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1

Definition: Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) utilizes SAR images from two different time periods to generate maps of surface deformation. The technique can potentially measure millimeter-scale changes in the Earth's surface.[1][2] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Also Known As InSAR, IfSAR Related Terms Synthetic Aperture Radar, radar, sustainability References ↑ Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry to Measure Earth's Surface Topography and Its Deformation (Burgmann et al. 2000) ↑ Improved Visulaization of Satellite Radar InSAR Observed Structural Controls at Producing Geothermal Field Using Modeled Horizontal Surface Displacements(Opplinger et al. 2006)

2

Mapping Surface Currents and Waves with Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar in Coastal Waters: Observations of Wave Breaking in Swell-Dominant Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Airborne and spaceborne interferometric synthetic aperture radars (InSARs) produce surface velocity measurements at very high spatial resolutions over a large area. The data allow construction of the velocity strain field for highlighting ocean ...

Paul A. Hwang; Jakov V. Toporkov; Mark A. Sletten; Steven P. Menk

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Synthetic Aperture Radar -- Sandia National Laboratories  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Information Contacts Synthetic Aperture Radar Sandia synthetic aperture radar image of Washington, DC Sandia synthetic aperture radar image of Washington, DC Sandia synthetic...

4

Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Synthetic aperture radar interferometry is an imaging technique for measuring the topography of a surface, its changes over time, and other changes in the detailed characteristics of the surface. By exploiting the phase of the coherent radar signal, interferometry has transformed radar remote sensing from a largely interpretive science to a quantitative tool, with applications in cartography, geodesy, land cover characterization, and natural hazards. This paper reviews the techniques of interferometry, systems and limitations, and applications in a rapidly growing area of science and engineering.

Paul A. Rosen; Scott Hensley; Ian R. Joughin; Fuk K. Li; Sren N. Madsen; Senior Member; Ernesto Rodrguez; Richard M. Goldstein

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery -- Sandia National Laboratories  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery Sandia has collected and real-time processed over 400,000 synthetic aperture radar images. The following is a selection of imagery available for...

6

Definition: Synthetic Aperture Radar | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Aperture Radar Aperture Radar Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Synthetic Aperture Radar Synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) is an active microwave remote sensing technology that measures the phase difference between a radar wave emitted from an antennae attached to a satellite or aircraft to generate high-resolution images of a surface.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Also Known As SAR Related Terms radar References ↑ Synthetic Aperature Radar: Systems and Signal Processing (Curlander and McDonough - 1991 - book) fue LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. l cell, Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Definition:Synthetic_Aperture_Radar&oldid=493069" Category: Definitions What links here Related changes

7

Spotlight-Mode Synthetic Aperture Radar: A Signal Processing Approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

From the Publisher:Spotlight-mode Synthetic Aperture Radar: A Signal Processing Approach describes an important mode of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging, known as spotlight-mode SAR. By treating the subject via the principles of signal processing, ...

Paul Thompson; Daniel E. Wahl; Paul H. Eichel; Dennis C. Ghiglia; Charles V. Jakowatz

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Synthetic aperture radar processing with tiered subapertures  

SciTech Connect

Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is used to form images that are maps of radar reflectivity of some scene of interest, from range soundings taken over some spatial aperture. Additionally, the range soundings are typically synthesized from a sampled frequency aperture. Efficient processing of the collected data necessitates using efficient digital signal processing techniques such as vector multiplies and fast implementations of the Discrete Fourier Transform. Inherent in image formation algorithms that use these is a trade-off between the size of the scene that can be acceptably imaged, and the resolution with which the image can be made. These limits arise from migration errors and spatially variant phase errors, and different algorithms mitigate these to varying degrees. Two fairly successful algorithms for airborne SARs are Polar Format processing, and Overlapped Subaperture (OSA) processing. This report introduces and summarizes the analysis of generalized Tiered Subaperture (TSA) techniques that are a superset of both Polar Format processing and OSA processing. It is shown how tiers of subapertures in both azimuth and range can effectively mitigate both migration errors and spatially variant phase errors to allow virtually arbitrary scene sizes, even in a dynamic motion environment.

Doerry, A.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Synthetic Aperture Radar Dept.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Synthetic Aperture Radar Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSInSAR) |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Synthetic Aperture Radar Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSInSAR) Synthetic Aperture Radar Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSInSAR) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Synthetic Aperture Radar Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSInSAR) Author Parviz Tarikhi Published N/A, 2010 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http://crossref.org Online Internet link for Synthetic Aperture Radar Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSInSAR) Citation Parviz Tarikhi. Synthetic Aperture Radar Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSInSAR) [Internet]. 2010. Tunis, Tunisia. N/A. [cited 2013/09/17]. Available from: http://parviztarikhi.files.wordpress.com/2010/05/3psinsar-i-parviz_tarikhi.pdf Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Synthetic_Aperture_Radar_Persistent_Scatterer_Interferometry_(PSInSAR)&oldid=682949"

10

Inversion of synthetic aperture radar interferograms for sources...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Inversion of synthetic aperture radar interferograms for sources of production-related subsidence at the Dixie Valley geothermal field Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference...

11

What is Synthetic Aperture Radar? -- Sandia National Laboratories  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

What is Synthetic Aperture Radar? Environmental monitoring, earth-resource mapping, and military systems require broad-area imaging at high resolutions. Many times the imagery must...

12

Inversion of synthetic aperture radar interferograms for sources of  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Inversion of synthetic aperture radar interferograms for sources of Inversion of synthetic aperture radar interferograms for sources of production-related subsidence at the Dixie Valley geothermal field Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Inversion of synthetic aperture radar interferograms for sources of production-related subsidence at the Dixie Valley geothermal field Authors Bill Foxall and D. W. Vasco Published Journal Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 2008 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http://crossref.org Online Internet link for Inversion of synthetic aperture radar interferograms for sources of production-related subsidence at the Dixie Valley geothermal field Citation Bill Foxall,D. W. Vasco. 2008. Inversion of synthetic aperture radar interferograms for sources of production-related subsidence at the Dixie

13

Synthetic Aperture Radar Movie Gallery -- Sandia National Laboratories  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Synthetic Aperture Radar Movie Gallery Synthetic Aperture Radar Movie Gallery This gallery features movies of Sandia National Laboratories' synthetic aperture radar imagery of Albuquerque, New Mexico and Washington, DC. Sandia's Twin-Otter SAR produced these high-resolution stripmap images in real time. (Note: The movies below have been downsampled greatly to make them suitable for viewing on the world wide web. These movies are not recommended for modems of speeds less than 56 kbps due to their large file sizes.) Albuquerque, NM Area Movies Sandia National Laboratories' Twin-Otter SAR produced these Ku-Band 0.3 and 1.0 meter resolution images of Albuquerque, NM in real time. Synthetic aperture radar movie of west Gibson Blvd 0.3 meter airborne synthetic aperture radar movie from I-25 to Maxwell along Gibson Blvd. (Length: 30 seconds)

14

A Butterfly Algorithm for Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In spite of an extensive literature on fast algorithms for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging, it is not currently known if it is possible to accurately form an image from N data points in provable near-linear time ...

Demanet, Laurent

15

Estimating Urban Canopy Parameters Using Synthetic Aperture Radar Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper introduces a remote sensingbased approach to rapidly derive urban morphological characteristics using radar satellite data. The approach is based on the expectation that the magnitude of the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) backscatter ...

Indumathi Jeyachandran; Steven J. Burian; Stephen W. Stetson

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Synthetic aperture design for increased SAR image rate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

High resolution SAR images of a target scene at near video rates can be produced by using overlapped, but nevertheless, full-size synthetic apertures. The SAR images, which respectively correspond to the apertures, can be analyzed in sequence to permit detection of movement in the target scene.

Bielek, Timothy P. (Albuquerque, NM); Thompson, Douglas G. (Albuqerque, NM); Walker, Bruce C. (Albuquerque, NM)

2009-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

17

Wavefront reconstruction of elevation circular synthetic aperture aperture radar imagery using a cylindrical Green's function  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Elevation Circular Synthetic Aperture Radar (E-CSAR) is a novel radar modality used to form radar images from data sets acquired along a complete or even a segment of a cylindrical geometry above a given scan area. Due to the nonlinear nature of the ...

Daniel Flores-Tapia; Gabriel Thomas; Stephen Pistorius

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Dual-transponder Precision Navigation System for Synthetic Aperture Sonar  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The technical details of a dual-transponder, long-baseline positioning system to measure the sway of a free towed Synthetic Aperture Sonar (SAS) are presented. The sway is measured with respect to freely deployed, battery powered, transponders which sit stationary on the seabed connected via cables to floating buoys housing high-accuracy GPS timing receivers. A T/R switch allows a single hydrophone on each transponder to alternately receive and transmit linear FM chirp signals. The time of flight of the signals is determined by matched-filtering using a DSP and transmitted to the towboat for storage in real time using RF modems. The sway information is completely independent for each sonar ping and allows the deblurring of the SAS images by post processing. A Matlab simulation predicts a worst case sway accuracy of cm.

E N Pilbrow; M P Hayes; P T Gough

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Synthetic aperture radar and interferometry development at Sandia National Laboratories  

SciTech Connect

Environmental monitoring, earth-resource mapping, and military systems require broad-area imaging at high resolutions. Many times the imagery must be acquired in inclement weather or during night as well as day. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) provides such a capability. SAR systems take advantage of the long-range propagation characteristics of radar signals and the complex information processing capability of modern digital electronics to provide high resolution imagery. SAR complements photographic and other optical imaging capabilities because of the minimum constrains on time-of-day and atmospheric conditions and because of the unique responses of terrain and cultural targets to radar frequencies. Interferometry is a method for generating a three-dimensional image of terrain. The height projection is obtained by acquiring two SAR images from two slightly differing locations. It is different from the common method of stereoscopic imaging for topography. The latter relies on differing geometric projections for triangulation to define the surface geometry whereas interferometry relies on differences in radar propagation times between the two SAR locations. This paper presents the capabilities of SAR, explains how SAR works, describes a few SAR applications, provides an overview of SAR development at Sandia, and briefly describes the motion compensation subsystem.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Interferometric SAR coherence classification utility assessment  

SciTech Connect

The classification utility of a dual-antenna interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IFSAR) is explored by comparison of maximum likelihood classification results for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) intensity images and IPSAR intensity and coherence images. The addition of IFSAR coherence improves the overall classification accuracy for classes of trees, water, and fields. A threshold intensity-coherence classifier is also compared to the intensity-only classification results.

Yocky, D.A.

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interferometric synthetic aperture" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Use of Synthetic Aperture Radar in Finescale Surface Analysis of Synoptic-Scale Fronts at Sea  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The viability of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) as a tool for finescale marine meteorological surface analyses of synoptic-scale fronts is demonstrated. In particular, it is shown that SAR can reveal the presence of, and the mesoscale and ...

G. S. Young; T. N. Sikora; N. S. Winstead

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

The Rhine Outflow Plume Studied by the Analysis of Synthetic Aperture Radar Data and Numerical Simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The dynamics of the Rhine outflow plume in the proximity of the river mouth is investigated by using remote sensing data and numerical simulations. The remote sensing data consist of 41 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images acquired by the First ...

Katrin Hessner; Angelo Rubino; Peter Brandt; Werner Alpers

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Synthetic Aperture Radar as a Tool for Investigating Polar Mesoscale Cyclones  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Polar mesoscale cyclones are intense vortices that form in cold, marine air masses poleward of major jet streams and frontal zones. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) should be considered as a potential tool for the study of polar mesoscale cyclones ...

Todd D. Sikora; Karen S. Friedman; William G. Pichel; Pablo Clemente-Coln

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Observations of Bora Events over the Adriatic Sea and Black Sea by Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bora events over the Adriatic Sea and Black Sea are investigated by using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images acquired by the advanced SAR (ASAR) on board the European satellite Envisat. It is shown that the sea surface roughness patterns ...

Werner Alpers; Andrei Ivanov; Jochen Horstmann

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

The Measurement of Precipitation with Synthetic Aperture Radar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The radar equation for the measurement of precipitation by SAR is identical to that for a conventional radar. The achievable synthetic beamwidth, ?s, is proportional to ?v/U, the ratio of the spread of the precipitation Doppler spectrum to the ...

David Atlas; Richard K. Moore

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Basics of Polar-Format algorithm for processing Synthetic Aperture Radar images.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to provide a background to Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image formation using the Polar Format (PFA) processing algorithm. This is meant to be an aid to those tasked to implement real-time image formation using the Polar Format processing algorithm.

Doerry, Armin Walter

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Moving target indication via RADARSAT-2 multichannel synthetic aperture radar processing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the recent launches of the German TerraSAR-X and the Canadian RADARSAT-2, both equipped with phased array antennas and multiple receiver channels, synthetic aperture radar, ground moving target indication (SAR-GMTI) data are now routinely being ...

S. Chiu; M. V. Dragoevi?

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

A digital ASIC implementation of a video filter for synthetic aperture radar  

SciTech Connect

Two GaAs ASICs have been designed and implemented for a synthetic aperture radar which eliminate the dc bias in the sampled video data and increase the signal to noise ratio by summing the data across consecutive bursts. The High Pass Filter and Presummer ASICs process data at a maximum sample rate of 170 MHz and 125 MHz respectively. The chips are fully ECL and TTL compatible. The high pass filter is packaged in GigaBit's standard 132-pin ceramic package, while the presummer is packaged in TriQuint's standard 196-pin ceramic package. The presummer has been successfully tested in a prototype synthetic aperture radar at Sandia National Laboratories. The high pass filter has been successfully tested in a high speed test fixture. These ASICs provide flexibility and low power consumption at data rates previously unattainable with comparable hardware. 1 refs., 4 figs.

Remund, B.L. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Chow, J.; Salinas, J. (GigaBit Logic, Newbury Park, CA (United States))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Comparison of Synthetic Aperture RadarDerived Wind Speeds with Buoy Wind Speeds along the Mountainous Alaskan Coast  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Satellite-borne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) offers the potential for remotely sensing surface wind speed both over the open sea and in close proximity to the coast. The resolution improvement of SAR over scatterometers is of particular ...

C. M. Fisher; G. S. Young; N. S. Winstead; J. D. Haqq-Misra

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Characteristics of Ocean Surface Winds in the Lee of an Isolated Island Observed by Synthetic Aperture Radar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Characteristics of ocean surface winds around an isolated island are examined in relation to atmospheric stability using a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and rawinsonde sounding observations. The SAR-derived winds on 22 May 2009 indicate a low-...

Osamu Isoguchi; Masanobu Shimada; Hiroshi Kawamura

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Manual and Semiautomated Wind Direction Editing for Use in the Generation of Synthetic Aperture Radar Wind Speed Imagery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Previous studies have demonstrated that satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) can be used as an accurate scatterometer, yielding wind speed fields with subkilometer resolution. This wind speed generation is only possible, however, if a ...

George S. Young; Todd D. Sikora; Nathaniel S. Winstead

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

A 500 MHz phase generator for synthetic aperture radar waveform synthesizers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A GaAs Phase Generator ASIC has been developed using GigaBit's SC10000 standard cell library which produces the quadratic phase necessary to generate a linear-FM chirp waveform. Fully functional chips have been fabricated using a 3-layer metal, 0.9 {mu}m gate E/D-MESFET process. Measured maximum accumulation rates vary from 450 MHz to 590 MHz. The chip is fully ECL and TTL compatible and is packaged in GigaBit's standard 132-pin ceramic package. The phase generator has been successfully tested in a prototype synthetic aperture radar at Sandia National Laboratories. Sample rates as high as 800 Msamples/sec have been synthesized using two phase generator/sine ROM combinations in parallel driving a TriQuint TQ6112 DAC. 5 refs., 5 figs.

Remund, B.L. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Srivatsa, C.R. (GigaBit Logic, Newbury Park, CA (United States))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

A model for forming airborne synthetic aperture radar images of underground targets  

SciTech Connect

Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) from an airborne platform has been proposed for imaging targets beneath the earth`s surface. The propagation of the radar`s energy within the ground, however, is much different than in the earth`s atmosphere. The result is signal refraction, echo delay, propagation losses, dispersion, and volumetric scattering. These all combine to make SAR image formation from an airborne platform much more challenging than a surface imaging counterpart. This report treats the ground as a lossy dispersive half-space, and presents a model for the radar echo based on measurable parameters. The model is then used to explore various imaging schemes, and image properties. Dynamic range is discussed, as is the impact of loss on dynamic range. Modified window functions are proposed to mitigate effects of sidelobes of shallow targets overwhelming deeper targets.

Doerry, A.W.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

The Evolution of Convective Storms from Their Footprints on the Sea as Viewed by Synthetic Aperture Radar from Space  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

SEASAT synthetic aperture radar (SAR) echoes from the sea have previously been shown to be the result of rain and winds produced by convective storms; rain damps the surface waves and causes echo-free holes, while the diverging winds associated ...

David Atlas; Peter G. Black

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Encounter of Foehn Wind with an Atmospheric Eddy over the Black Sea as Observed by the Synthetic Aperture Radar Onboard Envisat  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Foehn wind blowing through the Kolkhida (Kolkheti) Lowland in the southwestern Caucasus (western Georgia) was observed on an Envisat synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image as it encountered an atmospheric cyclonic eddy over the Black Sea on 13 ...

Werner Alpers; Andrei Yu. Ivanov; Knut-Frode Dagestad

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Final Report: Detection and Characterization of Underground Facilities by Stochastic Inversion and Modeling of Data from the New Generation of Synthetic Aperture Satellites  

SciTech Connect

Many clandestine development and production activities can be conducted underground to evade surveillance. The purpose of the study reported here was to develop a technique to detect underground facilities by broad-area search and then to characterize the facilities by inversion of the collected data. This would enable constraints to be placed on the types of activities that would be feasible at each underground site, providing a basis the design of targeted surveillance and analysis for more complete characterization. Excavation of underground cavities causes deformation in the host material and overburden that produces displacements at the ground surface. Such displacements are often measurable by a variety of surveying or geodetic techniques. One measurement technique, Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), uses data from satellite-borne (or airborne) synthetic aperture radars (SARs) and so is ideal for detecting and measuring surface displacements in denied access regions. Depending on the radar frequency and the acquisition mode and the surface conditions, displacement maps derived from SAR interferograms can provide millimeter- to centimeter-level measurement accuracy on regional and local scales at spatial resolution of {approx}1-10 m. Relatively low-resolution ({approx}20 m, say) maps covering large regions can be used for broad-area detection, while finer resolutions ({approx}1 m) can be used to image details of displacement fields over targeted small areas. Surface displacements are generally expected to be largest during or a relatively short time after active excavation, but, depending on the material properties, measurable displacement may continue at a decreasing rate for a considerable time after completion. For a given excavated volume in a given geological setting, the amplitude of the surface displacements decreases as the depth of excavation increases, while the area of the discernable displacement pattern increases. Therefore, the ability to detect evidence for an underground facility using InSAR depends on the displacement sensitivity and spatial resolution of the interferogram, as well as on the size and depth of the facility and the time since its completion. The methodology development described in this report focuses on the exploitation of synthetic aperture radar data that are available commercially from a number of satellite missions. Development of the method involves three components: (1) Evaluation of the capability of InSAR to detect and characterize underground facilities ; (2) inversion of InSAR data to infer the location, depth, shape and volume of a subsurface facility; and (3) evaluation and selection of suitable geomechanical forward models to use in the inversion. We adapted LLNL's general-purpose Bayesian Markov Chain-Monte Carlo procedure, the 'Stochastic Engine' (SE), to carry out inversions to characterize subsurface void geometries. The SE performs forward simulations for a large number of trial source models to identify the set of models that are consistent with the observations and prior constraints. The inverse solution produced by this kind of stochastic method is a posterior probability density function (pdf) over alternative models, which forms an appropriate input to risk-based decision analyses to evaluate subsequent response strategies. One major advantage of a stochastic inversion approach is its ability to deal with complex, non-linear forward models employing empirical, analytical or numerical methods. However, while a geomechanical model must incorporate adequate physics to enable sufficiently accurate prediction of surface displacements, it must also be computationally fast enough to render the large number of forward realizations needed in stochastic inversion feasible. This latter requirement prompted us first to investigate computationally efficient empirical relations and closed-form analytical solutions. However, our evaluation revealed severe limitations in the ability of existing empirical and analytical forms to predict deformations from undergro

Foxall, W; Cunningham, C; Mellors, R; Templeton, D; Dyer, K; White, J

2012-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

37

Reservoir monitoring and characterization using satellite geodetic data: Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar observations from the Krechba field, Algeria  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

production and oil-related subsidence: in Tison, L. J. , (Ed. ), Land subsidence, 1 , International Association ofand T. F. Yen, 1994, Subsidence due to ?uid withdrawal:

Vasco, D.W.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Multifrequency and multistatic inverse synthetic aperture radar, with application to FM passive radar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper deals with the imaging of a moving target using a multifrequency and multistatic radar consisting in one receiver and several narrowband transmitters. Considering two hypotheses about the studied target, we derive two multistatic inverse synthetic ...

Guillaume Ginolhac; Franoise Schmitt; Franck Daout; Philippe Forster

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Inversion of synthetic aperture radar interferograms for sourcesof production-related subsidence at the Dixie Valley geothermalfield  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We used synthetic aperture radar interferograms to imageground subsidence that occurred over the Dixie Valley geothermal fieldduring different time intervals between 1992 and 1997. Linear elasticinversion of the subsidence that occurred between April, 1996 and March,1997 revealed that the dominant sources of deformation during this timeperiod were large changes in fluid volumes at shallow depths within thevalley fill above the reservoir. The distributions of subsidence andsubsurface volume change support a model in which reduction in pressureand volume of hot water discharging into the valley fill from localizedupflow along the Stillwater range frontal fault is caused by drawdownwithin the upflow zone resulting from geothermal production. Our resultsalso suggest that an additional source of fluid volume reduction in theshallow valley fill might be similar drawdown within piedmont faultzones. Shallow groundwater flow in the vicinity of the field appears tobe controlled on the NW by a mapped fault and to the SW by a lineament ofas yet unknown origin.

Foxall, B.; Vasco, D.W.

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Inversion of Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferograms for Sources of Production-Related Subsidence at the Dixie Valley Geothermal Field  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We used synthetic aperture radar interferograms to image ground subsidence that occurred over the Dixie Valley geothermal field during different time intervals between 1992 and 1997. Linear elastic inversion of the subsidence that occurred between April, 1996 and March, 1997 revealed that the dominant sources of deformation during this time period were large changes in fluid volumes at shallow depths within the valley fill above the reservoir. The distributions of subsidence and subsurface volume change support a model in which reduction in pressure and volume of hot water discharging into the valley fill from localized upflow along the Stillwater range frontal fault is caused by drawdown within the upflow zone resulting from geothermal production. Our results also suggest that an additional source of fluid volume reduction in the shallow valley fill might be similar drawdown within piedmont fault zones. Shallow groundwater flow in the vicinity of the field appears to be controlled on the NW by a mapped fault and to the SW by a lineament of as yet unknown origin.

Foxall, W; Vasco, D

2003-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interferometric synthetic aperture" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Three-dimensional subsurface imaging synthetic aperture radar (3D SISAR). Final report, September 22, 1993--September 22, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The concept developed under this applied research and development contract is a novel Ground Penetrating Radar system capable of remotely detecting, analyzing, and mapping buried waste containers from a mobile platform. From the testing and analysis performed to date, the 3-D SISAR has achieved the detection, accurate location, and three-dimensional imaging of buried test objects from a stand-off geometry. Tests have demonstrated that underground objects have been located to within 0.1 meter of their actual position. This work validates that the key elements of the approach are performing as anticipated. The stand-off synthetic aperture radar (SAR) methodology has been demonstrated to be a feasible approach as a remote sensing technique. The radar sensor constructed under this project is providing adequate quality data for imaging, and the matched filters have been demonstrated to provide enhanced target detection. Additional work is on-going in the area of underground propagation and scattering phenomena to provide enhanced depth performance, as the current imaging results have been limited to a few feet of depth underground.

NONE

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

42

Use of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) for geologic reconnaissance in Arctic regions: An example from the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Satellite-based synthetic aperture radar (SAR) can provide an additional remote-sensing tool for regional geologic studies in arctic regions. Although SAR data do not yield direct information on rock type and do not replace traditional optical data, SAR data can provide useful geologic information in arctic regions where the stratigraphic column includes a wide range of lithologies, and bedrock exposures have been reduced to rubble by frost action. For example, in ERS-1 SAR data from the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) of the northeastern Brooks Range, Alaska, carbonate and clastic rocks can give remarkably different radar responses on minimally reprocessed SAR data. The different radar response of different lithologies can specifically the size and angularity of scree in talus slopes. Additional postacquisition processing can both remove many of the negative terrain effects common in SAR data and enhance contrasts in bedrock lithology. Because of this ability to discriminate between gross lithologic packages, the ERS-1 SAR data can be used to provide a regional view of ANWR and a detailed look at specific areas. A mosaic of ERS-1 SAR data from all of ANWR provides a synoptic view of the regional structural framework, such as the anticlinoria of northern ANWR and the different allochthonous units of central and southern ANWR. Higher resolution ERS-1 SAR data of the Porcupine Lake area can be used to examine specific structural and stratigraphic problems associated with several major structural boundaries.

Hanks, C.L.; Guritz, R.M. [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Modeling Collapse Chimney and Spall Zone Settlement as a Source of Post-Shot Subsidence Detected by Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ground surface subsidence resulting from the March 1992 JUNCTION underground nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) imaged by satellite synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) wholly occurred during a period of several months after the shot (Vincent et al., 1999) and after the main cavity collapse event. A significant portion of the subsidence associated with the small (less than 20 kt) GALENA and DIVIDER tests probably also occurred after the shots, although the deformation detected in these cases contains additional contributions from coseismic processes, since the radar scenes used to construct the deformation interferogram bracketed these two later events, The dimensions of the seas of subsidence resulting from all three events are too large to be solely accounted for by processes confined to the damage zone in the vicinity of the shot point or the collapse chimney. Rather, the subsidence closely corresponds to the span dimensions predicted by Patton's (1990) empirical relationship between spall radius and yield. This suggests that gravitational settlement of damaged rock within the spall zone is an important source of post-shot subsidence, in addition to settlement of the rubble within the collapse chimney. These observations illustrate the potential power of InSAR as a tool for Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring and on-site inspection in that the relatively broad ({approx} 100 m to 1 km) subsidence signatures resulting from small shots detonated at normal depths of burial (or even significantly overburied) are readily detectable within large geographical areas (100 km x 100 km) under favorable observing conditions. Furthermore, the present results demonstrate the flexibility of the technique in that the two routinely gathered satellite radar images used to construct the interferogram need not necessarily capture the event itself, but can cover a time period up to several months following the shot.

Foxwall, W.

2000-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

44

Sparse aperture endoscope  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An endoscope which reduces the volume needed by the imaging part thereof, maintains resolution of a wide diameter optical system, while increasing tool access, and allows stereographic or interferometric processing for depth and perspective information/visualization. Because the endoscope decreases the volume consumed by imaging optics such allows a larger fraction of the volume to be used for non-imaging tools, which allows smaller incisions in surgical and diagnostic medical applications thus produces less trauma to the patient or allows access to smaller volumes than is possible with larger instruments. The endoscope utilizes fiber optic light pipes in an outer layer for illumination, a multi-pupil imaging system in an inner annulus, and an access channel for other tools in the center. The endoscope is amenable to implementation as a flexible scope, and thus increases the utility thereof. Because the endoscope uses a multi-aperture pupil, it can also be utilized as an optical array, allowing stereographic and interferometric processing.

Fitch, Joseph P. (Livermore, CA)

1999-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

45

Sparse aperture endoscope  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An endoscope is disclosed which reduces the volume needed by the imaging part, maintains resolution of a wide diameter optical system, while increasing tool access, and allows stereographic or interferometric processing for depth and perspective information/visualization. Because the endoscope decreases the volume consumed by imaging optics such allows a larger fraction of the volume to be used for non-imaging tools, which allows smaller incisions in surgical and diagnostic medical applications thus produces less trauma to the patient or allows access to smaller volumes than is possible with larger instruments. The endoscope utilizes fiber optic light pipes in an outer layer for illumination, a multi-pupil imaging system in an inner annulus, and an access channel for other tools in the center. The endoscope is amenable to implementation as a flexible scope, and thus increases it's utility. Because the endoscope uses a multi-aperture pupil, it can also be utilized as an optical array, allowing stereographic and interferometric processing. 7 figs.

Fitch, J.P.

1999-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

46

Use of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to Identify and Characterize Overwintering Areas of Fish in Ice-Covered Arctic RIvers: A Demonstration with Broad Whitefish and their Habitats in the Sagavanirktok River, Alaska  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In northern climates, locating overwintering fish can be very challenging due to thick ice cover. Areas near the coast of the Beaufort Sea provide valuable overwintering habitat for both resident and anadromous fish species; identifying and understanding their use of overwintering areas is of special interest. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery from two spaceborne satellites was examined as an alternative to radiotelemetry for identifying anadromous fish overwintering. The presence of water and ice were sampled at 162 sites and fish were sampled at 16 of these sites. From SAR imagery alone, we successfully identified large pools inhabited by overwintering fish in the ice-covered Sagavanirktok River. In addition, the imagery was able to identify all of the larger pools (mean minimum length of 138m (range 15-470 m; SD=131)) of water located by field sampling. The effectiveness of SAR to identify these pools varied from 31% to 100%, depending on imagery polarization, the incidence angle range, and the orbit. Horizontal transmitvertical receive (HV) polarization appeared best. The accuracy of SAR was also assessed at a finer pixel-by-pixel (30-m x30-m) scale. The best correspondence at this finer scale was obtained with an image having HV polarization. The levels of agreement ranged from 54% to 69%. The presence of broad whitefish (the only anadromous species present) was associated with salinity and pool size (estimated with SAR imagery); fish were more likely to be found in larger pools with low salinity. This research illustrates that SAR imaging has great potential for identifying under-ice overwintering areas of riverine fish. These techniques should allow managers to identify critical overwintering areas with relatively more ease and lower cost than traditional techniques.

Brown, Richard S.; Duguay, Claude R.; Mueller, Robert P.; Moulton, Larry; Doucette, Peter J.; Tagestad, Jerry D.

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Synthetic Aperture Radar Applications -- Sandia National Laboratories  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and innovative ideas are developed. While SAR is often used because of its all-weather, day-or-night capability, it also finds application because it renders a different...

48

Prototype Cryospheric Experimental Synthetic Aperture Radiometer (CESAR)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.W.Lawrence@.nasa.gov 6 Colorado State University, Steven.Reising@ColoState.edu 7 Valparaiso University, Thomas in instrumentation that uses the underside of the fuselage and wing space of Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles (UAVs-Band frequency survey (nanosat), instrumentation developed for soil moisture and salinity measurements (Rad

Reising, Steven C.

49

Optimal Maneuvers for Distributed Aperture Imaging Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Interest in space-borne, distributed multi-aperture interferometric systems is driven by a need for continuously sustained imaging with high resolution. Amplitude interferometry systems measure the Fourier components of the image corresponding to the wave vectors (locations in the so-called u-v plane) that are proportional to the relative positions of the apertures. Imaging to specified resolution demands measurement of the Fourier components with adequate signal-to-noise ratio over the interior of a disk in the u-v plane (the resolution disk). In this paper we concentrate on the case in which interferometric measurements are made while the apertures are changing their relative positions. This work discusses heuristic maneuvers and strategies for a system of two space-borne telescopes to cover the frequency plane while optimizing a cost function that includes both a measure of image quality and propulsive effort. The current study is motivated by previous research in which the optimization problem was formulated and the first-order necessary conditions (FONC) derived. The earlier work obtained short time horizon solutions to the FONC for various simple situations, but the complexity of the integro-differential equations for optimal maneuvering have heretofore prevented solution for an optimal maneuver for the entirety of the imaging process. In place of a direct attack on the FONC, the present work investigates various heuristic approaches to minimizing the cost function in the discretized state and discretized time domains in a hexagonal coordinate system. Using three classes of coverage rules, experimentation with a variety of maneuver strategies involving two apertures has led to a number of time-optimal or fuel-optimal solutions based on the initial conditions of the spacecraft. This thesis shows that an optimal maneuver can be determined from the starting positions of the spacecraft and that a self-spiral class of motion seems to be the most beneficial for long term strategies. Future work may focus on strategies for interferometric systems with more than two apertures and with a finer mesh of the hexagonal coordinate system.

Fitch, Danielle

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

NIST Aperture area measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... particularly critical, for example, in climate and weather applications on ... of aperture areas used in exo-atmospheric solar irradiance measurements; ...

2011-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

51

Rotating Aperture System  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A rotating aperture system includes a low-pressure vacuum pumping stage with apertures for passage of a deuterium beam. A stator assembly includes holes for passage of the beam. The rotor assembly includes a shaft connected to a deuterium gas cell or a crossflow venturi that has a single aperture on each side that together align with holes every rotation. The rotating apertures are synchronized with the firing of the deuterium beam such that the beam fires through a clear aperture and passes into the Xe gas beam stop. Portions of the rotor are lapped into the stator to improve the sealing surfaces, to prevent rapid escape of the deuterium gas from the gas cell.

Rusnak, Brian; Hall, James M.; Shen, Stewart; Wood, Richard L.

2005-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

52

Apodizer aperture for lasers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An aperture attenuator for use with high power lasers which includes glass windows shaped and assembled to form an annulus chamber which is filled with a dye solution. The annulus chamber is shaped such that the section in alignment with the axis of the incident beam follows a curve which is represented by the equation y = (r - r.sub.o).sup.n.

Jorna, Siebe (Ann Arbor, MI); Siebert, Larry D. (Ann Arbor, MI); Brueckner, Keith A. (La Jolla, CA)

1976-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

53

Aperture center energy showcase  

SciTech Connect

Sandia and Forest City have established a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), and the partnership provides a unique opportunity to take technology research and development from demonstration to application in a sustainable community. A project under that CRADA, Aperture Center Energy Showcase, offers a means to develop exhibits and demonstrations that present feedback to community members, Sandia customers, and visitors. The technologies included in the showcase focus on renewable energy and its efficiency, and resilience. These technologies are generally scalable, and provide secure, efficient solutions to energy production, delivery, and usage. In addition to establishing an Energy Showcase, support offices and conference capabilities that facilitate research, collaboration, and demonstration were created. The Aperture Center project focuses on establishing a location that provides outreach, awareness, and demonstration of research findings, emerging technologies, and project developments to Sandia customers, visitors, and Mesa del Sol community members.

Torres, J. J.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Ris-PhD-27(EN) Wind Energy Applications of Synthetic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Risø-PhD-27(EN) Wind Energy Applications of Synthetic Aperture Radar Merete Bruun Christiansen Risø National Laboratory Roskilde Denmark November 2006 #12;Author: Merete Bruun Christiansen Title: Wind Energy Applications of Synthetic Aperture Radar Department: Wind Energy Department Risø-PhD-27(EN) November 2006

55

Ris-PhD-19(EN) Self Calibrating Interferometric Sensor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Interferometric Sensor Department: Optics and Plasma Research Department Risø-PhD-19(EN) January 2006 This thesis

56

Synthetic aperture imaging for three dimensional resolution of fluid flows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fluid mechanics and instrumentation have a long history together, as experimental fluids studies play an important role in describing a more complete physical picture in a variety of problems. Presently. state-of-the-art ...

Belden, Jesse (Jesse Levi)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Hidden Markov Models for Multi-aperture SAR Target Detection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL NAME: Flake, Layne R. QUARTER/YEAR: SP 95 DEPARTMENT: Electrical Engineering DEGREE: M. S. ADVISER'S NAME: Krishnamurthy, Ashok K. and Ahalt, Stanley C. TITLE OF THESIS: Hidden Markov Models for Multi-aperture SAR Target Detection This thesis proposes a new multi-aperture synthetic aperture radar (MASAR) automatic target detection (ATD) algorithm that uses hidden Markov models (HMMs) to exploit the anisotropic nature of radar returns from man-made objects. Specific HMM structures are developed to represent target and clutter pixels based on the way their radar returns vary at different aspect angles. The HMM ATD algorithm is subjected to a preliminary evaluation using simulated MASAR imagery. The HMM ATD algorithm displays better detection accuracy than the best alternative ATD method while requiring at least two orders of magnitude less calculations. Adviser's Signature Department of Electrical Engineering Acknowledgments I thank my adviser...

Layne R. Flake; Ashok K. Krishnamurthy; Stanley C. Ahalt; Adviser' s Name Krishnamurthy; Ashok K; Stanley C

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Speckle interferometric observations of close binary stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Speckle interferometric technique is employed to record a series of hundreds of short-exposure images of several close binary stars with sub-arcsecond separation through a narrow band filter at the Cassegrain focus of the 2.34 meter (m) Vainu Bappu telescope (VBT), situated at Vainu Bappu Observatory (VBO), Kavalur, India. The data are recorded sequentially by a Peltier-cooled intensified CCD camera with 10 ms exposure. The auto-correlation method is applied to determine the angular separations and position angles of these binary systems.

S. K. Saha; V. Chinnappan; L. Yeswanth; P. Anbazhagan

2002-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

59

Finding Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas Using a  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Finding Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas Using a Finding Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas Using a Three-Component Long-Offset Surface Seismic Survey Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title Finding Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas Using a Three-Component Long-Offset Surface Seismic Survey Project Type / Topic 1 Recovery Act: Geothermal Technologies Program Project Type / Topic 2 Validation of Innovative Exploration Technologies Project Description Because fractures and faults with sub-commercial permeability can propagate hot fluid and hydrothermal alteration throughout a geothermal reservoir, potential field geophysical methods including resistivity, gravity, heatflow and magnetics cannot distinguish between low-permeability fractures and LAF's (Large Aperature Fractures). USG will develop and test the combination of three-component,long-offset seismic surveying, permanent scatter synthetic aperture radar interferometry (PSInSAR) and structural kinematic analysis as an integrated method for locating and 3-D mapping of LAF's in shallow to intermediate depth (600-4000 feet) geothermal systems. This project is designed to test the methodology on known occurrences of LAF's and then apply the technology to expand an existing production field and find a new production field in a separate but related resource area. A full diameter production well will be drilled into each of the two lease blocks covered by the geophysical exploration program.

60

Synthetic fuels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In January 1982, the Department of Energy guaranteed a loan for the construction and startup of the Great Plains project. On August 1, 1985, the partnership defaulted on the $1.54 billion loan, and DOE acquired control of, and then title to, the project. DOE continued to operate the plant, through the ANG Coal Gasification Company, and sell synthetic fuel. The DOE's ownership and divestiture of the plant is discussed.

Not Available

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interferometric synthetic aperture" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

DYNAMIC APERTURE OF THE ALS BOOSTER SYNCHROTRON  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nelson, "Magnetic Properties of the ALS noosler Synchrotron23,1989 Dynamic Aperture of the ALS Booster Synchrotron C.H.DYNAMIC APERTURE OF TIlE ALS BOOSTER SYNCIIROlRON CharI""

Kim, C.H.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Radiative Properties of Cirrus Clouds Derived from Surface Interferometric Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Beam transmittance, emittance, reflectance, and outgoing radiance are inferred from interferometric measurements in the infrared window region for 14 temperate continental and 12 subtropical cirrus cloud cash observed during FIRE II at Parsons, ...

Gordon H. Beck; John M. Davis; S. K. Cox

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

the Large Aperture GRB Observatory  

SciTech Connect

The Large Aperture GRB Observatory (LAGO) aims at the detection of high energy photons from Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB) using the single particle technique (SPT) in ground based water Cherenkov detectors (WCD). To reach a reasonable sensitivity, high altitude mountain sites have been selected in Mexico (Sierra Negra, 4550 m a.s.l.), Bolivia (Chacaltaya, 5300 m a.s.l.) and Venezuela (Merida, 4765 m a.s.l.). We report on the project progresses and the first operation at high altitude, search for bursts in 6 months of preliminary data, as well as search for signal at ground level when satellites report a burst.

Bertou, Xavier [Centro Atomico Bariloche (Argentina)

2009-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

64

The Large Aperture GRB Observatory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Large Aperture GRB Observatory (LAGO) is aiming at the detection of the high energy (around 100 GeV) component of Gamma Ray Bursts, using the single particle technique in arrays of Water Cherenkov Detectors (WCD) in high mountain sites (Chacaltaya, Bolivia, 5300 m a.s.l., Pico Espejo, Venezuela, 4750 m a.s.l., Sierra Negra, Mexico, 4650 m a.s.l). WCD at high altitude offer a unique possibility of detecting low gamma fluxes in the 10 GeV - 1 TeV range. The status of the Observatory and data collected from 2007 to date will be presented.

Allard, D; Asorey, H; Barros, H; Bertou, X; Castillo, M; Chirinos, J M; De Castro, A; Flores, S; Gonzlez, J; Berisso, M Gomez; Grajales, J; Guada, C; Day, W R Guevara; Ishitsuka, J; Lpez, J A; Martnez, O; Melfo, A; Meza, E; Loza, P Miranda; Barbosa, E Moreno; Murrugarra, C; Nez, L A; Ormachea, L J Otiniano; Prez, G; Perez, Y; Ponce, E; Quispe, J; Quintero, C; Rivera, H; Rosales, M; Rovero, A C; Saavedra, O; Salazar, H; Tello, J C; Peralda, R Ticona; Varela, E; Velarde, A; Villaseor, L; Wahl, D; Zamalloa, M A

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Diffraction smoothing aperture for an optical beam  

SciTech Connect

The disclosure is directed to an aperture for an optical beam having an irregular periphery or having perturbations imposed upon the periphery to decrease the diffraction effect caused by the beam passing through the aperture. Such apertures are particularly useful with high power solid state laser systems in that they minimize the problem of self-focusing which frequently destroys expensive components in such systems.

Judd, O' Dean P. (Los Alamos, NM); Suydam, Bergen R. (Los Alamos, NM)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Ion mobility spectrometer with virtual aperture grid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An ion mobility spectrometer does not require a physical aperture grid to prevent premature ion detector response. The last electrodes adjacent to the ion collector (typically the last four or five) have an electrode pitch that is less than the width of the ion swarm and each of the adjacent electrodes is connected to a source of free charge, thereby providing a virtual aperture grid at the end of the drift region that shields the ion collector from the mirror current of the approaching ion swarm. The virtual aperture grid is less complex in assembly and function and is less sensitive to vibrations than the physical aperture grid.

Pfeifer, Kent B. (Los Lunas, NM); Rumpf, Arthur N. (Albuquerque, NM)

2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

67

Measurement of Pancharatnam's phase by robust interferometric and polarimetric methods  

SciTech Connect

We report on theoretical calculations and experimental observations of Pancharatnam's phase originating from arbitrary SU(2) transformations applied to polarization states of light. We have implemented polarimetric and interferometric methods, which allow us to cover the full Poincare sphere. As a distinctive feature, our interferometric array is robust against mechanical and thermal disturbances, showing that the polarimetric method is not inherently superior over the interferometric one, as previously assumed. Our strategy effectively amounts to feeding an interferometer with two copropagating beams that are orthogonally polarized with respect to each other. It can be applied to different types of standard arrays, such as a Michelson, a Sagnac, or a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. We exhibit the versatility of our arrangement by performing measurements of Pancharatnam's phases and fringe visibilities that closely fit the theoretical predictions. Our approach can be easily extended to deal with mixed states and to study decoherence effects.

Loredo, J. C.; Ortiz, O.; De Zela, F. [Departamento de Ciencias, Seccion Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Peru, Apartado, Lima 1761 (Peru); Weingaertner, R. [Departamento de Ciencias, Seccion Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Peru, Apartado, Lima 1761 (Peru); Department of Materials Science 6, University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Martensstrasse 7, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

68

Development of techniques for quantum-enhanced laser-interferometric gravitational-wave detectors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A detailed theoretical and experimental study of techniques necessary for quantum-enhanced laser- interferometric gravitational wave (GW) detectors was carried out. The basic theory of GWs and laser-interferometric GW ...

Goda, Keisuke

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Synthetic HDL created  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Scientists at Northwestern University (Evanston, Illinois, USA) have created a promising new weapon-synthetic high-density lipoprotein (HDL), the "good" cholesterol-that could help fight chronically high cholesterol levels. Synthetic HDL created ...

70

Shock wave absorber having apertured plate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The shock or energy absorber disclosed herein utilizes an apertured plate maintained under the normal level of liquid flowing in a piping system and disposed between the normal liquid flow path and a cavity pressurized with a compressible gas. The degree of openness (or porosity) of the plate is between 0.01 and 0.60. The energy level of a shock wave travelling down the piping system thus is dissipated by some of the liquid being jetted through the apertured plate toward the cavity. The cavity is large compared to the quantity of liquid jetted through the apertured plate, so there is little change in its volume. The porosity of the apertured plate influences the percentage of energy absorbed.

Shin, Y.W.; Wiedermann, A.H.; Ockert, C.E.

1983-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

71

Shock wave absorber having apertured plate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The shock or energy absorber disclosed herein utilizes an apertured plate maintained under the normal level of liquid flowing in a piping system and disposed between the normal liquid flow path and a cavity pressurized with a compressible gas. The degree of openness (or porosity) of the plate is between 0.01 and 0.60. The energy level of a shock wave travelling down the piping system thus is dissipated by some of the liquid being jetted through the apertured plate toward the cavity. The cavity is large compared to the quantity of liquid jetted through the apertured plate, so there is little change in its volume. The porosity of the apertured plate influences the percentage of energy absorbed.

Shin, Yong W. (Western Springs, IL); Wiedermann, Arne H. (Chicago Heights, IL); Ockert, Carl E. (Vienna, VA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Solar Central Receiver with an Irising Aperture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Variable sun elevation, azimuthal and declination angles with the time of day, and seasons of the year respectively, give variable projected image size defects produced by field site concave mirrors on the central cavity receiver's aperture entrance. If the aperture is small, it will be inefficient for periods when the solar isolation is inclined due to spillage. However, if the aperture is large, it will be inefficient for periods when the solar isolation is normal, due to excess heat radiation and convection losses. Thus, the fixed aperture area size is a compromise between ideal sizes for different conditions. The end result is a loss of efficiency as a function of time of day and seasons of the year. This research presents an approach to maximize the interception factor on the receiver entrance, with reducing the heat losses by radiation and convection through its aperture area. A central receiver system, having a down-looking cavity with an irises aperture is being proposed for application in rich environmental solar conditions, utilized solar flux insolation throughout the day on the city of Kuwait. Solar tower focusing collector with a cavity type receiver having a fixed area aperture at the entrance is presented for comparison with the proposed technique. This collector is proved to be less efficient than the suggested design. The isiring cavity receiver with a variable area aperture provides an approximately constant efficiency regardless of the time of day or season of the year. The end result is the proposed system shows improved performance and capability. However, over the life-time of installation these advantages of the proposed system should overweigh its disadvantages of additional cost due to extra automation.

Galal, T.; Kulaib, A. M.; Abuzaid, M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Bayesian Inference of Polarized CMB Power Spectra from Interferometric Data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Detection of B-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation is one of the frontiers of observational cosmology. Because they are an order of magnitude fainter than E-modes, it is quite a challenge to detect B-modes. Having more manageable systematics, interferometers prove to have a substantial advantage over imagers in detecting such faint signals. Here, we present a method for Bayesian inference of power spectra and signal reconstruction from interferometric data of the CMB polarization signal by using the technique of Gibbs sampling. We demonstrate the validity of the method in the flat-sky approximation for a simulation of an interferometric observation on a finite patch with incomplete uv-plane coverage, a finite beam size and a realistic noise model. With a computational complexity of O(n^{3/2}), n being the data size, Gibbs sampling provides an efficient method for analyzing upcoming cosmology observations.

Karakci, Ata; Zhang, Le; Bunn, Emory F; Korotkov, Andrei; Timbie, Peter; Tucker, Gregory S; Wandelt, Benjamin D

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Optical Physics of Imaging and Interferometric Phased Arrays  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Microwave, submillimetre-wave, and far-infrared phased arrays are of considerable importance for astronomy. We consider the behaviour imaging phased arrays and interferometric phased arrays from a functional perspective. It is shown that the average powers, field correlations, power fluctuations, and correlations between power fluctuations at the output ports of an imaging or interferometric phased array can be found once the synthesised reception patterns are known. The reception patterns do not have to be orthogonal or even linearly independent. It is shown that the operation of phased arrays is intimately related to the mathematical theory of frames, and that the theory of frames can be used to determine the degree to which any class of intensity or field distribution can be reconstructed unambiguously from the complex amplitudes of the travelling waves at the output ports. The theory can be used to set up a likelihood function that can, through Fisher information, be used to determine the degree to which a phased array can be used to recover the parameters of a parameterised source. For example, it would be possible to explore the way in which a system, perhaps interferometric, might observe two widely separated regions of the sky simultaneously.

Stafford Withington; George Saklatvala; Michael P. Hobson

2006-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

75

Very Large Aperture Diffractive Space Telescope  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A very large (10's of meters) aperture space telescope including two separate spacecraft--an optical primary functioning as a magnifying glass and an optical secondary functioning as an eyepiece. The spacecraft are spaced up to several kilometers apart with the eyepiece directly behind the magnifying glass ''aiming'' at an intended target with their relative orientation determining the optical axis of the telescope and hence the targets being observed. The magnifying glass includes a very large-aperture, very-thin-membrane, diffractive lens, e.g., a Fresnel lens, which intercepts incoming light over its full aperture and focuses it towards the eyepiece. The eyepiece has a much smaller, meter-scale aperture and is designed to move along the focal surface of the magnifying glass, gathering up the incoming light and converting it to high quality images. The positions of the two space craft are controlled both to maintain a good optical focus and to point at desired targets.

Hyde, Roderick Allen

1998-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

76

An Innovative Transponder-Based Interferometric Radar for Vibration Measurements  

SciTech Connect

Ground-based radar interferometry has recently emerged as an innovative technology of remote sensing, able to accurately measure the static or dynamic displacement of several points of a structure. This technique in the last couple of years has been applied to different types of structures, such as bridges, towers and chimneys. This paper presents a prototype system developed by IDS, originally aimed at measuring the structural vibrations of helicopter rotor blades, based on an interferometric technique and constituted by combination of a radar sensor and a series of transponders installed on the target structure. The main advantages of this solution with respect to conventional interferometric radars, are related to the increased spatial resolution of the system, provided by the possibility to discriminate different transponders installed within the same resolution cell of the radar sensor, and to the reduction of the ambient noise (e.g. multi-path) on the radar measurement. The first feature allows the use of the microwave technology even on target areas with limited dimensions, such as industrial facilities, while the second aspect may extend the use of radar interferometric systems to complex scenarios, where multi-reflections are expected due to the presence of natural targets with high reflectivity to the radar signal. In the paper, the system and its major characteristics are first described; subsequently, application to the measurement of ambient vibration response of a lab set-up is summarized. Then the data acquired on a rotating mock-up are reported and analyzed to identify natural frequencies and mode shapes of the investigated structure.

Coppi, F.; Cerutti, A.; Farina, P.; De Pasquale, G.; Novembrini, G. [IDS Ingegneria dei Sistemi S.p.A., Via Livornese 1019, Pisa (Italy)

2010-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

77

Synthetic and Mechanistic Chemistry publications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Synthetic and Mechanistic Synthetic and Mechanistic publications Research into alternative forms of energy, especially energy security, is one of the major national...

78

Future Synthetic Fuels  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

- 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 During this presentation, we will give some background on Gas To Liquids - the synthetic fuel used in transport- its beneficial emission properties...

79

Dual aperture dipole magnet with second harmonic component  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved dual aperture dipole electromagnet includes a second-harmonic frequency magnetic guide field winding which surrounds first harmonic frequency magnetic guide field windings associated with each aperture. The second harmonic winding and the first harmonic windings cooperate to produce resultant magnetic waveforms in the apertures which have extended acceleration and shortened reset portions of electromagnet operation.

Praeg, Walter F. (Palos Park, IL)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Dual aperture dipole magnet with second harmonic component  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved dual aperture dipole electromagnet includes a second-harmonic frequency magnetic guide field winding which surrounds first harmonic frequency magnetic guide field windings associated with each aperture. The second harmonic winding and the first harmonic windings cooperate to produce resultant magnetic waveforms in the apertures which have extended acceleration and shortened reset portions of electromagnet operation.

Praeg, W.F.

1983-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interferometric synthetic aperture" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

BAYESIAN ANGULAR POWER SPECTRUM ANALYSIS OF INTERFEROMETRIC DATA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a Bayesian angular power spectrum and signal map inference engine which can be adapted to interferometric observations of anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB), 21 cm emission line mapping of galactic brightness fluctuations, or 21 cm absorption line mapping of neutral hydrogen in the dark ages. The method uses Gibbs sampling to generate a sampled representation of the angular power spectrum posterior and the posterior of signal maps given a set of measured visibilities in the uv-plane. We use a mock interferometric CMB observation to demonstrate the validity of this method in the flat-sky approximation when adapted to take into account arbitrary coverage of the uv-plane, mode-mode correlations due to observations on a finite patch, and heteroschedastic visibility errors. The computational requirements scale as O(n{sub p} log n{sub p}) where n{sub p} measures the ratio of the size of the detector array to the inter-detector spacing, meaning that Gibbs sampling is a promising technique for meeting the data analysis requirements of future cosmology missions.

Sutter, P. M.; Wandelt, Benjamin D. [Department of Physics, 1110 West Green Street, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Malu, Siddarth S. [Raman Research Institute, C V Raman Avenue, Bangalore 560080 (India)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

82

LAGOVirtual: A Collaborative Environment for the Large Aperture GRB Observatory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the LAGOVirtual Project: an ongoing project to develop platform to collaborate in the Large Aperture GRB Observatory (LAGO). This continental-wide observatory is devised to detect high energy (around 100 GeV) component of Gamma Ray Bursts, by using the single particle technique in arrays of Water Cherenkov Detectors (WCD) at high mountain sites (Chacaltaya, Bolivia, 5300 m a.s.l., Pico Espejo, Venezuela, 4750 m a.s.l., Sierra Negra, Mexico, 4650 m a.s.l). This platform will allow LAGO collaboration to share data, and computer resources through its different sites. This environment has the possibility to generate synthetic data by simulating the showers through AIRES application and to store/preserve distributed data files collected by the WCD at the LAGO sites. The present article concerns the implementation of a prototype of LAGO-DR adapting DSpace, with a hierarchical structure (i.e. country, institution, followed by collections that contain the metadata and data files), for the captured/simulated data. This structure was generated by using the community, sub-community, collection, item model; available at the DSpace software. Each member institution-country of the project has the appropriate permissions on the system to publish information (descriptive metadata and associated data files). The platform can also associate multiple files to each item of data (data from the instruments, graphics, postprocessed-data, etc.).

R. Camacho; R. Chacon; G. Diaz; C. Guada; V. Hamar; H. Hoeger; A. Melfo; L. A. Nunez; Y. Perez; C. Quintero; M. Rosales; R. Torrens; the LAGO Collaboration

2009-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

83

LAGOVirtual: A Collaborative Environment for the Large Aperture GRB Observatory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the LAGOVirtual Project: an ongoing project to develop platform to collaborate in the Large Aperture GRB Observatory (LAGO). This continental-wide observatory is devised to detect high energy (around 100 GeV) component of Gamma Ray Bursts, by using the single particle technique in arrays of Water Cherenkov Detectors (WCD) at high mountain sites (Chacaltaya, Bolivia, 5300 m a.s.l., Pico Espejo, Venezuela, 4750 m a.s.l., Sierra Negra, Mexico, 4650 m a.s.l). This platform will allow LAGO collaboration to share data, and computer resources through its different sites. This environment has the possibility to generate synthetic data by simulating the showers through AIRES application and to store/preserve distributed data files collected by the WCD at the LAGO sites. The present article concerns the implementation of a prototype of LAGO-DR adapting DSpace, with a hierarchical structure (i.e. country, institution, followed by collections that contain the metadata and data files), for the captured/simulate...

Camacho, R; Diaz, G; Guada, C; Hamar, V; Hoeger, H; Melfo, A; Nunez, L A; Perez, Y; Quintero, C; Rosales, M; Torrens, R

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Compact high precision adjustable beam defining aperture  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides an adjustable aperture for limiting the dimension of a beam of energy. In an exemplary embodiment, the aperture includes (1) at least one piezoelectric bender, where a fixed end of the bender is attached to a common support structure via a first attachment and where a movable end of the bender is movable in response to an actuating voltage applied to the bender and (2) at least one blade attached to the movable end of the bender via a second attachment such that the blade is capable of impinging upon the beam. In an exemplary embodiment, the beam of energy is electromagnetic radiation. In an exemplary embodiment, the beam of energy is X-rays.

Morton, Simon A; Dickert, Jeffrey

2013-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

85

CRTF Real-Time Aperture Flux system  

SciTech Connect

The Real-Time Aperture Flux system (TRAF) is a test measurement system designed to determine the input power/unit area (flux density) during solar experiments conducted at the Central Receiver Test Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. The RTAF is capable of using both thermal sensors and photon sensors to determine the flux densities in the RTAF measuring plane. These data are manipulated in various ways to derive input power and flux density distribution to solar experiments.

Davis, D.B.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique and Guided Wave Examination of Containment Liners and Shells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

At a nuclear power plant, the containment building is of primary importance for safe operation. The primary containment and other safety-related structures at a nuclear plant site must be capable of maintaining their design features for the operating life of the plant. Demonstrating the satisfactory condition of the containment building and other safety-related structures is required for long-term operation of the plant.Lucius Pitkin, Inc., has performed a project for the Electric Power ...

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Sub-aperture piston phase diversity for segmented and multi-aperture systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Phase diversity is a method of image-based wavefront sensing that simultaneously estimates the unknown phase aberrations of an imaging system along with an image of the object. To perform this estimation a series of images differing by a known aberration, typically defocus, are used. In this paper we present a new method of introducing the diversity unique to segmented and multi-aperture systems in which individual segments or sub-apertures are pistoned with respect to one another. We compare this new diversity with the conventional focus diversity.

Bolcar, Matthew R.; Fienup, James R

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Beam profiles from multiple aperture sources  

SciTech Connect

Using a rapidly convergent approximation scheme, formulas are given for beam intensity profiles everywhere. In the first approximation, formulas are found for multiple aperture sources, such as a TFTR design, and integrated power for rectangular plates downstream for Gaussian beamlets. This analysis is duplicated for Lorentzian beamlets which should provide a probable upper bound for off-axis loading as Gaussian beamlets provide a probable lower bound. Formulas for beam intensity profiles are found everywhere. In first approximation, formulas are found for downstream intensity of multiple sources and integrated power for rectangular plates.

Whealton, J.H.

1979-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Biodegradable synthetic bone composites  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention provides for a biodegradable synthetic bone composition comprising a biodegradable hydrogel polymer scaffold comprising a plurality of hydrolytically unstable linkages, and an inorganic component; such as a biodegradable poly(hydroxyethylmethacrylate)/hydroxyapatite (pHEMA/HA) hydrogel composite possessing mineral content approximately that of human bone.

Liu, Gao; Zhao, Dacheng; Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

(Computational) synthetic biology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ultimate goal of systems biology is the development of executable in silico models of cells and organisms. Systems biology attempts to provide an integrative methodology, which while able to cope with -on the one hand- the data deluge that is being ... Keywords: algorithmic systems biology, executable biology, infobiotics, p systems, synthetic biology, systems biology

Natalio Krasnogor

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

A New Algorithm for Processing Interferometric Data-Stacks: SqueeSAR | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

A New Algorithm for Processing Interferometric Data-Stacks: SqueeSAR A New Algorithm for Processing Interferometric Data-Stacks: SqueeSAR Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: A New Algorithm for Processing Interferometric Data-Stacks: SqueeSAR Abstract Permanent Scatterer SAR Interferometry (PSInSAR) aims to identify coherent radar targets exhibiting high phase stability over the entire observation time period. These targets often correspond to point-wise, man-made objects widely available over a city, but less present in non-urban areas. To overcome the limits of PSInSAR, analysis of interferometric data-stacks should aim at extracting geophysical parameters not only from point-wise deterministic objects (i.e., PS), but also from distributed scatterers (DS). Rather than developing hybrid processing chains where two or more

92

An Improved High-Resolution Processing Method for a Frequency Domain Interferometric Imaging (FII) Technique  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Frequency hopping [also recently called range imaging (RIM) or frequency domain interferometric imaging (FII)] is a pulse compression technique used to improve the range resolution ?r of Doppler radars limited by their minimum transmitted pulse ...

Lydi Sma; Hubert Luce; Michel Crochet; Shoichiro Fukao

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Vacuum aperture isolator for retroreflection from laser-irradiated target  

SciTech Connect

The disclosure is directed to a vacuum aperture isolator for retroreflection of a laser-irradiated target. Within a vacuum chamber are disposed a beam focusing element, a disc having an aperture and a recollimating element. The edge of the focused beam impinges on the edge of the aperture to produce a plasma which refracts any retroreflected light from the laser's target.

Benjamin, Robert F. (Los Alamos, NM); Mitchell, Kenneth B. (Los Alamos, NM)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Performance comparison of fiber tips in interferometric displacement mesurements  

SciTech Connect

Fiber optic displacement sensors have many potential advantages over traditional displacement measurement techniques, including small size, immunity to electromagnetic interference, electrical isolation, and high resolution. In this report, we focus on an interferometric fiber optic sensor, where the gap between the fiber tip and the device under test forms a Fabry-Perot resonant cavity. An optical interrogator measures the reflected intensity at wavelengths ranging from 1510 to 1590 nm. The spacing between resonant frequencies allows us to determine the distance from the tip to the device under test. We consider ferrule connector angled physical contact (FC/APC), ferrule connector ultra physical contact (FC/UPC) and unpolished cleaved tips and compare their influence on sensor performance. A plane wave propagation model is proposed for predicting tip effects. Comparisons are made on the basis of sensor measurement range, resolution, and sensitivity to changes in test conditions. In this paper, we discuss the experimental setup, detail our analysis, and present test results with recommendations for the applications of each tip.

Moro, Erik [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Grahn, Rick R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Karimi, Hussain H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wilson, Kyle L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Puckett, Anthony D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

95

Very high numerical aperture light transmitting device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new light-transmitting device using a SCIN glass core and a novel calcium sodium cladding has been developed. The very high index of refraction, radiation hardness, similar solubility for rare earths and similar melt and viscosity characteristics of core and cladding materials makes them attractive for several applications such as high-numerical-aperture optical fibers and specialty lenses. Optical fibers up to 60 m in length have been drawn, and several simple lenses have been designed, ground, and polished. Preliminary results on the ability to directly cast optical components of lead-indium phosphate glass are also discussed as well as the suitability of these glasses as a host medium for rare-earth ion lasers and amplifiers.

Allison, Stephen W. (Knoxville, TN); Boatner, Lynn A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sales, Brian C. (Knoxville, TN)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Synthetic fuels: production and products  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A brief primer on synthetic fuels is given. The paper includes brief descriptions of generic conversion technologies that can be used to convert various raw materials such as coal, oil shale, tar sands, peat, and biomass into synthetic fuels similar in character to petroleum-derived fuels currently in commerce. References for additional information on synthetic fuel processes and products are also given in the paper.

Singh, S.P.N.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Synthetic fuels: production and products  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A brief review on synthetic fuels is given. The paper includes brief descriptions of generic conversion technologies that can be used to convert various raw materials such as coal, oil shale, tar sands, peat and biomass into synthetic fuels similar in character to petroleum-derived fuels currently in commerce. Because the subject is vast and the space is limited, references for additional information on synthetic fuel processes and products are also given in the paper. 24 references.

Singh, S.P.

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Estimating fracture apertures from hydraulic data and comparison with theory  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Estimates of fracture openings, or apertures, were made for massive hydraulic fracture experiments at the Hot Dry Rock geothermal reservoir at Fenton Hill, New Mexico. The basis of these estimates is that if the injection rate is suddenly increased during fracturing, and the subsequent pressure increase to sustain this additional flow is measured, then the pressure increase must be related to the fracture aperture. More detailed considerations indicate that the fracture aperture estimated in this manner is affected by the nature of the fracture geometry, its propagation distance, and its viscous characteristics, but these effects are surprisingly unimportant. The result is a reasonably accurate aperture estimate, which considering the elusive nature of this measurement by other means, is quite satisfactory. These estimates are in good agreement with the fracturing theory of Geertsma and de Klerk. 10 refs., 6 figs.

Dash, Z.V.; Murphy, H.D.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Multiple Instrument Distributed Aperture Sensor (MIDAS) For Planetary Remote Sensing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Multiple Instrument Distributed Aperture Sensor (MIDAS) For Planetary Remote Sensing Joe Pitman An innovative approach that enables greatly increased return from planetary science remote sensing missions as the primary remote sensing science payload, thereby reducing the cost, resources, complexity, integration

Marcus, Philip S.

100

The Dynamic Aperture of an Electrostatic Quadrupole Lattice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

OF AN ELECTROSTATIC QUADRUPOLE LATTICE* C.M. Celata, F.M.The dynamic aperture of such a lattice has been investigatednegligible in this short lattice), but the fact that it was

Celata, C.M.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Prost, L.; Seidl, P.A.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interferometric synthetic aperture" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Crosswinds from a Single-Aperture Scintillometer Using Spectral Techniques  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, spectral techniques to obtain crosswinds from a single large-aperture scintillometer (SLAS) time series are investigated. The crosswind is defined as the wind component perpendicular to a path. A scintillometer obtains a path-...

Danille van Dinther; Oscar K. Hartogensis; Arnold F. Moene

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Synthetic skins with humanlike warmth  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Synthetic skins with humanlike characteristics, such as a warm touch, may be able to ease the social stigma associated with the use of prosthetic hands by enabling the user to conceal its usage during social touching situations. Similarly for social ... Keywords: prosthetics, rehabilitation robotics, social robotics, synthetic skin, warm skin

John-John Cabibihan; Rangarajan Jegadeesan; Saba Salehi; Shuzhi Sam Ge

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Receiver for solar-energy collector having improved aperture aspect  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A secondary concentrator for use in receiver systems for linear focusing primary concentrators is provided with reflector wings at each end. The wings increase the capture of light rays reflected from areas adjacent the rim of a primary concentrator, increasing the apparent aperture size of the receiver as viewed from the rim of the primary concentrator. The length, tilt, and curvature of the wing reflectors can be adjusted to provide a receiver having a desired aperture aspect.

McIntire, W.R.

1981-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

104

Receiver for solar energy collector having improved aperture aspect  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A secondary concentrator for use in receiver systems for linear focusing primary concentrators is provided with reflector wings at each end. The wings increase the capture of light rays reflected from areas adjacent the rim of a primary concentrator, increasing the apparent aperture size of the absorber as viewed from the rim of the primary concentrator. The length, tilt, and curvature of the wing reflectors can be adjusted to provide an absorber having a desired aperture aspect.

McIntire, William R. (Downers Grove, IL)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Synthetic and Mechanistic Chemistry publications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Synthetic and Mechanistic Chemistry » Synthetic and Mechanistic Chemistry » Synthetic and Mechanistic Synthetic and Mechanistic publications Research into alternative forms of energy, especially energy security, is one of the major national security imperatives of this century. Get Expertise Dave Thorn Chemistry Program Manager Email Josh Smith Chemistry Communications Email "Research into alternative forms of energy, of which biofuels is a key component, is one of the major national security imperatives of this century. Energy security is vital to our future national security and the efficient functioning of our market economy." -LANL Director Charles McMillan Harshini Mukundan, Hongzhi Xie, Aaron S. Anderson, W. Kevin Grace, John E. Shively, and Basil I. Swanson, "Optimizing a waveguide-based sandwich immunoassay for tumor biomarkers: Evaluating fluorescent labels and functional surfaces," Bioconjugate Chemistry 20(2), 222-230 (2009).

106

SYNTHETIC SLING FAILURE - EVALUATIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS  

SciTech Connect

The information and evaluations provided in this report were compiled to address the recurring problem of synthetic sling failure. As safety is the number one priority in all work aspects, a solution must be devised to prevent accidents from occurring. A total of thirteen cases regarding synthetic sling failure were evaluated in order to determine their causes, effects, and preventative measures. From the collected data, it was found that all cases in which the synthetic sling contacted the edge of its load resulted in sling failure. It is required that adequate synthetic sling protection devices be used to protect slings in any lift where the sling comes in direct contact with the edge or corner of its load. However, there are no consensus codes or standards stating the type, material, or purpose of the type of protective device used to protect the sling from being cut. Numerous industry standards and codes provide vague descriptions on how to protect synthetic slings. Without a clear, concise statement of how to protect synthetic slings, it is common for inadequate materials and sling protection devices to be used in an attempt to meet the intent of these requirements. The use of an inadequate sling protection device is the main cause of synthetic sling failure in all researched cases. Commercial sling protection devices come in many shapes and sizes, and have a variety of names, as well as advertised uses. 'Abrasion pads' and 'wear protectors' are two different names for products with the same intended purpose. There is no distinguishable way to determine the extent of sling protection which these devices will provide, or what specific scenarios they are made for. This creates room for error in a field where error is unacceptable. This report provides a recommended action for hoisting and rigging activities which require synthetic slings to contact a load, as well as recommended changes to industry standards which will benefit overall industry safety.

MACKEY TC; HENDERSON CS

2009-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

107

Fluorescence and Hybrid Detection Aperture of the Pierre Auger Observatory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The aperture of the Fluorescence Detector (FD) of the Pierre Auger Observatory is evaluated from simulated events using different detector configurations: mono, stereo, 3-FD and 4-FD. The trigger efficiency has been modeled using shower profiles with ground impacts in the field of view of a single telescope and studying the trigger response (at the different levels) by that telescope and by its neighbours. In addition, analysis cuts imposed by event reconstruction have been applied. The hybrid aperture is then derived for the Auger final extension. Taking into account the actual Surface Detector (SD) array configuration and its trigger response, the aperture is also calculated for a typical configuration of the present phase.

J. A. Bellido; D. D'Urso; H. Geenen; F. Guarino; L. Perrone; S. Petrera; L. Prado Jr.; F. Salamida

2005-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

108

Nano-Hertz Gravitational Waves Searches with Interferometric Pulsar Timing Experiments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We estimate the sensitivity to nano-Hertz gravitational waves of pulsar timing experiments in which two highly-stable millisecond pulsars are tracked simultaneously with two neighboring radio telescopes that are referenced to the same time-keeping subsystem (i.e. "the clock"). By taking the difference of the two time-of-arrival residual data streams we can exactly cancel the clock noise in the combined data set, thereby enhancing the sensitivity to gravitational waves. We estimate that, in the band ($10^{-9} - 10^{-8}$) Hz, this "interferometric" pulsar timing technique can potentially improve the sensitivity to gravitational radiation by almost two orders of magnitude over that of single-telescopes. Interferometric pulsar timing experiments could be performed with neighboring pairs of antennas of the forthcoming large arraying projects.

Massimo Tinto

2011-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

109

Bayesian inference on compact binary inspiral gravitational radiation signals in interferometric data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Presented is a description of a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) parameter estimation routine for use with interferometric gravitational radiational data in searches for binary neutron star inspiral signals. Five parameters associated with the inspiral can be estimated, and summary statistics are produced. Advanced MCMC methods were implemented, including importance resampling and prior distributions based on detection probability, in order to increase the efficiency of the code. An example is presented from an application using realistic, albeit fictitious, data.

Christian Rver; Renate Meyer; Nelson Christensen

2006-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

110

Multiple Instrument Distributed Aperture Sensor (MIDAS) For Remote Sensing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Multiple Instrument Distributed Aperture Sensor (MIDAS) For Remote Sensing Joe Pitman,a , Alan that enables greatly increased return from earth and planetary science remote sensing missions is described are integrated into MIDAS as the primary remote sensing science payload, thereby reducing the cost, resources

Fienup, James R.

111

Future Prospects of Synthetic Fuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is important for the future of this nation to reach the goal of demonstrated definition and quantification of the parameters which influence the ability to use this country's vast resources of coal and oil shale for production of synthetic fuels which can contribute to the nation's future energy needs. Those parameters are: technical, environmental, and economic viability. In the final analysis, the key word is economics; can, or when can synthetic fuels compete in the marketplace? A commercial synthetic fuels plant requires a multi-billion dollar capital investment. It is the purpose of this paper to discuss the risk elements of a synthetic fuels venture and to speculate on what impact the current environment, e.g. governmental policy, world crude market prices, and general economic climate may have on the timetable for achievement of the aforementioned goal. In June 1980 the author presented a paper at the AIChE Meeting in Philadelphia, Pa. entitled 'Synthetic Fuels - Their Problems and Their Promises.' The opening paragraph of that paper started as follows: 'For three decades, since the days of World War II, a U.S. synthetic fuels industry has several times verged on becoming a reality but never succeeding, the ups and downs resembling a sine wave of variable frequency. As of this writing we are at the crest of the wave. Is this the time it will happen? For the good of the nation hopefully the answer will be yes.' It is the purpose of this paper, some 20 months later, to examine what has transpired in that time interval and to speculate, in the light of those events, about their impact on the likelihood of the answer still being 'yes' and on the timing as to when it may occur. To set the stage for consideration of the importance of recent events and to put them in perspective, it is necessary to return again to the earlier paper where some of the impediments to the establishment of a U.S. synfuels industry were discussed. In essence what was said was that the principal impediments were: economic, environmental, and regulatory, and since both the economic and regulatory aspects exert some direct and/or indirect influence on cost, the problem really reduced to the single most important factor--project economics. Synthetic fuels simply are expensive to produce!

Fryback, M. G.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Coseismic and Postseismic Deformations Associated With the 1992 Landers, California, Earthquake Measured by Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

iv "Not everything that I do with my roast chicken is necessarily scientific. Many aspects of my method are based on my feeling and experience. For instance, I always give my bird a generous butter massage before I put it in the oven. Why?

Yehuda Bock; J. Bernard Minster; Hubert Staudigel; Evelyn J. Price; Dr. Albert; M. Price; Virginia L. Price; Julia Child

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Inversion of synthetic aperture radar interferograms for sources of production-related subsidence at the Dixie Valley geothermal field  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Monitoring and modeling land subsidence at the Cerro PrietoH. Vadon (1997), Land subsidence caused by the East MesaA third potential source of subsidence that we are presently

Foxall, B.; Vasco, D.W.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Inversion of synthetic aperture radar interferograms for sources of production-related subsidence at the Dixie Valley geothermal field  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of a tracer test at Dixie Valley, Nevada, Proc. 22 ndand footwall faulting at Dixie Valley, Nevada, Geothermalthe shallow thermal regime at Dixie Valley geothermal field,

Foxall, B.; Vasco, D.W.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Inversion of synthetic aperture radar interferograms for sources of production-related subsidence at the Dixie Valley geothermal field  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

site and the Okuaizu geothermal field, Japan", Geothermics,at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, Baja California,and seismicity in the Coso geothermal area, Inyo County,

Foxall, B.; Vasco, D.W.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Synthetic Aperture Radar (L band) and Optical Vegetation Indices for Discriminating the Brazilian Savanna Physiognomies: A Comparative Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The all-weather capability, signal independence to the solar illumination angle, and response to 3D vegetation structures are the highlights of active radar systems for natural vegetation mapping and monitoring. However, they may present ...

Edson E. Sano; Laerte G. Ferreira; Alfredo R. Huete

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

A Synthetic Aperture RadarBased Climatology of Open-Cell Convection over the Northeast Pacific Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents an 8-yr (19992006) climatology of the frequency of open-cell convection over the northeastern Pacific Ocean and the thermodynamic and kinematic environment associated with its development. The climatology is based on ...

Todd D. Sikora; George S. Young; Caren M. Fisher; Matthew D. Stepp

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Transmission of Megawatt Relativistic Electron Beams Through Millimeter Apertures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High power, relativistic electron beams from energy recovery linacs have great potential to realize new experimental paradigms for pioneering innovation in fundamental and applied research. A major design consideration for this new generation of experimental capabilities is the understanding of the halo associated with these bright, intense beams. In this Letter, we report on measurements performed using the 100 MeV, 430 kWatt CW electron beam from the energy recovery linac at the Jefferson Laboratory's Free Electron Laser facility as it traversed a set of small apertures in a 127 mm long aluminum block. Thermal measurements of the block together with neutron measurements near the beam-target interaction point yielded a consistent understanding of the beam losses. These were determined to be 3 ppm through a 2 mm diameter aperture and were maintained during a 7 hour continuous run.

R. Alarcon; S. Balascuta; S. V. Benson; W. Bertozzi; J. R. Boyce; R. Cowan; D. Douglas; P. Evtushenko; P. Fisher; E. Ihloff; N. Kalantarians; A. Kelleher; R. Legg; R. G. Milner; G. R. Neil; L. Ou; B. Schmookler; C. Tennant; C. Tschalaer; G. P. Williams; S. Zhang

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Penning discharge ion source with self-cleaning aperture  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An ion source of the Penning discharge type having a self-cleaning aperture is provided by a second dynode with an exit aperture in a position opposite a first dynode, from which the ions are sputtered, two opposing cathodes, each with an anode for accelerating electrons emitted from the cathodes into a cylindrical space defined by the first and second dynode. A support gas maintained in this space is ionized by the electrons. While the cathodes are supplied with a negative pulse to emit electrons, the first dynode is supplied with a negative pulse (e.g., -300 V) to attract atoms of the ionized gas (plasma). At the same time, the second dynode may also be supplied with a small voltage that is negative with respect to the plasma (e.g., -5 V) for tuning the position of the plasma miniscus for optimum extraction geometry. When the negative pulse to the first dynode is terminated, the second dynode is driven strongly negative (e.g., -600 V) thereby allowing heavy sputtering to take place for a short period to remove virtually all of the atoms deposited on the second dynode from material sputtered off the first dynode. An extractor immediately outside the exit aperture of the second dynode is maintained at ground potential while the anode, dynode, and cathode reference voltage is driven strongly positive (about +20 kV to +30 kV) so that ions accelerated through the aperture will be at ground potential. Material from the first dynode deposited on the second dynode will be sputtered, in time, to add to the ion beam.

Gavin, B.F.; MacGill, R.A.; Thatcher, R.K.

1980-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

120

Penning discharge ion source with self-cleaning aperture  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An ion source of the Penning discharge type having a self-cleaning aperture is provided by a second dynode (24) with an exit aperture (12) in a position opposite a first dynode 10a, from which the ions are sputtered, two opposing cathodes (14, 16), each with an anode (18, 20) for accelerating electrons emitted from the cathodes into a cylindrical space defined by the first and second dynode. A support gas maintained in this space is ionized by the electrons. While the cathodes are supplied with a negative pulse to emit electrons, the first dynode is supplied with a negative pulse (e.g., -300 V) to attract atoms of the ionized gas (plasma). At the same time, the second dynode may also be supplied with a small voltage that is negative with respect to the plasma (e.g., -5 V) for tuning the position of the plasma miniscus for optimum extraction geometry. When the negative pulse to the first dynode is terminated, the second dynode is driven strongly negative (e.g., -600 V) thereby allowing heavy sputtering to take place for a short period to remove virtually all of the atoms deposited on the second dynode from material sputtered off the first dynode. An extractor (22) immediately outside the exit aperture of the second dynode is maintained at ground potential during this entire period of sputtering while the anode, dynode and cathode reference voltage is driven strongly positive (about +20 kV to +30 kV) so that ions accelerated through the aperture will be at ground potential. In that manner, material from the first dynode deposited on the second dynode will be sputtered, in time, to add to the ion beam. Atoms sputtered from the second dynode which do not become ionized and exit through the slit will be redeposited on the first dynode, and hence recycled for further ion beam generation during subsequent operating cycles.

Gavin, Basil F. (Berkeley, CA); MacGill, Robert A. (Richmond, CA); Thatcher, Raymond K. (El Cerrito, CA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interferometric synthetic aperture" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Synthetic LDL as targeted drug delivery vehicle  

SciTech Connect

The present invention provides a synthetic LDL nanoparticle comprising a lipid moiety and a synthetic chimeric peptide so as to be capable of binding the LDL receptor. The synthetic LDL nanoparticle of the present invention is capable of incorporating and targeting therapeutics to cells expressing the LDL receptor for diseases associated with the expression of the LDL receptor such as central nervous system diseases. The invention further provides methods of using such synthetic LDL nanoparticles.

Forte, Trudy M. (Berkeley, CA); Nikanjam, Mina (Richmond, CA)

2012-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

122

Alignment and Aperture Scan at the Fermilab Booster  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Fermilab Booster is currently in the process of an intensity upgrade referred to as the Proton Improvement Plan (PIP). The goal of PIP is to have the Booster provide a proton beam flux of 2 x 10{sup 17} protons/hour. This is almost double the current operation of 1.1 x 10{sup 17} protons/hour. Beam losses in the machine due to the increased flux will create larger integrated doses on aperture limiting components that will need to be mitigated. The Booster accelerates beam from 400 MeV to 8 GeV at a rep rate of 15hz and then extracts beam to the Main Injector. Several percent of the beam is lost within 3 msec after injection in the early part of acceleration. The aperture at injection energy was recently measured using corrector scans. Along with magnet survey data and aperture scan data a plan to realign the magnets in the Booster was developed and implemented in May 2012. The beam studies, analysis of the scan and alignment data, and the result of the magnet moves are presented.

Seiya, K.; Lackey, J.; Marsh, W.; Pellico, W.; Still, D.; Triplet, K.; Waller, A.; /Fermilab

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Fusion reactors for synthetic fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Some of the types of processes now being considered for synthetic fuels production from fusion energy, together with an example of each type are listed. The process efficiency is defined as the chemical energy in the generated hydrogen (at the higher heating value (HHV)) divided by the total fusion energy release, including alpha particles and secondary neutron reactions in the blanket. Except where specifically noted, both high and low temperature blanket heats are counted as part of total fusion energy release.

Powell, J.R.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Synthetic thermoelectric materials comprising phononic crystals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Synthetic thermoelectric materials comprising phononic crystals can simultaneously have a large Seebeck coefficient, high electrical conductivity, and low thermal conductivity. Such synthetic thermoelectric materials can enable improved thermoelectric devices, such as thermoelectric generators and coolers, with improved performance. Such synthetic thermoelectric materials and devices can be fabricated using techniques that are compatible with standard microelectronics.

El-Kady, Ihab F; Olsson, Roy H; Hopkins, Patrick; Reinke, Charles; Kim, Bongsang

2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

125

MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD ANALYSIS OF SYSTEMATIC ERRORS IN INTERFEROMETRIC OBSERVATIONS OF THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the impact of instrumental systematic errors in interferometric measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization power spectra. We simulate interferometric CMB observations to generate mock visibilities and estimate power spectra using the statistically optimal maximum likelihood technique. We define a quadratic error measure to determine allowable levels of systematic error that does not induce power spectrum errors beyond a given tolerance. As an example, in this study we focus on differential pointing errors. The effects of other systematics can be simulated by this pipeline in a straightforward manner. We find that, in order to accurately recover the underlying B-modes for r = 0.01 at 28 < l < 384, Gaussian-distributed pointing errors must be controlled to 0. Degree-Sign 7 root mean square for an interferometer with an antenna configuration similar to QUBIC, in agreement with analytical estimates. Only the statistical uncertainty for 28 < l < 88 would be changed at {approx}10% level. With the same instrumental configuration, we find that the pointing errors would slightly bias the 2{sigma} upper limit of the tensor-to-scalar ratio r by {approx}10%. We also show that the impact of pointing errors on the TB and EB measurements is negligibly small.

Zhang Le; Timbie, Peter [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Karakci, Ata; Korotkov, Andrei; Tucker, Gregory S. [Department of Physics, Brown University, 182 Hope Street, Providence, RI 02912 (United States); Sutter, Paul M.; Wandelt, Benjamin D. [Department of Physics, 1110 W Green Street, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Bunn, Emory F., E-mail: lzhang263@wisc.edu [Physics Department, University of Richmond, Richmond, VA 23173 (United States)

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Synthetic carbonaceous fuels and feedstocks  

SciTech Connect

This invention relates to the use of a three compartment electrolytic cell in the production of synthetic carbonaceous fuels and chemical feedstocks such as gasoline, methane and methanol by electrolyzing an aqueous sodium carbonate/bicarbonate solution, obtained from scrubbing atmospheric carbon dioxide with an aqueous sodium hydroxide solution, whereby the hydrogen generated at the cathode and the carbon dioxide liberated in the center compartment are combined thermocatalytically into methanol and gasoline blends. The oxygen generated at the anode is preferably vented into the atmosphere, and the regenerated sodium hydroxide produced at the cathode is reused for scrubbing the CO.sub.2 from the atmosphere.

Steinberg, Meyer (Huntington Station, NY)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

DESIGN OF PHASE INDUCED AMPLITUDE APODIZATION CORONAGRAPHS OVER SQUARE APERTURES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a theoretical study pertaining to the feasibility of Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) units using deformable mirrors (DMs). We begin by reviewing the general derivation of the design equations driving PIAA. We then show how to solve these equations for square apertures and show the performance of pure PIAA systems in the ray optics regime. We tie these design equations into the study of edge diffraction effects and provide a general expression for the field after a full propagation through a PIAA coronagraph. Third, we illustrate how a combination of pre- and post-apodizers yields a contrast of 10{sup -10} even in the presence of diffractive effects, for configuration with neither wavefront errors or wavefront control. Finally, we present novel PIAA configurations over square apertures which circumvent the constraints on the manufacturing of PIAA optics by inducing the apodization with two square DMs. Such solutions rely on pupil size smaller than currently envisioned static PIAA solutions and thus require aggressive pre- and post-apodizing screens in order to mitigate for diffractive effect between the two mirrors. As a result they are associated with significant loss in performance, throughput in particular.

Pueyo, Laurent [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 366 Bloomberg Center, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Jeremy Kasdin, N.; Carlotti, Alexis [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Vanderbei, Robert, E-mail: lap@pha.jhu.edu [Department of Operations Research and Financial Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Synthetic Cells Shed Biological Insights While Delivering ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Synthetic Cells Shed Biological Insights While Delivering Battery Power. ... Image of two artificial cells that can act as a tiny battery. ...

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Synthetic Genomics Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

search Name Synthetic Genomics Inc. Place La Jolla, California Sector Hydro, Hydrogen, Renewable Energy Product California-based company planning to create new types of...

130

Coherent Bayesian inference on compact binary inspirals using a network of interferometric gravitational wave detectors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Presented in this paper is a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) routine for conducting coherent parameter estimation for interferometric gravitational wave observations of an inspiral of binary compact objects using data from multiple detectors. The MCMC technique uses data from several interferometers and infers all nine of the parameters (ignoring spin) associated with the binary system, including the distance to the source, the masses, and the location on the sky. The Metropolis-algorithm utilises advanced MCMC techniques, such as importance resampling and parallel tempering. The data is compared with time-domain inspiral templates that are 2.5 post-Newtonian (PN) in phase and 2.0 PN in amplitude. Our routine could be implemented as part of an inspiral detection pipeline for a world wide network of detectors. Examples are given for simulated signals and data as seen by the LIGO and Virgo detectors operating at their design sensitivity.

Christian Rver; Renate Meyer; Nelson Christensen

2006-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

131

Interferometric measurement of melt depth in silicon using femtosecond infrared Cr:forsterite laser  

SciTech Connect

Interferometric microscopy technique combined with high power infrared Cr:forsterite laser system was applied to investigate femtosecond laser induced melting of silicon. Optically polished wafer of single crystalline silicon of 400 {mu}m thickness was irradiated with 100 fs pump pulses at second harmonic wavelength of 620 nm. We used infrared probe pulses at main wavelength of 1240 nm, whose photon energy was less than the band gap width E{sub g} = 1.12eV of silicon, and the penetration depth of probe essentially exceeded the sample thickness. Unlike many previous experiments with Ti:sapphire lasers it allowed us to probe the heated area from the rear side of the sample and obtain the data on melt depth after laser irradiation.

Ashitkov, Sergey I.; Ovchinnikov, Andrey V.; Agranat, Mikhail B. [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 125412 (Russian Federation)

2012-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

132

Clarifying the nature of the brightest submillimetre sources: interferometric imaging of LH850.02  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present high-resolution interferometric imaging of LH850.02, the brightest 850- and 1200-micron submillimetre (submm) galaxy in the Lockman Hole. Our observations were made at 890 micron with the Submillimetre Array (SMA). Our high-resolution submm imaging detects LH850.02 at >6-sigma as a single compact (size < 1 arcsec or < 8 kpc) point source and yields its absolute position to ~0.2-arcsec accuracy. LH850.02 has two alternative radio counterparts within the SCUBA beam (LH850.02N & S), both of which are statistically very unlikely to be so close to the SCUBA source position by chance. However, the precise astrometry from the SMA shows that the submm emission arises entirely from LH850.02N, and is not associated with LH850.02S (by far the brighter of the two alternative identifications at 24-micron). Fits to the optical-infrared multi-colour photometry of LH850.02N & S indicate that both lie at z~3.3, and are therefore likely to be physically associated. At these redshifts, the 24 micron--to--submm flux density ratios suggest that LH850.02N has an Arp220-type starburst-dominated far-IR SED, while LH850.02S is more similar to Mrk231, with less dust-enshrouded star-formation activity, but a significant contribution at 24-micron (rest-frame ~5-6 micron) from an active nucleus. This complex mix of star-formation and AGN activity in multi-component sources may be common in the high redshift ultraluminous galaxy population, and highlights the need for precise astrometry from high resolution interferometric imaging for a more complete understanding.

J. D. Younger; J. S. Dunlop; A. B. Peck; R. J. Ivison; A. D. Biggs; E. L. Chapin; D. L. Clements; S. Dye; T. R. Greve; D. H. Hughes; D. Iono; I. Smail; M. Krips; G. R. Petitpas; D. Wilner; A. M. Schael; C. D. Wilson

2008-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

133

Design of large aperture, low mass vacuum windows  

SciTech Connect

Large vacuum vessels are employed downstream of fixed targets in High Energy Physics experiments to provide a long path for particles to traverse without interacting with air molecules. These vessels generally have a large aperture opening known as a vacuum window which employs a thin membrane to preserve the vacuum environment yet allows the particles to pass through with a minimal effect on them. Several large windows have been built using a composite of Kevlar/Mylar including circular windows to a diameter of 96.5 cm and rectangular windows up to 193 cm x 86 cm. This paper describes the design, fabrication, testing and operating experience with these windows and relates the actual performance to theoretical predictions.

Leonhardt, W.J.; Mapes, M.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Design of large aperture, low mass vacuum windows  

SciTech Connect

Large vacuum vessels are employed downstream of fixed targets in High Energy Physics experiments to provide a long path for particles to traverse without interacting with air molecules. These vessels generally have a large aperture opening known as a vacuum window which employs a thin membrane to preserve the vacuum environment yet allows the particles to pass through with a minimal effect on them. Several large windows have been built using a composite of Kevlar/Mylar including circular windows to a diameter of 96.5 cm and rectangular windows up to 193 cm x 86 cm. This paper describes the design, fabrication, testing and operating experience with these windows and relates the actual performance to theoretical predictions.

Leonhardt, W.J.; Mapes, M.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Trapped Ion Imaging with a High Numerical Aperture Spherical Mirror  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Efficient collection and analysis of trapped ion qubit fluorescence is essential for robust qubit state detection in trapped ion quantum computing schemes. We discuss simple techniques of improving photon collection efficiency using high numerical aperture (N.A.) reflective optics. To test these techniques we placed a spherical mirror with an effective N.A. of about 0.9 inside a vacuum chamber in the vicinity of a linear Paul trap. We demonstrate stable and reliable trapping of single barium ions, in excellent agreement with our simulations of the electric field in this setup. While a large N.A. spherical mirror introduces significant spherical aberration, the ion image quality can be greatly improved by a specially designed aspheric corrector lens located outside the vacuum system. Our simulations show that the spherical mirror/corrector design is an easy and cost-effective way to achieve high photon collection rates when compared to a more sophisticated parabolic mirror setup.

G Shu; M R Dietrich; N Kurz; B B Blinov

2009-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

136

Trapped Ion Imaging with a High Numerical Aperture Spherical Mirror  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Efficient collection and analysis of trapped ion qubit fluorescence is essential for robust qubit state detection in trapped ion quantum computing schemes. We discuss simple techniques of improving photon collection efficiency using high numerical aperture (N.A.) reflective optics. To test these techniques we placed a spherical mirror with an effective N.A. of about 0.9 inside a vacuum chamber in the vicinity of a linear Paul trap. We demonstrate stable and reliable trapping of single barium ions, in excellent agreement with our simulations of the electric field in this setup. While a large N.A. spherical mirror introduces significant spherical aberration, the ion image quality can be greatly improved by a specially designed aspheric corrector lens located outside the vacuum system. Our simulations show that the spherical mirror/corrector design is an easy and cost-effective way to achieve high photon collection rates when compared to a more sophisticated parabolic mirror setup.

Shu, G; Kurz, N; Blinov, B B

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

InSAR observations of aseismic slip associated with an earthquake swarm in the Columbia River flood basalts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

's Hanford Site. Data from the seismic network along with interferometric synthetic aperture radar (In of the swarm. By modeling the InSAR deformation data we constructed a model that consists of a shallow thrust detected nearly 40 years ago in and around the Hanford Nuclear Site located in the eastern YFB [Pitt, 1971

138

Batch fabrication of cantilever array aperture probes for scanning near-field optical microscopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have developed a novel batch fabrication process for cantilever array aperture probes used in scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM). The array probes, consisting of 16 parallel cantilevers with each tip having an identical aperture, are proposed ... Keywords: Cantilever probes, Nanofabrication, Scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM)

Y. Zhang; K. E. Docherty; J. M. R. Weaver

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Hydraulic transmissivity and heat exchange efficiency of open fractures: a model based on lowpass filtered apertures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Natural open joints in rocks commonly present multi-scale self-affine apertures. This geometrical complexity affects fluid transport and heat exchange between the flow- ing fluid and the surrounding rock. In particular, long range correlations of self-affine apertures induce strong channeling of the flow which influences both mass and heat advection. A key question is to find a geometrical model of the complex aperture that describes at best the macroscopic properties (hydraulic conductivity, heat exchange) with the smallest number of parameters. Solving numerically the Stokes and heat equa- tions with a lubrication approximation, we show that a low pass filtering of the aperture geometry provides efficient estimates of the effective hydraulic and thermal properties (apertures). A detailed study of the influence of the bandwidth of the lowpass filtering on these transport properties is also performed. For instance, keeping the information of amplitude only of the largest Fourier length scales allows us to rea...

Neuville, Amlie; Schmittbuhl, Jean; 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2011.05126.x

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Definition: InSAR | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Definition Definition Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Definition: InSAR Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png InSAR Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is a remote sensing technique that can be used to accurately measure ground displacement.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Interferometric synthetic aperture radar, abbreviated InSAR or IfSAR, is a radar technique used in geodesy and remote sensing. This geodetic method uses two or more synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images to generate maps of surface deformation or digital elevation, using differences in the phase of the waves returning to the satellite or aircraft. The technique can potentially measure centimetre-scale changes in deformation over spans of days to years. It has applications for

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interferometric synthetic aperture" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Concurrent calorimetric and interferometric studies of steady-state natural convection from miniaturized horizontal single plate-fin systems and plate-fin arrays  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Concurrent calorimetric and interferometric studies have been conducted to investigate the effect that reduction of the base-plate dimensions has on the steady-state performance of the rate of natural convection heat ...

Harahap, Filino

142

Guidelines for Using Synthetic Slings for Lifting and Rigging  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

"Guidelines for Using Synthetic Slings for Lifting and Rigging" provides nuclear and fossil maintenance personnel with information on the use of synthetic slings. This information will assist personnel in the identification, protection, and inspection of synthetic slings.

2003-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

143

Aperture-Tolerant, Chemical-Based Methods to Reduce Channeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This final technical progress report describes work performed from October 1, 2004, through May 16, 2007, for the project, 'Aperture-Tolerant, Chemical-Based Methods to Reduce Channeling'. We explored the potential of pore-filling gels for reducing excess water production from both fractured and unfractured production wells. Several gel formulations were identified that met the requirements--i.e., providing water residual resistance factors greater than 2,000 and ultimate oil residual resistance factors (F{sub rro}) of 2 or less. Significant oil throughput was required to achieve low F{sub rro} values, suggesting that gelant penetration into porous rock must be small (a few feet or less) for existing pore-filling gels to provide effective disproportionate permeability reduction. Compared with adsorbed polymers and weak gels, strong pore-filling gels can provide greater reliability and behavior that is insensitive to the initial rock permeability. Guidance is provided on where relative-permeability-modification/disproportionate-permeability-reduction treatments can be successfully applied for use in either oil or gas production wells. When properly designed and executed, these treatments can be successfully applied to a limited range of oilfield excessive-water-production problems. We examined whether gel rheology can explain behavior during extrusion through fractures. The rheology behavior of the gels tested showed a strong parallel to the results obtained from previous gel extrusion experiments. However, for a given aperture (fracture width or plate-plate separation), the pressure gradients measured during the gel extrusion experiments were much higher than anticipated from rheology measurements. Extensive experiments established that wall slip and first normal stress difference were not responsible for the pressure gradient discrepancy. To explain the discrepancy, we noted that the aperture for gel flow (for mobile gel wormholing through concentrated immobile gel within the fracture) was much narrower than the width of the fracture. The potential of various approaches were investigated for improving sweep in parts of the Daqing Oil Field that have been EOR targets. Possibilities included (1) gel treatments that are directed at channeling through fractures, (2) colloidal dispersion gels, (3) reduced polymer degradation, (4) more viscous polymer solutions, and (5) foams and other methods. Fractures were present in a number of Daqing wells (both injectors and producers). Because the fractures were narrow far from the wellbore, severe channeling did not occur. On the contrary, fractures near the wellbore aided reservoir sweep. In the February 2006 issue of the Journal of Petroleum Technology, a 'Distinguished-Author-Series' paper claimed that a process using aqueous colloidal dispersion gels (CDG gels) performed superior to polymer flooding. Unfortunately, this claim is misleading and generally incorrect. Colloidal dispersion gels, in their present state of technological development, should not be advocated as an improvement to, or substitute for, polymer flooding.

Randall S. Seright

2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

144

Conduction Effect of Thermal Radiation in a Metal Shield Pipe in a Cryostat for a Cryogenic Interferometric Gravitational Wave Detector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A large heat load caused by thermal radiation through a metal shield pipe was observed in a cooling test of a cryostat for a prototype of a cryogenic interferometric gravitational wave detector. The heat load was approximately 1000 times larger than the value calculated by the Stefan-Boltzmann law. We studied this phenomenon by simulation and experiment and found that it was caused by the conduction of thermal radiation in a metal shield pipe.

Takayuki Tomaru; Masao Tokunari; Kazuaki Kuroda; Takashi Uchiyama; Akira Okutomi; Masatake Ohashi; Hiroyuki Kirihara; Nobuhiro Kimura; Yoshio Saito; Nobuaki Sato; Takakazu Shintomi; Toshikazu Suzuki; Tomiyoshi Haruyama; Shinji Miyoki; Kazuhiro Yamamoto; Akira Yamamoto

2007-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

145

Generation of polarization entangled photon pairs by a single crystal interferometric source pumped by femtosecond laser pulses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Photon pairs, highly entangled in polarization have been generated under femtosecond laser pulse excitation by a type I crystal source, operating in a single arm interferometric scheme. The relevant effects of temporal walk-off existing in these conditions between the ordinary and extraordinary photons were experimentally investigated. By introducing a suitable temporal compensation between the two orthogonal polarization components highly entangled pulsed states were obtained.

M. Barbieri; C. Cinelli; F. De Martini; P. Mataloni

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

High temperature millimeter wave radiometric and interferometric measurements of slag-refractory interaction for application to coal gasifiers  

SciTech Connect

Millimeter wave (MMW) radiometry can be used for simultaneous measurement of emissivity and temperature of materials under extreme environments (high temperature, pressure, and corrosive environments) such as in slagging coal gasifiers, where sensors have been identified as a key enabling technology need for process optimization. We present a state-of-the-art dual-channel MMW heterodyne radiometer with active interferometric capability that allows simultaneous radiometric measurements of sample temperature, emissivity, and flow dynamics to over 1873 K. Interferometric capability is supplied via a probe signal originating from the 137 GHz radiometer local oscillator (LO). The interferometric 'video' channels allow measurement of additional parameters simultaneously, such as volume expansion, thickness change, and slag viscosity along with temperature or emissivity. This capability has been used to demonstrate measurement of temperature and simulated coal slag infiltration into a chromia refractory brick sample as well as slag flow down a vertically placed refractory brick. Observed phenomena include slag melting and slumping, slag reboil and foam with oxygen evolution, and eventual failure of the alumina crucible through corrosion by the molten slag. These results show the promise of the MMW system for extracting quantitative and qualitative process parameters from operating slagging coal gasifiers, providing valuable information for process efficiency, control, and increased productivity.

McCloy, John S.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Sundaram, S. K.; Slaugh, Ryan W.; Woskov, Paul P.

2011-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

147

Foundational platform for mammalian synthetic biology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The emergent field of synthetic biology is different from many other biological engineering efforts, in that its roots, design principles, and forward engineering perspective have been adopted from electrical engineering ...

Davidsohn, Noah (Noah Justin)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Bio-Synthetic Wall Systems Visualization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bio-Synthetic Wall Systems Visualization Speaker(s): Maria-Paz Gutierrez Date: December 16, 2008 - 10:00am Location: 90-3075 Seminar HostPoint of Contact: Michael Donn...

149

The Synthetic Dual-Doppler Analysis Technique  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Synthetic dual-Doppler (SDD) is a single-Doppler analysis technique that combines measurements from two different times, provided the viewing angle changes significantly. In this study, the viability of the SDD technique is investigated through ...

Brian A. Klimowski; John D. Marwitz

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Synthetic analogs of bacterial quorum sensors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Bacterial quorum-sensing molecule analogs having the following structures: ##STR00001## and methods of reducing bacterial pathogenicity, comprising providing a biological system comprising pathogenic bacteria which produce natural quorum-sensing molecule; providing a synthetic bacterial quorum-sensing molecule having the above structures and introducing the synthetic quorum-sensing molecule into the biological system comprising pathogenic bacteria. Further is provided a method of targeted delivery of an antibiotic, comprising providing a synthetic quorum-sensing molecule; chemically linking the synthetic quorum-sensing molecule to an antibiotic to produce a quorum-sensing molecule-antibiotic conjugate; and introducing the conjugate into a biological system comprising pathogenic bacteria susceptible to the antibiotic.

Iyer, Rashi S.; Ganguly, Kumkum; Silks, Louis A.

2013-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

151

Predatory sequence learning for synthetic characters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The process of mammalian predatory sequence development offers a number of insights relevant to the goal of designing synthetic characters that can quickly and easily learn complicated and interesting behavior. We propose ...

Berlin, Matthew Roberts, 1980-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Authentic teaching and learning through synthetic biology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Synthetic biology is an emerging engineering discipline that, if successful, will allow well-characterized biological components to be predictably and reliably built into robust organisms that achieve specific functions. ...

Kuldell, Natalie

153

Comments on momentum aperture of 100 GeV/n Au runs in RHIC  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In RHIC 2010 100 GeV/n Au run, the momentum aperture has been an issue in the re-bucketing and the beam intensity lifetime in store. Both Blue and Yellow beams with comparable storage RF voltage and peak current have suffered more beam loss than in Run 2007. In this note, some comments are made for the momentum aperture of the lattices used from the Au runs in 2007, 2008 and 2010. From the wigglings and the beam decays of each lattice, information regarding the machine momentum aperture is presented. Several directions in further improvement are discussed.

Zhang, S.Y.

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

SMA CO(J=3-2) interferometric observations of the central region of M51  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the first interferometric CO(J=3-2) observations (beam size of 3.9"x1.6" or 160pc x 65pc) with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) toward the center of the Seyfert 2 galaxy M51. The image shows a strong concentration at the nucleus and weak emission from the spiral arm to the northwest. The integrated intensity of the central component in CO(J=3-2) is almost twice as high as that in CO(J=1-0), indicating that the molecular gas within an ~80 pc radius of the nucleus is warm (>~100 K) and dense (~10^4 cm^-3). Similar intensity ratios are seen in shocked regions in our Galaxy, suggesting that these gas properties may be related to AGN or starburst activity. The central component shows a linear velocity gradient (~1.4 km/s/pc) perpendicular to the radio continuum jet, similar to that seen in previous observations and interpreted as a circumnuclear molecular disk/torus around the Seyfert 2 nucleus. In addition, we identify a linear velocity gradient (~0.7 km/s/pc) along the jet. Judging from the energetics, the velocity gradient can be explained by supernova explosions or energy and momentum transfer from the jet to the molecular gas via interaction, which is consistent with the high intensity ratio.

S. Matsushita; K. Sakamoto; C. -Y. Kuo; P. -Y. Hsieh; Dinh-V-Trung; R. -Q. Mao; D. Iono; A. B. Peck; M. C. Wiedner; S. -Y. Liu; N. Ohashi; J. Lim

2004-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

155

Coherent Bayesian inference on compact binary inspirals using a network of interferometric gravitational wave detectors  

SciTech Connect

Presented in this paper is the description of a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) routine for conducting coherent parameter estimation for interferometric gravitational wave observations of an inspiral of binary compact objects using multiple detectors. Data from several interferometers are processed, and all nine parameters (ignoring spin) associated with the binary system are inferred, including the distance to the source, the masses, and the location on the sky. The data is matched with time-domain inspiral templates that are 2.5 post-Newtonian (PN) in phase and 2.0 PN in amplitude. We designed and tuned an MCMC sampler so that it is able to efficiently find the posterior mode(s) in the parameter space and perform the stochastic integration necessary for inference within a Bayesian framework. Our routine could be implemented as part of an inspiral detection pipeline for a world-wide network of detectors. Examples are given for simulated signals and data as seen by the LIGO and Virgo detectors operating at their design sensitivity.

Roever, Christian; Meyer, Renate; Christensen, Nelson [Department of Statistics, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); Physics and Astronomy, Carleton College, Northfield, Minnesota (United States)

2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

156

Modeling and Validation of Performance Limitations for the Optimal Design of Interferometric and Intensity-Modulated Fiber Optic Displacement Sensors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Optical fiber sensors offer advantages over traditional electromechanical sensors, making them particularly well-suited for certain measurement applications. Generally speaking, optical fiber sensors respond to a desired measurand through modulation of an optical signal's intensity, phase, or wavelength. Practically, non-contacting fiber optic displacement sensors are limited to intensity-modulated and interferometric (or phase-modulated) methodologies. Intensity-modulated fiber optic displacement sensors relate target displacement to a power measurement. The simplest intensity-modulated sensor architectures are not robust to environmental and hardware fluctuations, since such variability may cause changes in the measured power level that falsely indicate target displacement. Differential intensity-modulated sensors have been implemented, offering robustness to such intensity fluctuations, and the speed of these sensors is limited only by the combined speed of the photodetection hardware and the data acquisition system (kHz-MHz). The primary disadvantages of intensity-modulated sensing are the relatively low accuracy (?m-mm for low-power sensors) and the lack of robustness, which consequently must be designed, often with great difficulty, into the sensor's architecture. White light interferometric displacement sensors, on the other hand, offer increased accuracy and robustness. Unlike their monochromatic-interferometer counterparts, white light interferometric sensors offer absolute, unambiguous displacement measurements over large displacement ranges (cm for low-power, 5 mW, sources), necessitating no initial calibration, and requiring no environmental or feedback control. The primary disadvantage of white light interferometric displacement sensors is that their utility in dynamic testing scenarios is limited, both by hardware bandwidth and by their inherent high-sensitivity to Doppler-effects. The decision of whether to use either an intensity-modulated interferometric sensor depends on an appropriate performance function (e.g., desired displacement range, accuracy, robustness, etc.). In this dissertation, the performance limitations of a bundled differential intensity-modulated displacement sensor are analyzed, where the bundling configuration has been designed to optimize performance. The performance limitations of a white light Fabry-Perot displacement sensor are also analyzed. Both these sensors are non-contacting, but they have access to different regions of the performance-space. Further, both these sensors have different degrees of sensitivity to experimental uncertainty. Made in conjunction with careful analysis, the decision of which sensor to deploy need not be an uninformed one.

Moro, Erik A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

157

Iterative aperture mask design in phase space using a rank constraint  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present an iterative camera aperture design procedure, which determines an optimal mask pattern based on a sparse set of desired intensity distributions at different focal depths. This iterative method uses the ambiguity ...

Horstmeyer, Roarke William

158

Design of a neutron penumbral-aperture microscope with 10-. mu. m resolution  

SciTech Connect

We are currently designing a 10-{mu}m resolution neutron penumbral-aperture microscope to diagnose high-convergence targets at the Nova laser facility. To achieve such high resolution, the new microscope will require substantial improvements in three areas. First, we have designed thick penumbral apertures with extremely sharp cutoffs over a useful ({approx}100 {mu}m) field of view; fabrication of such apertures appears feasible using gold electroplating techniques. Second, the limited field of view and required close proximity of the aperture to the target (2 cm) necessitates a durable mounting and alignment system with {plus}25 {mu}m accuracy. Finally, a neutron detector containing 160,000 scintillator elements is required; readout and optimization of this large array are outstanding issues. 5 refs., 3 figs.

Ress, D.; Lerche, R.A.; Ellis, R.J.; Lane, S.M.

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Simultaneous Measurement of Ocean Winds and Waves with an Airborne Coherent Real Aperture Radar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A coherent, X-band airborne radar has been developed to measure wind speed and direction simultaneously with directional wave spectra on the ocean. The coherent real aperture radar (CORAR) measures received power, mean Doppler shifts, and mean ...

William J. Plant; William C. Keller; Kenneth Hayes

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

INTERFEROMETRIC CO(3-2) OBSERVATIONS TOWARD THE CENTRAL REGION OF NGC 1068  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present CO(3-2) interferometric observations of the central region of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068 using the Submillimeter Array, together with CO(1-0) data taken with the Owens Valley Radio Observatory Millimeter Array. Both the CO(3-2) and CO(1-0) emission lines are mainly distributed within {approx}5 arcsec of the nucleus and along the spiral arms, but the intensity distributions show differences: the CO(3-2) map peaks in the nucleus, while the CO(1-0) emission is mainly located along the spiral arms. The CO(3-2)/CO(1-0) ratio is about 3.1 in the nucleus, which is four times as large as the average line ratio in the spiral arms, suggesting that the molecular gas there must be affected by the radiation arising from the active galactic nucleus. On the other hand, the line ratios in the spiral arms vary over a wide range from 0.24 to 2.34 with an average value around 0.75, which is similar to the line ratios of star formation regions, indicating that the molecular gas is affected by star formation. Besides, we see a tight correlation between CO(3-2)/(1-0) ratios in the spiral arms and star formation rate surface densities derived from Spitzer 8 {mu}m dust flux densities. We also compare the CO(3-2)/(1-0) ratio and the star formation rate at different positions within the spiral arms; both are found to decrease as the radius from the nucleus increases.

Tsai, Mengchun; Hwang, Chorng-Yuan [Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, Taiwan (China); Matsushita, Satoki; Espada, Daniel [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Baker, Andrew J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

2012-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interferometric synthetic aperture" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Synthetic heparin-binding factor analogs  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention provides synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs having at least one peptide chain, and preferably two peptide chains branched from a dipeptide branch moiety composed of two trifunctional amino acid residues, which peptide chain or chains bind a heparin-binding growth factor receptor and are covalently bound to a non-signaling peptide that includes a heparin-binding domain, preferably by a linker, which may be a hydrophobic linker. The synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs are useful as pharmaceutical agents, soluble biologics or as surface coatings for medical devices.

Pena, Louis A. (Poquott, NY); Zamora, Paul O. (Gaithersburg, MD); Lin, Xinhua (Plainview, NY); Glass, John D. (Shoreham, NY)

2010-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

162

Structure of the surface of synthetic titanosilica  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ESCA), high-resolution NMR (on /sup 29/Si nuclei), and mass spectrometry have been used to investigate a synthetic titanosilica (TS) containing 28-37% titanium dioxide. It has been found that titanium siloxane bonds can form in synthetic TS, regardless of the fact that silicon-oxygen polyhedra predominate in the surface layer. The presence of titanium ions in the surface layer of TS leads to its significant rearrangement; this reduces significantly the concentration of centers for the strong adsorption of water.

Zarko, V.I.; Brei, V.V.; Chuiko, A.A.; Gorlov, Y.I.; Kozub, G.M.; Senkevich, A.I.

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

COMPLEX STRUCTURE IN CLASS 0 PROTOSTELLAR ENVELOPES. II. KINEMATIC STRUCTURE FROM SINGLE-DISH AND INTERFEROMETRIC MOLECULAR LINE MAPPING  

SciTech Connect

We present a study of dense molecular gas kinematics in 17 nearby protostellar systems using single-dish and interferometric molecular line observations. The non-axisymmetric envelopes around a sample of Class 0/I protostars were mapped in the N{sub 2}H{sup +} (J = 1 {yields} 0) tracer with the IRAM 30 m, CARMA, and Plateau de Bure Interferometer, as well as NH{sub 3} (1,1) with the Very Large Array. The molecular line emission is used to construct line-center velocity and linewidth maps for all sources to examine the kinematic structure in the envelopes on spatial scales from 0.1 pc to {approx}1000 AU. The direction of the large-scale velocity gradients from single-dish mapping is within 45{sup 0} of normal to the outflow axis in more than half the sample. Furthermore, the velocity gradients are often quite substantial, the average being {approx}2.3 km s{sup -1} pc{sup -1}. The interferometric data often reveal small-scale velocity structure, departing from the more gradual large-scale velocity gradients. In some cases, this likely indicates accelerating infall and/or rotational spin-up in the inner envelope; the median velocity gradient from the interferometric data is {approx}10.7 km s{sup -1} pc{sup -1}. In two systems, we detect high-velocity HCO{sup +} (J = 1 {yields} 0) emission inside the highest-velocity N{sub 2}H{sup +} emission. This enables us to study the infall and rotation close to the disk and estimate the central object masses. The velocity fields observed on large and small scales are more complex than would be expected from rotation alone, suggesting that complex envelope structure enables other dynamical processes (i.e., infall) to affect the velocity field.

Tobin, John J.; Hartmann, Lee; Bergin, Edwin A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Chiang, Hsin-Fang; Looney, Leslie W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Chandler, Claire J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Masque, Josep M. [Departament d'Astronomia i Meteorologia, Universitat de Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Catalunya (Spain); Maret, Sebastien [UJF-Grenoble 1/CNRS-INSU, Institut de Planetologie et d'Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG) UMR 5274, Grenoble F-38041 (France); Heitsch, Fabian, E-mail: jjtobin@umich.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States)

2011-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

164

A Study of Cooling Time Reduction of Interferometric Cryogenic Gravitational Wave Detectors Using a High-Emissivity Coating  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In interferometric cryogenic gravitational wave detectors, there are plans to cool mirrors and their suspension systems (payloads) in order to reduce thermal noise, that is, one of the fundamental noise sources. Because of the large payload masses (several hundred kg in total) and their thermal isolation, a cooling time of several months is required. Our calculation shows that a high-emissivity coating (e.g. a diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating) can reduce the cooling time effectively by enhancing radiation heat transfer. Here, we have experimentally verified the effect of the DLC coating on the reduction of the cooling time.

Sakakibara, Y; Suzuki, T; Yamamoto, K; Chen, D; Koike, S; Tokoku, C; Uchiyama, T; Ohashi, M; Kuroda, K

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

A Study of Cooling Time Reduction of Interferometric Cryogenic Gravitational Wave Detectors Using a High-Emissivity Coating  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In interferometric cryogenic gravitational wave detectors, there are plans to cool mirrors and their suspension systems (payloads) in order to reduce thermal noise, that is, one of the fundamental noise sources. Because of the large payload masses (several hundred kg in total) and their thermal isolation, a cooling time of several months is required. Our calculation shows that a high-emissivity coating (e.g. a diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating) can reduce the cooling time effectively by enhancing radiation heat transfer. Here, we have experimentally verified the effect of the DLC coating on the reduction of the cooling time.

Y. Sakakibara; N. Kimura; T. Suzuki; K. Yamamoto; D. Chen; S. Koike; C. Tokoku; T. Uchiyama; M. Ohashi; K. Kuroda

2013-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

166

Interferometric study of the natural convection characteristics of flat plate, slat and vee-corrugated solar collectors. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The natural convection heat transfer relations for the heat transfer between absorber and cover plates of solar collectors have been studied. Interferometric techniques were employed to evaluate the local coefficients. Average values were obtained by integration of the local values. The results are presented in terms of correlations between Nusselt number and Grashof number. The investigations were carried out over tilt angles of 45 to 90 degrees. The Grashof number range tested was representative of that existing in flat plate collectors. The various geometrics included large flat enclosures, small aspect ratio enclosures representative of honeycomb or slat collectors, vee-corrugated (vee-grooved) collectors, and compound parabolic concentrators.

El Wakil, M.M.; Mitchell, J.W.

1979-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

167

LCLS X-ray mirror measurements using a large aperture visible light interferometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Synchrotron or FEL X-ray mirrors are required to deliver an X-ray beam from its source to an experiment location, without contributing significantly to wave front distortion. Accurate mirror figure measurements are required prior to installation to meet this intent. This paper describes how a 300 mm aperture phasing interferometer was calibrated to LCLS) at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. Measuring focus mirrors with an interferometer requires additional calibration, because high fringe density introduces systematic errors from the interferometer's imaging optics. This paper describes how these errors can be measured and corrected. The calibration approaches described here apply equally well to interferometers larger than 300 mm aperture, which are becoming more common in optics laboratories. The objective of this effort was to install LCLS flats with < 10 nm of spherical curvature, and < 2 nm rms a-sphere. The objective was met by measuring the mirrors after fabrication, coating and mounting, using a 300 mm aperture phasing interferometer calibrated to an accuracy < 1 nm. The key to calibrating the interferometer accurately was to sample the error using independent geometries that are available. The results of those measurements helped identify and reduce calibration error sources. The approach used to measure flats applies equally well to focus mirrors, provided an additional calibration is performed to measure the error introduced by fringe density. This calibration has been performed on the 300 mm aperture interferometer, and the measurement correction was evaluated for a typical focus mirror. The 300 mm aperture limitation requires stitching figure measurements together for many X-ray mirrors of interest, introducing another possible error source. Stitching is eliminated by applying the calibrations described above to larger aperture instruments. The authors are presently extending this work to a 600 mm instrument. Instruments with 900 mm aperture are now becoming available, which would accommodate the largest mirrors of interest.

McCarville, T; Soufli, R; Pivovaroff, M

2011-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

168

Immobilization of radioiodine in synthetic boracite  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nuclear waste storage product is disclosed in which radioiodine is incorporated in a synthetic boracite. The boracite may be prepared by reacting a transition metal iodide with an alkali horate under mild hydrothermal conditions, drying the reaction product, and then hot pressing.

Babad, H.; Strachan, D.M.

1982-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

169

Synthetic fuel production by indirect coal liquefaction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, the production of a synthetic crude oil product by direct contact of coal with an appropriate catalyst, with abundant domestic coal resources but lim- ited oil and gas resources, the conversion of coal into liquid in South Africa (for Fischer- Tropsch fuels). Also, the US Department of Energy an- nounced its financial

170

Synthetic fuels, carbon dioxide and climate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The observed increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) has been attributed to the use of fossil fuels. There is concern that the generation and use of synthetic fuels derived from oil shale and coal will accelerate the increase of CO2.

Alex R. Sapre; John R. Hummel; Ruth A. Reck

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Relative chemical composition of selected synthetic crudes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A knowledge of the composition of synthetic crudes can provide an important input into the assessment of occupational exposure monitoring requirements for the coal conversion and oil shale industries. This paper summarizes comparative compositional studies of coal- and shale-derived crude oils with petroleum crude oils as a reference point.

Griest, W.H.; Guerin, M.R.; Clark, B.R.; Ho, C.; Rubin, I.B.; Jones, A.R.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Experimentally driven verification of synthetic biological circuits  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a framework that allows us to construct and formally analyze the behavior of synthetic gene circuits from specifications in a high level language used in describing electronic circuits. Our back-end synthesis tool automatically generates genetic-regulatory ...

Boyan Yordanov; Evan Appleton; Rishi Ganguly; Ebru Aydin Gol; Swati Banerjee Carr; Swapnil Bhatia; Traci Haddock; Calin Belta; Douglas Densmore

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Off-momentum dynamic aperture for lattices in the RHIC heavy ion runs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To reduce transverse emittance growth rates from intrabeam scattering in the RHIC heavy ion runs, a lattice with an increased phase advance in the arc FODO cells was adopted in 2008-2011. During these runs, a large beam loss due to limited off-momentum dynamic aperture was observed during longitudinal RF re-bucketing and with transverse cooling. Based on the beam loss observations in the previous ion runs and the calculated off-momentum apertures, we decided to adopt the lattice used before 2008 for the 2012 U-U and Cu-Au runs. The observed beam decay and the measured momentum aperture in the 2012 U-U run are presented.

Luo Y.; Bai, M.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Gu, X.; Fischer, W.; Marusic, A.; Roser, T.; Tepikian, S.; Zhang, S.

2012-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

174

Aspects of the political economy of development and synthetic biology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

What implications might synthetic biologys potential as a wholly new method of production have for the world economy, particularly developing countries? Theories of political economy predict that synthetic biology can ...

Wellhausen, Rachel

175

Fusion as a source of synthetic fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the near-term, coal derived synthetic fuels will be used; but in the long-term, resource depletion and environmental effects will mandate synthetic fuels from inexhaustible sources - fission, fusion, and solar. Of the three sources, fusion appears uniquely suited for the efficient production of hydrogen-based fuels, due to its ability to directly generate very high process temperatures (up to approx. 2000/sup 0/C) for water splitting reactions. Fusion-based water splitting reactions include high temperature electrolysis (HTE) of steam, thermochemical cycles, hybrid electrochemical/thermochemical, and direct thermal decomposition. HTE appears to be the simplest and most efficient process with efficiencies of 50 to 70% (fusion to hydrogen chemical energy), depending on process conditions.

Powell, J.R.; Fillo, J.A.; Steinberg, M.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Radiance: Synthetic Imaging System | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Radiance: Synthetic Imaging System Radiance: Synthetic Imaging System Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: RADIANCE Agency/Company /Organization: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Sector: Energy Focus Area: Buildings Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Desktop Application Website: radsite.lbl.gov/radiance/ Cost: Free References: Radiance[1] Logo: RADIANCE RADIANCE is a highly accurate ray-tracing software system for UNIX computers that is licensed at no cost in source form. Radiance was developed with primary support from the U.S. Department Of Energy and additional support from the Swiss Federal Government. Radiance is a suite of programs for the analysis and visualization of lighting in design. Input files specify the scene geometry, materials, luminaires,time, date

177

Experimental study of natural convection heat transfer through an aperture in passive solar heated buildings  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this study is to obtain correlations between natural convection heat transfer through an aperture and temperature difference between the two rooms. A one-fifth similitude model of a two-room building is used. The model is filled with Freon gas to satisfy similarity of the experiment to full-scale conditions in air. The experimental apparatus and experimental techniques are explained. Experimental results are presented in terms of Grashof, Nusselt, and Prandtl numbers. The effects of the height, the width, and the vertical position of the apertures are investigated, as is the effect of the room volume.

Yamaguchi, Kenjiro

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

BglBrick vectors and datasheets; a synthetic biology platform for gene expression  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and datasheets: A synthetic biology platform for genepart by the Synthetic Biology Engineering Research Center,94720, USA. 6 Synthetic Biology Engineering Research Center,

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Metabolic engineering of microorganisms for biofuels production: from bugs to synthetic biology to fuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DK, Weiss R: Synthetic biology: new engineering rules for anfrom bugs to synthetic biology to fuels Sung Kuk Lee, Howardengineering and synthetic biology will provide new tools for

Kuk Lee, Sung

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Preliminary Report on the Feasibility of Using Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry to Image Localized Strain as a Discriminator of Geothermal Resources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Most producing geothermal fields and known geothermal resources in the Basin and Range province are associated with Quaternary active fault systems, within which hydrothermal fluids are presumed to circulate from depth to relatively shallow production levels through high permeability fractures. Research at the Dixie Valley field by Barton et al. (1997) indicates that hydraulically conductive fractures within the Stillwater fault zone are those that have orientations such that the fractures are critically stressed for normal shear failure under the regional tectonic stress field. In general, therefore, we might expect geothermal resources to occur in areas of high inter-seismic strain accumulation, and where faults are favorably oriented with respect to the regional strain tensor; in the case of Basin and Range normal faults, these would generally be faults striking normal to the direction of maximum extension. Expanding this hypothesis, Blewitt et al. (2003), based on preliminary, broad-scale analysis of regional strain and average fault strike in the northwestern Basin and Range, have proposed that geothermal resources occur in areas where fault-normal extension associated with shear strain is the greatest. Caskey and Wesnousky (2000) presented evidence that the Dixie Valley field occupies a 10 km-long gap between prehistoric Holocene ruptures of the fault segments on either side. Modeled maximum shear and Coulomb failure stress are high within the gap owing to the stress concentrations at the ends of the ruptures. These results suggest that a major contributing factor to the enhanced permeability at fault-hosted geothermal systems may be localized stress and strain concentrations within fault zone segments. This notion is generally consistent with the common occurrence of geothermal fields within fault offsets (pull-aparts) along strike-slip fault systems, where the local strain field has a large extensional component (e.g., Salton Sea and Coso). Blewitt et al. (2003) suggested that resources correlate with abrupt changes in fault orientation and with changes in the direction of extensional strain.

Foxall, W

2005-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interferometric synthetic aperture" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Aperture Test for Internal Target Operation in the JLAB High-current ERL  

SciTech Connect

A high current beam transmission test has been successfully completed at the JLAB FEL Facility, culminating in very low-loss transmission of a high current CW beam through a small aperture. The purpose of this test was to determine if an ERL is capable of meeting the stringent requirements imposed by the use of a 1018/cm3 internal gas target proposed for the DarkLight experiment*. Minimal beamline modifications were made to create a machine configuration that is substantially different from those used in routine UV or IR FEL operation. A sustained (8 hour) high power beam run was performed, with clean transmission through a 2 mm transverse aperture of 127 mm length simulating the target configuration. A beam size of 50 um (rms) was measured near the center of the aperture. Experimental data from a week-long test run consistently exhibited beam loss of only a few ppm on the aperture while running 4.5 mA current at 100 MeV -- or nearly 0.5 MW beam power. This surpassed the users? expectation and demonstrated a unique capability of an ERL for this type of experiments. This report presents a summary of the experiment, a brief overview of our activities, and outlines future plans.

Zhang, Shukui

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Detection optimization using linear systems analysis of a coded aperture laser sensor system  

SciTech Connect

Minimum detectable irradiance levels for a diffraction grating based laser sensor were calculated to be governed by clutter noise resulting from reflected earth albedo. Features on the earth surface caused pseudo-imaging effects on the sensor`s detector arras that resulted in the limiting noise in the detection domain. It was theorized that a custom aperture transmission function existed that would optimize the detection of laser sources against this clutter background. Amplitude and phase aperture functions were investigated. Compared to the diffraction grating technique, a classical Young`s double-slit aperture technique was investigated as a possible optimized solution but was not shown to produce a system that had better clutter-noise limited minimum detectable irradiance. Even though the double-slit concept was not found to have a detection advantage over the slit-grating concept, one interesting concept grew out of the double-slit design that deserved mention in this report, namely the Barker-coded double-slit. This diffractive aperture design possessed properties that significantly improved the wavelength accuracy of the double-slit design. While a concept was not found to beat the slit-grating concept, the methodology used for the analysis and optimization is an example of the application of optoelectronic system-level linear analysis. The techniques outlined here can be used as a template for analysis of a wide range of optoelectronic systems where the entire system, both optical and electronic, contribute to the detection of complex spatial and temporal signals.

Gentry, S.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Optoelectronic Design Dept.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Rock Joint Surfaces Measurement and Analysis of Aperture Distribution under Different Normal and Shear Loading Using GIS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Geometry of the rock joint is a governing factor for joint mechanical and hydraulic behavior. A new method of evaluating aperture distribution based on measurement of joint surfaces and three dimensional characteristics of each surface is developed. Artificial joint of granite surfaces are measured,processed, analyzed and three dimensional approaches are carried out for surface characterization. Parameters such as asperity's heights, slope angles, and aspects distribution at micro scale,local concentration of elements and their spatial localization at local scale are determined by Geographic Information System (GIS). Changes of aperture distribution at different normal stresses and various shear displacements are visualized and interpreted. Increasing normal load causes negative changes in aperture frequency distribution which indicates high joint matching. However, increasing shear displacement causes a rapid increase in the aperture and positive changes in the aperture frequency distribution which could be ...

Sharifzadeh, Mostafa; Esaki, Tetsuro

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Experimental deformation of natural and synthetic dolomite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Natural and hot isostatically pressed dolomite aggregates were experimentally deformed at effective pressures of Pe = 50 ?? 400 MPa, temperatures of 400 ?? 850??C, and strain rates of ?& = 1.2x10-4 s-1 to 1.2x10-7 s-1. Coarse- and fine-grained dolomite deformed at low temperature (T ? 700??C for coarse-grained natural dolomite, T < 700??C for fine-grained natural and synthetic dolomite) exhibit mechanical behavior that is nearly plastic; differential stresses are insensitive to strain rate, fitted either by a power law no?????????=??????31&& with n values that range from 12 to 49 or an exponential law ([31exp )] ??????=o&& with exponential law term ? values from 0.023 to 0.079 MPa-1. Microstructures of samples deformed at low temperatures include mechanical twins, and undulatory extinction suggesting that twin glide and dislocation slip are the predominant deformation mechanisms. At high temperatures (T ? 800??C) flow strengths of coarse- and fine-grained dolomite depend more strongly on strain-rate and exhibit pronounced temperature dependencies. Microstructures of coarse-grained dolomite samples deformed at T ? 800??C include undulatory extinction and fine recrystallized grains suggesting that recovery and dynamic recrystallization contribute to dislocation creep at these conditions. By comparison with lower temperature deformation, mechanical twinning is unimportant. Fine-grained synthetic dolomite deformed at high temperature (T ? 700??C) exhibits nearly linear (Newtonian) viscous behavior, with n = 1.28 (??0.15) consistent with grain boundary (Coble) diffusion creep. At low temperatures (T ? 700??C) coarse-grained dolomite exhibits higher strengths at higher temperatures which cannot be described by an Arrhenius relation, while fine-grained dolomite strengths show little or no temperature dependence. At high temperatures (T ? 800??C), dislocation creep of coarse-grained dolomite can be described by a thermally activated power law ??????????????????=RTHno*31exp??????&& with H*/n = 60 kJ/mol, or by an exponential law ()[]??????????=RTHo*31expexp?????&& with H*/? = 25447 kJ/mol. At high temperatures, diffusion creep of fine-grained synthetic dolomite can be described by ?????????????????????????=RTHdno*313exp??????&& with H* = 280 ??45 kJ/mol. Taken together, the flow laws for coarse- and fine-grained dolomites constrain the high temperature conditions over which crystal plasticity, dislocation creep, and diffusion creep dominate.

Davis, Nathan Ernest

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Mineralization of Synthetic Polymer Scaffolds: A Bottom-Up ...  

Mineralization of Synthetic Polymer Scaffolds: A Bottom-Up Approach for the Development of Artificial Bone Jie Song,*,, Viengkham Malathong, and Carolyn R ...

186

A new aperture for neutron and x-ray imaging of inertial confinement fusion experiments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent neutron imaging of experiments at the National Ignition Facility has provided useful information about the hotspot shape and cold-fuel distribution and has also given insight into avenues for improvement. Neutron image reconstruction depends on accurate pointing information because the point-spread function of the neutron aperture is not shift invariant. Current pointing techniques are limited in their accuracy and rely upon detailed information about the as-built structure of the array, which is difficult to determine. We present a technique for extracting high-precision pointing information from both neutron and x-ray images, and a new aperture design with features to facilitate this technique, and allow future co-registration of neutron and x-ray images.

Danly, C. R.; Grim, G. P.; Guler, N.; Intrator, M. H.; Merrill, F. E.; Volegov, P.; Wilde, C. H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, PO Box 1663, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

187

Coherent hard x-ray diffractive imaging of nonisolated objects confined by an aperture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coherent hard x-ray imaging of nonisolated weak phase objects is demonstrated by confining x-ray beam in a region of a few micrometers in cross section using a micrometer-sized aperture. Two major obstacles in the hard x-ray coherent diffraction imaging, isolating samples and obtaining central speckles, are addressed by using the aperture. The usefulness of the proposed method is illustrated by reconstructing the exit wave field of a nanoscale trench structure fabricated on silicon which serves as a weak phase object. The quantitative phase information of the exit wave field was used to reconstruct the depth profile of the trench structure. The scanning capability of this method was also briefly discussed.

Kim, Sunam; Kim, Chan; Lee, Suyong; Marathe, Shashidhara; Noh, D. Y.; Kang, H. C.; Kim, S. S.; Sandy, A.; Narayanan, S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Nanobio Materials and Electronics, Graduate Program of Photonics and Applied Physics, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Advanced Materials Engineering and BK21 Education Center of Mould Technology for Advanced Materials and Parts, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

188

Fusion: an energy source for synthetic fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The decreasing availability of fossil fuels emphasizes the need to develop systems which will produce synthetic fuel to substitute for and supplement the natural supply. An important first step in the synthesis of liquid and gaseous fuels is the production of hydrogen. Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of approx. 40 to 60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high temperature electrolysis of approx. 50 to 70% are projected for fusion reactors using high temperature blankets. Fusion/coal symbiotic systems appear economically promising for the first generation of commercial fusion synfuels plants. Coal production requirements and the environmental effects of large-scale coal usage would be greatly reduced by a fusion/coal system. In the long term, there could be a gradual transition to an inexhaustible energy system based solely on fusion.

Fillo, J A; Powell, J; Steinberg, M

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Chemical basis for photomutagenicity in synthetic fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Photomutagens (chemicals that enhance the mutagenicity of near uv-visible radiation) have been detected in a variety of experimental coal- and oil shale-derived synthetic fuels using S. typhimurium strain TA98 and fluorescent light. In this study, photomutagenic activity was measured among synfuel samples that included crude and hydrotreated shale oil, coal oil distillation fractions, and chemical class fractions of coal and shale oils. Photomutagenic activity was found to increase with increasing boiling point and was cencentrated in fractions enriched in neutral polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). These results point to high molecular weight neutral PAH constitutents as important photomutagenic components among the samples tested. The photomutagenic activities of the materials tested correlate well with the previously reported tumorigenic activities of the same samples on mouse skin but correlate poorly with the previously reported mutagenic activities in the conventional Salmonella/mammalian-microsome mutagenicity test in which neutral PAH fractions were inactive.

Selby, C.P.; Calkins, J.; Enoch, H.G.; Wright, C.W.; Wilson, B.W.

1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

(M) A SURVEY OF SYNTHETIC FUELISHNESS*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

nuclear fission reactor plants, through "burn-up " of nuclear fuels, have all beenusedtoprovideheatfor direct use inhanes, institutions and industry, and to generate mechanical and electrical power using the Otto, Diesel and Rankine heat cycles. These fuels are considered to be natural since they are found innatureandareusedaftervaryingdegrees of processing, enrichment or refinement. Other energy sources includehydropxer,windpower, geothmlheatandheator electricity converted fransolar energy captured in stationary flat plate, one-axis tracking linear-trough and two-axis tracking spherical, parabolic or heliostatic collectors. These sources of energy also existinnature, butarenot fuels sinceburn-up is not required. This leaves ahostof fuels which canbe synthesized frannaturalrnaterials using an equal n&xx of electrical or chemical processes. These synthetic or manufactured fuels include coal gas, fuel oils derived fran coal, solid fuel residuals, methane derived fran sewage or kelp, ethanol derived fran fenxntation of grains, methanol derived fran destructive distillation of wood, and

F. F. Hall

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Environmental data energy technology characterizations: synthetic fuels  

SciTech Connect

Environmental Data Energy Technology Characterizations are publications which are intended to provide policy analysts and technical analysts with basic environmental data associated with key energy technologies. This publication provides documentation on synthetic fuels (coal-derived and oil shale). The transformation of the energy in coal and oil shale into a more useful form is described in this publication in terms of major activity areas in the synthetic fuel cycles, that is, in terms of activities which produce either an energy product or a fuel leading to the production of an energy product in a different form. The activities discussed in this document are coal liquefaction, coal gasification, in-situ gasification, and oil shales. These activities represent both well-documented and advanced activity areas. The former activities are characterized in terms of actual operating data with allowance for future modification where appropriate. Emissions are assumed to conform to environmental standards. The advanced activity areas examined are those like coal liquefaction and in-situ retorting of oil shale. For these areas, data from pilot or demonstration plants were used where available; otherwise, engineering studies provided the data. The organization of the chapters in this volume is designed to support the tabular presentation in the summary volume. Each chapter begins with a brief description of the activity under consideration. The standard characteristics, size, availability, mode of functioning and place in the fuel cycle are presented. Next, major legislative and/or technological factors influencing the commercial operation of the activity are offered. Discussions of resources consumed, residuals produced, and economics follow. To aid in comparing and linking the different activity areas, data for each area are normalized to 10/sup 12/ Btu of energy output from the activity.

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Measured Radiation and Background Levels During Transmission of Megawatt Electron Beams Through Millimeter Apertures  

SciTech Connect

We report measurements of photon and neutron radiation levels observed while transmitting a 0.43 MW electron beam through millimeter-sized apertures and during beam-off, but accelerating gradient RF-on, operation. These measurements were conducted at the Free-Electron Laser (FEL) facility of the Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory (JLab) using a 100 MeV electron beam from an energy-recovery linear accelerator. The beam was directed successively through 6 mm, 4 mm, and 2 mm diameter apertures of length 127 mm in aluminum at a maximum current of 4.3 mA (430 kW beam power). This study was conducted to characterize radiation levels for experiments that need to operate in this environment, such as the proposed DarkLight Experiment. We find that sustained transmission of a 430 kW continuous-wave (CW) beam through a 2 mm aperture is feasible with manageable beam-related backgrounds. We also find that during beam-off, RF-on operation, multipactoring inside the niobium cavities of the accelerator cryomodules is the primary source of ambient radiation when the machine is tuned for 130 MeV operation.

Alarcon, Ricardo [Arizona State University, Glendale, AZ (United States); Balascuta, S. [Arizona State University, Glendale, AZ (United States); Benson, Stephen V. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Bertozzi, William [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Boyce, James R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Cowan, Ray [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Douglas, David R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Evtushenko, Pavel [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Fisher, P. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ihloff, Ernest E. [Hampton University, Hampton, VA (United States); Kalantarians, Narbe [Hampton University, Hampton, VA (United States); Kelleher, Aidan Michael [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Krossler, W. J. [William and Mary College, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Legg, Robert A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Long, Elena [University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Milner, Richard [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Neil, George R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Ou, Longwu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Schmookler, Barack Abraham [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Tennant, Christopher D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Tschalar, C. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Williams, Gwyn P. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Zhang, Shukui [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Nocturnal Aerosol Optical Depth Measurements with a Small-Aperture Automated Photometer Using the Moon as a Light Source  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method is described that enables the use of lunar irradiance to obtain nighttime aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements using a small-aperture photometer. In this approach, the U.S. Geological Survey lunar calibration system was utilized to ...

Timothy A. Berkoff; Mikail Sorokin; Tom Stone; Thomas F. Eck; Raymond Hoff; Ellsworth Welton; Brent Holben

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Aperture lamp  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A discharge lamp includes means for containing a light emitting fill, the fill being capable of absorbing light at one wavelength and re-emitting the light at a different wavelength, the light emitted from the fill having a first spectral power distribution in the absence of reflection of light back into the fill; means for exciting the fill to cause the fill to emit light; and means for reflecting some of the light emitted by the fill back into the fill while allowing some light to exit, the exiting light having a second spectral power distribution with proportionately more light in the visible region as compared to the first spectral power distribution, wherein the light re-emitted by the fill is shifted in wavelength with respect to the absorbed light and the magnitude of the shift is in relation to an effective optical path length. Another discharge lamp includes an envelope; a fill which emits light when excited disposed in the envelope; a source of excitation power coupled to the fill to excite the fill and cause the fill to emit light; and a reflective ceramic structure disposed around the envelope and defining an light emitting opening, wherein the structure comprises a sintered body built up directly on the envelope and made from a combination of alumina and silica.

MacLennan, Donald A. (Gaithersburg, MD); Turner, Brian P. (Damascus, MD)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

FODO-Supercell Based Compact Ring Design with Tunable Momentum Compaction and Optimized Dynamic Aperture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A storage ring with tunable momentum compaction has the advantage in achieving different RMS bunch length with similar RF capacity, which is potentially useful for many applications, such as linear collider damping ring and predamping ring where injected beam has a large energy spread and a large transverse emittance. A tunable bunch length also makes the commissioning and fine tuning easier in manipulating the single bunch instabilities. In this paper, a compact ring design based on a supercell is presented, which achieves a tunable momentum compaction while maintaining a large dynamic aperture.

Sun, Yipeng; /SLAC

2012-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

196

FODO-Supercell Based Compact Ring Design with Tunable Momentum Compaction and Optimized Dynamic Aperture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A storage ring with tunable momentum compaction has the advantage in achieving different RMS bunch length with similar RF capacity, which is potentially useful for many applications, such as linear collider damping ring and pre-damping ring where injected beam has a large energy spread and a large transverse emittance. A tunable bunch length also makes the commissioning and fine tuning easier in manipulating the single bunch instabilities. In this paper, a compact ring design based on a supercell is presented, which achieves a tunable momentum compaction while maintaining a large dynamic aperture.

Sun, Yipeng; /SLAC

2012-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

197

Synthetic fuel utilization. Final report. Task 330  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The presence of large coal resources in this country provided the spur for consideration of liquids derived from hydrogenation of coal in the search for alternate liquid fuels to replace petroleum. Previous developments particularly in German industry beginning in 1910 and reaching a capacity of approximately four million tons of products a year by 1944 and more recently a series of plants in South Africa have shown the practicability of coal liquefaction. A few more advanced processes have been developed variously to bench, pilot or commercial scale from among the thirty or more which were subject to study. Limitation in the amount of hydrogen used in these for reasons of economy and processing facility results in products containing major amounts of aromatics as well as significant portions of the sulfur and nitrogen of the coal feed. Combustion of the largely aromatic liquids can present problems in commercial burners designed for petroleum fuels, and combustion staging used to reduce NO/sub x/ emissions with the latter may encounter difficulties from sooting in the coal-derived fuels, which occurs readily with aromatics. This report presents a review of such problems in utilization of synthetic fuels from coal, emphasizing basic engineering and scientific studies which have been made. A research program involving a number of universities, industrial laboratories, and non-profit research institutions was carried out under the direction of the Department of Energy's Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. This program is also reviewed. The major subjects covered are those of liquefaction product composition and properties, fuel spray and droplet processes, synfuel pyrolysis, combustion mechanics, soot formation, and pollutant emission. Recommendations concerning needs for investigation are made from an evaluation of the current status of the field and the results obtained in the program. 15 references, 1 figure, 7 tables.

Singer, S.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Computational optimization of synthetic water channels.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Membranes for liquid and gas separations and ion transport are critical to water purification, osmotic energy generation, fuel cells, batteries, supercapacitors, and catalysis. Often these membranes lack pore uniformity and robustness under operating conditions, which can lead to a decrease in performance. The lack of uniformity means that many pores are non-functional. Traditional membranes overcome these limitations by using thick membrane materials that impede transport and selectivity, which results in decreased performance and increased operating costs. For example, limitations in membrane performance demand high applied pressures to deionize water using reverse osmosis. In contrast, cellular membranes combine high flux and selective transport using membrane-bound protein channels operating at small pressure differences. Pore size and chemistry in the cellular channels is defined uniformly and with sub-nanometer precision through protein folding. The thickness of these cellular membranes is limited to that of the cellular membrane bilayer, about 4 nm thick, which enhances transport. Pores in the cellular membranes are robust under operating conditions in the body. Recent efforts to mimic cellular water channels for efficient water deionization produced a significant advance in membrane function. The novel biomimetic design achieved a 10-fold increase in membrane permeability to water flow compared to commercial membranes and still maintained high salt rejection. Despite this success, there is a lack of understanding about why this membrane performs so well. To address this lack of knowledge, we used highperformance computing to interrogate the structural and chemical environments experienced by water and electrolytes in the newly created biomimetic membranes. We also compared the solvation environments between the biomimetic membrane and cellular water channels. These results will help inform future efforts to optimize and tune the performance of synthetic biomimetic membranes for applications in water purification, energy, and catalysis.

Rogers, David Michael; Rempe, Susan L. B.

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Synthetic Nano-Low Density Lipoprotein as Targeted Drug Delivery Vehicle for Glioblastoma Multiforme  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Synthetic Nano-Low Density Lipoprotein as Targeted Drugmicroemulsion; peptide; nano-low density lipoproteintherapeutic agents. A synthetic nano-LDL (nLDL) particle was

Nikanjam, Mina; Blakely, Eleanor A.; Bjornstad, Kathleen A.; Shu, Xiao; Budinger, Thomas F.; Forte, Trudy M.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Slurry growth and gas retention in synthetic Hanford waste  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This work seeks to establish chemical and physical processes responsible for the generation and retention of gases within waste from a particular high-level waste tank on the Hanford Site, Tank 101-SY, through the use of synthetic wastes on a laboratory scale. The goal of these activities is to support the development of mitigation/remediation strategies for Tank 101-SY. Laboratory studies of aged synthetic waste have shown that gas generation occurs thermally at a significant level at current tank temperatures. Gas compositions include the same gases produced in actual tank waste, primarily N{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, and H{sub 2}. Gas stoichiometries have been shown to be greatly influenced by several organic and inorganic constituents within the synthetic waste. Retention of gases in the synthetic waste is in the form of bubble attachment to solid particles.

Bryan, S.A.; Pederson, L.R.; Scheele, R.D.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interferometric synthetic aperture" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Synthetic scaffolds and protein assemblies for engineering applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

S-layer proteins, which naturally self-assemble on the exterior of cells, provide an interesting basis for the creation of synthetic scaffolds. In this thesis, I created a plasmid which produces a recombinant form of a ...

Norville, Julie Erin, 1980-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Slurry growth and gas retention in synthetic Hanford waste  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This work seeks to establish chemical and physical processes responsible for the generation and retention of gases within waste from a particular high-level waste tank on the Hanford Site, Tank 101-SY, through the use of synthetic wastes on a laboratory scale. The goal of these activities is to support the development of mitigation/remediation strategies for Tank 101-SY. Laboratory studies of aged synthetic waste have shown that gas generation occurs thermally at a significant level at current tank temperatures. Gas compositions include the same gases produced in actual tank waste, primarily N[sub 2], N[sub 2]O, and H[sub 2]. Gas stoichiometries have been shown to be greatly influenced by several organic and inorganic constituents within the synthetic waste. Retention of gases in the synthetic waste is in the form of bubble attachment to solid particles.

Bryan, S.A.; Pederson, L.R.; Scheele, R.D.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Development of a synthetic phase contrast imaging diagnostic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A synthetic diagnostic has been developed to calculate the expected experimental response of phase contrast imaging (PCI), a scattering diagnostic used to measure density fluctuations in laboratory plasmas, to a tokamak ...

Rost, Jon C.

204

What rough beast? Synthetic Biology and the Future of Biosecurity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Synthetic biology seeks to create modular biological parts that can be assembled into useful devices, allowing the modification of biological systems with greater reliability, at lower cost, with greater speed, and by a ...

Mohr, Scott C.

205

Defossiling Fuel: How Synthetic Biology Can Transform Biofuel Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Defossiling Fuel: How Synthetic Biology Can Transform Biofuel Production David F. Savage , Jeffrey through natural intermediates to final molecule is long, and biofuel production is perhaps the ultimate engineering, economic, political, and environmental realities. Are biofuels sustainable? Consider U

206

Synthetic Biology Offers New Hope For Malaria Victims  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

March 24, 2004 science beat | current article | lab a-z index | lab home Synthetic Biology Offers New Hope For Malaria Victims Contact: Lynn Yarris, lcyarris@lbl.gov x-ray...

207

Retroactivity, modularity, and insulation in synthetic biology circuits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A central concept in synthetic biology is the reuse of well-characterized modules. Modularity simplifies circuit design by allowing for the decomposition of systems into separate modules for individual construction. Complex ...

Lin, Allen

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Biofuel production by in vitro synthetic enzymatic pathway biotransformation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

49; 49; NO. OF PAGES 7 Please cite this article in press as: Zhang Y-H P., et al. Biofuel production by in vitro synthetic enzymatic pathway biotransformation, Curr Opin Biotechnol (2010), doi:10.1016/j.copbio.2010.05.005 Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Biofuel production by in vitro synthetic enzymatic pathway biotransformation Y-H Percival Zhang 1,2,3 , Jibin Sun 4 and Jian-Jiang Zhong 5 Cell-free synthetic pathway biotransformation (SyPaB) is the implementation of complicated biochemical reactions by in vitro assembling a number of enzymes or their complexes and coenzymes. Assembly of numerous enzymes without cellular membrane, gene regulation, or undesired pathway can circumvent some of the obstacles to modifying living microorganisms. Several synthetic pathways for the production of liquid biofuels - alcohols and hydrocarbon precursors (polyols)

209

Extension and Validation of a Gulf Stream Geosat Synthetic Geoid  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An extended synthetic geoid for the western North Atlantic Ocean was constructed by employing Geosat altimeter data, concurrent dynamic model forecasts, and climatology. Estimates of the absolute dynamic topography from the altimeter were ...

David L. Porter; Scott M. Glenn; Ella B. Dobson; Michael F. Crowley

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Single fracture aperture patterns: Characterization by slit-island fractal analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Single fracture measurements are difficult to obtain, but they are the only means we have to observe and study natural fracture morphology. The character of the fracture openings (apertures) is often one of the primary factors controlling fluid flow in the fracture. In particular, the shape, distribution, and connectivity of contact areas and flow channels can affect the relative permeability of wetting and non-wetting fluid phases in unsaturated systems. In this paper we use three methods of fractal analysis (the slit-island, the divider, and the variogram) as well as statistical and geostatistical analysis to characterize the geometry of measured fracture apertures obtained from two different fractured rock specimens from the field. One of these is a granitic fracture (crack) of homogeneous lithology and no displacement, the other is a fracture (fault) obtained from a highly altered fault zone, containing striations and slickensides. We discuss the fractal and geostatistical analysis of these two fractures in the context of what information is most helpful for making predictions about fluid flow in single fractures.

Cox, B.L.; Wang, J.S.Y.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Synthetic environment employing a craft for providing user perspective reference  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A multi-dimensional user oriented synthetic environment system allows application programs to be programmed and accessed with input/output device independent, generic functional commands which are a distillation of the actual functions performed by any application program. A shared memory structure allows the translation of device specific commands to device independent, generic functional commands. Complete flexibility of the mapping of synthetic environment data to the user is thereby allowed. Accordingly, synthetic environment data may be provided to the user on parallel user information processing channels allowing the subcognitive mind to act as a filter, eliminating irrelevant information and allowing the processing of increase amounts of data by the user. The user is further provided with a craft surrounding the user within the synthetic environment, which craft, imparts important visual referential an motion parallax cues, enabling the user to better appreciate distances and directions within the synthetic environment. Display of this craft in close proximity to the user's point of perspective may be accomplished without substantially degrading the image resolution of the displayed portions of the synthetic environment.

Maples, Creve (Albuquerque, NM); Peterson, Craig A. (Albuquerque, NM)

1997-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

212

Simultaneous usage of pinhole and penumbral apertures for imaging small scale neutron sources from inertial confinement fusion experiments  

SciTech Connect

Inertial confinement fusion experiments at the National Ignition Facility are designed to understand the basic principles of creating self-sustaining fusion reactions by laser driven compression of deuterium-tritium (DT) filled cryogenic plastic capsules. The neutron imaging diagnostic provides information on the distribution of the central fusion reaction region and the surrounding DT fuel by observing neutron images in two different energy bands for primary (13-17 MeV) and down-scattered (6-12 MeV) neutrons. From this, the final shape and size of the compressed capsule can be estimated and the symmetry of the compression can be inferred. These experiments provide small sources with high yield neutron flux. An aperture design that includes an array of pinholes and penumbral apertures has provided the opportunity to image the same source with two different techniques. This allows for an evaluation of these different aperture designs and reconstruction algorithms.

Guler, N.; Volegov, P.; Danly, C. R.; Grim, G. P.; Merrill, F. E.; Wilde, C. H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

213

Imaging Structure With Fluid Fluxes At The Bradys Geothermal Field With  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Imaging Structure With Fluid Fluxes At The Bradys Geothermal Field With Imaging Structure With Fluid Fluxes At The Bradys Geothermal Field With Satellite Interferometric Radar (Insar)- New Insights Into Reservoir Extent And Structural Controls Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Paper: Imaging Structure With Fluid Fluxes At The Bradys Geothermal Field With Satellite Interferometric Radar (Insar)- New Insights Into Reservoir Extent And Structural Controls Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: We present a new example of Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar's (InSAR) remarkable utility for defining an operating geothermal reservoir's lateral extent and hydrologically active fracture systems. InSAR reveals millimeter-level surface change due to volume change in the reservoir and overlying aquifer systems caused by fluid pressure reduction

214

Debris-less method and apparatus for forming apertures in hollow metallic articles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is a method for forming an aperture in a wall of a hollow metallic article without introducing metallic debris therein. In a typical operation, an annular groove is formed in an exterior portion of the wall. The groove defines an annular wall segment, and the bottom of the groove is shaped to slope downwardly away from the segment to form a tapered annular web which connects the segment to the wall. Any suitable coupling is attached to the outer face of the segment, as by welding. Pull then is applied to the coupling to effect circumferential breakage of the web, thus forming a removable single-piece wall fragment consisting of the web and segment. The fragment and the coupling member attached thereto then are removed from the wall.

Jordan, C.L.; Chodelka, E.J.

1980-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

215

Operating Water Cherenkov Detectors in high altitude sites for the Large Aperture GRB Observatory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water Cherenkov Detectors (WCD) are efficient detectors for detecting GRBs in the 10 GeV - 1 TeV energy range using the single particle technique, given their sensitivity to low energy secondary photons produced by high energy photons when cascading in the atmosphere. The Large Aperture GRB Observatory (LAGO) operates arrays of WCD in high altitude sites (above 4500 m a.s.l.) in Bolivia, Mexico and Venezuela, with planned extension to Peru. Details on the operation and stability of these WCD in remote sites with high background rates of particles will be detailed, and compared to simulations. Specific issues due to operation at high altitude, atmospheric effects and solar activity, as well as possible hardware enhancements will also be presented.

Allard, D; Asorey, H; Barros, H; Bertou, X; Castillo, M; Chirinos, J M; De Castro, A; Flores, S; Gonzlez, J; Berisso, M Gomez; Grajales, J; Guada, C; Day, W R Guevara; Ishitsuka, J; Lpez, J A; Martnez, O; Melfo, A; Meza, E; Loza, P Miranda; Barbosa, E Moreno; Murrugarra, C; Nez, L A; Ormachea, L J Otiniano; Prez, G; Perez, Y; Ponce, E; Quispe, J; Quintero, C; Rivera, H; Rosales, M; Rovero, A C; Saavedra, O; Salazar, H; Tello, J C; Peralda, R Ticona; Varela, E; Velarde, A; Villaseor, L; Wahl, D; Zamalloa, M A

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Postoperative Irradiation of Gynecologic Malignancies: Improving Treatment Delivery Using Aperture-Based Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate dosimetric and treatment delivery advantages of aperture-based intensity-modulated radiotherapy (AB-IMRT) for the treatment of patients receiving whole pelvic radiotherapy for gynecologic malignancies. Methods and Materials: Nineteen patients undergoing pelvic radiotherapy after resection of endometrial cancers were selected. A 45-Gy dose was prescribed to the target volume delineated on a planning CT scan. An in-house inverse planning system, Ballista, was used to develop a treatment plan using aperture-based multileaf collimator segments. This approach was compared with conventional four-field, enlarged four-field, and static beamlet-based IMRT (BB-IMRT) techniques in terms of target coverage, dose-volume histogram statistics for surrounding normal tissues, and numbers of segments and monitor units (MU). Results: Three quarters (76.4%) of the planning target volume received the prescription dose with conventional four-field plans. With adequate target coverage, the Ballista plans significantly reduced the volume of bowel and bladder irradiated at the prescribed dose (p < 0.001), whereas the two approaches provided equivalent results for the rectum (p 0.5). On the other hand, AB-IMRT and BB-IMRT plans showed only small differences in dose-volume histogram statistics of unknown clinical impact, whereas Ballista plan delivery required on average 73% and 59% fewer segments and MU, respectively. Conclusion: With respect to conventional techniques, AB-IMRT for the treatment of gynecologic malignancies provides dosimetric advantages similar to those with BB-IMRT but with clear treatment delivery improvements.

Nadeau, Sylvain [Departement de physique, de genie physique et d' optique, Universite Laval, Quebec, QC (Canada) and Departement de radio-oncologie et Centre de recherche de l' Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec, QC (Canada)]. E-mail: sylvainn@rrsb.nb.ca; Bouchard, Myriam [Departement de radio-oncologie et Centre de recherche de l' Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec, QC (Canada); Germain, Isabelle [Departement de radio-oncologie et Centre de recherche de l' Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec, QC (Canada); Raymond, Paul-Emile [Departement de radio-oncologie et Centre de recherche de l' Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec, QC (Canada); Beaulieu, Frederic [Departement de radio-oncologie et Centre de recherche de l' Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec, QC (Canada); Beaulieu, Luc [Departement de physique, de genie physique et d' optique, Universite Laval, Quebec, QC (Canada); Departement de radio-oncologie et Centre de recherche de l' Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec, QC (Canada); Roy, Rene [Departement de physique, de genie physique et d' optique, Universite Laval, Quebec, QC (Canada); Gingras, Luc [Departement de physique, de genie physique et d' optique, Universite Laval, Quebec, QC (Canada); Departement de radio-oncologie et Centre de recherche de l' Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec, QC (Canada)

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Using the Time-Lag-Correlation function of Dual-Aperture-Scintillometer measurements to obtain the Crosswind  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study the crosswind (U) is determined from the time-lag-correlation function (r12(?)) measured by a dual large aperture scintillometer. U is defined as the wind component perpendicular to a path, in this case the scintillometer path. A ...

Danille van Dinther; Oscar K. Hartogensis

218

Fact book: synthetic pipeline gas from coal. 1982 update  

SciTech Connect

This book illustrates the major advantages of synthetic pipeline gas from coal. Progress on many of the coal gasification projects envisioned over the past decade has been thwarted by regulatory, permitting, and financing delays. The rationale for developing a synthetic pipeline gas industry remains as strong as ever from the nation's viewpoint, and the pioneer US commercial scale high-Btu coal gasification plant is now under construction-the Great Plains coal gasification plant in North Dakota. Also, the US Synthetic Fuels Corporation is now operational and can move forward to provide the guarantees which are necessary to overcome the financial barriers to a commercial synfuels capability in the United States. Compared to other principal means of utilizing America's vast coal reserves, coal gasification uses coal and land more efficiently, uses less water, emits less air pollutants, requires less capital and results in a lower cost of energy to consumers. (DP)

Not Available

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Gas Turbine Combustor Performance on Synthetic Fuels, Volume 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This volume presents a summary of a project to determine the effects of burning currently available coal-derived and shale-derived synthetic liquid fuels in state-of-the-art gas turbine combustors. It describes the fuels tested, the effects of NO emission and of smoke formation and reduction, and a comparison of surrogate and synthetic fuels. The project concluded that a number of selected coal and shale oil fuels can be used in current turbines as soon as these fuels become available.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Composition and Biodegradation of a Synthetic Oil Spilled on the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

characteristics. Composition and natural attenuation of the spilled aviation diesel fuel are discussed in JaraulaComposition and Biodegradation of a Synthetic Oil Spilled on the Perennial Ice Cover of LakeAeroshell500.Molecularcompositionsoftheoilswereanalyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and compared

Priscu, John C.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interferometric synthetic aperture" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Synthetic gene design with a large number of hidden stops  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hidden stops are nucleotide triples TAA, TAG and TGA that appear on the second and third reading frames of a protein coding gene. Recent studies suggested the important role of hidden stops in preventing misread of mRNA. We study the problem of designing ... Keywords: back translation, bioinformatics, codons, gene design, hidden stops, mRNA, protein coding genes, synthetic biology

Vinhthuy Phan; Sudip Saha; Ashutosh Pandey; Tit-Yee Wong

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Evaluation of administrative procedures at the Synthetic Fuels Corporation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Synthetic Fuels Corporation has improved its administrative procedures, but further actions are needed to strengthen contracting practices and internal financial controls. Pertinent recommendations are made in this report. This report also discusses the evolution of the Corporations's current salary structure and the activities of the Office of the Inspector General.

Not Available

1982-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

223

Directed evolution: an evolving and enabling synthetic biology tool  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Directed evolution: an evolving and enabling synthetic biology tool Ryan E Cobb1 , Tong Si1 systems has heretofore rendered rational design prohibitively difficult. As a result, directed evolution large libraries of variants. This review highlights the most recent advances in the use of directed

Zhao, Huimin

224

2006 Special Issue: Synthetic computational models of selective attention  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Computational modeling plays an important role to understand the mechanisms of attention. In this framework, synthetic computational models can uniquely contribute to integrate different explanatory levels and neurocognitive findings, with special reference ... Keywords: Awareness, Meditation states, Processing levels, Selective attention, Synchronization

Antonino Raffone

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

SPE-163690-MS Synthetic, Geomechanical Logs for Marcellus Shale  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SPE-163690-MS Synthetic, Geomechanical Logs for Marcellus Shale M. O. Eshkalak, SPE, S. D of hydrocarbons from the reservoirs, notably shale, is attributed to realizing the key fundamentals of reservoir and mineralogy is crucial in order to identify the "right" pay-zone intervals for shale gas production. Also

Mohaghegh, Shahab

226

The measurement and analysis of wavefront structure from large aperture ICF optics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper discusses the techniques, developed over the past year, for high spatial resolution measurement and analysis of the transmitted and/or reflected wavefront of large aperture ICF optical components. Parts up to 400 mm {times} 750 mm have been measured and include: laser slabs, windows, KDP crystals and lenses. The measurements were performed using state-of-the-art commercial phase shifting interferometers at a wavelength of 633 {mu}m. Both 1 and 2-D Fourier analysis have been used to characterize the wavefront; specifically the Power Spectral Density, (PSD), function was calculated. The PSDs of several precision optical components will be shown. The PSD(V) is proportional to the (amplitude){sup 2} of components of the Fourier frequency spectrum. The PSD describes the scattered intensity and direction as a function of scattering angle in the wavefront. The capability of commercial software is limited to 1-D Fourier analysis only. We are developing our own 2-D analysis capability in support of work to revise specifications for NIF optics. 2-D analysis uses the entire wavefront phase map to construct 2D PSD functions. We have been able to increase the signal-to-noise relative to 1-D and can observe very subtle wavefront structure.

Wolfe, C.R.; Lawson, J.K.

1995-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

227

Optimization Of Chromaticity Compensation And Dynamic Aperture In MEIC Collider Rings  

SciTech Connect

The conceptual design of the Medium-energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC) at Jefferson Lab relies on an ultra-small beta-star to achieve high luminosities of up to 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. A low-beta insertion for interaction regions unavoidably induces large chromatic effects that demand a proper compensation. The present approach of chromatic compensation in the MEIC collider rings is based on a local correction scheme using two symmetric chromatic compensation blocks that includes families of sextupoles, and are placed in a beam extension area on both sides of a collision point. It can simultaneously compensate the first order chromaticity and chromatic beam smear at the IP without inducing significant second order aberrations. In this paper, we investigate both the momentum acceptance and dynamic aperture in the MEIC ion collider ring by considering the aberration effects up to the third order, such as amplitude dependent tune shift. We also explore the compensation of the third order effects by introducing families of octupoles in the extended beam area.

Fanglei Lin, Yaroslav Derbenev, Vasiliy Morozov, Yuhong Zhang, Kevin Beard

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

The Last Gasps of VY Canis Majoris Aperture Synthesis and Adaptive Optics Imagery  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present new observations of the red supergiant VY CMa at 1.25 micron, 1.65 micron, 2.26 micron, 3.08 micron and 4.8 micron. Two complementary observational techniques were utilized: non-redundant aperture masking on the 10-m Keck-I telescope yielding images of the innermost regions at unprecedented resolution, and adaptive optics imaging on the ESO 3.6-m telescope at La Silla attaining extremely high (~10^5) peak-to-noise dynamic range over a wide field. For the first time the inner dust shell has been resolved in the near-infrared to reveal a one-sided extension of circumstellar emission within 0.1" (~15 R_star) of the star. The line-of-sight optical depths of the circumstellar dust shell at 1.65 micron, 2.26 micron, and 3.08 micron have been estimated to be 1.86 +/- 0.42, 0.85 +/- 0.20, and 0.44 +/- 0.11. These new results allow the bolometric luminosity of VY~CMa to be estimated independent of the dust shell geometry, yielding L_star ~ 2x10^5 L_sun. A variety of dust condensations, including a large sca...

Monnier, J D; Lpez, B; Cruzalebes, P; Danchi, W C; Haniff, C A

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Safe, secure and ethical? : assessing and regulating risks associated with synthetic biology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Synthetic biology is an emerging field, with a rapidly developing academic-industrial base and the promise of extensive product launches over the next few years. An intense debate over the risks and benefits of synthetic ...

Regrdh, Pernilla C. (Pernilla Christina)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Nanofabricated collagen-inspired synthetic elastomers for primary rat hepatocyte culture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Synthetic substrates that mimic the properties of extracellular matrix proteins hold significant promise for use in systems designed for tissue engineering applications. In this report, we designed a synthetic polymeric ...

Bettinger, Christopher J.

231

Synthetic IR Scene Simulation of Air-borne Targets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

IR scenes of high fidelity are needed to support the development and testing of various target detection and tracking techniques. It is impractical to test detection and tracking algorithms under all conceivable conditions. Therefore, to test the effectiveness of detection and tracking algorithms under variety of scenarios, synthetic IR scenes are generated. For air-borne targets, the presence of clouds plays an important role, since they affect most IR sensors. We propose, a mod- ification of original Gardner's Method [3], in order to generate clouds of richer spectral content. We also ex- plore an algorithm based on self-similarity [5] for cloud texture generation. Synthetic IR cloud images generated by our scene simulation software are radiometrically accurate and have typical cloud texture variations. We use Modtran J.O for radiometric calculation and VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language) for scene rendering.

Shankar T. More; Avinash A. Pandit; Avinash A. P; S. N. Merchant; U. B. Desai

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Synthetic nanotubes lay foundation for new technology: Artificial pores  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Synthetic nanotubes lay foundation for new technology: Artificial pores Synthetic nanotubes lay foundation for new technology: Artificial pores mimic key features of natural pores By Tona Kunz * July 17, 2012 Tweet EmailPrint Scientists have overcome key design hurdles to expand the potential uses of nanopores and nanotubes. The creation of smart nanotubes with selective mass transport opens up a wider range of applications for water purification, chemical separation and fighting disease. Nanopores and their rolled up version, nanotubes, consist of atoms bonded to each other in a hexagonal pattern to create an array of nanometer-scale openings or channels. This structure creates a filter that can be sized to select which molecules and ions pass into drinking water or into a cell. The same filter technique can limit the release of chemical by-products

233

Pentavalent Uranium Chemistry - Synthetic Pursuit Of A Rare Oxidation State  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This feature article presents a comprehensive overview of pentavalent uranium systems in non-aqueous solution with a focus on the various synthetic avenues employed to access this unusual and very important oxidation state. Selected characterization data and theoretical aspects are also included. The purpose is to provide a perspective on this rapidly evolving field and identify new possibilities for future developments in pentavalent uranium chemistry.

Graves, Christopher R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kiplinger, Jaqueline L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Directed evolution as a powerful synthetic biology tool Ryan E. Cobb a,b,1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Directed evolution as a powerful synthetic biology tool Ryan E. Cobb a,b,1 , Ning Sun c,1 , Huimin by Rihe Liu Keyword: Synthetic biology Directed evolution a b s t r a c t At the heart of synthetic of this approach. Directed evolution, a process which mimics Darwinian selection on a laboratory scale, has allowed

Zhao, Huimin

235

Continuous Time Series of Catchment-Averaged Sensible Heat Flux from a Large Aperture Scintillometer: Efficient Estimation of Stability Conditions and Importance of Fluxes under Stable Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A large aperture scintillometer (LAS) observes the intensity of the atmospheric turbulence across large distances, which is related to the path-averaged sensible heat flux H. In this paper, two problems in the derivation of continuous series of H ...

Bruno Samain; Willem Defloor; Valentijn R. N. Pauwels

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Synthetic Antimicrobial Oligomers Induce Composition-dependent Topological  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Synthetic Antimicrobial Oligomers Induce Synthetic Antimicrobial Oligomers Induce Composition-dependent Topological Transition in Membranes The development of bacterial resistance to conventional antibiotics is a major public health concern. For example, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) have emerged as common nosocomial (hospital-originating) infections. Circumvention of such resistance may be possi ble by emulating host defense antimicrobial peptides (AMP's), which are found in a broad range of species and have broad-spectrum antimicrobial properties. These AMP's have two structural motifs in common: they are cationic and amphipathic. It is thought that electro static interactions facilitate association of the peptide with the anionic bacterial membrane and amphiphilic interactions act to form pores in the bacterial membrane, leading to cell death. Thus, AMP's target generic characteristics common to the mem branes of many pathogenic species, and resistance to such natural defences evolves much more slowly than for conventional antibiotics. The exact molecular mechanisms by which membrane pores are formed are still not fully understood, although three major models ('barrel-stave', 'toroidal pore', 'carpet') have been proposed. Moreover, these models do not ex haustively cover all possibilities, as AMP activity is not always correlated with the loss of a permeability barrier. Understanding the structural tenden cies generated in antimicrobial-membrane interactions is an essential step to elucidating such molecular mechanisms and therefore to the pre dictive design of synthetic AMP analogs.

237

SPARSE APERTURE MASKING OBSERVATIONS OF THE FL Cha PRE-TRANSITIONAL DISK  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present deep Sparse Aperture Masking (SAM) observations obtained with the ESO Very Large Telescope of the pre-transitional disk object FL Cha (SpT = K8, d = 160 pc), the disk of which is known to have a wide optically thin gap separating optically thick inner and outer disk components. We find non-zero closure phases, indicating a significant flux asymmetry in the K{sub S} -band emission (e.g., a departure from a single point source detection). We also present radiative transfer modeling of the spectral energy distribution of the FL Cha system and find that the gap extends from 0.06{sup +0.05}{sub -0.01} AU to 8.3 {+-} 1.3 AU. We demonstrate that the non-zero closure phases can be explained almost equally well by starlight scattered off the inner edge of the outer disk or by a (sub)stellar companion. Single-epoch, single-wavelength SAM observations of transitional disks with large cavities that could become resolved should thus be interpreted with caution, taking the disk and its properties into consideration. In the context of a binary model, the signal is most consistent with a high-contrast ({Delta}K{sub S} {approx} 4.8 mag) source at a {approx}40 mas (6 AU) projected separation. However, the flux ratio and separation parameters remain highly degenerate and a much brighter source ({Delta}K{sub S} {approx} 1 mag) at 15 mas (2.4 AU) can also reproduce the signal. Second-epoch, multi-wavelength observations are needed to establish the nature of the SAM detection in FL Cha.

Cieza, Lucas A.; Mathews, Geoffrey S.; Kraus, Adam L. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Lacour, Sylvestre [LESIA, CNRS/UMR-8109, Observatoire de Paris, UPMC, Universite Paris Diderot, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92195, Meudon (France); Schreiber, Matthias R.; Canovas, Hector [Departamento de Fisica y Astronomia, Universidad de Valparaiso, Valparaiso (Chile); Casassus, Simon; Jordan, Andres; Menard, Francois [Millenium Nucleus 'Protoplanetary Disks in ALMA Early Science', Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Perez, Sebastian [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Camino del Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Tuthill, Peter [School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Ireland, Michael J., E-mail: lcieza@ifa.hawaii.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, NSW 2109 (Australia)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Five synthetic rubber pond liners protect against leakage and weather  

SciTech Connect

More than 137 million cu ft of pipeline quality gas is produced daily at the Great Plains Coal Gasification Project in Beulah, ND. The facility is the only commercial plant in the US which produces gaseous and liquid fuels from low-grade coal. The plant needs to recycle and reuse 100% of the organic process wastewater, requiring a complicated treatment system of cooling towers, evaporators, a liquid waste incinerator and other units, each of which has its own surge pond. In total, the plant has five surge ponds which hold near 80 million gallons. To prevent the seepage of wastewater from the surge ponds into the ground water, a liner material was needed that would fulfill several design criteria. The liner had to be resistant to degradation caused by a very wide range of temperatures and it had to have a low coefficient of expansion. Resistance to both organic and inorganic chemical substances was another key requirement. Finally, the liner material needed to be easy to seam during field installation. An elastomeric membrane liner using the synthetic rubber and reinforcing polyester scrim best met the plant's requirements. One of the primary reasons for selecting synthetic rubber was its low coefficient of expansion. Extreme seasonal weather conditions, with temperatures ranging from below zero in the winter to over 100/sup 0/F in the summer, are common in North Dakota. And because the level of wastewater in the ponds constantly varies, a liner is frequently exposed to the elements. Overall, the synthetic rubber pond liners have performed through extreme weather conditions and have proven to be a cost-effective solution to wastewater storage at the gasification project.

Weinreich, G.; Hofsess, R.; Toy, D.A.

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Socioeconomic impact assessment: a methodology applied to synthetic fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This Report is a supporting document for the Final Environmental Impact Statement, Alternative Fuels Demonstration Program, which was filed with the Council on Environmental Quality in November, 1977. It describes the methodology developed for the socioeconomic impact assessments contained in the Environmental Impact Statement, and highlights the findings. Part I of this Report explains clearly how the numbers are derived, and presents the salient planning issues. Starting with the labor force of a synthetic fuels facility, a public official, decision-maker, or student of socioeconomic impacts can use this Report to derive a reasonable set of estimates which reflect the resultant population, income, employment, land use, public facility costs, and local public revenues. Part II of this Report is the application of this methodology to synthetic fuels. Numerical estimates are given for the social and economic effects resulting from such energy technologies as coal gasification and liquefaction, oil shale, and the conversion of solid wastes and agricultural products to energy. Although the methodology is not site specific, illustrative sites, chosen from the major coal-bearing counties in the United States, have been included. This allows a user to compare the relative impacts of a given energy facility in various geographical locations and types of communities. The section on mitigating measures may be of special interest because of its treatment of problem areas and its broad range of suggested solutions. One advantage of the methodology is that it derives from a broad data base that is readily accessible: the United States Census. Another advantage is that impacts can be calculated by hand. Finally, it is applicable to a wide variety of energy technologies and not restricted to synthetic fuels.

Not Available

1978-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Synthetic fossil fuel technologies: health problems and intersociety cooperation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The potential health impacts of synthetic fossil fuel products are considered mainly in terms of complex and potentially carcinogenic mixtures of polynuclear aromatic (PNA) compounds. These components of oils and tars present an especially perplexing range of problems to those concerned with health protection. The nature of these problems, such as multifactorial exposure, are discussed within a framework of current and future standards to regulate human exposure. Some activities of government agencies, national laboratories, and professional societies are described. A case can be made for pooling the resources of these groups to achieve better solutions for assessing the acceptability of the various technologies and safeguarding human health.

Gammage, R B; Turner, J E

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interferometric synthetic aperture" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Fate of Mercury in Synthetic Gypsum Used for Wallboard Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents and discusses results from the project 'Fate of Mercury in Synthetic Gypsum Used for Wallboard Production', performed at five different full-scale commercial wallboard plants. Synthetic gypsum produced by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems on coal-fired power plants is commonly used in the manufacture of wallboard. This practice has long benefited the environment by recycling the FGD gypsum byproduct, which is becoming available in increasing quantities, decreasing the need to landfill this material, and increasing the sustainable design of the wallboard product. However, new concerns have arisen as recent mercury control strategies involve the capture of mercury in FGD systems. The objective of this study has been to determine whether any mercury is released into the atmosphere at wallboard manufacturing plants when the synthetic gypsum material is used as a feedstock for wallboard production. The project has been co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42080), USG Corporation, and EPRI. USG Corporation is the prime contractor, and URS Group is a subcontractor. The project scope included seven discrete tasks, each including a test conducted at various USG wallboard plants using synthetic gypsum from different wet FGD systems. The project was originally composed of five tasks, which were to include (1) a base-case test, then variations representing differing power plant: (2) emissions control configurations, (3) treatment of fine gypsum particles, (4) coal types, and (5) FGD reagent types. However, Task 5,could not be conducted as planned and instead was conducted at conditions similar to Task 3. Subsequently an opportunity arose to test gypsum produced from the Task 5 FGD system, but with an additive expected to impact the stability of mercury, so Task 6 was added to the project. Finally, Task 7 was added to evaluate synthetic gypsum produced at a power plant from an additional coal type. In the project, process stacks in the wallboard plant were sampled using the Ontario Hydro method. In every task, the stack locations sampled included a gypsum dryer and a gypsum calciner. In Tasks 1 and 4 through 7, the stack of the dryer for the wet wallboard product was also tested. Also at each site, in-stream process samples were collected and analyzed for mercury concentration before and after each significant step in wallboard production. These results and process data were used to construct mercury mass balances across the wallboard plants. The results from the project showed a wide range of percentage mercury losses from the synthetic gypsum feedstocks as measured by the Ontario Hydro method at the process stacks, ranging from 2% to 55% of the mercury in the gypsum feedstock. For the tasks exceeding 10% mercury loss across the wallboard plant, most of the loss occurred across the gypsum calciner. When total wallboard emissions remained below 10%, the primary emission location varied with a much less pronounced difference in emission between the gypsum dryer, calciner and board dryer. For all seven tasks, the majority of the mercury emissions were measured to be in the elemental form (Hg{sup 0}). Overall, the measured mercury loss mass rates ranged from 0.01 to 0.17 grams of mercury per dry ton of synthetic gypsum processed, or 0.01 to 0.4 pounds of mercury released per million square feet of wallboard produced from synthetic gypsum. The Coal Combustion Product Production and Use Survey from the American Coal Ash Association (ACAA) indicate that 7,579,187 short tons of synthetic gypsum were used for wallboard production in 2006. Extrapolating the results of this study to the ACAA industry usage rate, we estimate that mercury releases from wallboard production plants in 2006 ranged between 150 to 3000 pounds for the entire U.S. wallboard industry. With only seven sets of wallboard plant measurements, it is difficult to draw firm conclusions about what variables impact the mercury loss percentages across the wallboard plants. One significant o

Jessica Sanderson

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

242

InSAR | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

InSAR InSAR Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: InSAR Details Activities (11) Areas (10) Regions (2) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Remote Sensing Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Active Sensors Parent Exploration Technique: Radar Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Stratigraphic/Structural: Geophysical Monitoring Hydrological: Can give indications about subsurface geothermal fluid flow Thermal: Dictionary.png InSAR: Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is a remote sensing technique that can be used to accurately measure ground displacement. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Introduction InSAR is a radar technique used in geodesy and remote sensing. This geodetic method uses two or more synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images to

243

Dust and molecular shells in asymptotic giant branch stars - Mid-infrared interferometric observations of R Aql, R Aqr, R Hya, W Hya and V Hya  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mid-IR (8 - 13 micron) interferometric data of four oxygen-rich AGB stars (R Aql, R Aqr, R Hya, and W Hya) and one carbon-rich AGB star (V Hya) were obtained with MIDI/VLTI between April 2007 and September 2009. The spectrally dispersed visibility data are analyzed by fitting a circular fully limb-darkened disk (FDD). Results. The FDD diameter as function of wavelength is similar for all oxygen-rich stars. The apparent size is almost constant between 8 and 10 micron and gradually increases at wavelengths longer than 10 micron. The apparent FDD diameter in the carbon-rich star V Hya essentially decreases from 8 to 12 micron. The FDD diameters are about 2.2 times larger than the photospheric diameters estimated from K-band observations found in the literature. The silicate dust shells of R Aql, R Hya and W Hya are located fairly far away from the star, while the silicate dust shell of R Aqr and the amorphous carbon (AMC) and SiC dust shell of V Hya are found to be closer to the star at around 8 photospheric rad...

Zhao-Geisler, R; Koehler, R; Lopez, B

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Chlorine-36 abundance in natural and synthetic perchlorate  

SciTech Connect

Perchlorate (ClO{sub 4}{sup -}) is ubiquitous in the environment. It occurs naturally as a product of atmospheric photochemical reactions, and is synthesized for military, aerospace, and industrial applications. Nitrate-enriched soils of the Atacama Desert (Chile) contain high concentrations of natural ClO{sub 4}{sup -}; nitrate produced from these soils has been exported worldwide since the mid-1800's for use in agriculture. The widespread introduction of synthetic and agricultural ClO{sub 4}{sup -} into the environment has complicated attempts to understand the geochemical cycle of ClO{sub 4}{sup -}. Natural ClO{sub 4}{sup -} samples from the southwestern United States have relatively high {sup 36}Cl abundances ({sup 36}Cl/Cl = 3,100 x 10{sup -15} to 28,800 x 10{sup -15}), compared with samples of synthetic ({sup 36}Cl/Cl = 0.0 x 10{sup -15} to 40 x 10{sup -15}) and Atacama Desert ({sup 36}Cl/Cl = 0.9 x 10{sup -15} to 590 x 10{sup -15}) ClO{sub 4}{sup -}. These data give a lower limit for the initial {sup 36}Cl abundance of natural ClO{sub 4}{sup -} and provide temporal and other constraints on its geochemical cycle.

Heikoop, Jeffrey M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dale, M [NON LANL; Sturchio, Neil C [UNIV OF ILLIONOIS; Caffee, M [PURDUE UNIV; Belosa, A D [UNIV OF ILLINOIS; Heraty, Jr., L J [UNIV OF ILLINOIS; Bohike, J K [RESTON, VA; Hatzinger, P B [SHAW ENIVIORNMENTAL C0.; Jackson, W A [TEXAS TECH; Gu, B [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Photoinitiated electron transfer in multichromophoric species: Synthetic tetrads and pentads  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project involves the design, synthesis and study of molecules which mimic some of the important aspects of photosynthetic electron and energy transfer. This research project is leading to a better understanding of the energy conserving steps of photosynthesis via the study of synthetic model systems which abstract features of the natural photosynthetic apparatus. The knowledge gained from these studies will aid in the design of artificial photosynthetic reaction centers which employ the basic chemistry and physics of photosynthesis to help meet mankind`s energy needs. The approach to artificial photosynthesis employed in this project is to use synthetic pigments, electron donors, and electron acceptors similar to those found in biological reaction centers, but to replace the protein component with covalent bonds. These chemical linkages determine the electronic coupling between the various moieties by controlling separation, relative orientation, and overlap of electronic orbitals. The model systems are designed to mimic the following aspects of natural photosynthetic electron transfer: electron donation from a tetrapyrrole excited single state, electron transfer between tetrapyrroles, electron transfer from tetrapyrroles to quinones, and electron transfer between quinones with different redox properties. In addition, they mimic carotenoid antenna function in photosynthesis (singlet-singlet energy transfer from carotenoid polyenes to chlorophyll) and carotenoid photoprotection from singlet oxygen damage (triplet-triplet energy transfer from chlorophyll to carotenoids).

NONE

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Journal of Biological Engineering BioMed Central Review Authentic teaching and learning through synthetic biology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Synthetic biology is an emerging engineering discipline that, if successful, will allow wellcharacterized biological components to be predictably and reliably built into robust organisms that achieve specific functions. Fledgling efforts to design and implement a synthetic biology curriculum for undergraduate students have shown that the co-development of this emerging discipline and its future practitioners does not undermine learning. Rather it can serve as the lynchpin of a synthetic biology curriculum. Here I describe educational goals uniquely served by synthetic biology teaching, detail ongoing curricula development efforts at MIT, and specify particular aspects of the emerging field that must develop rapidly in order to best train the next generation of synthetic biologists. Review Teaching opportunities and challenges specific to synthetic biology "Plant a carrot get a carrot, not a Brussels sprout " sings a musical theater character in The Fantasticks [1], aptly contrasting

Natalie Kuldell

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Fate of Mercury in Synthetic Gypsum Used for Wallboard Production  

SciTech Connect

This report presents and discusses results from Task 6 of the study 'Fate of Mercury in Synthetic Gypsum Used for Wallboard Production,' performed at a full-scale commercial wallboard plant. Synthetic gypsum produced by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems on coal-fired power plants is commonly used in the manufacture of wallboard. This practice has long benefited the environment by recycling the FGD gypsum byproduct, which is becoming available in increasing quantities, decreasing the need to landfill this material, and increasing the sustainable design of the wallboard product. However, new concerns have arisen as recent mercury control strategies involve the capture of mercury in FGD systems. The objective of this study is to determine whether any mercury is released into the atmosphere when the synthetic gypsum material is used as a feedstock for wallboard production. The project is being co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42080), USG Corporation, and EPRI. USG Corporation is the prime contractor, and URS Group is a subcontractor. The project scope now includes six discrete tasks, each conducted at various USG wallboard plants using synthetic gypsum from different FGD systems. The project was originally composed of five tasks, which were to include (1) a baseline test, then variations representing differing power plant: (2) emissions control configurations, (3) treatment of fine gypsum particles, (4) coal types, and (5) FGD reagent types. However, Task 5, which was to include testing with an alternate FGD reagent, could not be conducted as planned. Instead, Task 5 was conducted at conditions similar to Task 3, although with gypsum from an alternate FGD system. Subsequent to conducting Task 5 under these revised conditions, an opportunity arose to test gypsum produced at the same FGD system, but with an additive (Degussa Corporation's TMT-15) being used in the FGD system. TMT-15 was expected to impact the stability of mercury in synthetic gypsum used to produce wallboard, so Task 6 was added to the project to test this theory. In this project, process stacks in the wallboard plant have been sampled using the Ontario Hydro method. For every task, the stack locations sampled have included a dryer for the wet gypsum as it enters the plant and a gypsum calciner. For Tasks 1, 4, 5 and 6, the stack of the dryer for the wet wallboard product was also tested. Also at each site, in-stream process samples were collected and analyzed for mercury concentration before and after each significant step in wallboard production. The Ontario Hydro results, process sample mercury concentration data, and process data were used to construct mercury mass balances across the wallboard plants. Task 6 was conducted at a wallboard plant processing synthetic gypsum from a power plant that fires Eastern bituminous coal. The power plant has a single-loop, open spray tower limestone forced oxidation FGD system, with the forced oxidation conducted in the reaction tank integral with the FGD absorber. The FGD system has gypsum fines blow down as part of the dewatering step. The power plant is equipped with a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system for NOX emissions control, and the SCR was in service during the time period the gypsum tested was produced. Also, as mentioned above, Degussa additive TMT-15 was being added to the FGD system when this gypsum was produced. The results of the Task 6 stack testing, as measured by the Ontario Hydro method, detected that an average of 55% of the incoming mercury was emitted during wallboard production. These losses were distributed as about 4% across the dryer mill, 6% across the board dryer kiln, and 45% across the kettle calciner. Emissions were similar to what Task 5 results showed on a percentage basis, but about 30% lower on a mass basis. The same power plant FGD system produced the synthetic gypsum used in Task 5 (with no use of TMT-15) and in Task 6 (with TMT-15 added to the FGD system). The lower emissions on a mass basis appeared

Jessica Sanderson; Gary M. Blythe; Mandi Richardson

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Fate of Mercury in Synthetic Gypsum Used for Wallboard Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents and discusses results from Task 6 of the study 'Fate of Mercury in Synthetic Gypsum Used for Wallboard Production,' performed at a full-scale commercial wallboard plant. Synthetic gypsum produced by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems on coal-fired power plants is commonly used in the manufacture of wallboard. This practice has long benefited the environment by recycling the FGD gypsum byproduct, which is becoming available in increasing quantities, decreasing the need to landfill this material, and increasing the sustainable design of the wallboard product. However, new concerns have arisen as recent mercury control strategies involve the capture of mercury in FGD systems. The objective of this study is to determine whether any mercury is released into the atmosphere when the synthetic gypsum material is used as a feedstock for wallboard production. The project is being co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42080), USG Corporation, and EPRI. USG Corporation is the prime contractor, and URS Group is a subcontractor. The project scope now includes six discrete tasks, each conducted at various USG wallboard plants using synthetic gypsum from different FGD systems. The project was originally composed of five tasks, which were to include (1) a baseline test, then variations representing differing power plant: (2) emissions control configurations, (3) treatment of fine gypsum particles, (4) coal types, and (5) FGD reagent types. However, Task 5, which was to include testing with an alternate FGD reagent, could not be conducted as planned. Instead, Task 5 was conducted at conditions similar to Task 3, although with gypsum from an alternate FGD system. Subsequent to conducting Task 5 under these revised conditions, an opportunity arose to test gypsum produced at the same FGD system, but with an additive (Degussa Corporation's TMT-15) being used in the FGD system. TMT-15 was expected to impact the stability of mercury in synthetic gypsum used to produce wallboard, so Task 6 was added to the project to test this theory. In this project, process stacks in the wallboard plant have been sampled using the Ontario Hydro method. For every task, the stack locations sampled have included a dryer for the wet gypsum as it enters the plant and a gypsum calciner. For Tasks 1, 4, 5 and 6, the stack of the dryer for the wet wallboard product was also tested. Also at each site, in-stream process samples were collected and analyzed for mercury concentration before and after each significant step in wallboard production. The Ontario Hydro results, process sample mercury concentration data, and process data were used to construct mercury mass balances across the wallboard plants. Task 6 was conducted at a wallboard plant processing synthetic gypsum from a power plant that fires Eastern bituminous coal. The power plant has a single-loop, open spray tower limestone forced oxidation FGD system, with the forced oxidation conducted in the reaction tank integral with the FGD absorber. The FGD system has gypsum fines blow down as part of the dewatering step. The power plant is equipped with a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system for NOX emissions control, and the SCR was in service during the time period the gypsum tested was produced. Also, as mentioned above, Degussa additive TMT-15 was being added to the FGD system when this gypsum was produced. The results of the Task 6 stack testing, as measured by the Ontario Hydro method, detected that an average of 55% of the incoming mercury was emitted during wallboard production. These losses were distributed as about 4% across the dryer mill, 6% across the board dryer kiln, and 45% across the kettle calciner. Emissions were similar to what Task 5 results showed on a percentage basis, but about 30% lower on a mass basis. The same power plant FGD system produced the synthetic gypsum used in Task 5 (with no use of TMT-15) and in Task 6 (with TMT-15 added to the FGD system). The lower emissions on a mass basis appeared

Jessica Sanderson; Gary M. Blythe; Mandi Richardson

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Stability of Mullite and V2O3 in Synthetic Slags Based on Molten ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Materials in Clean Power Systems VI: Clean Coal-, Hydrogen ... In this study, synthetic slags simulating coal-petcoke ash mixtures were evaluated...

250

Molecular Interactions of Plutonium(VI) with Synthetic Manganese-Substituted Goethite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

E. , Thesis, Reactions of Plutonium(VI) with the Iron Oxideof Uranium, Neptunium, Plutonium, Americium and Technetium;Molecular Interactions of Plutonium(VI) with Synthetic

Hu, Yung-Jin

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Numerical Simulation of Flame-Vortex Interactions in Natural and Synthetic Gas Mixtures .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The interactions between laminar premixed flames and counter-rotating vortex pairs in natural and synthetic gas mixtures have been computationally investigated through the use of Direct (more)

Weiler, Justin D.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

A uniformly redundant imaging array of penumbral apertures coupled with a heuristic reconstruction for hard x-ray and neutron imaging  

SciTech Connect

A coded imaging and decoding (image reconstruction) scheme was developed for diagnosing a hot and dense region emitting hard x-rays and neutrons in laser-fusion plasmas. Because the imager was a uniformly redundant array of penumbral aperture (URPA) arranged in an M-matrix, URPA leads to N times (N: the total number of apertures) enhancement of signal intensity in comparison with a single penumbral aperture. A recorded penumbral image was reconstructed by a computer-based heuristic method to reduce artifacts caused by noises contained in a penumbral image. Applicability of this technique was investigated by imaging x-rays emitted from laser-produced plasmas, demonstrating a spatial resolution of 16 {mu}m. Under the present conditions, the spatial resolution was determined dominantly by a detector resolution (10.5 {mu}m) and a signal-to-noise ratio of the obtained penumbral image.

Ueda, Tatsuki; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Nishimura, Hiroaki [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6, Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871 (Japan); Nozaki, Shinya; Azuma, Rumiko [Transdisplinary Research Organization for Subtropics Island Studies, University of the Ryukyus, 1 Senbaru Nishihara, Okinawa, 903-0213 (Japan); Chen, Yen-Wei [College of Information Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigasi Kusatsu, Shiga, 525-8577 (Japan)

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

253

Economic regulation and the commercialization of synthetic gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The history of the Great Plains coal-gasification plant (proposed for Mercer Co., N.D.) illuminates the role of economic regulation in commercializing new energy technologies. Even though sponsors of such projects seek to ensure cost recovery and profit in advance via the regulatory process, the regulators are reluctant to provide more than partial assurance. Future economic-regulatory entities will have to develop better criteria for deciding which synthetic-gas projects will have access to rolled-in pricing. At least in the near term, most high-Btu manufactured gas will require cross-subsidization by other lower priced gas sources in order to be competitive economically; this makes advance approval of rolled-in pricing crucial to the pace and extent of syngas's market penetration. Regulatory agencies must also address the structure of escalation clauses and price ceilings.

Hall, G.R.

1981-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

254

Composite synthetic roofing structure with integral solar collector  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A form-molded synthetic foam roofing section or structure is described, having a solar-collecting insert or panel incorporated therein with a relatively broad undersurface and an exposed surface configured to resemble interlocked and overlapping roofing shingles which are united to support a surface such as wood, metal, etc. During the molding process. The roofing structure may be affixed by any conventional means, such as nails or adhesives, to roof boards, rafters or over old existing roof structures with adjacent roofing sections interconnected by appropriate inlets and outlets for the solar panel insert. Solar heat-collecting fluid may be circulated through the solar panel inserts in a conventional manner. Connecting tubes are provided for connecting the solar panel inserts in adjacent roofing sections and terminal connectors are compatible with all circulating systems.

Gould, W.M.

1981-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

255

Fluoride-containing wastewater converted to synthetic fluorspar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the manufacture of uranium hexafluoride, sulfur hexafluoride, iodine pentafluoride, and antimony pentafluoride, the Allied Corporation's Metropolis Works (Metropolis, IL) generates approximately 250,000 gpd of process wastewater which contains substantial amounts of soluble fluoride. Most of the wastewater is also acidic. Alkaline waste and hydrated lime (calcium hydroxide) in a pair of neutralizers are used to precipitate the soluble fluoride as calcium fluoride. Due to the alkalinity, the material is considered a hazardous waste. The limited availability of land suitable for the construction of impoundment basins and the potential for eventual seepage from the basins presented a challenge to the management and technical staff at the Metropolis Works situation on-site. Efforts were directed toward developing a process to convert the calcium fluoride waste into a useful product. Excess lime waste could be converted to 90% CaF/sub 2/ by neutralizing the lime with hydrofluoric acid. The 90% CaF/sub 2/, closely resembling fluorspar, would be able to be used directly at other Allied plants as a substitute for natural fluorspar in the production of anhydrous hydrofluoric (AHF) acid. Engineering efforts to design a full-scale plant for the recovery of CaF/sub 2/ began in mid-1980. Construction of the plant begin in July, 1981. Since startup in mid-1982, the full scale recovery plant has been in continuous operation. Design capacity is 8000 tons/yr of synthetic fluorspar. The synthetic fluorspar is directly replacing an equivalent amount of imported natural fluorspar in the production of anhydrous hydrofluoric acid. Total cost to construct the CaF/sub 2/ recovery plant was $4.3 million. Currently realized cost savings of about $1 million/yr give the project an expected payback period of under five years.

Cipolla, A.J.; Shields, E.J.; Wickersham, C.P.; Toy, D.A.

1985-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Fate of Mercury in Synthetic Gypsum Used for Wallboard Production  

SciTech Connect

This report presents and discusses results from Task 5 of the study ''Fate of Mercury in Synthetic Gypsum Used for Wallboard Production,'' performed at a full-scale commercial wallboard plant. Synthetic gypsum produced by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems on coal-fired power plants is commonly used in the manufacture of wallboard. The FGD process is used to control the sulfur dioxide emissions which would result in acid rain if not controlled. This practice has long benefited the environment by recycling the FGD gypsum byproduct, which is becoming available in increasing quantities, decreasing the need to landfill this material, and increasing the sustainable design of the wallboard product. However, new concerns have arisen as recent mercury control strategies developed for power plants involve the capture of mercury in FGD systems. The objective of this study is to determine whether any mercury is released into the atmosphere when the synthetic gypsum material is used as a feedstock for wallboard production. The project is being co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42080), USG Corporation, and EPRI. USG Corporation is the prime contractor, and URS Group is a subcontractor. The project scope includes five discrete tasks, each conducted at various USG wallboard plants using synthetic gypsum from different FGD systems. The five tasks were to include (1) a baseline test, then variations representing differing power plant (2) emissions control configurations, (3) treatment of fine gypsum particles, (4) coal types, and (5) FGD reagent types. However, Task 5, which was to evaluate gypsum produced from an alternate FGD reagent, could not be conducted as planned. Instead, Task 5 was conducted at conditions similar to a previous task, Task 3, although with gypsum from an alternate FGD system. In this project, process stacks in the wallboard plant have been sampled using the Ontario Hydro method. The stack locations sampled for each task include a dryer for the wet gypsum as it enters the plant and a gypsum calciner. The stack of the dryer for the wet wallboard product was also tested as part of this task, and was tested as part of Tasks 1 and 4. Also at each site, in-stream process samples were collected and analyzed for mercury concentration before and after each significant step in wallboard production. The Ontario Hydro results, process sample mercury concentration data, and process data were used to construct mercury mass balances across the wallboard plants. Task 5 was conducted at a wallboard plant processing synthetic gypsum from a power plant that fires Eastern bituminous coal. The power plant is equipped with a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system for NOX emissions control, but the SCR was bypassed during the time period the gypsum tested was produced. The power plant has a single-loop, open spray tower, limestone reagent FGD system, with forced oxidation conducted in a reaction tank integral with the FGD absorber. The FGD system has gypsum fines blow down as part of the dewatering step. Gypsum fines blow down is believed to be an important variable that impacts the amount of mercury in the gypsum byproduct and possibly its stability during the wallboard process. The results of the Task 5 stack testing, as measured by the Ontario Hydro method, detected that an average of 51% of the incoming mercury in the FGD gypsum was emitted during wallboard production. These losses were distributed as 2% or less each across the wet gypsum dryer and product wallboard dryer, and about 50% across the gypsum calciner. Emissions were similar to what Task 3 results showed, on both a percentage and a mass basis, for gypsum produced by a power plant firing bituminous coal and also having gypsum fines blow down as part of the FGD dewatering scheme. As was seen in the Task 1 through 4 results, most of the mercury detected in the stack testing on the wet gypsum dryer and kettle calciner was in the form of elemental mercury. In the wallboard dryer kiln, a more signific

Jessica Marshall Sanderson

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

ForPeerReview From vegetable oils to polyurethanes: synthetic routes to  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

From vegetable oils to polyurethanes: synthetic routes to polyols and main industrial products Myriam and main industrial products Most of biobased polyols for polyurethanes are synthesized from vegetable oils literature; focus on the industrial synthetic routes. Keywords: vegetable oils; biobased polyols

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

258

SWIMSAT: A Real-Aperture Radar to Measure Directional Spectra of Ocean Waves from SpaceMain Characteristics and Performance Simulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The project SWIMSAT aims to measure the directional spectra of waves from space using a real-aperture radar with a low-incidence, conical-scanning beam. This systems design is based on airborne versions developed in France and the United States. ...

Danile Hauser; Elbatoul Soussi; Eric Thouvenot; Laurent Rey

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Skin carcinogenicity of synthetic and natural petroleums. [Mice  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In a series of three separate experiments mice were exposed to various concentrations of fossil liquids obtained from coal, oil shale or natural petroleum. All materials were capable of inducing squamous cell carcinoma, but potency differed substantially. Skin carcinogenicity was markedly greater for both coal or oil shale liquids than for natural petroleums. None of the syncrudes approached the skin carcinogenicity of a pure reference carcinogen, benzo(a)pyrene (BP). It is unlikely that determination of the concentration of an active compound in material applied to the test animal will allow meaningful comparison among the diverse agents of interest to the synthetic fuels industry. To better establish the relationship between actual tissue dose and surface concentration the authors are investigating various in vitro and biochemical measures of hydrocarbon-skin interaction to determine which, if any, could serve as a more definitive measure of surface dose. Results, using BP as a marker carcinogenic hydrocarbon, suggest that carcinogenic crudes inhibit both BP metabolism in skin organ culture and the interaction of BP adducts with epidermal DNA, in vivo.

Holland, J.M.; Rahn, R.O.; Smith, L.H.; Clark, B.R.; Chang, S.S.; Stephens, T.J.

1979-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

No compelling evidence of distributed production of CO in comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) from millimeter interferometric data and a reanalysis of near-IR lines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Based on long-slit infrared spectroscopic observations, it has been suggested that half of the carbon monoxide present in the atmosphere of comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) close to perihelion was released by a distributed source in the coma, whose nature (dust or gas) remains unidentified. We re-assess the origin of CO in Hale-Bopp's coma from millimeter interferometric data and a re-analysis of the IR lines. Simultaneous observations of the CO J(1-0) (115 GHz) and J(2-1) (230 GHz) lines were undertaken with the IRAM interferometer in single-dish and interferometric modes. The diversity of angular resolutions (from 1700 to 42000 km diameter at the comet) is suitable to study the radial distribution of CO and detect the extended source observed in the infrared. We used excitation and radiative transfer models to simulate the observations. Various CO density distributions were considered, including 3D time-dependent hydrodynamical simulations which reproduce a CO rotating jet. The CO J(1-0) and J(2-1) observations ...

Bockele-Morvan, D; Biver, N; Crovisier, J

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interferometric synthetic aperture" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Synthetic Nano-Low Density Lipoprotein as Targeted Drug DeliveryVehicle for Glioblastoma Multiforme  

SciTech Connect

This paper discribes a synthetic low density lipoprotein(LDL) made by complexing a 29 amino acid that consists of a lipid bindingdomain and the LDL receptor binding domain with a lipid microemulsion.The nano-LDL particles were intermdiate in size between LDL and HDL andbound to LDL receptors on GBM brain tumor cells. Synthetic nano-LDLuptake by GBM cells was LDL receptor specific and dependent on cellreceptor number. It is suggested that these synthetic particles can serveas a delivery vehicle for hydophobic anti-tumor drugs by targeting theLDL receptor.

Nikanjam, Mina; Blakely, Eleanor A.; Bjornstad, Kathleen A.; Shu,Xiao; Budinger, Thomas F.; Forte, Trudy M.

2006-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

262

A Laser Interferometric Miniature Sensor  

SciTech Connect

This is the second year of a Phase II Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract geared towards the development of a new seismic sensor. Ground-based seismic monitoring systems have proven to be very capable in identifying nuclear tests, and can provide somewhat precise information on the location and yield of the explosive device. Making these measurements, however, currently requires very expensive and bulky seismometers that are difficult to deploy in places where they are most needed. A high performance, compact device can enable rapid deployment of large scale arrays, which can in turn be used to provide higher quality data during times of critical need. The use of a laser interferometer-based device has shown considerable promise, while also presenting significant challenges. The greatest strength of this optical readout technique is the ability to decouple the mechanical design from the transducer, thus enabling a miniaturized design that is not accessible with conventional sensing techniques. However, the nonlinearity in the optical response must be accounted for in the sensor output. Previously, we had proposed using a force-feedback approach to position the sensor at a point of maximum linearity. However, it can be shown that the combined nonlinearities of the optical response and the force-feedback curve necessarily results in a significant amount of unwanted noise at low frequencies. Having realized this, we have developed a new approach that eliminates force feedback, allowing the proof mass to move freely at all times. This takes advantage of some advanced optical spatial filtering that was developed at Symphony Acoustics for other types of sensors, and was recently adapted to this work. After processing the signals in real time, the digital output of the device is intrinsically linear, and the sensor can operate at any orientation with the same level of resolution, while instantly adapting to significant changes in orientation. Ultimately, we expect the dynamic range to be up to 180 dB. Currently, we have observed the noise floor in a 0.1 Hz to 10 Hz bandwidth to be near -160 dB/Hz relative to 1 m2/s4. To meet the objectives of this program, we are finalizing the design of a 3 axis sensor for shallow borehole deployments, with a diameter of 40 mm and a length a 150 mm.

Carr, Dustin W., PhD.; Baldwin, Patrick C.; Milburn, Howard; Robinson, David

2011-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

263

Interferometric Visualization of Jet Flames  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents visualizations of reacting, round jets of the premixed and nonpremixed type realized by using interferometry and, complementarily, direct photography. The available interferometer, proposed by Carlomagno (1986), employs low-cost components ... Keywords: coherent structures, combustion, destabilization, interferometry, jet flames

A. Stella; G. Guj; A. Mataloni

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

BioJADE: A Design and Simulation Tool for Synthetic Biological Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The next generations of both biological engineering and computer engineering demand that control be exerted at the molecular level. Creating, characterizing and controlling synthetic biological systems may provide us ...

Goler, Jonathan A.

2004-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

265

The Use of Synthetic Hurricane Tracks in Risk Analysis and Climate Change Damage Assessment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Because of the lack of data on past hurricanes, empirical evaluations of the statistics needed for risk management are very uncertain. An alternative strategy is to use a hurricane model to produce large sets of synthetic hurricane tracks. This ...

Stphane Hallegatte

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Synthetic Subsurface Pressure Derived from Bottom Pressure and Tide Gauge Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Synthetic subsurface pressure (SSP) can be formed from tide gauge records and from bottom pressure measurements to provide a consistent and convenient basis for comparison of these two different types of observations. Common methods for this ...

Sabine Harms; Clinton D. Winant

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Interbilayer-crosslinked multilamellar vesicles as synthetic vaccines for potent humoral and cellular immune responses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Vaccines based on recombinant proteins avoid the toxicity and antivector immunity associated with live vaccine (for example, viral) vectors, but their immunogenicity is poor, particularly for CD8+ T-cell responses. Synthetic ...

Moon, James J.

268

Assimilation of Synthetic Tropical Cyclone Observations into the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In June 1990, the assimilation of synthetic tropical cyclone observations into the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS) was initiated at Fleet Numerical Oceanography Center (FNOC). These observations are derived directly ...

James S. Goerss; Richard A. Jeffries

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Strategies for designing, testing and demonstrating safety : what synthetic biology can learn from retrospective cases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Synthetic biology is an emerging technology field within the realm of genetic engineering, differing from traditional genetic engineering in that it focuses on the modularization of genetic parts and the creation of de ...

Yeddanapudi, Neelima, 1976-

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Realistic assessment of direct radiolysis for synthetic fuels production using fusion radiation sources  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

These studies indicate that synthetic fuel production by direct radiolysis cannot compete economically with other production methods. Low G-values and radiation contamination of products are given as reasons. (MOW)

Pendergrass, J.H.; Booth, L.A.; Finch, F.T.; Frank, T.G.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

The Generation of Synthetic Sea Surface Temperature Data for the Equatorial Pacific Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Synthetic monthly SST anomaly data are constructed using frequency domain analyses of significant principle components derived from reconstructed SST data in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. The model provides insight into the dominant physical ...

J. M. Caron; J. J. OBrien

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Use of Synthetic Data to Test Flight Patterns for a Boundary Layer Field Experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A virtual research aircraft was flown through a synthetic atmospheric boundary layer to help design a real flight plan that would allow robust turbulence statistics to be obtained in a heterogeneous, evolving, convective boundary layer. The ...

Edi Santoso; Roland Stull

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

The synthetic multivulva genes and their suppressors regulate opposing cell fates through chromatin remodeling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The synthetic multivulva (synMuv) genes act redundantly to inhibit vulval fates in Caenorhabditis elegans. These genes are grouped into three classes called A, B and C. The class A genes encode putative transcription ...

Andersen, Erik C

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Design Methodology for Development of Behavioral Synthesis Generic and Synthetic Benchmarks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The importance of benchmarking as an essential methodology in evaluating and comparing digital systems synthesis tools is well established. Equally well are the limitations of the majority of current benchmarks recognized. Our primary goal is to lay out the theoretically and statistically sound foundations for addressing the key issues related to the selection of generic benchmarks and the synthesis and analysis of statistical synthetic benchmarks. The methodology for the synthetic benchmark generation uses as an intermediate step the methodology for the generic benchmark selection. The benefits of our methodology for the generic benchmark selection are: (1) it provides the sound statistical foundations for the generic benchmark selection, (2) it establishes the fact that the development of a generic benchmark is a well-defined optimization problem. The advantages of the statistical synthetic benchmarks over the generic benchmarks include: (1) having an unlimited supply of synthetic design examples, (2) obtaining the real-life like design examples which suit a particular design or analysis need, (3) having a test set which better fits all available real-life design examples. Due to the fact that the synthetic benchmark generation is based on the generic benchmark selection, the entire process of the generic and synthetic benchmark development is in sequence. It consists of the following five-stages: (1) collecting and analyzing real life design examples, (2) extracting and selecting the relevant properties that are used to specify designs, (3) deriving a generic benchmark set from the real life design examples, (4) developing the synthetic benchmark generator, and (5) constructing a synthetic benchmark set for the current applications or the future applications based ...

Hm Ar Ks

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

System and method for forming synthetic protein crystals to determine the conformational structure by crystallography  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for forming synthetic crystals of proteins in a carrier fluid by use of the dipole moments of protein macromolecules that self-align in the Helmholtz layer adjacent to an electrode. The voltage gradients of such layers easily exceed 10.sup.6 V/m. The synthetic protein crystals are subjected to x-ray crystallography to determine the conformational structure of the protein involved.

Craig, George D. (Lafayette, CA); Glass, Robert (Livermore, CA); Rupp, Bernhard (Dublin, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Process for gasification using a synthetic CO.sub.2 acceptor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gasification process is disclosed using a synthetic CO.sub.2 acceptor consisting essentially of at least one compound selected from the group consisting of calcium oxide and calcium carbonate supported in a refractory carrier matrix, the carrier having the general formula Ca.sub.5 (SiO.sub.4).sub.2 CO.sub.3. A method for producing the synthetic CO.sub.2 acceptor is also disclosed.

Lancet, Michael S. (Pittsburgh, PA); Curran, George P. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

System and method for forming synthetic protein crystals to determine the conformational structure by crystallography  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is disclosed for forming synthetic crystals of proteins in a carrier fluid by use of the dipole moments of protein macromolecules that self-align in the Helmholtz layer adjacent to an electrode. The voltage gradients of such layers easily exceed 10{sup 6}V/m. The synthetic protein crystals are subjected to x-ray crystallography to determine the conformational structure of the protein involved. 2 figs.

Craig, G.D.; Glass, R.; Rupp, B.

1997-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

278

Systems studies of dual purpose electric/synthetic fuels fusion plants  

SciTech Connect

A reactor power plant is proposed that can meet base load electrical demand, while the remainder can generate synthetic fuels and meet intermittent electrical demands. Two principal objectives of this study are: (1) to examine how strongly various economic demand and resource factors affect the amount of installed CTR capacity, and (2) to examine what increase in CTR capacity can be expected with dual purpose electric/synthetic fuel fusion plants, and also the relative importance of the different production modes. (MOW)

Beardsworth, E.; Powell, J.

1975-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

New synthetic derivatives of triterpenoids in the treatment of cancer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Methyl 2-cyano-3,11-dioxo-18?-olean-1,12-dien-30-oate (?-CDODA-Me) and methyl 2-cyano-3,11-dioxo-18?-olean-1,12-dien-30-oate (?-CDODA-Me ) isomers are synthetic analogs of the naturally occurring triterpenoid glycyrrhetinic acid. The activity of these compounds as selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) agonists and as cytotoxic anticancer agents has been investigated in colon, prostate and pancreatic cancer cells. In colon cancer cells ?-CDODA-Me arrested the growth at G2/M and this was accompanied by decreased expression of Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 protein and mRNA and several Sp-dependent genes including survivin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR1 or Flt-1). ?-CDODA-Me also inhibited tumor growth in athymic nude mice bearing RKO cells as xenografts. ?- CDODA-Me decreased expression of microRNA-27a (miR-27a), and this was accompanied by increased expression of two miR-27a-regulated mRNAs, namely ZBTB10 (an Sp repressor) and Myt-1 which catalyzes phosphorylation of cdc2 to inhibit progression of cells through G2/M. In LNCaP prostate cancer cells induction of two proapoptotic proteins namely nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug- activated gene-1 (NAG-1) and activating transcription factor-3 (ATF-3) was PPAR? independent and required activation of kinases. ?-CDODA-Me also decreased the levels of androgen receptor (AR) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) mRNA and protein levels. Thus the cytotoxicity of ?- CDODA-Me involved multiple pathways that selectively activate growth inhibitory and proapoptotic responses. Betulinic acid (BA), an inhibitor of melanoma is a pentacyclic triterpenoid natural product that induces apoptosis and antiangiogenic responses in tumors derived from multiple tissues. However, the underlying mechanism of action of BA is unknown. In LNCaP prostate cancer cells, BA acts as a novel anticancer agent by inducing proteasome-dependent repression of Sp proteins and Sp- dependent genes. The anticancer activity of the 2-cyano substituted analogs of BA, CN-BA and its methyl ester, CN-BA-Me was also investigated in colon and pancreatic cancer cells. Both CNBA and CN-BA-Me were highly cytotoxic and activated PPAR? and induced several receptor-mediated responses. The results clearly demonstrated that both the PPAR? agonist activities of CN-BA and CN-BA-Me were structure-, response-/gene- and cell context-dependent suggesting that these compounds are a novel class of selective PPAR? modulators with potential for clinical treatment of prostate, colon and pancreatic cancer.

Papineni, Sabitha

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Interactions of Jet Fuels with Nitrile O-Rings: Petroleum-Derived versus Synthetic Fuels  

SciTech Connect

A transition from petroleum~derived jet fuels to blends with Fischer-Tropsch (F~T) fuels, and ultimately fully synthetic hydro-isomerized F-T fuels has raised concern about the fate of plasticizers in nitrile-butadiene rubber a-rings that are contacted by the fuels as this transition occurs. The partitioning of plasticizers and fuel molecules between nitrile a-rings and petroleum-derived, synthetic, and additized-synthetic jet fuels has been measured. Thermal desorption of o-rings soaked in the various jet fuels followed by gas chromatographic analysis with a mass spectrometric detector showed many of the plasticizer and stabilizer compounds were removed from the o-rings regardless of the contact fuel. Fuel molecules were observed to migrate into the o-rings for the petroleum-derived fuel as did both the fuel and additive for a synthetic F-T jet fuel additized with benzyl alcohol, but less for the unadditized synthetic fuel. The specific compounds or classes of compounds involved in the partitioning were identified and a semiquantitative comparison of relative partitioning of the compounds of interest was made. The results provide another step forward in improving the confidence level of using additized, fully synthetic jet fuel in the place of petroleum-derived fuel.

Gormley, R.J.; Link, D.D.; Baltrus, J.P.; Zandhuis, P.H.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interferometric synthetic aperture" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Interactions of Jet Fuels with Nitrile O-Rings: Petroleum-Derived versus Synthetic Fuels  

SciTech Connect

A transition from petroleum-derived jet fuels to blends with Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) fuels, and ultimately fully synthetic hydro-isomerized F-T fuels has raised concern about the fate of plasticizers in nitrile-butadiene rubber o-rings that are contacted by the fuels as this transition occurs. The partitioning of plasticizers and fuel molecules between nitrile o-rings and petroleum-derived, synthetic, and additized-synthetic jet fuels has been measured. Thermal desorption of o-rings soaked in the various jet fuels followed by gas chromatographic analysis with a mass spectrometric detector showed many of the plasticizer and stabilizer compounds were removed from the o-rings regardless of the contact fuel. Fuel molecules were observed to migrate into the o-rings for the petroleum-derived fuel as did both the fuel and additive for a synthetic F-T jet fuel additized with benzyl alcohol, but less for the unadditized synthetic fuel. The specific compounds or classes of compounds involved in the partitioning were identified and a semiquantitative comparison of relative partitioning of the compounds of interest was made. The results provide another step forward in improving the confidence level of using additized, fuIly synthetic jet fuel in the place of petroleum-derived fueL

Gormley, R.J.; Link, D.D.; Baltrus, J.P.; Zandhuis, P.H.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Procedure for matching synfuel users with potential suppliers. Appendix B. Proposed and ongoing synthetic fuel production projects  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

To assist the Department of Energy, Office of Fuels Conversion (OFC), in implementing the synthetic fuel exemption under the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act (FUA) of 1978, Resource Consulting Group, Inc. (RCG), has developed a procedure for matching prospective users and producers of synthetic fuel. The matching procedure, which involves a hierarchical screening process, is designed to assist OFC in: locating a supplier for a firm that wishes to obtain a synthetic fuel exemption; determining whether the fuel supplier proposed by a petitioner is technically and economically capable of meeting the petitioner's needs; and assisting the Synthetic Fuels Corporation or a synthetic fuel supplier in evaluating potential markets for synthetic fuel production. A data base is provided in this appendix on proposed and ongoing synthetic fuel production projects to be used in applying the screening procedure. The data base encompasses a total of 212 projects in the seven production technologies.

None

1981-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

283

Beam optics in a MeV-class multi-aperture multi-grid accelerator for the ITER neutral beam injector  

SciTech Connect

In a multi-aperture multi-grid accelerator of the ITER neutral beam injector, the beamlets are deflected due to space charge repulsion between beamlets and beam groups, and also due to magnetic field. Moreover, the beamlet deflection is influenced by electric field distortion generated by grid support structure. Such complicated beamlet deflections and the compensations have been examined utilizing a three-dimensional beam analysis. The space charge repulsion and the influence by the grid support structure were studied in a 1/4 model of the accelerator including 320 beamlets. Beamlet deflection due to the magnetic field was studied by a single beamlet model. As the results, compensation methods of the beamlet deflection were designed, so as to utilize a metal bar (so-called field shaping plate) of 1 mm thick beneath the electron suppression grid (ESG), and an aperture offset of 1 mm in the ESG.

Kashiwagi, M.; Taniguchi, M.; Umeda, N.; Tobari, H.; Watanabe, K.; Inoue, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, 311-0193 Japan (Japan); Esch, H. P. L. de [CEA Cadarache, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Grisham, L. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Boilson, D.; Hemsworth, R. S.; Tanaka, M. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

284

Simulation and Theory of Speckle Noise for an Annular Aperture Frequency-Modulation Differential-Absorption LIDAR (FM-DIAL) System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents theory of speckle noise for a frequency-modulation differential-absorption LIDAR system along with simulation results. These results show an unexpected relationship between the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the speckle and the distance to the retro-reflector or target. In simulation, the use of an annular aperture in the system results in a higher SNR at midrange distances than at short or long distances. This peak in SNR occurs in the region where the lasers Gaussian beam profile approximately fills the target. This was unexpected since it does not occur in the theory or simulations of the same system with a circular aperture. By including the autocorrelation of this annular aperture and expanding the complex correlation factor used in speckle models to include conditions not generally covered, a more complete theoretical model is derived for this system. Obscuration of the center of the beam at near distances is also a major factor in this relationship between SNR and distance. We conclude by comparing the resulting SNR as a function of distance from this expanded theoretical model to the simulations of the system over a double-pass horizontal range of 10 meters to 10 km at a wavelength of 1.28 micrometers

Keller, Paul E.; Batdorf, Michael T.; Strasburg, Jana D.; Harper, Warren W.

2009-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

285

BMC Systems Biology BioMed Central Commentary Models for synthetic biology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Synthetic biological engineering is emerging from biology as a distinct discipline based on quantification. The technologies propelling synthetic biology are not new, nor is the concept of designing novel biological molecules. What is new is the emphasis on system behavior. The objective is the design and construction of new biological devices and systems to deliver useful applications. Numerous synthetic gene circuits have been created in the past decade, including bistable switches, oscillators, and logic gates, and possible applications abound, including biofuels, detectors for biochemical and chemical weapons, disease diagnosis, and gene therapies. More than fifty years after the discovery of the molecular structure of DNA, molecular biology is mature enough for real quantification that is useful for biological engineering applications, similar to the revolution in modeling in chemistry in the 1950s. With the excitement that synthetic biology is generating, the engineering and biological science communities appear remarkably willing to cross disciplinary boundaries toward a common goal. Synthetic biological engineering is emerging from biology

Yiannis N Kaznessis

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Comparison of Nonlinear Model Results Using Modified Recorded and Synthetic Ground Motions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A study has been performed that compares results of nonlinear model runs using two sets of earthquake ground motion time histories that have been modified to fit the same design response spectra. The time histories include applicable modified recorded earthquake ground motion time histories and synthetic ground motion time histories. The modified recorded earthquake ground motion time histories are modified from time history records that are selected based on consistent magnitude and distance. The synthetic ground motion time histories are generated using appropriate Fourier amplitude spectrums, Arias intensity, and drift correction. All of the time history modification is performed using the same algorithm to fit the design response spectra. The study provides data to demonstrate that properly managed synthetic ground motion time histories are reasonable for use in nonlinear seismic analysis.

Robert E. Spears; J. Kevin Wilkins

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Synthetic and alternate fuels characterization. Final report, 31 August 1981-31 January 1988  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Diesel fuels derived from petroleum and synthetic sources were compared chemically and toxicologically to address the issue of whether a changeover of mobility fuels from natural to synthetic sources might be accompanied by greater or different toxicological hazards to military personnel. Diesel fuels derived from petroleum, shale oil, tar sands, and tar sands/petroleum coprocessing were compared for major organic composition, 4-6 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon dermal tumorigens, major organic compounds in their inhalable volatiles, mouse dermal tumorigenicity and promoting activity. The data base was expanded by a similar comparison of petroleum- and coal-derived fuels for the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE). The results suggest that highly refined and finished mobility fuels from synthetic or alternate sources will not pose a significantly greater toxicological hazard than current petroleum-based fuels. Toxicological differences are likely to be subtle.

Griest, W.H.; Guerin, M.R.; Smith, L.H.; Witschi, H.P.; Higgins, C.E.

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Emissions from Buses with DDC 6V92 Engines Using Synthetic Diesel Fuel  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Synthetic diesel fuel can be made from a variety of feedstocks, including coal, natural gas and biomass. Synthetic diesel fuels can have very low sulfur and aromatic content, and excellent autoignition characteristics. Moreover, synthetic diesel fuels may also economically competitive with California diesel fuel if .roduced in large volumes. Previous engine laboratory and field tests using a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer indicate that synthetic diesel fuel made using the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalytic conversion process is a promising alternative fuel, because it can be used in unmodified diesel engines, and can reduce exhaust emissions substantially. The objective of this study was a preliminary assessment of the emissions from older model transit operated on Mossgas synthetic diesel fuel. The study compared emissions from transit buses operating on Federal no. 2 Diesel fuel, Mossgas synthetic diesel (MGSD), and a 50/50 blend of the two fuels. The buses were equipped with unmodified Detroit Diesel 6V92 2-stroke diesel engines. Six 40-foot buses were tested. Three of the buses had recently rebuilt engines and were equipped with an oxidation catalytic converter. Vehicle emissions measurements were performed using West Virginia University's unique transportable chassis dynamometer. The emissions were measured over the Central Business District (CBD) driving cycle. The buses performed well on both neat and blended MGSD fuel. Three buses without catalytic converters were tested. Compared to their emissions when operating on Federal no. 2 diesel fuel, these buses emitted an average of 5% lower oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and 20% lower particulate matter (PM) when operating on neat MGSD fuel. Catalyst equipped buses emitted an average of 8% lower NOx and 31% lower PM when operating on MGSD than when operating on Federal no. 2 diesel fuel.

Paul Norton; Keith Vertin; Nigel N. Clark; Donald W. Lyons; Mridul Gautam; Stephen Goguen; James Eberhardt

1999-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

289

Thermo-economic assessment of CO2 separation technologies in the framework of synthetic natural gas (SNG) production.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Synthetic Natural Gas (SNG) is one of the alternative fuels that can be produced from biomass. Its potential advantages are the possibility of mixing with (more)

Alamia, Alberto

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Carotenoids & Retinoids; Molecular Aspects and Health IssuesChapter 14 Mitochondria as Novel Targets for Proapoptotic Synthetic Retinoids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carotenoids & Retinoids; Molecular Aspects and Health Issues Chapter 14 Mitochondria as Novel Targets for Proapoptotic Synthetic Retinoids Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press ...

291

Study of comfort properties of natural and synthetic knitted fabrics in different blend ratios for winter active sportswear.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The objective of the present study is to produce base layer winter active sportswear fabrics using natural and synthetic fibres and their blends which will (more)

Wardiningsih, W

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Compatibility of Admix and Synthetic Liner Materials With Clean Coal Technology By-Products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

When designing effective liner systems for clean coal technology by-products, utilities need information on the liner materials most suitable for each type of waste by-product. This study has developed data on twenty admix and synthetic liner types for seven different by-product combinations.

1991-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

293

Shrinking selves in synthetic sites: Onpersonhood in a Walt Disney World  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this essay we show how certain tendencies of the self are enhanced and hindered by technologically organized places. We coordinate a cognitive and behavioral technology for the control of personal identity with the technologically totalized environments ... Keywords: Csikszentmihalyi, self, self-shrinkage, synthetic sites

Charles W. Harvey; Carol Zibell

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Hydraphiles: a rigorously studied class of synthetic channel compounds with in vivo activity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydraphiles are a class of synthetic ion channels that now have a twenty-year history of analysis and success. In early studies, these compounds were rigorously validated in a wide range of in vitro assays including liposomal ion flow detected by NMR ...

Saeedeh Negin, Bryan A. Smith, Alexandra Unger, W. Matthew Leevy, George W. Gokel

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

FEATURE-AIDED TRACKING VIA SYNTHETIC HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGERY A. Rice, J. Vasquez, M. Mendenhall  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-aided tracking (FAT) is an emerging area of research, employing HSI instruments and exploitation techniques of studies have been conducted to demonstrate HSI-FAT with contemporary and novel HSI in- struments, synthetic hyperspectral rendering, and full image-chain treatment of the various sensor models. Cor

Kerekes, John

296

Proceedings: Conference on Coal Gasification Systems and Synthetic Fuels for Power Generation, Volumes 1 and 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The international effort to develop synthetic fuels and advanced power systems for the commercial generation of electric power from coal, oil shale, and tar sands has been an outstanding technical success. This conference highlighted the work that brought new fuels and power generation systems to reality.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Proceedings of symposium on operation and maintenance of synthetic gas plants  

SciTech Connect

The Symposium on Operation and Maintenance of Synthetic Gas Plants sponsored by the Gas Processors Association and the American Petroleum Institute (Division of Refining) was held at the Statler Hilton Hotel, Dallas, Texas, October 10, 1973. Four papers have been entered individually into EDB. (LTN)

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Will Kentucky lead the way in synthetic fuels production? A history lesson  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

At four times in the history of the United States, synthetic fuels have been used as the energy savior of the country, from the period immediately following the second World War to the mid 1980s when the Synthetic Fuels Corporation was unceremoniously demolished by the Reagan administration. The Center for Applied Energy Research at the University of Kentucky has been a major player in the game and the state of Kentucky has received much funding for synthetic fuels development since the 1970s. The article traces the history of developments in the field. The fate of the development has in the author's opinion been influenced by the misalignment of three 'spheres of influence' - in essence the political economy, environmental/regulatory issues, and the technological innovation process. Synthetic fuels can now become an integral part of what is called a 'multiplex energy strategy' and Kentucky again has the opportunity to build on its prior experience and embrace a new paradigm regarding how clean energy solutions based on gasification technologies can aid the USA. 4 photos.

Musulin, M.

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Meta-analysis of Genomic and Proteomic Features to Predict Synthetic Lethality of Yeast and Human Cancer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A major goal in cancer medicine is to find selective drugs with reduced side-effect. A pair of genes is called synthetic lethality (SL) if mutations of both genes will kill a cell while mutation of either gene alone will not. Hence, a gene in SL interactions ... Keywords: Cancer, Classification, Comparative genomics, Meta-analysis, Synthetic lethality, TCGA

Min Wu, Xuejuan Li, Fan Zhang, Xiaoli Li, Chee-Keong Kwoh, Jie Zheng

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Production of biocommodities and bioelectricity by cell-free synthetic enzymatic pathway biotransformations: Challenges and opportunities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

PERSPECTIVE PERSPECTIVE Production of Biocommodities and Bioelectricity by Cell-Free Synthetic Enzymatic Pathway Biotransformations: Challenges and Opportunities Y.-H. Percival Zhang 1,2,3 1 Biological Systems Engineering Department, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 210-A Seitz Hall, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061; telephone: 540-231-7414; fax: 540-231-3199; e-mail: biofuels@vt.edu 2 Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Science (ICTAS), Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 3 DOE Bioenergy Science Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee Received 21 July 2009; revision received 18 November 2009; accepted 23 November 2009 Published online 7 December 2009 in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/bit.22630 ABSTRACT: Cell-free synthetic (enzymatic) pathway bio- transformation (SyPaB)

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interferometric synthetic aperture" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

The mine safety and health administration and how it affects the synthetic fuels industry  

SciTech Connect

The synthetic fuels industry is coming of age, with several demonstration plants operating and several commercial size plants in various stages of development. Although some of these facilities will be totally under the Occupational Safety and Health Act's (OSHA's) jurisdiction, others will be or have certain areas under the Mine Safety and Health Administration's (MSHA) regulatory authority. MSHA's jurisdiction and its regulations and guidelines are introduced.

Peason, T.P.

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

NETL: Environmental Research - Fate of Mercury in Synthetic Gypsum Used for  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fate of Mercury in Synthetic Gypsum Used for Wallboard Production Fate of Mercury in Synthetic Gypsum Used for Wallboard Production This project will provide information about the fate of mercury in synthetic gypsum produced by wet FGD systems on coal-fired power plants, when used as feedstock for wallboard production. Wet FGD systems play a key role in current and future efforts to limit the air emissions of mercury control from coal-fired plants. Potential emissions of mercury from FGD byproduct gypsum during wallboard production could limit overall mercury control levels achieved by the coal power industry. Furthermore, any adverse effects of elevated mercury levels in wallboard products could undermine the use of FGD gypsum as a feedstock for wallboard plants. Under a Cooperative Agreement with DOE-NETL, USG Corp., a major producer of wallboard, will provide high-quality data on the extent and location of mercury release during the wallboard production process, and provide additional information on the potential for mercury leaching at the end of the wallboard life cycle, when it is disposed in municipal landfills.

303

Synthetic studies toward palau򡭩ne and enantioselective total synthesis of biogenetically related (+)-phakellin and (+)-monobromophakellin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oroidin alkaloids, also known as pyrrole-imidazole alkaloids, have become a hot area of chemical and biological research due to their diverse and intriguing structural features and biological activities. Palau'amine (i), one of the hexacyclic oroidin-derived secondary metabolites, contains a fully substituted chloro-cyclopentane ring, a piperazinone moiety and two cyclic guanidines. With the uniqueness and complexity of its structure, palauamine has been a synthetic challenge and has not yet succumbed to total synthesis. The overall objective of this work was to explore synthetic pathways toward palauamine and biogenetically related congeners. Most of the work was focused on developing a synthetic pathway for the palauamine structure proposed in its isolation report dated back to 1993. Starting from a Diels-Alder adduct (iii), oxidation/chlorination followed by phakellin (ii) annulation afforded an advanced pentacyclic intermediate possessing all the carbon framework and all but one ring system of palauamine. Recently, however, a series of reports questioned the originally proposed palauamine structure and called for a revision of the stereochemistry of two carbon centers (iv). Now palauamine has an identical chlorocyclopentane core with axinellamine (vi). With the target changed, we devised a new biomimetic pathway toward both natural products via a common intermediate (v), which was synthesized in 12 steps from the Diels-Alder adduct (iii).

Wang, Shaohui

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Part Mining for Synthetic Biology (2013 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy and Environment 8th Annual User Meeting)  

SciTech Connect

Chris Voigt from MIT delivers the opening keynote on "Part Mining for Synthetic Biology" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 26, 2013 in Walnut Creek, Calif.

Voigt, Chris [MIT

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Efficient recovery of nano-sized iron oxide particles from synthetic acid-mine drainage (AMD) water using fuel cell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Efficient recovery of nano-sized iron oxide particles from synthetic acid-mine drainage (AMD) water electricity. Here we show that this approach can also be used as a technique to generate spherical nano

306

Sensitivity Analysis of Cirrus Cloud Properties from High-Resolution Infrared Spectra. Part I: Methodology and Synthetic Cirrus  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A set of simulated high-resolution infrared (IR) emission spectra of synthetic cirrus clouds is used to perform a sensitivity analysis of top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiance to cloud parameters. Principal component analysis (PCA) is applied to ...

Brian H. Kahn; Annmarie Eldering; Michael Ghil; Simona Bordoni; Shepard A. Clough

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Further Analysis of Real Beam Line Optics From A Synthetic Beam  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Standard closed-orbit techniques for Twiss parameter measurement are not applicable to the open-ended Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at Jefferson Lab. The evolution of selected sets of real orbits in the accelerator models the behavior of a 'synthetic' beam. This process will be validated against beam profile-based Twiss parameter measurements and should provide the distributed optical information needed to optimize beamline tuning for an open-ended system. This work will discuss the current and future states of this technique, as well as an example of its use in the CEBAF machine.

Ryan Bodenstein, Michael Tiefenback, Yves Roblin

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Structural algorithm to reservoir reconstruction using passive seismic data (synthetic example)  

SciTech Connect

Using of passive seismic observations to detect a reservoir is a new direction of prospecting and exploration of hydrocarbons. In order to identify thin reservoir model we applied the modification of Gaussian elimination method in conditions of incomplete synthetic data. Because of the singularity of a matrix conventional method does not work. Therefore structural algorithm has been developed by analyzing the given model as a complex model. Numerical results demonstrate of its advantage compared with usual way of solution. We conclude that the gas reservoir is reconstructed by retrieving of the image of encasing shale beneath it.

Smaglichenko, Tatyana A.; Volodin, Igor A.; Lukyanitsa, Andrei A.; Smaglichenko, Alexander V.; Sayankina, Maria K. [Oil and Gas Research Institute, Russian Academy of Science, Gubkina str.3, 119333, Moscow (Russian Federation); Faculty of Computational Mathematics and Cybernetics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie gory, 1, str.52,Second Teaching Building.119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Shmidt's Institute of Physics of the Earth, Russian Academy of Science, Bolshaya Gruzinskaya str. 10, str.1, 123995 Moscow (Russian Federation); Oil and Gas Research Institute, Russian Academy of Science, Gubkina str.3, 119333, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2012-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

309

Synthetic crude oils carcinogenicity screening tests. Quarterly report, October 16, 1978--February 15, 1979  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Four crude oils (Southern Louisiana Crude Petroleum, H. Coal Syncrude, Paraho Crude Shale Oil, and Geokinetics in situ Shale Oil) have been distilled into four fractions (naphtha, mid-distillate, gas oil, and residue) for analysis and biological (mutagenicity and carcinogenicity) screening testing. Results of selected analytical tests have been obtained on the original crude oils and the fractions. Ames tests and initiation/promotion tests have been started on the original crude oils and the fractions. Four additional synthetic crude oils (Exxon EDS, SRC II, H Coal Fuel Oil, and Occidental In Situ Shale Oil) are being obtained for a second similar series of tests to be started in approximately four months.

Calkins, W.H.; Deye, J.F.; King, C.F.; Hartgrove, R.W.; Krahn, D.F.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Structural algorithm to reservoir reconstruction using passive seismic data (synthetic example)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using of passive seismic observations to detect a reservoir is a new direction of prospecting and exploration of hydrocarbons. In order to identify thin reservoir model we applied the modification of Gaussian elimination method in conditions of incomplete synthetic data. Because of the singularity of a matrix conventional method does not work. Therefore structural algorithm has been developed by analyzing the given model as a complex model. Numerical results demonstrate of its advantage compared with usual way of solution. We conclude that the gas reservoir is reconstructed by retrieving of the image of encasing shale beneath it.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

A model for improving microbial biofuel production using a synthetic feedback loop  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Cells use feedback to implement a diverse range of regulatory functions. Building synthetic feedback control systems may yield insight into the roles that feedback can play in regulation since it can be introduced independently of native regulation, and alternative control architectures can be compared. We propose a model for microbial biofuel production where a synthetic control system is used to increase cell viability and biofuel yields. Although microbes can be engineered to produce biofuels, the fuels are often toxic to cell growth, creating a negative feedback loop that limits biofuel production. These toxic effects may be mitigated by expressing efflux pumps that export biofuel from the cell. We developed a model for cell growth and biofuel production and used it to compare several genetic control strategies for their ability to improve biofuel yields. We show that controlling efflux pump expression directly with a biofuel-responsive promoter is a straight forward way of improving biofuel production. In addition, a feed forward loop controller is shown to be versatile at dealing with uncertainty in biofuel production rates.

Dunlop, Mary; Keasling, Jay; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

2011-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

312

Calculating the vulnerability of synthetic polymers to autoignition during nuclear flash. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of our investigation was to determine if the rapid progression of fire to flashover conditions in a furnished room, observed in a 1953 nuclear weapons test at the Nevada Test Site (the Encore Event), might be typical behavior rather than an aberration. If flashover under such conditions is indeed likely, this phenomenon is worth pursuing in view of the increased threat to buildings and human life from possible large-scale fires. We placed special emphasis on fires that occurred in modern rooms, i.e., ones furnished with upholstery and drapery materials made from synthetic polymers. Examination of photochemical processes showed them to be an unlikely explanation, either in Encore or in the future. Our calculation of rapid radiant-heating behavior of a few materials demonstrated that fabrics and fabric-covered foams would exceed their autoignition temperature when exposed to a 25-cal/cm/sup 2/ fluence from a 1-Mt air burst weapon. Because synthetic polymers have higher heating values and release heat faster during combustion than do the cellulosics used in the Encore experiment, early flashover should not be unexpected in contemporary households. However, the far-field thermal fluence required would be higher because of the absorption of thermal energy by windows and window coverings. Because of the complexity of the problem, carefully planned, full-scale experiments will be needed to finally answer the question. 39 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs.

Hickman, R.; Reitter, T.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Removal of n-tributyl phosphate from synthetic intermediate level waste  

SciTech Connect

Experiments were carried out on the removal on n-tributyl phosphate (TBP) from the synthetic effluents of intermediate level waste (ILW). The candidate materials selected for this study were XAD-4 resin, Tulsion-A-72 MP resin, activated charcoal, and polyurethane foam. These materials were characterized for their distribution coefficients of TBP in a TBP-ethanol-water medium. XAD resin and PU foam showed better removal of TBP. To understand the mechanism of removal of TBP by the candidate materials, such physical properties as specific surface area, pore size distribution, and zeta potentials were determined. The zeta potential of the TBP in an ethanol-water medium was measured. The pore size distribution compared to the specific surface area and surface charges of the samples played an important role in the removal of TBP. XAD-4 resin was used in column studies for the removal of TBP from synthetic ILW. About 13,500 bed volumes of ILW could be passed before a 0.1% breakthrough capacity was attained.

Rao, S.V.S.; Raj, S.S.; Lal, K.B. [Centralized Waste Management Facility, Kalpakkam (India)] [and others

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Deformation and seismicity in the Coso geothermal area, Inyo County,  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Deformation and seismicity in the Coso geothermal area, Inyo County, California, observations and modeling using satellite radar interferometry Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Deformation and seismicity in the Coso geothermal area, Inyo County, California, observations and modeling using satellite radar interferometry Details Activities (2) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data collected in the Coso geothermal area, eastern California, during 1993-1999 indicate ground subsidence over a approximately 50 km 2 region that approximately

315

Applications of Radar Interferometry to Detect Surface Deformation in  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Applications of Radar Interferometry to Detect Surface Deformation in Applications of Radar Interferometry to Detect Surface Deformation in Geothermal Areas of Imperial Valley in Southern California Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Applications of Radar Interferometry to Detect Surface Deformation in Geothermal Areas of Imperial Valley in Southern California Abstract InSAR (interferometric synthetic aperture radar) is applied in Imperial Valley of southern California to detect and characterize surface deformation in existing geothermal fields, possible future geothermal developments, and around faults. The data used are from the Envisat satellite, collected over the period 2003-2010. The specific InSAR technique applied, SqueeSARTM, identifies permanent and distributed scatterers (PS and DS), which play the role of numerous benchmarks

316

InSAR At Coso Geothermal Area (2000) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » InSAR At Coso Geothermal Area (2000) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: InSAR At Coso Geothermal Area (2000) Exploration Activity Details Location Coso Geothermal Area Exploration Technique InSAR Activity Date 2000 Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis To determine ground subsidence using satellite radar interferometry Notes Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data collected in the Coso geothermal area, eastern California, during 1993-1999 indicate ground subsidence over a approximately 50 km 2 region that approximately coincides

317

Definition: PSInSAR | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

PSInSAR PSInSAR Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png PSInSAR Persistent Scatterer Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PSInSAR) is a remote sensing technique that uses radar signals from a satellite to accurately measure ground displacement. PSInSAR is an improved and more accurate analysis algorithm compared to the InSAR method.[1] Related Terms InSAR References ↑ http://parviztarikhi.files.wordpress.com/2010/05/3psinsar-i-parviz_tarikhi.pdf Ret LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. rieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Definition:PSInSAR&oldid=682952" Category: Definitions What links here Related changes Special pages Printable version Permanent link Browse properties 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load)

318

Gas-to-liquids synthetic fuels for use in fuel cells : reformability, energy density, and infrastructure compatibility.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The fuel cell has many potential applications, from power sources for electric hybrid vehicles to small power plants for commercial buildings. The choice of fuel will be critical to the pace of its commercialization. This paper reviews the various liquid fuels being considered as an alternative to direct hydrogen gas for the fuel cell application, presents calculations of the hydrogen and carbon dioxide yields from autothermal reforming of candidate liquid fuels, and reports the product gas composition measured from the autothermal reforming of a synthetic fuel in a micro-reactor. The hydrogen yield for a synthetic paraffin fuel produced by a cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch process was found to be similar to that of retail gasoline. The advantages of the synthetic fuel are that it contains no contaminants that would poison the fuel cell catalyst, is relatively benign to the environment, and could be transported in the existing fuel distribution system.

Ahmed, S.; Kopasz, J. P.; Russell, B. J.; Tomlinson, H. L.

1999-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

319

Experimental Study on Shear Fatigue Behavior and Stiffness Performance of Warm Mix Asphalt by adding Synthetic Wax  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Synthetic waxes produced by standard and registered processes may be used to manufacture Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA), which is a modified asphalt concrete produced, applied and compacted at temperatures below those typically required. This feature leads to environmental benefits, such as reduced energy consumption, gas and fume emissions, as well as to economic/operational advantages, such as lower production costs and greater hauling distances for extended construction seasons with tighter schedules. The present article serves to compare the mechanical performance of a WMA produced by adding synthetic wax with a traditional Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) specimen, in terms of shear fatigue response and both complex and stiffness moduli. The experimental results and related modeling work demonstrate that adding synthetic wax into the WMA composition does not hinder either the destructive or non-destructive performance of an HMA, and this finding is corroborated by respectively measuring fatigue life and stiffness.

Christophe Petit; Anne Millien; Francesco Canestrari; Valter Pannunzio; Amadeo Virgili

2012-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

320

Analysis of Natural Graphite, Synthetic Graphite, and Thermosetting Resin Candidates for Use in Fuel Compact Matrix  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The AGR-1 and AGR-2 compacting process involved overcoating TRISO particles and compacting them in a steel die. The overcoating step is the process of applying matrix to the OPyC layer of TRISO particles in a rotating drum in order to build up an overcoat layer of desired thickness. The matrix used in overcoating is a mixture of natural graphite, synthetic graphite, and thermosetting resin in the ratio, by weight, of 64:16:20. A wet mixing process was used for AGR-1 and AGR-2, in that the graphites and resin were mixed in the presence of ethyl alcohol. The goal of the wet mixing process was to 'resinate' the graphite particles, or coat each individual graphite particle with a thin layer of resin. This matrix production process was similar to the German, Chinese, Japanese, and South African methods, which also use various amount of solvent during mixing. See Appendix 1 for information on these countries matrix production techniques. The resin used for AGR-1 and AGR-2 was provided by Hexion, specifically Hexion grade Durite SC1008. Durite SC1008 is a solvated (liquid) resole phenolic resin. A resole resin does not typically have a hardening agent added. The major constituent of SC1008 is phenol, with minor amounts of formaldehyde. Durite SC1008 is high viscosity, so additional ethyl alcohol was added during matrix production in order to reduce its viscosity and enhance graphite particle resination. The current compacting scale up plan departs from a wet mixing process. The matrix production method specified in the scale up plan is a co-grinding jet mill process where powdered phenolic resin and graphite are all fed into a jet mill at the same time. Because of the change in matrix production style, SC1008 cannot be used in the jet milling process because it is a liquid. The jet milling/mixing process requires that a suite of solid or powdered resins be investigated. The synthetic graphite used in AGR-1 and AGR-2 was provided by SGL Carbon, grade KRB2000. KRB2000 is a graphitized petroleum coke. The availability of KRB2000 is perhaps in question, so a replacement synthetic graphite may need to be identified. This report presents data on potential replacements for KRB2000.

Trammell, Michael P [ORNL; Pappano, Peter J [ORNL

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interferometric synthetic aperture" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Final Technical Report - A Combined Synthetic, Spectroscopic, and Theoretical Approach to the Rational Design of Photophysical and Photochemical Properties of Dendrimers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We summarize progress in the DOE project, "A Combined Synthetic, Spectroscopic, and Theoretical Approach to the Rational Design of Photophysical and Photochemical Properties of Dendrimers."

C. J. Bardeen; T. J. Martinez; J. S. Moore

2006-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

322

An extensive library of synthetic spectra covering the far red, RAVE and GAIA wavelength ranges  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A library of 183588 synthetic spectra based on Kurucz's ATLAS9 models is presented for the far red spectral interval (7653 -- 8747\\AA). It is characterized by 3500 K grid of spectra is calculated for resolving powers 8500, 11500 and 20000. A section of the grid is also computed for [alpha/Fe]=+0.4 and for microturbulent velocities 0 and 4 km/s. The library covers the wavelength ranges and resolutions of the two ambitious spectroscopic surveys by the ground experiment RAVE and the space mission GAIA. Cross-sections across the multi-dimensional data-cube are used to illustrate the behaviour of the strongest spectral lines. Interpretation of real data will have to include interpolation to grid substeps. We present a simple estimate of the accuracy of such a procedure.

Zwitter, T; Munari, U; Zwitter, Tomaz; Castelli, Fiorella; Munari, Ulisse

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

An extensive library of synthetic spectra covering the far red, RAVE and GAIA wavelength ranges  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A library of 183588 synthetic spectra based on Kurucz's ATLAS9 models is presented for the far red spectral interval (7653 -- 8747\\AA). It is characterized by 3500 K grid of spectra is calculated for resolving powers 8500, 11500 and 20000. A section of the grid is also computed for [alpha/Fe]=+0.4 and for microturbulent velocities 0 and 4 km/s. The library covers the wavelength ranges and resolutions of the two ambitious spectroscopic surveys by the ground experiment RAVE and the space mission GAIA. Cross-sections across the multi-dimensional data-cube are used to illustrate the behaviour of the strongest spectral lines. Interpretation of real data will have to include interpolation to grid substeps. We present a simple estimate of the accuracy of such a procedure.

Tomaz Zwitter; Fiorella Castelli; Ulisse Munari

2004-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

324

THE EFFECT OF ANTISTATIC AGENTS ON FABRICS WOVEN FROM SYNTHETIC FIBRES  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory and field evaluations of protective clothing made with staple polyester fibre suggest that appreciable savings can be made in replacements and overall laundry costs, e.g., washing schedules, drying, and finishing times. An intrinsic disadvantage of synthetic fibres is their tendency to develop static electrical charges and an evaluation is made, by surface resistivity measurements, of antistatic agents. The effect of antistatic treatments on subsequent radiological decontamination procedures was determined on samples of fabric contaminated with soluble and insoluble radioactive media. It is concluded that syrthetic fibres can be readily and efficiently treated to reduce their surface resistivity to an acceptable level, and that such treatment has no adverse effect upon the laundering process. (auth)

Colclough, W.J.; Smith, A.J.; Wells, H.

1963-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Environmentally based siting assessment for synthetic-liquid-fuels facilities. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A detailed assessment of the major environmental constraints to siting a synthetic fuels industry and the results of that assessment are used to determine on a regional basis the potential for development of such an industry with minimal environmental conflicts. Secondly, the ability to mitigate some of the constraining impacts through alternative institutional arrangements, especially in areas that are judged to have a low development potential is also assessed. Limitations of the study are delineated, but specifically, the study is limited geographically to well-defined boundaries that include the prime coal and oil shale resource areas. The critical factors used in developing the framework are air quality, water availability, socioeconomic capacity, ecological sensitivity, environmental health, and the management of Federally owned lands. (MCW)

None

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Vulnerability reduction study. Coal and synthetics (Section III a). Technical Appendix  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This Appendix supports and explains key statements made in the chapter on Coal and Synthetics. The reader will find information and documentation on points that lend themselves to quantification. Evidence is presented that coal supply will not be constrained by production or transportation factors through the 1980s. Any program to increase the direct use of coal in the industrial sector must take into account a number of identifiable difficulties. A deployment schedule for 10 oil shale projects has been developed by the Office of Technology Assessment. This schedule, if adhered to, would result in an initial deployment of an oil shale industry of 400,000 bpd oil equivalent by 1990. In addition, the Appendix provides descriptions of those major elements of Federal legislation that bear directly on coal, notably portions of the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978, the Energy Tax Act of 1978, the Energy Security Act of 1980, and the Clean Air Act.

Not Available

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Metabolic engineering of microorganisms for biofuels production: from bugs to synthetic biology to fuels  

SciTech Connect

The ability to generate microorganisms that can produce biofuels similar to petroleum-based transportation fuels would allow the use of existing engines and infrastructure and would save an enormous amount of capital required for replacing the current infrastructure to accommodate biofuels that have properties significantly different from petroleum-based fuels. Several groups have demonstrated the feasibility of manipulating microbes to produce molecules similar to petroleum-derived products, albeit at relatively low productivity (e.g. maximum butanol production is around 20 g/L). For cost-effective production of biofuels, the fuel-producing hosts and pathways must be engineered and optimized. Advances in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology will provide new tools for metabolic engineers to better understand how to rewire the cell in order to create the desired phenotypes for the production of economically viable biofuels.

Kuk Lee, Sung; Chou, Howard; Ham, Timothy S.; Soon Lee, Taek; Keasling, Jay D.

2009-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

328

Synthetic Catalysts for CO2 Storage: Catalytic Improvement of Solvent Capture Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

IMPACCT Project: LLNL is designing a process to pull CO2 out of the exhaust gas of coal-fired power plants so it can be transported, stored, or utilized elsewhere. Human lungs rely on an enzyme known as carbonic anhydrase to help separate CO2 from our blood and tissue as part of the normal breathing process. LLNL is designing a synthetic catalyst with the same function as this enzyme. The catalyst can be used to quickly capture CO2 from coal exhaust, just as the natural enzyme does in our lungs. LLNL is also developing a method of encapsulating chemical solvents in permeable microspheres that will greatly increase the speed of binding of CO2. The goal of the project is an industry-ready chemical vehicle that can withstand the harsh environments found in exhaust gas and enable new, simple process designs requiring less capital investment.

None

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

329

Effect of synthetic ANP on renal and loop of Henle functions in the young rat  

SciTech Connect

The present studies were undertaken to determine, by recollection micropuncture, the effect of a synthetic atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) on the absolute and fractional deliveries of water and sodium to the juxtamedullary end-descending limb. Two groups of young female Munich-Wistar rats were studied: 1) control received the vehicle only; and 2) ANP received a prime followed by the constant infusion of a synthetic rat atrial peptide (28 amino acids). With the infusion of ANP, clearance of p-( UC)aminohippurate (( UC(PAH) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) fell significantly. Despite this fall in GFR and renal plasma flow, ANP produced a 2-fold increase in urine volume and a 10-fold increase in sodium excretion. Absolute and fractional sodium deliveries to the end-descending limb increased by approx.30% in the ANP group, whereas mean juxtamedullary single-nephron glomerular filtration rate (SNGFR) remained stable. In three additional rats prepared for micropuncture of the superficial end-accessible proximal tubule, ANP reduced cortical SNGFR by approx.15%. By contrast, GFR did not decline in response to ANP in larger rats, when treated identically. The authors conclude that 1) in young rats ANP can produce a natriuresis in the absence of a rise in GFR; 2) the fall in GFR observed following ANP is due presumably to the immaturity of the animals used in these studies; and 3) ANP produces a rise in absolute and fractional water and sodium deliveries to the end-descending limb that cannot be attributed to a change in SNGFR. The relatively small rise in fractional sodium delivery to the end-descending limb, most probably due to inhibition of sodium and water reabsorption in the juxtamedullary proximal tubule and/or thin descending limb, accounts for only a smallproportion of sodium excretion in the final urine.

Roy, D.R.

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Interferometric ring lasers and optical devices  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Two ring diode lasers are optically coupled together to produce tunable, stable output through a Y-junction output coupler which may also be a laser diode or can be an active waveguide. These devices demonstrate a sharp peak in light output with an excellent side-mode-rejection ratio. The rings can also be made of passive or active waveguide material. With additional rings the device is a tunable optical multiplexer/demultiplexer. 11 figs.

Hohimer, J.P.; Craft, D.C.

1995-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

331

Interferometric ring lasers and optical devices  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Two ring diode lasers are optically coupled together to produce tunable, stable output through a Y-junction output coupler which may also be a laser diode or can be an active waveguide. These devices demonstrate a sharp peak in light output with an excellent side-mode-rejection ratio. The rings can also be made of passive or active waveguide material. With additional rings the device is a tunable optical multiplexer/demultiplexer.

Hohimer, John P. (Albuquerque, NM); Craft, David C. (Albuquerque, NM)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Sensitive interferometric video thermal wave imager  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new method of parallel thermal wave imaging is demonstrated in which the thermal wave image of a heated sample is converted into an optical phase image which is sensitively probed by a TwymanGreen interferometer. The sample is mounted onto an assembly of optical layers which acts as a temperature sensitive mirror.Heat conduction from the sample to this mirror results in a two?dimensional distribution of optical phase which is probed broadfield by the interferometer. The resulting transmission thermal wave image has characteristics analogous to those of photopyroelectric images. The interferogram produced in the interferometer may be recorded by videography

J. F. Power

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Interferometric hydrofracture microseism localization using neighboring fracture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydraulic fracturing is the process of injecting high-pressure fluids into a reservoir to induce fractures and thus improve reservoir productivity. Microseismic event localization is used to locate created fractures. ...

Poliannikov, Oleg V.

334

Detecting and monitoring UCG subsidence with InSAR  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) to measure surface subsidence caused by Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) is tested. InSAR is a remote sensing technique that uses Synthetic Aperture Radar images to make spatial images of surface deformation and may be deployed from satellite or an airplane. With current commercial satellite data, the technique works best in areas with little vegetation or farming activity. UCG subsidence is generally caused by roof collapse, which adversely affects UCG operations due to gas loss and is therefore important to monitor. Previous studies have demonstrated the usefulness of InSAR in measuring surface subsidence related to coal mining and surface deformation caused by a coal mining roof collapse in Crandall Canyon, Utah is imaged as a proof-of-concept. InSAR data is collected and processed over three known UCG operations including two pilot plants (Majuba, South Africa and Wulanchabu, China) and an operational plant (Angren, Uzbekistan). A clear f eature showing approximately 7 cm of subsidence is observed in the UCG field in Angren. Subsidence is not observed in the other two areas, which produce from deeper coal seams and processed a smaller volume. The results show that in some cases, InSAR is a useful tool to image UCG related subsidence. Data from newer satellites and improved algorithms will improve effectiveness.

Mellors, R J; Foxall, W; Yang, X

2012-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

335

Deformation Trend Extraction Based on Multi-Temporal InSAR in Shanghai  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: Shanghai is a modern metropolis characterized by high urban density and anthropogenic ground motions. Although traditional deformation monitoring methods, such as GPS and spirit leveling, are reliable to millimeter accuracy, the sparse point subsidence information makes understanding large areas difficult. Multiple temporal space-borne synthetic aperture radar interferometry is a powerful high-accuracy (sub-millimeter) remote sensing tool for monitoring slow ground deformation for a large area with a high point density. In this paper, the Interferometric Point Target Time Series Analysis method is used to extract ground subsidence rates in Shanghai based on 31 C-Band and 35 X-Band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images obtained by Envisat and COSMO SkyMed (CSK) satellites from 2007 to 2010. A significant subsidence funnel that was detected is located in the junction place between the Yangpu and the Hongkou Districts. A t-test is formulated to judge the agreements between the subsidence results obtained by SAR and by spirit leveling. In addition, four profile lines crossing the subsidence funnel area are chosen for a comparison of ground subsidence rates, which were obtained by the two different band

Jie Chen; Jicang Wu; Lina Zhang; Junping Zou; Guoxiang Liu; Rui Zhang; Bing Yu

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

System-level max power (SYMPO): a systematic approach for escalating system-level power consumption using synthetic benchmarks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To effectively design a computer system for the worst case power consumption scenario, system architects often use hand-crafted maximum power consuming benchmarks at the assembly language level. These stressmarks, also called power viruses, are very ... Keywords: synthetic benchmark, system-level power virus, thermal design point

Karthik Ganesan; Jungho Jo; W. Lloyd Bircher; Dimitris Kaseridis; Zhibin Yu; Lizy K. John

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

State-of-the-art processes for manufacturing synthetic liquid fuels via the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Processes for manufacturing synthetic liquid fuels on the basis of the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis from alternative feedstock (natural gas, coal, biomass of various origins, etc.) are surveyed. State-of-the-art technology, companies that offer such processes, and the quality of products in comparison with their oil analogs, as well as economic features of the processes, are considered.

A.Y. Krylova; E.A. Kozyukov [NGK ITERA, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

338

The Caenorhabditis elegans Synthetic Multivulva Genes Prevent Ras Pathway Activation by Tightly Repressing Global Ectopic Expression of lin-3 EGF  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Caenorhabditis elegans class A and B synthetic multivulva (synMuv) genes redundantly antagonize an EGF/Ras pathway to prevent ectopic vulval induction. We identify a class A synMuv mutation in the promoter of the lin-3 ...

Saffer, Adam M.

339

Generation of synthetic multifractal realistic surfaces based on natural model and lognormal cascade: application to MRI classification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a method of generating realistic synthetic multi-fractals surfaces, constructed with multiplicative cascades, that follow lognormal probability density function.The conservation of the natural image gradient direction, and the variance ... Keywords: Bayesian classification, Monte-Carlo sampling, discrete wavelet transform, iterative conditional modes (ICM), lognormal cascade, markov random fields (MRF), multifractal analysis, probabilistic model, wavelet leader

Mohamed Khider; Abdelmalik Taleb-Ahmed; Boualem Haddad

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

An Evaluation of Five ARW-WRF Microphysics Schemes Using Synthetic GOES Imagery for an Atmospheric River Event Affecting the California Coast  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The main purpose of the present study is to assess the value of synthetic satellite imagery as a tool for model evaluation performance in addition to more traditional approaches. For this purpose, synthetic GOES-10 imagery at 10.7 ?m was produced ...

Isidora Jankov; Lewis D. Grasso; Manajit Sengupta; Paul J. Neiman; Dusanka Zupanski; Milija Zupanski; Daniel Lindsey; Donald W. Hillger; Daniel L. Birkenheuer; Renate Brummer; Huiling Yuan

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interferometric synthetic aperture" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

LARGE-APERTURE D- ACCELERATORS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydrogen Ions and Beams, Brookhaven, 1977. E. 8. Hooper,iydrogen Ions and Beams, Brookhaven, J 577, K. Prelec,"Hydroqeii rons and Beams, Brookhaven, 19E0. K. Pre lee, "

Anderson, O.A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

NIST Aperture area measurement facility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The optical and mechanical components are supported on a granite base and vertical bridge structure mounted on a vibration-isolated optical table ...

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

343

Investigation of iron opacity experiment plasma gradients with synthetic data analyses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Experiments have been performed at Sandia National Laboratories Z-facility to validate iron opacity models relevant to the solar convection/radiation zone boundary. Sample conditions were measured by mixing Mg with the Fe and using Mg K-shell line transmission spectra, assuming that the plasma was uniform. We develop a spectral model that accounts for hypothetical gradients, and compute synthetic spectra to quantitatively evaluate the plasma gradient size that can be diagnosed. Two sample designs are investigated, assuming linear temperature and density gradients. First, Mg uniformly mixed with Fe enables temperature gradients greater than 10% to be detected. The second design uses Mg mixed into one side and Al mixed into the other side of the sample in an attempt to more accurately infer the sample gradient. Both temperature and density gradients as small as a few percent can be detected with this design. Experiments have successfully recorded spectra with the second design. In future research, the spectral model will be used to place bounds on gradients that exist in Z opacity experiments.

Nagayama, T.; Bailey, J. E.; Rochau, G. A.; Hansen, S. B. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Mancini, R. C. [Physics Department, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557 (United States); MacFarlane, J. J.; Golovkin, I. [Prism Computational Sciences, Madison, Wisconsin 53703 (United States)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

344

Biquadratic coupling effect on magnetoresistance response curves of spin valves with a synthetic antiferromagnet  

SciTech Connect

Both normal and inverse magnetoresistance (MR) response curves were observed for synthetic spin valves with the structure of Si(100)/Ru/Co(t{sub 1})/Ru(0.7nm)/Co(t{sub 2})/Cu(3nm)/Co(t{sub 3})/Ru. Under the assumption of a coherent rotation of the magnetization in the three Co layers, the hysteresis loops, magnetization response, and MR response curves were calculated as a function of the parameters of the system. The parameters include antiferromagnetic coupling of Co(t{sub 1}) and Co(t{sub 2}) through Ru layer, a weak ferromagnetic coupling of Co(t{sub 2}) and Co(t{sub 3}) through Cu spacer, giant magnetoresistance of the Co/Cu/Co and Co/Ru/Co systems, and AMR contribution of each Co layer. The uniaxial anisotropy of each Co layer and a distribution of the coupling strength of Co(t{sub 1})/Ru/Co(t{sub 2}) were also included. To fit the experimental data well, it was necessary to include a biquadratic coupling in the Co(t{sub 1})/Ru/Co(t{sub 2}) trilayer. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

Zhang, K.; Kai, T.; Zhao, T.; Fujiwara, H.; Mankey, G. J.

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

From Clarkia to Escherichia and Janus: the physics of natural and synthetic active colloids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An active colloid is a suspension of particles that transduce free energy from their environment and use the energy to engage in intrinsically non-equilibrium activities such as growth, replication and self-propelled motility. An obvious example of active colloids is a suspension of bacteria such as Escherichia coli, their physical dimensions being almost invariably in the colloidal range. Synthetic self-propelled particles have also become available recently, such as two-faced, or Janus, particles propelled by differential chemical reactions on their surfaces driving a self-phoretic motion. In these lectures, I give a pedagogical introduction to the physics of single-particle and collective properties of active colloids, focussing on self propulsion. I will compare and contrast phenomena in suspensions of `swimmers' with the behaviour of suspensions of passive particles, where only Brownian motion (discovered by Robert Brown in granules from the pollen of the wild flower {\\it Clarkia pulchella}) is relevant. I will pay particular attention to issues that pertain to performing experiments using these active particle suspensions, such as how to characterise the suspension's swimming speed distribution, and include an appendix to guide physicists wanting to start culturing motile bacteria.

W C K Poon

2013-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

346

Synthetic Spectra and Light Curves of Interacting Binaries and Exoplanets with Circumstellar Material: SHELLSPEC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Program SHELLSPEC is designed to calculate light-curves, spectra and images of interacting binaries and extrasolar planets immersed in a moving circumstellar environment which is optically thin. It solves simple radiative transfer along the line of sight in moving media. The assumptions include LTE and optional known state quantities and velocity fields in 3D. Optional (non)transparent objects such as a spot, disc, stream, jet, ufo, shell or stars may be defined (embedded) in 3D and their composite synthetic spectrum calculated. Roche model can be used as a boundary condition for the radiative transfer. Recently a new model of the reflection effect, dust and Mie scattering were incorporated into the code. $\\epsilon$ Aurigae is one of the most mysterious objects on the sky. Prior modeling of its light-curve assumed dark, inclined, disk of dust with the central hole to explain the light-curve with a sharp mid-eclipse brightening. Our model consists of two geometrically thick flared disks. Internal optically thi...

Budaj, Jan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Using synthetic emission maps to constrain the structure of the Milky Way  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the current standing of an investigation into the structure of the Milky Way. We use smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) to simulate the ISM gas in the Milky Way under the effect of a number of different gravitational potentials representing the spiral arms and nuclear bars, both fixed and time-dependent. The gas is subject to ISM cooling and chemistry, enabling us to track the CO and HI density. We use a 3D grid-based radiative transfer code to simulate the emission from the SPH output, allowing for the construction of synthetic longitude-velocity maps as viewed from the Earth. By comparing these maps with the observed emission in CO and HI from the Milky Way (Dame et al. 2001, Kalberla et al. 2005), we can infer the arm/bar geometry that provides a best fit to our Galaxy. By doing so we aim to answer key questions concerning the morphology of the Milky Way such as the number of the spiral arms, the pattern speeds of the bar(s) and arms, the pitch angle of the arms and shape of the bar(s)

Pettitt, Alex; Acreman, David; Price, Daniel

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Behavior of Concrete Panels Reinforced with Synthetic Fibers, Mild Steel, and GFRP Composites Subjected to Blasts  

SciTech Connect

The paper presents experimental data generated for calibrating finite element models to predict the performance of reinforced concrete panels with a wide range of construction details under blast loading. The specimens were 1.2 m square panels constructed using Normal Weight Concrete (NWC) or Fiber Reinforced Concrete (FRC). FRC consisted of macro-synthetic fibers dispersed in NWC. Five types of panels were tested: NWC panels with steel bars; FRC panels without additional reinforcement; FRC panels with steel bars; NWC panels with glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars; and NWC panels reinforced with steel bars and external GFRP laminates on both faces. Each panel type was constructed with three thicknesses: 152 mm, 254 mm, and 356 mm. FRC panels with steel bars had the best performance for new construction. NWC panels reinforced with steel bars and external GFRP laminates on both faces had the best performance for strengthening or rehabilitation of existing structures. The performance of NWC panels with GFRP bars was strongly influenced by the bar spacing. The behavior of the panels is classified in terms of damage using immediate occupancy, life safety, and near collapse performance levels. Preliminary dynamic simulations are compared to the experimental results.

C. P. Pantelides; T. T. Garfield; W. D. Richins; T. K. Larson; J. E. Blakeley

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Large Hybrid Energy Systems for Making Low CO2 Load-Following Power and Synthetic Fuel  

SciTech Connect

Hybrid energy systems using nuclear heat sources can economically produce load-following electrical power by exploiting the surplus generation capacity available at night or seasonally to make synthetic fuel. Vehicle fuel is the only current energy use large enough to absorb all the energy capacity that might be diverted from the power industry, and its ease of storage obviates problems with discontinuous synfuel production. The potential benefits and challenges of synfuels integration are illustrated by the production of methanol from natural gas (as a source of carbon) using steam from a light water nuclear power reactor which is assumed to be available in accord with a year's worth of power demand data. Methanol's synthesis process is easily adapted to using 300 C heat from a light water reactor and this simple compound can be further processed into gasoline, biodiesel, or dimethyl ether, fuels which can be used with the current vehicle fleet. A supplemental feed to the methanol process of natural gas (for energy) allows operation at constant full rate when the nuclear heat is being used to produce electrical power. The higher capital costs of such a system are offset by a lower cost of heat and power production from a large base load type of plant and by reduced costs associated with much lower CO2 emissions. Other less tangible economic benefits of this and similar hybrid systems include better use of natural resource for fuels and greater energy services security from the domestic production of vehicle fuel.

Robert S. Cherry; Richard D. Boardman; Steven Aumeier

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Review Article The Role of Synthetic Biology in the Design of Microbial Cell Factories for Biofuel Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Insecurity in the supply of fossil fuels, volatile fuel prices, and major concerns regarding climate change have sparked renewed interest in the production of fuels from renewable resources. Because of this, the use of biodiesel has grown dramatically during the last few years and is expected to increase even further in the future. Biodiesel production through the use of microbial systems has marked a turning point in the field of biofuels since it is emerging as an attractive alternative to conventional technology. Recent progress in synthetic biology has accelerated the ability to analyze, construct, and/or redesign microbial metabolic pathways with unprecedented precision, in order to permit biofuel production that is amenable to industrial applications. The review presented here focuses specifically on the role of synthetic biology in the design of microbial cell factories for efficient production of biodiesel. 1.

Vernica Leticia Colin; Anala Rodrguez; Hctor Antonio Cristbal

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

An attempt to reveal a role of a transcription/translation feedback loop in the cyanobacterial KaiC protein-based circadian system by using a semi-synthetic method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of synthetic biology to design artificial gene circuits is an important approach for understanding the principles underlying the complicated dynamic behaviours of biomolecular networks, such as genetic switching and biological rhythms. The synthetic ... Keywords: E coli, Escherichia coli, KaiC, OmpC, SasA, bioinformatics, circadian clock, circadian rhythms, cyanobacterial circadian system, experimental design, synthetic biology, transcription feedback

Hirokazu Tozaki; Taiichiro Kobe; Kazuyuki Aihara; Hideo Iwasaki

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Synthetic fuels. Status of the Great Plains Coal Gasification Project, August 1, 1985  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In December 1984, the Great Plains Gasification Associates had essentially finished constructing the nation's first commercial-scale coal gasification plant. As of July 31, 1985, Great Plains had contributed about $537 million in equity to the project and had borrowed $1.54 billion against a federal load guarantee made available by the Department of Energy (DOE). Since 1984 the project has faced deteriorating financial projections in the wake of declining energy prices. This is GAO's eighth semiannual report on Great Plains and covers the project's progress from January through August 1, 1985. GAO's objectives were to report on (1) the status of Great Plains' attempt to obtain additional federal financial assistance and (2) the status of the project's operational startup activities as of August 1, 1985. The Department of Energy Act of 1978 requires GAO to report on the status of the loan guarantee. Even though the Synthetic Fuels Corporation approved price guarantees in principle for Great Plains, DOE announced, on July 30, 1985, that it would not agree to restructuring its guaranteed loan. DOE rejected the proposed agreement, saying that it would not assure long-term plant operation at a reasonable cost to the taxpayers. The Great Plains sponsors then terminated their participation in the project on August 1, 1985, and defaulted on the $1.54 billion DOE-guaranteed loan. DOE directed the project administrator, ANG Coal Gasification Company, to continue plant operations pending a DOE decision about the project's future. DOE is assessing options including operating, leasing, selling, shutting down, mothballing, and scrapping the plant.

Bowsher, C.A.

1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

The electrorheology of suspensions consisting of Na-Fluorohectorite synthetic clay particles in silicon oil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Under application of an electric field greater than a triggering electric field $E_c \\sim 0.4$ kV/mm, suspensions obtained by dispersing particles of the synthetic clay fluoro-hectorite in a silicon oil, aggregate into chain- and/or column-like structures parallel to the applied electric field. This micro-structuring results in a transition in the suspensions' rheological behavior, from a Newtonian-like behavior to a shear-thinning rheology with a significant yield stress. This behavior is studied as a function of particle volume fraction and strength of the applied electric field, $E$. The steady shear flow curves are observed to scale onto a master curve with respect to $E$, in a manner similar to what was recently found for suspensions of laponite clay [42]. In the case of Na-fluorohectorite, the corresponding dynamic yield stress is demonstrated to scale with respect to $E$ as a power law with an exponent $\\alpha \\sim 1.93$, while the static yield stress inferred from constant shear stress tests exhibits a similar behavior with $\\alpha \\sim 1.58$. The suspensions are also studied in the framework of thixotropic fluids: the bifurcation in the rheology behavior when letting the system flow and evolve under a constant applied shear stress is characterized, and a bifurcation yield stress, estimated as the applied shear stress at which viscosity bifurcation occurs, is measured to scale as $E^\\alpha$ with $\\alpha \\sim 0.5$ to 0.6. All measured yield stresses increase with the particle fraction $\\Phi$ of the suspension. For the static yield stress, a scaling law $\\Phi^\\beta$, with $\\beta = 0.54$, is found. The results are found to be reasonably consistent with each other. Their similarities with-, and discrepancies to- results obtained on laponite-oil suspensions are discussed.

Y. Mheust; K. P. S. Parmar; B. Schjelderupsen; J. O. Fossum

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Improving low temperature properties of synthetic diesel fuels derived from oil shale. Alternative fuels utilization program  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The ability of additives to improve the cold flow properties of shale oil derived fuels boiling in the diesel fuel range was evaluated. Because a commercial shale oil industry did not exist to provide actual samples of finished fuels, a representative range of hydroprocessed shale oil fractions was prepared for use in the additive testing work. Crude oil shale from Occidental Shale Company was fractionated to give three liquids in the diesel fuel boiling range. The initial boiling point in each case was 325/sup 0/F (163/sup 0/C). The final boiling points were 640/sup 0/F (338/sup 0/C), 670/sup 0/F (354/sup 0/C) and 700/sup 0/F (371/sup 0/F). Each fraction was hydrotreated to three different severities (800, 1200 and 1500 psi total pressure) over a Shell 324 nickel molybdate on alumina catalyst at 710 to 750/sup 0/F to afford 9 different model fuels. A variety of commercial and experimental additives were evaluated as cold flow improvers in the model fuels at treat levels of 0.04 to 0.4 wt %. Both the standard pour point test (ASTM D97) and a more severe low temperature flow test (LTFT) were employed. Reductions in pour points of up to 70/sup 0/F and improvements in LTFT temperatures up to 16/sup 0/F were achieved. It is concluded that flow improver additives can play an important role in improving the cold flow properties of future synthetic fuels of the diesel type derived from oil shale.

Frankenfeld, J.W.; Taylor, W.F.

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Program plan for the development of advanced synthetic-diamond drill bits for hard-rock drilling  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Eight companys have teamed with Sandia Labs to work on five projects as part of a cooperative effort to advance the state of the ar in synthetic-diamond drill bit design and manufacture. DBS (a Baroid Company), Dennis Tool Company, Hughes Christensen Company, Maurer Engineering, Megadiamond, Security Diamond Products, Slimdril International, and Smith International. Objective of each project is to develop advanced bit technology that results in new commercial products with longer bit life and higher penetration rates in hard formations. Each project explores a different approach to synthetic-diamond cutter and bit design and, consequently, uses different approaches to developing the technology. Each of these approaches builds or the respective companies` capabilities and current product interests. Sandia`s role is to assure integration of the individual projects into a coherent program and tc provide unique testing and analytical capabilities where needed. One additional company, Amoco Production Research, will provide synthetic-diamond drill bit research expertise and field testing services for each project in the program.

Glowka, D.A.; Schafer, D.M.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Integrated Operation of INL HYTEST System and High-Temperature Steam Electrolysis for Synthetic Natural Gas Production  

SciTech Connect

The primary feedstock for synthetic fuel production is syngas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Current hydrogen production technologies rely upon fossil fuels and produce significant quantities of greenhouse gases as a byproduct. This is not a sustainable means of satisfying future hydrogen demands, given the current projections for conventional world oil production and future targets for carbon emissions. For the past six years, the Idaho National Laboratory has been investigating the use of high-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE) to produce the hydrogen feedstock required for synthetic fuel production. High-temperature electrolysis water-splitting technology, combined with non-carbon-emitting energy sources, can provide a sustainable, environmentally-friendly means of large-scale hydrogen production. Additionally, laboratory facilities are being developed at the INL for testing hybrid energy systems composed of several tightly-coupled chemical processes (HYTEST program). The first such test involved the coupling of HTSE, CO2 separation membrane, reverse shift reaction, and methanation reaction to demonstrate synthetic natural gas production from a feedstock of water and either CO or a simulated flue gas containing CO2. This paper will introduce the initial HTSE and HYTEST testing facilities, overall coupling of the technologies, testing results, and future plans.

Carl Marcel Stoots; Lee Shunn; James O'Brien

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Synthetic Metagenomics: Converting digital information back to Biology (2013 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy and Environment 8th Annual User Meeting)  

SciTech Connect

Sam Deutsch of the DOE JGI on "Synthetic Metagenomics: Converting digital information back to Biology" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting in Walnut Creek, Calif.

Deutsch, Sam [DOE Joint Genome Institute

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Dartmouth Stellar Evolution Database and the ACS Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters II. Stellar Evolution Tracks, Isochrones, Luminosity Functions, and Synthetic Horizontal-Branch Models  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

Web tools are also available at the home page (http://stellar.dartmouth.edu/~models/index.html). These tools allow users to create isochrones and convert them to luminosity functions or create synthetic horizontal branch models.

Dotter, A; Chaboyer, B; Jevremovic, D; Kostov, V; Baron, E; Ferguson, J; Sarajedini, A; Anderson, J

359

The C. elegans class A synthetic multivulva genes inhibit ectopic RAS-mediated vulval development by tightly restricting expression of lin-3 EGF  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The class A and B synthetic multivulva (synMuv) genes of C. elegans redundantly antagonize an EGF/Ras pathway to prevent ectopic vulval induction. The class B synMuv genes encode many proteins known to remodel chromatin ...

Saffer, Adam M

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Summary report : direct approaches for recycling carbon dioxide into synthetic fuel.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The consumption of petroleum by the transportation sector in the United States is roughly equivalent to petroleum imports into the country, which have totaled over 12 million barrels a day every year since 2004. This reliance on foreign oil is a strategic vulnerability for the economy and national security. Further, the effect of unmitigated CO{sub 2} releases on the global climate is a growing concern both here and abroad. Independence from problematic oil producers can be achieved to a great degree through the utilization of non-conventional hydrocarbon resources such as coal, oil-shale and tarsands. However, tapping into and converting these resources into liquid fuels exacerbates green house gas (GHG) emissions as they are carbon rich, but hydrogen deficient. Revolutionary thinking about energy and fuels must be adopted. We must recognize that hydrocarbon fuels are ideal energy carriers, but not primary energy sources. The energy stored in a chemical fuel is released for utilization by oxidation. In the case of hydrogen fuel the chemical product is water; in the case of a hydrocarbon fuel, water and carbon dioxide are produced. The hydrogen economy envisions a cycle in which H{sub 2}O is re-energized by splitting water into H{sub 2} and O{sub 2}, by electrolysis for example. We envision a hydrocarbon analogy in which both carbon dioxide and water are re-energized through the application of a persistent energy source (e.g. solar or nuclear). This is of course essentially what the process of photosynthesis accomplishes, albeit with a relatively low sunlight-to-hydrocarbon efficiency. The goal of this project then was the creation of a direct and efficient process for the solar or nuclear driven thermochemical conversion of CO{sub 2} to CO (and O{sub 2}), one of the basic building blocks of synthetic fuels. This process would potentially provide the basis for an alternate hydrocarbon economy that is carbon neutral, provides a pathway to energy independence, and is compatible with much of the existing fuel infrastructure.

Allendorf, Mark D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Ambrosini, Andrea; Diver, Richard B., Jr.; Siegel, Nathan Phillip; Miller, James Edward; Gelbard, Fred; Evans, Lindsey R.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interferometric synthetic aperture" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Supplying Synthetic Crude Oil from Canadian Oil Sands: A Comparative Study of the Costs and CO2 Emissions of Mining and In-situ Recovery  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High crude oil prices and the eventual decline of conventional oil production raise the issue of alternative fuels such as non-conventional oil. The paper describes a simple probabilistic model of the costs of synthetic crude oil (SCO) produced from Canadian oil sands. Synthetic crude oil is obtained by upgrading bitumen that is first produced through mining or in-situ recovery techniques. This forward-looking analysis quantifies the effects of learning and production constraints on the costs of supplying synthetic crude oil from Canadian bitumen deposits. The results show the uncertainties associated with the future costs of synthetic crude oil. Carbon costs have a large impact of the total costs of synthetic crude oil, in particular in the case of synthetic crude oil from in-situ bitumen, due to the carbon-intensity of the recovery techniques. The influence of each parameter on the supply costs is examined. In the case of mined SCO, the maximum production rate, the ultimate recovery rate and the depletion parameters show the largest influence on the results, while learning parameters dominate in the case of in-situ SCO.

Aurlie Mjean; Chris Hope; Aurlie Mjean; Chris Hope; Aurlie Mjean; Chris Hope

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

EPRG WORKING PAPER Supplying Synthetic Crude Oil from Canadian Oil Sands: A Comparative Study of the Costs and CO2 Emissions of Mining and In-situ Recovery  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High crude oil prices and the eventual decline of conventional oil production raise the issue of alternative fuels such as non-conventional oil. The paper describes a simple probabilistic model of the costs of synthetic crude oil (SCO) produced from Canadian oil sands. Synthetic crude oil is obtained by upgrading bitumen that is first produced through mining or in-situ recovery techniques. This forward-looking analysis quantifies the effects of learning and production constraints on the costs of supplying synthetic crude oil from Canadian bitumen deposits. The results show the uncertainties associated with the future costs of synthetic crude oil. Carbon costs have a large impact of the total costs of synthetic crude oil, in particular in the case of synthetic crude oil from in-situ bitumen, due to the carbon-intensity of the recovery techniques. The influence of each parameter on the supply costs is examined. In the case of mined SCO, the maximum production rate, the ultimate recovery rate and the depletion parameters show the largest influence on the results, while learning parameters dominate in the case of in-situ SCO.

Aurlie Mjean; Chris Hope; Aurlie Mjean; Chris Hope

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Synthetic Strategies Toward Tetrahydrofurans Involving Double Diastereoselective Nucleophile-Promoted Aldol-Lactonizations and Subsequent Applications to Bioactive Natural Products  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Novel synthetic strategies towards the formation of tetrahydrofurans and their subsequent application to bioactive natural products have been explored. More specifically, a method for invoking double-diastereoselectivity in the formation of tetrahydrofuran-fused ?-lactones through nucleophile-catalyzed aldol-lactonization (NCAL) has been developed. By employing a chiral catalyst, such as OTMS-quinidine or OTMS-quinine, coupled with a chiral aldehyde acid substrate, we have been able to successfully override the inherent substrate stereochemical bias to access either diastereomeric product as the major adduct. This new methodology is being applied to construction of the tetrahydrofuran fragment of the cytotoxic agent, haterumalide NA.

Arendt, Kevin M.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Ames/Salmonella mutagenicity assay of natural and synthetic crude oils including a Fischer-Retorted Estonian shale oil  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

DMSO extracts of a variety of natural and synthetic crude oils were tested for genotoxic activity in the Ames/Salmonella bioassay. Both mutagenic and cytotoxic potentials are cited. Natural crude oils and their refined products and upgraded synfuels are less mutagenic than parent crude shale oils which in turn are less mutagenic than the coal derived distillate blend sample, SRC II. However, this order is not true for cytotoxicity induced by these oil samples; therefore, caution must be exercised in the assessment of their mutagenic potential without consideration of other influential factors including cytotoxicity.

Strniste, G.F.; Nickols, J.W.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Effects of Water in Synthetic Lubricant Systems and Clathrate Formation: A Literature Search and Review  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An extensive literature search and a confidential survey were critically analyzed to determine the effects of water on the stability of hydrofluorocarbon/synthetic lubricant systems and to identify key areas requiring further investigation. Following are highlights from the analysis: Clathrate hydrates are solid solutions formed when water molecules are linked through hydrogen bonding creating cavities that can enclose various guest molecules from hydrate formers, such as hydrofluorocarbons R-32, R-125, R-134a, R-407C and R-410A. The four methods for preventing clathrate formation were drying the gas, heating it, reducing its pressure, or using inhibitors. The hydrolysis of polyolester lubricants was mostly acid-catalyzed and its reaction rate constant typically followed the Arrhenius equation of an activated process. Hydrolytic stability improved with hindered molecular structures, and with the presence of acid catcher additives and desiccants. Water vapor can effect the adsorption of long-chain fatty acids and the chemistry of formation of protective oxide film. However, these effects on lubrication can be either positive or negative. Fifty to sixty percent of the moisture injected into an air-conditioning system remained in the refrigerant and the rest mixed with the compressor oil. In an automotive air-conditioning system using R-134a, ice would form at 0 C evaporating temperature when the water content in the vapor refrigerant on the low-pressure side was more than 350 ppm. Moisture would cause the embrittlement of polyethylene terephthalate and the hydrolysis of polyesters, but would reduce the effect of amine additives on fluoroelastomer rubbers. The reactions of water with refrigerants and lubricants would cause formicary and large-pit corrosion in copper tubes, as well as copper plating and sludge formation. Moreover, blockage of capillary tubes increased rapidly in the presence of water. Twenty-four companies responded to the survey. From the responses, the water concentrations specified and expected for different refrigerant/lubricant systems varied depending on the products, their capacities and applications, and also on the companies. Among the problems associated with high moisture level, lubricant breakdown was of greatest concern, followed by acid formation, compressor failure and expansion valve sticking. The following research topics are suggested: 1. The air-conditioning and refrigeration industry needs to measure and record the water content and total acid number of the lubricant of newly installed systems as well as operating systems that are shutdown for service or repair. The reason for the shutdown needs to be documented. A database can then be established to correlate water content with type and cause of breakdown. 2. Detailed studies on the distribution of water in refrigeration and air-conditioning systems should be conducted to pinpoint problem areas associated with free water. 3. Research is needed to validate the current theories and mechanisms of formicary corrosion. Corrosion inhibitors need to be developed. 4. The conditions for clathrate formation and decomposition of other alternative refrigerants, such as R-23, R-41, R-116, R-125, R-143a, R-404A and R-507C, and water should be determined to avoid possible problems associated with tube plugging. The mechanism by which water facilitates or hinders lubrication needs to be studied.

Rohatgi, Ngoc Dung T.

2001-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

366

Synthetic Fuel Center construction and alternative test fuels production: Final report, 7 June 1982 to 7 September 1985  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Synthetic Fuel Center has been established by the Department of Energy as part of the Alternative Fuels Utilization Program. The main function is to provide test fuels in 5-gallon to 500-gallon quantities for research projects on utilization of alternative fuels. In the three-year report period, 26 fuels were prepared for 11 projects. Quantities ranged from 50 to 200 gallons of each fuel; the total production was 2490 gallons. Starting materials for processing or blending included two shale oils, two shale-derived naphthas, and two coal-derived middle distillates. A hydrogenation pilot plant was installed for processing synthetic feedstocks from oil shale and coal. Moderate severity upgrading of shale oil is reported, and the unit is capable of intermediate to high severity conversion of shale oil and coal liquids. Catalytic reforming of shale-derived naphthas at low pressure raised the octane of these paraffinic materials from less than 50 to above 90 Research Octane Number. Processing capabilities include distillation, adsorption, filtration, and centrifuging. Storage tanks from 500-gallon to 10,000-gallon capacity were installed. These are connected through piping and a manifold to the processing unit and other tanks for storage or blending. Fuel blending to target properties or compositions was a major activity. Complete characterizations were made of all feedstocks and products.

Sefer, N.R.; Erwin, J.; Russell, J.A.

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

A library of high resolution synthetic stellar spectra from 300nm to 1.8 micron with solar and alpha-enhanced composition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Libraries of stellar spectra are fundamental tools for the study of stellar populations and both empirical and synthetic libraries have been used for this purpose. In this paper, a new library of high resolution synthetic spectra is presented, ranging from the near-ultraviolet (300nm) to the near-infrared (1.8${\\rm \\mu}$m). The library spans all the stellar types that are relevant to the integrated light of old and intermediate-age stellar populations in the involved spectral region (spectral types F through M and all luminosity classes). The grid was computed for metallicities ranging from [Fe/H] = --2.5 to +0.5, including both solar and $\\alpha$-enhanced ([$\\alpha$/Fe] = 0.4) chemical compositions. The synthetic spectra are a good match to observations of stars throughout the stellar parameter space encompassed by the library and over the whole spectral region covered by the computations.

P. Coelho; B. Barbuy; J. Melendez; R. Schiavon; B. Castilho

2005-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

368

Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants Volume 2: Coal to Synthetic Natural Gas and Ammonia  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cost and Performance Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants Volume 2: Coal to Synthetic Natural Gas and Ammonia July 5, 2011 DOE/NETL- 2010/1402 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference therein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or

369

Deep oxidation of glucose in enzymatic fuel cells through a synthetic enzymatic pathway containing a cascade of two thermostable dehydrogenases  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Deep Deep oxidation of glucose in enzymatic fuel cells through a synthetic enzymatic pathway containing a cascade of two thermostable dehydrogenases Zhiguang Zhu a , Fangfang Sun a , Xiaozhou Zhang a,d , Y.-H. Percival Zhang a,b,c,d,n a Biological Systems Engineering Department, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech), 210-A Seitz Hall, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, USA b Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Science (ICTAS), Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, USA c DOE BioEnergy Science Center (BESC), Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831, USA d Gate Fuels Inc., 2200 Kraft Drive, Suite 1200B, Blacksburg, VA 24060, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 12 January 2012 Received in revised form 26 March 2012 Accepted 4 April 2012 Keywords: Deep oxidation Enzymatic fuel cell Glucose biobattery Thermoenzyme

370

HighYield Production of Dihydrogen from Xylose by Using a Synthetic Enzyme Cascade in a CellFree System  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

300766 300766 High-Yield Production of Dihydrogen from Xylose by Using a Synthetic Enzyme Cascade in a Cell-Free System** Julia S. Martín del Campo, Joseph Rollin, Suwan Myung, You Chun, Sanjeev Chandrayan, Rodrigo PatiÇo, Michael WW Adams, and Y.-H. Percival Zhang* Approximately 50 million metric tons of dihydrogen are produced annually from nonrenewable natural gas, petro- leum, and coal. [1] H 2 production from water remains costly. [2] Technologies for generating H 2 from less costly biomass, such as microbial fermentation, [3] enzymatic decomposition, [4] gasification, [5] steam reforming, [6] and aqueous phase reform- ing, [7] suffer from low product yields. The production of H 2 from relatively evenly distributed renewable biomass resources would address challenges per- taining to 1) sustainable H 2 production without net green- house gas emissions, 2) the availability

371

Slurry growth, gas retention, and flammable gas generation by Hanford radioactive waste tanks: Synthetic waste studies, FY 1991  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Of 177 high-level waste storage tanks on the Hanford Site, 23 have been placed on a safety watch list because they are suspected of producing flammable gases in flammable or explosive concentrate. One tankin particular, Tank 241-SY-101 (Tank 101-SY), has exhibited slow increases in waste volume followed by a rapid decrease accompanied by venting of large quantities of gases. The purpose of this study is to help determine the processes by which flammable gases are produced, retained, and eventually released from Tank 101-SY. Waste composition data for single- and double-shell waste tanks on the flammable gas watch listare critically reviewed. The results of laboratory studies using synthetic double-shell wastes are summarized, including physical and chemical properties of crusts that are formed, the stoichiometry and rate ofgas generation, and mechanisms responsible for formation of a floating crust.

Bryan, S.A.; Pederson, L.R.; Ryan, J.L.; Scheele, R.D.; Tingey, J.M.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Effects of Measurement Materials and Oxygen Partial Pressure on the Viscosity of synthetic Eastern and Western United States Coal Slags  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The viscosity of the molten ash (slag) resulting from the mineral constituents in carbon feedstock used in slagging gasifiers is critical for controlling the gasification process. The viscosity of two synthetic slags with compositions resembling the mineral impurities in average eastern and western coal feedstock was examined at temperatures from 13001500 C using a rotating bob viscometer. A few combinations of atmospheres and experimental materials were investigated with respect to one another to determine slag viscosity. A CO/CO{sub 2} atmosphere (CO/CO{sub 2} = 1.8, corresponding to a P{sub O{sub 2}} = 108 atm) is required to sustain ferrous ions in FeO-containing slags, an environment that is oxidizing to most metals. Iron oxide in the slag prevents usage of Fe parts. In unpurified Ar, the Fe metal surface oxidizes. Using purified argon prevents iron measurement components from oxidation; however, the metallic surfaces act as nucleation sites for the reduction of the Fe oxide in the slag into metallic Fe. Dissolution of ceramic materials into the slag, including Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and ZrO{sub 2}, occurs in both atmospheres. Therefore, evaluating slag properties in the laboratory is challenging. The measured viscosities of two synthetic slags in this study diverged depending upon material selection. This difference is likely attributable to container/spindle-slag interactions. Viscosity measurements of the eastern coal slag using all ceramic parts agreed best with FactSage prediction above 1350 C, with an average activation energy of 271.2 kJ. For western coal slag, the dissolution of container/spindle materials was substantial during the measurement, with precipitation of crystalline phase noted. The experimental viscosity data of the western coal slag agreed best with Kalmanovitch prediction above 1350 C. The activation energy changed dramatically for both data sets of western coal slag, likely indicating the Newtonian-to-non-Newtonian transition.

Zhu, Jingxi; Tetsuya, Kenneth; Mu, Haoyuan; Bennett, James P.; Sridhar, Seetharaman

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Dissolution of Technetium(IV) Oxide by Natural and Synthetic Organic Ligands Under both Reducing and Oxidizing Conditions  

SciTech Connect

Technetium-99 (Tc) in nuclear waste is a significant environmental concern due to its long half-life and high mobility in the subsurface. Reductive precipitation of Tc(IV) oxides [TcO2(s)] is an effective means of immobilizing Tc, thereby impeding its migration in groundwater. However, TcO2(s) is subject to dissolution by oxidants and/or complexing agents. In this study we ascertain the effects of a synthetic organic ligand, ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), and two natural humic isolates on the dissolution and solubility of Tc(IV) oxides. Pure synthetic TcO2(s) (0.23 mM) was used in batch experiments to determine dissolution kinetics at pH ~6 under both reducing and oxidizing conditions. All organic ligands were found to enhance the dissolution of Tc(IV) oxides, increasing their solubility from ~10-8 M (without ligands) to 4 10-7 M under strictly anoxic conditions. Reduced Tc(IV) was also found to re-oxidize rapidly under oxic conditions, with an observed oxidative dissolution rate approximately an order of magnitude higher than that of ligand-promoted dissolution under reducing conditions. Significantly, oxidative dissolution was inhibited by EDTA but enhanced by humic acid compared with experiments without any complexing agents. The redox functional properties of humics, capable of facilitating intra-molecular electron transfer, may account for this increased oxidation rate under oxic conditions. Our results highlight the importance of complex interactions for the stability and mobility of Tc, and thus for the long-term fate of Tc in contaminated environments.

Gu, Baohua [ORNL; Dong, W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Liang, Liyuan [ORNL; Wall, Nathalie [Washington State University

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Comparing SAR measurments of natural oil seeps in the Gulf of Mexico with mineral and biological slicks in the North Sea .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In this thesis, natural oil seeps in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images are studied. The intension is to compare seeps to known oil slicks as (more)

Hanssen, Claes Anders Storm

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

THz HBTs & sub-mm-wave ICs Mark Rodwell, UCSB  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-rate synthetic aperture radar R ra image trans e R LHLH RkTFf P 2 222 4 sin 4 1 SNR aircraftimagea vRf

Rodwell, Mark J. W.

376

Sandia SAR Firsts -- Sandia National Laboratories  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Firsts Sandia National Laboratories is proud of its history of developing cutting-edge synthetic aperture radar technologies. Below is a short list detailing Sandia's...

377

Sandia SAR Information Contacts -- Sandia National Laboratories  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sandia SAR Information Contacts To request information about Sandia National Laboratories' synthetic aperture radar capabilities, please contact: James J. Hudgens Senior Manager,...

378

Sandia SAR Capabilities -- Sandia National Laboratories  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Capabilities Sandia National Laboratories offers state-of-the-art capability in the design and development of Synthetic Aperture Radars, from system design through system...

379

Technical Section: ParSys: a new particle system for the introduction of on-line physical behaviour to three-dimensional synthetic objects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The incorporation of physical behaviour to synthetic objects constructed by computer is one of the main objectives of computer graphics research. In this paper we present a new interactive deformable model based on linked volumes. As such, it is straightforward ... Keywords: Deformable models, Interactive physical behaviour, Linked volumes

M. Pithioux; O. Lpez; U. Meier; C. Monserrat; M. C. Juan; M. Alcaiz

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

future science group 9ISSN 1759-726910.4155/BFS.11.151 2012 Future Science Ltd Synthetic biology approaches to biofuel production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

approaches to biofuel production Editorial Biofuels (2012) 3(1), 9­12 "...it is important for synthetic there is a tendency, par- ticularly in the algae biofuel space, to prioritize high yields without sufficient regard large enough volumes of biofuels at a low enough cost to make this significant leap in the national

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381

Analysis of the synthetic pyrethroids, permethrin and 1(R)-phenothrin, in grain using a monoclonal antibody-based test  

SciTech Connect

A monoclonal antibody generated to the synthetic pyrethroid-related hapten, (3-phenoxybenzyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1, 3-dicarboxylate-protein conjugate, was used to develop assays for determinations of permethrin and 1(R)-phenothrin in wheat grain and flour milling fractions. The earlier 3-h assay was simplified using two approaches. The antibody was directly conjugated to the enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP), which removes a separate incubation and washing step from the assay. Also, an assay has been developed using microwell-bound monoclonal antibody and a HRP-labeled 3-phenoxybenzoic acid derivative. These assay formats have advantages in increased sensitivity and, in the case of the latter assay, accuracy with grain and flour samples. The most sensitive assay format could detect 1.5 ng/mL permethrin; 50% inhibition of antibody binding occurred at 10 ng/mL. These values corresponded to 75 and 500 ppb, respectively, in the original wheat sample. Methanol was the most effective pyrethroid extractant. Use of a simple cleanup procedure for ground grain extracts improved ELISA accuracy but could by omitted for screening purposes.

Skerritt, J.H.; Hill, A.S. (CSIRO Division of Plant Industry, North Ryde (Australia)); McAdam, D.P. (CSIRO Division of Plant Industry, Canberra (Australia)); Stanker, L.H. (University of California, Livermore (United States))

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Influence of microstructure on stress corrosion cracking of mild steel in synthetic caustic-nitrate nuclear waste solution  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The influence of alloy microstructure on stress corrosion cracking of mild steel in caustic-nitrate synthetic nuclear waste solutions was studied. An evaluation was made of the effect of heat treatment on a representative material (ASTM A 516 Grade 70) used in the construction of high activity radioactive waste storage tanks at Savannah River Plant. Several different microstructures were tested for susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking. Precracked fracture specimens loaded in either constant load or constant crack opening displacement were exposed to a variety of caustic-nitrate and nitrate solutions. Results were correlated with the mechanical and corrosion properties of the microstructures. Crack velocity and crack arrest stress intensity were found to be related to the yield strength of the steel microstructures. Fractographic evidence indicated pH depletion and corrosive crack tip chemistry conditions even in highly caustic solutions. Experimental results were compatible with crack growth by a strain- assisted anodic dissolution mechanism; however, hydrogen embrittlement also was considered possible. (auth)

Sarafian, P.G.

1975-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

New organic synthetic metals derived from BEDT-TTF, Ni(dsit) sub 2 and BEDO-TTF  

SciTech Connect

Three strategies have been employed by us to synthesize new organic synthetic metals and superconductors. On the basis of structure-property correlations derived for the {beta}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}X salts, new charge transfer salts of BEDT-TTF with large, polarizable anions have been synthesized. The occurrence of molecular dimers has been engineered into salts of the new organic acceptor molecule, Ni(dsit){sub 2} (bis (4,5 -diselenolate -1,3-dithiole-2-thione) nickelate), to synthesize salts with acceptor packing similar to the donor packing in {kappa}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}Cu(SCN){sub 2}. Finally, two charge transfer salts of bis(ethylenedioxy)tetrathiafulvalene, BEDO-TTF, namely (BEDO-TTF){sub 2}AuBr{sub 2} and (BEDO-TTF){sub 2}AuI{sub 2} have been synthesized. The AuBr{sub 2}{sup -} salt, the first BEDO-TTF salt to be structurally characterized, is semiconducting below 263 K, while the AuI{sub 2}{sup -} salt shows metallic conductivity to low temperatures. 10 refs., 3 figs.

Beno, M.A.; Kini, A.M.; Geiser, U.; Wang, H.H.; Carlson, K.D.; Williams, J.M.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

LDRD final report on "fundamentals of synthetic conversion of CO2 to simple hydrocarbon fuels" (LDRD 113486).  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Energy production is inextricably linked to national security and poses the danger of altering the environment in potentially catastrophic ways. There is no greater problem than sustainable energy production. Our purpose was to attack this problem by examining processes, technology, and science needed for recycling CO{sub 2} back into transportation fuels. This approach can be thought of as 'bio-inspired' as nature employs the same basic inputs, CO{sub 2}/energy/water, to produce biomass. We addressed two key deficiencies apparent in current efforts. First, a detailed process analysis comparing the potential for chemical and conventional engineering methods to provide a route for the conversion of CO{sub 2} and water to fuel has been completed. No apparent 'showstoppers' are apparent in the synthetic route. Opportunities to improve current processes have also been identified and examined. Second, we have also specifically addressed the fundamental science of the direct production of methanol from CO{sub 2} using H{sub 2} as a reductant.

Maravelias, Christos T. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Kemp, Richard Alan; Mavrikakis, Manos (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Miller, James Edward; Stewart, Constantine A.

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Regional refining models for alternative fuels using shale and coal synthetic crudes: identification and evaluation of optimized alternative fuels. Annual report, March 20, 1979-March 19, 1980  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The initial phase has been completed in the project to evaluate alternative fuels for highway transportation from synthetic crudes. Three refinery models were developed for Rocky Mountain, Mid-Continent and Great Lakes regions to make future product volumes and qualities forecast for 1995. Projected quantities of shale oil and coal oil syncrudes were introduced into the raw materials slate. Product slate was then varied from conventional products to evaluate maximum diesel fuel and broadcut fuel in all regions. Gasoline supplement options were evaluated in one region for 10% each of methanol, ethanol, MTBE or synthetic naphtha in the blends along with syncrude components. Compositions and qualities of the fuels were determined for the variation in constraints and conditions established for the study. Effects on raw materials, energy consumption and investment costs were reported. Results provide the basis to formulate fuels for laboratory and engine evaluation in future phases of the project.

Sefer, N.R.; Russell, J.A.

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Enhancement of magnetoresistance using CoFe/Ru/CoFe synthetic ferrimagnetic pinned layer in BiFeO{sub 3} based spin-valves  

SciTech Connect

SrTiO{sub 3} (100) sub/BiFeO{sub 3}/CoFe/Ru/CoFe/Cu/CoFe/Ta structure was prepared by a combination of chemical solution deposition and sputtering method, and followed by a systematical investigation for the structural, magnetic and magnetoresistance properties at room temperature (RT) as a function of CoFe and Ru thicknesses. It was revealed that introduction of synthetic CoFe/Ru/CoFe as a pinning layer increased the giant magentoresistance (MR) ratio to 8.3% at RT. This enhancement of MR ratio might be attributed to (i) the increase of pinning field, and (ii) suppression of the influence of the surface roughness of BiFeO{sub 3} by inserting the synthetic CoFe/Ru/CoFe layer.

Naganuma, Hiroshi; Kubota, Miho; Inami, Nobuhito; Kawada, Yuki; Oogane, Mikihiko; Ando, Yasuo [Department of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-05 Aoba Aramaki Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Bae, In-Tae [Small Scale Systems Integration and Packaging Center, State University of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States); Miyazaki, Takamichi [Tohoku University, Department of Instrumental Analysis, 6-6-11 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Mizukami, Shigemi [WPI Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Han, X. F. [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

2012-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

387

Spin-torque diode spectrum of ferromagnetically coupled (FeB/CoFe)/Ru/(CoFe/FeB) synthetic free layer  

SciTech Connect

We investigated systematically the spin torque diode spectrum of a ferromagnetically coupled (FeB/CoFe)/Ru/(CoFe/FeB) synthetic free layer in an MgO-based magnetic tunnel junction. In the spectra, we observed single peaks shifted to higher frequency with increasing the in-plane magnetic fields, as expected from the ferromagnetic resonance of the FeB/CoFe adjacent to the MgO tunnel barrier. On the other hand, under the perpendicular fields, we observed several peaks below 6 GHz and around 10 GHz, which were rather insensitive to the field. These behaviors are different from our simple calculation taking account the interlayer coupling, suggesting that the excitation of magnetizations occurs in a complicated manner for the synthetic free layers.

Bang, Do; Taniguchi, Tomohiro; Kubota, Hitoshi; Yorozu, Takehiko; Imamura, Hiroshi; Yakushiji, Kay; Fukushima, Akio; Yuasa, Shinji; Ando, Koji [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Central 2, Umezono 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Predicting the performance of system for the co-production of Fischer-Tropsch synthetic liquid and power from coal  

SciTech Connect

A co-production system based on Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis reactor and gas turbine was simulated and analyzed. Syngas from entrained bed coal gasification was used as feedstock of the low-temperature slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch reactor. Raw synthetic liquid produced was fractioned and upgraded to diesel, gasoline, and liquid petrol gas (LPG). Tail gas composed of unconverted syngas and FT light components was fed to the gas turbine. Supplemental fuel (NG, or refinery mine gas) might be necessary, which was dependent on gas turbine capacity expander through flow capacity, etc. FT yield information was important to the simulation of this co-production system. A correlation model based on Mobil's two step pilot plant was applied. User models that can predict product yields and cooperate with other units were embedded into Aspen plus simulation. Performance prediction of syngas fired gas turbine was the other key of this system. The increase in mass flow through the turbine affects the match between compressor and turbine operating conditions. The calculation was carried out by GS software developed by Politecnico Di Milano and Princeton University. Various cases were investigated to match the FT synthesis island, power island, and gasification island in co-production systems. Effects of CO{sub 2} removal/LPG recovery, co-firing, and CH{sub 4} content variation were studied. Simulation results indicated that more than 50% of input energy was converted to electricity and FT products. Total yield of gasoline, diesel, and LPG was 136-155 g/N m{sup 3} (CO+H{sub 2}). At coal feed of 21.9 kg/s, net electricity exported to the grid was higher than 100 MW. Total production of diesel and gasoline (and LPG) was 118,000 t (134,000 t)/year. Under the economic analysis conditions assumed in this paper the co-production system was economically feasible.

Wang, X.; Xiao, Y.; Xu, S.; Guo, Z. [Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing (China). Inst. of Engineering Thermophysics

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

389

Synthetic Studies Toward Selected Members of the Pyrrole-imidazole Alkaloids: Axinellamine, Konbuacidin and Palau' amine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The pyrrole imidazole alkaloids (PIA) is an ever-growing family of structurally related natural products isolated from several species of sponges which now features more than one hundred memebrs. Their complex molecular architectures, and in some cases, significant biological activities, have made these alkaloids the synthetic targets of a number of research groups across the world. In our approach, following early biosynthetic proposal by Kinnel and Scheuer and Al-Mourabit and Potier, it was envisioned that several of these alkaloids, namely palauamine, axinellamine, konbuacidin, styloguanidine and massadine, could be derived from a common chlorocyclopentane precursor through different modes of intramolecular cyclization. Building on the work done previously in our research group by Dr. Anja Dilley, Dr. Paul Dransfield, and Dr. Shaohui Wang, my investigations led to the synthesis of the angular aza-triquinane core of axinellamine and the peculiar transazabicyclo[ 3.3.0]octane core of palauamine. In my further studies mono- and bis-pyrrole advanced intermediates were synthesized that contain the complete carbon framework of the target natural products. However, attempts to induce the pivotal, potentially biomimetic cyclizations expected to deliver the cores of the target alkaloids proved to be rather challenging, resulting in inconsistent and irreproducible results and leading to the exploration of an alternative, abiotic approach. My efforts in this direction resulted in the synthesis of a pentacyclic enamine precursor to styloguanidine and a pentacyclic carbinolamine suitable for the synthesis of palauamine. Final attempts to complete the target natural products were however unsuccessful.

Zancanella, Manuel

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Physical and Chemical Characterization of Kuwaiti Atmospheric Dust and Synthetic Dusts: Effects on the Pressure Drop and Fractional Efficiency of HEPA Filters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The importance of clean air to the indoor air quality affecting the well-being of human occupants and rising energy consumption has highlighted the critical role of air filter performance. Actual performance of air filters installed in air handling units in Kuwait tends to deviate from the performance predicted by laboratory results. Therefore, accurate filter performance prediction is important to estimate filter lifetime, and to reduce energy and maintenance operating costs. To ensure appropriate filter selection for a specific application, particulate contaminants existing in the Kuwaiti atmospheric dust were identified and characterized both physically and chemically and compared to the synthetic dust used in laboratories. This paper compares the physical and chemical characterization Kuwaiti atmospheric dust with the available commercial synthetic dusts. It also tests full scale HEPA pleated V-shaped filters used in Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) and gas turbine applications to study the effect of different synthetic dust types and their particle size distributions on the pressure drop and fractional efficiency using DEHS testing according to DIN 1822.

Al-Attar, I.; Wakeman, R. J.; Tarleton, E. S.; Husain, A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Synthetic laser medium  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A laser medium is particularly useful in high average power solid state lasers. The laser medium includes a chromium dopant and preferably neodymium ions as codopant, and is primarily a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet, or an analog thereof. Divalent cations inhibit spiral morphology as large boules from which the laser medium is derived are grown, and a source of ions convertible between a trivalent state and a tetravalent state at a low ionization energy are in the laser medium to reduce an absorption coefficient at about one micron wavelength otherwise caused by the divalent cations. These divalent cations and convertible ions are dispersed in the laser medium. Preferred convertible ions are provided from titanium or cerium sources.

Stokowski, S.E.

1987-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

392

The synthetic elements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Prior to 1940, the heaviest element known was uranium, discovered in 1789. Since that time the elements 93 through 109 have been synthesized and identified and the elements 43, 61, 85, and 87 which were missing form the periodic tables of the 1930's have been discovered. The techniques and problems involved in these discoveries and the placement of the transuranium elements in the periodic table will be discussed. The production and positive identification of elements heavier than Md (Z=101), which have very short half-lives and can only be produced an atom-at-a-time, are very difficult and there have been controversies concerning their discovery. Some of the new methods which have been developed and used in these studies will be described. The prospects for production of still heavier elements will be considered.

Hoffman, D.C.

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

2003 Synthetic Biology study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Biology is a technology for processing information, materials, and energy. As a technology platform, biological systems provide access to artifacts and processes across a range of scales (e.g., the ribosome is a programmable ...

Endy, Drew

2007-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

394

Synthetic and Mechanistic Chemistry  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

work was published in the international edition of the chemistry journal Angewandte Chemie. http:www.lanl.gov newsroomnews-releases2012November11.26-hanson-catalysis.php...

395

Synthetic and Mechanistic Chemistry  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

work was published in the international edition of the chemistry journal Angewandte Chemie. http:www.lanl.govnewsroomnews-releases2012November11.26-hanson-catalysis.php...

396

Synthetic stereoscopic panoramic images  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presented here is a discussion of the techniques required to create stereoscopic panoramic images. Such images allow interactive exploration of 3D environments with stereoscopic depth cues. If projected in a surround display environment they can engage ...

Paul Bourke

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

High Directive Antenna with Virtual Aperture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this article, we propose a spherical shell-core structure which is able to achieve arbitrarily large directivity. The structure is obtained from coordinate transformation. A small antenna can be projected to free space ...

Zhang, Baile

398

A NEW SYNTHETIC LIBRARY OF THE NEAR-INFRARED Ca II TRIPLET INDICES. I. INDEX DEFINITION, CALIBRATION, AND RELATIONS WITH STELLAR ATMOSPHERIC PARAMETERS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Adopting the SPECTRUM package, which is a stellar spectral synthesis program, we have synthesized a comprehensive set of 2890 near-infrared (NIR) synthetic spectra with a resolution and wavelength sampling similar to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the forthcoming Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) spectra. During the synthesis, we applied the 'New grids of ATLAS9 Model Atmosphere' to develop a grid of local thermodynamic equilibrium model atmospheres for effective temperatures (T{sub eff}) ranging from 3500 to 7500 K, for surface gravities (log g) from 0.5 to 5.0 dex, for metallicities ([Fe/H]) from -4.0 to 0.5 dex, and for solar ([{alpha}/Fe] = 0.0 dex) and non-solar ([{alpha}/Fe] = +0.4 dex) abundances. This synthetic stellar library is composed of 1350 solar scaled abundance (SSA) and 1530 non-solar scaled abundance (NSSA) spectra, grounding on which we have defined a new set of NIR Ca II triplet indices and an index CaT as the sum of the three. These defined indices were automatically measured on every spectrum of the synthetic stellar library and calibrated with the indices computed on the observational spectra from the INDO-U.S. stellar library. In order to check the effect of {alpha}-element enhancement on the so-defined Ca II indices, we compared indices measured on the SSA spectra with those on the NSSA ones at the same trine of stellar parameters (T{sub eff}, log g, [Fe/H]); luckily, little influences of {alpha}-element enhancement were found. Furthermore, comparisons of our synthetic indices with the observational ones from measurements on the INDO-U.S. stellar library, the SDSS-DR7 and SDSS-DR8 spectroscopic survey are presented, respectively, for dwarfs and giants in specific. For dwarfs, our synthetic indices could well reproduce the behaviors of the observational indices versus stellar parameters, which verifies the validity of our index definitions for dwarfs. For giants, the consistency between our synthetic indices and the observational ones does not appear to be as good. However, a new synthetic library of NIR Ca II indices has been founded for deeper studies on the NIR wave band of stellar spectra, and this library is particularly appropriate for the SDSS and the forthcoming LAMOST stellar spectra. We have regressed the strength of the CaT index as a function of stellar parameters for both dwarfs and giants after a series of experimental investigations into relations of the indices with stellar parameters. For dwarfs, log g has little effect on the indices, while [Fe/H] and T{sub eff} play a role together. The leading factor is probably [Fe/H], which changes the strength of the indices by a positive trend. For giants, log g starts to influence the strength of the indices by a negative trend for the metal-poor, and even impact deeply for the metal-rich; besides, [Fe/H] and T{sub eff} still matter. In addition, we briefly discussed the major differences between our Ca II triplet indices and the CaHK doublet indices. Ultimately, a supplemental experiment was carried out to show that spectral noises do have effects on our set of NIR Ca II indices. However, the influence is not weak enough to be ignored if the signal-to-noise ratio falls below 20.

Du, W.; Luo, A. L.; Zhao, Y. H., E-mail: wdu@nao.cas.cn, E-mail: lal@nao.cas.cn [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

399

Speckle suppression in SAR images using the 2-D GARCH model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel Bayesian-based speckle suppression method for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images is presented that preserves the structural features and textural information of the scene. First, the logarithmic transform of the original image is analyzed ... Keywords: 2-D GARCH model, MAP estimation, speckle, statistical modeling, synthetic aperture radar

Maryam Amirmazlaghani; Hamidreza Amindavar; Alireza Moghaddamjoo

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Regional crop monitoring and discrimination based on simulated ENVISAT ASAR wide swath mode images  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The current paper investigates the potential contribution of ENVISAT wide swath (WS) images for discrimination and monitoring of crops at a regional scale. The study was based on synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images acquired throughout an entire growing ... Keywords: Coarse spatial resolution, Crop discrimination, Crop monitoring, ENVISAT, Synthetic aperture radar, Wide swath-ASAR

X. Blaes; F. Holecz; H. J. C. van Leeuwen; P. Defourny

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interferometric synthetic aperture" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Local Interpolation-based Polar Format SAR: Algorithm, Hardware Implementation and Design Automation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we present a local interpolation-based variant of the well-known polar format algorithm used for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image formation. We develop the algorithm to match the capabilities of the application-specific logic-in-memory ... Keywords: Chip generator, Logic in memory, Synthetic aperture radar

Qiuling Zhu; Christian R. Berger; Eric L. Turner; Larry Pileggi; Franz Franchetti

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

THE FIRST VERY LONG BASELINE INTERFEROMETRIC SETI EXPERIMENT  

SciTech Connect

The first Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence (SETI) conducted with very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) is presented. By consideration of the basic principles of interferometry, we show that VLBI is efficient at discriminating between SETI signals and human generated radio frequency interference (RFI). The target for this study was the star Gliese 581, thought to have two planets within its habitable zone. On 2007 June 19, Gliese 581 was observed for 8 hr at 1230-1544 MHz with the Australian Long Baseline Array. The data set was searched for signals appearing on all interferometer baselines above five times the noise limit. A total of 222 potential SETI signals were detected and by using automated data analysis techniques were ruled out as originating from the Gliese 581 system. From our results we place an upper limit of 7 MW Hz{sup -1} on the power output of any isotropic emitter located in the Gliese 581 system within this frequency range. This study shows that VLBI is ideal for targeted SETI including follow-up observations. The techniques presented are equally applicable to next-generation interferometers, such as the long baselines of the Square Kilometre Array.

Rampadarath, H.; Morgan, J. S.; Tingay, S. J.; Trott, C. M., E-mail: hayden.rampadarath@icrar.org [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA (Australia)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

403

Interferometric measurements of plasma density in high-. beta. plasmas  

SciTech Connect

The coupled-cavity laser interferometer technique is particularly applicable to the measurement of pulsed plasma densities. This technique is based on the fact that if a small fraction of a gas laser's output radiation is reflected into the laser with an external mirror, the intensity of the laser output is modulated. These amplitude or intensity modulations are produced by changes in the laser gain. A rotating corner mirror or an oscillating mirror can be used to produce a continuous feedback modulation of the interferometer which produces a continuous background fringe pattern. The presence of plasma in the outer cavity causes an additional change which results in a phase shift of the regular period of the background fringe pattern. The integral of the plasma density along the line of sight can be evaluated by comparison of the time history of the fringes obtained with and without plasma.

Quinn, W.E.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Two applications of the Fabry-Perot interferometric sensor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Two important applications of the fiber Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FFPI) sensor are investigated: (1) an optical binary switch for aerospace application, and (2) an FFPI weigh-in-motion sensor for measuring the weight of trucks traveling down a highway. In the fiber optical switch, the FFPI sensor is bonded to a copper cantilever to sense the elongation of cavity length induced by force applied to the end of the cantilever via a pushed button. Light from a superluminescent diode light source passes through a scanned Michelson interferometer and is reflected from a sensing FFPI and a reference FFPI to produce a fringe pattern. A secondary interferometer uses a distributed feedback laser light source to compensate for irregularities in the mechanical scanning rate of the moving stage to achieve precision measurement of the optical path difference. The system is calibrated by applying known weights to the cantilever. The elongation measured by the FFPI sensor shows excellent linearity as a function of the force applied, and little hysteresis was observed. By comparing the measured force to a threshold, the system produces a binary signal that indicates the state of the pilotactuated system; i. e., whether or not the button has been pushed. In FFPI weigh-in-motion sensors system, the FFPI sensors are installed in metal bars so that they will experience the strain induced by applied loads and are connected to the Signal Conditioning Unit (SCU). The SCU determines the induced phase shift in the FFPI and produces voltage outputs proportional to the phase shifts. Laboratory Material Testing System tests show that the fiber optic sensor response is a fairly linear function of the axial displacement. In highway tests the FFPI sensors showed strong responses and consistently reproduced the expected characteristics of truck wheel crossings. A falling weight deflectometer was used to calibrate the sensor response and predict unknown loads. All sensors in steel bars and aluminum bars showed excellent repeatability and accurate predictions, with an average relative percentage error within 2%. The study on sensor response variation with applied load positions shows a bell shaped distribution. Truck tests on the road sensors indicate that the repeatability of wheel crossings at similar position is good. The sensor can accurately measure axle spacing, speed, and truck class.

Xie, Zhaoxia

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Interferometric at-wavelength flare characterization of EUV optical systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The extreme ultraviolet (EUV) phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer (PS/PDI) provides the high-accuracy wavefront characterization critical to the development of EUV lithography systems. Enhancing the implementation of the PS/PDI can significantly extend its spatial-frequency measurement bandwidth. The enhanced PS/PDI is capable of simultaneously characterizing both wavefront and flare. The enhanced technique employs a hybrid spatial/temporal-domain point diffraction interferometer (referred to as the dual-domain PS/PDI) that is capable of suppressing the scattered-reference-light noise that hinders the conventional PS/PDI. Using the dual-domain technique in combination with a flare-measurement-optimized mask and an iterative calculation process for removing flare contribution caused by higher order grating diffraction terms, the enhanced PS/PDI can be used to simultaneously measure both figure and flare in optical systems.

Naulleau, Patrick P. (Oakland, CA); Goldberg, Kenneth Alan (Berkeley, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Interferometric distillation and determination of unknown two-qubit entanglement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We propose a scheme for both distilling and quantifying entanglement, applicable to individual copies of an arbitrary unknown two-qubit state. It is realized in a usual two-qubit interferometry with local filtering. Proper filtering operation for the maximal distillation of the state is achieved by erasing single-qubit interference, and then the concurrence of the state is determined directly from the visibilities of two-qubit interference. We compare the scheme with full state tomography.

Lee, S.-S. B.; Sim, H.-S. [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

407

Measurement of gas-compressibility factor data for natural gas and synthetic gas components and their mixtures. Annual report, April 1983-March 1984  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this contract is to obtain high accuracy data on natural and synthetic gas components and, especially, mixtures to supply needs of GRI super-compressibility correlation project. These are in addition to data from other labs. A Burnett-type P-V-T cell has been set up with auxiliaries and calibrated by use of the best nitrogen data available. The internally consistent mixture second virials will assist determination of interactions for correlation development. Equipment has been set up for gravimetric preparation of mixtures for new tests. Software is being developed for automation of the equipment.

Ellington, R.T.; Starling, K.E.; Kumar, K.H.; Oswal, V.; Pham, T.

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Synthetic Design of New Metal-Organic Framework Materials for Hydrogen Storage - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9 9 FY 2012 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Pingyun Feng (Primary Contact), Qipu Lin, Xiang Zhao Department of Chemistry University of California Riverside, CA 92521 Phone: (951) 827-2042 Email: pingyun.feng@ucr.edu DOE Program Officer: Dr. Michael Sennett Phone: (301) 903-6051 Email: Michael.Sennett@science.doe.gov Objectives Design and * synthesize new metal-organic framework materials using lightweight chemical elements to help improve gravimetric hydrogen storage capacity. Develop new synthetic strategies to generate novel * active binding sites on metal ions and ligands to enhance solid-gas interactions for increased uptake near ambient conditions.

409

Supplying Synthetic Crude Oil from Canadian Oil Sands: A Comparative Study of the Costs and CO2 Emissions of Mining and In-Situ Recovery  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, and of unconventional deposits such as heavy oils, tar sands and oil shales. As conventional oil becomes scarcer, the transport sector will remain dependent on petroleum resources, if no oil substitute is available. Fuels from non-conventional oil resources... www.eprg.group.cam.ac.uk E P R G W O R K IN G P A P E R Abstract Supplying Synthetic Crude Oil from Canadian Oil Sands: A Comparative Study of the Costs and CO2 Emissions of Mining and In-situ Recovery EPRG Working Paper 1005...

Mjean, A; Hope, Chris

410

Detection of immunoreactive epitopes in proteins encoded by gag, env, and pol genes of human T-lymphotropic virus type I using synthetic peptides  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reactivity of 26 synthetic peptides that comprise 12 to 26 amino acid residues corresponding to segments of the p19 (gag), gp46 (env), and pol proteins (pol) of human T-lymphotropic virus type I toward 31 positive sera was studied using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Specific reactivity with high titers of antibodies (presented in reciprocal dilution values) was detected for the synthetic peptides corresponding to fragments 110-130 and 100-130 (titers up to 4050) of p19, 174-197 (up to 800), 186-201 (up to to 4050), 191-215 (up to 1350), 242-257 (up to 800), and 272-292 (up to 450) of gp46. Immunoreactivity of seven peptides, fragments of pol-proteins, was weak. New linear epitopes in the regions 145-158, 272-277, and 292-300 of gp46 were detected. In addition, location of the known linear epitopes in p19 and gp46 was refined on the basis of comparative study of overlapping peptides from these proteins. 25 refs., 4 tabs.

Yaroslavtseva, N.G.; Kornilaeva, G.V.; Pashkova, T.A. [Ivanovskii Inst. of Virology, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Synthetic fuels from US oil shales: a technical and economic verification of the HYTORT process. Quarterly report, October 1-December 31, 1980  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this program is to fully demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of the HYTORT process concept as it applies to both Eocene and Devonian shales. Achievement of this objective will significantly widen the nation's synthetic fuels resource base by adding a new resource - Devonian shale - to the list of possible feedstocks for a synthetic fuels industry. It will also establish a high-efficiency alternative to conventional retorting of Western oil shales. Research at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) has led to the development of the HYTORT process concept, which can be applied to the resources of Devonian shales of the Eastern United States as well as to Western shales, to produce oil or combustible gas at costs competitive with or less than those for retorting of Colorado shales. The HYTORT process concept has been successfully scaled up through small-scale laboratory equipment, a bench-scale unit capable of processing 100 pounds of shale per hour, and a Process Development Unit (PDU) with a shale capacity of 1 ton/hr. In addition, preliminary process design and economic analysis work shows that the HYTORT process exhibits attractive efficiency and economics.

Not Available

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Mine subsidence monitoring using multisource satellite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract- This paper demonstrates the use of differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (DInSAR) for mine subsidence monitoring in Australia. The C-band SAR imagery acquired by ERS-1/2 and Radarsat-1 and L-band data acquired by JERS-1 were tested. As the satellites have different re-visit periods so that the mine subsidence occurred during the intervals of 1, 24, 35 and 44 days can be observed. The C-band InSAR results generally have lower coherence over vegetated areas, but the Radarsat-1 fine-beam mode data demonstrated that decorrelation can be reduced by having finer imaging resolution and shorter temporal separation. Another difficulty of DInSAR for mine subsidence monitoring is to resolve the phase ambiguity in interferogram. The L-band SAR data with comparatively longer wavelength than C-band showed it is more suitable for mining subsidence monitoring where large displacement over a small spatial extent occurs.

Hsing-chung Chang; Linlin Ge; Chris Rizos

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Submicrometer superconducting YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 6+x particles made by a low-temperature synthetic route  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Evidence suggests that superconducting, orthorhombic YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x} (x{ge}0.5) is always produced by oxidation of the oxygen-deficient, tetragonal form (x{le}0.5) of this phase (commonly referred to as 123). A synthetic route whereby solution-derived, carbon-free precursors are decomposed at 650{degrees} to 700{degrees}C in inert atmosphere to yield tetragonal 123 is now available. Appropriate precursors include hydrated oxides derived from the hydrolysis of organometallic solutions and aqueous solution-derived hyponitrites. Subsequent oxidation of the tetragonal phase at 400{degrees}C results in submicrometer particles of orthorhombic 123. Superconductivity ({Tc} onset {approx}87 K) has been confirmed in these materials by both Meissner effect and specific-heat measurements.

Horowitz, H.S.; McLain, S.J.; Sleight, A.W.; Druliner, J.D.; Gai, P.L.; VanKavelaar, M.J. (E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, Wilmington, DE (USA)); Wagner, J.L.; Biggs, B.D.; Poon, S.J. (Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville (USA))

1989-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

414

[3H]Azidodantrolene photoaffinity labeling, synthetic domain peptides and monoclonal antibody reactivity identify the dantrolene binding sequence on RyR1  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Dantrolene is a drug that suppresses intracellular Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum in normal skeletal muscle and is used as a therapeutic agent in individuals susceptible to malignant hyperthermia. Though its precise mechanism of action has not been elucidated, we have identified the N-terminal region (amino acids 1-1400) of the skeletal muscle isoform of the ryanodine receptor (RyR1), the primary Ca2+ release channel in sarcoplasmic reticulum, as a molecular target for dantrolene using the photoaffinity analog [3H]azidodantrolene(1). Here, we demonstrate that heterologously expressed RyR1 retains its capacity to be specifically labeled with [3H]azidodantrolene,indicating that muscle specific factors are not required for this ligand-receptor interaction. Synthetic domain peptides of RyR1, previously shown to affect RyR1 function in vitro and in vivo, were exploited as potential drug binding site mimics and used in photoaffinity labeling experiments. Only DP1 and DP1-2, peptide s containing the amino acid sequence corresponding to RyR1 residues 590-609, were specifically labeled by [3H]azidodantrolene. A monoclonal anti-RyR1 antibody which recognizes RyR1 and its 1400 amino acid N-terminal fragment, recognizes DP1 and DP1-2 in both Western blots and immunoprecipitation assays, and specifically inhibits [3H]azidodantrolene photolabeling of RyR1 and its N-terminal fragment in sarcoplasmic reticulum. Our results indicate that synthetic domain peptides can mimic a native, ligand binding conformation in vitro, and that the dantrolene binding site and the epitope for the monoclonal antibody on RyR1 are equivalent and composed of amino-acids 590-609.

Paul-Pletzer, Kalanethee; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Bhat, Manju B.; Ma, Jianjie; Ikemoto, Noriaki; Jimenez, Leslie S.; Morimoto, Hiromi; Williams, Philip G.; Parness, Jerome

2002-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

415

Fusion energy applied to synthetic fuel production: a report to the DOE Division of Magnetic Fusion Energy based on a preliminary study by an ad-hoc advisory group  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The general conclusion is that the potential for utilization of fusion energy for synthetic fuel production is favorable. Three basic methods of hydrogen production are identified: high-temperature electrolysis, thermochemical cycles, and direct radiolysis. Combinations of these and their use as in combined cycles for electric power generation are considered.

Booth, L.A.

1977-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Superfluid and magnetic states of an ultracold Bose gas with synthetic three-dimensional spin-orbit coupling in an optical lattice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study ultracold bosonic atoms with the synthetic three-dimensional spin-orbit (SO) coupling in a cubic optical lattice. In the superfluidity phase, the lowest energy band exhibits one, two or four pairs of degenerate single-particle ground states depending on the SO-coupling strengths, which can give rise to the condensate states with spin-stripes for the weak atomic interactions. In the deep Mott-insulator regime, the effective spin Hamiltonian of the system combines three-dimensional Heisenberg exchange interactions, anisotropy interactions and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions. Based on Monte Carlo simulations, we numerically demonstrate that the resulting Hamiltonian with an additional Zeeman field has a rich phase diagram with spiral, stripe, vortex crystal, and especially Skyrmion crystal spin-textures in each xy-plane layer. The obtained Skyrmion crystals can be tunable with square and hexagonal symmetries in a columnar manner along the z axis, and moreover are stable against the inter-layer spin-spin interactions in a large parameter region.

Dan-Wei Zhang; Ji-Pei Chen; Chuan-Jia Shan; Z. D. Wang; Shi-Liang Zhu

2013-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

417

The influence of oscillating electromagnetic fields on membrane structure and function: Synthetic liposome and natural membrane bilayer systems with direct application to the controlled delivery of chemical agents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Investigations have been conducted to determine if an imposed electromagnetic field can influence membrane transport, and ion and drug permeability in both synthetic and natural cell membrane systems. Microwave fields enhance accumulation of sodium in the lymphocyte and induce protein shedding at Tc. Microwaves also trigger membrane permeability of liposome systems under specific field exposure conditions. Sensitivity varies in a defined way in bilayers displaying a membrane structural phase transition temperature, Tc; maximal release was observed at or near Tc. Significantly, liposome systems without a membrane phase transition were also found to experience permeability increases but, in contrast, this response was temperature independent. The above results indicate that field-enhanced drug release occurs in liposome vesicles that possess a Tc as well as non-Tc liposomes. Additional studies extend non-Tc liposome responses to the in vivo case in which microwaves trigger Gentamicin release from a liposome depot'' placed subcutaneously in the rat hind leg. In addition, evidence is provided that cell surface sequestered liposomes can be triggered by microwave fields to release drugs directly into target cells. 24 refs., 6 figs.

Liburdy, R.P.; de Manincor, D.; Fingado, B.

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Development of alcohol-based synthetic transportation fuels from coal-derived synthesis gases. First quarterly progress report, September 14-December 31, 1979  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Chem Systems is carrying out an experimental program for the conversion of coal-derived synthesis gases to a mixture of C/sub 1/-C/sub 4/ alcohols. The objectives of this contract are to: (1) develop a catalyst and reactor system for producing a mixture of C/sub 1/-C/sub 4/ alcohols, which we call Alkanol fuel, to be used as a synthetic transportation fuel and (2) assess the technical and economic feasibility of scaling the process concept to a commercial-scale application. Some of the accomplishments made this quarter were: (1) a small (75cc) fixed-bed, plug-flow, vapor phase reaction system was set up and operated utilizing catalyst bed dilution with inert media to help limit the large exotherm associated with the synthesis gas conversion reactions; (2) a total of fifteen (15) catalysts containing varying amounts of Cu, Co, Zn, Cr and K were prepared and seven of these catalysts were tested; (3) we have identified at least one promising catalyst composition which has resulted in a 30% conversion of carbon monoxide per pass (synthesis gas had a 3.5 H/sub 2//CO ratio) with a carbon selectivity to alcohols of about 80%.

None

1980-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

419

H-Coal pilot plant. Topical report: evaluation of a commercial laundry process for cleaning work clothing from a synthetic-fuels facility, E and H-12  

SciTech Connect

A scientific study was undertaken by Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc., to evaluate the cleaning efficiency of work clothing from the H-Coal Pilot Plant by a commercial laundry facility. Laundry process conditions for cleaning clothes were determined, and procedures were developed for laboratory analysis to detect coal liquefaction heavy distillate in work clothing and laundry wastewater. Laboratory testing and longwave ultraviolet light were used to monitor for skin contamination from recycled work clothing. Laboratory studies with spiked, unwashed cloth swatches showed a heavy distillate recovery efficiency of 86%. The laundry process was found to remove 98% of heavy distillate from spiked, washed cloth swatches. Low levels of heavy distillate and three polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons were found in laundry wastewater, recycled work shirts and uncleaned T-shirts worn in process areas. Hydrocarbon material content in wastewater can be satisfactorily treated by process wastewater treatment units at synfuels facilities. There were data to suggest that process material accumulates in recycled work shirts (outer clothing) to about three times the level in new control shirts, but this accumulation was not noted in T-shirts (underclothing). Although residual process material was found in work shirts and gloves after cleaning, skin fluorescence monitoring with ultraviolet light indicates that skin contamination from contact with recycled gloves and work shirts is not occurring.

Hill, R.H.; Tussey, L.B.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

A one-pot synthetic approach to prepare palladium nanoparticles embedded hierarchically porous TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres for hydrogen peroxide sensing  

SciTech Connect

A simple one-step method to fabricate hierarchically porous TiO{sub 2}/Pd composite hollow spheres without any template was developed by using solvothermal treatment. Pd nanoparticles (2-5 nm) were well dispersed in the mesopores of the TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres via in-situ reduction. In our experiment, polyvinylpyrrolidone played an important role in the synthetic process as the reducing agent and the connective material between TiO{sub 2} and Pd nanoparticles. HF species generated from solvothermal reaction leaded to the formation of TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres and Ostwald ripening was another main factor that affected the size and structure of the hollow spheres. The as-prepared TiO{sub 2}/Pd composite hollow spheres exhibited high electrocatalytic activity towards the reduction of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The sensitivity was about 226.72 {mu}A mM{sup -1} cm{sup -2} with a detection limit of 3.81 {mu}M at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. These results made the hierarchically porous TiO{sub 2}/Pd composite a promising platform for fabricating new nonenzymic biosensors. - Graphical Abstract: A new one-step solvothermal method was developed to prepare Pd nanoparticles embedded hierarchically porous TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres. Due to its unique nanostructure, the prepared TiO{sub 2}/Pd modified GC electrode exhibit a high sensitivity (226.72 {mu}A mM{sup -1} cm{sup -2}), a relatively low reduction potential (-0.2 V), a fast response time (<3 s) and a relatively low detection limit of 3.81 {mu}M (S/N=3) towards H{sub 2}O{sub 2}.

Kong Lirong [Alan G. MacDiarmid Institute, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Lu Xiaofeng, E-mail: xflu@jlu.edu.c [Alan G. MacDiarmid Institute, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Bian Xiujie; Zhang Wanjin [Alan G. MacDiarmid Institute, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Wang Ce, E-mail: cwang@jlu.edu.c [Alan G. MacDiarmid Institute, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interferometric synthetic aperture" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Radiation chemistry of synthetic waste  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The yield of H{sub 2} from radiolysis of aqueous solutions is substantially reduced by the presence of nitrate and nitrite in the waste solutions. Nitrate is more efficient in scavenging the precursors to H{sub 2} than is nitrite, therefore, the latter should be maintained at higher levels if minimization of radiolytic gas production is required. Nitrate is the major scavenger for e{sub aq}{sup {minus}} and nitrite is the major scavenger for H atoms. At the concentration levels of the waste solutions some fraction of the radiation energy will be absorbed directly by the solutes, primarily the nitrate/nitrite components. Organic additive will increase the generation of H{sub 2} and mechanistic information is available to allow predictive modeling of trends in the rate of the generation. Physical parameters such as temperature, viscosity, and pressure will not significantly affect the gas generation relative to its generation under normal conditions. Radiolytic generation of N{sub 2}O is very inefficient in the absence of organic solutes. No mechanistic information is available on its generation in the presence of organic additives. At the concentration levels of the inorganic salts in the waste solutions, it will be very difficult to find a chemical additive that could efficiently reduce the yield of the generated H{sub 2}, except, perhaps, increasing the concentration of the nitrite/nitrate components.

Meisel, D.; Diamond, H.; Horwitz, E.P.; Jonah, C.D.; Matheson, M.S.; Sauer, M.C. Jr.; Sullivan, J.C.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Advanced Review Synthetic biology: putting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

bioethanol fermentation was conducted by batch using 50 ml fermentation flask sealed with rubber septum. Preliminary batch fermentative assays using Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed that nipa saps can be converted, the fermentation trends were similar to sugarcane sap with high ethanol conversions up to 96.9% and 95.5% achieved

Zhao, Huimin

423

Program Verification Synthetic Domain Theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2 LFw r ) > 0 and if there exist 0 and t satisfying, NLE 1 t r t2 (3.7a) NLE 2 t2 + NLE 3 r, (3.7b) where NLE 1 , NLE 2 , NLE 3 are defined in the Appendix A. At every time tk, ¯wtk+1 is obtained-point implementations direct indefinite linear solvers are used to compute the search step. The accuracy of these steps

Streicher, Thomas

424

A hydrogeophysical synthetic model generator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

HGmod is a computer program that builds on stochastic realizations of porosity fields to derive electrical conductivity, dielectric permittivity and hydraulic permeability models. The presence of clay, the influence of salinity as well as temperature ... Keywords: Dielectric permittivity, Electrical conductivity, Hydrogeophysics, Modeling, Porosity

Bernard Giroux; Michel Chouteau

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Available Technologies: Rationally Designed Synthetic ...  

Depending on the target DNA and the gene of interest, ... JBEIs primary scientific mission is to advance the development of the next generation of biofuels.

426

Fully synthetic taped insulation cables  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is a cable which, although constructed from inexpensive polyolefin tapes and using typical impregnating oils, furnishes high voltage capability up to 765 kV, and has such excellent dielectric characteristics and heat transfer properties that it is capable of operation at capacities equal to or higher than presently available cables at a given voltage. This is accomplished by using polyethylene, polybutene or polypropylene insulating tape which has been specially processed to attain properties which are not generally found in these materials, but are required for their use in impregnated electrical cables. Chief among these properties is compatibility with impregnating oil.

Forsyth, E.B.; Muller, A.C.

1983-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

427

INTRODUCTION Synthetic biology: history, challenges  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

," scientists exploring new technologies such as hydroponics in space, biofuels, and plant-based medicines. #12, including logo, installation shots, rights-free images, and sample press release Range of wholesale products-based products and land-use techniques--such as biofuels, organic farming, and soy-based plastics and inks

Haseloff, Jim

428

The Eight New Synthetic Elements  

SciTech Connect

In an early continuation of the investigation of the radioactive isotopes of element number 43 (technetium) Segre and Seaborg produced by the deuteron and neutron bombardment of molybdenum the isotope Tc{sup 99}, which they observed to decay by means of an isomeric transition with a half-life of 6.6 hours to a lower isomeric state with a half-life greater than 40 years. The upper isomeric state of this isotope was observed by Segre and C. S. Wu to be produced in the fission of uranium and more recently R. P. Schumann and also D. C. Lincoln and W. H Sullivan working on the Plutonium Project of the Manhattan District have independently observed the beta-particles of half-life about 10 years due to the lower isomeric state. Later work by E. E. Motta and G. E. Boyd sets a more accurate value of 9.4 x 10{sup 5} years for this half-life. Since this isotope is formed in rather large amounts, namely, a fission yield of 6.2%, in the slow neutron induced fission of uranium it is now possible to isolate technetium in weighable amounts and in rather substantial quantities. For example, a uranium pile operating at a power level of 10{sup 5} kw would produce about four grams of technetium, as the isotope T{sup 99}, per day. With such a long half-life the radioactivity associated with convenient amounts (some mg.) would be so small in intensity as to not create a problem provided reasonable care in handling were exercised.

Seaborg, Glenn T.

1947-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Method of producing synthetic pitch  

SciTech Connect

Embodiments of a method are described for modifying pitches, oils, tars, and binders by using these materials as solvents to extract organic chemicals from coal.

Kennel, Elliot B. (Morgantown, WV); Stansberry, Peter G. (North Olmsted, OH); Stiller, Alfred H. (Morgantown, WV); Zondlo, John W. (Albright, WV)

2012-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

430

Transportation fuels from synthetic gas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Twenty-five experimental Fischer-Tropsch synthesis runs were made with 14 different catalysts or combinations of catalysts using a Berty reactor system. Two catalysts showed increased selectivity to transportation fuels compared to typical Fischer-Tropsch catalysts. With a catalyst consisting of 5 wt % ruthenium impregnated on a Y zeolite (run number 24), 63 to 70 wt % of the hydrocarbon product was in the gasoline boiling range. Using a 0.5 wt % ruthenium on alumina catalyst (run number 22), 64 to 78 wt % of the hydrocarbon product was in the diesel fuel boiling range. Not enough sample was produced to determine the octane number of the gasoline from run number 24, but it is probably somewhat better than typical Fischer-Tropsch gasoline (approx. 50) and less than unleaded gasoline (approx. 88). The diesel fuel produced in run number 22 consisted of mostly straight chained paraffins and should be an excellent transportation fuel without further refining. The yield of transportation fuels from biomass via gasification and the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis with the ruthenium catalysts identified in the previous paragraph is somewhat less, on a Btu basis, than methanol (via gasification) and wood oil (PERC and LBL processes) yields from biomass. However, the products of the F-T synthesis are higher quality transportation fuels. The yield of transportation fuels via the F-T synthesis is similar to the yield of gasoline via methanol synthesis and the Mobil MTG process.

Baker, E.G.; Cuello, R.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Synthetic Genomics: Options for Governance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gene and genome synthesis, that is, constructing long stretches of DNA from constituent chemicals, provides scientists with new and unparalleled capabilities both for understanding biology and for using it for beneficial ...

Garfinkel, Michele

2007-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

432

Fully synthetic taped insulation cables  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high voltage oil-impregnated electrical cable with fully polymer taped insulation operable to 765 kV. Biaxially oriented, specially processed, polyethylene, polybutene or polypropylene tape with an embossed pattern is wound in multiple layers over a conductive core with a permeable screen around the insulation. Conventional oil which closely matches the dielectric constant of the tape is used, and the cable can be impregnated after field installation because of its excellent impregnation characteristics.

Forsyth, Eric B. (Brookhaven, NY); Muller, Albert C. (Center Moriches, NY)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Tracking of Ice Edges and Ice Floes by Wavelet Analysis of SAR Images  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper demonstrates the use of wavelet transforms in the tracking of sequential ice features in the ERS-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery, especially in situations where feature correlation techniques fail to yield reasonable results. ...

Antony K. Liu; Seelye Martin; Ronald Kwok

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Sandia SAR Programs -- Sandia National Laboratories  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Synthetic Aperture Radar Programs Synthetic Aperture Radar Programs Sandia National Laboratories has designed, assembled and delivered many different synthetic aperture radar systems and components to a wide variety of customers. A few of the unclassified programs Sandia has participated in are listed below: sar image bullet Miniaturized Synthetic Aperture Radar (MiniSAR) -- At any size/weight, the image quality and resolution demonstrated by Sandia SARs remains unequaled. MiniSAR fills a void in current remote sensing technology by providing unprecedented image quality and resolution while achieving a 4 to 5x reduction in size, weight and cost. MiniSAR will give even small UAVs the ability to see through smoke, dust, clouds, and heavy rain. Similarly, the miniSAR sensor will have broad application to all-weather, precision guided weapons. MiniSAR is an in-development program; the initial version will be flight tested in early 2005.

435

An Analysis of Exit-Flow Drainage Jets over the Chesapeake Bay  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Synthetic aperture radar has shown great promise in detecting surface roughness patterns generated by atmospheric and oceanic features. Those roughness patterns that are the result of sea surface wind stress may be analyzed and related to ...

Nathaniel S. Winstead; George S. Young

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Sequential Assimilation of ERS-1 SAR Data into a Coupled Land SurfaceHydrological Model Using an Extended Kalman Filter  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A first attempt to sequentially assimilate European Space Agency (ESA) Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) estimations of surface soil moisture in the production scheme of a lumped rainfallrunoff model has been ...

C. Francois; A. Quesney; C. Ottl

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Coexistence of Atmospheric Gravity Waves and Boundary Layer Rolls Observed by SAR  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Both atmospheric gravity waves (AGW) and marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) rolls are simultaneously observed on an Environmental Satellite (Envisat) advanced synthetic aperture radar (ASAR) image acquired along the China coast on 22 May ...

Xiaofeng Li; Weizhong Zheng; Xiaofeng Yang; Jun A. Zhang; William G. Pichel; Ziwei Li

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

High Resolution Hurricane Vector Winds from C-band Dual-Polarization SAR Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study presents a new approach for retrieving hurricane surface wind vectors utilizing C-band dual-polarization (VV, VH) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) observations. The co-polarized geophysical model function (CMOD5.N) and a new cross-...

Biao Zhang; William Perrie; Jun A. Zhang; Eric W. Uhlhorn; Yijun He

439

Remote Sensing of Ocean Waves by Polarimetric SAR  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new method to measure ocean wave slope spectra using fully polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (POLSAR) data was developed without the need for a complex hydrodynamic modulation transform function. There is no explicit use of a hydrodynamic ...

Yijun He; Hui Shen; William Perrie

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Case Study of a Coastal Jet at SpitsbergenComparison of SAR- and Model-Estimated Wind  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A combination of in situ ship measurements, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery, and high-resolution numerical modeling was used to investigate a mesoscale coastal jet radiating out from Hinlopenstretet, Norway, on 14 August 1996. In the ...

Anne Dagrun Sandvik; Birgitte Rugaard Furevik

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interferometric synthetic aperture" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Wind Class Sampling of Satellite SAR Imagery for Offshore Wind Resource Mapping  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-resolution wind fields retrieved from satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery are combined for mapping of wind resources offshore where site measurements are costly and sparse. A new sampling strategy for the SAR scenes is ...

Merete Badger; Jake Badger; Morten Nielsen; Charlotte Bay Hasager; Alfredo Pea

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Acoustic classification of buried objects with mobile sonar platforms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, the use of highly mobile sonar platforms is investigated for the purpose of acoustically classifying compact objects on or below the seabed. The extension of existing strategies, including synthetic aperture ...

Edwards, Joseph Richard, 1971-

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

THE COVER: Images from some of the case studies in this brochure: a near-UV light- emitting diode (LED), a cell membrane, a NISAC model, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image of...

444

Sandia SAR Information Contacts -- Sandia National Laboratories  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

MiniSAR - Miniaturized Synthetic Aperture Radar Fact Sheets: Fact Sheet (pdf) Presentations: A Review of 4-inch and 1-foot Resolution Ku-Band Imagery (pdf) Posters MiniSAR Facts...

445

A Nonlinear Model of the Shoaling and Refraction of Interfacial Solitary Waves in the Ocean. Part I: Development of the Model and Investigations of the Shoaling Effect  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oceanic internal waves are frequently observed to be of large amplitude, and to exhibit significant wave front curvature, as seen in synthetic aperture radar images. The aim of this paper is to present a refraction model in two horizontal ...

Justin Small

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Continental Shelf Parameters Inferred from SAR Internal Wave Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents preliminary results on the use of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery to extract oceanographic information about the continental shelf. From late spring through early fall the thermocline on the shelf is fully developed and ...

D. L. Porter; D. R. Thompson

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Synthetic trends for BiVO{sub 4} photocatalysts: Molybdenum substitution vs. TiO{sub 2} and SnO{sub 2} heterojunctions  

SciTech Connect

The influence of hydrothermal synthesis, thermal post-treatment at 500 Degree-Sign C and Mo content on a series of Bi{sub 1-x/3}V{sub 1-x}Mo{sub x}O{sub 4} (0.02synthetic guidelines for BiVO{sub 4}-based solid solutions and heterojunctions in photocatalytic wastewater treatment and water oxidation are discussed. - Graphical Abstract: The influence of Mo substitution on the structure, morphology and surface area of BiVO{sub 4} photocatalysts was investigated through hydrothermal synthesis of nanoscale Bi{sub 1-x/3}V{sub 1-x}Mo{sub x}O{sub 4} mixed oxides. Their catalytic activity in organic dye degradation and water oxidation was compared to the newly synthesized Bi{sub 1-x/3}V{sub 1-x}Mo{sub x}O{sub 4}-MO{sub 2} (M=Ti, Sn) heterojunctions. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New hydrothermal approach to nanoscale Bi{sub 1-x/3}V{sub 1-x}Mo{sub x}O{sub 4} photocatalysts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Influence of molybdenum substitution on organic dye degradation and water oxidation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photocatalytic activity of novel Bi{sub 1-x/3}V{sub 1-x}Mo{sub x}O{sub 4}-MO{sub 2} (M=Ti, Sn) heterojunctions.

Kontic, Roman [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Patzke, Greta R., E-mail: greta.patzke@aci.uzh.ch [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

448

Multi-functional Bio-synthetic Hybrid Nanostructures for Enhanced Cellular Uptake, Endosomal Escape and Targeted Delivery Toward Diagnostics and Therapeutics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Applications of nanotechnology in medicine, also known as nanomedicine, is a rapidly growing field as it holds great potential in the development of novel therapeutics toward treatment of various diseases. Shell crosslinked knedel-like nanoparticles (SCKs) that are self assembled from amphiphilic block copolymers into polymeric micelles followed by crosslinking selectively throughout the shell domain have been investigated as theranostic agents for the delivery of nucleic acids and incorporation of imaging probes. The main focus of this dissertation is to design and develop unique multifunctional bio-synthetic hybrid nanoparticles that can carry agents for radiolabeling, moieties for inducing stealth properties to minimize protein adsorption in vivo, ligands for site-specific targeting, therapeutic payloads, and are optimized for efficient delivery of cargoes intracellularly and to the target sites toward constructing novel nanoscopic objects for therapy and diagnosis. Alteration of polymeric building blocks of the nanoparticles provides opportunities for precise control over the sizes, shapes, compositions, structures and properties of the nanoparticles. To ensure ideal performance of nanoparticles as theranostic agents, it is critical to ensure high intracellular bioavailability of the therapeutic payload conjugated to nanoparticles. Special efforts were made by employing well-defined multi-step polymerization and polymer modification reactions that involved conjugation of peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) to chain terminus of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) chain grafts such that they were presented at the outermost surface of SCKs. Additionally, chemical modification reactions were performed on the polymer backbone to integrate positive charges onto the shell of the nanoparticles to afford cationic SCKs (cSCKs) for facilitating cellular entry and electrostatic interactions with negatively charged nucleic acids. Covalent conjugation of F3, a tumor homing peptide, post-assembly of the nanoparticles enhanced cellular uptake and knockdown of nucleolin (a shuttling protein overexpressed at the sites of angiogenesis) and thus inhibiting tumor cell growth. Furthermore, these polymer precursors of the cSCKs were modified with partial to full incorporation of histamines to facilitate their endosomal escape for efficient delivery into the cytosol. The cSCKs were further templated onto high aspect ratio anionic cylinders to form hierarchically-assembled nanostructures that bring together individual components with unique functions, such as one carrying a therapeutic payload and the other with sites for radiolabeling. These higher order nanoobjects enhance circulation in vivo, have capabilities to package nucleic acids electrostatically and contain sites for radiolabeling, providing an overall advantage over the individual components, which could each facilitate only one or the other of the combined functions. Hierarchically-assembled nanostructures were investigated for their cellular uptake, transfection behavior and radiolabeling efficiency, as the next generation of theranostic agents.

Shrestha, Ritu 1984-

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Hydraulic Characterization of Overpressured Tuffs in Central Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A sequence of buried, bedded, air-fall tuffs has been used extensively as a host medium for underground nuclear tests detonated in the central part of Yucca Flat at the Nevada Test Site. Water levels within these bedded tuffs have been elevated hundreds of meters in areas where underground nuclear tests were detonated below the water table. Changes in the ground-water levels within these tuffs and changes in the rate and distribution of land-surface subsidence above these tuffs indicate that pore-fluid pressures have been slowly depressurizing since the cessation of nuclear testing in 1992. Declines in ground-water levels concurrent with regional land subsidence are explained by poroelastic deformation accompanying ground-water flow as fluids pressurized by underground nuclear detonations drain from the host tuffs into the overlying water table and underlying regional carbonate aquifer. A hydraulic conductivity of about 3 x 10-6 m/d and a specific storage of 9 x 10-6 m-1 are estimated using ground-water flow models. Cross-sectional and three-dimensional ground-water flow models were calibrated to measured water levels and to land-subsidence rates measured using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar. Model results are consistent and indicate that about 2 million m3 of ground water flowed from the tuffs to the carbonate rock as a result of pressurization caused by underground nuclear testing. The annual rate of inflow into the carbonate rock averaged about 0.008 m/yr between 1962 and 2005, and declined from 0.005 m/yr in 2005 to 0.0005 m/yr by 2300.

K.J. Halford; R.J. Laczniak; D.L. Galloway

2005-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

450

INVESTIGATION OF CRUSTAL MOTION IN THE TIEN SHAN USING INSAR  

SciTech Connect

The northern Tien Shan of Central Asia is an area of active mid-continent deformation. Although far from a plate boundary, this region has experienced 5 earthquakes larger than magnitude 7 in the past century and includes one event that may as be as large as Mw 8.0. Previous studies based on GPS measurements indicate on the order of 23 mm/yr of shortening across the entire Tien Shan and up to 15 mm/year in the northern Tien Shan (Figure 1). The seismic moment release rate appears comparable with the geodetic measured slip, at least to first order, suggesting that geodetic rates can be considered a proxy for accumulation rates of stress for seismic hazard estimation. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar may provide a means to make detailed spatial measurements and hence in identifying block boundaries and assisting in seismic hazard. Therefore, we hoped to define block boundaries by direct measurement and by identifying and resolving earthquake slip. Due to political instability in Kyrgzystan, the existing seismic network has not performed as well as required to precisely determine earthquake hypocenters in remote areas and hence InSAR is highly useful. In this paper we present the result of three earthquake studies and show that InSAR is useful for refining locations of teleseismically located earthquakes. ALOS PALSAR data is used to investigate crustal motion in the Tien Shan mountains of Central Asia. As part of the work, considerable software development was undertaken to process PALSAR data. This software has been made freely available. Two damaging earthquakes have been imaged in the Tien Shan and the locations provided by ALOS InSAR have helped to refine seismological velocity models. A third earthquake south of Kyrgyzstan was also imaged. The use of InSAR data and especially L band is therefore very useful in providing groundtruth for earthquake locations.

Mellors, R J

2011-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

451

Finding Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

low-permeability fractures and LAF's (Large Aperature Fractures). USG will develop and test the combination of three-component,long-offset seismic surveying, permanent scatter...

452

High Accuracy Measurement of Aperture Area Relative to a ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... 1. Nearly all of the radiation passing through the tube is collected on the diffuser ... more than 0.2 C during the course of the measurement, a flag is set ...

2012-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

453

Efficient wide-aperture neodymium glass rod amplifiers  

SciTech Connect

Amplifiers based on neodymium phosphate glass rods 60 - 100 mm in diameter are experimentally studied. The amplifiers are pumped by INP-16/250 tubular flash lamps placed in a universal pump cavity with a two-section mirror reflector. A compact high-voltage capacitive energy storage with a preionisation circuit was developed to supply the lamps. (lasers)

Potemkin, A K; Zhurin, K A; Kirsanov, A V; Kopelovich, E A; Kuznetsov, M V; Kuz'min, A A; Flat, F A; Khazanov, Efim A; Shaikin, A A [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

454

The balloonborne large aperture submillimeter telescope G.S. Tucker  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

., Canada 1A7 i Universidad Puerto Rico, Piedras, Puerto Rico 00931, Received October 2002; received.1--10#. Measure 250--500 lm spectral energy distribu­ tions (SEDs) colors, from which derive rest­stellar (Class cores associated earliest stages formation. Observe solar system objects including Kuiper­ belt

Tucker, Gregory S.

455

Design, Implementation and Control of a Sparse Aperture Imaging Satellite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

], calcium fluoride [41,51], and mag- nesium fluoride [47, 50, 53]. Their free-spectral range (FSR) may vary nitride ring fabrication and valuable technical discussion and guideline. I express my deep gratitude

456