-induced suction larger than the initial sediment capillary pressure, in combination with a fully saturated seepage-face boundary. A numerical multiphase simulator with a coupled seepage-face boundary conditions was used to simulate the experiments. Reasonable matches were obtained between measured and simulated results for both water extraction and capillary pressures, suggesting that numerical simulations may be used as a design tool for field-scale applications of pore-water extraction.

  19. Sandia defines solar variability zones

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    defines solar variability zones - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs

  20. TASK 2: QUENCH ZONE SIMULATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fusselman, Steve

    2015-09-30

    Aerojet Rocketdyne (AR) has developed an innovative gasifier concept incorporating advanced technologies in ultra-dense phase dry feed system, rapid mix injector, and advanced component cooling to significantly improve gasifier performance, life, and cost compared to commercially available state-of-the-art systems. A key feature of the AR gasifier design is the transition from the gasifier outlet into the quench zone, where the raw syngas is cooled to ~ 400°C by injection and vaporization of atomized water. Earlier pilot plant testing revealed a propensity for the original gasifier outlet design to accumulate slag in the outlet, leading to erratic syngas flow from the outlet. Subsequent design modifications successfully resolved this issue in the pilot plant gasifier. In order to gain greater insight into the physical phenomena occurring within this zone, AR developed a cold flow simulation apparatus with Coanda Research & Development with a high degree of similitude to hot fire conditions with the pilot scale gasifier design, and capable of accommodating a scaled-down quench zone for a demonstration-scale gasifier. The objective of this task was to validate similitude of the cold flow simulation model by comparison of pilot-scale outlet design performance, and to assess demonstration scale gasifier design feasibility from testing of a scaled-down outlet design. Test results did exhibit a strong correspondence with the two pilot scale outlet designs, indicating credible similitude for the cold flow simulation device. Testing of the scaled-down outlet revealed important considerations in the design and operation of the demonstration scale gasifier, in particular pertaining to the relative momentum between the downcoming raw syngas and the sprayed quench water and associated impacts on flow patterns within the quench zone. This report describes key findings from the test program, including assessment of pilot plant configuration simulations relative to actual results on the pilot plant gasifier and demonstration plant design recommendations, based on cold flow simulation results.

  1. Farmland Security Zone | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Security Zone Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- OtherOther: Farmland Security ZoneLegal Abstract California Department of...

  2. Pellet Zone Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pellet Zone Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Pellet Zone Ltd Place: England, United Kingdom Zip: NR19 1AE Sector: Biomass Product: UK based biomass pellet trading firm....

  3. Climate Zone Number 5 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Climate Zone Number 5 Jump to: navigation, search A type of climate defined in the ASHRAE 169-2006 standard. Climate Zone Number 5 is defined as Cool- Humid(5A) with IP Units 5400...

  4. Climate Zone 8B | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Subtype B. Climate Zone 8B is defined as Subarctic with IP Units 12600 < HDD65F and SI Units 7000 < HDD18C . The following places are categorized as class 8B climate zones:...

  5. Climate Zone 8A | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    A. Climate Zone Number 8A is defined as Subarctic with IP Units 12600 < HDD65F and SI Units 7000 < HDD18C . The following places are categorized as class 8A climate zones:...

  6. Climate Zone 1A | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    A. Climate Zone 1A is defined as Very Hot - Humid with IP Units 9000 < CDD50F and SI Units 5000 < CDD10C . The following places are categorized as class 1A climate zones:...

  7. Zero Zone Comment | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Zero Zone Comment Zero Zone Comment These comments are submitted by Zero Zone Inc., a manufacturer of CRE equipment, in response to the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) notice in the July 3, 2014 Federal Register requesting information to assist DOE in reviewing existing regulations and in making its regulatory program more effective and less burdensome. PDF icon Zero Zone comments More Documents & Publications Regulatory Burden RFI Executive Order 13563 certification, compliance and

  8. The Intermediate Higgs (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The Intermediate Higgs Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Intermediate Higgs Authors: Katz, Emanuel ; /Boston U. /SLAC ; Nelson, Ann E. ; /Washington U., Seattle ; Walker, Devin G.E. ; /Harvard U. Publication Date: 2005-06-20 OSTI Identifier: 890349 Report Number(s): SLAC-PUB-11111 hep-ph/0504252 DOE Contract Number: AC02-76SF00515 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: JHEP 0508:074,2005 Research Org: Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) Sponsoring Org:

  9. Atkinson County, Georgia ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Atkinson County, Georgia ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Atkinson County, Georgia ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

  10. Barron County, Wisconsin ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Barron County, Wisconsin ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Barron County, Wisconsin ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

  11. Becker County, Minnesota ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Becker County, Minnesota ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Becker County, Minnesota ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

  12. Alfalfa County, Oklahoma ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Alfalfa County, Oklahoma ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Alfalfa County, Oklahoma ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

  13. Adams County, Mississippi ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Adams County, Mississippi ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Adams County, Mississippi ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

  14. Central Nevada Seismic Zone Geothermal Region | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Central Nevada Seismic Zone Geothermal Region (Redirected from Central Nevada Seismic Zone) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Central Nevada Seismic Zone...

  15. Anderson County, Kentucky ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Anderson County, Kentucky ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Anderson County, Kentucky ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

  16. Organic Flash Cycles for Intermediate and High Temperature Waste

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reclamation - Energy Innovation Portal Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Energy Storage Energy Storage Building Energy Efficiency Building Energy Efficiency Find More Like This Return to Search Organic Flash Cycles for Intermediate and High Temperature Waste Reclamation Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication LBNL Commercial Analysis Report (682 KB) Technology Marketing Summary Researchers at Berkeley Lab

  17. Highly Mismatched Alloys for Intermediate Band Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walukiewicz, W.; Yu, K.M.; Wu, J.; Ager III, J.W.; Shan, W.; Scrapulla, M.A.; Dubon, O.D.; Becla, P.

    2005-03-21

    It has long been recognized that the introduction of a narrow band of states in a semiconductor band gap could be used to achieve improved power conversion efficiency in semiconductor-based solar cells. The intermediate band would serve as a ''stepping stone'' for photons of different energy to excite electrons from the valence to the conduction band. An important advantage of this design is that it requires formation of only a single p-n junction, which is a crucial simplification in comparison to multijunction solar cells. A detailed balance analysis predicts a limiting efficiency of more than 50% for an optimized, single intermediate band solar cell. This is higher than the efficiency of an optimized two junction solar cell. Using ion beam implantation and pulsed laser melting we have synthesized Zn{sub 1-y}Mn{sub y}O{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} alloys with x<0.03. These highly mismatched alloys have a unique electronic structure with a narrow oxygen-derived intermediate band. The width and the location of the band is described by the Band Anticrossing model and can be varied by controlling the oxygen content. This provides a unique opportunity to optimize the absorption of solar photons for best solar cell performance. We have carried out systematic studies of the effects of the intermediate band on the optical and electrical properties of Zn{sub 1-y}Mn{sub y}O{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} alloys. We observe an extension of the photovoltaic response towards lower photon energies, which is a clear indication of optical transitions from the valence to the intermediate band.

  18. U.S. Climate Zones Map for Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Past Climate Zones U. S. Climate Zones for 1979-1999 CBECS: climate zone map Return to Climate Zones for 2003 CBECS Return to CBECS Home Page Note:Map updated with corrections,...

  19. Property:ASHRAE 169 Climate Zone Subtype | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    A + Adair County, Oklahoma ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone + Climate Zone Subtype A + Adams County, Colorado ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone + Climate Zone Subtype B + Adams County,...

  20. Property:ASHRAE 169 Climate Zone Number | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    5 + Adair County, Oklahoma ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone + Climate Zone Number 3 + Adams County, Colorado ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone + Climate Zone Number 5 + Adams County,...

  1. U.S. Climate Zones Map for Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. Climate Zone U. S. Climate Zones for 2003 CBECS: climate zones map Note:Map updated with corrections, February 2012 Further Explanation on How Climate Zones are Defined...

  2. Coastal Zone Management Act | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and the National Estuarine Research Reserve System. The 34 coastal programs aim to balance competing land and water issues in the coastal zone, while estuarine reserves serve...

  3. Mapping Hydrothermal Upwelling and Outflow Zones: Preliminary...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    temperature anomaly has been mapped. A group of subtle temperature anomalies along Simpson Pass, south of the current production area, are interpreted as an upwelling zone with...

  4. Coastal Zone Management Act and Regulations (NOAA)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) of 1972 provides for the management of the nation’s coastal resources, including the Great Lakes.

  5. Vadose Zone Microbiology: Science and Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brockman, Fred J.; Bradley, Stephen D.; Kieft, Thomas L.

    2002-03-12

    Brockman FJ, SN Bradley and TL Kieft. 2002. Vadose zone microbiology. In Encyclopedia of Environmental Microbiology, volume 6, pp. 3236-3246. John Wiley and Sons, New York.

  6. Maricopa County- Renewable Energy Systems Zoning Ordinance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Maricopa County Zoning Ordinance contains provisions for siting renewable energy systems. The ordinance defines renewable energy as "energy derived primarily from sources other than fossil...

  7. Coastal Zone Management Act and Regulations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) of 1972 provides for the management of the nation’s coastal resources, including the Great Lakes.

  8. Climate Zone 2B | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    are categorized as class 2B climate zones: Bandera County, Texas Dimmit County, Texas Edwards County, Texas Frio County, Texas Imperial County, California Kinney County, Texas La...

  9. Washington Coastal Zone Management Regulatory Handbook | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - GuideHandbook: Washington Coastal Zone Management Regulatory HandbookPermittingRegulatory GuidanceGuideHandbook Author Washington...

  10. Hydrocyclone Separation of Targeted Algal Intermediates and Products

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Algal Feedstocks Research and Development Richard Brotzman Argonne National Laboratory 1.3.3.100: Hydrocyclone Separation of Targeted Algal Intermediates and Products This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information 2 Project Goals  Evaluate an energy-efficient, separation process - Technology: Hydrocyclone separation of components in a fluid mixture - Main application: Dewatering of algal cultures  Program tasks - Establish baseline

  11. Expanded Intermediate-State Structure of a Bacterial Mechanosensitive

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Channel Expanded Intermediate-State Structure of a Bacterial Mechanosensitive Channel Human and other animals rely on the senses of touch and hearing to perceive mechanical stimuli, a process known as mechanosensation. Bacteria also have the ability to sense mechanical forces through mechanosensitive channels located in their plasma membrane. These channels open and close in response to membrane tension and serve as "pressure relief valves" that protect bacteria from bursting due

  12. Intermediates and the folding of proteins L and G

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Scott; Head-Gordon, Teresa

    2003-07-01

    We use a minimalist protein model, in combination with a sequence design strategy, to determine differences in primary structure for proteins L and G that are responsible for the two proteins folding through distinctly different folding mechanisms. We find that the folding of proteins L and G are consistent with a nucleation-condensation mechanism, each of which is described as helix-assisted {beta}-1 and {beta}-2 hairpin formation, respectively. We determine that the model for protein G exhibits an early intermediate that precedes the rate-limiting barrier of folding and which draws together misaligned secondary structure elements that are stabilized by hydrophobic core contacts involving the third {beta}-strand, and presages the later transition state in which the correct strand alignment of these same secondary structure elements is restored. Finally the validity of the targeted intermediate ensemble for protein G was analyzed by fitting the kinetic data to a two-step first order reversible reaction, proving that protein G folding involves an on-pathway early intermediate, and should be populated and therefore observable by experiment.

  13. Photoautotrophic symbiont and geography are major factors affecting highly structured and diverse bacterial communities in the lichen microbiome

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodkinson, Brendan P; Gottel, Neil R; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Lutzoni, Francois

    2011-01-01

    Although common knowledge dictates that the lichen thallus is formed solely by a fungus (mycobiont) that develops a symbiotic relationship with an alga and/or cyanobacterium (photobiont), the non-photoautotrophic bacteria found in lichen microbiomes are increasingly regarded as integral components of lichen thalli. For this study, comparative analyses were conducted on lichen-associated bacterial communities to test for effects of photobiont-types (i.e. green algal vs. cyanobacterial), mycobiont-types and large-scale spatial distances (from tropical to arctic latitudes). Amplicons of the 16S (SSU) rRNA gene were examined using both Sanger sequencing of cloned fragments and barcoded pyrosequencing. Rhizobiales is typically the most abundant and taxonomically diverse order in lichen microbiomes; however, overall bacterial diversity in lichens is shown to be much higher than previously reported. Members of Acidobacteriaceae, Acetobacteraceae, Brucellaceae and sequence group LAR1 are the most commonly found groups across the phylogenetically and geographically broad array of lichens examined here. Major bacterial community trends are significantly correlated with differences in large-scale geography, photobiont-type and mycobiont-type. The lichen as a microcosm represents a structured, unique microbial habitat with greater ecological complexity and bacterial diversity than previously appreciated and can serve as a model system for studying larger ecological and evolutionary principles.

  14. Sensor and numerical simulator evaluation for porous medium desiccation and rewetting at the intermediate laboratory scale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oostrom, Martinus; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Truex, Michael J.

    2012-02-01

    Soil desiccation, in conjunction with surface infiltration control, is considered at the Hanford Site as a potential technology to limit the flux of technetium and other contaminants in the vadose zone to the groundwater. An intermediate-scale experiment was conducted to test the response of a series of instruments to desiccation and subsequent rewetting of porous media. The instruments include thermistors, thermocouple psychrometers, dual-probe heat pulse sensors, heat dissipation units, and humidity probes. The experiment was simulated with the multifluid flow simulator STOMP, using independently obtained hydraulic and thermal porous medium properties. All instrument types used for this experiment were able to indicate when the desiccation front passed a certain location. In most cases the changes were sharp, indicating rapid changes in moisture content, water potential, or humidity. However, a response to the changing conditions was recorded only when the drying front was very close to a sensor. Of the tested instruments, only the heat dissipation unit and humidity probes were able to detect rewetting. The numerical simulation results reasonably match the experimental data, indicating that the simulator captures the pertinent gas flow and transport processes related to desiccation and rewetting and may be useful in the design and analysis of field tests.

  15. Experimental and Numerical Investigations of Soil Desiccation for Vadose Zone Remediation: Report for Fiscal Year 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, Andy L.; Oostrom, Mart; Bacon, Diana H.

    2008-02-04

    Apart from source excavation, the options available for the remediation of vadose zone metal and radionuclide contaminants beyond the practical excavation depth (0 to 15 m) are quite limited. Of the available technologies, very few are applicable to the deep vadose zone with the top-ranked candidate being soil desiccation. An expert panel review of the work on infiltration control and supplemental technologies identified a number of knowledge gaps that would need to be overcome before soil desiccation could be deployed. The report documents some of the research conducted in the last year to fill these knowledge gaps. This work included 1) performing intermediate-scale laboratory flow cell experiments to demonstrate the desiccation process, 2) implementing a scalable version of Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases–Water-Air-Energy (STOMP-WAE), and 3) performing numerical experiments to identify the factors controlling the performance of a desiccation system.

  16. Treating tar sands formations with karsted zones

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

    2010-03-09

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may have one or more karsted zones. Methods may include providing heat from one or more heaters to one or more karsted zones of the tar sands formation to mobilize fluids in the formation. At least some of the mobilized fluids may be produced from the formation.

  17. Structures of the Ribosome in Intermediate States of Ratcheting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structures of the Ribosome in Intermediate States of Ratcheting Print Protein synthesis is conducted by the ribosome: a megadalton sized complex responsible for making proteins from amino acids. Translation-the conversion of a three letter nucleic acid code (a codon) in a messenger RNA (mRNA) into an amino acid sequence-is essential to gene expression. For this reason, translational accuracy is imperative, and has a very low error rate of 10-3 to 10-4. Translation and other manipulations of

  18. Structures of the Ribosome in Intermediate States of Ratcheting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structures of the Ribosome in Intermediate States of Ratcheting Print Protein synthesis is conducted by the ribosome: a megadalton sized complex responsible for making proteins from amino acids. Translation-the conversion of a three letter nucleic acid code (a codon) in a messenger RNA (mRNA) into an amino acid sequence-is essential to gene expression. For this reason, translational accuracy is imperative, and has a very low error rate of 10-3 to 10-4. Translation and other manipulations of

  19. Structures of the Ribosome in Intermediate States of Ratcheting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structures of the Ribosome in Intermediate States of Ratcheting Print Protein synthesis is conducted by the ribosome: a megadalton sized complex responsible for making proteins from amino acids. Translation-the conversion of a three letter nucleic acid code (a codon) in a messenger RNA (mRNA) into an amino acid sequence-is essential to gene expression. For this reason, translational accuracy is imperative, and has a very low error rate of 10-3 to 10-4. Translation and other manipulations of

  20. Structures of the Ribosome in Intermediate States of Ratcheting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structures of the Ribosome in Intermediate States of Ratcheting Print Protein synthesis is conducted by the ribosome: a megadalton sized complex responsible for making proteins from amino acids. Translation-the conversion of a three letter nucleic acid code (a codon) in a messenger RNA (mRNA) into an amino acid sequence-is essential to gene expression. For this reason, translational accuracy is imperative, and has a very low error rate of 10-3 to 10-4. Translation and other manipulations of

  1. Structures of the Ribosome in Intermediate States of Ratcheting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structures of the Ribosome in Intermediate States of Ratcheting Print Protein synthesis is conducted by the ribosome: a megadalton sized complex responsible for making proteins from amino acids. Translation-the conversion of a three letter nucleic acid code (a codon) in a messenger RNA (mRNA) into an amino acid sequence-is essential to gene expression. For this reason, translational accuracy is imperative, and has a very low error rate of 10-3 to 10-4. Translation and other manipulations of

  2. Structures of the Ribosome in Intermediate States of Ratcheting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structures of the Ribosome in Intermediate States of Ratcheting Print Protein synthesis is conducted by the ribosome: a megadalton sized complex responsible for making proteins from amino acids. Translation-the conversion of a three letter nucleic acid code (a codon) in a messenger RNA (mRNA) into an amino acid sequence-is essential to gene expression. For this reason, translational accuracy is imperative, and has a very low error rate of 10-3 to 10-4. Translation and other manipulations of

  3. Intermediate band solar cells: Recent progress and future directions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okada, Y. Tamaki, R.; Farrell, D. J.; Yoshida, K.; Ahsan, N.; Shoji, Y.; Sogabe, T.; Ekins-Daukes, N. J. Yoshida, M.; Pusch, A.; Hess, O.; Phillips, C. C.; Kita, T.; Guillemoles, J.-F.

    2015-06-15

    Extensive literature and publications on intermediate band solar cells (IBSCs) are reviewed. A detailed discussion is given on the thermodynamics of solar energy conversion in IBSCs, the device physics, and the carrier dynamics processes with a particular emphasis on the two-step inter-subband absorption/recombination processes that are of paramount importance in a successful implementation high-efficiency IBSC. The experimental solar cell performance is further discussed, which has been recently demonstrated by using highly mismatched alloys and high-density quantum dot arrays and superlattice. IBSCs having widely different structures, materials, and spectral responses are also covered, as is the optimization of device parameters to achieve maximum performance.

  4. Digital intermediate frequency QAM modulator using parallel processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pao, Hsueh-Yuan (Livermore, CA); Tran, Binh-Nien (San Ramon, CA)

    2008-05-27

    The digital Intermediate Frequency (IF) modulator applies to various modulation types and offers a simple and low cost method to implement a high-speed digital IF modulator using field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). The architecture eliminates multipliers and sequential processing by storing the pre-computed modulated cosine and sine carriers in ROM look-up-tables (LUTs). The high-speed input data stream is parallel processed using the corresponding LUTs, which reduces the main processing speed, allowing the use of low cost FPGAs.

  5. Mobile machine hazardous working zone warning system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schiffbauer, William H. (Connellsville, PA); Ganoe, Carl W. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1999-01-01

    A warning system is provided for a mobile working machine to alert an individual of a potentially dangerous condition in the event the individual strays into a hazardous working zone of the machine. The warning system includes a transmitter mounted on the machine and operable to generate a uniform magnetic field projecting beyond an outer periphery of the machine in defining a hazardous working zone around the machine during operation thereof. A receiver, carried by the individual and activated by the magnetic field, provides an alarm signal to alert the individual when he enters the hazardous working zone of the machine.

  6. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Kids Zone

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ZONE NNSA/NFO Language Options U.S. DOE/NNSA - Nevada Field Office Cartoon drawing of science girl Kids Zone Welcome K-12 students and teachers! The NNSA/NFO Kids Zone contains information regarding the Nevada Regional Science Bowl, the Environmental Management Kids Display/Activity Book, Student Forum, and lots of photos. Teachers - You can also request a speaker for your classroom or school by filling out the Speakers Bureau Request Form. Feel free to browse the site and come back often as we

  7. Mobile machine hazardous working zone warning system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schiffbauer, W.H.; Ganoe, C.W.

    1999-08-17

    A warning system is provided for a mobile working machine to alert an individual of a potentially dangerous condition in the event the individual strays into a hazardous working zone of the machine. The warning system includes a transmitter mounted on the machine and operable to generate a uniform magnetic field projecting beyond an outer periphery of the machine in defining a hazardous working zone around the machine during operation. A receiver, carried by the individual and activated by the magnetic field, provides an alarm signal to alert the individual when he enters the hazardous working zone of the machine. 3 figs.

  8. Kondo universality, energy scales, and intermediate valence in plutonium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clementyev, E. S.; Mirmelstein, A. V.

    2009-07-15

    On the basis of the concepts of an intermediate-valence (IV) regime, an analysis is carried out of macroscopic properties of the {alpha} and {delta} phases of plutonium, as well as of several model systems based on rare earth elements. Within a single-site approximation (SSA), the characteristic Kondo interaction energy, the f-electron shell occupation number, the effective degeneracy of the ground-state f multiplet, and the crystal field splitting energy are estimated. The ground state in plutonium is considered as a quantum-mechanical superposition of states with different valences. The temperature dependence of the static magnetic susceptibility of {delta} plutonium is calculated. It is shown that {delta} plutonium satisfies the Wilson and Kadowaki-Woods universal relations, whereby it can be classified as a Kondo system. At the same time, the problem of the position of plutonium in the general classification of solids, as well as the problem of the temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibility of {delta} plutonium, remains open. The concept of multiple intermediate valence (MIV) is put forward as a possible means for solving the above problems. The MIV regime is characterized by fluctuations from the basic configuration 3+ to the states 4+ and 2+, which make a fundamental difference between plutonium and 4f electron systems based, say, on samarium.

  9. The 1994 intermediate reline of H-3 furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James, J.D.; Nanavati, K.S.; Spirko, E.J.; Wakelin, D.H.

    1995-12-01

    LTV Steel`s Indiana Harbor Works H-3 Blast Furnace was rebuilt in 1988 to provide reliable operations at high production rates without damage to the shell for an overall campaign. This Rebuild included: (1) complete bosh and partial stack shell replacement; (2) a spray cooled carbon bosh; (3) a row of staves at the mantle and six rows of stack staves, all stack staves had noses (ledges at the top of the stave) with the exception of row 5; (4) silicon carbide filled semi graphite brick for the bosh, silicon carbide brick from the mantle area and to the top of stave row No. 1, super duty brick in front of the remaining staves and phosphate bonded high alumina brick in the upper stack; (5) movable throat armor; (6) upgraded instrumentation to follow furnace operation and lining wear occurring in the furnace. No work was done to the hearth walls and bottom, since these had been replaced in 1982 with a first generation graphite cooled design and has experienced 7.7 million NTHM. The furnace was blown in November 18, 1988 and operated through September 3, 1994, at which time it was blown down for its first intermediate repair after 7.85 million NTHM. This paper summarizes the operation of the furnace and then discusses the major aspects of the 1994 intermediate repair.

  10. Peptide concentration alters intermediate species in amyloid ? fibrillation kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garvey, M., E-mail: megan.garvey@molbiotech.rwth-aachen.de [Max-Planck Research Unit for Enzymology of Protein Folding, Weinbergweg 22, 06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany); Morgado, I., E-mail: immorgado@ualg.pt [Max-Planck Research Unit for Enzymology of Protein Folding, Weinbergweg 22, 06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany)

    2013-04-12

    Highlights: ? A?(1–40) aggregation in vitro has been monitored at different concentrations. ? A?(1–40) fibrillation does not always follow conventional kinetic mechanisms. ? We demonstrate non-linear features in the kinetics of A?(1–40) fibril formation. ? At high A?(1–40) concentrations secondary processes dictate fibrillation speed. ? Intermediate species may play significant roles on final amyloid fibril development. -- Abstract: The kinetic mechanism of amyloid aggregation remains to be fully understood. Investigations into the species present in the different kinetic phases can assist our comprehension of amyloid diseases and further our understanding of the mechanism behind amyloid ? (A?) (1–40) peptide aggregation. Thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have been used in combination to monitor A?(1–40) aggregation in vitro at both normal and higher than standard concentrations. The observed fibrillation behaviour deviates, in several respects, from standard concepts of the nucleation–polymerisation models and shows such features as concentration-dependent non-linear effects in the assembly mechanism. A?(1–40) fibrillation kinetics do not always follow conventional kinetic mechanisms and, specifically at high concentrations, intermediate structures become populated and secondary processes may further modify the fibrillation mechanism.

  11. Category:ASHRAE Climate Zones | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Category Edit History Category:ASHRAE Climate Zones Jump to: navigation, search Climate Zones defined in the ASHRAE 169-2006 standards. Pages in category "ASHRAE Climate Zones" The...

  12. China-Low Carbon Development Zones | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    China-Low Carbon Development Zones (Redirected from E3G-China-Low Carbon Development Zones) Jump to: navigation, search Name China-Low Carbon Development Zones AgencyCompany...

  13. Local Option- Rural Renewable Energy Development Zones

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Commercial renewable energy property in these zones are eligible for a 3 to 5 year local property tax exemption. Eligible property includes either wind, geothermal, solar, biomass, or other uncon...

  14. Climate Zone 5C | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    C. Climate Zone 5C is defined as Marine with IP Units 5400 < HDD65F 7200 and SI Units 3000 < HDD18C 4000 . The following places are categorized as class 5C...

  15. Vadose Zone Transport Field Study: Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, Glendon W.; Ward, Anderson L.

    2001-11-30

    Studies were initiated at the Hanford Site to evaluate the process controlling the transport of fluids in the vadose zone and to develop a reliable database upon which vadose-zone transport models can be calibrated. These models are needed to evaluate contaminant migration through the vadose zone to underlying groundwaters at Hanford. A study site that had previously been extensively characterized using geophysical monitoring techniques was selected in the 200 E Area. Techniques used previously included neutron probe for water content, spectral gamma logging for radionuclide tracers, and gamma scattering for wet bulk density. Building on the characterization efforts of the past 20 years, the site was instrumented to facilitate the comparison of nine vadose-zone characterization methods: advanced tensiometers, neutron probe, electrical resistance tomography (ERT), high-resolution resistivity (HRR), electromagnetic induction imaging (EMI), cross-borehole radar (XBR), and cross-borehole seismic (XBS). Soil coring was used to obtain soil samples for analyzing ionic and isotopic tracers.

  16. Treating nahcolite containing formations and saline zones

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J

    2013-06-11

    A method for treating a nahcolite containing subsurface formation includes removing water from a saline zone in or near the formation. The removed water is heated using a steam and electricity cogeneration facility. The heated water is provided to the nahcolite containing formation. A fluid is produced from the nahcolite containing formation. The fluid includes at least some dissolved nahcolite. At least some of the fluid is provided to the saline zone.

  17. Zone heated diesel particulate filter electrical connection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V. (Pinckney, MI); Paratore, Jr., Michael J. (Howell, MI)

    2010-03-30

    An electrical connection system for a particulate filter is provided. The system includes: a particulate filter (PF) disposed within an outer shell wherein the PF is segmented into a plurality of heating zones; an outer mat disposed between the particulate filter and the outer shell; an electrical connector coupled to the outer shell of the PF; and a plurality of printed circuit connections that extend along the outer surface of the PF from the electrical connector to the plurality of heating zones.

  18. Montana Streamside Management Zone Law Webpage | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Law Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Montana Streamside Management Zone Law Webpage Abstract Provides information on...

  19. Alameda County, California ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Alameda County, California ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Alameda County, California ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate...

  20. Longyang Zone Hongqiang Hydroelectric Power Development Co Ltd...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Longyang Zone Hongqiang Hydroelectric Power Development Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Longyang Zone Hongqiang Hydroelectric Power Development Co., Ltd. Place: Baoshan...

  1. Future Energy Zone Private Ltd FEZ | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Private Ltd FEZ Jump to: navigation, search Name: Future Energy Zone Private Ltd (FEZ) Place: Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India Sector: Renewable Energy Product: Focused on building...

  2. Belknap County, New Hampshire ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Belknap County, New Hampshire ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone...

  3. Androscoggin County, Maine ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Androscoggin County, Maine ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place...

  4. DOE New Madrid Seismic Zone Electric Utility Workshop Summary...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    New Madrid Seismic Zone Electric Utility Workshop Summary Report - August 2010 DOE New Madrid Seismic Zone Electric Utility Workshop Summary Report - August 2010 The DOE New Madrid...

  5. Adams County, Pennsylvania ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Adams County, Pennsylvania ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Adams County, Pennsylvania ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate...

  6. Bernalillo County, New Mexico ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bernalillo County, New Mexico ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Bernalillo County, New Mexico ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006...

  7. An Updated Site Scale Saturated Zone Ground Water Transport Model...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    An Updated Site Scale Saturated Zone Ground Water Transport Model for Yucca Mountain. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An Updated Site Scale Saturated Zone Ground Water ...

  8. Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Coolbaugh, Et Al., 2005 - 2) Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Pritchett,...

  9. Berkeley County, South Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Berkeley County, South Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Berkeley County, South Carolina ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006...

  10. Berkeley County, West Virginia ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Berkeley County, West Virginia ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Berkeley County, West Virginia ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006...

  11. Haleakala SW Rift Zone Exploration | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    SW Rift Zone Exploration Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Development Project: Haleakala SW Rift Zone Exploration Project Location Information...

  12. Geodetic Survey At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Blewitt...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Region (Blewitt Et Al, 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Geodetic Survey Activity Date...

  13. Field Mapping At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Blewitt...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Region (Blewitt Et Al, 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Field Mapping Activity Date Usefulness...

  14. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Region (Biasi, Et Al., 2009) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring Activity...

  15. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Region (Laney, 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Compound and Elemental Analysis...

  16. Isotopic Analysis At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Laney...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Region (Laney, 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Isotopic Analysis- Fluid Activity Date...

  17. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Region (Biasi, Et Al., 2008) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring Activity...

  18. Geographic Information System At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Region (Laney, 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Geographic Information System Activity...

  19. Geothermometry At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Laney...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Region (Laney, 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Geothermometry Activity Date Usefulness...

  20. Alleghany County, North Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Alleghany County, North Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Alleghany County, North Carolina ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006...

  1. Alamance County, North Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Alamance County, North Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Alamance County, North Carolina ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006...

  2. Alexander County, North Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Alexander County, North Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Alexander County, North Carolina ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006...

  3. Central Nevada Seismic Zone Geothermal Region | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Central Nevada Seismic Zone Geothermal Region Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Central Nevada Seismic Zone Geothermal Region Details Areas (3) Power...

  4. LADOL Integrated Logistics Free Zone Enterprise LILE | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LADOL Integrated Logistics Free Zone Enterprise LILE Jump to: navigation, search Name: LADOL Integrated Logistics Free Zone Enterprise (LILE) Place: Lagos, Nigeria Product:...

  5. Anderson County, Tennessee ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Anderson County, Tennessee ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Anderson County, Tennessee ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate...

  6. Anderson County, South Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Anderson County, South Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Anderson County, South Carolina ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006...

  7. Options To Cleanup Site-wide Vadose Zone Contamination At The Hanford Site, WA, State

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goswami, D. [Ph.D, and John Price, Nuclear Waste Program, Washington State Department of Ecology, Richland, WA (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in south central Washington State lies along the Columbia River and is one of DOE's largest legacy waste management sites. Enormous radionuclide and chemical inventories exist below-ground. These include Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) storage facilities where hazardous and radioactive contaminants were discharged and leaked to the soil surface and to the deep vadose zone and groundwater. The vadose zone is also contaminated from facilities regulated by the RCRA and Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Act. Hanford now contains as much as 28,300 cubic meters of soil contaminated with radionuclides from liquid wastes released near processing facilities. The Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) has set the completion of the cleanup of these sites by 2024. There are numerous technical and regulatory challenges to cleanup of the vadose zone at the Hanford site. This paper attempts to identify the categories of deep vadose zone problem and identifies a few possible regulatory options to clean up the site under the mix of state and federal regulatory authorities. There are four major categories of vadose contamination areas at the Hanford Site. The first is laterally extensive with intermediate depth (ground surface to about 45 meters depth) mostly related to high volume effluent discharge into cribs, ponds and ditches of designated CERCLA facilities. The second is dominated by laterally less extensive mostly related to leaks from RCRA tank farms. The later contamination is often commingled at depth with wastes from adjacent CERCLA facilities. The third category is from the high volume CERCLA facilities extending from the surface to more than 60 meters below ground. Contamination from the later category crosses the entire thickness of the vadose zone and reached groundwater. The fourth category is the lower volume waste sites. There are multiple management options to clean up the above four categories of vadose zones sites. The following are some of the options considered for detailed evaluation: - Maintain separate decision processes for each RCRA and CERCLA units/waste sites with a more accommodating schedule. - Create new vadose zone operable units with limited geographical boundaries regardless of site category/origin and make an integrated decision. - Expand the existing CERCLA groundwater operable units to include the deep vadose zone - Use a combination of the above. Each option has pros and cons and regulatory limitations. Detailed evaluation of these options is required to support a cost effective expedited cleanup. (authors)

  8. EVALUATION OF TRANSPORTATION OPTIONS FOR INTERMEDIATE NON DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Case, Susan; Hoggard, Gary

    2014-07-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) shipments of irradiated experiments from the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to the Hot Fuels Examination Facility (HFEF) have historically been accomplished using the General Electric Model 2000 (GE 2000) Type B shipping container. Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA) concerns regarding the future availability and leasing and handling costs associated with the GE 2000 cask have warranted an evaluation of alternative shipping options. One or more of these shipping options may be utilized to perform non destructive examinations (NDE) such as neutron radiography and precision gamma scans of irradiated experiments at HFEF and then return the experiments to ATR for further irradiation, hereafter referred to as “intermediate NDE.”

  9. Elastic Hadron Scattering on Li Isotopes at Intermediate Energies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhusupov, M.A.; Imambekov, O.; Ibraeva, E.T.

    2005-01-01

    The elastic scattering of hadrons (protons, charged pions, and positively charged kaons) on {sup 6,7,8}Li nuclei is analyzed on the basis of Glauber-Sitenko diffraction theory. A few nuclear-wave-function versions found within two- and three-particle potential cluster models are used in the calculations. It is shown that the application of these wave functions in diffraction theory makes it possible to describe adequately the experimental differential cross sections and analyzing powers in hadron scattering at intermediate energies. In this study, particular attention is given to a comparison of the scattering of different particles on the same target nucleus, as well as to a comparison of scattering of particles of the same sort on different target nuclei.

  10. Baxter County, Arkansas ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Baxter County, Arkansas ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Number Climate Zone...

  11. Adams County, Colorado ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Adams County, Colorado ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Number Climate Zone...

  12. Synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry study of intermediates in fuel-rich 1,2-dimethoxyethane flame

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Z. K.; Han, D. L.; Li, S. F.; Li, Y. Y.; Yuan, T.

    2009-04-21

    Intermediates in a fuel-rich premixed laminar 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) flame are studied by molecular beam mass spectrometry combined with tunable synchrotron vacuum ultraviolet photoionization. About 30 intermediate species are identified in the present work, and their mole fraction profiles are evaluated. The experimental results show that the formations of intermediates, both hydrocarbons and oxygenated hydrocarbons, are closely linked to the structure of fuel, which is consistent with the previous reports. Species produced from H atom abstraction and beta scission of DME usually have much higher concentrations than others. The oxygen atoms in DME are considered to act as partitions of the primary intermediates; therefore farther reactions among these primary intermediates are difficult to occur, resulting in absence of most large intermediate species.

  13. Zoned electrical heater arranged in spaced relationship from particulate filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-11-15

    A system comprises a particulate matter (PM) filter that comprises an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A zoned heater is arranged spaced from the upstream end and comprises N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones comprises M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  14. Syngas Conversion to Hydrocarbon Fuels through Mixed Alcohol Intermediates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dagle, Robert A.; Lebarbier, Vanessa M.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Li, Jinjing; Taylor, Charles E.; Bao, Xinhe; Wang, Yong

    2013-05-13

    Synthesis gas (syngas) can be used to synthesize a variety of fuels and chemicals. Domestic transportation and military operational interests have driven continued focus on domestic syngas-based fuels production. Liquid transportation fuels may be made from syngas via four basic processes: 1) higher alcohols, 2) Fischer-Tropsch (FT), 3) methanol-to-gasoline (MTG), and 4) methanol-to-olefins (MTO) and olefins-to-gasoline/distillate (MOGD). Compared to FT and higher alcohols, MTG and MTO-MOGD have received less attention in recent years. Due to the high capital cost of these synthetic fuel plants, the production cost of the finished fuel cannot compete with petroleum-derived fuel. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has recently evaluated one way to potentially reduce capital cost and overall production cost for MTG by combining the methanol and MTG syntheses in a single reactor. The concept consists of mixing the conventional MTG catalyst (i.e. HZSM-5) with an alcohol synthesis catalyst. It was found that a methanol synthesis catalyst, stable at high temperature (i.e. Pd/ZnO/Al2O3) [1], when mixed with ZSM-5, was active for syngas conversion. Relatively high syngas conversion can be achieved as the equilibrium-driven conversion limitations for methanol and dimethyl ether are removed as they are intermediates to the final hydrocarbon product. However, selectivity control was difficult to achieve as formation of undesirable durene and light hydrocarbons was problematic [2]. The objective of the present study was thus to evaluate other potential composite catalyst systems and optimize the reactions conditions for the conversion of syngas to hydrocarbon fuels, through the use of mixed alcohol intermediates. Mixed alcohols are of interest as they have recently been reported to produce higher yields of gasoline compared to methanol [3]. 1. Lebarbier, V.M., Dagle, R.A., Kovarik, L., Lizarazo-Adarme, J.A., King, D.L., Palo, D.R., Catalyst Science & Technology, 2012, 2, 2116-2127. 2. Zhu, Y., Jones, S.B., Biddy, M.J., Dagle, R.A., Palo, D.P., Bioresource Technology, 2012, 117, 341-351. 3. Gujar, A.C., Guda, V.K., Nolan, M., Yan W., Toghiani, H., White, M.G., Applied Catalysis A: General, 2009, 363, 115-121.

  15. Detonation Reaction Zones in Condensed Explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarver, C M

    2005-07-14

    Experimental measurements using nanosecond time resolved embedded gauges and laser interferometric techniques, combined with Non-Equilibrium Zeldovich--von Neumann--Doring (NEZND) theory and Ignition and Growth reactive flow hydrodynamic modeling, have revealed the average pressure/particle velocity states attained in reaction zones of self-sustaining detonation waves in several solid and liquid explosives. The time durations of these reaction zone processes is discussed for explosives based on pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), nitromethane, octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), triaminitrinitrobenzene(TATB) and trinitrotoluene (TNT).

  16. Innovation and Success in Planning and Zoning | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Planning and Zoning Innovation and Success in Planning and Zoning This document summarizes several successful initiatives to implement solar-friendly planes and zoning codes. PDF icon webinar_072413_planning_zoning.pdf More Documents & Publications webinar_innovation_planning_zoning.doc SunShot Vision Study: February 2012 (Book), SunShot, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE) The SunShot Vision Study

  17. Effects of intermediate ethanol blends on legacy vehicles and small non-road engines, report 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, Brian; Knoll, Keith; Clark, Wendy; Graves, Ronald; Orban, John; Przesmitzki, Steve; Theiss, Timothy

    2008-10-01

    Report on the test program to assess the viability of using intermediate ethanol blends as a contributor to meeting national goals in the use of renewable fuels.

  18. INTERMEDIATE ENERGY X-RAY (IEX) BEAMLINE AT THE ADVANCED PHOTON...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    INTERMEDIATE ENERGY X-RAY (IEX) BEAMLINE AT THE ADVANCED PHOTON SOURCE Jessica McChesney, APS beamline scientist, connecting the transition edge sensor (TES) detector to the...

  19. Effects of intermediate mass black holes on nuclear star clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mastrobuono-Battisti, Alessandra; Perets, Hagai B.; Loeb, Abraham

    2014-11-20

    Nuclear star clusters (NSCs) are dense stellar clusters observed in galactic nuclei, typically hosting a central massive black hole. Here we study the possible formation and evolution of NSCs through the inspiral of multiple star clusters hosting intermediate mass black holes (IMBHs). Using an N-body code, we examine the dynamics of the IMBHs and their effects on the NSC. We find that IMBHs inspiral to the core of the newly formed NSC and segregate there. Although the IMBHs scatter each other and the stars, none of them is ejected from the NSC. The IMBHs are excited to high eccentricities and their radial density profile develops a steep power-law cusp. The stars also develop a power-law cusp (instead of the central core that forms in their absence), but with a shallower slope. The relaxation rate of the NSC is accelerated due to the presence of IMBHs, which act as massive perturbers. This in turn fills the loss cone and boosts the tidal disruption rate of stars both by the MBH and the IMBHs to a value excluded by rate estimates based on current observations. Rate estimates of tidal disruptions can therefore provide a cumulative constraint on the existence of IMBHs in NSCs.

  20. Intermediate evaluation of USAID/Cairo energy policy planning project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilbanks, T.J.; Wright, S.B.; Barron, W.F.; Kamel, A.M.; Santiago, H.T.

    1992-09-01

    Three years ago, a team from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Oak Ridge Associated Universities, supplemented by an expert from the US Department of Energy and a senior Egyptian energy professional, carried out what was termed an ``intermediate evaluation`` of a major energy policy project in Egypt. Supported by USAID/Cairo, the project had concentrated on developing and strengthening an Organization for Energy Planning (OEP) within the Government of India, and it was actually scheduled to end less than a year after this evaluation. The evaluation was submitted to USAID/Cairo and circulated elsewhere in the US Agency for International Development and the Government of Egypt as an internal report. Over the next several years, the USAID energy planning project ended and the functions performed by OEP were merged with planning capabilities in the electric power sector. Now that the major issues addressed by the evaluation report have been resolved, we are making it available to a broader audience as a contribution to the general literature on development project evaluation and institution-building.

  1. Intermediate evaluation of USAID/Cairo energy policy planning project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilbanks, T.J.; Wright, S.B. ); Barron, W.F. ); Kamel, A.M. ); Santiago, H.T. )

    1992-01-01

    Three years ago, a team from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Oak Ridge Associated Universities, supplemented by an expert from the US Department of Energy and a senior Egyptian energy professional, carried out what was termed an intermediate evaluation'' of a major energy policy project in Egypt. Supported by USAID/Cairo, the project had concentrated on developing and strengthening an Organization for Energy Planning (OEP) within the Government of India, and it was actually scheduled to end less than a year after this evaluation. The evaluation was submitted to USAID/Cairo and circulated elsewhere in the US Agency for International Development and the Government of Egypt as an internal report. Over the next several years, the USAID energy planning project ended and the functions performed by OEP were merged with planning capabilities in the electric power sector. Now that the major issues addressed by the evaluation report have been resolved, we are making it available to a broader audience as a contribution to the general literature on development project evaluation and institution-building.

  2. Injectivity Testing for Vapour Dominated Feed Zones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clotworthy, A.W.; Hingoyon, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    Wells with vapor dominated feed zones yield abnormal pressure data. This is caused by the condensation of vapor during water injection. A revised injectivity test procedure currently applied by PNOC at the Leyte Geothermal Power Project has improved the injectivity test results.

  3. Climate Zone Number 1 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Number 1 is defined as Very Hot - Humid(1A) with IP Units 9000 < CDD50F and SI Units 5000 < CDD10C Dry(1B) with IP Units 9000 < CDD50F and SI Units 5000 < CDD10C...

  4. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 8 Fairbanks, Alaska

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed before 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary ofbuilding types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  5. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 8 Fairbanks, Alaska

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  6. Site-Scale Saturated Zone Flow Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Zyvoloski

    2003-12-17

    The purpose of this model report is to document the components of the site-scale saturated-zone flow model at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in accordance with administrative procedure (AP)-SIII.lOQ, ''Models''. This report provides validation and confidence in the flow model that was developed for site recommendation (SR) and will be used to provide flow fields in support of the Total Systems Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the License Application. The output from this report provides the flow model used in the ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'', MDL-NBS-HS-000010 Rev 01 (BSC 2003 [162419]). The Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport model then provides output to the SZ Transport Abstraction Model (BSC 2003 [164870]). In particular, the output from the SZ site-scale flow model is used to simulate the groundwater flow pathways and radionuclide transport to the accessible environment for use in the TSPA calculations. Since the development and calibration of the saturated-zone flow model, more data have been gathered for use in model validation and confidence building, including new water-level data from Nye County wells, single- and multiple-well hydraulic testing data, and new hydrochemistry data. In addition, a new hydrogeologic framework model (HFM), which incorporates Nye County wells lithology, also provides geologic data for corroboration and confidence in the flow model. The intended use of this work is to provide a flow model that generates flow fields to simulate radionuclide transport in saturated porous rock and alluvium under natural or forced gradient flow conditions. The flow model simulations are completed using the three-dimensional (3-D), finite-element, flow, heat, and transport computer code, FEHM Version (V) 2.20 (software tracking number (STN): 10086-2.20-00; LANL 2003 [161725]). Concurrently, process-level transport model and methodology for calculating radionuclide transport in the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain using FEHM V 2.20 are being carried out in the model report, ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'', MDL-NBS-HS-000010 Rev 01 (BSC 2003 [162419]). The velocity fields are calculated by the flow model, described herein, independent of the transport processes, and are then used as inputs to the transport model. Justification for this abstraction is presented in the model report, ''Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Abstraction'', MDL-NBS-HS-000021 (BSC 2003 [164870]).

  7. High exhaust temperature, zoned, electrically-heated particulate matter filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.; Bhatia, Garima

    2015-09-22

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter, an electric heater, and a control circuit. The electric heater includes multiple zones, which each correspond to longitudinal zones along a length of the PM filter. A first zone includes multiple discontinuous sub-zones. The control circuit determines whether regeneration is needed based on an estimated level of loading of the PM filter and an exhaust flow rate. In response to a determination that regeneration is needed, the control circuit: controls an operating parameter of an engine to increase an exhaust temperature to a first temperature during a first period; after the first period, activates the first zone; deactivates the first zone in response to a minimum filter face temperature being reached; subsequent to deactivating the first zone, activates a second zone; and deactivates the second zone in response to the minimum filter face temperature being reached.

  8. Intermediate depth burial of classified transuranic wastes in arid alluvium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cochran, J.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Environmental Risk and Decision Analysis Dept.; Crowe, B.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Geologic Integration Group; Di Sanza, F. [Dept. of Energy, Las Vegas, NV (United States). Nevada Operations Office

    1999-04-01

    Intermediate depth disposal operations were conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) at the DOE`s Nevada Test Site (NTS) from 1984 through 1989. These operations emplaced high-specific activity low-level wastes (LLW) and limited quantities of classified transuranic (TRU) wastes in 37 m (120-ft) deep, Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes. The GCD boreholes are 3 m (10 ft) in diameter and founded in a thick sequence of arid alluvium. The bottom 15 m (50 ft) of each borehole was used for waste emplacement and the upper 21 m (70 ft) was backfilled with native alluvium. The bottom of each GCD borehole is almost 200 m (650 ft) above the water table. The GCD boreholes are located in one of the most arid portions of the US, with an average precipitation of 13 cm (5 inches) per year. The limited precipitation, coupled with generally warm temperatures and low humidities results in a hydrologic system dominated by evapotranspiration. The US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) 40 CFR 191 defines the requirements for protection of human health from disposed TRU wastes. This EPA standard sets a number of requirements, including probabilistic limits on the cumulative releases of radionuclides to the accessible environment for 10,000 years. The DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) has contracted with Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) to conduct a performance assessment (PA) to determine if the TRU wastes emplaced in the GCD boreholes complies with the EPA`s 40 CFR 191 requirements. This paper describes DOE`s actions undertaken to evaluate whether the TRU wastes in the GCD boreholes will, or will not, endanger human health. Based on preliminary modeling, the TRU wastes in the GCD boreholes meet the EPA`s requirements, and are, therefore, protective of human health.

  9. Kinetics and mechanisms of reactions involving small aromatic reactive intermediates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, M.C.

    1993-12-01

    Small aromatic radicals such as C{sub 6}H{sub 5}, C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O and C{sub 6}H{sub 4} are key prototype species of their homologs. C{sub 6}H{sub 5} and its oxidation product, C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O are believed to be important intermediates which play a pivotal role in hydrocarbon combustion, particularly with regard to soot formation. Despite their fundamental importance, experimental data on the reaction mechanisms and reactivities of these species are very limited. For C{sub 6}H{sub 5}, most kinetic data except its reactions with NO and NO{sub 2}, were obtained by relative rate measurements. For C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O, the authors have earlier measured its fragmentation reaction producing C{sub 5}H{sub 5} + CO in shock waves. For C{sub 6}H{sub 4}, the only rate constant measured in the gas phase is its recombination rate at room temperature. The authors have proposed to investigate systematically the kinetics and mechanisms of this important class of molecules using two parallel laser diagnostic techniques--laser resonance absorption (LRA) and resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization mass spectrometry (REMPI/MS). In the past two years, study has been focused on the development of a new multipass adsorption technique--the {open_quotes}cavity-ring-down{close_quotes} technique for kinetic applications. The preliminary results of this study appear to be quite good and the sensitivity of the technique is at least comparable to that of the laser-induced fluorescence method.

  10. Intermediate coating layer for high temperature rubbing seals for rotary regenerators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schienle, James L. (Phoenix, AZ); Strangman, Thomas E. (Phoenix, AZ)

    1995-01-01

    A metallic regenerator seal is provided having multi-layer coating comprising a NiCrAlY bond layer, a yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) intermediate layer, and a ceramic high temperature solid lubricant surface layer comprising zinc oxide, calcium fluoride, and tin oxide. Because of the YSZ intermediate layer, the coating is thermodynamically stable and resists swelling at high temperatures.

  11. Analysis of offsite emergency planning zones project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrocchi, A.J.; Armstrong, C.E. . Rocky Flats Plant); McKinney, J.M.; Verholek, M.G.; Fraser, P.J.; Dalfonso, P.H. )

    1991-07-18

    The Rocky Flats Plant maintains and uses significant nonradioactive chemically hazardous material (HAZMAT) inventories. Some of these materials are used in sufficient quantities to represent a credible risk to the offsite public in the event of an emergency at the facility. In Phase 2 of this project, the EG G Rocky Flats, Inc. and TENERA, L.P. Task Team (Task Team) produced an initial screening-level modeling analysis study and an Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ) encompassing the Vulnerable Zones (VZs) for hazardous materials stored at the facility. The screening-level analysis will be supplemented with more refined evaluations during subsequent phases of the project. The existence of these chemicals in the Rocky Flats Plant Occupational Health Information System (OHIS) chemical inventory database was verified. All liquid and gaseous chemicals were considered as potential hazardous material source terms for further screening analysis. Hazards associated with solid substances were not considered in this phase of the project. 2 figs., 13 tabs.

  12. Vadose Zone Transport Field Study: Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, Andy L.; Conrad, Mark E.; Daily, William D.; Fink, James B.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Gee, Glendon W.; Hoversten, Gary M.; Keller, Jason M.; Majer, Ernest L.; Murray, Christopher J.; White, Mark D.; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Zhang, Z. F.

    2006-07-31

    From FY 2000 through FY 2003, a series of vadose zone transport field experiments were conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project Science and Technology Project, now known as the Remediation and Closure Science Project, and managed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The series of experiments included two major field campaigns, one at a 299-E24-11 injection test site near PUREX and a second at a clastic dike site off Army Loop Road. The goals of these experiments were to improve our understanding of vadose zone transport processes; to develop data sets to validate and calibrate vadose zone flow and transport models; and to identify advanced monitoring techniques useful for evaluating flow-and-transport mechanisms and delineating contaminant plumes in the vadose zone at the Hanford Site. This report summarizes the key findings from the field studies and demonstrates how data collected from these studies are being used to improve conceptual models and develop numerical models of flow and transport in Hanford’s vadose zone. Results of these tests have led to a better understanding of the vadose zone. Fine-scale geologic heterogeneities, including grain fabric and lamination, were observed to have a strong effect on the large-scale behavior of contaminant plumes, primarily through increased lateral spreading resulting from anisotropy. Conceptual models have been updated to include lateral spreading and numerical models of unsaturated flow and transport have revised accordingly. A new robust model based on the concept of a connectivity tensor was developed to describe saturation-dependent anisotropy in strongly heterogeneous soils and has been incorporated into PNNL’s Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) simulator. Application to field-scale transport problems have led to a better understanding plume behavior at a number of sites where lateral spreading may have dominated waste migration (e.g. BC Cribs and Trenches). The improved models have been also coupled with inverse models and newly-developed parameter scaling techniques to allow estimation of field-scale and effective transport parameters for the vadose zone. The development and utility of pedotransfer functions for describing fine-scale hydrogeochemical heterogeneity and for incorporating this heterogeneity into reactive transport models was explored. An approach based on grain-size statistics appears feasible and has been used to describe heterogeneity in hydraulic properties and sorption properties, such as the cation exchange capacity and the specific surface area of Hanford sediments. This work has also led to the development of inverse modeling capabilities for time-dependent, subsurface, reactive transport with transient flow fields using an automated optimization algorithm. In addition, a number of geophysical techniques investigated for their potential to provide detailed information on the subtle changes in lithology and bedding surfaces; plume delineation, leak detection. High-resolution resistivity is now being used for detecting saline plumes at several waste sites at Hanford, including tank farms. Results from the field studies and associated analysis have appeared in more than 46 publications generated over the past 4 years. These publications include test plans and status reports, in addition to numerous technical notes and peer reviewed papers.

  13. Capillary zone electrophoresis-mass spectrometer interface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    D`Silva, A.

    1996-08-06

    A device for providing equal electrical potential between two loci unconnected by solid or liquid electrical conductors is provided. The device comprises a first electrical conducting terminal, a second electrical conducting terminal connected to the first terminal by a rigid dielectric structure, and an electrically conducting gas contacting the first and second terminals. This device is particularly suitable for application in the electrospray ionization interface between a capillary zone electrophoresis apparatus and a mass spectrometer. 1 fig.

  14. Diesel particulate filter with zoned resistive heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-03-08

    A diesel particulate filter assembly comprises a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a heater assembly. The DPF filters a particulate from exhaust produced by an engine. The heater assembly has a first metallic layer that is applied to the DPF, a resistive layer that is applied to the first metallic layer, and a second metallic layer that is applied to the resistive layer. The second metallic layer is etched to form a plurality of zones.

  15. Baroclinic instability in stellar radiation zones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kitchatinov, L. L.

    2014-03-20

    Surfaces of constant pressure and constant density do not coincide in differentially rotating stars. Stellar radiation zones with baroclinic stratification can be unstable. Instabilities in radiation zones are of crucial importance for angular momentum transport, mixing of chemical species, and, possibly, for magnetic field generation. This paper performs linear analysis of baroclinic instability in differentially rotating stars. Linear stability equations are formulated for differential rotation of arbitrary shape and then solved numerically for rotation nonuniform in radius. As the differential rotation increases, r- and g-modes of initially stable global oscillations transform smoothly into growing modes of baroclinic instability. The instability can therefore be interpreted as stability loss to r- and g-modes excitation. Regions of stellar parameters where r- or g-modes are preferentially excited are defined. Baroclinic instability onsets at a very small differential rotation of below 1%. The characteristic time of instability growth is about 1000 rotation periods. Growing disturbances possess kinetic helicity. Magnetic field generation by the turbulence resulting from baroclinic instability in differentially rotating radiation zones is therefore possible.

  16. Archive Reference Buildings by Climate Zone: 3A Atlanta, Georgia...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Archive Reference Buildings by Climate Zone: 3A Atlanta, Georgia Archive Reference Buildings by Climate Zone: 3A Atlanta, Georgia Here you will find past versions of the reference ...

  17. Gulf of California Rift Zone Geothermal Region | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Projects (0) Techniques (0) Map: Name The Gulf of California rift zone is a complex transition zone between the dextral (right-lateral) motion of the San Andreas transform...

  18. SATURATED ZONE IN-SITU TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P.W. REIMUS

    2004-11-08

    The purpose of this scientific analysis is to document the results and interpretations of field experiments that test and validate conceptual flow and radionuclide transport models in the saturated zone (SZ) near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The test interpretations provide estimates of flow and transport parameters used in the development of parameter distributions for total system performance assessment (TSPA) calculations. These parameter distributions are documented in ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Flow Model (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170037]), Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]), Saturated Zone Colloid Transport (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170006]), and ''Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170042]). Specifically, this scientific analysis contributes the following to the assessment of the capability of the SZ to serve as part of a natural barrier for waste isolation for the Yucca Mountain repository system: (1) The bases for selection of conceptual flow and transport models in the saturated volcanics and the saturated alluvium located near Yucca Mountain. (2) Results and interpretations of hydraulic and tracer tests conducted in saturated fractured volcanics at the C-wells complex near Yucca Mountain. The test interpretations include estimates of hydraulic conductivities, anisotropy in hydraulic conductivity, storativities, total porosities, effective porosities, longitudinal dispersivities, matrix diffusion mass transfer coefficients, matrix diffusion coefficients, fracture apertures, and colloid transport parameters. (3) Results and interpretations of hydraulic and tracer tests conducted in saturated alluvium at the Alluvial Testing Complex (ATC) located at the southwestern corner of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The test interpretations include estimates of hydraulic conductivities, storativities, total porosities, effective porosities, longitudinal dispersivities, matrix diffusion mass transfer coefficients, and colloid transport parameters. (4) Comparisons of sorption parameter estimates for a reactive solute tracer (lithium ion) derived from the C-wells field tracer tests and laboratory tests using C-wells core samples. (5) Sorption parameter estimates for lithium ion derived from laboratory tests using alluvium samples from ATC well NC-EWDP-19D. These estimates will allow a comparison of laboratory- and field-derived sorption parameters to be made in saturated alluvium if cross-hole tracer tests are conducted at the ATC.

  19. Modeling-Computer Simulations At Central Nevada Seismic Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Modeling-Computer Simulations At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Pritchett, 2004) Exploration...

  20. Turkey Near-Zero Zone | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Turkey Near-Zero Zone Turkey Near-Zero Zone The U.S. Department of Energy and Turkey's Ministry of Energy, with interagency support from the U.S. Trade and Development Agency, the Overseas Private Investment Corporation and the State Department, developed the Near-Zero Zone (NZZ) - an industrial energy efficiency project at the Ataturk Organized Industrial Zone in Izmir, Turkey. NZZ was designed to reduce Turkey's dependence on energy imports, bolster energy security, cut carbon emissions, and

  1. Zoning for Distributed Wind Power - Breaking Down Barriers: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, J.; Sagrillo, M.

    2005-08-01

    Zoning regulations for the use of small wind turbines vary from state to state and from one local jurisdiction to the next. This paper examines the zoning experiences of small wind turbine owners, options for local actions, and examples of state and federal limited preemption of local zoning authority as a means of promoting the implementation of new technologies.

  2. Adams County, Wisconsin ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Adams County, Wisconsin ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Adams County, Wisconsin ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

  3. Anderson County, Kansas ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Anderson County, Kansas ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Anderson County, Kansas ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

  4. Methods and intermediates for the synthesis of dipyrrin-substituted porphyrinic macrocycles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, Lianhe (Raleigh, NC); Muthukumaran, Kannan (Raleigh, NC); Sreedharan, Prathapan (Kerala, IN); Lindsey, Jonathan S. (Raleigh, NC)

    2008-02-19

    The present invention provides dipyrrin substituted porphyrinic macrocycles, intermediates useful for making the same, and methods of making the same. Such compounds may be used for purposes including the making of molecular memory devices, solar cells and light harvesting arrays.

  5. Dilute group III-V nitride intermediate band solar cells with contact blocking layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walukiewicz, Wladyslaw; Yu, Kin Man

    2015-02-24

    An intermediate band solar cell (IBSC) is provided including a p-n junction based on dilute III-V nitride materials and a pair of contact blocking layers positioned on opposite surfaces of the p-n junction for electrically isolating the intermediate band of the p-n junction by blocking the charge transport in the intermediate band without affecting the electron and hole collection efficiency of the p-n junction, thereby increasing open circuit voltage (V.sub.OC) of the IBSC and increasing the photocurrent by utilizing the intermediate band to absorb photons with energy below the band gap of the absorber layers of the IBSC. Hence, the overall power conversion efficiency of a IBSC will be much higher than an conventional single junction solar cell. The p-n junction absorber layers of the IBSC may further have compositionally graded nitrogen concentrations to provide an electric field for more efficient charge collection.

  6. Dilute Group III-V nitride intermediate band solar cells with contact blocking layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walukiewicz, Wladyslaw; Yu, Kin Man

    2012-07-31

    An intermediate band solar cell (IBSC) is provided including a p-n junction based on dilute III-V nitride materials and a pair of contact blocking layers positioned on opposite surfaces of the p-n junction for electrically isolating the intermediate band of the p-n junction by blocking the charge transport in the intermediate band without affecting the electron and hole collection efficiency of the p-n junction, thereby increasing open circuit voltage (V.sub.OC) of the IBSC and increasing the photocurrent by utilizing the intermediate band to absorb photons with energy below the band gap of the absorber layers of the IBSC. Hence, the overall power conversion efficiency of a IBSC will be much higher than an conventional single junction solar cell. The p-n junction absorber layers of the IBSC may further have compositionally graded nitrogen concentrations to provide an electric field for more efficient charge collection.

  7. Band filling effects on temperature performance of intermediate band quantum wire solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kunets, Vas. P. Furrow, C. S.; Ware, M. E.; Souza, L. D. de; Benamara, M.; Salamo, G. J.; Mortazavi, M.

    2014-08-28

    Detailed studies of solar cell efficiency as a function of temperature were performed for quantum wire intermediate band solar cells grown on the (311)A plane. A remotely doped one-dimensional intermediate band made of self-assembled In{sub 0.4}Ga{sub 0.6}As quantum wires was compared to an undoped intermediate band and a reference p-i-n GaAs sample. These studies indicate that the efficiencies of these solar cells depend on the population of the one-dimensional band by equilibrium free carriers. A change in this population by free electrons under various temperatures affects absorption and carrier transport of non-equilibrium carriers generated by incident light. This results in different efficiencies for both the doped and undoped intermediate band solar cells in comparison with the reference GaAs p-i-n solar cell device.

  8. Methods and intermediates for the synthesis of dipyrrin-substituted porphyrinic macrocycles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, Lianhe; Muthukumaran, Kannan; Sreedharan, Prathapan; Lindsey, Jonathan S.

    2010-05-25

    The present invention provides dipyrrin substituted porphyrinic macrocycles, intermediates useful for making the same, and methods of making the same. Such compounds may be used for purposes including the making of molecular memory devices, solar cells and light harvesting arrays.

  9. Methods and intermediates for the synthesis of dipyrrin-substituted porphyrinic macrocycles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, Lianhe (Raleigh, NC); Muthukumaran, Kannan (Raleigh, NC); Sreedharan, Prathapan (Kerata, IN); Lindsey, Jonathan S. (Raleigh, NC)

    2011-05-24

    The present invention provides dipyrrin substituted porphyrinic macrocycles, intermediates useful for making the same, and methods of making the same. Such compounds may be used for purposes including the making of molecular memory devices, solar cells and light harvesting arrays.

  10. Methods and intermediates for the synthesis of dipyrrin-substituted porphyrinic macrocycles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, Lianhe (Raleigh, NC); Muthukumaran, Kannan (Raleigh, NC); Sreedharan, Prathapan (Kerala, IN); Lindsey, Jonathan S. (Raleigh, NC)

    2012-03-06

    The present invention provides dipyrrin substituted porphyrinic macrocycles, intermediates useful for making the same, and methods of making the same. Such compounds may be used for purposes including the making of molecular memory devices, solar cells and light harvesting arrays.

  11. Sub-picosecond IR study of the reactive intermediate in an alkane...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Sub-picosecond IR study of the reactive intermediate in an alkane C-H bond activation reaction by CpRh(CO)2 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ...

  12. Helicity amplitudes of di-photons production at the LHC with scalar unparticles intermediate states

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aliane, I.; Mebarki, N.; Haouchine, M.

    2012-06-27

    The helecity amplitudes of the subprocess gg{yields}{gamma}{gamma} via scalar unparticles intermediate states are calculated. The differential cross section is compared to that of the standard model. Phenomenological implications are also discussed.

  13. Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knoll, Keith; West, Brian; Clark, Wendy; Graves, Ronald; Orban, John; Przesmitzki, Steve; Theiss, Timothy

    2009-02-01

    This report (February 2009) is an update of the original version, which was published in October 2008. This report is the result of the U.S. Department of Energy's test program to evaluate the potential impacts of intermediate ethanol blends on legacy vehicles and other engines. The purpose of the test program is to assess the viability of using intermediate blends as a contributor to meeting national goals in the use of renewable fuels.

  14. Generalized thickness and configuration of the top of the intermediate aquifer, West-Central Florida

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corral, M.A. Jr.; Wolansky, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    The water-bearing units of the intermediate aquifer consist of discontinuous sand, gravel, shell, and limestone and dolomite beds in the Tamiami Formation of late Miocene age and the Hawthorn Formation of middle Miocene age. Within parts of Polk, Manatee, Hardee, De Soto, Sarasota, and Charlotte Counties, sand and clay beds within the Tampa Limestone that are hydraulically connected to the Hawthorn Formation are also included in the intermediate aquifer. 15 refs.

  15. Anderson County, Texas ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Anderson County, Texas ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Number Climate Zone Number...

  16. Near-field/altered-zone models report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardin, E. L., LLNL

    1998-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is studying Yucca Mountain as the possible site for the first underground repository for permanent disposal of spent fuel from commercial nuclear reactors as well as for other types high-level nuclear waste. Emplacement of high-level radioactive waste, especially commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF), in Yucca Mountain will release a large amount of heat into the rock above and below the repository. The heating rate will decrease with time, creating a thermal pulse. Over a period of several thousand years, the rock temperature will rise initially, then drop when the production of decay heat falls below the rate at which heat escapes from the hot zone. Besides raising the rock temperature, much of this heat will vaporize water, which will then condense in cooler regions. The condensate is likely to form a gravity-driven heat pipe above the repository, creating the possibility that water may drain back onto the waste packages (WPs) or that it may ''shed'' through the pillars between emplacement drifts. The long-term importance of these effects has been investigated through the development, testing, and application of thermohydrologic (TH) models. Other effects, such coupled chemical and mechanical processes, may also influence the movement of water above, within, and below the emplacement drifts. A recent report on thermally driven coupled processes (Hardin and Chesnut, 1997) provides a qualitative assessment of the probable significance of these processes for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMSCP) and is the phenomenological framework for the present report. This report describes the conceptual and numerical models that have been developed to predict the thermal, mechanical, hydrologic, and chemical responses to the cumulative heat production of the potential host rock at Yucca Mountain. As proposed, the repository horizon will be situated within the Topopah Spring tuff, in the adjacent middle nonlithophysal and lower lithophysal units. These units are made up of moderately to densely welded, devitrified, fractured tuff. The rock's chemical composition is comparable to that of typical granite, but has textural features and mineralogical characteristics of large-scale, silicic volcanism. Because the repository horizon will be approximately 300 m below the ground surface and 200 m above the water table, the repository will be partially saturated. The welded tuff matrix in the host units is highly impermeable, but water and gas flow readily through fractures. The degree of fracturing in these units is highly variable, and the hydrologic significance of fracturing is an important aspect of site investigation. This report describes the characterization and modeling of a region around the potential repository--the altered zone--a region in which the temperature will be increased significantly by waste-generated heat. Numerical simulation has shown that, depending on the boundary conditions, rock properties, and repository design features incorporated in the models, the altered zone (AZ) may extend from the water table to the ground surface. This report also describes models of the near field, the region comprising the repository emplacement drifts and the surrounding rock, which are critical to the performance of engineered components. Investigations of near-field and altered-zone (NF/AZ) processes support the design of underground repository facilities and engineered barriers and also provide constraint data for probabilistic calculations of waste-isolation performance (i.e., performance assessment). The approach to investigation, which is an iterative process involving hypothesis testing and experimentation, has relied on conceptualizing engineered barriers and on performance analysis. This report is a collection, emphasizing conceptual and numerical models, of the recent results contributed from studies of NF/AZ processes and of quantitative measures of NF/AZ performance. The selection and presentation of contributions are intended to show the iterative development of understand

  17. Webinar: EISPC Energy Zones Mapping Tool Demonstration | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Webinar: EISPC Energy Zones Mapping Tool Demonstration Webinar: EISPC Energy Zones Mapping Tool Demonstration June 23, 2014 - 10:40am Addthis Argonne National Laboratory has organized a webinar demonstration of the Eastern Interconnection States' Planning Council (EISPC) Energy Zones (EZ) Mapping Tool, a free online mapping tool for identifying areas in all 39 EISPC states that may be suitable for new clean power generation. The tool is maintained by Argonne National Laboratory with

  18. Central Plateau Groundwater and Deep Vadose Zone Strategy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vadose Zone Executive Council Hanford Advisory Board River and Plateau Committee Briant L. Charboneau DOE-RL, Soil and Groundwater Federal Project Director October 9, 2012 1 Discussion Topics * Purpose of the Executive Council - Why was this established? * Who participates? * What are the integration topics of interest to the Council? * Examples of groundwater and vadose zone integration - Deep Vadose Zone treatability testing leading to evaluation of measures to protect groundwater - B complex

  19. Eastern Energy Zones Mapping Tool | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Eastern Energy Zones Mapping Tool Eastern Energy Zones Mapping Tool The Eastern Interconnection States' Planning Council (EISPC) has released the Energy Zones (EZ) Mapping Tool, a free, web-based interactive tool that will help states and other stakeholders in the Eastern Interconnection identify geographic areas suitable for the development of clean energy resources (natural gas, sequestration or utilitization locations for C02 from coal, nuclear, and renewable) which can potentially provide

  20. Eastern Energy Zones Mapping Tool Now Available | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Eastern Energy Zones Mapping Tool Now Available Eastern Energy Zones Mapping Tool Now Available May 3, 2013 - 12:08pm Addthis The Eastern Interconnection States' Planning Council (EISPC) has released the Energy Zones (EZ) Mapping Tool, a free, web-based interactive tool that will help states and other stakeholders in the Eastern Interconnection identify geographic areas suitable for the development of clean energy resources (natural gas, sequestration or utilitization locations for C02 from

  1. Geothermal Literature Review At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geothermal Literature Review At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Laney, 2005) Exploration Activity...

  2. Gradient zone boundary control in salt gradient solar ponds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, John R.

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus for suppressing zone boundary migration in a salt gradient solar pond includes extending perforated membranes across the pond at the boundaries, between the convective and non-convective zones, the perforations being small enough in size to prevent individual turbulence disturbances from penetrating the hole, but being large enough to allow easy molecular diffusion of salt thereby preventing the formation of convective zones in the gradient layer. The total area of the perforations is a sizable fraction of the membrane area to allow sufficient salt diffusion while preventing turbulent entrainment into the gradient zone.

  3. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Central Nevada Seismic Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Nevada Seismic Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Compound and Elemental Analysis Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes Geochemical...

  4. Isotopic Analysis At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Laney...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Location Central Nevada Seismic Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Isotopic Analysis- Fluid Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes...

  5. Tectonic analysis of the Rio Grande Rift Zone, central Colorado...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rift Zone, central ColoradoThesisDissertation Abstract Abstract unavailable. Author D.H. Knepper Organization Colorado School of Mines Published Publisher Not Provided, 1974...

  6. Field Mapping At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Blewitt...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Field Mapping At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Blewitt Et Al, 2005) Exploration Activity...

  7. Baltimore County, Maryland ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Baltimore County, Maryland ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County...

  8. Baltimore City County, Maryland ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Baltimore City County, Maryland ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search...

  9. Washington Coastal Zone Management Webpage | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Washington Coastal Zone Management Webpage Abstract Provides overview of Washington's coastal...

  10. Community Wind Handbook/Understand Permitting & Zoning | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Permitting & Zoning < Community Wind Handbook Jump to: navigation, search WIND ENERGY STAKEHOLDER ENGAGEMENT & OUTREACHCommunity Wind Handbook WindTurbine-icon.png...

  11. Water Sampling At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Laney,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Laney, 2005) Exploration Activity...

  12. Water Sampling At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Laney...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Laney, 2005) Exploration Activity...

  13. EPA Coastal Zone Act Reauthorization Amendments (CZARA) Section...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Section 6217 Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: EPA Coastal Zone Act Reauthorization Amendments (CZARA) Section 6217 Webpage...

  14. WIPP Concludes Zone Recovery Activities for Panel 7 Disposal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Activities for Panel 7 Disposal Pathway After months of catch-up rock bolting and contamination mitigation, zone recovery activities along the pathway to Panel 7 have been...

  15. AltaRock Energy Announces Successful Multiple-Zone Stimulation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Stimulation of Well at the Newberry Enhanced Geothermal Systems Demonstration AltaRock Energy Announces Successful Multiple-Zone Stimulation of Well at the Newberry ...

  16. Drone Zone at Los Alamos ScienceFest

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Drone Zone at Los Alamos ScienceFest Drone Zone at Los Alamos ScienceFest WHEN: Jul 18, 2015 11:00 AM - 3:00 PM WHERE: Ashley Pond Downtown Los Alamos, New Mexico CONTACT: Jessica Privette 505 667-0375 CATEGORY: Bradbury INTERNAL: Calendar Login Drone Zone at Los Alamos ScienceFest Event Description An interactive event offering learning and competition as part of the Los Alamos ScienceFest. Join us at the Drone Zone at Los Alamos ScienceFest where you can bring your own drone or try flying a

  17. Data Acquisition-Manipulation At Central Nevada Seismic Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    - 2) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Data Acquisition-Manipulation At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Coolbaugh, Et Al., 2005...

  18. Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Area Wilson Hot Spring Geothermal Area Winnemucca Dry Lake Geothermal Area Energy Generation Facilities within the Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region...

  19. Production from multiple zones of a tar sands formation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karanikas, John Michael; Vinegar, Harold J

    2013-02-26

    A method for treating a tar sands formation includes providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat is allowed to transfer from the heaters to at least a portion of the formation. Fluids are produced from the formation through at least one production well that is located in at least two zones in the formation. The first zone has an initial permeability of at least 1 darcy. The second zone has an initial of at most 0.1 darcy. The two zones are separated by a substantially impermeable barrier.

  20. Eastern Energy Zones Mapping Tool | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The Eastern Interconnection States' Planning Council (EISPC) has released the Energy Zones (EZ) Mapping Tool, a free, web-based interactive tool that will help states and other ...

  1. Variation in sericite composition from fracture zones within...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    found in drillhole samples within the geothermal system at Coso Hot Springs. Low-permeability zones of the crystalline basement contain coarse-grained relict muscovite, whereas...

  2. Data Acquisition-Manipulation At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (Coolbaugh, Et Al., 2005 - 2) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Data Acquisition-Manipulation Activity...

  3. Field Mapping At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Shevenell...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Region (Shevenell, Et Al., 2008) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Field Mapping Activity Date Usefulness...

  4. Geothermometry At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Shevenell...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (Shevenell & De Rocher, 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Geothermometry Activity Date Usefulness...

  5. Refraction Survey At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Heimgartner...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Region (Heimgartner, Et Al., 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Refraction Survey Activity Date...

  6. Deep Vadose Zone Applied Field Research Initiative (DVZ-AFRI...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Located on the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, the Deep Vadose Zone Applied Field Research Initiative (DVZ AFRI) was established to protect water resources by addressing the ...

  7. Modeling-Computer Simulations At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Modeling-Computer Simulations At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Laney, 2005) Exploration...

  8. Modeling-Computer Simulations At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Modeling-Computer Simulations At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Pritchett, 2004) Exploration...

  9. Modeling-Computer Simulations At Central Nevada Seismic Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Modeling-Computer Simulations At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Biasi, Et Al., 2009) Exploration...

  10. Modeling-Computer Simulations At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Modeling-Computer Simulations At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Biasi, Et Al., 2009) Exploration...

  11. Geodetic Survey At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Blewitt...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geodetic Survey At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Blewitt Et Al, 2005) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geodetic Survey At...

  12. Geothermometry At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Shevenell...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermometry At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Shevenell & De Rocher, 2005) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geothermometry...

  13. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Central Nevada Seismic Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Biasi, Et Al., 2008) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity:...

  14. Geodetic Survey At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Laney...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Laney, 2005) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geodetic Survey At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Laney, 2005) Exploration...

  15. Geodetic Survey At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Laney...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Laney, 2005) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geodetic Survey At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Laney, 2005) Exploration...

  16. Diffusion releases through one and two finite planar zones from...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Diffusion releases through one and two finite planar zones from a nuclear waste package Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Diffusion releases through one and two finite...

  17. Diffusion releases through one and two finite planar zones from...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Diffusion releases through one and two finite planar zones from a nuclear waste package Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Diffusion releases through one...

  18. DOE New Madrid Seismic Zone Electric Utility Workshop Summary Report

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    DOE New Madrid Seismic Zone Electric Utility Workshop Summary Report August 25, 2010 I In nt tr ro od du uc ct ti io on n The DOE New Madrid Seismic Zone Electric Utilities Workshop, held in Memphis, TN for the electric utilities in the seismic zone was a chance to bring together a diverse set of industry partners to discuss the potential effects of an earthquake in the New Madrid and Wabash Valley seismic zones. The electric sector was well represented by Independent Transmission System

  19. Baoding High Tech Industry Development Zone | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: Baoding High-Tech Industry Development Zone Place: China Product: Government & NGO ( State-owned commercial entity ) References: Baoding High-Tech Industry Development...

  20. Intermediate Heat Transfer Loop Study for High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. H. Oh; C. Davis; S. Sherman

    2008-08-01

    A number of possible configurations for a system that transfers heat between the nuclear reactor and the hydrogen and/or electrical generation plants were identified. These configurations included both direct and indirect cycles for the production of electricity. Both helium and liquid salts were considered as the working fluid in the intermediate heat transport loop. Methods were developed to perform thermal-hydraulic and cycleefficiency evaluations of the different configurations and coolants. The thermal-hydraulic evaluations estimated the sizes of various components in the intermediate heat transport loop for the different configurations. This paper also includes a portion of stress analyses performed on pipe configurations.

  1. Sub-picosecond IR study of the reactive intermediate in an alkane C-H bond

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    activation reaction by CpRh(CO)2 (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Sub-picosecond IR study of the reactive intermediate in an alkane C-H bond activation reaction by CpRh(CO)2 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Sub-picosecond IR study of the reactive intermediate in an alkane C-H bond activation reaction by CpRh(CO)2 No abstract prepared. Authors: Asbury, John B. ; Ghosh, Hirendra N. ; Yeston, Jake S. ; Bergman, Robert G. ; Lian, Tianquan Publication Date:

  2. Two-zone countercurrent smelter system and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cox, J.H.; Fruehan, R.J.; Elliott, J.F.

    1995-01-03

    A process for continuously smelting iron ore by use of coal to yield molten iron or semi-steel is disclosed. The process comprises the steps of establishing a melt covered by slag; inducing the slag and the molten iron to flow countercurrently to one another, toward opposite ends of the smelter; maintaining iron oxide-reducing conditions in that zone of the smelter towards which the slag flows; maintaining carbon-oxidizing conditions in that zone of the smelter towards which the molten iron flows; continuously or semicontinuously tapping the slag from the reducing zone end of the smelter; continuously or semicontinuously tapping the molten iron from the oxidizing zone end of the smelter; and adding to both zones iron ore, coal, oxygen, and flux at addition rates sufficient to keep the molten iron in the reducing zone substantially saturated with carbon, maintain in the slag being tapped an FeO content of about 5 weight percent or less, and maintain in the molten iron being tapped a carbon content of about 0.5 to 5 weight percent. A slag dam preferably is included in the smelter, to impede the backflow of the slag from the reducing zone to the oxidizing zone. A metal bath dam with one or more flow-through portals also is preferably used, submerged below the slag dam, to impede the backflow of the hot metal. 8 figures.

  3. Two-zone countercurrent smelter system and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cox, James H. (Toronto, CA); Fruehan, Richard J. (Murrysville, PA); Elliott, deceased, John F. (late of Winchester, MA)

    1995-01-01

    A process for continuously smelting iron ore by use of coal to yield molten iron or semi-steel is disclosed. The process comprises the steps of establishing a melt covered by slag; inducing the slag and the molten iron to flow countercurrently to one another, toward opposite ends of the smelter; maintaining iron oxide-reducing conditions in that zone of the smelter towards which the slag flows; maintaining carbon-oxidizing conditions in that zone of the smelter towards which the molten iron flows; continuously or semicontinuously tapping the slag from the reducing zone end of the smelter; continuously or semicontinuously tapping the molten iron from the oxidizing zone end of the smelter; and adding to both zones iron ore, coal, oxygen, and flux at addition rates sufficient to keep the molten iron in the reducing zone substantially saturated with carbon, maintain in the slag being tapped an FeO content of about 5 weight percent or less, and maintain in the molten iron being tapped a carbon content of about 0.5 to 5 weight percent. A slag dam preferably is included in the smelter, to impede the backflow of the slag from the reducing zone to the oxidizing zone. A metal bath dam with one or more flow-through portals also is preferably used, submerged below the slag dam, to impede the backflow of the hot metal.

  4. Deep Vadose Zone Applied Field Research Initiative (DVZ AFRI) - Overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-02-01

    The Deep Vadoze Zone Applied Field Research Initiative (DVZ AFRI) was established to protect water resources and to address the challenge of preventing contamination in the deep vadose zone from reaching groundwater. This factsheet provides an overview of the initiative and the approach to integrate basic science and needs-driven applied research activities with cleanup operations.

  5. Significance of Soft Zone Sediments at the SRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aadland, R.K.

    2000-02-03

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on the origin, extent and stability of ''soft zones'' in the carbonate bearing strata at the Savannah River Site (SRS). As part of this study, a comprehensive historical compendium of how soft zones have been addressed during the past 47 years at SRS is reviewed.

  6. Category:County Climate Zones | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    zone information in the United States of America. Contents: Top - 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Pages in category "County Climate Zones" The following...

  7. Direct measurement and characterization of active photosynthesis zones

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    inside biofuel producing and wastewater remediating microalgal biofilms (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Direct measurement and characterization of active photosynthesis zones inside biofuel producing and wastewater remediating microalgal biofilms Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Direct measurement and characterization of active photosynthesis zones inside biofuel producing and wastewater remediating microalgal biofilms Abstract: Microalgal biofilm based

  8. Combustion Air Zone (CAZ) Best Practices | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion Air Zone (CAZ) Best Practices Combustion Air Zone (CAZ) Best Practices This webinar covered combustion safety testing, several tests, national standards, and implementing combustion safety testing in programs. PDF icon Presentation More Documents & Publications Quality Assurance for Residential Retrofit Programs How to Design and Market Energy Efficiency Programs to Specific Neighborhoods Effective O&M Policy in Public Buildings

  9. HYDROGEN GREENHOUSE PLANETS BEYOND THE HABITABLE ZONE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierrehumbert, Raymond; Gaidos, Eric E-mail: gaidos@hawaii.edu

    2011-06-10

    We show that collision-induced absorption allows molecular hydrogen to act as an incondensible greenhouse gas and that bars or tens of bars of primordial H{sub 2}-He mixtures can maintain surface temperatures above the freezing point of water well beyond the 'classical' habitable zone defined for CO{sub 2} greenhouse atmospheres. Using a one-dimensional radiative-convective model, we find that 40 bars of pure H{sub 2} on a three Earth-mass planet can maintain a surface temperature of 280 K out to 1.5 AU from an early-type M dwarf star and 10 AU from a G-type star. Neglecting the effects of clouds and of gaseous absorbers besides H{sub 2}, the flux at the surface would be sufficient for photosynthesis by cyanobacteria (in the G star case) or anoxygenic phototrophs (in the M star case). We argue that primordial atmospheres of one to several hundred bars of H{sub 2}-He are possible and use a model of hydrogen escape to show that such atmospheres are likely to persist further than 1.5 AU from M stars, and 2 AU from G stars, assuming these planets have protecting magnetic fields. We predict that the microlensing planet OGLE-05-390Lb could have retained an H{sub 2}-He atmosphere and be habitable at {approx}2.6 AU from its host M star.

  10. Confined zone dispersion flue gas desulfurization demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-27

    The confined zone dispersion (CZD) process involves flue gas post-treatment, physically located between a boiler's outlet and its particulate collector, which in the majority of cases is an electrostatic precipitator. The features that distinguish this process from other similar injection processes are: Injection of an alkaline slurry directly into the duct, instead of injection of dry solids into the duct ahead of a fabric filter. Use of an ultrafine calcium/magnesium hydroxide, type S pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime. This commercial product is made from plentiful, naturally occurring dolomite. Low residence time, made possible by the high effective surface area of the Type S lime. Localized dispersion of the reagent. Slurry droplets contact only part of the gas while the droplets are drying, to remove up to 50 percent of the S0{sub 2} and significant amounts of NO{sub x}. The process uses dual fluid rather than rotary atomizers. Improved electrostatic precipitator performance via gas conditioning from the increased water vapor content, and lower temperatures. Supplemental conditioning with S0{sub 3} is not believed necessary for satisfactory removal of particulate matter.

  11. High gain photoconductive semiconductor switch having tailored doping profile zones

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baca, Albert G. (Albuquerque, NM); Loubriel, Guillermo M. (Albuquerque, NM); Mar, Alan (Albuquerque, NM); Zutavern, Fred J (Albuquerque, NM); Hjalmarson, Harold P. (Albuquerque, NM); Allerman, Andrew A. (Albuquerque, NM); Zipperian, Thomas E. (Edgewood, NM); O'Malley, Martin W. (Edgewood, NM); Helgeson, Wesley D. (Albuquerque, NM); Denison, Gary J. (Sandia Park, NM); Brown, Darwin J. (Albuquerque, NM); Sullivan, Charles T. (Albuquerque, NM); Hou, Hong Q. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01

    A photoconductive semiconductor switch with tailored doping profile zones beneath and extending laterally from the electrical contacts to the device. The zones are of sufficient depth and lateral extent to isolate the contacts from damage caused by the high current filaments that are created in the device when it is turned on. The zones may be formed by etching depressions into the substrate, then conducting epitaxial regrowth in the depressions with material of the desired doping profile. They may be formed by surface epitaxy. They may also be formed by deep diffusion processes. The zones act to reduce the energy density at the contacts by suppressing collective impact ionization and formation of filaments near the contact and by reducing current intensity at the contact through enhanced current spreading within the zones.

  12. Deficiencies in Vadose Zone Understanding at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, Thomas Ronald; Bates, Dona Louise; Bishop, Carolyn Wagoner; Heard, Robert Eugene; Hubbell, Joel Michael; Hull, Laurence Charles; Lehman, Richard Michael; Magnuson, Swen O; Mattson, Earl Douglas; Mccarthy, James Michael; Porro, Indrek; Ritter, Paul David; Roddy, Michael Scott; Singler, Robert Edward; Smith, Richard Paul

    2000-08-01

    Subsurface contamination in the vadose zone, that portion of the subsurface pathway between land surface and an underlying aquifer, poses environmental problems at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in eastern Idaho and across the U.S. Department of Energy complex. Assessing potential adverse impacts from these contaminated sites requires an understanding of the mechanisms controlling contaminant transport. Currently, vadose zone experts at the INEEL cannot with confidence predict the movement of water and contaminants in the complex, heterogeneous, fractured subsurface at the INEEL, especially within the vadose zone. In the draft version (Revision 1) of the Vadose Zone Deficiencies document, deficiencies in scientific understanding of flow and transport processes in the vadose zone at the INEEL were identified and grouped into 13 categories and recommendations were provided to address each of the deficiencies. The draft document provided the basis for an INEEL Vadose Zone Workshop that was conducted October 20 and 21, 1999, in Idaho Falls, Idaho. The workshop was conducted to group and rank the previously identified deficiencies and for the subsequent development of science plans to address the deficiencies that limit reliable predictions of water and contaminant movement in the subsurface. The workshop participants, comprising INEEL and scientists and project managers and non-INEEL scientists knowledgeable about the vadose zone, developed science- and technology-based recommendations derived through a series of technical sessions at the workshop. In this document, the final version of the Vadose Zone Deficiencies document, the draft document has been incorporated, largely intact, as well as the results from the workshop. The workshop participants grouped the deficiencies in vadose zone understanding at the INEEL into seven categories. These seven categories will be the focus areas of five science plans that are being developed to address the deficiencies. This document lays the foundation for the INEEL Site-wide vadose zone roadmap.

  13. Intermediate photovoltaic system application experiment operational performance report. Volume 3. For G. N. Wilcox Memorial Hospital, Kauai, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-09-01

    Presented are the project description, list of participants, and system specifications for the intermediate photovoltaic project at G.N. Wilcox Memorial Hospital, Kauai, Hawaii.

  14. Generator-Absorber heat exchange transfer apparatus and method using an intermediate liquor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Benjamin A. (Benton Harbor, MI); Zawacki, Thomas S. (St. Joseph, MI)

    1996-11-05

    Numerous embodiments and related methods for generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) are disclosed, particularly for absorption heat pump systems. Such embodiments and related methods use the working solution of the absorption system for the heat transfer medium where the working solution has an intermediate liquor concentration.

  15. Intermediate Energy X-ray Beamline at the Advanced Photon Source | Argonne

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory Intermediate Energy X-ray Beamline at the Advanced Photon Source Using relatively low-energy X-rays, the IEX beamline will help illuminate electronic ordering and emergent phenomena in ordered materials to better understand the origins of distinct electronic properties. PDF icon IEX_fact_sheet

  16. Analysis of the efficiency of intermediate band solar cells based on quantum dot supercrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heshmati, S; Golmohammadi, S; Abedi, K; Taleb, H

    2014-03-28

    We have studied the influence of the quantum-dot (QD) width and the quantum-dot conduction band (QD-CB) offset on the efficiency of quantum-dot intermediate band solar cells (QD-IBSCs). Simulation results demonstrate that with increasing QD-CB offset and decreasing QD width, the maximum efficiency is achieved. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  17. Structure and Electronic Configurations of the Intermediates of Water Oxidation in Blue Ruthenium Dimer Catalysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moonshiram, Dooshaye; Jurss, Jonah W.; Concepcion, Javier J.; Zakharova, Taisiya; Alperovich, Igor; Meyer, Thomas J.; Pushkar, Yulia

    2013-04-08

    Catalytic O{sub 2} evolution with cis,cis-[(bpy){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)Ru{sup III}ORu{sup III}(OH{sub 2})(bpy){sub 2}]{sup 4+} (bpy is 2,2-bipyridine), the so-called blue dimer, the first designed water oxidation catalyst, was monitored by UV-vis, EPR, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) with ms time resolution. Two processes were identified, one of which occurs on a time scale of 100 ms to a few seconds and results in oxidation of the catalyst with the formation of an intermediate, here termed [3,4]'. A slower process occurring on the time scale of minutes results in the decay of this intermediate and O{sub 2} evolution. Spectroscopic data suggest that within the fast process there is a short-lived transient intermediate, which is a precursor of [3,4]'. When excess oxidant was used, a highly oxidized form of the blue dimer [4,5] was spectroscopically resolved within the time frame of the fast process. Its structure and electronic state were confirmed by EPR and XAS. As reported earlier, the [3,4]' intermediate likely results from reaction of [4,5] with water. While it is generated under strongly oxidizing conditions, it does not display oxidation of the Ru centers past [3,4] according to EPR and XAS. EXAFS analysis demonstrates a considerably modified ligand environment in [3,4]'. Raman measurements confirmed the presence of the O-O fragment by detecting a new vibration band in [3,4]' that undergoes a 46 cm{sup -1} shift to lower energy upon {sup 16}O/{sup 18}O exchange. Under the conditions of the experiment at pH 1, the [3,4]' intermediate is the catalytic steady state form of the blue dimer catalyst, suggesting that its oxidation is the rate-limiting step.

  18. Zoning for earth sheltered buildings. A guide for Minnesota communities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-08-01

    Background information on earth sheltered buildings and the zoning issues related to this construction techniques is provided. Ways to develop goals and policies on earth sheltering and integrate them into existing planning documents are outlined. Ways to eliminate prohibitions and barriers to earth-sheltered buildings from zoning language are explained. Subdivision and planned unit development (PUD) regulations designed to facilitate and encourage new developments of earth sheltered homes are considered. Model language on planning, zoning, and subdivisions and planned unit developments and a summary of the various recommendations made throughout the guidebook are included. (MHR)

  19. Electrically heated particulate filter with zoned exhaust flow control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2012-06-26

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter that includes X zones. An electrical heater includes Y heater segments that are associated with respective ones of the X zones. The electrical heater is arranged upstream from and proximate with the PM filter. A valve assembly includes Z sections that are associated with respective ones of the X zones. A control module adjusts flow through each of the Z sections during regeneration of the PM filter via control of the valve assembly. X, Y and Z are integers.

  20. Saturated Zone In-Situ Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. W. Reimus; M. J. Umari

    2003-12-23

    The purpose of this scientific analysis is to document the results and interpretations of field experiments that have been conducted to test and validate conceptual flow and radionuclide transport models in the saturated zone (SZ) near Yucca Mountain. The test interpretations provide estimates of flow and transport parameters that are used in the development of parameter distributions for Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) calculations. These parameter distributions are documented in the revisions to the SZ flow model report (BSC 2003 [ 162649]), the SZ transport model report (BSC 2003 [ 162419]), the SZ colloid transport report (BSC 2003 [162729]), and the SZ transport model abstraction report (BSC 2003 [1648701]). Specifically, this scientific analysis report provides the following information that contributes to the assessment of the capability of the SZ to serve as a barrier for waste isolation for the Yucca Mountain repository system: (1) The bases for selection of conceptual flow and transport models in the saturated volcanics and the saturated alluvium located near Yucca Mountain. (2) Results and interpretations of hydraulic and tracer tests conducted in saturated fractured volcanics at the C-wells complex near Yucca Mountain. The test interpretations include estimates of hydraulic conductivities, anisotropy in hydraulic conductivity, storativities, total porosities, effective porosities, longitudinal dispersivities, matrix diffusion mass transfer coefficients, matrix diffusion coefficients, fracture apertures, and colloid transport parameters. (3) Results and interpretations of hydraulic and tracer tests conducted in saturated alluvium at the Alluvium Testing Complex (ATC), which is located at the southwestern corner of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The test interpretations include estimates of hydraulic conductivities, storativities, total porosities, effective porosities, longitudinal dispersivities, matrix diffusion mass transfer coefficients, and colloid transport parameters. (4) Comparisons of sorption parameter estimates for a reactive solute tracer (lithium ion) derived from both the C-wells field tracer tests and laboratory tests using C-wells core samples. (5) Sorption parameter estimates for lithium ion derived from laboratory tests using alluvium samples from NC-EWDP-19D1 (one of the wells at the ATC) so that a comparison of laboratory- and field-derived sorption parameters can be made in saturated alluvium if cross-hole tracer tests are conducted at the ATC.

  1. Barrow County, Georgia ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Barrow County, Georgia ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Barrow County, Georgia ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Number...

  2. Ben Hill County, Georgia ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ben Hill County, Georgia ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Ben Hill County, Georgia ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

  3. Bacon County, Georgia ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bacon County, Georgia ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Bacon County, Georgia ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Number...

  4. Baca County, Colorado ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Baca County, Colorado ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Baca County, Colorado ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Number...

  5. Apache County, Arizona ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Apache County, Arizona ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Apache County, Arizona ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Number...

  6. Adams County, Indiana ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Adams County, Indiana ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Adams County, Indiana ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Number...

  7. Adams County, Idaho ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Adams County, Idaho ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Adams County, Idaho ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Number...

  8. Adams County, Illinois ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Adams County, Illinois ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Adams County, Illinois ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Number...

  9. Adams County, Nebraska ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Adams County, Nebraska ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Adams County, Nebraska ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Number...

  10. Adams County, Ohio ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Adams County, Ohio ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Adams County, Ohio ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Number Climate...

  11. Bates County, Missouri ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bates County, Missouri ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Bates County, Missouri ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Number...

  12. Certification of Consistency with Washington's Coastal Zone Management...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Management Program for Federally Licensed or Permitted ActivitiesLegal Published NA Year Signed or Took Effect The date "NA" was not understood.The date "NA" was not...

  13. Certification of Consistency with Washington's Coastal Zone Management...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Coastal Zone Management Program for Federally Funded ActivitiesLegal Published NA Year Signed or Took Effect The date "NA" was not understood.The date "NA" was not...

  14. Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Vegetation-Kill Zones Around The...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Vegetation-Kill Zones Around The Resurgent Dome Of Long Valley...

  15. Fluid Stratigraphy and Permeable Zones of the Coso Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    zones can be targeted in the future Authors Dilley, L. M.; Norman, D.I.; Moore, J.; McCulloch and J. Published Geothermal Resource Council Transactions 2006, 112006 DOI...

  16. Solar-Powered, School-Zone Safety | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Solar-powered flashing LED beacons are making Bethany, OK, schoolchildren safer by reminding drivers to abide by posted school-zone speeds. | Photo Courtesy of Bethany, OK | Solar-...

  17. Montana Guide to the Streamside Management Zone Law & Rules Webpage...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Guide to the Streamside Management Zone Law & Rules Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Montana Guide to the Streamside Management...

  18. Varying heating in dawsonite zones in hydrocarbon containing formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Xie, Xueying (Houston, TX); Miller, David Scott (Katy, TX)

    2009-07-07

    A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising dawsonite includes assessing a dawsonite composition of one or more zones in the formation. Heat from one or more heaters is provided to the formation such that different amounts of heat are provided to zones with different dawsonite compositions. The provided heat is allowed to transfer from the heaters to the formation. Fluids are produced from the formation.

  19. Method for processing seismic data to identify anomalous absorption zones

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taner, M. Turhan

    2006-01-03

    A method is disclosed for identifying zones anomalously absorptive of seismic energy. The method includes jointly time-frequency decomposing seismic traces, low frequency bandpass filtering the decomposed traces to determine a general trend of mean frequency and bandwidth of the seismic traces, and high frequency bandpass filtering the decomposed traces to determine local variations in the mean frequency and bandwidth of the seismic traces. Anomalous zones are determined where there is difference between the general trend and the local variations.

  20. Characterization of microstructural strengthening in the heat-affected zone

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of a blast-resistant naval steel | Energy Frontier Research Centers microstructural strengthening in the heat-affected zone of a blast-resistant naval steel Home Author: X. Yu, J. Caron, S. S. Babu, J. C. Lippold, D. Isheim, D. N. Seidman Year: 2010 Abstract: The influence of simulated heat-affected zone thermal cycles on the microstructural evolution in a blast-resistant naval steel was investigated by dilatometry, microhardness testing, optical microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction

  1. Uncertainty quantification for evaluating the impacts of fracture zone on

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    pressure build-up and ground surface uplift during geological CO₂ sequestration (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Uncertainty quantification for evaluating the impacts of fracture zone on pressure build-up and ground surface uplift during geological CO₂ sequestration Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Uncertainty quantification for evaluating the impacts of fracture zone on pressure build-up and ground surface uplift during geological CO₂ sequestration A series of numerical

  2. MCNP6 Simulation of Light and Medium Nuclei Fragmentation at Intermediate Energies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mashnik, Stepan Georgievich; Kerby, Leslie Marie

    2015-08-24

    Fragmentation reactions induced on light and medium nuclei by protons and light nuclei of energies around 1 GeV/nucleon and below are studied with the Los Alamos transport code MCNP6 and with its CEM03.03 and LAQGSM03.03 event generators. CEM and LAQGSM assume that intermediate-energy fragmentation reactions on light nuclei occur generally in two stages. The first stage is the intranuclear cascade (INC), followed by the second, Fermi breakup disintegration of light excited residual nuclei produced after the INC. CEM and LAQGSM account also for coalescence of light fragments (complex particles) up to sup>4He from energetic nucleons emitted during INC. We investigate the validity and performance of MCNP6, CEM, and LAQGSM in simulating fragmentation reactions at intermediate energies and discuss possible ways of further improving these codes.

  3. Aroostook County, Maine ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Aroostook County, Maine ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place...

  4. InSAR At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Laney, 2005) ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Region (Laney, 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique InSAR Activity Date Usefulness useful...

  5. A Micro-Variable Circular Orifice (MVCO) Fuel Injector for Zoned...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Micro-Variable Circular Orifice (MVCO) Fuel Injector for Zoned Low Temperature Combustion A Micro-Variable Circular Orifice (MVCO) Fuel Injector for Zoned Low Temperature ...

  6. IPHAS J062746.41+014811.3: A DEEPLY ECLIPSING INTERMEDIATE POLAR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aungwerojwit, A.; Gaensicke, B. T.; Wheatley, P. J.; Pyrzas, S.; Staels, B.; Krajci, T.; Rodriguez-Gil, P.

    2012-10-20

    We present time-resolved photometry of a cataclysmic variable discovered in the Isaac Newton Telescope Photometric H{alpha} Survey of the northern galactic plane, IPHAS J062746.41+014811.3, and classify the system as the fourth deeply eclipsing intermediate polar known with an orbital period of P {sub orb} = 8.16 hr and a spin period of P {sub spin} = 2210 s. The system shows mild variations of its brightness that appear to be accompanied by a change in the amplitude of the spin modulation at optical wavelengths and a change in the morphology of the eclipse profile. The inferred magnetic moment of the white dwarf is {mu}{sub wd} {approx} (6-7) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 33} G cm{sup 3}, and in this case IPHAS J062746.41+014811.3 will evolve either into a short-period EX Hya-like intermediate polar with a large P {sub spin}/P{sub orb} ratio or, perhaps more likely, into a synchronized polar. Swift observations show that the system is an ultraviolet and X-ray source, with a hard X-ray spectrum that is consistent with those seen in other intermediate polars. The ultraviolet light curve shows orbital modulation and an eclipse, while the low signal-to-noise ratio X-ray light curve does not show a significant modulation on the spin period. The measured X-ray flux is about an order of magnitude lower than would be expected from scaling by the optical fluxes of well-known X-ray-selected intermediate polars.

  7. CRF: First Direct Detection of QOOH Intermediate Shows Long Lifetime of Key

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Species CRF: First Direct Detection of QOOH Intermediate Shows Long Lifetime of Key Species - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization

  8. Liquid Fuels via Upgrading of Syngas Intermediates Presentation for BETO 2015 Project Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    11.2.13 Liquid Fuels via Upgrading of Syngas Intermediates March 26 th , 2015 Indirect Liquefaction Technology Area Review Robert A. Dagle, Karthi Ramasamy, Michel J. Gray Pacific Northwest National Laboratory This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Goal Statement  Problem: Conventional synthetic fuel synthesis processes (e.g., FT, MTG, MTOGD) have drawbacks, specifically for the scale of biomass.  FT provides diesel blend but

  9. Conversion Technologies II: Bio-Oils, Sugar Intermediates, Precursors, Distributed Models, and Refinery Co-Processing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Conversion Technologies II: Bio-Oils, Sugar Intermediates, Precursors, Distributed Models, and Refinery Co-Processing July 30, 2014 Bryna Berendzen Technology Manager BETO Conversion Program 2 | Bioenergy Technologies Office Conversion Program FY13/14 Workshops * In the past year BETO has held 3 public workshops to engage stakeholders in discussions on the R&D needs within the various conversion technologies * Biochemical: o PRINCE - Process Integration and Carbon Efficiencies - June 11-12,

  10. Catalytic Upgrading of Thermochemical Intermediates to Hydrocarbons Presentation for BETO 2015 Project Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    International RTI International RTI International is a trade name of Research Triangle Institute. www.rti.org 2015 DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) Project Peer Review WBS 2.5.4.405 - Catalytic Upgrading of Thermochemical Intermediates to Hydrocarbons March 24, 2015 Bio-Oil Technology Area Review David C. Dayton, PI RTI International This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information RTI International Goals and Objectives Objective:

  11. Characteristics and sources of intermediate size particles in recovery boilers : final project report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, Larry L.; Shaddix, Christopher R.; Verrill, Christopher L.; Wessel, Richard A.

    2005-02-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) Industries of the Future (IOF) Forest Products research program, a collaborative investigation was conducted on the sources, characteristics, and deposition of particles intermediate in size between submicron fume and carryover in recovery boilers. Laboratory experiments on suspended-drop combustion of black liquor and on black liquor char bed combustion demonstrated that both processes generate intermediate size particles (ISP), amounting to 0.5-2% of the black liquor dry solids mass (BLS). Measurements in two U.S. recovery boilers show variable loadings of ISP in the upper furnace, typically between 0.6-3 g/Nm{sup 3}, or 0.3-1.5% of BLS. The measurements show that the ISP mass size distribution increases with size from 5-100 {micro}m, implying that a substantial amount of ISP inertially deposits on steam tubes. ISP particles are depleted in potassium, chlorine, and sulfur relative to the fuel composition. Comprehensive boiler modeling demonstrates that ISP concentrations are substantially overpredicted when using a previously developed algorithm for ISP generation. Equilibrium calculations suggest that alkali carbonate decomposition occurs at intermediate heights in the furnace and may lead to partial destruction of ISP particles formed lower in the furnace. ISP deposition is predicted to occur in the superheater sections, at temperatures greater than 750 C, when the particles are at least partially molten.

  12. MCNP5 CRITICALITY VALIDATION AND BIAS FOR INTERMEDIATE ENRICHED URANIUM SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FINFROCK SH

    2009-12-10

    The purpose of this analysis is to validate the Monte Carlo N-Particle 5 (MCNP5) code Version 1.40 (LA-UR-03-1987, 2005) and its cross-section database for k-code calculations of intermediate enriched uranium systems on INTEL{reg_sign} processor based PC's running any version of the WINDOWS operating system. Configurations with intermediate enriched uranium were modeled with the moderator range of 39 {le} H/Fissile {le} 1438. See Table 2-1 for brief descriptions of selected cases and Table 3-1 for the range of applicability for this validation. A total of 167 input cases were evaluated including bare and reflected systems in a single body or arrays. The 167 cases were taken directly from the previous (Version 4C [Lan 2005]) validation database. Section 2.0 list data used to calculate k-effective (k{sub eff}) for the 167 experimental criticality benchmark cases using the MCNP5 code v1.40 and its cross section database. Appendix B lists the MCNP cross-section database entries validated for use in evaluating the intermediate enriched uranium systems for criticality safety. The dimensions and atom densities for the intermediate enriched uranium experiments were taken from NEA/NSC/DOC(95)03, September 2005, which will be referred to as the benchmark handbook throughout the report. For these input values, the experimental benchmark k{sub eff} is approximately 1.0. The MCNP validation computer runs ran to an accuracy of approximately {+-} 0.001. For the cases where the reported benchmark k{sub eff} was not equal to 1.0000 the MCNP calculational results were normalized. The difference between the MCNP validation computer runs and the experimentally measured k{sub eff} is the MCNP5 v1.40 bias. The USLSTATS code (ORNL 1998) was utilized to perform the statistical analysis and generate an acceptable maximum k{sub eff} limit for calculations of the intermediate enriched uranium type systems.

  13. MAGNETIZED ACCRETION AND DEAD ZONES IN PROTOSTELLAR DISKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dzyurkevich, Natalia; Henning, Thomas; Turner, Neal J.; Kley, Wilhelm

    2013-03-10

    The edges of magnetically dead zones in protostellar disks have been proposed as locations where density bumps may arise, trapping planetesimals and helping form planets. Magneto-rotational turbulence in magnetically active zones provides both accretion of gas on the star and transport of mass to the dead zone. We investigate the location of the magnetically active regions in a protostellar disk around a solar-type star, varying the disk temperature, surface density profile, and dust-to-gas ratio. We also consider stellar masses between 0.4 and 2 M{sub Sun }, with corresponding adjustments in the disk mass and temperature. The dead zone's size and shape are found using the Elsasser number criterion with conductivities including the contributions from ions, electrons, and charged fractal dust aggregates. The charged species' abundances are found using the approach proposed by Okuzumi. The dead zone is in most cases defined by the ambipolar diffusion. In our maps, the dead zone takes a variety of shapes, including a fish tail pointing away from the star and islands located on and off the midplane. The corresponding accretion rates vary with radius, indicating locations where the surface density will increase over time, and others where it will decrease. We show that density bumps do not readily grow near the dead zone's outer edge, independently of the disk parameters and the dust properties. Instead, the accretion rate peaks at the radius where the gas-phase metals freeze out. This could lead to clearing a valley in the surface density, and to a trap for pebbles located just outside the metal freezeout line.

  14. Vadose Zone Transport Field Study: FY 2002 Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, Anderson L.; Gee, Glendon W.; Zhang, Z. F.; Keller, Jason M.

    2003-01-02

    This work reported here is part of the U. S. Department of Energy’s Science and Technology Initiative to develop improved conceptual models of flow and transport in the vadose zone, particularly for the Hanford Site, Washington. The National Academy of Sciences has identified significant knowledge gaps in conceptual model development as one reason for discovery of subsurface contamination in unexpected places. Inadequate conceptualizations limits, not only the understanding of long-term fate and transport, but also the selection and design of remediation technologies. Current conceptual models are limited partly because they do not account for the random heterogeneity that occurs under the extremes of very nonlinear flow behavior typical of the Hanford vadose zone. A major improvement in conceptual modeling of the Hanford vadose zone includes a better understanding and description of soil anisotropy, a property that appears to control much of the subsurface flow and transport in layered sediments at the Hanford Site.

  15. Coastal-zone biogeochemical dynamics under global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackenzie, F.T.; Ver, L.M.; Lerman, A.

    2000-03-01

    The coastal zone, consisting of the continental shelves to a depth of 200 meters, including bays, lagoons, estuaries, and near-shore banks, is an environment that is strongly affected by its biogeochemical and physical interactions with reservoirs in the adjacent domains of land, atmosphere, open ocean, and marine sediments. Because the coastal zone is smaller in volume and area coverage relative to the open ocean, it traditionally has been studied as an integral part of the global oceans. In this paper, the authors show by numerical modeling that it is important to consider the coastal zone as an entity separate from the open ocean in any assessment of future Earth-system response under human perturbation. Model analyses for the early part of the 21st century suggest that the coastal zone plays a significant modifying role in the biogeochemical dynamics of the carbon cycle and the nutrient cycles coupled to it. This role is manifested in changes in primary production, storage, and/or export of organic matter, its remineralization, and calcium carbonate precipitation--all of which determine the state of the coastal zone with respect to exchange of CO{sub 2} with the atmosphere. Under a scenario of future reduced or complete cessation of the thermohaline circulation (THC) of the global oceans, coastal waters become an important sink for atmospheric CO{sub 2}, as opposed to the conditions in the past and present, when coastal waters are believed to be a source of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere. Profound changes in coastal-zone primary productivity underscore the important role of phosphorus as a limiting nutrient. In addition, calculations indicate that the saturation state of coastal waters with respect to carbonate minerals will decline by {approximately}15% by the year 2030. Any future slowdown in the THC of the oceans will increase slightly the rate of decline in saturation state.

  16. Energy barriers, cooperativity, and hidden intermediates in the folding of small proteins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bai Yawen [Laboratory of Biochemistry, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Building 37, Room 6114E, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)]. E-mail: yawen@helix.nih.gov

    2006-02-17

    Current theoretical views of the folding process of small proteins (<{approx}100 amino acids) postulate that the landscape of potential mean force (PMF) for the formation of the native state has a funnel shape and that the free energy barrier to folding arises from the chain configurational entropy only. However, recent theoretical studies on the formation of hydrophobic clusters with explicit water suggest that a barrier should exist on the PMF of folding, consistent with the fact that protein folding generally involves a large positive activation enthalpy at room temperature. In addition, high-resolution structural studies of the hidden partially unfolded intermediates have revealed the existence of non-native interactions, suggesting that the correction of the non-native interactions during folding should also lead to barriers on PMF. To explore the effect of a PMF barrier on the folding behavior of proteins, we modified Zwanzig's model for protein folding with an uphill landscape of PMF for the formation of transition states. We found that the modified model for short peptide segments can satisfy the thermodynamic and kinetic criteria for an apparently two-state folding. Since the Levinthal paradox can be solved by a stepwise folding of short peptide segments, a landscape of PMF with a locally uphill search for the transition state and cooperative stabilization of folding intermediates/native state is able to explain the available experimental results for small proteins. We speculate that the existence of cooperative hidden folding intermediates in small proteins could be the consequence of the highly specific structures of the native state, which are selected by evolution to perform specific functions and fold in a biologically meaningful time scale.

  17. Intermediate photovoltaic system application experiment operational performance report for G. N. Wilcox Memorial Hospital, Kauai, Hawaii, for November 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The data accumulated during November 1982 at the intermediate photovoltaic project at G.N. Wilcox Memorial Hospital, Kauai, Hawaii, are presented. Generated energy and environmental (weather) data are presented graphically. Explanations of irregularities not attributable to weather are provided.

  18. The Precipitation of Sb2Te3 in Sb-rich AgSbTe2 via the Intermediate...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: The Precipitation of Sb2Te3 in Sb-rich AgSbTe2 via the Intermediate Phase (AgSb)3Te4. Abstract not provided. Authors: Sugar, Joshua Daniel ; Medlin, Douglas L. Publication ...

  19. Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 - Updated

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knoll, K.; West, B.; Clark, W.; Graves, R.; Orban, J.; Przesmitzki, S.; Theiss, T.

    2009-02-01

    Intended for policymakers and others who make decisions about, and set guidelines for, the proper use of intermediate ethanol blends such as E20 in both vehicle engines and other engine types.

  20. Interactive display system having a scaled virtual target zone

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, James T.; DeSanto, Leonard

    2006-06-13

    A display system includes a waveguide optical panel having an inlet face and an opposite outlet face. A projector and imaging device cooperate with the panel for projecting a video image thereon. An optical detector bridges at least a portion of the waveguides for detecting a location on the outlet face within a target zone of an inbound light spot. A controller is operatively coupled to the imaging device and detector for displaying a cursor on the outlet face corresponding with the detected location of the spot within the target zone.

  1. Particle denuded zones in alumina reinforced aluminum matrix composite weldments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chidambaram, A.; Bhole, S.D.

    1996-08-01

    The Welding Institute of Canada (WIC), Ontario, has been studying the weldability of different DURALCAN MMC`s. Research on alumina reinforced (20 vol.%) 6061 Al alloy GTA welds showed satisfactory tensile and yield strengths (0.2% Proof Stress) but the welds failed to pass the bend test requirements with fracture taking place in the relatively brittle heat affected zone (HAZ). Further, the welds were characterized by a region which was devoid of reinforcement particles adjacent to the fusion lines. The present study was undertaken to try and explain the formation of this particle denuded zone (PDZ) at the fusion lines.

  2. A library of prompt detonation reaction zone data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Souers, P. C., LLNL

    1998-06-01

    Tables are given listing literature data that allows calculation of sonic reaction zones at or near steady-state for promptly detonating explosive cylinders. The data covers homogeneous, heterogeneous, composite, inorganic and binary explosives and allows comparison across the entire explosive field. Table 1 lists detonation front curvatures. Table 2 lists Size Effect data, i.e. the change of detonation velocity with cylinder radius. Table 3 lists failure radii and detonation velocities. Table 4 lists explosive compositions. A total of 51 references dating back into the 1950`s are given. Calculated reaction zones, radii of curvature and growth rate coefficients are listed.

  3. Novel intermediate energy X-ray beamline opening for researchers | Argonne

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory A schematic drawing of the Intermediate Energy X-ray beamline optics, showing the source, an EM-VPU; M0 and M1, planar horizontal deflecting mirrors; M2, an internally cooled plane mirror that deflects the beam vertically onto one of the three gratings in the monochromator; M3R, a movable cylindrical mirror that horizontally focuses the source onto the RSXS sample position; M4R, a cylindrical mirror that vertically focuses the exit slit onto the RSXS sample position; and

  4. Liquid Fuels via Uprading of Syngas Intermediates Presentation for BETO 2015 Project Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2015 Project Peer Review March 26, 2015 Liquid Fuels via Upgrading of Syngas Intermediates 2.3.1.305/2.3.1.306 Jesse Hensley - NREL Ted Krause - ANL This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information 2 | Bioenergy Technologies Office 2.3.1.305/2.3.1.306 Goal Statement Project Goal - To develop and demonstrate catalyst technologies that convert biomass-derived synthesis gas to drop-in hydrocarbon fuels and to reduce total cost from the FY14 SOT

  5. Excitation of the 3p states in electron-sodium scattering at intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamali, M. Z. M.; Wong, B. R.; Chin, J. H.; Ratnavelu, K.

    2014-03-05

    A coupled-channel-optical method (CCOM), to investigate the excitation of the 3p states for e{sup ?}-Na scattering at intermediate energies, is reported. Nine atomic states( Na(3s), Na(3p), Na(4s), Na(3d), Na(4p), Na(5s), Na(4d), Na(5p), Na(5d) ) together with three optical potentials are used in this work. The inelastic differential cross sections (DCS) as well as the reduced Stokes parameters are compared with latest theoretical data and experimental measurements.

  6. A brief review of intermediate controlled nuclear syntheses (ICNS) without harmful radiations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lanjewar, R. B.

    2015-03-10

    Hadronic mechanics gave birth to new magnecular fuels. The present day demand is of clean energy source that is cheap and abundant. Clean energy can be obtained by harnessing renewable energy sources like solar, wind etc. Nuclear energy conventionally produced by fission reactions emits hazardous radiation and radioactive waste. The requirements of clean and safe energy gets fulfilled by novel fuel that achieved by elevating the traditional quantum mechanics to hadronic mechanics and to hadronic chemistry. In the present paper, a comprehensive review on both the theoretical and experimental aspect of the Intermediate Controlled Nuclear Synthesis (ICNS) as developed by Italian American Scientist Professor R. M. Santilli.

  7. Is Androgen Deprivation Therapy Necessary in All Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer Patients Treated in the Dose Escalation Era?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castle, Katherine O.; Hoffman, Karen E.; Levy, Lawrence B.; Lee, Andrew K.; Choi, Seungtaek; Nguyen, Quynh N.; Frank, Steven J.; Pugh, Thomas J.; McGuire, Sean E.; Kuban, Deborah A.

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: The benefit of adding androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) to dose-escalated radiation therapy (RT) for men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer is unclear; therefore, we assessed the impact of adding ADT to dose-escalated RT on freedom from failure (FFF). Methods: Three groups of men treated with intensity modulated RT or 3-dimensional conformal RT (75.6-78 Gy) from 1993-2008 for prostate cancer were categorized as (1) 326 intermediate-risk patients treated with RT alone, (2) 218 intermediate-risk patients treated with RT and ?6 months of ADT, and (3) 274 low-risk patients treated with definitive RT. Median follow-up was 58 months. Recursive partitioning analysis based on FFF using Gleason score (GS), T stage, and pretreatment PSA concentration was applied to the intermediate-risk patients treated with RT alone. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate 5-year FFF. Results: Based on recursive partitioning analysis, intermediate-risk patients treated with RT alone were divided into 3 prognostic groups: (1) 188 favorable patients: GS 6, ?T2b or GS 3+4, ?T1c; (2) 71 marginal patients: GS 3+4, T2a-b; and (3) 68 unfavorable patients: GS 4+3 or T2c disease. Hazard ratios (HR) for recurrence in each group were 1.0, 2.1, and 4.6, respectively. When intermediate-risk patients treated with RT alone were compared to intermediate-risk patients treated with RT and ADT, the greatest benefit from ADT was seen for the unfavorable intermediate-risk patients (FFF, 74% vs 94%, respectively; P=.005). Favorable intermediate-risk patients had no significant benefit from the addition of ADT to RT (FFF, 94% vs 95%, respectively; P=.85), and FFF for favorable intermediate-risk patients treated with RT alone approached that of low-risk patients treated with RT alone (98%). Conclusions: Patients with favorable intermediate-risk prostate cancer did not benefit from the addition of ADT to dose-escalated RT, and their FFF was nearly as good as patients with low-risk disease. In patients with GS 4+3 or T2c disease, the addition of ADT to dose-escalated RT did improve FFF.

  8. Solid-state graphene formation via a nickel carbide intermediate phase [Nickel carbide (Ni3C) as an intermediate phase for graphene formation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xiong, W; Zhou, Yunshen; Hou, Wenjia; Guillemet, Thomas; Silvain, Jean-François; Lahaye, Michel; Lebraud, Eric; Xu, Shen; Wang, Xinwei; Cullen, David A; et al

    2015-11-10

    Direct formation of graphene with controlled number of graphitic layers on dielectric surfaces is highly desired for practical applications. Despite significant progress achieved in understanding the formation of graphene on metallic surfaces through chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of hydrocarbons, very limited research is available elucidating the graphene formation process via rapid thermal processing (RTP) of solid-state amorphous carbon, through which graphene is formed directly on dielectric surfaces accompanied by autonomous nickel evaporation. It is suggested that a metastable hexagonal nickel carbide (Ni3C) intermediate phase plays a critical role in transforming amorphous carbon to 2D crystalline graphene and contributing to themore » autonomous Ni evaporation. Temperature resolved carbon and nickel evolution in the RTP process is investigated using Auger electron spectroscopic (AES) depth profiling and glancing-angle X-ray diffraction (GAXRD). Formation, migration and decomposition of the hexagonal Ni3C are confirmed to be responsible for the formation of graphene and the evaporation of Ni at 1100 °C. The Ni3C-assisted graphene formation mechanism expands the understanding of Ni-catalyzed graphene formation, and provides insightful guidance for controlled growth of graphene through the solid-state transformation process.« less

  9. Engineering report on drilling in the Sand Wash Basin intermediate grade project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-09-01

    The Sand Wash Basin Intermediate Grade Drilling Project was conducted by Bendix Field Engineering Corporation in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program. This project consisted of 19 drill holes ranging in depth from 275 to 1220 feet (83.9 to 372.1 m). A total of 11,569 feet (3528.5 m) was rotary drilled and 130 feet (39.7 m) were cored for a total of 11,699 feet (3568.2 m) for the project. The project objective was to provide comprehensive subsurface geologic data relevant to Intermediate Grade uranium mineralization of the Browns Park Formation in the Sugar Loaf Peak Site A, and the Little Juniper Mountain Site B areas. All boreholes are located on the USGS Juniper Hot Springs and the Lay 7.5-Minute Series (Topographic) Quadrangles. The project began May 2, 1980; drilling was completed June 3, 1980. Site restoration and clean up was initiated immediately upon the completion of the last borehole and was completed June 8, 1980.

  10. Workshop on hadron structure from photo-reactions at intermediate energies: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nathan, A.M.; Sandorfi, A.M.

    1992-10-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: The proton compton effect: Recent measurements of the electric and magnetic polorizabilities of the proton; experiments on the electric polarizability of the neutron; chiral symmetry and nucleon polarizabilities; chiral model predictions for electromagnetic polarizabilities of the nucleon, a consumer report; the polarizabilities of bound nucleons; nucleon polarizability in free space and in nuclear matter; mechanisms of photon scattering on nucleons at intermediate energies; pion polarizabilities in chiral perturbation theory; pion polarizabilities and the shielding of {sigma}(700)-meson exchange in {gamma}{gamma}{yields}{pi}{pi} processes; pion and kaon polarizabilities in the quark confinement model; radiative pion photoproduction and pion polarizabilities; pion and sigma polarizabilities and radiative transitions; the quadrupole amplitude in the {gamma}{Nu}-{Delta} transition; pion photoproduction and the {gamma}{Nu}-{Delta} amplitudes; effective- lagrangians, Watson`s theorem, and the E2/M1 mixing ratio in the excitation of the delta resonance; new measurements of the p({rvec {gamma}}, {pi}{sup o}) reaction; multipole analyses and photo-decay couplings at intermediate energies; compton scattering off the proton; connections between compton scattering and pion photoproduction in the delta region; single-pion electroproduction and the transverse one-half and scalar helicity transition form factors; relativistic effects, QCD mixing angles, and {Nu} {yields} {Nu}{gamma} and {Delta} {yields} {gamma}{Nu} transition form factors; electroproduction studies of the {Nu} {yields} {Delta} transition at bates and CEBAF.

  11. THE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF THE NEPTUNE TROJANS AND THE MISSING INTERMEDIATE-SIZED PLANETESIMALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheppard, Scott S.; Trujillo, Chadwick A.

    2010-11-10

    We present an ultra-deep survey for Neptune Trojans using the Subaru 8.2 m and Magellan 6.5 m telescopes. The survey reached a 50% detection efficiency in the R band at m{sub R} = 25.7 mag and covered 49 deg{sup 2} of sky. m{sub R} = 25.7 mag corresponds to Neptune Trojans that are about 16 km in radius (assuming an albedo of 0.05). A paucity of smaller Neptune Trojans (radii < 45 km) compared with larger ones was found. The brightest Neptune Trojans appear to follow a steep power-law slope (q = 5 {+-} 1) similar to the brightest objects in the other known stable reservoirs such as the Kuiper Belt, Jupiter Trojans, and main belt asteroids. We find a roll-over for the Neptune Trojans that occurs around a radius of r = 45 {+-} 10 km (m{sub R} = 23.5 {+-} 0.3), which is also very similar to the other stable reservoirs. All the observed stable regions in the solar system show evidence for Missing Intermediate-Sized Planetesimals (MISPs). This indicates a primordial and not collisional origin, which suggests that planetesimal formation proceeded directly from small to large objects. The scarcity of intermediate- and smaller-sized Neptune Trojans may limit them as being a strong source for the short period comets.

  12. Reservoir Modeling by Data Integration via Intermediate Spaces and Artificial Intelligence Tools in MPS Simulation Frameworks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmadi, Rouhollah; Khamehchi, Ehsan

    2013-12-15

    Conditioning stochastic simulations are very important in many geostatistical applications that call for the introduction of nonlinear and multiple-point data in reservoir modeling. Here, a new methodology is proposed for the incorporation of different data types into multiple-point statistics (MPS) simulation frameworks. Unlike the previous techniques that call for an approximate forward model (filter) for integration of secondary data into geologically constructed models, the proposed approach develops an intermediate space where all the primary and secondary data are easily mapped onto. Definition of the intermediate space, as may be achieved via application of artificial intelligence tools like neural networks and fuzzy inference systems, eliminates the need for using filters as in previous techniques. The applicability of the proposed approach in conditioning MPS simulations to static and geologic data is verified by modeling a real example of discrete fracture networks using conventional well-log data. The training patterns are well reproduced in the realizations, while the model is also consistent with the map of secondary data.

  13. Vertical Variability in Saturated Zone Hydrochemistry Near Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Patterson; P. Striffler

    2007-02-17

    The differences in the saturated zone hydrochemistry with depth at borehole NC-EWDP-22PC reflect the addition of recharge along Fortymile Wash. The differences in water chemistry with depth at borehole NC-EWDP-19PB appear to indicate that other processes are involved. Water from the lower part of NC-EWDP-19PB possesses chemical characteristics that clearly indicate that it has undergone cation exchange that resulted in the removal of calcium and magnesium and the addition of sodium. This water is very similar to water from the Western Yucca Mountain facies that has previously been thought to flow west of NC-EWDP-19PB. Water from the lower zone in NC-EWDP-19PB also could represent water from the Eastern Yucca Mountain facies that has moved through clay-bearing or zeolitized aquifer material resulting in the altered chemistry. Water chemistry from the upper part of the saturated zone at NC-EWDP-19PB, both zones at NC-EWDP-22PC, and wells in the Fortymile Wash facies appears to be the result of recharge through the alluvium south of Yucca Mountain and within the Fortymile Wash channel.

  14. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 2B Phoenix, Arizona

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed before 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary ofbuilding types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  15. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 2B Phoenix, Arizona

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  16. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 3C San Francisco, California

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed before 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary ofbuilding types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  17. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 3C San Francisco, California

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  18. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 6B Helena, Montana

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  19. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 6B Helena, Montana

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed before 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary ofbuilding types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  20. FORMATION OF CIRCUMBINARY PLANETS IN A DEAD ZONE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Rebecca G.; Armitage, Philip J. [JILA, University of Colorado and NIST, UCB 440, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Alexander, Richard D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-10

    Circumbinary planets have been observed at orbital radii where binary perturbations may have significant effects on the gas disk structure, on planetesimal velocity dispersion, and on the coupling between turbulence and planetesimals. Here, we note that the impact of all of these effects on planet formation is qualitatively altered if the circumbinary disk structure is layered, with a non-turbulent midplane layer (dead zone) and strongly turbulent surface layers. For close binaries, we find that the dead zone typically extends from a radius close to the inner disk edge up to a radius of around 10-20 AU from the center of mass of the binary. The peak in the surface density occurs within the dead zone, far from the inner disk edge, close to the snow line, and may act as a trap for aerodynamically coupled solids. We suggest that circumbinary planet formation may be easier near this preferential location than for disks around single stars. However, dead zones around wide binaries are less likely, and hence planet formation may be more difficult there.

  1. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 4A Baltimore, Maryland

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed before 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary ofbuilding types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  2. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 4A Baltimore, Maryland

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  3. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 1A Miami, Florida

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  4. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 1A Miami, Florida

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed before 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary ofbuilding types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  5. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 3B Los Angeles, California

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  6. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 3B Los Angeles, California

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed before 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary ofbuilding types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  7. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 4B Albuquerque, New Mexico

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  8. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 4B Albuquerque, New Mexico

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed before 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary ofbuilding types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  9. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 3B Las Vegas, Nevada

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed before 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary ofbuilding types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  10. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 3B Las Vegas, Nevada

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  11. Effects of remediation amendments on vadose zone microorganisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Hannah M.; Tilton, Fred A.

    2012-08-10

    Surfactant-based foam delivery technology has been studied to remediate Hanford 200 area deep vadose zone sediment. However, the surfactants and remediation amendments have an unknown effect on indigenous subsurface microorganisms. Microbial populations are important factors to consider in remediation efforts due to their potential to alter soil geochemistry. This project focuses on measuring microbial metabolic responses to remediation amendments in batch and column studies using Deep Vadose Zone Sediments. Initial studies of the microbes from Hanford 200 area deep vadose zone sediment showed surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) and remediation amendment calcium polysulfide (CPS) had no affect on microbial growth using BiologTM Ecoplates. To move towards a more realistic field analog, soil columns were packed with Hanford 200 Area sediment. Once microbial growth in the column was verified by observing growth of the effluent solution on tryptic soy agar plates, remedial surfactants were injected into the columns, and the resulting metabolic diversity was measured. Results suggest surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) stimulates microbial growth. The soil columns were also visualized using X-ray microtomography to inspect soil packing and possibly probe for evidence of biofilms. Overall, BiologTM Ecoplates provide a rapid assay to predict effects of remediation amendments on Hanford 200 area deep vadose zone microorganisms.

  12. CANDIDATE PLANETS IN THE HABITABLE ZONES OF KEPLER STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaidos, Eric

    2013-06-20

    A key goal of the Kepler mission is the discovery of Earth-size transiting planets in ''habitable zones'' where stellar irradiance maintains a temperate climate on an Earth-like planet. Robust estimates of planet radius and irradiance require accurate stellar parameters, but most Kepler systems are faint, making spectroscopy difficult and prioritization of targets desirable. The parameters of 2035 host stars were estimated by Bayesian analysis and the probabilities p{sub HZ} that 2738 candidate or confirmed planets orbit in the habitable zone were calculated. Dartmouth Stellar Evolution Program models were compared to photometry from the Kepler Input Catalog, priors for stellar mass, age, metallicity and distance, and planet transit duration. The analysis yielded probability density functions for calculating confidence intervals of planet radius and stellar irradiance, as well as p{sub HZ}. Sixty-two planets have p{sub HZ} > 0.5 and a most probable stellar irradiance within habitable zone limits. Fourteen of these have radii less than twice the Earth; the objects most resembling Earth in terms of radius and irradiance are KOIs 2626.01 and 3010.01, which orbit late K/M-type dwarf stars. The fraction of Kepler dwarf stars with Earth-size planets in the habitable zone ({eta}{sub Circled-Plus }) is 0.46, with a 95% confidence interval of 0.31-0.64. Parallaxes from the Gaia mission will reduce uncertainties by more than a factor of five and permit definitive assignments of transiting planets to the habitable zones of Kepler stars.

  13. A far-infrared spectroscopic survey of intermediate redshift (ultra) luminous infrared galaxies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magdis, Georgios E.; Rigopoulou, D.; Hopwood, R.; Clements, D.; Huang, J.-S.; Farrah, D.; Pearson, C.; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Bock, J. J.; Cooray, A.; Griffin, M. J.; Oliver, S.; Perez Fournon, I.; Riechers, D.; Swinyard, B. M.; Thatte, N.; Scott, D.; Valtchanov, I.; Vaccari, M.

    2014-11-20

    We present Herschel far-IR photometry and spectroscopy as well as ground-based CO observations of an intermediate redshift (0.21 ? z ? 0.88) sample of Herschel-selected (ultra)-luminous infrared galaxies (L {sub IR} > 10{sup 11.5} L {sub ?}). With these measurements, we trace the dust continuum, far-IR atomic line emission, in particular [C II] 157.7 ?m, as well as the molecular gas of z ? 0.3 luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs and ULIRGs) and perform a detailed investigation of the interstellar medium of the population. We find that the majority of Herschel-selected intermediate redshift (U)LIRGs have L {sub C} {sub II}/L {sub FIR} ratios that are a factor of about 10 higher than that of local ULIRGs and comparable to that of local normal and high-z star-forming galaxies. Using our sample to bridge local and high-z [C II] observations, we find that the majority of galaxies at all redshifts and all luminosities follow an L {sub C} {sub II}–L {sub FIR} relation with a slope of unity, from which local ULIRGs and high- z active-galactic-nucleus-dominated sources are clear outliers. We also confirm that the strong anti-correlation between the L {sub C} {sub II}/L {sub FIR} ratio and the far-IR color L {sub 60}/L {sub 100} observed in the local universe holds over a broad range of redshifts and luminosities, in the sense that warmer sources exhibit lower L {sub C} {sub II}/L {sub FIR} at any epoch. Intermediate redshift ULIRGs are also characterized by large molecular gas reservoirs and by lower star formation efficiencies compared to that of local ULIRGs. The high L {sub C} {sub II}/L {sub FIR} ratios, the moderate star formation efficiencies (L {sub IR}/L{sub CO}{sup ?} or L {sub IR}/M{sub H{sub 2}}), and the relatively low dust temperatures of our sample (which are also common characteristics of high-z star-forming galaxies with ULIRG-like luminosities) indicate that the evolution of the physical properties of (U)LIRGs between the present day and z > 1 is already significant by z ? 0.3.

  14. Workshop on hadron structure from photo-reactions at intermediate energies: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nathan, A.M.; Sandorfi, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: The proton compton effect: Recent measurements of the electric and magnetic polorizabilities of the proton; experiments on the electric polarizability of the neutron; chiral symmetry and nucleon polarizabilities; chiral model predictions for electromagnetic polarizabilities of the nucleon, a consumer report; the polarizabilities of bound nucleons; nucleon polarizability in free space and in nuclear matter; mechanisms of photon scattering on nucleons at intermediate energies; pion polarizabilities in chiral perturbation theory; pion polarizabilities and the shielding of [sigma](700)-meson exchange in [gamma][gamma][yields][pi][pi] processes; pion and kaon polarizabilities in the quark confinement model; radiative pion photoproduction and pion polarizabilities; pion and sigma polarizabilities and radiative transitions; the quadrupole amplitude in the [gamma][Nu]-[Delta] transition; pion photoproduction and the [gamma][Nu]-[Delta] amplitudes; effective- lagrangians, Watson's theorem, and the E2/M1 mixing ratio in the excitation of the delta resonance; new measurements of the p([rvec [gamma

  15. Intermediate-band photosensitive device with quantum dots embedded in energy fence barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R. (Ann Arbor, MI); Wei, Guodan (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2010-07-06

    A plurality of layers of a first semiconductor material and a plurality of dots-in-a-fence barriers disposed in a stack between a first electrode and a second electrode. Each dots-in-a-fence barrier consists essentially of a plurality of quantum dots of a second semiconductor material embedded between and in direct contact with two layers of a third semiconductor material. Wave functions of the quantum dots overlap as at least one intermediate band. The layers of the third semiconductor material are arranged as tunneling barriers to require a first electron and/or a first hole in a layer of the first material to perform quantum mechanical tunneling to reach the second material within a respective quantum dot, and to require a second electron and/or a second hole in a layer of the first semiconductor material to perform quantum mechanical tunneling to reach another layer of the first semiconductor material.

  16. Intermediate-band photosensitive device with quantum dots having tunneling barrier embedded in organic matrix

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2008-08-19

    A plurality of quantum dots each have a shell. The quantum dots are embedded in an organic matrix. At least the quantum dots and the organic matrix are photoconductive semiconductors. The shell of each quantum dot is arranged as a tunneling barrier to require a charge carrier (an electron or a hole) at a base of the tunneling barrier in the organic matrix to perform quantum mechanical tunneling to reach the respective quantum dot. A first quantum state in each quantum dot is between a lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and a highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of the organic matrix. Wave functions of the first quantum state of the plurality of quantum dots may overlap to form an intermediate band.

  17. Cross sections for electron scattering by propane in the low- and intermediate-energy ranges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Souza, G. L. C. de; Lee, M.-T.; Sanches, I. P.; Rawat, P.; Iga, I.; Santos, A. S. dos; Machado, L. E.; Sugohara, R. T.; Brescansin, L. M.; Homem, M. G. P.; Lucchese, R. R.

    2010-07-15

    We present a joint theoretical-experimental study on electron scattering by propane (C{sub 3}H{sub 8}) in the low- and intermediate-energy ranges. Calculated elastic differential, integral, and momentum transfer as well as total (elastic + inelastic) and total absorption cross sections are reported for impact energies ranging from 2 to 500 eV. Also, experimental absolute elastic cross sections are reported in the 40- to 500-eV energy range. A complex optical potential is used to represent the electron-molecule interaction dynamics. A theoretical method based on the single-center-expansion close-coupling framework and corrected by the Pade approximant is used to solve the scattering equations. The experimental angular distributions of the scattered electrons are converted to absolute cross sections using the relative flow technique. The comparison of our calculated with our measured results, as well as with other experimental and theoretical data available in the literature, is encouraging.

  18. Theoretical and experimental study of the intermediate field dynamics of ocean thermal energy conversion plants. Progress report 1978-1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jirka, G.H.; Jones, J.M.; Sargent, F.E.

    1980-03-01

    Results are described of a two-year research effort which has been conducted with the following objectives: (1) investigate analytically and experimentally the intermediate field spreading in a steady ocean current; (2) investigate analytically and experimentally the transient intermediate field spreading in a stagnant ocean; (3) compare the results with other available data on buoyancy driven currents in stratified surroundings, including the concurrent experimental program at MIT Parsons Laboratory; and (4) use the results in the formulation of preliminary siting guidelines for multiple OTEC plant interactions. The theoretical background for the intermediate field spreading is given including both steady-state and transient results. The experiments performed in the Stratified Flow Modeling Basin at Cornell University are described, and the data are compared to the theoretical results and to available experimental data from other sources. The application of the intermediate field results to the OTEC design problem is discussed. Typical intermediate field behavior is predicted for different plant sizes (100 MW/sub e/ and 1 MW/sub e/), designs and ambient ocean conditions. (WHK)

  19. HERSCHEL OBSERVATIONS OF FAR-INFRARED COOLING LINES IN INTERMEDIATE REDSHIFT (ULTRA)-LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rigopoulou, D.; Magdis, G. E.; Thatte, N.; Hopwood, R.; Clements, D.; Swinyard, B. M.; Pearson, C.; Farrah, D.; Huang, J.-S.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Bock, J. J.; Cooray, A.; Griffin, M. J.; Oliver, S.; Smith, A.; Wang, L.; Riechers, D.; Scott, D.; Vaccari, M.; Valtchanov, I.

    2014-01-20

    We report the first results from a spectroscopic survey of the [C II] 158 ?m line from a sample of intermediate redshift (0.2 10{sup 11.5} L {sub ?}), using the Spectral and Photometric Imaging REceiver-Fourier Transform Spectrometer on board the Herschel Space Observatory. This is the first survey of [C II] emission, an important tracer of star formation, at a redshift range where the star formation rate density of the universe increases rapidly. We detect strong [C II] 158 ?m line emission from over 80% of the sample. We find that the [C II] line is luminous, in the range (0.8-4) Ś 10{sup –3} of the far-infrared continuum luminosity of our sources, and appears to arise from photodissociation regions on the surface of molecular clouds. The L{sub [C} {sub II]}/L {sub IR} ratio in our intermediate redshift (U)LIRGs is on average ?10 times larger than that of local ULIRGs. Furthermore, we find that the L{sub [C} {sub II]}/L {sub IR} and L{sub [CII]}/L{sub CO(1-0)} ratios in our sample are similar to those of local normal galaxies and high-z star-forming galaxies. ULIRGs at z ? 0.5 show many similarities to the properties of local normal and high-z star-forming galaxies. Our findings strongly suggest that rapid evolution in the properties of the star-forming regions of (U)LIRGs is likely to have occurred in the last 5 billion years.

  20. Review of Current Experience on Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) and A Recommended Code Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duane Spencer; Kevin McCoy

    2010-02-02

    The purpose of the ASME/DOE Gen IV Task 7 Part I is to review the current experience on various high temperature reactor intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) concepts. There are several different IHX concepts that could be envisioned for HTR/VHTR applications in a range of temperature from 850C to 950C. The concepts that will be primarily discussed herein are: (1) Tubular Helical Coil Heat Exchanger (THCHE); (2) Plate-Stamped Heat Exchanger (PSHE); (3) Plate-Fin Heat Exchanger (PFHE); and (4) Plate-Machined Heat Exchanger (PMHE). The primary coolant of the NGNP is potentially subject to radioactive contamination by the core as well as contamination from the secondary loop fluid. To isolate the radioactivity to minimize radiation doses to personnel, and protect the primary circuit from contamination, intermediate heat exchangers (IHXs) have been proposed as a means for separating the primary circuit of the NGNP (Next Generation Nuclear Plant) or other process heat application from the remainder of the plant. This task will first review the different concepts of IHX that could be envisioned for HTR/VHTR applications in a range of temperature from 850 to 950 C. This will cover shell-and-tube and compact designs (including the platefin concept). The review will then discuss the maturity of the concepts in terms of design, fabricability and component testing (or feedback from experience when applicable). Particular attention will be paid to the feasibility of developing the IHX concepts for the NGNP with operation expected in 2018-2021. This report will also discuss material candidates for IHX applications and will discuss specific issues that will have to be addressed in the context of the HTR design (thermal aging, corrosion, creep, creep-fatigue, etc). Particular attention will be paid to specific issues associated with operation at the upper end of the creep regime.

  1. EXPLORING INTERMEDIATE (5-40 AU) SCALES AROUND AB AURIGAE WITH THE PALOMAR FIBER NULLER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kühn, J.; Mennesson, B.; Liewer, K.; Martin, S.; Loya, F.; Serabyn, E.; Millan-gabet, R.

    2015-02-10

    We report on recent K{sub s} -band interferometric observations of the young pre-main-sequence star AB Aurigae obtained with the Palomar Fiber Nuller (PFN). Reaching a contrast of a few 10{sup –4} inside a field of view extending from 35 to 275 mas (5-40 AU at AB Aur's distance), the PFN is able to explore angular scales that are intermediate between those accessed by coronagraphic imaging and long baseline interferometry. This intermediate region is of special interest given that many young stellar objects are believed to harbor extended halos at such angular scales. Using destructive interference (nulling) between two sub-apertures of the Palomar 200 inch telescope and rotating the telescope pupil, we measured a resolved circumstellar excess at all probed azimuth angles. The astrophysical null measured over the full rotation is fairly constant, with a mean value of 1.52%, and a slight additional azimuthal modulation of ±0.2%. The isotropic astrophysical null is indicative of circumstellar emission dominated by an azimuthally extended source, possibly a halo, or one or more rings of dust, accounting for several percent of the total K{sub s}-band flux. The modest azimuthal variation may be explained by some skewness or anisotropy of the spatially extended source, e.g., an elliptical or spiral geometry, or clumping, but it could also be due to the presence of a point source located at a separation of ?120 mas (17 AU) with ?6 Ś 10{sup –3} of the stellar flux. We combine our results with previous Infrared Optical Telescope Array observations of AB Aur at H band, and demonstrate that a dust ring located at ?30 mas (4.3 AU) represents the best-fitting model to explain both sets of visibilities. We are also able to test a few previously hypothesized models of the incoherent component evident at longer interferometric baselines.

  2. Metagenome of a Versatile Chemolithoautotroph from Expanding Oceanic Dead Zones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walsh, David A.; Zaikova, Elena; Howes, Charles L.; Song, Young; Wright, Jody; Tringe, Susannah G.; Tortell, Philippe D.; Hallam, Steven J.

    2009-07-15

    Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), also known as oceanic"dead zones", are widespread oceanographic features currently expanding due to global warming and coastal eutrophication. Although inhospitable to metazoan life, OMZs support a thriving but cryptic microbiota whose combined metabolic activity is intimately connected to nutrient and trace gas cycling within the global ocean. Here we report time-resolved metagenomic analyses of a ubiquitous and abundant but uncultivated OMZ microbe (SUP05) closely related to chemoautotrophic gill symbionts of deep-sea clams and mussels. The SUP05 metagenome harbors a versatile repertoire of genes mediating autotrophic carbon assimilation, sulfur-oxidation and nitrate respiration responsive to a wide range of water column redox states. Thus, SUP05 plays integral roles in shaping nutrient and energy flow within oxygen-deficient oceanic waters via carbon sequestration, sulfide detoxification and biological nitrogen loss with important implications for marine productivity and atmospheric greenhouse control.

  3. Extreme-UV lithography vacuum chamber zone seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haney, Steven J. (Tracy, CA); Herron, Donald Joe (Manteca, CA); Klebanoff, Leonard E. (San Ramon, CA); Replogle, William C. (Livermore, CA)

    2003-04-15

    Control of particle contamination on the reticle and carbon contamination of optical surfaces in photolithography systems can be achieved by the establishment of multiple pressure zones in the photolithography systems. The different zones will enclose the reticle, projection optics, wafer, and other components of system. The system includes a vacuum apparatus that includes: a housing defining a vacuum chamber; one or more metrology trays situated within the vacuum chamber each of which is supported by at least one support member, wherein the tray separates the vacuum chamber into a various compartments that are maintained at different pressures; and conductance seal devices for adjoining the perimeter of each tray to an inner surface of the housing wherein the tray is decoupled from vibrations emanating from the inner surface of the housing.

  4. Extreme-UV lithography vacuum chamber zone seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haney, Steven J. (Tracy, CA); Herron, Donald Joe (Manteca, CA); Klebanoff, Leonard E. (San Ramon, CA); Replogle, William C. (Livermore, CA)

    2003-04-08

    Control of particle contamination on the reticle and carbon contamination of optical surfaces in photolithography systems can be achieved by the establishment of multiple pressure zones in the photolithography systems. The different zones will enclose the reticle, projection optics, wafer, and other components of system. The system includes a vacuum apparatus that includes: a housing defining a vacuum chamber; one or more metrology trays situated within the vacuum chamber each of which is supported by at least one support member, wherein the tray separates the vacuum chamber into a various compartments that are maintained at different pressures; and conductance seal devices for adjoining the perimeter of each tray to an inner surface of the housing wherein the tray is decoupled from vibrations emanating from the inner surface of the housing.

  5. Extreme-UV lithography vacuum chamber zone seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haney, Steven J. (Tracy, CA); Herron, Donald Joe (Manteca, CA); Klebanoff, Leonard E. (San Ramon, CA); Replogle, William C. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01

    Control of particle contamination on the reticle and carbon contamination of optical surfaces in photolithography systems can be achieved by the establishment of multiple pressure zones in the photolithography systems. The different zones will enclose the reticle, projection optics, wafer, and other components of system. The system includes a vacuum apparatus that includes: a housing defining a vacuum chamber; one or more metrology trays situated within the vacuum chamber each of which is supported by at least one support member, wherein the tray separates the vacuum chamber into a various compartments that are maintained at different pressures; and conductance seal devices for adjoining the perimeter of each tray to an inner surface of the housing wherein the tray is decoupled from vibrations emanating from the inner surface of the housing.

  6. Zone heated inlet ignited diesel particulate filter regeneration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

    2012-06-26

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system includes: a particulate filter (PF) that is disposed downstream of the engine and that filters particulates from the exhaust; and a grid that includes electrically resistive material that is segmented by non-conductive material into a plurality of zones and wherein the grid is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF.

  7. NASA Award for Marginal Ice Zone Observations and Process Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (MIZOPEX) Award for Marginal Ice Zone Observations and Process Experiment (MIZOPEX) - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery

  8. Coiled tubing isolates zones, fractures wells with single trip service

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silverman, S.A.

    1999-04-01

    A system has been devised that combines high pressure coiled tubing (CT) and a selective isolation technique to frac multiple zones in a single operation. Multiple zones in one well can be individually isolated, fractured and flowed back simultaneously which results in reduced exposure to kill fluids and therefore higher retained conductivity for newly created fractures. The technique has been named CoilFRAC{trademark} by Dowell. The key benefits to the entire operation are reduced rig and operations time compared to conventional fracturing processes. Time savings, increased production, and environmental benefits are the economic drivers that result in rapid return on investment for production operators. The single trip concept for perforating and stimulation crews also brings additional benefits over multiple mobilizations. Wells which previously had only major zones perforated and stimulated and which are currently depleted can be revived economically using this system, giving the well a second life. The paper describes the equipment and its safety and contingency features, optimized shallow gas production in Alberta, and results from a South Texas oil well fracturing.

  9. 1999 vadose zone monitoring plan and guidance for subsequent years

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horton, D.G.; Reidel, S.P.; Last, G.V.

    1998-08-01

    The US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site has the most diverse and largest amounts of radioactive waste in the US. The majority of the liquid waste was disposed to the soil column where much of it remains today. This document provides the rationale and general framework for vadose zone monitoring at cribs, ditches, trenches and other disposal facilities to detect new sources of contamination and track the movement of existing contamination in the vadose zone for the protection of groundwater. The document provides guidance for subsequent site-specific vadose zone monitoring plans and includes a brief description of past vadose monitoring activities (Chapter 3); the results of the Data Quality Objective process used for this plan (Chapter 4); a prioritization of liquid waste disposal sites for vadose monitoring (Chapter 5 and Appendix B); a general Monitoring and Analysis Plan (Chapter 6); a general Quality Assurance Project Plan (Appendix A), and a description of vadose monitoring activities planned for FY 1999 (Appendix C).

  10. A geochemical model of the Kilauea east rift zone | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    rift zone Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: A geochemical model of the Kilauea east rift zone Abstract NA Author Donald Thomas...

  11. Deep Vadose Zone–Applied Field Research Initiative Fiscal Year 2012 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Truex, Michael J.; Johnson, Timothy C.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.

    2013-03-14

    This annual report describes the background of the Deep Vadose Zone-Applied Field Research Initiative, and some of the programmatic approaches and transformational technologies in groundwater and deep vadose zone remediation developed during fiscal year 2012.

  12. Adams County, North Dakota ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Adams County, North Dakota ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Adams County, North Dakota ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate...

  13. Aiken County, South Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Aiken County, South Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Aiken County, South Carolina ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate...

  14. Vast Energy Resource in Residual Oil Zones, FE Study Says | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vast Energy Resource in Residual Oil Zones, FE Study Says Vast Energy Resource in Residual Oil Zones, FE Study Says July 20, 2012 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - Billions of ...

  15. H.R.S. 205-5 - Zoning | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    05-5 - Zoning Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: H.R.S. 205-5 - ZoningLegal Published NA Year Signed or Took Effect...

  16. Anson County, North Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Anson County, North Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Anson County, North Carolina ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate...

  17. Ashe County, North Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ashe County, North Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Ashe County, North Carolina ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate...

  18. East Tennessee Technology Park Zones 1 and 2 | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Zones 1 and 2 East Tennessee Technology Park Zones 1 and 2 This document discusses the East Tennessee Technology Park's Zone 1 and 2. Topics include: * The area's safety * Any use limitations for the area * History and cleanup background for this area * How DOE's cleanup program addressed the problem PDF icon East Tennessee Technology Park Zone 1 & 2 fact sheet More Documents & Publications OREM Accomplishments Timeline EA-1175: Final Environmental Assessment (Addendum) EA-1640: Final

  19. Surface-Bound Intermediates in Low-Temperature Methanol Synthesis on Copper. Participants and Spectators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Yong; Mei, Donghai; Peden, Charles H.F.; Campbell, Charles T.; Mims, Charles A.

    2015-11-03

    The reactivity of surface adsorbed species present on copper catalysts during methanol synthesis at low temperatures was studied by simultaneous infrared spectroscopy (IR) and mass spectroscopy (MS) measurements during “titration” (transient surface reaction) experiments with isotopic tracing. The results show that adsorbed formate is a major bystander species present on the surface under steady-state methanol synthesis reaction conditions, but it cannot be converted to methanol by reaction with pure H2, nor with H2 plus added water. Formate-containing surface adlayers for these experiments were produced during steady state catalysis in (a) H2:CO2 (with substantial formate coverage) and (b) moist H2:CO (with no IR visible formate species). Both these reaction conditions produce methanol at steady state with relatively high rates. Adlayers containing formate were also produced by (c) formic acid adsorption. Various "titration" gases were used to probe these adlayers at modest temperatures (T = 410-450K) and 6 bar total pressure. Methanol gas (up to ~1% monolayer equivalent) was produced in "titration" from the H2:CO2 catalytic adlayers by H2 plus water, but not by dry hydrogen. The decay in the formate IR features accelerated in the presence of added water vapor. The H2:CO:H2O catalytic adlayer produced similar methanol titration yields in H2 plus water but showed no surface formate features in IR (less than 0.2% monolayer coverage). Finally, formate from formic acid chemisorption produced no methanol under any titration conditions. Even under (H2:CO2) catalytic reaction conditions, isotope tracing showed that pre-adsorbed formate from formic acid did not contribute to the methanol produced. Although non-formate intermediates exist during low temperature methanol synthesis on copper which can be converted to methanol gas by titration with pure H2 plus water in sufficient quantities for that intermediate to be observable by IR, formate itself is only a "spectator" in this reaction and gives no observable methanol upon any titration we performed with H2 or H2 plus water.

  20. Propagation direction reversal of ionization zones in the transition between high and low current magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    School of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Lab for Materials Processing and Die & Mold Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China; Department of Physics, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, USA; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720, USA; Yang, Yuchen; Liu, Jason; Liu, Lin; Anders, André

    2014-12-11

    Past research has revealed the propagation of dense, asymmetric ionization zones in both high and low current magnetron discharges. Here we report about the direction reversal of ionization zone propagation as observed with fast cameras. At high currents, zones move in the E B direction with velocities of 103 to 104 m/s. However at lower currents, ionization zones are observed to move in the opposite, the -E B direction, with velocities ~;; 103 m/s. It is proposed that the direction reversal is associated with the local balance of ionization and supply of neutrals in the ionization zone.

  1. Intermediate photovoltaic system application experiment operational performance report, for G. N. Wilcox Memorial Hospital, Kauai, Hawaii. Vol. 9

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-06-01

    This report presents the data accumulated during January 1983 at the intermediate photovoltaic project at G.N. Wilcox Memorial Hospital, Kauai, Hawaii. Generated energy and environmental (weather) data are presented graphically. Explanations of irregularities not attributable to weather are provided.

  2. Intermediate photovoltaic system application experiment operational performance report. Volume 1. For G. N. Wilcox Memorial Hospital, Kauai, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-09-01

    Presented are the data accumulated during January, February, and March 1982 at the intermediate photovoltaic project at G.N. Wilcox Memorial Hospital, Kauai, Hawaii. Generated energy and environmental (weather) data are presented graphically. Explanations of irregularities not attributable to weather are provided.

  3. Intermediate photovoltaic system application experiment operational performance report. Volume 2 for G. N. Wilcox Memorial Hospital, Kauai, HI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-10-01

    Presented are the data accumulated during April and May 1982 at this intermediate photovoltaic project at G.N. Wilcox Memorial Hospital, Kauai, Hawaii. Generated energy and environmental (weather) data are presented graphically. Explanations of irregularities not attributable to weather are provided.

  4. Energy and Mass Dependences of the Parameters of the Semimicroscopic Folding Model for Alpha Particles at Low and Intermediate Energies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuterbekov, K.A.; Zholdybayev, T.K.; Kukhtina, I.N.; Penionzhkevich, Yu.E.

    2005-06-01

    The energy and mass dependences of the parameters of the semimicroscopic alpha-particle potential are investigated for the first time in the region of low and intermediate energies. Within the semimicroscopic folding model, both elastic and inelastic differential and total cross sections for reactions on various nuclei are well described by using global parameters obtained in this study.

  5. MCNP6 Simulation of Light and Medium Nuclei Fragmentation at Intermediate Energies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mashnik, Stepan Georgievich; Kerby, Leslie Marie

    2015-05-22

    MCNP6, the latest and most advanced LANL Monte Carlo transport code, representing a merger of MCNP5 and MCNPX, is actually much more than the sum of those two computer codes; MCNP6 is available to the public via RSICC at Oak Ridge, TN, USA. In the present work, MCNP6 was validated and verified (V&V) against different experimental data on intermediate-energy fragmentation reactions, and results by several other codes, using mainly the latest modifications of the Cascade-Exciton Model (CEM) and of the Los Alamos version of the Quark-Gluon String Model (LAQGSM) event generators CEM03.03 and LAQGSM03.03. It was found that MCNP6 using CEM03.03 and LAQGSM03.03 describes well fragmentation reactions induced on light and medium target nuclei by protons and light nuclei of energies around 1 GeV/nucleon and below, and can serve as a reliable simulation tool for different applications, like cosmic-ray-induced single event upsets (SEU’s), radiation protection, and cancer therapy with proton and ion beams, to name just a few. Future improvements of the predicting capabilities of MCNP6 for such reactions are possible, and are discussed in this work.

  6. Spatial and kinematic distributions of transition populations in intermediate redshift galaxy clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, Steven M.; Wirth, Gregory D.; Bershady, Matthew A. E-mail: wirth@keck.hawaii.edu

    2014-05-01

    We analyze the spatial and velocity distributions of confirmed members in five massive clusters of galaxies at intermediate redshift (0.5 < z < 0.9) to investigate the physical processes driving galaxy evolution. Based on spectral classifications derived from broad- and narrow-band photometry, we define four distinct galaxy populations representing different evolutionary stages: red sequence (RS) galaxies, blue cloud (BC) galaxies, green valley (GV) galaxies, and luminous compact blue galaxies (LCBGs). For each galaxy class, we derive the projected spatial and velocity distribution and characterize the degree of subclustering. We find that RS, BC, and GV galaxies in these clusters have similar velocity distributions, but that BC and GV galaxies tend to avoid the core of the two z ? 0.55 clusters. GV galaxies exhibit subclustering properties similar to RS galaxies, but their radial velocity distribution is significantly platykurtic compared to the RS galaxies. The absence of GV galaxies in the cluster cores may explain their somewhat prolonged star-formation history. The LCBGs appear to have recently fallen into the cluster based on their larger velocity dispersion, absence from the cores of the clusters, and different radial velocity distribution than the RS galaxies. Both LCBG and BC galaxies show a high degree of subclustering on the smallest scales, leading us to conclude that star formation is likely triggered by galaxy-galaxy interactions during infall into the cluster.

  7. ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT ON VITRIFICATION FACILITY OF LOW-AND INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN KOREA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Sung Il; Lee, Kun Jai; Ji, Pyung Kook; Park, Jong Kil; Ha, Jong Hyun; Song, Myung Jae

    2003-02-27

    The usefulness of vitrification technology for low-and intermediate-level radioactive wastes was demonstrated with high volume reduction capability and good mechanical and chemical stability of final waste forms, and commercial vitrification facility is expected to be constructed at Ulchin site of Korean Nuclear Power Plant Ulchin Unit 5 and 6. Hence, overall economic assessment was necessary to find out the economic advantage of the vitrification facility and to predict the construction and operation costs of the facility on the preliminary bases. Additionally, the generation characteristics of radioactive wastes were investigated. The results of the cost analysis showed that the disposal cost of radioactive wastes treated by vitrification facility reduced to 85 percent compared with that by current waste treatment system. And the present worth analysis was performed through the cost-benefit analysis method for the commercial vitrification facility. The results showed that the vitrification facility combining cold crucible melter (CCM) for treatment of combustible DAW, spent resin, and borated liquid waste concentrate and plasma torch melter (PTM) for non-combustible DAW and spent filter is more economical than current waste treatment system when the escalation rate of disposal cost of more than 10 percent per year was applied.

  8. A tidal disruption event in a nearby galaxy hosting an intermediate mass black hole

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donato, D.; Troja, E.; Pursimo, T.; Cheung, C. C.; Kutyrev, A.; Landt, H.; Butler, N. R.

    2014-02-01

    We report the serendipitous discovery of a bright point source flare in the Abell cluster A1795 with archival EUVE and Chandra observations. Assuming the EUVE emission is associated with the Chandra source, the X-ray 0.5-7 keV flux declined by a factor of ?2300 over a time span of 6 yr, following a power-law decay with index ?2.44 ± 0.40. The Chandra data alone vary by a factor of ?20. The spectrum is well fit by a blackbody with a constant temperature of kT ? 0.09 keV (?10{sup 6} K). The flare is spatially coincident with the nuclear region of a faint, inactive galaxy with a photometric redshift consistent at the 1? level with the cluster (z = 0.062476). We argue that these properties are indicative of a tidal disruption of a star by a black hole (BH) with log (M {sub BH}/M {sub ?}) ? 5.5 ± 0.5. If so, such a discovery indicates that tidal disruption flares may be used to probe BHs in the intermediate mass range, which are very difficult to study by other means.

  9. Communication: Ultraviolet photodissociation dynamics of the simplest Criegee intermediate CH{sub 2}OO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lehman, Julia H.; Li, Hongwei; Beames, Joseph M.; Lester, Marsha I.

    2013-10-14

    The velocity and angular distributions of O {sup 1}D photofragments arising from UV excitation of the CH{sub 2}OO intermediate on the B {sup 1}A??X {sup 1}A? transition are characterized using velocity map ion imaging. The anisotropic angular distribution yields the orientation of the transition dipole moment, which reflects the ?*?? character of the electronic transition associated with the COO group. The total kinetic energy release distributions obtained at several photolysis wavelengths provide detail on the internal energy distribution of the formaldehyde cofragments and the dissociation energy of CH{sub 2}OO X {sup 1}A? to O {sup 1}D + H{sub 2}CO X {sup 1}A{sub 1}. A common termination of the total kinetic energy distributions, after accounting for the different excitation energies, gives an upper limit for the CH{sub 2}OO X {sup 1}A? dissociation energy of D{sub 0}? 54 kcal mol{sup ?1}, which is compared with theoretical predictions including high level multi-reference ab initio calculations.

  10. Structure of intermediate shocks in collisionless anisotropic Hall-magnetohydrodynamics plasma models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sánchez-Arriaga, G.

    2013-10-15

    The existence of discontinuities within the double-adiabatic Hall-magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) model is discussed. These solutions are transitional layers where some of the plasma properties change from one equilibrium state to another. Under the assumption of traveling wave solutions with velocity C and propagation angle ? with respect to the ambient magnetic field, the Hall-MHD model reduces to a dynamical system and the waves are heteroclinic orbits joining two different fixed points. The analysis of the fixed points rules out the existence of rotational discontinuities. Simple considerations about the Hamiltonian nature of the system show that, unlike dissipative models, the intermediate shock waves are organized in branches in parameter space, i.e., they occur if a given relationship between ? and C is satisfied. Electron-polarized (ion-polarized) shock waves exhibit, in addition to a reversal of the magnetic field component tangential to the shock front, a maximum (minimum) of the magnetic field amplitude. The jumps of the magnetic field and the relative specific volume between the downstream and the upstream states as a function of the plasma properties are presented. The organization in parameter space of localized structures including in the model the influence of finite Larmor radius is discussed.

  11. Total reaction cross sections in CEM and MCNP6 at intermediate energies

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kerby, Leslie M.; Mashnik, Stepan G.

    2015-05-14

    Accurate total reaction cross section models are important to achieving reliable predictions from spallation and transport codes. The latest version of the Cascade Exciton Model (CEM) as incorporated in the code CEM03.03, and the Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code (MCNP6), both developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), each use such cross sections. Having accurate total reaction cross section models in the intermediate energy region (50 MeV to 5 GeV) is very important for different applications, including analysis of space environments, use in medical physics, and accelerator design, to name just a few. The current inverse cross sections used inmore » the preequilibrium and evaporation stages of CEM are based on the Dostrovsky et al. model, published in 1959. Better cross section models are now available. Implementing better cross section models in CEM and MCNP6 should yield improved predictions for particle spectra and total production cross sections, among other results.« less

  12. Intermediate-scale high-solids anaerobic digestion system operational development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rivard, C.J.

    1995-02-01

    Anaerobic bioconversion of solid organic wastes represents a disposal option in which two useful products may be produced, including a medium Btu fuel gas (biogas) and a compost-quality organic residue. The application of high-solids technology may offer several advantages over conventional low-solids digester technology. Operation of the anaerobic digestion process at high solids reduces the level of process water and thereby the size and capital costs for the digester system. In addition, by virtue of the lack of available water, the microbial catalysts are more productive in feedstock polymer hydrolysis. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed a unique digester system capable of uniformly mixing high-solids materials at low cost. Information gained from laboratory-scale digester research was used to develop die intermediate-scale digester system. This system represents a 50-fold scale-up of the original digester system and includes continuous feed addition and computer monitoring and control. During the first 1.15 years of operation, a variety of modifications and improvements were instituted to increase the safety, reliability, and performance of the system. Those improvements -- which may be critical in further scale-up efforts using the NREL high-solids digester design -- are detailed in this report.

  13. GLORIA mosaic of the U. S. Hawaiian exclusive economic zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torresan, M.E. )

    1990-06-01

    Digital long-range side-scan sonar reconnaissance surveys using GLORIA have imaged about 65% of the nearly 2.4 million km{sup 2} of the Hawaiian EEZ. The images have been processed and compiled into one mosaic that comprises the EEZ area surrounding the principal Hawaiian islands (from Hawaii to Kauai); extending on the south side of the ridge west to Kure Island, and on the north side to St. Rogatien Bank. The GLORIA images depict a variety of features that include enormous slumps and debris avalanches, lava flows, seafloor spreading fabric, fracture zones, seamounts, and unusual sedimentation patterns with more detail than previously had been possible with typical seismic reflection techniques. Some of these features were unknown before the GLORIA surveys. In particular, the GLORIA images show that the major degradational processes that affect the island and ridge areas are massive, likely tsunamogenic, blocky debris avalanches and slumps. These failures mantle the flanks of the ridge; some extending across the trough and up on to the Hawaiian Arch (up to 230 km from their sources). Over 30 failures are identified, ranging in area from 250 to > 6,000 km{sup 2} and having volumes from 500 to > 5,000 km{sup 3}. Such deposits cover > 125,000 km{sup 3} of the Ridge and adjacent seafloor. Also imaged are large Cenozoic submarine volcanic flow fields situated on the Hawaiian Arch. One such field, the North Arch field, is located north of Oahu between the Molokai and Murray fracture zones, and covers about 200,000 km{sup 2}. Prior to the GLORIA imagery only a small portion of this flow field was mapped. In addition, the imagery depicts the finer details of the Molokai and Murray fracture zones, the Cretaceous seafloor spreading fabric, and tensional faults on the Hawaiian Arch.

  14. TWRS vadose zone contamination issue expert panel report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shafer, D.S.

    1997-05-01

    When members were first canvassed for participation in the Vadose Zone Expert Panel the stated purpose for convening the Panel was to review a controversial draft report, the SX Tank Farm Report. This report was produced by a DOE Grand Junction Project Office (GJPO) contractor, RUST Geotech, now MACTEC-ERS, for the DOE Richland Office (DOERL). Three meetings were planned for June, July and August, 1995 to review the draft report and to complete a Panel report by mid-September. The Expert Panel has found its efforts confounded by various non-technical issues. The Expert Panel has chosen to address some of the non-technical issues in this Preface rather than to dilute the technical discussion that follows in the body of this independent expert panel status report (Panel Report). Rather than performing a straightforward manuscript review, the Panel was asked to resolve conflicting interpretations of gamma-ray logging measurements performed in vadose zone boreholes (drywells) surrounding the high-level radioactive wastes of the SX tank farm. There are numerous and complex technical issues that must be evaluated before the vertical and radial extent of contaminant migration at the SX tank farm can be accurately assessed. When the Panel first met in early June, 1996, it quickly became apparent that the scientific and technical issues were obscured by policy and institutional affairs which have polarized discussion among various segments of the Hanford organization. This situation reflects the kinds of institutional problems described separately in reports by the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS/NRC), The Hanford Tanks Environmental Impacts and Policy Choices and BmTiers to Science: Technical Management of the Department of Energy Environmental Remediation Program. The Vadose Zone Characterization Program, appears to be caught between conflicting pressures and organizational mandates, some imposed from outside DOE-RL and some self-imposed. The institutional problems they encountered include having both Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS), the parent organization of the Vadose Zone Characterization Program and Environmental Restoration (ER), each under different regulatory controls and different organizational units, seeking to defend the status quo and discount many of the Panel`s conclusions and recommendations. The results presented in the SX Tank Farm Report, especially the visualizations, have created concern in the public sector, both on a local, personal level and on a national political level.

  15. Wireless zoned particulate matter filter regeneration control system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Kirby, Kevin W [Calabasas Hills, CA; Phelps, Amanda [Malibu, CA

    2011-10-04

    An assembly includes a particulate matter (PM) filter that comprises an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas, a downstream end and multiple zones. An absorbing layer absorbs microwave energy in one of N frequency ranges and is arranged with the upstream end. N is an integer. A frequency selective filter has M frequency selective segments and receives microwave energy in the N frequency ranges. M is an integer. One of the M frequency selective segments permits passage of the microwave energy in one of the N frequency ranges and does not permit passage of microwave energy in the other of the N frequency ranges.

  16. Method for continuously recovering metals using a dual zone chemical reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bronson, Mark C. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A dual zone chemical reactor continuously processes metal-containing materials while regenerating and circulating a liquid carrier. The starting materials are fed into a first reaction zone of a vessel containing a molten salt carrier. The starting materials react to form a metal product and a by-product that dissolves in the molten salt that flows to a second reaction zone in the reaction vessel. The second reaction zone is partitioned from, but in fluid communication with, the first reaction zone. The liquid carrier continuously circulates along a pathway between the first reaction zone and the second reaction zone. A reactive gas is introduced into the second reaction zone to react with the reaction by-product to generate the molten salt. The metal product, the gaseous waste products, and the excess liquid carrier are removed without interrupting the operation of the reactor. The design of the dual zone reactor can be adapted to combine a plurality of liquid carrier regeneration zones in a multiple dual zone chemical reactor for production scale processing.

  17. Method for continuously recovering metals using a dual zone chemical reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bronson, M.C.

    1995-02-14

    A dual zone chemical reactor continuously processes metal-containing materials while regenerating and circulating a liquid carrier. The starting materials are fed into a first reaction zone of a vessel containing a molten salt carrier. The starting materials react to form a metal product and a by-product that dissolves in the molten salt that flows to a second reaction zone in the reaction vessel. The second reaction zone is partitioned from, but in fluid communication with, the first reaction zone. The liquid carrier continuously circulates along a pathway between the first reaction zone and the second reaction zone. A reactive gas is introduced into the second reaction zone to react with the reaction by-product to generate the molten salt. The metal product, the gaseous waste products, and the excess liquid carrier are removed without interrupting the operation of the reactor. The design of the dual zone reactor can be adapted to combine a plurality of liquid carrier regeneration zones in a multiple dual zone chemical reactor for production scale processing. 6 figs.

  18. Development of Characterization Technology for Fault Zone Hydrology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karasaki, Kenzi; Onishi, Tiemi; Gasperikova, Erika; Goto, Junichi; Tsuchi, Hiroyuki; Miwa, Tadashi; Ueta, Keiichi; Kiho, Kenzo; MIyakawa, Kimio

    2010-08-06

    Several deep trenches were cut, and a number of geophysical surveys were conducted across the Wildcat Fault in the hills east of Berkeley, California. The Wildcat Fault is believed to be a strike-slip fault and a member of the Hayward Fault System, with over 10 km of displacement. So far, three boreholes of ~;; 150m deep have been core-drilled and borehole geophysical logs were conducted. The rocks are extensively sheared and fractured; gouges were observed at several depths and a thick cataclasitic zone was also observed. While confirming some earlier, published conclusions from shallow observations about Wildcat, some unexpected findings were encountered. Preliminary analysis indicates that Wildcat near the field site consists of multiple faults. The hydraulic test data suggest the dual properties of the hydrologic structure of the fault zone. A fourth borehole is planned to penetrate the main fault believed to lie in-between the holes. The main philosophy behind our approach for the hydrologic characterization of such a complex fractured system is to let the system take its own average and monitor a long term behavior instead of collecting a multitude of data at small length and time scales, or at a discrete fracture scale and to ?up-scale,? which is extremely tenuous.

  19. Vadose Zone Characterization Techniques Developed by EMSP Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guillen, Donna P.

    2003-02-24

    This paper discusses research contributions made by Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research in the area of geophysical characterization of the subsurface. The goal of these EMSP research projects is to develop combined high-resolution measurement and interpretation packages that provide accurate, timely information needed to characterize the vadose zone. Various types of geophysical imaging techniques can be used to characterize the shallow subsurface. Since individual geophysical characterization tools all have specific limitations, many different techniques are being explored to provide more widespread applicability over a range of hydrogeologic settings. A combination of laboratory, field, theoretical, and computational studies are necessary to develop our understanding of how contaminants move through the vadose zone. This entails field tests with field-hardened systems, packaging and calibration of instrumentation, data processing and analysis algorithms, forward and inverse modeling, and so forth. DOE sites are seeking to team with EMSP researchers to leverage the basic science research investment and apply these advances to address subsurface contamination issues that plague many U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites.

  20. Yucca Mountain Area Saturated Zone Dissolved Organic Carbon Isotopic Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, James; Decker, David; Patterson, Gary; Peterman, Zell; Mihevc, Todd; Larsen, Jessica; Hershey, Ronald

    2007-06-25

    Groundwater samples in the Yucca Mountain area were collected for chemical and isotopic analyses and measurements of water temperature, pH, specific conductivity, and alkalinity were obtained at the well or spring at the time of sampling. For this project, groundwater samples were analyzed for major-ion chemistry, deuterium, oxygen-18, and carbon isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) performed all the fieldwork on this project including measurement of water chemistry field parameters and sample collection. The major ions dissolved in the groundwater, deuterium, oxygen-18, and carbon isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) were analyzed by the USGS. All preparation and processing of samples for DOC carbon isotopic analyses and geochemical modeling were performed by the Desert Research Institute (DRI). Analysis of the DOC carbon dioxide gas produced at DRI to obtain carbon-13 and carbon-14 values was conducted at the University of Arizona Accelerator Facility (a NSHE Yucca Mountain project QA qualified contract facility). The major-ion chemistry, deuterium, oxygen-18, and carbon isotopes of DIC were used in geochemical modeling (NETPATH) to determine groundwater sources, flow paths, mixing, and ages. The carbon isotopes of DOC were used to calculate groundwater ages that are independent of DIC model corrected carbon-14 ages. The DIC model corrected carbon-14 calculated ages were used to evaluate groundwater travel times for mixtures of water including water beneath Yucca Mountain. When possible, groundwater travel times were calculated for groundwater flow from beneath Yucca Mountain to down gradient sample sites. DOC carbon-14 groundwater ages were also calculated for groundwaters in the Yucca Mountain area. When possible, groundwater travel times were estimated for groundwater flow from beneath Yucca Mountain to down gradient groundwater sample sites using the DOC calculated groundwater ages. The DIC calculated groundwater ages were compared with DOC calculated groundwater ages and both of these ages were compared to travel times developed in ground-water flow and transport models. If nuclear waste is stored in Yucca Mountain, the saturated zone is the final barrier against the release of radionuclides to the environment. The most recent rendition of the TSPA takes little credit for the presence of the saturated zone and is a testament to the inadequate understanding of this important barrier. If radionuclides reach the saturated zone beneath Yucca Mountain, then there is a travel time before they would leave the Yucca Mountain area and flow down gradient to the Amargosa Valley area. Knowing how long it takes groundwater in the saturated zone to flow from beneath Yucca Mountain to down gradient areas is critical information for potential radionuclide transport. Radionuclide transport in groundwater may be the quickest pathway for radionuclides in the proposed Yucca Mountain repository to reach land surface by way of groundwater pumped in Amargosa Valley. An alternative approach to ground-water flow and transport models to determine the travel time of radionuclides from beneath Yucca Mountain to down gradient areas in the saturated zone is by carbon-14 dating of both inorganic and organic carbon dissolved in the groundwater. A standard method of determining ground-water ages is to measure the carbon-13 and carbon-14 of DIC in the groundwater and then correct the measured carbon-14 along a flow path for geochemical reactions that involve carbon containing phases. These geochemical reactions are constrained by carbon-13 and isotopic fractionations. Without correcting for geochemical reactions, the ground-water ages calculated from only the differences in carbon-14 measured along a flow path (assuming the decrease in carbon-14 is due strictly to radioactive decay) could be tens of thousands of years too old. The computer program NETPATH, developed by the USGS, is the best geochemical program for correcting carbon-14 activities for geochemical r

  1. THE EGNoG SURVEY: MOLECULAR GAS IN INTERMEDIATE-REDSHIFT STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauermeister, A.; Blitz, L.; Wright, M.; Bolatto, A.; Teuben, P.; Bureau, M.; Leroy, A.; Ostriker, E.; Wong, T.

    2013-05-10

    We present the Evolution of molecular Gas in Normal Galaxies (EGNoG) survey, an observational study of molecular gas in 31 star-forming galaxies from z = 0.05 to z = 0.5, with stellar masses of (4-30) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun} and star formation rates of 4-100 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. This survey probes a relatively un-observed redshift range in which the molecular gas content of galaxies is expected to have evolved significantly. To trace the molecular gas in the EGNoG galaxies, we observe the CO(J = 1 {yields} 0) and CO(J = 3 {yields} 2) rotational lines using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA). We detect 24 of 31 galaxies and present resolved maps of 10 galaxies in the lower redshift portion of the survey. We use a bimodal prescription for the CO to molecular gas conversion factor, based on specific star formation rate, and compare the EGNoG galaxies to a large sample of galaxies assembled from the literature. We find an average molecular gas depletion time of 0.76 {+-} 0.54 Gyr for normal galaxies and 0.06 {+-} 0.04 Gyr for starburst galaxies. We calculate an average molecular gas fraction of 7%-20% at the intermediate redshifts probed by the EGNoG survey. By expressing the molecular gas fraction in terms of the specific star formation rate and molecular gas depletion time (using typical values), we also calculate the expected evolution of the molecular gas fraction with redshift. The predicted behavior agrees well with the significant evolution observed from z {approx} 2.5 to today.

  2. A population of relic intermediate-mass black holes in the halo of the Milky Way

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rashkov, Valery; Madau, Piero

    2014-01-10

    If 'seed' central black holes were common in the subgalactic building blocks that merged to form present-day massive galaxies, then relic intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) should be present in the Galactic bulge and halo. We use a particle tagging technique to dynamically populate the N-body Via Lactea II high-resolution simulation with black holes, and assess the size, properties, and detectability of the leftover population. The method assigns a black hole to the most tightly bound central particle of each subhalo at infall according to an extrapolation of the M {sub BH}-?{sub *} relation, and self-consistently follows the accretion and disruption of Milky Way progenitor dwarfs and their holes in a cosmological 'live' host from high redshift to today. We show that, depending on the minimum stellar velocity dispersion, ? {sub m}, below which central black holes are assumed to be increasingly rare, as many as ?2000 (? {sub m} = 3 km s{sup –1}) or as few as ?70 (? {sub m} = 12 km s{sup –1}) IMBHs may be left wandering in the halo of the Milky Way today. The fraction of IMBHs forced from their hosts by gravitational recoil is ? 20%. We identify two main Galactic subpopulations, 'naked' IMBHs, whose host subhalos were totally destroyed after infall, and 'clothed' IMBHs residing in dark matter satellites that survived tidal stripping. Naked IMBHs typically constitute 40%-50% of the total and are more centrally concentrated. We show that, in the ? {sub m} = 12 km s{sup –1} scenario, the clusters of tightly bound stars that should accompany naked IMBHs would be fainter than m{sub V} = 16 mag, spatially resolvable, and have proper motions of 0.1-10 mas yr{sup –1}. Their detection may provide an observational tool to constrain the formation history of massive black holes in the early universe.

  3. INTERMEDIATE-AGE STELLAR POPULATIONS IN CLASSICAL QUASI-STELLAR OBJECT HOST GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Canalizo, Gabriela; Stockton, Alan E-mail: stockton@ifa.hawaii.edu

    2013-08-01

    Although mergers and starbursts are often invoked in the discussion of quasi-stellar object (QSO) activity in the context of galaxy evolution, several studies have questioned their importance or even their presence in QSO host galaxies. Accordingly, we are conducting a study of z {approx} 0.2 QSO host galaxies previously classified as passively evolving elliptical galaxies. We present deep Keck/LRIS spectroscopy of a sample of 15 hosts and model their stellar absorption spectra using stellar synthesis models. The high signal-to-noise ratio of our spectra allows us to break various degeneracies that arise from different combinations of models, varying metallicities, and contamination from QSO light. We find that none of the host spectra can be modeled by purely old stellar populations and that the majority of the hosts (14/15) have a substantial contribution from intermediate-age populations with ages ranging from 0.7 to 2.4 Gyr. An average host spectrum is strikingly well fit by a combination of an old population and a 2.1 (+0.5, -0.7) Gyr population. The morphologies of the host galaxies suggest that these aging starbursts were induced during the early stages of the mergers that resulted in the elliptical-shaped galaxies that we observe. The current active galactic nucleus activity likely corresponds to the late episodes of accretion predicted by numerical simulations, which occur near the end of the mergers, whereas earlier episodes may be more difficult to observe due to obscuration. Our off-axis observations prevent us from detecting any current star formation or young stellar populations that may be present in the central few kiloparsecs.

  4. A CLOSE-PAIR ANALYSIS OF DAMP MERGERS AT INTERMEDIATE REDSHIFTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, Richard C. Y.; Abraham, Roberto G.; Bridge, Carrie R. E-mail: abraham@astro.utoronto.ca

    2012-12-01

    We have studied the kinematics of {approx}2800 candidate close-pair galaxies at 0.1 < z < 1.2 identified from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey fields. Spectra of these systems were obtained using spectrometers on the 6.5 m Magellan and 5 m Hale telescopes. These data allow us to constrain the rate of dry mergers at intermediate redshifts and to test the 'hot halo' model for quenching of star formation. Using virial radii estimated from the correlation between dynamical and stellar masses published by Leauthaud et al., we find that around 1/5 of our candidate pairs are likely to share a common dark matter halo (our metric for close physical association). These pairs are divided into red-red, blue-red, and blue-blue systems using the rest-frame colors classification method introduced in Chou et al.. Galaxies classified as red in our sample have very low star formation rates, but they need not be totally quiescent, and hence we refer to them as 'damp', rather than 'dry', systems. After correcting for known selection effects, the fraction of blue-blue pairs is significantly greater than that of red-red and blue-red pairs. Red-red pairs are almost entirely absent from our sample, suggesting that damp mergers are rare at z {approx} 0.5. Our data support models with a short merging timescale (<0.5 Gyr) in which star formation is enhanced in the early phase of mergers, but quenched in the late phase. Hot halo models may explain this behavior, but only if virial shocks that heat gas are inefficient until major mergers are nearly complete.

  5. Intermediate-Scale Laboratory Experiments of Subsurface Flow and Transport Resulting from Tank Leaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oostrom, Martinus; Wietsma, Thomas W.

    2014-09-30

    Washington River Protection Solutions contracted with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to conduct laboratory experiments and supporting numerical simulations to improve the understanding of water flow and contaminant transport in the subsurface between waste tanks and ancillary facilities at Waste Management Area C. The work scope included two separate sets of experiments: ‱Small flow cell experiments to investigate the occurrence of potential unstable fingering resulting from leaks and the limitations of the STOMP (Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases) simulator to predict flow patterns and solute transport behavior under these conditions. Unstable infiltration may, under certain conditions, create vertically elongated fingers potentially transporting contaminants rapidly through the unsaturated zone to groundwater. The types of leak that may create deeply penetrating fingers include slow release, long duration leaks in relatively permeable porous media. Such leaks may have occurred below waste tanks at the Hanford Site. ‱Large flow experiments to investigate the behavior of two types of tank leaks in a simple layered system mimicking the Waste Management Area C. The investigated leaks include a relatively large leak with a short duration from a tank and a long duration leak with a relatively small leakage rate from a cascade line.

  6. EVALUATION OF VADOSE ZONE TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES TO IMMOBILIZE TECHNETIUM-99

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PETERSEN, S.W.

    2006-03-15

    The Hanford Site End State Vision document (DOE/RL-2003-59) states: ''There should be an aggressive plan to develop technology for remediation of the contamination that could get to the groundwater (particularly the technetium [{sup 99}Tc])''. In addition, there is strong support from the public and regulatory agencies for the above statement, with emphasis on investigation of treatment alternatives. In July 2004, PNNL completed a preliminary evaluation of remediation technologies with respect to their effectiveness and implementability for immobilization of {sup 99}Tc beneath the BC Cribs in the 200 West Area (Truex, 2004). As a result of this evaluation, PNNL recommended treatability testing of in situ soil desiccation, because it has the least uncertainty of those technologies evaluated in July 2004 (Treatability Test Outline, September 30, 2004). In 2005, DOE-RL and Fluor Hanford convened an independent technical panel to review alternative remediation technologies, including desiccation, at a three-day workshop in Richland, Washington. The panel was composed of experts in vadose-zone transport, infiltration control, hydrology, geochemistry, environmental engineering, and geology. Their backgrounds include employment in academia, government laboratories, industry, and consulting. Their review, presented in this document, is based upon written reports from Hanford, oral presentations from Hanford staff, and each panel members' years of experience in their particular field of expertise. The purpose of this report is to document the panel's evaluation of various treatment alternatives with potential for minimizing contaminant migration in the deep vadose zone at the Department of Energy Hanford Site. The panel was tasked with assessing the most viable and practical approach and making recommendations for testing. The evaluation of vadose-zone treatment alternatives was conducted to be broadly applicable at a variety of locations at Hanford. However, because of limitations of time, the panel was asked to focus on one example, {sup 99}Tc contamination below the BC Cribs and Trenches. It is well recognized that conditions at BC Cribs and Trenches are not the same as those at other Hanford locations, but it was selected so that the panel could develop an understanding of site conditions at one location. The recommendations in this report are not intended to address the regulatory decision process for this site.

  7. The Precipitation of Sb2Te3 in Sb-rich AgSbTe2 via the Intermediate Phase

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (AgSb)3Te4. (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect The Precipitation of Sb2Te3 in Sb-rich AgSbTe2 via the Intermediate Phase (AgSb)3Te4. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Precipitation of Sb2Te3 in Sb-rich AgSbTe2 via the Intermediate Phase (AgSb)3Te4. Abstract not provided. Authors: Sugar, Joshua Daniel ; Medlin, Douglas L. Publication Date: 2010-07-01 OSTI Identifier: 1124220 Report Number(s): SAND2010-5024J 492792 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type: Journal

  8. When did movement begin on the Furnace Creek fault zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reheis, M. )

    1993-04-01

    About 50 km of post-Jurassic right-lateral slip has occurred on the northern part of the Furnace Creek fault zone (FCFZ). The sedimentology, stratigraphy, and structure of Tertiary rocks suggest that movement on the fault began no earlier than 12--8 Ma and possibly as late as 5--4 Ma. Large remnants of erosion surfaces occur on both sides of the FCFZ in the southern White Mountains and Fish Lake Valley and are buried by rhyolite and basalt, mostly 12--10 Ma; the ash flows and welded tuffs were likely erupted from sources at least 40 km to the east. Thus, the area probably had gentle topography, suggesting a lengthy period of pre-late Miocene tectonic stability. On the west side of the FCFZ, Cambrian sedimentary rocks are buried by a fanglomerate with an [sup [minus

  9. Analysis of offsite Emergency Planning Zones for Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Inger, J.R. ); Brown-Strattan, M.A. . Rocky Flats Plant)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this quality assurance program was to ensure the quality and technical adequacy of Phase 2 of the Analysis of Offsite Emergency Planning Zones (EPZ) for the Rocky Flats Plant project. Quality assurance was accomplished by managing and controlling the processes in the development of the product. The quality assurance task team conducted audits, reviews, and surveillances of project and related activities. This process contributed to identifying areas where the quality assurance plan was not fully implemented, areas needing improvement, and/or corrective actions resulting in a improved product. During the reviews and audits, several key areas were identified where quality assurance plan implementation needed to be improved. These areas included maintaining adequate documentation, reviewing technical results, making inputs traceable to technical results, and understanding that all personnel are responsible for quality.

  10. Zone Freezing Study for Pyrochemical Process Waste Minimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ammon Williams

    2012-05-01

    Pyroprocessing technology is a non-aqueous separation process for treatment of used nuclear fuel. At the heart of pyroprocessing lies the electrorefiner, which electrochemically dissolves uranium from the used fuel at the anode and deposits it onto a cathode. During this operation, sodium, transuranics, and fission product chlorides accumulate in the electrolyte salt (LiCl-KCl). These contaminates change the characteristics of the salt overtime and as a result, large volumes of contaminated salt are being removed, reprocessed and stored as radioactive waste. To reduce the storage volumes and improve recycling process for cost minimization, a salt purification method called zone freezing has been proposed at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). Zone freezing is melt crystallization process similar to the vertical Bridgeman method. In this process, the eutectic salt is slowly cooled axially from top to bottom. As solidification occurs, the fission products are rejected from the solid interface and forced into the liquid phase. The resulting product is a grown crystal with the bulk of the fission products near the bottom of the salt ingot, where they can be easily be sectioned and removed. Despite successful feasibility report from KAERI on this process, there were many unexplored parameters to help understanding and improving its operational routines. Thus, this becomes the main motivation of this proposed study. The majority of this work has been focused on the CsCl-LiCl-KCl ternary salt. CeCl3-LiCl-KCl was also investigated to check whether or not this process is feasible for the trivalent species—surrogate for rare-earths and transuranics. For the main part of the work, several parameters were varied, they are: (1) the retort advancement rate—1.8, 3.2, and 5.0 mm/hr, (2) the crucible lid configurations—lid versus no-lid, (3) the amount or size of mixture—50 and 400 g, (4) the composition of CsCl in the salt—1, 3, and 5 wt%, and (5) the temperature differences between the high and low furnace zones—200 and 300 ?C. During each experiment, the temperatures at selected locations around the crucible were measured and recorded to provide temperature profiles. Following each experiment, samples were collected and elemental analysis was done to determine the composition of iii the salt. Several models—non-mixed, well-mixed, Favier, and hybrid—were explored to describe the zone freezing process. For CsCl-LiCl-KCl system, experimental results indicate that through this process up to 90% of the used salt can be recycled, effectively reducing waste volume by a factor of ten. The optimal configuration was found to be a 5.0 mm/hr rate with a lid configuration and a ?T of 200°C. The larger 400 g mixtures had recycle percentages similar to the 50 g mixtures; however, the throughput per time was greater for the 400 g case. As a result, the 400 g case is recommended. For the CeCl3-LiCl-KCl system, the result implies that it is possible to use this process to separate the rare-earth and transuranics chlorides. Different models were applied to only CsCl ternary system. The best fit model was the hybrid model as a result of a solute transport transition from non- mixed to well-mixed throughout the growing process.

  11. Domoic acid production near California coastal upwelling zones, June 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trainer, V L. (National Marine Fisheries Service); Adams, Nicolaus G. (National Marine Fisheries Service); Bill, Brian D. (National Marine Fisheries Service); Stehr, Carla M. (National Marine Fisheries Service); Wekell, John C. (National Marine Fisheries Service); Moeller, Peter (National Ocean Service, Marine Biotoxins Program); Busman, Mark (National Ocean Service, Marine Biotoxins Program); Woodruff, Dana L. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    2000-01-01

    Sea lion mortalities in central California during May and June 1998 were traced to their ingestion of sardines and anchovies that had accumulated the neurotoxin domoic acid. The detection of toxin in urine, feces, and stomach contents of several sea lions represents the first proven occurrence of domoic acid transfer through the food chain to a marine mammal. The pennate diatoms, Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries and P. australis, were the dominant, toxin-producing phytoplankton constituting algal blooms near Monterey Bay, Half Moon Bay, and Oceano Dunes, areas where sea lions with neurological symptoms stranded. Toxic Pseudo-nitzschia were also found near Morrow Bay, Point Conception, Point Arguello, and Santa Barbara, demonstrating that these species were widespread along the central California coast in June 1998. Measurements of domoic acid during three cruises in early June showed the highest cellular toxin levels in P. multiseries near Point A?o Nuevo and in P. australis from Morro w Bay. Maximum cellular domoic acid levels were observed within 20 km of the coast between 0 and 5 m depth, although toxin was also measured to depths of 40 m. Hydrographic data indicated that the highest toxin levels and greatest numbers of toxic cells were positioned in water masses associated with upwelling zones near coastal headlands. Nutrient levels at these sites were less than those typically measured during periods of active upwelling, due to the 1998 El Ni?o event. The flow of cells and/or nutrients from coastal headlands into embayments where cells can multiply in a stratified environment is a possible mechanism of bloom development along the central California coast. This coupling of toxic Pseudo-nitzschia growth near upwelling zones with physical processes involved in cell transport will be understood only when long-term measurements are made at several key coastal locations, aiding in our capability to predict domoic-acid producing algal blooms.

  12. Technical and Policy Challenges in Deep Vadose Zone Remediation of Metals and Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Truex, Michael J.; Freshley, Mark D.; Dresel, P. E.; Cantrell, Kirk J.

    2012-03-21

    Deep vadose zone contamination is a significant issue facing the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM). Contamination in the deep vadose zone is isolated from exposure such that direct contact is not a factor in risk to human health and the environment; rather, movement of contamination from the deep vadose zone to the groundwater creates the potential for exposure and risk to receptors. Transport of deep vadose zone contamination and discharge to the groundwater creates the potential for exposure and risk to receptors, so limiting flux to groundwater is key for protection of groundwater resources. Remediation approaches for the deep vadose zone need to be considered within the regulatory context, targeted at mitigating the source of contamination and reduce contaminant flux to groundwater. This paper reviews the processes for deep vadose zone metal and radionuclide remediation as well as challenges and opportunities for implementation.

  13. Variable power distribution for zoned regeneration of an electrically heated particulate filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhatia, Garima [Bangalore, IN; Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2012-04-03

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter with multiple zones, an electric heater and a control module. The electrical heater includes heater segments, which each correspond with a respective one of the zones. The electrical heater is arranged upstream from and is proximate with the PM filter. The control module selectively applies a first energy level to a first one of the zones via a first one of the heater segments to initiate regeneration in the first zone. The control module also selectively applies a second energy level that is less than the first energy level to a second one of the zones via a second one of the heater segments to initiate regeneration in the second zone.

  14. Photometric investigation of the totally eclipsing contact binary V12 in the intermediate-age open cluster NGC 7789

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, S.-B.; Wang, J.-J.; Liu, L.; Zhou, X.; Essam, A.; Ali, G. B.; Haroon, A.-A.

    2015-02-01

    NGC 7789 is an intermediate-age open cluster with an age similar to the mean age of contact binary stars. V12 is a bright W UMa-type binary star with an orbital period of 0.3917 days. The first complete light curves of V12 in the V, R, and I bands are presented and analyzed with the Wilson–Devinney (W-D) method. The results show that V12 is an intermediate-contact binary (f=43.0(±2.2)%) with a mass ratio of 3.848, and it is a W-type contact binary where the less massive component is slightly hotter than the more massive one. The asymmetry of the light curves is explained by the presence of a dark spot on the more massive component. The derived orbital inclination (i=83{sub .}{sup ?}6) indicates that it is a totally eclipsing binary, which suggests that the determined parameters are reliable. The orbital period may show a long-term increase at a rate of P-dot =+2.48(±0.17)Ś10{sup ?6} days yr{sup ?1} that reveals a rapid mass transfer from the less massive component to the more massive one. However, more observations are needed to confirm this conclusion. The presence of an intermediate-contact binary in an intermediate-age open cluster may suggest that some contact binaries have a very short pre-contact timescale. The presence of a third body and/or stellar collision may help to shorten the pre-contact evolution.

  15. Magneto thermal conductivity of superconducting Nb with intermediate level of impurity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L.S. Sharath Chandra, M.K. Chattopadhyay, S.B. Roy, V.C. Sahni, G.R. Myneni

    2012-03-01

    Niobium materials with intermediate purity level are used for fabrication of superconducting radio frequency cavities (SCRF), and thermal conductivity is an important parameter influencing the performance of such SCRF cavities. We report here the temperature and magnetic field dependence of thermal conductivity {kappa} for superconducting niobium (Nb) samples, for which the electron mean free path I{sub e}, the phonon mean free path I{sub g}, and the vortex core diameter 2r{sub C} are of the same order of magnitude. The measured thermal conductivity is analyzed using the effective gap model (developed for I{sub e} >> 2r{sub C} (Dubeck et al 1963 Phys. Rev. Lett. 10 98)) and the normal core model (developed for I{sub e} << 2r{sub C} (Ward and Dew-Hughes 1970 J. Phys. C: Solid St. Phys. 3 2245)). However, it is found that the effective gap model is not suitable for low temperatures when I{sub e} {approx} 2r{sub C}. The normal core model, on the other hand, is able to describe {kappa}(T,H) over the entire temperature range except in the field regime between H{sub C1} and H{sub C2} i.e. in the mixed state. It is shown that to understand the complete behavior of {kappa} in the mixed state, the scattering of quasi-particles from the vortex cores and the intervortex quasi-particle tunneling are to be invoked. The quasi-particle scattering from vortices for the present system is understood in terms of the framework of Sergeenkov and Ausloos (1995 Phys. Rev. B 52 3614) extending their approach to the case of Nb. The intervortex tunneling is understood within the framework of Schmidbauer et al (1970 Z. Phys. 240 30). Analysis of the field dependence of thermal conductivity shows that while the quasi-particle scattering from vortices dominates in the low fields, the intervortex quasi-particle tunneling dominates in high fields. Analysis of the temperature dependence of thermal conductivity shows that while the quasi-particle scattering is dominant at low temperatures, the intervortex quasi-particle tunneling is dominant at high temperatures.

  16. Technical Issues Associated With the Use of Intermediate Ethanol Blends (>E10) in the U.S. Legacy Fleet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rich, Bechtold; Thomas, John F; Huff, Shean P; Szybist, James P; West, Brian H; Theiss, Timothy J; Timbario, Tom; Goodman, Marc

    2007-08-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) supports the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in assessing the impact of using intermediate ethanol blends (E10 to E30) in the legacy fleet of vehicles in the U.S. fleet. The purpose of this report is to: (1) identify the issues associated with intermediate ethanol blends with an emphasis on the end-use or vehicle impacts of increased ethanol levels; (2) assess the likely severity of the issues and whether they will become more severe with higher ethanol blend levels, or identify where the issue is most severe; (3) identify where gaps in knowledge exist and what might be required to fill those knowledge gaps; and (4) compile a current and complete bibliography of key references on intermediate ethanol blends. This effort is chiefly a critical review and assessment of available studies. Subject matter experts (authors and selected expert contacts) were consulted to help with interpretation and assessment. The scope of this report is limited to technical issues. Additional issues associated with consumer, vehicle manufacturer, and regulatory acceptance of ethanol blends greater than E10 are not considered. The key findings from this study are given.

  17. Use of Multiple Reheat Helium Brayton Cycles to Eliminate the Intermediate Heat Transfer Loop for Advanced Loop Type SFRs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Samuel E. Bays

    2009-05-01

    The sodium intermediate heat transfer loop is used in existing sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) plant design as a necessary safety measure to separate the radioactive primary loop sodium from the water of the steam Rankine power cycle. However, the intermediate heat transfer loop significantly increases the SFR plant cost and decreases the plant reliability due to the relatively high possibility of sodium leakage. A previous study shows that helium Brayton cycles with multiple reheat and intercooling for SFRs with reactor outlet temperature in the range of 510°C to 650°C can achieve thermal efficiencies comparable to or higher than steam cycles or recently proposed supercritical CO2 cycles. Use of inert helium as the power conversion working fluid provides major advantages over steam or CO2 by removing the requirement for safety systems to prevent and mitigate the sodium-water or sodium-CO2 reactions. A helium Brayton cycle power conversion system therefore makes the elimination of the intermediate heat transfer loop possible. This paper presents a pre-conceptual design of multiple reheat helium Brayton cycle for an advanced loop type SFR. This design widely refers the new horizontal shaft distributed PBMR helium power conversion design features. For a loop type SFR with reactor outlet temperature 550°C, the design achieves 42.4% thermal efficiency with favorable power density comparing with high temperature gas cooled reactors.

  18. Thioozonide decomposition: sulfur and oxygen atom transfer. Evidence for the formation of a carbonyl O-sulfide intermediate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matturro, M.G.; Reynolds, R.P.; Kastrup, R.V.; Pictroski, C.F.

    1986-05-14

    The chemistry of ozonides is of considerable interest from a practical and theoretical viewpoint. Thioozonide 1, formally the monosulfur-substituted ozonide of dimethylcyclobutadiene, has been proposed as an intermediate in the room temperature photooxidation of 2,5-dimethylthiophene. Subsequent low-temperature studies confirmed this structural assignment. When 1 is allowed to warm to room temperature, it rearranges to a mixture of sulfine 2 and cis- and trans-3-hexene-2,5-diones (3c and 3t). Recent examination of the thermal decomposition of 1 has led to a proposed mechanism involving a carbonyl sulfide 4 as an intermediate along the sulfur expulsion pathway to 3c; however, no experimental support for this hypothesis was given. Carbonyl O-sulfides have also been implicated as intermediates from the photolysis of oxathiiranes. The authors report evidence for the formation of 4 during the decomposition of 1 and that elemental sulfur (S/sub 8/) is formed during the reaction by concatenation of sulfur atoms or fragments (S/sub 2/, S/sub 3/, etc.).

  19. DOE to Invest up to $2.3 Million to Identify Renewable Energy Zones in

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Western States | Department of Energy .3 Million to Identify Renewable Energy Zones in Western States DOE to Invest up to $2.3 Million to Identify Renewable Energy Zones in Western States May 28, 2008 - 12:32pm Addthis The Renewable Energy Zones Initiative will promote regional transmission planning and encourage the development of renewable sources of energy WASHINGTON, DC - U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Assistant Secretary for Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability Kevin Kolevar

  20. The Viability of Sustainable, Self-Propping Shear Zones in Ehanced

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Geothermal Systems: Measurement of Reaction Rates at Elevated Temperatures | Department of Energy The Viability of Sustainable, Self-Propping Shear Zones in Ehanced Geothermal Systems: Measurement of Reaction Rates at Elevated Temperatures The Viability of Sustainable, Self-Propping Shear Zones in Ehanced Geothermal Systems: Measurement of Reaction Rates at Elevated Temperatures The Viability of Sustainable, Self-Propping Shear Zones in Ehanced Geothermal Systems: Measurement of Reaction

  1. 97e Intermediate Temperature Catalytic Reforming of Bio-Oil for Distributed Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marda, J. R.; Dean, A. M.; Czernik, S.; Evans, R. J.; French, R.; Ratcliff, M.

    2008-01-01

    With the world's energy demands rapidly increasing, it is necessary to look to sources other than fossil fuels, preferably those that minimize greenhouse emissions. One such renewable source of energy is biomass, which has the added advantage of being a near-term source of hydrogen. While there are several potential routes to produce hydrogen from biomass thermally, given the near-term technical barriers to hydrogen storage and delivery, distributed technologies such that hydrogen is produced at or near the point of use are attractive. One such route is to first produce bio-oil via fast pyrolysis of biomass close to its source to create a higher energy-density product, then ship this bio-oil to its point of use where it can be reformed to hydrogen and carbon dioxide. This route is especially well suited for smaller-scale reforming plants located at hydrogen distribution sites such as filling stations. There is also the potential for automated operation of the conversion system. A system has been developed for volatilizing bio-oil with manageable carbon deposits using ultrasonic atomization and by modifying bio-oil properties, such as viscosity, by blending or reacting bio-oil with methanol. Non-catalytic partial oxidation of bio-oil is then used to achieve significant conversion to CO with minimal aromatic hydrocarbon formation by keeping the temperature at 650 C or less and oxygen levels low. The non-catalytic reactions occur primarily in the gas phase. However, some nonvolatile components of bio-oil present as aerosols may react heterogeneously. The product gas is passed over a packed bed of precious metal catalyst where further reforming as well as water gas shift reactions are accomplished completing the conversion to hydrogen. The approach described above requires significantly lower catalyst loadings than conventional catalytic steam reforming due to the significant conversion in the non-catalytic step. The goal is to reform and selectively oxidize the bio-oil and catalyze the water gas shift reaction without catalyzing methanation or oxidation of CO and H{sub 2}, thus attaining equilibrium levels of H{sub 2}, CO, H{sub 2}O, and CO{sub 2} at the exit of the catalyst bed. Experimental Bio-oil (mixed with varied amounts of methanol to reduce the viscosity and homogenize the bio-oil) or selected bio-oil components are introduced at a measured flow rate through the top of a vertical quartz reactor which is heated using a five zone furnace. The ultrasonic nozzle used to feed the reactants allows the bio-oil to flow down the center of the reactor at a low, steady flow rate. Additionally, the fine mist created by the nozzle allows for intimate mixing with oxygen and efficient heat transfer, providing optimal conditions to achieve high conversion at relatively low temperatures in the non-catalytic step thus reducing the required catalyst loading. Generation of the fine mist is especially important for providing good contact between non-volatile bio-oil components and oxygen. Oxygen and helium are also delivered at the top of the reactor via mass flow meters with the amount of oxygen being varied to maximize the yields of H{sub 2} and CO and the amount of helium being adjusted such that the gas phase residence time in the hot zone is {approx}0.3 and {approx}0.45 s for bio-oil and methanol experiments, respectively. A catalyst bed can be located at the bottom of the reactor tube. To date, catalyst screening experiments have used Engelhard noble metal catalysts. The catalysts used for these experiments were 0.5 % rhodium, ruthenium, platinum, and palladium (all supported on alumina). Experiments were performed using pure alumina as well. Both the catalyst type and the effect of oxygen and steam on the residual hydrocarbons and accumulated carbon containing particulates were investigated. The residence time before the catalyst is varied to determine the importance of the non-catalytic step and its potential effect on the required catalyst loading. Non-catalytic experiments (primarily homogeneous cracking) use a bed of quartz placed to capture any deposits that are formed in the volatilization and cracking zones. The inner reactor effluent is quenched by a flow of 10 SLPM He which serves to sweep the products quickly ({approx}0.03 s) to a triple quadrupole molecular beam mass spectrometer (MBMS) for analysis. The MBMS serves as a universal detector and allows for real time data collection. The study of pyrolysis by MBMS has been described previously. The dilution of the reactor effluent reduces the potential problems caused by matrix effects associated with the MBMS analysis. Argon is used as an internal standard in the quantitative analysis of all the major products (CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and benzene) as well as any residual carbon, which is determined by subsequent oxidation of carbon (monitored as CO{sub 2}) after shutting off the feed and maintaining the oxygen/helium flow.

  2. A Time-Domain Electromagnetic Survey of the East Rift Zone Kilauea...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of the East Rift Zone Kilauea Volcano, HawaiiThesisDissertation Author Catherine King Skokan Organization Colorado School of Mines Published Publisher Not Provided, 1974 DOI...

  3. A Catalog of Vadose Zone Hydraulic Properties for the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeman, Eugene J.; Khaleel, Raziuddin; Heller, Paula R.

    2001-09-24

    The purpose of this catalog is to integrate all available soil physics data and information from vadose zone characterization and performance assessments into one useable, scientifically defensible document.

  4. The Viability of Sustainable, Self-Propping Shear Zones in Ehanced...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Viability of Sustainable, Self-Propping Shear Zones in Ehanced Geothermal Systems: Measurement of Reaction Rates at Elevated Temperatures The Viability of Sustainable,...

  5. A Low-Velocity Zone in the Basement Beneath the Valles Caldera...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone in the Basement Beneath the Valles Caldera, New Mexico Abstract We present quantitative results of forward modeling applied to a suite of travel time delays observed...

  6. Adams County, Iowa ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Adams County, Iowa ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate...

  7. Demonstration of 12 nm resolution Fresnel zone plate lens based soft x-ray microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chao, W.; Kim, J.; Rekawa, S.; Fischer, P.; Anderson, E. H.

    2009-06-05

    To extend soft x-ray microscopy to a resolution of order 10 nm or better, we developed a new nanofabrication process for Fresnel zone plate lenses. The new process, based on the double patterning technique, has enabled us to fabricate high quality gold zone plates with 12 nm outer zones. Testing of the zone plate with the full-field transmission x-ray microscope, XM-1, in Berkeley, showed that the lens clearly resolved 12 nm lines and spaces. This result represents a significant step towards 10 nm resolution and beyond.

  8. Gradient zone-boundary control in salt-gradient solar ponds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, J.R.

    1982-09-29

    A method and apparatus for suppressing zone boundary migration in a salt gradient solar pond includes extending perforated membranes across the pond at the boundaries, between the convective and non-convective zones, the perforations being small enough in size to prevent individual turbulence disturbances from penetrating the hole, but being large enough to allow easy molecular diffusion of salt thereby preventing the formation of convective zones in the gradient layer. The total area of the perforations is a sizeable fraction of the membrane area to allow sufficient salt diffusion while preventing turbulent entrainment into the gradient zone.

  9. DOE to Invest up to $2.3 Million to Identify Renewable Energy Zones In

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Western States, May 28, 2008 | Department of Energy to Invest up to $2.3 Million to Identify Renewable Energy Zones In Western States, May 28, 2008 DOE to Invest up to $2.3 Million to Identify Renewable Energy Zones In Western States, May 28, 2008 DOE to Invest up to $2.3 Million to Identify Renewable Energy Zones In Western States. The Renewable Energy Zones Initiative will promote regional transmission planning and encourage the development of renewable sources of energy. PDF icon DOE to

  10. Effects of ion-neutral collisions on Alfven waves: The presence of forbidden zone and heavy damping zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weng, C. J.; Lee, L. C.; Kuo, C. L.; Wang, C. B.

    2013-03-15

    Alfven waves are low-frequency transverse waves propagating in a magnetized plasma. We define the Alfven frequency {omega}{sub 0} as {omega}{sub 0}=kV{sub A}cos{theta}, where k is the wave number, V{sub A} is the Alfven speed, and {theta} is the angle between the wave vector and the ambient magnetic field. There are partially ionized plasmas in laboratory, space, and astrophysical plasma systems, such as in the solar chromosphere, interstellar clouds, and the earth ionosphere. The presence of neutral particles may modify the wave frequency and cause damping of Alfven waves. The effects on Alfven waves depend on two parameters: (1) {alpha}=n{sub n}/n{sub i}, the ratio of neutral density (n{sub n}), and ion density (n{sub i}); (2) {beta}={nu}{sub ni}/{omega}{sub 0}, the ratio of neutral collisional frequency by ions {nu}{sub ni} to the Alfven frequency {omega}{sub 0}. Most of the previous studies examined only the limiting case with a relatively large neutral collisional frequency or {beta} Much-Greater-Than 1. In the present paper, the dispersion relation for Alfven waves is solved for all values of {alpha} and {beta}. Approximate solutions in the limit {beta} Much-Greater-Than 1 as well as {beta} Much-Less-Than 1 are obtained. It is found for the first time that there is a 'forbidden zone (FZ)' in the {alpha}-{beta} parameter space, where the real frequency of Alfven waves becomes zero. We also solve the wavenumber k from the dispersion equation for a fixed frequency and find the existence of a 'heavy damping zone (HDZ).' We then examine the presence of FZ and HDZ for Alfven waves in the ionosphere and in the solar chromosphere.

  11. Remediation of Uranium in the Hanford Vadose Zone Using Ammonia Gas: FY 2010 Laboratory-Scale Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szecsody, James E.; Truex, Michael J.; Zhong, Lirong; Qafoku, Nikolla; Williams, Mark D.; McKinley, James P.; Wang, Zheming; Bargar, John; Faurie, Danielle K.; Resch, Charles T.; Phillips, Jerry L.

    2010-12-01

    This investigation is focused on refining an in situ technology for vadose zone remediation of uranium by the addition of ammonia (NH3) gas. Objectives are to: a) refine the technique of ammonia gas treatment of low water content sediments to minimize uranium mobility by changing uranium surface phases (or coat surface phases), b) identify the geochemical changes in uranium surface phases during ammonia gas treatment, c) identify broader geochemical changes that occur in sediment during ammonia gas treatment, and d) predict and test injection of ammonia gas for intermediate-scale systems to identify process interactions that occur at a larger scale and could impact field scale implementation.Overall, NH3 gas treatment of low-water content sediments appears quite effective at decreasing aqueous, adsorbed uranium concentrations. The NH3 gas treatment is also fairly effective for decreasing the mobility of U-carbonate coprecipitates, but shows mixed success for U present in Na-boltwoodite. There are some changes in U-carbonate surface phases that were identified by surface phase analysis, but no changes observed for Na-boltwoodite. It is likely that dissolution of sediment minerals (predominantly montmorillonite, muscovite, kaolinite) under the alkaline conditions created and subsequent precipitation as the pH returns to natural conditions coat some of the uranium surface phases, although a greater understanding of these processes is needed to predict the long term impact on uranium mobility. Injection of NH3 gas into sediments at low water content (1% to 16% water content) can effectively treat a large area without water addition, so there is little uranium mobilization (i.e., transport over cm or larger scale) during the injection phase.

  12. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Steam Generator and Intermediate Heat Exchanger Materials Research and Development Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. K. Wright

    2010-09-01

    DOE has selected the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production. It will have an outlet gas temperature in the range of 900°C and a plant design service life of 60 years. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed reactor and use low-enriched uranium, Tri-Isotopic (TRISO)-coated fuel. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Materials Research and Development (R&D) Program is responsible for performing R&D on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. Today’s high-temperature alloys and associated ASME Codes for reactor applications are approved up to 760°C. However, some primary system components, such as the Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) for the NGNP will require use of materials that can withstand higher temperatures. The thermal, environmental, and service life conditions of the NGNP will make selection and qualification of some high-temperature materials a significant challenge. Examples include materials for the core barrel and core internals, such as the control rod sleeves. The requirements of the materials for the IHX are among the most demanding. Selection of the technology and design configuration for the NGNP must consider both the cost and risk profiles to ensure that the demonstration plant establishes a sound foundation for future commercial deployments. The NGNP challenge is to achieve a significant advancement in nuclear technology while at the same time setting the stage for an economically viable deployment of the new technology in the commercial sector soon after 2020. A number of solid solution strengthened nickel based alloys have been considered for application in heat exchangers and core internals for the NGNP. The primary candidates are Inconel 617, Haynes 230, Incoloy 800H and Hastelloy XR. Based on the technical maturity, availability in required product forms, experience base, and high temperature mechanical properties all of the vendor pre-conceptual design studies have specified Alloy 617 as the material of choice for heat exchangers. Also a draft code case for Alloy 617 was developed previously. Although action was suspended before the code case was accepted by ASME, this draft code case provides a significant head start for achieving codification of the material. Similarly, Alloy 800H is the material of choice for control rod sleeves. In addition to the above listed considerations, Alloy 800H is already listed in the nuclear section of the ASME Code; although the maximum use temperature and time need to be increased.

  13. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Intermediate Heat Exchanger Materials Research and Development Plan (PLN-2804)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. K. Wright

    2008-04-01

    DOE has selected the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production. It will have an outlet gas temperature in the range of 900°C and a plant design service life of 60 years. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed reactor and use low-enriched uranium, Tri-Isotopic (TRISO)-coated fuel. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Materials Research and Development (R&D) Program is responsible for performing R&D on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. Today’s high-temperature alloys and associated ASME Codes for reactor applications are approved up to 760°C. However, some primary system components, such as the Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) for the NGNP will require use of materials that can withstand higher temperatures. The thermal, environmental, and service life conditions of the NGNP will make selection and qualification of some high-temperature materials a significant challenge. Examples include materials for the core barrel and core internals, such as the control rod sleeves. The requirements of the materials for the IHX are among the most demanding. Selection of the technology and design configuration for the NGNP must consider both the cost and risk profiles to ensure that the demonstration plant establishes a sound foundation for future commercial deployments. The NGNP challenge is to achieve a significant advancement in nuclear technology while at the same time setting the stage for an economically viable deployment of the new technology in the commercial sector soon after 2020. A number of solid solution strengthened nickel based alloys have been considered for application in heat exchangers and core internals for the NGNP. The primary candidates are Inconel 617, Haynes 230, Incoloy 800H and Hastelloy XR. Based on the technical maturity, availability in required product forms, experience base, and high temperature mechanical properties all of the vendor pre-conceptual design studies have specified Alloy 617 as the material of choice for heat exchangers. Also a draft code case for Alloy 617 was developed previously. Although action was suspended before the code case was accepted by ASME, this draft code case provides a significant head start for achieving codification of the material. Similarly, Alloy 800H is the material of choice for control rod sleeves. In addition to the above listed considerations, Alloy 800H is already listed in the nuclear section of the ASME Code; although the maximum use temperature and time need to be increased.

  14. Summary of Vadose -- Zone Conceptual Models for Flow and Contaminant Transport and 1999 - 2003 Progress on Resolving Deficiencies in Understanding the Vadose Zone at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert C. Starr; Dana L. Dettmers; Brennon R. Orr; Thomas R. Wood

    2003-12-01

    The thick vadose zone that underlies the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory has been recognized both as an avenue through which contaminants disposed at or near the ground surface can migrate to groundwater in the underlying Eastern Snake River Plain aquifer, and as a barrier to the movement of contaminants into the aquifer. Flow and contaminant transport in the vadose zone at the INEEL is complicated by the highly heterogeneous nature of the geologic framework and by the variations in the behavior of different contaminants in the subsurface. The state of knowledge concerning flow and contaminant transport in the vadose zone at and near the INEEL IN 1999 was summarized in Deficiencies in Vadose Zone Understanding at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (Wood et al., 2000). These authors identified deficiencies in knowledge of flow and contaminant transport processes in the vadose zone, and provided recommendations for additional work that should be conducted to address these deficiencies. In the period since (Wood et al., 2000) was prepared, research has been published that, to some degree, address these deficiencies. This document provides a bibliography of reports, journal articles, and conference proceedings published 1999 through mid-2003 that are relevant to the vadose zone at or near the INEEL and provides a brief description of each work. Publications that address specific deficiencies or recommendations are identified, and pertinent information from selected publications is presented.

  15. Means and method for capillary zone electrophoresis with laser-induced indirect fluorescence detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeung, Edward S. (Ames, IA); Kuhr, Werner G. (Riverside, CA)

    1996-02-20

    A means and method for capillary zone electrphoresis with laser-induced indirect fluorescence detection. A detector is positioned on the capillary tube of a capillary zone electrophoresis system. The detector includes a laser which generates a laser beam which is imposed upon a small portion of the capillary tube. Fluorescence of the elutant electromigrating through the capillary tube is indirectly detected and recorded.

  16. Means and method for capillary zone electrophoresis with laser-induced indirect fluorescence detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeung, Edwards (Ames, IA); Kuhr, Werner G. (Riverside, CA)

    1991-04-09

    A means and method for capillary zone electrphoresis with laser-induced indirect fluorescence detection. A detector is positioned on the capillary tube of a capillary zone electrophoresis system. The detector includes a laser which generates a laser beam which is imposed upon a small portion of the capillary tube. Fluorescence of the elutant electromigrating through the capillary tube is indirectly detected and recorded.

  17. Potential effects of low-volume effluent discharges on past-practice vadose zone contamination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnett, D.B., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-30

    Collard, L. B., J. D. Davis, D. B. Barnett, 1996, Potential Effects of Low-Volume Effluent Discharges on Past Practice Vadose Zone Contamination: WHC-SD-LEF-ER-001, Westinghouse Hanford Company, Richland Washington. This document estimates the behavior of extremely low-discharges of water in the unsaturated zone in the vicinity of past-practice facilities.

  18. Solid oxide fuel cell systems with hot zones having improved reactant distribution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poshusta, Joseph C.; Booten, Charles W.; Martin, Jerry L.

    2012-11-06

    A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) system having a hot zone with a center cathode air feed tube for improved reactant distribution, a CPOX reactor attached at the anode feed end of the hot zone with a tail gas combustor at the opposing end for more uniform heat distribution, and a counter-flow heat exchanger for efficient heat retention.

  19. Solid oxide fuel cell systems with hot zones having improved reactant distribution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poshusta, Joseph C; Booten, Charles W; Martin, Jerry L

    2013-12-24

    A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) system having a hot zone with a center cathode air feed tube for improved reactant distribution, a CPOX reactor attached at the anode feed end of the hot zone with a tail gas combustor at the opposing end for more uniform heat distribution, and a counter-flow heat exchanger for efficient heat retention.

  20. Western Renewable Energy Zones, Phase 1: QRA Identification Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pletka, R.; Finn, J.

    2009-10-01

    This report describes the Western Renewable Energy Zones (WREZ) Initiative Phase 1 Qualified Resource Area identification process, including the identification and economic analysis of Qualified Resource Areas (QRAs) and 'non-REZ' resources. These data and analyses will assist the Western US in its renewable energy transmission planning goals. The economic analysis in this report produced the input data for the WREZ Generation and Transmission model, which is a screening-level model to determine the optimal routing for and cost of delivering renewable energy from QRAs to load centers throughout the Western Interconnection. In June 2009, the Western Governors' Association accepted the Western Governors' Association WREZ Phase 1 Report in which the QRAs were mapped and the entire WREZ Phase 1 process was explained in general. That same month the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory released the WREZ Generation and Transmission Model (GTM), which was also developed by Black & Veatch. This report details the assumptions and methodologies that were used to produce the maps and resource analyses in the WGA report as well as the economic data used by the WREZ GTM. This report also provides the results of the non-REZ resource analysis for the first time in the WREZ initiative.

  1. Trace-element zoning in garnets from sheared mantle xenoliths

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, W.L.; Cousens, D.R.; Ryan, C.G.; Sie, S.H.; Suter, G.F. ); Smith, D. ); Boyd, F.R. )

    1989-02-01

    Proton-microprobe analyses of garnets from sheared high-temperature ultramafic xenoliths reveal marked zonation of trace elements, paralleling trends in major and minor elements. Garnet rims (600-1,000 {mu}m wide) are enriched in Fe, Ti, Zr, Y and Ga, and either enriched or depleted in Cr, relative to cores. Zoning profiles for Ti and Zr are S-shaped and extend further into the grains than the Cr and Ga gradients. The profiles are consistent with the formation of Ti, Zr, Y-enriched garnet overgrowths, followed by diffusive equilibration between rim and core over years to hundreds of years. This enrichment in Fe, Ca, Al and incompatible elements is ascribed to melt infiltration and consequent melt-crystal exchange and garnet growth, shortly before eruption. Zr/Y is 1 to 2 in garnet cores but 4 to 5 in rims, and so the infiltrating melt may have been relatively alkalic. Major and trace element concentrations in such high-temperature sheared xenoliths are not likely to resemble those of primitive mantle or of residual mantle depleted by melt extraction.

  2. Vadose Zone Hydrogeology Data Package for Hanford Assessments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Last, George V.; Freeman, Eugene J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Fayer, Michael J.; Gee, Glendon W.; Nichols, William E.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Horton, Duane G.

    2006-06-01

    This data package documents the technical basis for selecting physical and geochemical parameters and input values that will be used in vadose zone modeling for Hanford assessments. This work was originally conducted as part of the Characterization of Systems Task of the Groundwater Remediation Project managed by Fluor Hanford, Inc., Richland, Washington, and revised as part of the Characterization of Systems Project managed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL). This data package describes the geologic framework, the physical, hydrologic, and contaminant transport properties of the geologic materials, and deep drainage (i.e., recharge) estimates, and builds on the general framework developed for the initial assessment conducted using the System Assessment Capability (SAC) (Bryce et al. 2002). The general approach for this work was to update and provide incremental improvements over the previous SAC data package completed in 2001. As with the previous SAC data package, much of the data and interpreted information were extracted from existing documents and databases. Every attempt was made to provide traceability to the original source(s) of the data or interpretations.

  3. Intermediate photovoltaic system application experiment operational performance report. Volume 5. For G. N. Wilcox Memorial Hospital, Kauai, Hawaii for September 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Presented are the data accumulated during September 1982 at the intermediate photovoltaic project at G.N. Wilcox Memorial Hospital, Kauai, Hawaii. Generated energy and environmental (weather) data are presented graphically. Explanations of irregularities not attributable to weather are provided.

  4. Intermediate photovoltaic system application experiment operational performance report for G. N. Wilcox Memorial Hospital, Kauai, Hawaii for October 1982. Volume VI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Presented are the data accumulated during October 1982 at the intermediate project at G.N. Wilcox Memorial Hospital, Kauai, Hawaii. Generated energy and environmental (weather) data are presented graphically. Explanations of irregularities not attributable to weather are provided.

  5. Intermediate photovoltaic system application experiment operational performance report. Volume 8. For G. N. Wilcox Memorial Hospital, Kauai, Hawaii for December 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-03-01

    Presented are the data accumulated during December 1982 at the intermediate photovoltaic project at G. N. Wilcox Memorial Hospital, Kauai, Hawaii. Generated energy and environmental (weather) data are presented graphiclaly. Explanations of irregularities not attributable to weather are provided.

  6. Low and intermediate temperature oxidation of ethanol and ethanol-PRF blends: An experimental and modeling study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haas, Francis M.; Chaos, Marcos; Dryer, Frederick L.

    2009-12-15

    In this brief communication, we present new experimental species profile measurements for the low and intermediate temperature oxidation of ethanol under knock-prone conditions. These experiments show that ethanol exhibits no global low temperature reactivity at these conditions, although we note the heterogeneous decomposition of ethanol to ethylene and water. Similar behavior is reported for an E85 blend in n-heptane. Kinetic modeling results are presented to complement these experiments and elucidate the interaction of ethanol and primary reference fuels undergoing cooxidation. (author)

  7. Segregation At Stacking Faults Within The ?' Phase Of Two Ni-base Superalloys Following Intermediate Temperature Creep

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viswanathan, G. B.; Shi, R.; Genc, Arda; Vorontsov, V. A.; Kovarik, Libor; Rae, C.M. F.; Mills, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Using state-of-the-art energy dispersive spectroscopy, it has been established for the first time that there exists significant compositional variation (enrichment of Co and Cr and deficiency of Ni and Al) associated with superlattice intrinsic stacking faults created in the ordered ?' precipitates following intermediate temperature deformation of two commercial superalloys. The results indicate that long range diffusion of these elements is intimately involved in the precipitate shearing process and is therefore closely linked to the time-dependent deformation of the alloys.

  8. The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis IV. The Identity and Sequence of the Intermediates in Sucrose Synthesis

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Calvin, M.; Benson, A.

    1948-12-14

    The synthesis of sucrose from C{sup 14}0{sub 2} by green algae has been investigated and the intermediates separated by the method of paper chromatography. It is shown that sucrose is the first free sugar appearing during photosynthesis. It is apparently formed by condensation of the glucose-I-phosphate and a fructose phosphate. A series of radioautographs of paper chromatograms of extracts from plants which have photosynthesized for different periods of time has been prepared. The results indicate that 2-phosphoglyceric acid is the first product synthesized from C0{sub 2} during photosynthesis.

  9. Intermediate Energy Infobook and Intermediate Infobook Activities...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    school, save energy and reduce costs Collection of science-based, climate education resources and programs, aligned to national science education standards. Find info on the...

  10. Chemically induced Parkinson's disease: intermediates in the oxidation of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine to the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-pyridinium ion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chacon, J.N.; Chedekel, M.R.; Land, E.J.; Truscott, T.G.

    1987-04-29

    Various unstable intermediate oxidation states have been postulated in the metabolic activation of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine to the 1-methyl-4-phenyl pyridinium ion. We now report the first direct observation of these free radical intermediates by pulse radiolysis and flash photolysis. Studies are described of various reactions of such species, in particular with dopamine whose autoxidation to dopamine quinone is reported to be potentiated by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3, 6-tetrahydropyridine.

  11. Hydrogeologic characterization of an arid zone Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ginanni, J.M.; O`Neill, L.J. [USDOE Nevada Operations Office, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Hammermeister, D.P.; Blout, D.O.; Dozier, B.L.; Sully, M.J.; Johnejack, K.R.; Emer, D.F. [Reynolds Electrical and Engineering Co., Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States); Tyler, S.W. [Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Inst.

    1994-06-01

    An in-depth subsurface site characterization and monitoring program for the soil water migration pathway has been planned, implemented, and completed to satisfy data requirements for a waiver from groundwater monitoring, for an exemption from liner leachate collections systems, and for different regulatory driven performance assessments. A traditional scientific approach has been taken to focus characterization and monitoring efforts. This involved developing a conceptual model of the hydrogeologic system and defining and testing hypotheses about this model. Specific hypotheses tested included: that the system was hydrologically heterogenous and anisotropic, and that recharge was very low or negligible. Mineralogical, physical, and hydrologic data collected to test hypotheses has shown the hydrologic system to be remarkably homogenous and isotropic rather than heterogenous and anisotropic. Both hydrodynamic and environmental tracer approaches for estimating recharge have led to the conclusion that recharge from the Area 5 RWMS is not occurring in the upper region of the vadose zone, and that recharge at depth is extremely small or negligible. This demonstration of ``no migration of hazardous constituents to the water table satisfies a key requirement for both the groundwater monitoring waiver and the exemption from liner leachate collection systems. Data obtained from testing hypotheses concerning the soil water migration pathway have been used to refine the conceptual model of the hydrogeologic system of the site. These data suggest that the soil gas and atmospheric air pathways may be more important for transporting contaminants to the accessible environment than the soil water pathway. New hypotheses have been developed about these pathways, and characterization and monitoring activities designed to collect data to test these hypotheses.

  12. Communication: Spectroscopic characterization of an alkyl substituted Criegee intermediate syn-CH{sub 3}CHOO through pure rotational transitions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakajima, Masakazu; Endo, Yasuki

    2014-01-07

    An alkyl-substituted Criegee intermediate syn-CH{sub 3}CHOO was detected in the gas phase through Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy. Observed pure rotational transitions show a small splitting corresponding to the A/E components due to the threefold methyl internal rotation. The rotational constants and the barrier height of the hindered methyl rotation were determined to be A = 17?586.5295(15) MHz, B = 7133.4799(41) MHz, C = 5229.1704(40) MHz, and V{sub 3} = 837.1(17) cm{sup ?1}. High-level ab initio calculations which reproduce the experimentally determined values well indicate that the in-plane C–H bond in the methyl moiety is trans to the C–O bond, and other two protons are directed to the terminal oxygen atom for the most stable structure of syn-CH{sub 3}CHOO. The torsional barrier of the methyl top is fairly large in syn-CH{sub 3}CHOO, implying a significant interaction between the terminal oxygen and the protons of the methyl moiety, which may be responsible for the high production yields of the OH radical from energized alkyl-substituted Criegee intermediates.

  13. Bulgeless galaxies at intermediate redshift: Sample selection, color properties, and the existence of powerful active galactic nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bizzocchi, Luca; Leonardo, Elvira; Grossi, Marco; Afonso, José; Fernandes, Cristina; Retrê, Joăo; Filho, Mercedes E.; Lobo, Catarina; Griffith, Roger L.; Anton, Sonia; Bell, Eric F.; Brinchmann, Jarle; Henriques, Bruno; Messias, Hugo

    2014-02-10

    We present a catalog of bulgeless galaxies, which includes 19,225 objects selected in four of the deepest, largest multi-wavelength data sets available—COSMOS, AEGIS, GEMS, and GOODS—at intermediate redshift (0.4 ? z ? 1.0). The morphological classification was provided by the Advanced Camera for Surveys General Catalog (ACS-GC), which used publicly available data obtained with the ACS instrument on the Hubble Space Telescope. Rest-frame photometric quantities were derived using kcorrect. We analyze the properties of the sample and the evolution of pure-disk systems with redshift. Very massive [log (M {sub *}/M {sub ?}) > 10.5] bulgeless galaxies contribute to ?30% of the total galaxy population number density at z ? 0.7, but their number density drops substantially with decreasing redshift. We show that only a negligible fraction of pure disks appear to be quiescent systems, and red sequence bulgeless galaxies show indications of dust-obscured star formation. X-ray catalogs were used to search for X-ray emission within our sample. After visual inspection and detailed parametric morphological fitting we identify 30 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) that reside in galaxies without a classical bulge. The finding of such peculiar objects at intermediate redshift shows that while AGN growth in merger-free systems is a rare event (0.2% AGN hosts in this sample of bulgeless galaxies), it can indeed happen relatively early in the history of the universe.

  14. Technical and Policy Challenges in Deep Vadose Zone Remediation of Metals and Radionuclides - 12025

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Truex, Michael J.; Freshley, Mark; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Dresel, P. Evan

    2012-07-01

    Deep vadose zone contamination is a significant issue facing the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM). Contamination in the deep vadose zone is isolated from exposure such that direct contact is not a factor in risk to human health and the environment. Transport of deep vadose zone contamination and discharge to the groundwater creates the potential for exposure and risk to receptors, so limiting flux to groundwater is key for protection of groundwater resources. Remediation approaches for the deep vadose zone need to be considered within the regulatory context, targeted at mitigating the source of contamination and reducing contaminant flux to groundwater. Processes for deep vadose zone metal and radionuclide remediation are discussed, as well as challenges and opportunities for implementation. It may be useful to consider the risk and challenges with leaving contaminants in place as part of a flux-control remedy in comparison with risks associated with contaminant removal and final disposition elsewhere. Understanding and quantifying the ramifications of contaminant removal and disposition options are therefore warranted. While this review suggests that some additional development work is needed for deep vadose zone remediation techniques, the benefits of applying vadose zone remediation for groundwater protection are compelling and worthy of continued development. (authors)

  15. Microsoft PowerPoint - Central_Plateau_Inner_Zone.ppt [Compatibility Mode]

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Inner Zone The inner zone of the Central Plateau represents 10 square miles at the center The inner zone of the Central Plateau represents 10 square miles at the center of Hanford. Recovery Act funding will be used to accelerate construction of pump-and-treat systems to improve groundwater cleanup in the 200 West area. In addition funding will be used to prepare the Plutonium Finishing Plant for In addition funding will be used to prepare the Plutonium Finishing Plant for demolition and to tear

  16. Microsoft PowerPoint - Central_Plateau_Outer_Zone.ppt [Compatibility Mode]

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Outer Zone Th t f th C t l Pl t i b t 65 il The outer zone of the Central Plateau is about 65 square miles. Recovery Act funding will be used in this area to support shrinking the active footprint of cleanup to as little as 10 square miles in the center of the site. Work will consist mainly of demolishing facilities and remediating waste sites. Central Plateau, Outer Zone (~65 sq. mi.) * 200 North Area * Demolish spent fuel C o C o * Demolish spent fuel transfer storage facilities (212 N/P/R) *

  17. DOE to Invest up to $2.3 Million to Identify Renewable Energy Zones in

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Western States | Department of Energy to Invest up to $2.3 Million to Identify Renewable Energy Zones in Western States DOE to Invest up to $2.3 Million to Identify Renewable Energy Zones in Western States May 28, 2008 - 1:58pm Addthis The Renewable Energy Zones Initiative will promote regional transmission planning and encourage the development of renewable sources of energy WASHINGTON, DC - U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Assistant Secretary for Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability

  18. Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non?Road Engines, Report 1 - Updated

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knoll, Keith; West, Brian H; Clark, Wendy; Graves, Ronald L; Orban, John; Przesmitzki, Steve; Theiss, Timothy J

    2009-02-01

    In summer 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a test program to evaluate the potential impacts of intermediate ethanol blends on legacy vehicles and other engines. The purpose of the test program is to assess the viability of using intermediate blends as a contributor to meeting national goals in the use of renewable fuels. Through a wide range of experimental activities, DOE is evaluating the effects of E15 and E20--gasoline blended with 15 and 20% ethanol--on tailpipe and evaporative emissions, catalyst and engine durability, vehicle driveability, engine operability, and vehicle and engine materials. This first report provides the results available to date from the first stages of a much larger overall test program. Results from additional projects that are currently underway or in the planning stages are not included in this first report. The purpose of this initial study was to quickly investigate the effects of adding up to 20% ethanol to gasoline on the following: (1) Regulated tailpipe emissions for 13 popular late model vehicles on a drive cycle similar to real-world driving and 28 small non-road engines (SNREs) under certification or typical in use procedures. (2) Exhaust and catalyst temperatures of the same vehicles under more severe conditions. (3) Temperature of key engine components of the same SNREs under certification or typical in-use conditions. (4) Observable operational issues with either the vehicles or SNREs during the course of testing. As discussed in the concluding section of this report, a wide range of additional studies are underway or planned to consider the effects of intermediate ethanol blends on materials, emissions, durability, and driveability of vehicles, as well as impacts on a wider range of nonautomotive engines, including marine applications, snowmobiles, and motorcycles. Section 1 (Introduction) gives background on the test program and describes collaborations with industry and agencies to date. Section 2 (Experimental Setup) provides details concerning test fuels, vehicle and SNRE selection, and test methods used to conduct the studies presented in this report. Section 3 (Results and Discussion) summarizes the vehicle and SNRE studies and presents data from testing completed to date. Section 4 (Next Steps) describes planned future activities. The appendixes provide test procedure details, vehicle and SNRE emissions standards, analysis details, and additional data and tables from vehicle and SNRE tests.

  19. H.R.S. 183C - Conservation District Zoning | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    183C - Conservation District Zoning Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: H.R.S. 183C - Conservation District...

  20. Control of Well KS-8 in the Kilauea Lower East Rift Zone | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Control of Well KS-8 in the Kilauea Lower East Rift Zone Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Control of Well KS-8 in the Kilauea...

  1. From Fjords to Open Seas: Ecological Genomics of Expanding Oxygen Minimum Zones (2010 JGI User Meeting)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Hallam, Steven

    2011-04-26

    Steven Hallam of the University of British Columbia talks "From Fjords to Open Seas: Ecological Genomics of Expanding Oxygen Minimum Zones" on March 24, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

  2. Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test for the Hanford Central Plateau: Soil Desiccation Pilot Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Truex, Michael J.; Oostrom, Martinus; Strickland, Christopher E.; Johnson, Timothy C.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Johnson, Christian D.; Greenwood, William J.; Ward, Anderson L.; Clayton, Ray E.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Peterson, John E.; Hubbard, Susan; Chronister, Glen B.; Benecke, Mark W.

    2012-05-01

    This report describes results of a pilot test of soil desiccation conducted as part of the Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test program. The report is written in CERCLA treatabilty test report format.

  3. New Approach to Assess Volatile Contamination in Vadose Zone Provides Path Forward for Site Closure

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    RICHLAND, Wash. and LOS ALAMOS, N.M. – Through the Deep Vadose Zone-Applied Field Research Initiative (DVZ-AFRI), scientists and engineers from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, federal agencies, and the scientific community are collaborating to develop effective, science-based solutions for remediating, characterizing, monitoring, and predicting the behavior and fate of deep vadose zone contamination.

  4. A Micro-Variable Circular Orifice (MVCO) Fuel Injector for Zoned Low

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Temperature Combustion | Department of Energy A Micro-Variable Circular Orifice (MVCO) Fuel Injector for Zoned Low Temperature Combustion A Micro-Variable Circular Orifice (MVCO) Fuel Injector for Zoned Low Temperature Combustion Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. PDF icon 2006_deer_hou.pdf More Documents & Publications Adaptive PCCI with Variable Orifice

  5. Mobility of Source Zone Heavy Metals and Radionuclides: The Mixed Roles of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fermentative Activity on Fate and Transport of U and Cr (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Mobility of Source Zone Heavy Metals and Radionuclides: The Mixed Roles of Fermentative Activity on Fate and Transport of U and Cr Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mobility of Source Zone Heavy Metals and Radionuclides: The Mixed Roles of Fermentative Activity on Fate and Transport of U and Cr Predicting the potential migration of metals and radionuclides from waste pits and trenches will

  6. Microbial Activity and Precipitation at Solution-Solution Mixing Zones in

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Porous Media -- Subsurface Biogeochemical Research (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Microbial Activity and Precipitation at Solution-Solution Mixing Zones in Porous Media -- Subsurface Biogeochemical Research Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Microbial Activity and Precipitation at Solution-Solution Mixing Zones in Porous Media -- Subsurface Biogeochemical Research The goal for this research was to understand how best to add compounds to receptive microbial communities in porous

  7. An Updated Site Scale Saturated Zone Ground Water Transport Model for Yucca

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Mountain. (Conference) | SciTech Connect An Updated Site Scale Saturated Zone Ground Water Transport Model for Yucca Mountain. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An Updated Site Scale Saturated Zone Ground Water Transport Model for Yucca Mountain. Abstract not provided. Authors: Arnold, Bill Walter ; Kelkar, Sharad ; Ding, Mei ; Chu, Shaoping ; ROBINSON, BRUCE ; Meijer, Arend Publication Date: 2007-09-01 OSTI Identifier: 1147462 Report Number(s): SAND2007-5874C 521772 DOE Contract

  8. Remedy Evaluation Framework for Inorganic, Non-Volatile Contaminants in the Vadose Zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Truex, Michael J.; Carroll, Kenneth C.

    2013-05-01

    Contaminants in the vadose zone may act as a potential long-term source of groundwater contamination and need to be considered in remedy evaluations. In many cases, remediation decisions for the vadose zone will need to be made all or in part based on projected impacts to groundwater. Because there are significant natural attenuation processes inherent in vadose zone contaminant transport, remediation in the vadose zone to protect groundwater is functionally a combination of natural attenuation and use of other remediation techniques, as needed, to mitigate contaminant flux to groundwater. Attenuation processes include both hydrobiogeochemical processes that serve to retain contaminants within porous media and physical processes that mitigate the rate of water flux. In particular, the physical processes controlling fluid flow in the vadose zone are quite different and generally have a more significant attenuation impact on contaminant transport relative to those within the groundwater system. A remedy evaluation framework is presented herein that uses an adaptation of the established EPA Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) evaluation approach and a conceptual model based approach focused on identifying and quantifying features and processes that control contaminant flux through the vadose zone. A key concept for this framework is to recognize that MNA will comprise some portion of all remedies in the vadose zone. Thus, structuring evaluation of vadose zone waste sites to use an MNA-based approach provides information necessary to either select MNA as the remedy, if appropriate, or to quantify how much additional attenuation would need to be induced by a remedial action (e.g., technologies considered in a feasibility study) to augment the natural attenuation processes and meet groundwater protection goals.

  9. Structure and reactivity of chemisorbed species and reaction intermediates: Progress report, December 1, 1984--November 30, 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madey, T.E.; Kelley, R.D.

    1985-08-01

    The areas of work have supported a common theme: the structure and reactivity of chemisorbed species and reaction intermediate of importance to catalysis. A variety of tools have been to study the structure and chemistry of surface species, and to develop models and concepts of broad utility in chemisorption and catalysis. Adsorption of carbon monoxide, ammonia, hydrogen, and sulfur are discussed. Results of the research conducted or completed in the last year, as well as plans for the coming year, are summarized in this report. The results will be presented in three sections: (a) Surface Molecular Structure and Reactivity as Studied Using Electron Simulated Desorption Ion Angular Distribution (ESDIAD) and High Resolution Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (HREELS); (b) Neutron Inelastic Scattering Studies of Adsorption and Reaction on Catalysts; and (c) Reaction Kinetics at High Pressures over Single Crystal Catalysts.

  10. Acetaldehyde as an intermediate in the electroreduction of carbon monoxide to ethanol on oxide-derived copper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertheussen, Erlend; Verdaguer-Casadevall, Arnau; Ravasio, Davide; Montoya, Joseph H.; Trimarco, Daniel B.; Roy, Claudie; Meier, Sebastian; Wendland, Jürgen; Nűrskov, Jens K.; Stephens, Ifan E. L.; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2015-12-21

    Oxide-derived copper (OD-Cu) electrodes exhibit unprecedented CO reduction performance towards liquid fuels, producing ethanol and acetate with >50 % Faradaic efficiency at -0.3 V (vs. RHE). By using static headspace-gas chromatography for liquid phase analysis, we identify acetaldehyde as a minor product and key intermediate in the electroreduction of CO to ethanol on OD-Cu electrodes. Acetaldehyde is produced with a Faradaic efficiency of ?5 % at -0.33 V (vs. RHE). We show that acetaldehyde forms at low steady-state concentrations, and that free acetaldehyde is difficult to detect in alkaline solutions using NMR spectroscopy, requiring alternative methods for detection and quantification. Our results indicate an important step towards understanding the CO reduction mechanism on OD-Cu electrodes.

  11. Equilibrium intermediate-state patterns in a type-I superconducting slab in an arbitrarily oriented applied magnetic field

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Clem, John; Prozorov, Ruslan; Wijngaarden, Rinke J.

    2013-09-04

    The equilibrium topology of superconducting and normal domains in flat type-I superconductors is investigated. Important improvements with respect to previous work are that (1) the energy of the external magnetic field, as deformed by the presence of superconducting domains, is calculated in the same way for three different topologies and (2) calculations are made for arbitrary orientation of the applied field. A phase diagram is presented for the minimum-energy topology as a function of applied field magnitude and angle. For small (large) applied fields, normal (superconducting) tubes are found, while for intermediate fields, parallel domains have a lower energy. Themore » range of field magnitudes for which the superconducting-tubes structure is favored shrinks when the field is more in-plane oriented.« less

  12. Comparative analysis of compact heat exchangers for application as the intermediate heat exchanger for advanced nuclear reactors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bartel, N.; Chen, M.; Utgikar, V. P.; Sun, X.; Kim, I. -H.; Christensen, R.; Sabharwall, P.

    2015-04-04

    A comparative evaluation of alternative compact heat exchanger designs for use as the intermediate heat exchanger in advanced nuclear reactor systems is presented in this article. Candidate heat exchangers investigated included the Printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) and offset strip-fin heat exchanger (OSFHE). Both these heat exchangers offer high surface area to volume ratio (a measure of compactness [m2/m3]), high thermal effectiveness, and overall low pressure drop. Helium–helium heat exchanger designs for different heat exchanger types were developed for a 600 MW thermal advanced nuclear reactor. The wavy channel PCHE with a 15° pitch angle was found to offer optimummore » combination of heat transfer coefficient, compactness and pressure drop as compared to other alternatives. The principles of the comparative analysis presented here will be useful for heat exchanger evaluations in other applications as well.« less

  13. Acetaldehyde as an intermediate in the electroreduction of carbon monoxide to ethanol on oxide-derived copper

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bertheussen, Erlend; Verdaguer-Casadevall, Arnau; Ravasio, Davide; Montoya, Joseph H.; Trimarco, Daniel B.; Roy, Claudie; Meier, Sebastian; Wendland, JĂŒrgen; NĂžrskov, Jens K.; Stephens, Ifan E. L.; et al

    2015-12-21

    Oxide-derived copper (OD-Cu) electrodes exhibit unprecedented CO reduction performance towards liquid fuels, producing ethanol and acetate with >50 % Faradaic efficiency at -0.3 V (vs. RHE). By using static headspace-gas chromatography for liquid phase analysis, we identify acetaldehyde as a minor product and key intermediate in the electroreduction of CO to ethanol on OD-Cu electrodes. Acetaldehyde is produced with a Faradaic efficiency of ≈5 % at -0.33 V (vs. RHE). We show that acetaldehyde forms at low steady-state concentrations, and that free acetaldehyde is difficult to detect in alkaline solutions using NMR spectroscopy, requiring alternative methods for detection and quantification.more » Our results indicate an important step towards understanding the CO reduction mechanism on OD-Cu electrodes.« less

  14. A Study on Optimized Management Options for the Wolsong Low- and Intermediate - Level Waste Disposal Center in Korea - 13479

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, JooWan; Kim, DongSun; Choi, DongEun [Korea Radioactive Waste Management Corporation, Korea 89, Bukseongno, Gyeongju, 780-050 (Korea, Republic of)] [Korea Radioactive Waste Management Corporation, Korea 89, Bukseongno, Gyeongju, 780-050 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    The safe and effective management of radioactive waste is a national task required for sustainable generation of nuclear power and for energy self-reliance in Korea. Currently, for permanent disposal of low- and intermediate-level waste (LILW), the Wolsong LILW Disposal Center (WLDC) is under construction. It will accommodate a total of 800,000 drums at the final stage after stepwise expansion. As an implementing strategy for cost-effective development of the WLDC, various disposal options suitable for waste classification schemes would be considered. It is also needed an optimized management of the WLDC by taking a countermeasure of volume reduction treatment. In this study, various management options to be applied to each waste class are analyzed in terms of its inventory and disposal cost. For the volume reduction and stabilization of waste, the vitrification and plasma melting methods are considered for combustible and incombustible waste, respectively. (authors)

  15. Oblique-incidence sputtering of Ru intermediate layer for decoupling of intergranular exchange in perpendicular recording media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saito, Shin; Inoue, Ken; Takahashi, Migaku

    2011-04-01

    During the Ru deposition process for granular type perpendicular magnetic recording media, both a reduction in the Ru intermediate layer thickness and lowering of sputtering gas pressure were successfully achieved by focusing on a self-shadowing effect. Oblique-incidence sputtering with a 60 deg. incident angle under an Ar gas pressure of 0.6 Pa yielded (1) columnar Ru grains with a growth direction of 30 deg. from the film normal, (2) c-plane sheet texture by epitaxial growth on the Pt underlayer, and (3) a flat envelope of the surface and a deep gap at grain boundaries. This change in the Ru structure significantly contributes to reducing exchange coupling among magnetic grains, especially in the initial growth region in an overlying granular medium.

  16. Development of a Raman spectroscopy technique to detect alternate transportation fuel hydrocarbon intermediates in complex combustion environments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ekoto, Isaac W.; Barlow, Robert S.

    2012-12-01

    Spontaneous Raman spectra for important hydrocarbon fuels and combustion intermediates were recorded over a range of low-to-moderate flame temperatures using the multiscalar measurement facility located at Sandia/CA. Recorded spectra were extrapolated to higher flame temperatures and then converted into empirical spectral libraries that can readily be incorporated into existing post-processing analysis models that account for crosstalk from overlapping hydrocarbon channel signal. Performance testing of the developed libraries and reduction methods was conducted through an examination of results from well-characterized laminar reference flames, and was found to provide good agreement. The diagnostic development allows for temporally and spatially resolved flame measurements of speciated hydrocarbon concentrations whose parent is more chemically complex than methane. Such data are needed to validate increasingly complex flame simulations.

  17. Evaluation of Soil Flushing for Application to the Deep Vadose Zone in the Hanford Central Plateau

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Truex, Michael J.; Oostrom, Martinus; Zhang, Z. F.; Carroll, Kenneth C.; Schramke, Janet A.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Tartakovsky, Guzel D.; Gordon, Kathryn A.; Last, George V.

    2010-11-01

    Soil flushing was included in the Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test Plan for the Hanford Central Plateau as a technology with the potential to remove contaminants from the vadose zone. Soil flushing operates through the addition of water, and if necessary an appropriate mobilizing agent, to mobilize contaminants and flush them from the vadose zone and into the groundwater where they are subsequently captured by a pump-and-treat system. There are uncertainties associated with applying soil flushing technology to contaminants in the deep vadose zone at the Hanford Central Plateau. The modeling and laboratory efforts reported herein are intended to provide a quantitative assessment of factors that impact water infiltration and contaminant flushing through the vadose zone and into the underlying groundwater. Once in the groundwater, capture of the contaminants would be necessary, but this aspect of implementing soil flushing was not evaluated in this effort. Soil flushing was evaluated primarily with respect to applications for technetium and uranium contaminants in the deep vadose zone of the Hanford Central Plateau.

  18. Colloid Facilitated Transport of Radioactive Cations in the Vadose Zone: Field Experiments Oak Ridge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James E. Saiers

    2012-09-20

    The overarching goal of this study was to improve understanding of colloid-facilitated transport of radioactive cations through unsaturated soils and sediments. We conducted a suite of laboratory experiments and field experiments on the vadose-zone transport of colloids, organic matter, and associated contaminants of interest to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The laboratory and field experiments, together with transport modeling, were designed to accomplish the following detailed objectives: 1. Evaluation of the relative importance of inorganic colloids and organic matter to the facilitation of radioactive cation transport in the vadose zone; 2. Assessment of the role of adsorption and desorption kinetics in the facilitated transport of radioactive cations in the vadose zone; 3. Examination of the effects of rainfall and infiltration dynamics and in the facilitated transport of radioactive cations through the vadose zone; 4. Exploration of the role of soil heterogeneity and preferential flow paths (e.g., macropores) on the facilitated transport of radioactive cations in the vadose zone; 5. Development of a mathematical model of facilitated transport of contaminants in the vadose zone that accurately incorporates pore-scale and column-scale processes with the practicality of predicting transport with readily available parameters.

  19. Natural succession impeded by smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and intermediate wheatgrass (Agropyron intermedium) in an abandoned agricultural field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, J.K.

    1997-11-01

    In 1975, an abandoned agricultural field at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) that had been cultivated for more than 38 years, was seeded with smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and intermediate wheatgrass (Agropyron intermedium). Although these species are commonly planted in reclamation and roadside seed mixtures, few studies have documented their impact on the re-establishment of native plant communities. In 1994, species richness, cover, and biomass were sampled in the agricultural field and compared to the surrounding mixed-grass prairie at the Site. The agricultural field contained only 61 plant species (62% native), compared to 143 species (81% native) in the surrounding mixed-grass prairie. Community similarity based on species presence/absence was 0.47 (Sorensen coefficient of similarity). Basal vegetative cover was 11.2% in the agricultural field and 29.1% in the mixed-grass prairie. Smooth brome and intermediate wheatgrass accounted for 93% of the relative foliar cover and 96% of the biomass in the agricultural field. The aggressive nature of these two planted species has impeded the natural succession of the agricultural field to a more native prairie community. Studies of natural succession on abandoned fields and roads in northeastern Colorado have indicated that if left alone, fields would return to their native climax state in approximately 50 years and would be approaching their native state after 20--25 years. Based on the results of this study, this agricultural field may take more than 100 years to return to a native mixed-grass prairie state and it may never achieve a native state without human intervention.

  20. Identification of combustion intermediates in a low-pressure premixed laminar 2,5-dimethylfuran/oxygen/argon flame with tunable synchrotron photoionization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Xuesong; Huang, Zuohua; Wei, Lixia [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China); Yuan, Tao; Zhang, Kuiwen [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230029 (China)

    2009-07-15

    Low-pressure (4.0 kPa) premixed laminar 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF)/oxygen/argon flame with an equivalence ratio of 2.0 was studied with tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron radiation photoionization and molecular-beam mass spectrometry. Photoionization mass spectra of DMF/O{sub 2}/Ar flame were recorded and the photoionization efficiency curves of the combustion intermediates were measured. Flame species, including isomeric intermediates, are identified by comparing the measured ionization energies with those reported in literatures or those calculated with Gaussian-3 procedure. More than 70 species have been detected, including furan and its derivatives, aromatics, and free radicals. Possible reaction pathways of DMF, 2-methylfuran, and furan are proposed based on the intermediates identified. DMF can be consumed by H-abstraction and pyrolysis reactions. 2-Methylfuran and furan can be consumed by H-abstraction, H-addition and pyrolysis reactions. (author)