National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for interferometric synthetic aperture

  1. Reservoir monitoring and characterization using satellite geodetic data: Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar observations from the Krechba field, Algeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasco, D.W.; Ferretti, Alessandro; Novali, Fabrizio

    2008-05-01

    Deformation in the material overlying an active reservoir is used to monitor pressure change at depth. A sequence of pressure field estimates, eleven in all, allow us to construct a measure of diffusive travel time throughout the reservoir. The dense distribution of travel time values means that we can construct an exactly linear inverse problem for reservoir flow properties. Application to Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data gathered over a CO{sub 2} injection in Algeria reveals pressure propagation along two northwest trending corridors. An inversion of the travel times indicates the existence of two northwest-trending high permeability zones. The high permeability features trend in the same direction as the regional fault and fracture zones. Model parameter resolution estimates indicate that the features are well resolved.

  2. Differential Optical Synthetic Aperture Radar

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stappaerts, Eddy A. (San Ramon, CA)

    2005-04-12

    A new differential technique for forming optical images using a synthetic aperture is introduced. This differential technique utilizes a single aperture to obtain unique (N) phases that can be processed to produce a synthetic aperture image at points along a trajectory. This is accomplished by dividing the aperture into two equal "subapertures", each having a width that is less than the actual aperture, along the direction of flight. As the platform flies along a given trajectory, a source illuminates objects and the two subapertures are configured to collect return signals. The techniques of the invention is designed to cancel common-mode errors, trajectory deviations from a straight line, and laser phase noise to provide the set of resultant (N) phases that can produce an image having a spatial resolution corresponding to a synthetic aperture.

  3. Synthetic Aperture Radar Persistent Scatterer Interferometry...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    NA, 2010 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:crossref.org Online Internet link for Synthetic Aperture Radar Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSInSAR)...

  4. Using dynamic interferometric synthetic aperature radar (InSAR) to image fast-moving surface waves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vincent, Paul

    2005-06-28

    A new differential technique and system for imaging dynamic (fast moving) surface waves using Dynamic Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is introduced. This differential technique and system can sample the fast-moving surface displacement waves from a plurality of moving platform positions in either a repeat-pass single-antenna or a single-pass mode having a single-antenna dual-phase receiver or having dual physically separate antennas, and reconstruct a plurality of phase differentials from a plurality of platform positions to produce a series of desired interferometric images of the fast moving waves.

  5. Synthetic aperture radar capabilities in development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, M.

    1994-11-15

    The Imaging and Detection Program (IDP) within the Laser Program is currently developing an X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to support the Joint US/UK Radar Ocean Imaging Program. The radar system will be mounted in the program`s Airborne Experimental Test-Bed (AETB), where the initial mission is to image ocean surfaces and better understand the physics of low grazing angle backscatter. The Synthetic Aperture Radar presentation will discuss its overall functionality and a brief discussion on the AETB`s capabilities. Vital subsystems including radar, computer, navigation, antenna stabilization, and SAR focusing algorithms will be examined in more detail.

  6. Inversion of synthetic aperture radar interferograms for sources...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Inversion of synthetic aperture radar interferograms for sources of production-related subsidence at the Dixie Valley geothermal field Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference...

  7. Motion Measurement for Synthetic Aperture Radar.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doerry, Armin W.

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) measures radar soundings from a set of locations typically along the flight path of a radar platform vehicle. Optimal focusing requires precise knowledge of the sounding source locations in 3 - D space with respect to the target scene. Even data driven focusing techniques (i.e. autofocus) requires some degree of initial fidelity in the measurements of the motion of the radar. These requirements may be quite stringent especially for fine resolution, long ranges, and low velocities. The principal instrument for measuring motion is typically an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), but these instruments have inherent limi ted precision and accuracy. The question is %22How good does an IMU need to be for a SAR across its performance space?%22 This report analytically relates IMU specifications to parametric requirements for SAR. - 4 - Acknowledgements Th e preparation of this report is the result of a n unfunded research and development activity . Although this report is an independent effort, it draws heavily from limited - release documentation generated under a CRADA with General Atomics - Aeronautical System, Inc. (GA - ASI), and under the Joint DoD/DOE Munitions Program Memorandum of Understanding. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi - program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of En ergy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE - AC04 - 94AL85000.

  8. Synthetic aperture design for increased SAR image rate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bielek, Timothy P.; Thompson, Douglas G.; Walker, Bruce C.

    2009-03-03

    High resolution SAR images of a target scene at near video rates can be produced by using overlapped, but nevertheless, full-size synthetic apertures. The SAR images, which respectively correspond to the apertures, can be analyzed in sequence to permit detection of movement in the target scene.

  9. Two antenna, two pass interferometric synthetic aperture radar

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martinez, Ana; Doerry, Armin W.; Bickel, Douglas L.

    2005-06-28

    A multi-antenna, multi-pass IFSAR mode utilizing data driven alignment of multiple independent passes can combine the scaling accuracy of a two-antenna, one-pass IFSAR mode with the height-noise performance of a one-antenna, two-pass IFSAR mode. A two-antenna, two-pass IFSAR mode can accurately estimate the larger antenna baseline from the data itself and reduce height-noise, allowing for more accurate information about target ground position locations and heights. The two-antenna, two-pass IFSAR mode can use coarser IFSAR data to estimate the larger antenna baseline. Multi-pass IFSAR can be extended to more than two (2) passes, thereby allowing true three-dimensional radar imaging from stand-off aircraft and satellite platforms.

  10. Synthetic aperture integration (SAI) algorithm for SAR imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chambers, David H; Mast, Jeffrey E; Paglieroni, David W; Beer, N. Reginald

    2013-07-09

    A method and system for detecting the presence of subsurface objects within a medium is provided. In some embodiments, the imaging and detection system operates in a multistatic mode to collect radar return signals generated by an array of transceiver antenna pairs that is positioned across the surface and that travels down the surface. The imaging and detection system pre-processes the return signal to suppress certain undesirable effects. The imaging and detection system then generates synthetic aperture radar images from real aperture radar images generated from the pre-processed return signal. The imaging and detection system then post-processes the synthetic aperture radar images to improve detection of subsurface objects. The imaging and detection system identifies peaks in the energy levels of the post-processed image frame, which indicates the presence of a subsurface object.

  11. Sandia National Laboratories: Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Imagery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Images Facebook Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Pathfinder Airborne ISR Systems Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Imagery The following is a selection of imagery available for your viewing, sorted by frequency band and/or program. (Note: Resolutions are for original images prior to downsampling for web viewing.) Images are available for public reproduction. Please credit Sandia using the following statement 'Courtesy of Sandia National Laboratories, Airborne ISR' Click thumbnails below to enlarge

  12. Apodized RFI filtering of synthetic aperture radar images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2014-02-01

    Fine resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems necessarily require wide bandwidths that often overlap spectrum utilized by other wireless services. These other emitters pose a source of Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) to the SAR echo signals that degrades SAR image quality. Filtering, or excising, the offending spectral contaminants will mitigate the interference, but at a cost of often degrading the SAR image in other ways, notably by raising offensive sidelobe levels. This report proposes borrowing an idea from nonlinear sidelobe apodization techniques to suppress interference without the attendant increase in sidelobe levels. The simple post-processing technique is termed Apodized RFI Filtering (ARF).

  13. Phase correction system for automatic focusing of synthetic aperture radar

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eichel, Paul H. (Albuquerque, NM); Ghiglia, Dennis C. (Placitas, NM); Jakowatz, Jr., Charles V. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1990-01-01

    A phase gradient autofocus system for use in synthetic aperture imaging accurately compensates for arbitrary phase errors in each imaged frame by locating highlighted areas and determining the phase disturbance or image spread associated with each of these highlight areas. An estimate of the image spread for each highlighted area in a line in the case of one dimensional processing or in a sector, in the case of two-dimensional processing, is determined. The phase error is determined using phase gradient processing. The phase error is then removed from the uncorrected image and the process is iteratively performed to substantially eliminate phase errors which can degrade the image.

  14. Synthetic aperture radar images with composite azimuth resolution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bielek, Timothy P; Bickel, Douglas L

    2015-03-31

    A synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image is produced by using all phase histories of a set of phase histories to produce a first pixel array having a first azimuth resolution, and using less than all phase histories of the set to produce a second pixel array having a second azimuth resolution that is coarser than the first azimuth resolution. The first and second pixel arrays are combined to produce a third pixel array defining a desired SAR image that shows distinct shadows of moving objects while preserving detail in stationary background clutter.

  15. Interferometric

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Interferometric measurement of high-frequency density fluctuations in Madison symmetric torus Y. Jiang and D. L. Brower Electrical Engineering Department, and Institute of Plasma and Fusion Research, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 N. E. Lanier Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 ͑Presented on 9 June 1998͒ As a consequence of recent improvements to the far-infrared ͑FIR͒ interferometer time response, from bandwidth of 10

  16. Interpretation of Synthetic Aperture Radar measurements of ocean currents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rufenach, C.L.; Shuchman, R.A.; Lyzenga, D.R.

    1983-02-28

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) experiments hae been performed over the last few years to measure ocean currents inferred from shifts in the Doppler spectral peak. Interpretations of aircraft SAR measurements, when compared with limited surface values, tend to underestimate the currents by about 25%. A theory is developed that modifies the classical Doppler expression showing that the radar measurements are dependent on the radar processor (system) bandwidth and the received signal bandwidth. Measured bandwidths give a correction that increases the inferred current values by about 25%, bringing the measurements into good agreement. This new correction lends credence to the theory and increases the potential for application of SAR systems to future ocean current measurements. SAR measurements should include the determination of processor and signal bandwidths such that this correction can be applied.

  17. Moving receive beam method and apparatus for synthetic aperture radar

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kare, Jordin T.

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving the performance of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems by reducing the effect of "edge losses" associated with nonuniform receiver antenna gain. By moving the receiver antenna pattern in synchrony with the apparent motion of the transmitted pulse along the ground, the maximum available receiver antenna gain can be used at all times. Also, the receiver antenna gain for range-ambiguous return signals may be reduced, in some cases, by a large factor. The beam motion can be implemented by real-time adjustment of phase shifters in an electronically-steered phased-array antenna or by electronic switching of feed horns in a reflector antenna system.

  18. Time-frequency analysis of synthetic aperture radar signals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnston, B.

    1996-08-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has become an important tool for remote sensing of the environment. SAR is a set of digital signal processing algorithms that are used to focus the signal returned to the radar because radar systems in themselves cannot produce the high resolution images required in remote sensing applications. To reconstruct an image, several parameters must be estimated and the quality of output image depends on the degree of accuracy of these parameters. In this thesis, we derive the fundamental SAR algorithms and concentrate on the estimation of one of its critical parameters. We show that the common technique for estimating this particular parameter can sometimes lead to erroneous results and reduced quality images. We also employ time-frequency analysis techniques to examine variations in the radar signals caused by platform motion and show how these results can be used to improve output image quality.

  19. Lynx: A High-Resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doerry, A.W.; Hensley, W.H.; Pace, F.; Stence, J.; Tsunoda, S.I.; Walker, B.C.; Woodring, M.

    1999-03-08

    Lynx is a high resolution, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) that has been designed and built by Sandia National Laboratories in collaboration with General Atomics (GA). Although Lynx may be operated on a wide variety of manned and unmanned platforms, it is primarily intended to be fielded on unmanned aerial vehicles. In particular, it may be operated on the Predator, I-GNAT, or Prowler II platforms manufactured by GA Aeronautical Systems, Inc. The Lynx production weight is less than 120 lb. and has a slant range of 30 km (in 4 mm/hr rain). It has operator selectable resolution and is capable of 0.1 m resolution in spotlight mode and 0.3 m resolution in stripmap mode. In ground moving target indicator mode, the minimum detectable velocity is 6 knots with a minimum target cross-section of 10 dBsm. In coherent change detection mode, Lynx makes registered, complex image comparisons either of 0.1 m resolution (minimum) spotlight images or of 0.3 m resolution (minimum) strip images. The Lynx user interface features a view manager that allows it to pan and zoom like a video camera. Lynx was developed under corporate finding from GA and will be manufactured by GA for both military and commercial applications. The Lynx system architecture will be presented and some of its unique features will be described. Imagery at the finest resolutions in both spotlight and strip modes have been obtained and will also be presented.

  20. Basics of Polar-Format algorithm for processing Synthetic Aperture Radar images.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a background to Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image formation using the Polar Format (PFA) processing algorithm. This is meant to be an aid to those tasked to implement real-time image formation using the Polar Format processing algorithm.

  1. Correction of motion measurement errors beyond the range resolution of a synthetic aperture radar

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doerry, Armin W. (Albuquerque, NM); Heard, Freddie E. (Albuquerque, NM); Cordaro, J. Thomas (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-06-24

    Motion measurement errors that extend beyond the range resolution of a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) can be corrected by effectively decreasing the range resolution of the SAR in order to permit measurement of the error. Range profiles can be compared across the slow-time dimension of the input data in order to estimate the error. Once the error has been determined, appropriate frequency and phase correction can be applied to the uncompressed input data, after which range and azimuth compression can be performed to produce a desired SAR image.

  2. Method and apparatus for reducing range ambiguity in synthetic aperture radar

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kare, Jordin T.

    1999-10-26

    A modified Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) system with reduced sensitivity to range ambiguities, and which uses secondary receiver channels to detect the range ambiguous signals and subtract them from the signal received by the main channel. Both desired and range ambiguous signals are detected by a main receiver and by one or more identical secondary receivers. All receivers are connected to a common antenna with two or more feed systems offset in elevation (e.g., a reflector antenna with multiple feed horns or a phased array with multiple phase shift networks. The secondary receiver output(s) is (are) then subtracted from the main receiver output in such a way as to cancel the ambiguous signals while only slightly attenuating the desired signal and slightly increasing the noise in the main channel, and thus does not significantly affect the desired signal. This subtraction may be done in real time, or the outputs of the receivers may be recorded separately and combined during signal processing.

  3. A High Resolution, Light-Weight, Synthetic Aperture Radar for UAV Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doerry, A.W.; Hensley, W.H.; Stence, J.; Tsunoda, S.I. Pace, F.; Walker, B,C.; Woodring, M.

    1999-05-27

    (U) Sandia National Laboratories in collaboration with General Atomics (GA) has designed and built a high resolution, light-weight, Ku-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) known as "Lynx". Although Lynx can be operated on a wide variety of manned and unmanned platforms, its design is optimized for use on medium altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVS). In particular, it can be operated on the Predator, I-GNAT, and Prowler II platforms manufactured by GA. (U) The radar production weight is less than 120 lb and operates within a 3 GHz band from 15.2 GHz to 18.2 GHz with a peak output power of 320 W. Operating range is resolution and mode dependent but can exceed 45 km in adverse weather (4 mm/hr rain). Lynx has operator selectable resolution and is capable of 0.1 m resolution in spotlight mode and 0.3 m resolution in stripmap mode, over substantial depression angles (5 to 60 deg) and squint angles (broadside ±45 deg). Real-time Motion Compensation is implemented to allow high-quality image formation even during vehicle turns and other maneuvers.

  4. On the detection of crevasses in glacial ice with synthetic-aperture radar.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brock, Billy C.

    2010-02-01

    The intent of this study is to provide an analysis of the scattering from a crevasse in Antarctic ice, utilizing a physics-based model for the scattering process. Of primary interest is a crevasse covered with a snow bridge, which makes the crevasse undetectable in visible-light images. It is demonstrated that a crevasse covered with a snow bridge can be visible in synthetic-aperture-radar (SAR) images. The model of the crevasse and snow bridge incorporates a complex dielectric permittivity model for dry snow and ice that takes into account the density profile of the glacier. The surface structure is based on a fractal model that can produce sastrugi-like features found on the surface of Antarctic glaciers. Simulated phase histories, computed with the Shooting and Bouncing Ray (SBR) method, are processed into SAR images. The viability of the SBR method for predicting scattering from a crevasse covered with a snow bridge is demonstrated. Some suggestions for improving the model are given.

  5. Foldbelt exploration with synthetic aperture radar (SAR) in Papua New Guinea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellis, J.M.; Pruett, F.D.

    1987-05-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is being successfully used within the southern fold and thrust belt of Papua New Guinea to map surface structure and stratigraphy and to help plan a hydrocarbon exploration program. The airborne SAR imagery, along with other surface data, is used as a primary exploration tool because acquisition of acceptable seismic data is extremely costly due to extensive outcrops of Tertiary Darai Limestone which develops rugged karst topography. Most anticlines in the licenses are capped with this deeply karstified limestone. The region is ideally suited to geologic analysis using remote sensing technology. The area is seldom cloud free and is covered with tropical rain forest, and geologic field studies are limited. The widespread karst terrain is exceedingly dangerous, if not impossible, to traverse on the ground. SAR is used to guide ongoing field work, modeling of subsurface structure, and selection of well locations. SAR provides their explorationists with an excellent data base because (1) structure is enhanced with low illumination, (2) resolution is 6 x 12 m, (3) digital reprocessing is possible, (4) clouds are penetrated by the SAR, and (5) the survey was designed for stereoscopic photogeology. Landsat images and vertical aerial photographs complement SAR but provide subdued structural information because of minimal shadowing (due to high sun angles) and the jungle cover. SAR imagery reveals large-scale mass wasting that has led to a reevaluation of previously acquired field data. Lithologies can be recognized by textural and tonal changes on the SAR images despite near-continuous canopy of jungle. Reprocessing and contrast stretching of the digital radar imagery provide additional geologic information.

  6. Final Report: Detection and Characterization of Underground Facilities by Stochastic Inversion and Modeling of Data from the New Generation of Synthetic Aperture Satellites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foxall, W; Cunningham, C; Mellors, R; Templeton, D; Dyer, K; White, J

    2012-02-27

    Many clandestine development and production activities can be conducted underground to evade surveillance. The purpose of the study reported here was to develop a technique to detect underground facilities by broad-area search and then to characterize the facilities by inversion of the collected data. This would enable constraints to be placed on the types of activities that would be feasible at each underground site, providing a basis the design of targeted surveillance and analysis for more complete characterization. Excavation of underground cavities causes deformation in the host material and overburden that produces displacements at the ground surface. Such displacements are often measurable by a variety of surveying or geodetic techniques. One measurement technique, Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), uses data from satellite-borne (or airborne) synthetic aperture radars (SARs) and so is ideal for detecting and measuring surface displacements in denied access regions. Depending on the radar frequency and the acquisition mode and the surface conditions, displacement maps derived from SAR interferograms can provide millimeter- to centimeter-level measurement accuracy on regional and local scales at spatial resolution of {approx}1-10 m. Relatively low-resolution ({approx}20 m, say) maps covering large regions can be used for broad-area detection, while finer resolutions ({approx}1 m) can be used to image details of displacement fields over targeted small areas. Surface displacements are generally expected to be largest during or a relatively short time after active excavation, but, depending on the material properties, measurable displacement may continue at a decreasing rate for a considerable time after completion. For a given excavated volume in a given geological setting, the amplitude of the surface displacements decreases as the depth of excavation increases, while the area of the discernable displacement pattern increases. Therefore, the

  7. Inversion of synthetic aperture radar interferograms for sourcesof production-related subsidence at the Dixie Valley geothermalfield

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foxall, B.; Vasco, D.W.

    2006-07-01

    We used synthetic aperture radar interferograms to imageground subsidence that occurred over the Dixie Valley geothermal fieldduring different time intervals between 1992 and 1997. Linear elasticinversion of the subsidence that occurred between April, 1996 and March,1997 revealed that the dominant sources of deformation during this timeperiod were large changes in fluid volumes at shallow depths within thevalley fill above the reservoir. The distributions of subsidence andsubsurface volume change support a model in which reduction in pressureand volume of hot water discharging into the valley fill from localizedupflow along the Stillwater range frontal fault is caused by drawdownwithin the upflow zone resulting from geothermal production. Our resultsalso suggest that an additional source of fluid volume reduction in theshallow valley fill might be similar drawdown within piedmont faultzones. Shallow groundwater flow in the vicinity of the field appears tobe controlled on the NW by a mapped fault and to the SW by a lineament ofas yet unknown origin.

  8. Process for combining multiple passes of interferometric SAR data

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bickel, Douglas L.; Yocky, David A.; Hensley, Jr., William H.

    2000-11-21

    Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IFSAR) is a promising technology for a wide variety of military and civilian elevation modeling requirements. IFSAR extends traditional two dimensional SAR processing to three dimensions by utilizing the phase difference between two SAR images taken from different elevation positions to determine an angle of arrival for each pixel in the scene. This angle, together with the two-dimensional location information in the traditional SAR image, can be transformed into geographic coordinates if the position and motion parameters of the antennas are known accurately.

  9. Imaging synthetic aperture radar

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burns, Bryan L.; Cordaro, J. Thomas

    1997-01-01

    A linear-FM SAR imaging radar method and apparatus to produce a real-time image by first arranging the returned signals into a plurality of subaperture arrays, the columns of each subaperture array having samples of dechirped baseband pulses, and further including a processing of each subaperture array to obtain coarse-resolution in azimuth, then fine-resolution in range, and lastly, to combine the processed subapertures to obtain the final fine-resolution in azimuth. Greater efficiency is achieved because both the transmitted signal and a local oscillator signal mixed with the returned signal can be varied on a pulse-to-pulse basis as a function of radar motion. Moreover, a novel circuit can adjust the sampling location and the A/D sample rate of the combined dechirped baseband signal which greatly reduces processing time and hardware. The processing steps include implementing a window function, stabilizing either a central reference point and/or all other points of a subaperture with respect to doppler frequency and/or range as a function of radar motion, sorting and compressing the signals using a standard fourier transforms. The stabilization of each processing part is accomplished with vector multiplication using waveforms generated as a function of radar motion wherein these waveforms may be synthesized in integrated circuits. Stabilization of range migration as a function of doppler frequency by simple vector multiplication is a particularly useful feature of the invention; as is stabilization of azimuth migration by correcting for spatially varying phase errors prior to the application of an autofocus process.

  10. Comparing range data across the slow-time dimension to correct motion measurement errors beyond the range resolution of a synthetic aperture radar

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doerry, Armin W. (Albuquerque, NM); Heard, Freddie E. (Albuquerque, NM); Cordaro, J. Thomas (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-08-17

    Motion measurement errors that extend beyond the range resolution of a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) can be corrected by effectively decreasing the range resolution of the SAR in order to permit measurement of the error. Range profiles can be compared across the slow-time dimension of the input data in order to estimate the error. Once the error has been determined, appropriate frequency and phase correction can be applied to the uncompressed input data, after which range and azimuth compression can be performed to produce a desired SAR image.

  11. Sparse aperture endoscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fitch, Joseph P.

    1999-07-06

    An endoscope which reduces the volume needed by the imaging part thereof, maintains resolution of a wide diameter optical system, while increasing tool access, and allows stereographic or interferometric processing for depth and perspective information/visualization. Because the endoscope decreases the volume consumed by imaging optics such allows a larger fraction of the volume to be used for non-imaging tools, which allows smaller incisions in surgical and diagnostic medical applications thus produces less trauma to the patient or allows access to smaller volumes than is possible with larger instruments. The endoscope utilizes fiber optic light pipes in an outer layer for illumination, a multi-pupil imaging system in an inner annulus, and an access channel for other tools in the center. The endoscope is amenable to implementation as a flexible scope, and thus increases the utility thereof. Because the endoscope uses a multi-aperture pupil, it can also be utilized as an optical array, allowing stereographic and interferometric processing.

  12. Sparse aperture endoscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fitch, J.P.

    1999-07-06

    An endoscope is disclosed which reduces the volume needed by the imaging part, maintains resolution of a wide diameter optical system, while increasing tool access, and allows stereographic or interferometric processing for depth and perspective information/visualization. Because the endoscope decreases the volume consumed by imaging optics such allows a larger fraction of the volume to be used for non-imaging tools, which allows smaller incisions in surgical and diagnostic medical applications thus produces less trauma to the patient or allows access to smaller volumes than is possible with larger instruments. The endoscope utilizes fiber optic light pipes in an outer layer for illumination, a multi-pupil imaging system in an inner annulus, and an access channel for other tools in the center. The endoscope is amenable to implementation as a flexible scope, and thus increases it's utility. Because the endoscope uses a multi-aperture pupil, it can also be utilized as an optical array, allowing stereographic and interferometric processing. 7 figs.

  13. Use of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to Identify and Characterize Overwintering Areas of Fish in Ice-Covered Arctic RIvers: A Demonstration with Broad Whitefish and their Habitats in the Sagavanirktok River, Alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Richard S.; Duguay, Claude R.; Mueller, Robert P.; Moulton, Larry; Doucette, Peter J.; Tagestad, Jerry D.

    2010-12-01

    In northern climates, locating overwintering fish can be very challenging due to thick ice cover. Areas near the coast of the Beaufort Sea provide valuable overwintering habitat for both resident and anadromous fish species; identifying and understanding their use of overwintering areas is of special interest. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery from two spaceborne satellites was examined as an alternative to radiotelemetry for identifying anadromous fish overwintering. The presence of water and ice were sampled at 162 sites and fish were sampled at 16 of these sites. From SAR imagery alone, we successfully identified large pools inhabited by overwintering fish in the ice-covered Sagavanirktok River. In addition, the imagery was able to identify all of the larger pools (mean minimum length of 138m (range 15-470 m; SD=131)) of water located by field sampling. The effectiveness of SAR to identify these pools varied from 31% to 100%, depending on imagery polarization, the incidence angle range, and the orbit. Horizontal transmit–vertical receive (HV) polarization appeared best. The accuracy of SAR was also assessed at a finer pixel-by-pixel (30-m x30-m) scale. The best correspondence at this finer scale was obtained with an image having HV polarization. The levels of agreement ranged from 54% to 69%. The presence of broad whitefish (the only anadromous species present) was associated with salinity and pool size (estimated with SAR imagery); fish were more likely to be found in larger pools with low salinity. This research illustrates that SAR imaging has great potential for identifying under-ice overwintering areas of riverine fish. These techniques should allow managers to identify critical overwintering areas with relatively more ease and lower cost than traditional techniques.

  14. Application of a geocentrifuge and sterolithographically fabricated apertures to multiphase flow in complex fracture apertures.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glenn E. McCreery; Robert D. Stedtfeld; Alan T. Stadler; Daphne L. Stoner; Paul Meakin

    2005-09-01

    A geotechnical centrifuge was used to investigate unsaturated multiphase fluid flow in synthetic fracture apertures under a variety of flow conditions. The geocentrifuge subjected the fluids to centrifugal forces allowing the Bond number to be systematically changed without adjusting the fracture aperture of the fluids. The fracture models were based on the concept that surfaces generated by the fracture of brittle geomaterials have a self-affine fractal geometry. The synthetic fracture surfaces were fabricated from a transparent epoxy photopolymer using sterolithography, and fluid flow through the transparent fracture models was monitored by an optical image acquisition system. Aperture widths were chosen to be representative of the wide range of geological fractures in the vesicular basalt that lies beneath the Idaho Nation Laboratory (INL). Transitions between different flow regimes were observed as the acceleration was changed under constant flow conditions. The experiments showed the transition between straight and meandering rivulets in smooth walled apertures (aperture width = 0.508 mm), the dependence of the rivulet width on acceleration in rough walled fracture apertures (average aperture width = 0.25 mm), unstable meandering flow in rough walled apertures at high acceleration (20g) and the narrowing of the wetted region with increasing acceleration during the penetration of water into an aperture filled with wetted particles (0.875 mm diameter glass spheres).

  15. Variable-aperture screen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Savage, George M.

    1991-01-01

    Apparatus for separating material into first and second portions according to size including a plurality of shafts, a plurality of spaced disks radiating outwardly from each of the shafts to define apertures and linkage interconnecting the shafts for moving the shafts toward or away from one another to vary the size of the apertures while the apparatus is performing the separating function.

  16. Rotating Aperture System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rusnak, Brian; Hall, James M.; Shen, Stewart; Wood, Richard L.

    2005-01-18

    A rotating aperture system includes a low-pressure vacuum pumping stage with apertures for passage of a deuterium beam. A stator assembly includes holes for passage of the beam. The rotor assembly includes a shaft connected to a deuterium gas cell or a crossflow venturi that has a single aperture on each side that together align with holes every rotation. The rotating apertures are synchronized with the firing of the deuterium beam such that the beam fires through a clear aperture and passes into the Xe gas beam stop. Portions of the rotor are lapped into the stator to improve the sealing surfaces, to prevent rapid escape of the deuterium gas from the gas cell.

  17. Interferometric Lithography Patterned Pyrolytic Carbon. (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Interferometric Lithography Patterned Pyrolytic Carbon. Abstract not provided. Authors: Burckel, David Bruce ; Polsky, Ronen ; Washburn, Cody M. ; Wheeler, David Roger ; ...

  18. High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, Andrew J.; Prasciolu, Mauro; Andrejczuk, Andrzej; Krzywinski, Jacek; Meents, Alke; Pennicard, David; Graafsma, Heinz; Barty, Anton; Bean, Richard J.; Barthelmess, Miriam; Oberthuer, Dominik; Yefanov, Oleksandr; Aquila, Andrew; Chapman, Henry N.; Bajt, Saša

    2015-06-01

    The ever-increasing brightness of synchrotron radiation sources demands improved X-ray optics to utilise their capability for imaging and probing biological cells, nanodevices, and functional matter on the nanometer scale with chemical sensitivity. Here we demonstrate focusing a hard X-ray beam to an 8 nm focus using a volume zone plate (also referred to as a wedged multilayer Laue lens). This lens was constructed using a new deposition technique that enabled the independent control of the angle and thickness of diffracting layers to microradian and nanometer precision, respectively. This ensured that the Bragg condition is satisfied at each point along the lens, leading to a high numerical aperture that is limited only by its extent. We developed a phase-shifting interferometric method based on ptychography to characterise the lens focus. The precision of the fabrication and characterisation demonstrated here provides the path to efficient X-ray optics for imaging at 1 nm resolution.

  19. Variable-aperture screen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Savage, G.M.

    1991-10-29

    Apparatus is described for separating material into first and second portions according to size including a plurality of shafts, a plurality of spaced disks radiating outwardly from each of the shafts to define apertures and linkage interconnecting the shafts for moving the shafts toward or away from one another to vary the size of the apertures while the apparatus is performing the separating function. 10 figures.

  20. Interferometrically Defined 3D Pyrolyzed-Carbon Sensors. (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Interferometrically Defined 3D Pyrolyzed-Carbon Sensors. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Interferometrically Defined 3D Pyrolyzed-Carbon Sensors. Abstract ...

  1. Confocal coded aperture imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tobin, Jr., Kenneth William (Harriman, TN); Thomas, Jr., Clarence E. (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01

    A method for imaging a target volume comprises the steps of: radiating a small bandwidth of energy toward the target volume; focusing the small bandwidth of energy into a beam; moving the target volume through a plurality of positions within the focused beam; collecting a beam of energy scattered from the target volume with a non-diffractive confocal coded aperture; generating a shadow image of said aperture from every point source of radiation in the target volume; and, reconstructing the shadow image into a 3-dimensional image of the every point source by mathematically correlating the shadow image with a digital or analog version of the coded aperture. The method can comprise the step of collecting the beam of energy scattered from the target volume with a Fresnel zone plate.

  2. Apodizer aperture for lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jorna, Siebe; Siebert, Larry D.; Brueckner, Keith A.

    1976-11-09

    An aperture attenuator for use with high power lasers which includes glass windows shaped and assembled to form an annulus chamber which is filled with a dye solution. The annulus chamber is shaped such that the section in alignment with the axis of the incident beam follows a curve which is represented by the equation y = (r - r.sub.o).sup.n.

  3. Aperture center energy showcase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torres, J. J.

    2012-03-01

    Sandia and Forest City have established a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), and the partnership provides a unique opportunity to take technology research and development from demonstration to application in a sustainable community. A project under that CRADA, Aperture Center Energy Showcase, offers a means to develop exhibits and demonstrations that present feedback to community members, Sandia customers, and visitors. The technologies included in the showcase focus on renewable energy and its efficiency, and resilience. These technologies are generally scalable, and provide secure, efficient solutions to energy production, delivery, and usage. In addition to establishing an Energy Showcase, support offices and conference capabilities that facilitate research, collaboration, and demonstration were created. The Aperture Center project focuses on establishing a location that provides outreach, awareness, and demonstration of research findings, emerging technologies, and project developments to Sandia customers, visitors, and Mesa del Sol community members.

  4. Apparatus, systems, and methods for ultrasound synthetic aperature focusing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schuster, George J.; Crawford, Susan L.; Doctor, Steven R.; Harris, Robert V.

    2005-04-12

    One form of the present invention is a technique for interrogating a sample with ultrasound which includes: generating ultrasonic energy data corresponding to a volume of a sample and performing a synthetic aperture focusing technique on the ultrasonic energy data. The synthetic aperture focusing technique includes: defining a number of hyperbolic surfaces which extend through the volume at different depths and a corresponding number of multiple element accumulation vectors, performing a focused element calculation procedure for a group of vectors which are representative of the interior of a designated aperture, performing another focused element calculation procedure for vectors corresponding to the boundary of the aperture, and providing an image corresponding to features of the sample in accordance with the synthetic aperture focusing technique.

  5. High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Morgan, Andrew J.; Prasciolu, Mauro; Andrejczuk, Andrzej; Krzywinski, Jacek; Meents, Alke; Pennicard, David; Graafsma, Heinz; Barty, Anton; Bean, Richard J.; Barthelmess, Miriam; et al

    2015-06-01

    The ever-increasing brightness of synchrotron radiation sources demands improved X-ray optics to utilise their capability for imaging and probing biological cells, nanodevices, and functional matter on the nanometer scale with chemical sensitivity. Here we demonstrate focusing a hard X-ray beam to an 8 nm focus using a volume zone plate (also referred to as a wedged multilayer Laue lens). This lens was constructed using a new deposition technique that enabled the independent control of the angle and thickness of diffracting layers to microradian and nanometer precision, respectively. This ensured that the Bragg condition is satisfied at each point along themore » lens, leading to a high numerical aperture that is limited only by its extent. We developed a phase-shifting interferometric method based on ptychography to characterise the lens focus. The precision of the fabrication and characterisation demonstrated here provides the path to efficient X-ray optics for imaging at 1 nm resolution.« less

  6. Performance limits for maritime Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Close Cite: Bibtex Format Close 0 pages in this document matching the terms "" Search For Terms: Enter terms in the toolbar above to search the full text of this document for ...

  7. Three-dimensional subsurface imaging Synthetic Aperture Radar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wuenschel, E.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes the development of a system known as 3-D SISAR. This system consists of a ground penetrating radar with software algorithms designed for the detection, location, and identification of buried objects in the underground hazardous waste environments at DOE storage sites.

  8. Performance limits for maritime Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    While the information herein is not new to the literature, its collection into a single report hopes to offer some value in reducing the seek time'. Authors: Doerry, Armin Walter ...

  9. Interferometric Method of Measuring Parameters of Medium Oscillations. |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Interferometric Method of Measuring Parameters of Medium Oscillations. A new interferometric method of measuring parameters of an oscillating medium by measuring the phase shift of scattered waves. The new method allows extracting information about parameters of oscillation. This invention may require further development. The invention could be used for designing a new type of interferometric equipment for plasma physics experiments. No.: M-877 Inventor(s):

  10. Radar At Dixie Valley Geothermal Area (Foxall & Vasco, 2008)...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis This study was conducted to image ground subsidence over the Dixie Valley Geothermal Field Notes An interferometric synthetic aperture...

  11. Light-pulse atom interferometric device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Biedermann, Grant; McGuinness, Hayden James Evans; Rakholia, Akash; Jau, Yuan-Yu; Schwindt, Peter; Wheeler, David R.

    2016-03-22

    An atomic interferometric device useful, e.g., for measuring acceleration or rotation is provided. The device comprises at least one vapor cell containing a Raman-active chemical species, an optical system, and at least one detector. The optical system is conformed to implement a Raman pulse interferometer in which Raman transitions are stimulated in a warm vapor of the Raman-active chemical species. The detector is conformed to detect changes in the populations of different internal states of atoms that have been irradiated by the optical system.

  12. BINARY STAR ORBITS. IV. ORBITS OF 18 SOUTHERN INTERFEROMETRIC PAIRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, Brian D.; Hartkopf, William I.; Tokovinin, Andrei E-mail: wih@usno.navy.mi

    2010-09-15

    First orbits are presented for 3 interferometric pairs and revised solutions for 15 others, based in part on first results from a recently initiated program of speckle interferometric observations of neglected southern binaries. Eight of these systems contain additional components, with multiplicity ranging up to 6.

  13. Mosaic of coded aperture arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fenimore, Edward E.; Cannon, Thomas M.

    1980-01-01

    The present invention pertains to a mosaic of coded aperture arrays which is capable of imaging off-axis sources with minimum detector size. Mosaics of the basic array pattern create a circular on periodic correlation of the object on a section of the picture plane. This section consists of elements of the central basic pattern as well as elements from neighboring patterns and is a cyclic version of the basic pattern. Since all object points contribute a complete cyclic version of the basic pattern, a section of the picture, which is the size of the basic aperture pattern, contains all the information necessary to image the object with no artifacts.

  14. Sandia National Laboratories: Pathfinder Airborne ISR and Synthetic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aperture Radar (SAR) Systems Pathfinder Airborne ISR Systems What is SAR? Areas of Expertise Images VideoSAR Publications Facebook Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Pathfinder Airborne ISR Systems Pathfinder Airborne ISR and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Systems Tactical Eyes for the Warfighter Tactical Eyes for the Warfighter Actionable Intelligence for the Decision Maker Actionable Intelligence for the Decision Maker All Weather, Persistent, Optical Like All Weather, Persistent, Optical Like

  15. Large aperture diffractive space telescope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hyde, Roderick A.

    2001-01-01

    A large (10's of meters) aperture space telescope including two separate spacecraft--an optical primary objective lens functioning as a magnifying glass and an optical secondary functioning as an eyepiece. The spacecraft are spaced up to several kilometers apart with the eyepiece directly behind the magnifying glass "aiming" at an intended target with their relative orientation determining the optical axis of the telescope and hence the targets being observed. The objective lens includes a very large-aperture, very-thin-membrane, diffractive lens, e.g., a Fresnel lens, which intercepts incoming light over its full aperture and focuses it towards the eyepiece. The eyepiece has a much smaller, meter-scale aperture and is designed to move along the focal surface of the objective lens, gathering up the incoming light and converting it to high quality images. The positions of the two space craft are controlled both to maintain a good optical focus and to point at desired targets which may be either earth bound or celestial.

  16. Synthetic fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    In January 1982, the Department of Energy guaranteed a loan for the construction and startup of the Great Plains project. On August 1, 1985, the partnership defaulted on the $1.54 billion loan, and DOE acquired control of, and then title to, the project. DOE continued to operate the plant, through the ANG Coal Gasification Company, and sell synthetic fuel. The DOE's ownership and divestiture of the plant is discussed.

  17. Tangential velocity measurement using interferometric MTI radar

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doerry, Armin W.; Mileshosky, Brian P.; Bickel, Douglas L.

    2006-01-03

    Radar systems use time delay measurements between a transmitted signal and its echo to calculate range to a target. Ranges that change with time cause a Doppler offset in phase and frequency of the echo. Consequently, the closing velocity between target and radar can be measured by measuring the Doppler offset of the echo. The closing velocity is also known as radial velocity, or line-of-sight velocity. Doppler frequency is measured in a pulse-Doppler radar as a linear phase shift over a set of radar pulses during some Coherent Processing Interval (CPI). An Interferometric Moving Target Indicator (MTI) radar can be used to measure the tangential velocity component of a moving target. Multiple baselines, along with the conventional radial velocity measurement, allow estimating the true 3-D velocity of a target.

  18. the Large Aperture GRB Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertou, Xavier

    2009-04-30

    The Large Aperture GRB Observatory (LAGO) aims at the detection of high energy photons from Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB) using the single particle technique (SPT) in ground based water Cherenkov detectors (WCD). To reach a reasonable sensitivity, high altitude mountain sites have been selected in Mexico (Sierra Negra, 4550 m a.s.l.), Bolivia (Chacaltaya, 5300 m a.s.l.) and Venezuela (Merida, 4765 m a.s.l.). We report on the project progresses and the first operation at high altitude, search for bursts in 6 months of preliminary data, as well as search for signal at ground level when satellites report a burst.

  19. Ion mobility spectrometer with virtual aperture grid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Kent B. (Los Lunas, NM); Rumpf, Arthur N. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-11-23

    An ion mobility spectrometer does not require a physical aperture grid to prevent premature ion detector response. The last electrodes adjacent to the ion collector (typically the last four or five) have an electrode pitch that is less than the width of the ion swarm and each of the adjacent electrodes is connected to a source of free charge, thereby providing a virtual aperture grid at the end of the drift region that shields the ion collector from the mirror current of the approaching ion swarm. The virtual aperture grid is less complex in assembly and function and is less sensitive to vibrations than the physical aperture grid.

  20. Final Report - Improved Large Aperture Collector Manufacturing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Final Report - Improved Large Aperture Collector Manufacturing Awardee: Abengoa Solar Location: Lakewood, CO Subprogram: Concentrating Solar Power, Technology to Market Funding ...

  1. Measurement of Pancharatnam's phase by robust interferometric and polarimetric methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loredo, J. C.; Ortiz, O.; De Zela, F.; Weingaertner, R.

    2009-07-15

    We report on theoretical calculations and experimental observations of Pancharatnam's phase originating from arbitrary SU(2) transformations applied to polarization states of light. We have implemented polarimetric and interferometric methods, which allow us to cover the full Poincare sphere. As a distinctive feature, our interferometric array is robust against mechanical and thermal disturbances, showing that the polarimetric method is not inherently superior over the interferometric one, as previously assumed. Our strategy effectively amounts to feeding an interferometer with two copropagating beams that are orthogonally polarized with respect to each other. It can be applied to different types of standard arrays, such as a Michelson, a Sagnac, or a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. We exhibit the versatility of our arrangement by performing measurements of Pancharatnam's phases and fringe visibilities that closely fit the theoretical predictions. Our approach can be easily extended to deal with mixed states and to study decoherence effects.

  2. Variable aperture collimator for high energy radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, Ronald A.

    1984-05-22

    An apparatus is disclosed providing a variable aperture energy beam collimator. A plurality of beam opaque blocks are in sliding interface edge contact to form a variable aperture. The blocks may be offset at the apex angle to provide a non-equilateral aperture. A plurality of collimator block assemblies may be employed for providing a channel defining a collimated beam. Adjacent assemblies are inverted front-to-back with respect to one another for preventing noncollimated energy from emerging from the apparatus. An adjustment mechanism comprises a cable attached to at least one block and a hand wheel mechanism for operating the cable. The blocks are supported by guide rods engaging slide brackets on the blocks. The guide rods are pivotally connected at each end to intermediate actuators supported on rotatable shafts to change the shape of the aperture. A divergent collimated beam may be obtained by adjusting the apertures of adjacent stages to be unequal.

  3. Shock wave absorber having apertured plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shin, Yong W.; Wiedermann, Arne H.; Ockert, Carl E.

    1985-01-01

    The shock or energy absorber disclosed herein utilizes an apertured plate maintained under the normal level of liquid flowing in a piping system and disposed between the normal liquid flow path and a cavity pressurized with a compressible gas. The degree of openness (or porosity) of the plate is between 0.01 and 0.60. The energy level of a shock wave travelling down the piping system thus is dissipated by some of the liquid being jetted through the apertured plate toward the cavity. The cavity is large compared to the quantity of liquid jetted through the apertured plate, so there is little change in its volume. The porosity of the apertured plate influences the percentage of energy absorbed.

  4. Shock wave absorber having apertured plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shin, Y.W.; Wiedermann, A.H.; Ockert, C.E.

    1983-08-26

    The shock or energy absorber disclosed herein utilizes an apertured plate maintained under the normal level of liquid flowing in a piping system and disposed between the normal liquid flow path and a cavity pressurized with a compressible gas. The degree of openness (or porosity) of the plate is between 0.01 and 0.60. The energy level of a shock wave travelling down the piping system thus is dissipated by some of the liquid being jetted through the apertured plate toward the cavity. The cavity is large compared to the quantity of liquid jetted through the apertured plate, so there is little change in its volume. The porosity of the apertured plate influences the percentage of energy absorbed.

  5. Synthetic and Mechanistic Chemistry publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synthetic and Mechanistic Chemistry Synthetic and Mechanistic Synthetic and Mechanistic ... Get Expertise Dave Thorn Chemistry Program Manager Email Josh Smith Chemistry ...

  6. Synthetic and Mechanistic Chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synthetic and Mechanistic Chemistry Synthetic and Mechanistic Chemistry Synthetic and mechanistic chemical sciences play an important role in Lab missions dedicated to energy security, emerging challenges, global security, and core weapons missions. Get Expertise Dave Thorn Chemistry Program Manager Email Josh Smith Chemistry Communications Email "Research into alternative forms of energy, of which biofuels is a key component, is one of the major national security imperatives of this

  7. Project Profile: Improved Large Aperture Collector Manufacturing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Abengoa Solar, under the Solar Manufacturing Technology (SolarMat) program, will be investigating the use of an automotive-style high-rate fabrication and automated assembly techniques to achieve a substantial reduction in the deployment cost of their new SpaceTube advanced large aperture parabolic trough collector.

  8. DETECTION OF FAST TRANSIENTS WITH RADIO INTERFEROMETRIC ARRAYS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhat, N. D. R.; Chengalur, J. N.; Gupta, Y.; Prasad, J.; Roy, J.; Kudale, S. S.; Cox, P. J.; Bailes, M.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Van Straten, W.

    2013-05-01

    Next-generation radio arrays, including the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) and its pathfinders, will open up new avenues for exciting transient science at radio wavelengths. Their innovative designs, comprising a large number of small elements, pose several challenges in digital processing and optimal observing strategies. The Giant Metre-wave Radio Telescope (GMRT) presents an excellent test-bed for developing and validating suitable observing modes and strategies for transient experiments with future arrays. Here we describe the first phase of the ongoing development of a transient detection system for GMRT that is planned to eventually function in a commensal mode with other observing programs. It capitalizes on the GMRT's interferometric and sub-array capabilities, and the versatility of a new software backend. We outline considerations in the plan and design of transient exploration programs with interferometric arrays, and describe a pilot survey that was undertaken to aid in the development of algorithms and associated analysis software. This survey was conducted at 325 and 610 MHz, and covered 360 deg{sup 2} of the sky with short dwell times. It provides large volumes of real data that can be used to test the efficacies of various algorithms and observing strategies applicable for transient detection. We present examples that illustrate the methodologies of detecting short-duration transients, including the use of sub-arrays for higher resilience to spurious events of terrestrial origin, localization of candidate events via imaging, and the use of a phased array for improved signal detection and confirmation. In addition to demonstrating applications of interferometric arrays for fast transient exploration, our efforts mark important steps in the roadmap toward SKA-era science.

  9. Interferometric millimeter wave and THz wave doppler radar

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liao, Shaolin; Gopalsami, Nachappa; Bakhtiari, Sasan; Raptis, Apostolos C.; Elmer, Thomas

    2015-08-11

    A mixerless high frequency interferometric Doppler radar system and methods has been invented, numerically validated and experimentally tested. A continuous wave source, phase modulator (e.g., a continuously oscillating reference mirror) and intensity detector are utilized. The intensity detector measures the intensity of the combined reflected Doppler signal and the modulated reference beam. Rigorous mathematics formulas have been developed to extract bot amplitude and phase from the measured intensity signal. Software in Matlab has been developed and used to extract such amplitude and phase information from the experimental data. Both amplitude and phase are calculated and the Doppler frequency signature of the object is determined.

  10. Dual aperture dipole magnet with second harmonic component

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Praeg, W.F.

    1983-08-31

    An improved dual aperture dipole electromagnet includes a second-harmonic frequency magnetic guide field winding which surrounds first harmonic frequency magnetic guide field windings associated with each aperture. The second harmonic winding and the first harmonic windings cooperate to produce resultant magnetic waveforms in the apertures which have extended acceleration and shortened reset portions of electromagnet operation.

  11. Dual aperture dipole magnet with second harmonic component

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Praeg, Walter F.

    1985-01-01

    An improved dual aperture dipole electromagnet includes a second-harmonic frequency magnetic guide field winding which surrounds first harmonic frequency magnetic guide field windings associated with each aperture. The second harmonic winding and the first harmonic windings cooperate to produce resultant magnetic waveforms in the apertures which have extended acceleration and shortened reset portions of electromagnet operation.

  12. Vacuum aperture isolator for retroreflection from laser-irradiated target

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benjamin, Robert F.; Mitchell, Kenneth B.

    1980-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to a vacuum aperture isolator for retroreflection of a laser-irradiated target. Within a vacuum chamber are disposed a beam focusing element, a disc having an aperture and a recollimating element. The edge of the focused beam impinges on the edge of the aperture to produce a plasma which refracts any retroreflected light from the laser's target.

  13. Compact high precision adjustable beam defining aperture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morton, Simon A; Dickert, Jeffrey

    2013-07-02

    The present invention provides an adjustable aperture for limiting the dimension of a beam of energy. In an exemplary embodiment, the aperture includes (1) at least one piezoelectric bender, where a fixed end of the bender is attached to a common support structure via a first attachment and where a movable end of the bender is movable in response to an actuating voltage applied to the bender and (2) at least one blade attached to the movable end of the bender via a second attachment such that the blade is capable of impinging upon the beam. In an exemplary embodiment, the beam of energy is electromagnetic radiation. In an exemplary embodiment, the beam of energy is X-rays.

  14. Synthetic and Mechanistic Chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Mechanistic Chemistry Security at center of chemical and mechanistic chemistry research at Lab Project Description Los Alamos scientists are using synthetic and mechanistic chemistry to address energy security and other emerging challenges, including global security and core weapons missions. Synthetic chemistry includes work in ligands for catalysts, fission-products separations for isotope delivery, and labeled substrates for reaction mechanisms. Other research addresses materials

  15. Automatic position calculating imaging radar with low-cost synthetic aperture sensor for imaging layered media

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mast, Jeffrey E. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-01-01

    An imaging system for analyzing structures comprises a radar transmitter and receiver connected to a timing mechanism that allows a radar echo sample to be taken at a variety of delay times for each radar pulse transmission. The radar transmitter and receiver are coupled to a position determining system that provides the x,y position on a surface for each group of samples measured for a volume from the surface. The radar transmitter and receiver are moved about the surface to collect such groups of measurements from a variety of x,y positions. Return signal amplitudes represent the relative reflectivity of objects within the volume and the delay in receiving each signal echo represents the depth at which the object lays in the volume and the propagation speeds of the intervening material layers. Successively deeper z-planes are backward propagated from one layer to the next with an adjustment for variations in the expected propagation velocities of the material layers that lie between adjacent z-planes.

  16. Automatic position calculating imaging radar with low-cost synthetic aperture sensor for imaging layered media

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mast, J.E.

    1998-08-18

    An imaging system for analyzing structures comprises a radar transmitter and receiver connected to a timing mechanism that allows a radar echo sample to be taken at a variety of delay times for each radar pulse transmission. The radar transmitter and receiver are coupled to a position determining system that provides the x,y position on a surface for each group of samples measured for a volume from the surface. The radar transmitter and receiver are moved about the surface to collect such groups of measurements from a variety of x,y positions. Return signal amplitudes represent the relative reflectivity of objects within the volume and the delay in receiving each signal echo represents the depth at which the object lays in the volume and the propagation speeds of the intervening material layers. Successively deeper z-planes are backward propagated from one layer to the next with an adjustment for variations in the expected propagation velocities of the material layers that lie between adjacent z-planes. 10 figs.

  17. Dual-sided coded-aperture imager

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ziock, Klaus-Peter

    2009-09-22

    In a vehicle, a single detector plane simultaneously measures radiation coming through two coded-aperture masks, one on either side of the detector. To determine which side of the vehicle a source is, the two shadow masks are inverses of each other, i.e., one is a mask and the other is the anti-mask. All of the data that is collected is processed through two versions of an image reconstruction algorithm. One treats the data as if it were obtained through the mask, the other as though the data is obtained through the anti-mask.

  18. Synthetic guide star generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, Stephen A.; Page, Ralph H.; Ebbers, Christopher A.; Beach, Raymond J.

    2004-03-09

    A system for assisting in observing a celestial object and providing synthetic guide star generation. A lasing system provides radiation at a frequency at or near 938 nm and radiation at a frequency at or near 1583 nm. The lasing system includes a fiber laser operating between 880 nm and 960 nm and a fiber laser operating between 1524 nm and 1650 nm. A frequency-conversion system mixes the radiation and generates light at a frequency at or near 589 nm. A system directs the light at a frequency at or near 589 nm toward the celestial object and provides synthetic guide star generation.

  19. Synthetic guide star generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Payne, Stephen A; Page, Ralph H; Ebbers, Christopher A; Beach, Raymond J

    2008-06-10

    A system for assisting in observing a celestial object and providing synthetic guide star generation. A lasing system provides radiation at a frequency at or near 938 nm and radiation at a frequency at or near 1583 nm. The lasing system includes a fiber laser operating between 880 nm and 960 nm and a fiber laser operating between 1524 nm and 1650 nm. A frequency-conversion system mixes the radiation and generates light at a frequency at or near 589 nm. A system directs the light at a frequency at or near 589 nm toward the celestial object and provides synthetic guide star generation.

  20. Finding Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas Using A

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Three-Component Long-Offset Surface Seismic Survey, PSInSAR, and Kinematic Analysis | Department of Energy Finding Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas Using A Three-Component Long-Offset Surface Seismic Survey, PSInSAR, and Kinematic Analysis Finding Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas Using A Three-Component Long-Offset Surface Seismic Survey, PSInSAR, and Kinematic Analysis Fining Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas Using A

  1. Nonlinear Fields and Dynamic Aperture near Low-Order Resonances...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Research (ER) (US) Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 43 PARTICLE ACCELERATORS; APERTURES; DAMPING; STORAGE RINGS; RESONANCE; CALCULATION METHODS; ...

  2. Functionalized apertures for the detection of chemical and biological materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Letant, Sonia E.; van Buuren, Anthony W.; Terminello, Louis J.; Thelen, Michael P.; Hope-Weeks, Louisa J.; Hart, Bradley R.

    2010-12-14

    Disclosed are nanometer to micron scale functionalized apertures constructed on a substrate made of glass, carbon, semiconductors or polymeric materials that allow for the real time detection of biological materials or chemical moieties. Many apertures can exist on one substrate allowing for the simultaneous detection of numerous chemical and biological molecules. One embodiment features a macrocyclic ring attached to cross-linkers, wherein the macrocyclic ring has a biological or chemical probe extending through the aperture. Another embodiment achieves functionalization by attaching chemical or biological anchors directly to the walls of the apertures via cross-linkers.

  3. Finding Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ...-Offset Surface Seismic Survey, PSInSAR, and Kinematic Analysis Finding Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas Using A Three-Component Long-Offset Surface Seismic ...

  4. Finding Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Aperture Fractures (LAF's) * Budget: 679,000 - Phase 2: Drilling - January-December, 2011. * Task 4: Stepout drilling from existing production wells. * Milestone: Intersect and ...

  5. Finding Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project summary: Drilling into large aperture open fractures (LAFs) typically yield production wells with high productivity and ...

  6. Biodegradable synthetic bone composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Gao; Zhao, Dacheng; Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2013-01-01

    The invention provides for a biodegradable synthetic bone composition comprising a biodegradable hydrogel polymer scaffold comprising a plurality of hydrolytically unstable linkages, and an inorganic component; such as a biodegradable poly(hydroxyethylmethacrylate)/hydroxyapatite (pHEMA/HA) hydrogel composite possessing mineral content approximately that of human bone.

  7. Very high numerical aperture light transmitting device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allison, Stephen W.; Boatner, Lynn A.; Sales, Brian C.

    1998-01-01

    A new light-transmitting device using a SCIN glass core and a novel calcium sodium cladding has been developed. The very high index of refraction, radiation hardness, similar solubility for rare earths and similar melt and viscosity characteristics of core and cladding materials makes them attractive for several applications such as high-numerical-aperture optical fibers and specialty lenses. Optical fibers up to 60 m in length have been drawn, and several simple lenses have been designed, ground, and polished. Preliminary results on the ability to directly cast optical components of lead-indium phosphate glass are also discussed as well as the suitability of these glasses as a host medium for rare-earth ion lasers and amplifiers.

  8. System for interferometric distortion measurements that define an optical path

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bokor, Jeffrey; Naulleau, Patrick

    2003-05-06

    An improved phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer can measure both distortion and wavefront aberration. In the preferred embodiment, the interferometer employs an object-plane pinhole array comprising a plurality of object pinholes located between the test optic and the source of electromagnetic radiation and an image-plane mask array that is positioned in the image plane of the test optic. The image-plane mask array comprises a plurality of test windows and corresponding reference pinholes, wherein the positions of the plurality of pinholes in the object-plane pinhole array register with those of the plurality of test windows in image-plane mask array. Electromagnetic radiation that is directed into a first pinhole of object-plane pinhole array thereby creating a first corresponding test beam image on the image-plane mask array. Where distortion is relatively small, it can be directly measured interferometrically by measuring the separation distance between and the orientation of the test beam and reference-beam pinhole and repeating this process for at least one other pinhole of the plurality of pinholes of the object-plane pinhole array. Where the distortion is relative large, it can be measured by using interferometry to direct the stage motion, of a stage supporting the image-plane mask array, and then use the final stage motion as a measure of the distortion.

  9. Microfabricated high-bandpass foucault aperture for electron microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glaeser, Robert; Cambie, Rossana; Jin, Jian

    2014-08-26

    A variant of the Foucault (knife-edge) aperture is disclosed that is designed to provide single-sideband (SSB) contrast at low spatial frequencies but retain conventional double-sideband (DSB) contrast at high spatial frequencies in transmission electron microscopy. The aperture includes a plate with an inner open area, a support extending from the plate at an edge of the open area, a half-circle feature mounted on the support and located at the center of the aperture open area. The radius of the half-circle portion of reciprocal space that is blocked by the aperture can be varied to suit the needs of electron microscopy investigation. The aperture is fabricated from conductive material which is preferably non-oxidizing, such as gold, for example.

  10. 3?m aperture probes for near-field terahertz transmission microscopy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    3?m aperture probes for near-field terahertz transmission microscopy. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: 3?m aperture probes for near-field terahertz transmission ...

  11. The LASS (Larger Aperture Superconducting Solenoid) spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aston, D.; Awaji, N.; Barnett, B.; Bienz, T.; Bierce, R.; Bird, F.; Bird, L.; Blockus, D.; Carnegie, R.K.; Chien, C.Y.

    1986-04-01

    LASS is the acronym for the Large Aperture Superconducting Solenoid spectrometer which is located in an rf-separated hadron beam at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. This spectrometer was constructed in order to perform high statistics studies of multiparticle final states produced in hadron reactions. Such reactions are frequently characterized by events having complicated topologies and/or relatively high particle multiplicity. Their detailed study requires a spectrometer which can provide good resolution in momentum and position over almost the entire solid angle subtended by the production point. In addition, good final state particle identification must be available so that separation of the many kinematically-overlapping final states can be achieved. Precise analyses of the individual reaction channels require high statistics, so that the spectrometer must be capable of high data-taking rates in order that such samples can be acquired in a reasonable running time. Finally, the spectrometer must be complemented by a sophisticated off-line analysis package which efficiently finds tracks, recognizes and fits event topologies and correctly associates the available particle identification information. This, together with complicated programs which perform specific analysis tasks such as partial wave analysis, requires a great deal of software effort allied to a very large computing capacity. This paper describes the construction and performance of the LASS spectrometer, which is an attempt to realize the features just discussed. The configuration of the spectrometer corresponds to the data-taking on K and K interactions in hydrogen at 11 GeV/c which took place in 1981 and 1982. This constitutes a major upgrade of the configuration used to acquire lower statistics data on 11 GeV/c K p interactions during 1977 and 1978, which is also described briefly.

  12. Time-resolved quantitative multiphase interferometric imaging of a highly focused ultrasound pulse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Souris, Fabien; Grucker, Jules; Dupont-Roc, Jacques; Jacquier, Philippe; Arvengas, Arnaud; Caupin, Frederic

    2010-11-01

    Interferometric imaging is a well-established method to image phase objects by mixing the image wavefront with a reference one on a CCD camera. It has also been applied to fast transient phenomena, mostly through the analysis of single interferograms. It is shown that, for repetitive phenomena, multiphase acquisition brings significant advantages. A 1MHz focused sound field emitted by a hemispherical piezotransducer in water is imaged as an example. Quantitative image analysis provides high resolution sound field profiles. Pressure at focus determined by this method agrees with measurements from a fiber-optic probe hydrophone. This confirms that multiphase interferometric imaging can indeed provide quantitative measurements.

  13. Finding Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Long-Offset Surface Seismic Survey, PSInSAR, and Kinematic Analysis Finding Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas Using A Three-Component Long-Offset Surface ...

  14. Synthetic and Mechanistic Chemistry publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synthetic and Mechanistic Chemistry » Synthetic and Mechanistic Synthetic and Mechanistic publications Research into alternative forms of energy, especially energy security, is one of the major national security imperatives of this century. Get Expertise Dave Thorn Chemistry Program Manager Email Josh Smith Chemistry Communications Email "Research into alternative forms of energy, of which biofuels is a key component, is one of the major national security imperatives of this century.

  15. Receiver for solar energy collector having improved aperture aspect

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McIntire, William R.

    1984-01-01

    A secondary concentrator for use in receiver systems for linear focusing primary concentrators is provided with reflector wings at each end. The wings increase the capture of light rays reflected from areas adjacent the rim of a primary concentrator, increasing the apparent aperture size of the absorber as viewed from the rim of the primary concentrator. The length, tilt, and curvature of the wing reflectors can be adjusted to provide an absorber having a desired aperture aspect.

  16. Apodised aperture using rotation of plane of polarization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simmons, W.W.; Leppelmeier, G.W.; Johnson, B.C.

    1975-09-01

    An apodised aperture based on the rotation of plane of polarization producing desirable characteristics on a transmitted light beam such as beam profiling in high flux laser amplifier chains is described. The apodised aperture is made with a lossless element by using one or more polarizers and/or analyzers and magneto-optical Faraday means for selectively rotating the plane of polarized radiation over the cross section to effect the desired apodisation. (auth)

  17. Wide aperture seismic recording in offshore west Sicily and Bolivia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tilander, N.G.; Lattimore, R.K.

    1994-12-31

    Seismic operations using the Wide Aperture Recording (WAR) technique were carried out in offshore west Sicily (16.5 km offsets) and in the Sub-Andean Cordillera of Bolivia (9.0 km offsets) where conventional offset data have traditionally proved inadequate for imaging complex subsurface structures. In both cases, noise-free wide aperture events were visible at long offsets, and were successfully stacked using both hyperbolic and linear moveout. In the Sicily datasets, the resulting seismic images disagree with earlier structural interpretations, but the lack of reliable ``calibration`` data in terms of well control or usable conventional seismic data make final evaluation and interpretation of the Sicily wide aperture data ambiguous. In Bolivia good quality seismic data are present across a portion of the WAR survey; the results show that the wide aperture technique may produce a valid structural image, provided the subsurface geometries are sufficiently broad and shallow. For tight structures, the technique is unlikely to produce valid images. In general, the authors` studies show that considerable effort is required at the data processing and interpretation stage, including full waveform and ray-trace modeling, in order to identify event arrivals and to attempt to validate the wide aperture structural images. Reliable calibration data in the form of well control or conventional seismic data are needed in order to provide an understanding of the WAR results.

  18. Computational study of ion beam extraction phenomena through multiple apertures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Wanpeng; Sang, Chaofeng; Tang, Tengfei; Wang, Dezhen, E-mail: wangdez@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion, and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion, and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Li, Ming; Jin, Dazhi; Tan, Xiaohua [Institute of Electronic Engineering, Mianyang, 621900 (China)] [Institute of Electronic Engineering, Mianyang, 621900 (China)

    2014-03-15

    The process of ion extraction through multiple apertures is investigated using a two-dimensional particle-in-cell code. We consider apertures with a fixed diameter with a hydrogen plasma background, and the trajectories of electrons, H{sup +} and H{sub 2}{sup +} ions in the self-consistently calculated electric field are traced. The focus of this work is the fundamental physics of the ion extraction, and not particular to a specific device. The computed convergence and divergence of the extracted ion beam are analyzed. We find that the extracted ion flux reaching the extraction electrode is non-uniform, and the peak flux positions change according to operational parameters, and do not necessarily match the positions of the apertures in the y-direction. The profile of the ion flux reaching the electrode is mainly affected by the bias voltage and the distance between grid wall and extraction electrode.

  19. Finding Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas Using A

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Three-Component Long-Offset Surface Seismic Survey, PSInSAR, and Kinematic Analysis | Department of Energy A Three-Component Long-Offset Surface Seismic Survey, PSInSAR, and Kinematic Analysis Finding Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas Using A Three-Component Long-Offset Surface Seismic Survey, PSInSAR, and Kinematic Analysis Fining Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas Using A Three-Component Long-Offset Surface Seismic Survey, PSInSAR, and Kinematic

  20. SYNTHETIC SLING FAILURE - EVALUATIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MACKEY TC; HENDERSON CS

    2009-10-26

    The information and evaluations provided in this report were compiled to address the recurring problem of synthetic sling failure. As safety is the number one priority in all work aspects, a solution must be devised to prevent accidents from occurring. A total of thirteen cases regarding synthetic sling failure were evaluated in order to determine their causes, effects, and preventative measures. From the collected data, it was found that all cases in which the synthetic sling contacted the edge of its load resulted in sling failure. It is required that adequate synthetic sling protection devices be used to protect slings in any lift where the sling comes in direct contact with the edge or corner of its load. However, there are no consensus codes or standards stating the type, material, or purpose of the type of protective device used to protect the sling from being cut. Numerous industry standards and codes provide vague descriptions on how to protect synthetic slings. Without a clear, concise statement of how to protect synthetic slings, it is common for inadequate materials and sling protection devices to be used in an attempt to meet the intent of these requirements. The use of an inadequate sling protection device is the main cause of synthetic sling failure in all researched cases. Commercial sling protection devices come in many shapes and sizes, and have a variety of names, as well as advertised uses. 'Abrasion pads' and 'wear protectors' are two different names for products with the same intended purpose. There is no distinguishable way to determine the extent of sling protection which these devices will provide, or what specific scenarios they are made for. This creates room for error in a field where error is unacceptable. This report provides a recommended action for hoisting and rigging activities which require synthetic slings to contact a load, as well as recommended changes to industry standards which will benefit overall industry safety.

  1. Optimization of the Dynamic Aperture for SPEAR3 Low-Emittance...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 43 PARTICLE ACCELERATORS; ACCELERATORS; ALGORITHMS; APERTURES; BEAM INJECTION; BETATRONS; CONFIGURATION; DAMPING; EFFICIENCY; GENETICS; LIFETIME; MAGNETS; OPTICS; ...

  2. Synthetic substrates for enzyme analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bissell, E.R.; Mitchell, A.R.; Pearson, K.W.; Smith, R.E.

    1983-06-14

    Synthetic substrates are provided which may be represented as A-D. The A moiety includes an amino acid, polypeptide, or derivative. The D moiety includes 7-amino coumarin derivatives having an electron withdrawing substituent group at the 3 position carbon or fused between the 3 and 4 position carbons. No Drawings

  3. Synthetic substrates for enzyme analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bissell, Eugene R.; Mitchell, Alexander R.; Pearson, Karen W.; Smith, Robert E.

    1983-01-01

    Synthetic substrates are provided which may be represented as A-D. The A moiety thereof includes an amino acid, polypeptide, or derivative thereof. The D moiety thereof includes 7-amino coumarin derivatives having an electron withdrawing substituent group at the 3 position carbon or fused between the 3 and 4 position carbons.

  4. Penning discharge ion source with self-cleaning aperture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gavin, B.F.; MacGill, R.A.; Thatcher, R.K.

    1980-11-10

    An ion source of the Penning discharge type having a self-cleaning aperture is provided by a second dynode with an exit aperture in a position opposite a first dynode, from which the ions are sputtered, two opposing cathodes, each with an anode for accelerating electrons emitted from the cathodes into a cylindrical space defined by the first and second dynode. A support gas maintained in this space is ionized by the electrons. While the cathodes are supplied with a negative pulse to emit electrons, the first dynode is supplied with a negative pulse (e.g., -300 V) to attract atoms of the ionized gas (plasma). At the same time, the second dynode may also be supplied with a small voltage that is negative with respect to the plasma (e.g., -5 V) for tuning the position of the plasma miniscus for optimum extraction geometry. When the negative pulse to the first dynode is terminated, the second dynode is driven strongly negative (e.g., -600 V) thereby allowing heavy sputtering to take place for a short period to remove virtually all of the atoms deposited on the second dynode from material sputtered off the first dynode. An extractor immediately outside the exit aperture of the second dynode is maintained at ground potential while the anode, dynode, and cathode reference voltage is driven strongly positive (about +20 kV to +30 kV) so that ions accelerated through the aperture will be at ground potential. Material from the first dynode deposited on the second dynode will be sputtered, in time, to add to the ion beam.

  5. Penning discharge ion source with self-cleaning aperture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gavin, Basil F.; MacGill, Robert A.; Thatcher, Raymond K.

    1982-01-01

    An ion source of the Penning discharge type having a self-cleaning aperture is provided by a second dynode (24) with an exit aperture (12) in a position opposite a first dynode 10a, from which the ions are sputtered, two opposing cathodes (14, 16), each with an anode (18, 20) for accelerating electrons emitted from the cathodes into a cylindrical space defined by the first and second dynode. A support gas maintained in this space is ionized by the electrons. While the cathodes are supplied with a negative pulse to emit electrons, the first dynode is supplied with a negative pulse (e.g., -300 V) to attract atoms of the ionized gas (plasma). At the same time, the second dynode may also be supplied with a small voltage that is negative with respect to the plasma (e.g., -5 V) for tuning the position of the plasma miniscus for optimum extraction geometry. When the negative pulse to the first dynode is terminated, the second dynode is driven strongly negative (e.g., -600 V) thereby allowing heavy sputtering to take place for a short period to remove virtually all of the atoms deposited on the second dynode from material sputtered off the first dynode. An extractor (22) immediately outside the exit aperture of the second dynode is maintained at ground potential during this entire period of sputtering while the anode, dynode and cathode reference voltage is driven strongly positive (about +20 kV to +30 kV) so that ions accelerated through the aperture will be at ground potential. In that manner, material from the first dynode deposited on the second dynode will be sputtered, in time, to add to the ion beam. Atoms sputtered from the second dynode which do not become ionized and exit through the slit will be redeposited on the first dynode, and hence recycled for further ion beam generation during subsequent operating cycles.

  6. Dynamic aperture evaluation for the RHIC 2009 polarized proton runs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo,Y.; Tepikain, S.; Bai, M.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Fischer, W.; Montag, c.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Satogata, T.; Trbojevic, D.

    2009-05-04

    In this article we numerically evaluate the dynamic apertures of the proposed lattices for the coming Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) 2009 polarized proton (pp) 100 GeV and 250 GeV runs. One goal of this study is to find out the appropriate {beta}* for the coming 2009 pp runs. Another goal is to check the effect of second order chromaticity correction in the RHIC pp runs.

  7. Limits to Clutter Cancellation in Multi-Aperture GMTI Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doerry, Armin W.; Bickel, Douglas L.

    2015-03-01

    Multi-aperture or multi-subaperture antennas are fundamental to Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) radar systems in order to detect slow-moving targets with Doppler characteristics similar to clutter. Herein we examine the performance of several subaperture architectures for their clutter cancelling performance. Significantly, more antenna phase centers isn’t always better, and in fact is sometimes worse, for detecting targets.

  8. Interferometric apparatus and method for detection and characterization of particles using light scattered therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnston, Roger G.

    1988-01-01

    Interferometric apparatus and method for detection and characterization of particles using light scattered therefrom. Differential phase measurements on scattered light from particles are possible using the two-frequency Zeeman effect laser which emits two frequencies of radiation 250 kHz apart. Excellent discrimination and reproducibility for various pure pollen and bacterial samples in suspension have been observed with a single polarization element. Additionally, a 250 kHz beat frequency was recorded from an individual particle traversing the focused output from the laser in a flow cytometer.

  9. Synthetic LDL as targeted drug delivery vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forte, Trudy M.; Nikanjam, Mina

    2012-08-28

    The present invention provides a synthetic LDL nanoparticle comprising a lipid moiety and a synthetic chimeric peptide so as to be capable of binding the LDL receptor. The synthetic LDL nanoparticle of the present invention is capable of incorporating and targeting therapeutics to cells expressing the LDL receptor for diseases associated with the expression of the LDL receptor such as central nervous system diseases. The invention further provides methods of using such synthetic LDL nanoparticles.

  10. Synthetic thermoelectric materials comprising phononic crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    El-Kady, Ihab F; Olsson, Roy H; Hopkins, Patrick; Reinke, Charles; Kim, Bongsang

    2013-08-13

    Synthetic thermoelectric materials comprising phononic crystals can simultaneously have a large Seebeck coefficient, high electrical conductivity, and low thermal conductivity. Such synthetic thermoelectric materials can enable improved thermoelectric devices, such as thermoelectric generators and coolers, with improved performance. Such synthetic thermoelectric materials and devices can be fabricated using techniques that are compatible with standard microelectronics.

  11. FURTHER EVALUATION OF BOOTSTRAP RESAMPLING AS A TOOL FOR RADIO-INTERFEROMETRIC IMAGING FIDELITY ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kemball, Athol; Mitra, Modhurita; Chiang, H.-F.

    2010-01-15

    We report on a broader evaluation of statistical bootstrap resampling methods as a tool for pixel-level calibration and imaging fidelity assessment in radio interferometry. Pixel-level imaging fidelity assessment is a challenging problem, important for the value it holds in robust scientific interpretation of interferometric images, enhancement of automated pipeline reduction systems needed to broaden the user community for these instruments, and understanding leading-edge direction-dependent calibration and imaging challenges for future telescopes such as the Square Kilometre Array. This new computational approach is now possible because of advances in statistical resampling for data with long-range dependence and the available performance of contemporary high-performance computing resources. We expand our earlier numerical evaluation to span a broader domain subset in simulated image fidelity and source brightness distribution morphologies. As before, we evaluate the statistical performance of the bootstrap resampling methods against direct Monte Carlo simulation. We find that both model-based and subsample bootstrap methods continue to show significant promise for the challenging problem of interferometric imaging fidelity assessment when evaluated over the broader domain subset. We report on their measured statistical performance and guidelines for their use and application in practice. We also examine the performance of the underlying polarization self-calibration algorithm used in this study over a range of parallactic angle coverage.

  12. Reconstruction of source location in a network of gravitational wave interferometric detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cavalier, Fabien; Barsuglia, Matteo; Bizouard, Marie-Anne; Brisson, Violette; Clapson, Andre-Claude; Davier, Michel; Hello, Patrice; Kreckelbergh, Stephane; Leroy, Nicolas; Varvella, Monica

    2006-10-15

    This paper deals with the reconstruction of the direction of a gravitational wave source using the detection made by a network of interferometric detectors, mainly the LIGO and Virgo detectors. We suppose that an event has been seen in coincidence using a filter applied on the three detector data streams. Using the arrival time (and its associated error) of the gravitational signal in each detector, the direction of the source in the sky is computed using a {chi}{sup 2} minimization technique. For reasonably large signals (SNR>4.5 in all detectors), the mean angular error between the real location and the reconstructed one is about 1 deg. . We also investigate the effect of the network geometry assuming the same angular response for all interferometric detectors. It appears that the reconstruction quality is not uniform over the sky and is degraded when the source approaches the plane defined by the three detectors. Adding at least one other detector to the LIGO-Virgo network reduces the blind regions and in the case of 6 detectors, a precision less than 1 deg. on the source direction can be reached for 99% of the sky.

  13. Interferometric adaptive optics for high power laser pointing, wave-front control and phasing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, K L; Stappaerts, E A; Homoelle, D C; Henesian, M A; Bliss, E S; Siders, C W; Barty, C J

    2009-01-21

    Implementing the capability to perform fast ignition experiments, as well as, radiography experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) places stringent requirements on the control of each of the beam's pointing and overall wavefront quality. One quad of the NIF beams, 4 beam pairs, will be utilized for these experiments and hydrodynamic and particle-in-cell simulations indicate that for the fast ignition experiments, these beams will be required to deliver 50% (4.0 kJ) of their total energy (7.96 kJ) within a 40 {micro}m diameter spot at the end of a fast ignition cone target. This requirement implies a stringent pointing and overall phase conjugation error budget on the adaptive optics system used to correct these beam lines. The overall encircled energy requirement is more readily met by phasing of the beams in pairs but still requires high Strehl ratios, Sr, and rms tip/tilt errors of approximately one {micro}rad. To accomplish this task we have designed an interferometric adaptive optics system capable of beam pointing, high Strehl ratio and beam phasing with a single pixilated MEMS deformable mirror and interferometric wave-front sensor. We present the design of a testbed used to evaluate the performance of this wave-front sensor below along with simulations of its expected performance level.

  14. Interferometric source of multi-color, multi-beam entangled photons with mirror and mixer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dress, William B.; Kisner, Roger A.; Richards, Roger K.

    2004-06-01

    53 Systems and methods are described for an interferometric source of multi-color, multi-beam entangled photons. An apparatus includes: a multi-refringent device optically coupled to a source of coherent energy, the multi-refringent device providing a beam of multi-color entangled photons; a condenser device optically coupled to the multi-refringent device, the condenser device i) including a mirror and a mixer and ii) converging two spatially resolved portions of the beam of multi-color entangled photons into a converged multi-color entangled photon beam; a tunable phase adjuster optically coupled to the condenser device, the tunable phase adjuster changing a phase of at least a portion of the converged multi-color entangled photon beam to generate a first interferometeric multi-color entangled photon beam; and a beam splitter optically coupled to the condenser device, the beam splitter combining the first interferometeric multi-color entangled photon beam with a second interferometric multi-color entangled photon beam.

  15. High numerical aperture projection system for extreme ultraviolet projection lithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hudyma, Russell M.

    2000-01-01

    An optical system is described that is compatible with extreme ultraviolet radiation and comprises five reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate. The five optical elements are characterized in order from object to image as concave, convex, concave, convex, and concave mirrors. The optical system is particularly suited for ring field, step and scan lithography methods. The invention uses aspheric mirrors to minimize static distortion and balance the static distortion across the ring field width which effectively minimizes dynamic distortion. The present invention allows for higher device density because the optical system has improved resolution that results from the high numerical aperture, which is at least 0.14.

  16. Coded aperture imaging with self-supporting uniformly redundant arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fenimore, Edward E.

    1983-01-01

    A self-supporting uniformly redundant array pattern for coded aperture imaging. The present invention utilizes holes which are an integer times smaller in each direction than holes in conventional URA patterns. A balance correlation function is generated where holes are represented by 1's, nonholes are represented by -1's, and supporting area is represented by 0's. The self-supporting array can be used for low energy applications where substrates would greatly reduce throughput. The balance correlation response function for the self-supporting array pattern provides an accurate representation of the source of nonfocusable radiation.

  17. Synthetic carbonaceous fuels and feedstocks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, Meyer

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to the use of a three compartment electrolytic cell in the production of synthetic carbonaceous fuels and chemical feedstocks such as gasoline, methane and methanol by electrolyzing an aqueous sodium carbonate/bicarbonate solution, obtained from scrubbing atmospheric carbon dioxide with an aqueous sodium hydroxide solution, whereby the hydrogen generated at the cathode and the carbon dioxide liberated in the center compartment are combined thermocatalytically into methanol and gasoline blends. The oxygen generated at the anode is preferably vented into the atmosphere, and the regenerated sodium hydroxide produced at the cathode is reused for scrubbing the CO.sub.2 from the atmosphere.

  18. Interferometry with synthetic gauge fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Brandon M.; Taylor, Jacob M.; Galitski, Victor M.

    2011-03-15

    We propose a compact atom interferometry scheme for measuring weak, time-dependent accelerations. Our proposal uses an ensemble of dilute trapped bosons with two internal states that couple to a synthetic gauge field with opposite charges. The trapped gauge field couples spin to momentum to allow time-dependent accelerations to be continuously imparted on the internal states. We generalize this system to reduce noise and estimate the sensitivity of such a system to be S{approx}10{sup -7}(m/s{sup 2}/{radical}(Hz)).

  19. DESIGN OF PHASE INDUCED AMPLITUDE APODIZATION CORONAGRAPHS OVER SQUARE APERTURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pueyo, Laurent; Jeremy Kasdin, N.; Carlotti, Alexis; Vanderbei, Robert

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a theoretical study pertaining to the feasibility of Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) units using deformable mirrors (DMs). We begin by reviewing the general derivation of the design equations driving PIAA. We then show how to solve these equations for square apertures and show the performance of pure PIAA systems in the ray optics regime. We tie these design equations into the study of edge diffraction effects and provide a general expression for the field after a full propagation through a PIAA coronagraph. Third, we illustrate how a combination of pre- and post-apodizers yields a contrast of 10{sup -10} even in the presence of diffractive effects, for configuration with neither wavefront errors or wavefront control. Finally, we present novel PIAA configurations over square apertures which circumvent the constraints on the manufacturing of PIAA optics by inducing the apodization with two square DMs. Such solutions rely on pupil size smaller than currently envisioned static PIAA solutions and thus require aggressive pre- and post-apodizing screens in order to mitigate for diffractive effect between the two mirrors. As a result they are associated with significant loss in performance, throughput in particular.

  20. Optimization of the Dynamic Aperture for SPEAR3 Low-Emittance...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    There is a smaller dynamic aperture for the lower emittance optics due to a stronger ... DAMPING; EFFICIENCY; GENETICS; LIFETIME; MAGNETS; OPTICS; OPTIMIZATION; RESONANCE

  1. Apparatus and method for deterministic control of surface figure during full aperture polishing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Suratwala, Tayyab Ishaq; Feit, Michael Dennis; Steele, William Augustus

    2013-11-19

    A polishing system configured to polish a lap includes a lap configured to contact a workpiece for polishing the workpiece; and a septum configured to contact the lap. The septum has an aperture formed therein. The radius of the aperture and radius the workpiece are substantially the same. The aperture and the workpiece have centers disposed at substantially the same radial distance from a center of the lap. The aperture is disposed along a first radial direction from the center of the lap, and the workpiece is disposed along a second radial direction from the center of the lap. The first and second radial directions may be opposite directions.

  2. Simultaneous beam sampling and aperture shape optimization for SPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zarepisheh, Masoud; Li, Ruijiang; Xing, Lei; Ye, Yinyu

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Station parameter optimized radiation therapy (SPORT) was recently proposed to fully utilize the technical capability of emerging digital linear accelerators, in which the station parameters of a delivery system, such as aperture shape and weight, couch position/angle, gantry/collimator angle, can be optimized simultaneously. SPORT promises to deliver remarkable radiation dose distributions in an efficient manner, yet there exists no optimization algorithm for its implementation. The purpose of this work is to develop an algorithm to simultaneously optimize the beam sampling and aperture shapes. Methods: The authors build a mathematical model with the fundamental station point parameters as the decision variables. To solve the resulting large-scale optimization problem, the authors devise an effective algorithm by integrating three advanced optimization techniques: column generation, subgradient method, and pattern search. Column generation adds the most beneficial stations sequentially until the plan quality improvement saturates and provides a good starting point for the subsequent optimization. It also adds the new stations during the algorithm if beneficial. For each update resulted from column generation, the subgradient method improves the selected stations locally by reshaping the apertures and updating the beam angles toward a descent subgradient direction. The algorithm continues to improve the selected stations locally and globally by a pattern search algorithm to explore the part of search space not reachable by the subgradient method. By combining these three techniques together, all plausible combinations of station parameters are searched efficiently to yield the optimal solution. Results: A SPORT optimization framework with seamlessly integration of three complementary algorithms, column generation, subgradient method, and pattern search, was established. The proposed technique was applied to two previously treated clinical cases: a head and

  3. Laser interferometric method for determining the carrier diffusion length in semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manukhov, V. V.; Fedortsov, A. B.; Ivanov, A. S.

    2015-09-15

    A new laser interferometric method for measuring the carrier diffusion length in semiconductors is proposed. The method is based on the interference–absorption interaction of two laser radiations in a semiconductor. Injected radiation generates additional carriers in a semiconductor, which causes a change in the material’s optical constants and modulation of the probing radiation passed through the sample. When changing the distance between carrier generation and probing points, a decrease in the carrier concentration, which depends on the diffusion length, is recorded. The diffusion length is determined by comparing the experimental and theoretical dependences of the probe signal on the divergence of the injector and probe beams. The method is successfully tested on semiconductor samples with different thicknesses and surface states and can be used in scientific research and the electronics industry.

  4. Interferometric properties of standing spin waves and the application to a phase comparator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ya, X.; Chen, H.; Oyabu, S.; Peng, B.; Otsuki, H.; Tanaka, T. Matsuyama, K.

    2015-05-07

    We numerically studied the material and structural parameter dependence of interferometric properties of the standing spin wave resonance (SSWR) by micromagnetic simulations and demonstrate the feasibility of practical application to an integrated phase comparator. The micromagnetic configuration of the synthesized SSWR emitted from the two microwave currents flowing through the parallel strip lines depends on the phase difference Δϕ between them. Resultantly, the Δϕ is converted to the related output voltage with an overlaid phase detector, inductively coupled to the magnetic strip. Among the investigated various material systems, low damping (α ∼ 0.001) metallic ferromagnets are found to exhibit superior device performance due to the reduced viscous dissipation.

  5. Large-Actuator-Number Horizontal Path Correction of Atmospheric Turbulence utilizing an Interferometric Phase Conjugate Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, K L; Stappaerts, E A; Gavel, D; Tucker, J; Silva, D A; Wilks, S C; Olivier, S S; Olsen, J

    2004-08-25

    An adaptive optical system used to correct horizontal beam propagation paths has been demonstrated. This system utilizes an interferometric wave-front sensor and a large-actuator-number MEMS-based spatial light modulator to correct the aberrations incurred by the beam after propagation along the path. Horizontal path correction presents a severe challenge to adaptive optics systems due to the short atmospheric transverse coherence length and the high degree of scintillation incurred by laser propagation along these paths. Unlike wave-front sensors that detect phase gradients, however, the interferometric wave-front sensor measures the wrapped phase directly. Because the system operates with nearly monochromatic light and uses a segmented spatial light modulator, it does not require that the phase be unwrapped to provide a correction and it also does not require a global reconstruction of the wave-front to determine the phase as required by gradient detecting wave-front sensors. As a result, issues with branch points are eliminated. Because the atmospheric probe beam is mixed with a large amplitude reference beam, it can be made to operate in a photon noise limited regime making its performance relatively unaffected by scintillation. The MEMS-based spatial light modulator in the system contains 1024 pixels and is controlled to speeds in excess of 800 Hz, enabling its use for correction of horizontal path beam propagation. In this article results are shown of both atmospheric characterization with the system and open loop horizontal path correction of a 1.53 micron laser by the system. To date Strehl ratios of greater than 0.5 have been achieved.

  6. Hybrid Compton camera/coded aperture imaging system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mihailescu, Lucian (Livermore, CA); Vetter, Kai M. (Alameda, CA)

    2012-04-10

    A system in one embodiment includes an array of radiation detectors; and an array of imagers positioned behind the array of detectors relative to an expected trajectory of incoming radiation. A method in another embodiment includes detecting incoming radiation with an array of radiation detectors; detecting the incoming radiation with an array of imagers positioned behind the array of detectors relative to a trajectory of the incoming radiation; and performing at least one of Compton imaging using at least the imagers and coded aperture imaging using at least the imagers. A method in yet another embodiment includes detecting incoming radiation with an array of imagers positioned behind an array of detectors relative to a trajectory of the incoming radiation; and performing Compton imaging using at least the imagers.

  7. Advances in optical materials for large aperture lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stokowski, S.E.; Lowdermilk, W.H.; Marchi, F.T.; Swain, J.E.; Wallerstein, E.P.; Wirtenson, G.R.

    1981-12-15

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is using large aperture Nd: glass lasers to investigate the feasibility of inertial confinement fusion. In our experiments high power laser light is focussed onto a small (100 to 500 micron) target containing a deuterium-tritium fuel mixture. During the short (1 to 5 ns) laser pulse the fuel is compressed and heated, resulting in fusion reactions. The generation and control of the powerful laser pulses for these experiments is a challenging scientific and engineering task, which requires the development of new optical materials, fabrication techniques, and coatings. LLNL with the considerable cooperation and support from the optical industry, where most of the research and development and almost all the manufacturing is done, has successfully applied several new developments in these areas.

  8. Repurposing the translation apparatus for synthetic biology ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    biology Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on July 14, 2017 Title: Repurposing the translation apparatus for synthetic biology ...

  9. Synthetic Genomics Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Synthetic Genomics Inc. Place: La Jolla, California Sector: Hydro, Hydrogen, Renewable Energy Product: California-based company planning to create new types of...

  10. The solid angle (geometry factor) for a spherical surface source and an arbitrary detector aperture

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Favorite, Jeffrey A.

    2016-01-13

    It is proven that the solid angle (or geometry factor, also called the geometrical efficiency) for a spherically symmetric outward-directed surface source with an arbitrary radius and polar angle distribution and an arbitrary detector aperture is equal to the solid angle for an isotropic point source located at the center of the spherical surface source and the same detector aperture.

  11. A novel approach to correct the coded aperture misalignment for fast neutron imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, F. N.; Hu, H. S. Wang, D. M.; Jia, J.; Zhang, T. K.; Jia, Q. G.

    2015-12-15

    Aperture alignment is crucial for the diagnosis of neutron imaging because it has significant impact on the coding imaging and the understanding of the neutron source. In our previous studies on the neutron imaging system with coded aperture for large field of view, “residual watermark,” certain extra information that overlies reconstructed image and has nothing to do with the source is discovered if the peak normalization is employed in genetic algorithms (GA) to reconstruct the source image. Some studies on basic properties of residual watermark indicate that the residual watermark can characterize coded aperture and can thus be used to determine the location of coded aperture relative to the system axis. In this paper, we have further analyzed the essential conditions for the existence of residual watermark and the requirements of the reconstruction algorithm for the emergence of residual watermark. A gamma coded imaging experiment has been performed to verify the existence of residual watermark. Based on the residual watermark, a correction method for the aperture misalignment has been studied. A multiple linear regression model of the position of coded aperture axis, the position of residual watermark center, and the gray barycenter of neutron source with twenty training samples has been set up. Using the regression model and verification samples, we have found the position of the coded aperture axis relative to the system axis with an accuracy of approximately 20 μm. Conclusively, a novel approach has been established to correct the coded aperture misalignment for fast neutron coded imaging.

  12. Aperture-Tolerant, Chemical-Based Methods to Reduce Channeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randall S. Seright

    2007-09-30

    This final technical progress report describes work performed from October 1, 2004, through May 16, 2007, for the project, 'Aperture-Tolerant, Chemical-Based Methods to Reduce Channeling'. We explored the potential of pore-filling gels for reducing excess water production from both fractured and unfractured production wells. Several gel formulations were identified that met the requirements--i.e., providing water residual resistance factors greater than 2,000 and ultimate oil residual resistance factors (F{sub rro}) of 2 or less. Significant oil throughput was required to achieve low F{sub rro} values, suggesting that gelant penetration into porous rock must be small (a few feet or less) for existing pore-filling gels to provide effective disproportionate permeability reduction. Compared with adsorbed polymers and weak gels, strong pore-filling gels can provide greater reliability and behavior that is insensitive to the initial rock permeability. Guidance is provided on where relative-permeability-modification/disproportionate-permeability-reduction treatments can be successfully applied for use in either oil or gas production wells. When properly designed and executed, these treatments can be successfully applied to a limited range of oilfield excessive-water-production problems. We examined whether gel rheology can explain behavior during extrusion through fractures. The rheology behavior of the gels tested showed a strong parallel to the results obtained from previous gel extrusion experiments. However, for a given aperture (fracture width or plate-plate separation), the pressure gradients measured during the gel extrusion experiments were much higher than anticipated from rheology measurements. Extensive experiments established that wall slip and first normal stress difference were not responsible for the pressure gradient discrepancy. To explain the discrepancy, we noted that the aperture for gel flow (for mobile gel wormholing through concentrated immobile

  13. High temperature millimeter wave radiometric and interferometric measurements of slag-refractory interaction for application to coal gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCloy, John S.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Sundaram, S. K.; Slaugh, Ryan W.; Woskov, Paul P.

    2011-09-17

    Millimeter wave (MMW) radiometry can be used for simultaneous measurement of emissivity and temperature of materials under extreme environments (high temperature, pressure, and corrosive environments) such as in slagging coal gasifiers, where sensors have been identified as a key enabling technology need for process optimization. We present a state-of-the-art dual-channel MMW heterodyne radiometer with active interferometric capability that allows simultaneous radiometric measurements of sample temperature, emissivity, and flow dynamics to over 1873 K. Interferometric capability is supplied via a probe signal originating from the 137 GHz radiometer local oscillator (LO). The interferometric 'video' channels allow measurement of additional parameters simultaneously, such as volume expansion, thickness change, and slag viscosity along with temperature or emissivity. This capability has been used to demonstrate measurement of temperature and simulated coal slag infiltration into a chromia refractory brick sample as well as slag flow down a vertically placed refractory brick. Observed phenomena include slag melting and slumping, slag reboil and foam with oxygen evolution, and eventual failure of the alumina crucible through corrosion by the molten slag. These results show the promise of the MMW system for extracting quantitative and qualitative process parameters from operating slagging coal gasifiers, providing valuable information for process efficiency, control, and increased productivity.

  14. COLDER AND HOTTER: INTERFEROMETRIC IMAGING OF {beta} CASSIOPEIAE AND {alpha} LEONIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Che, X.; Monnier, J. D.; Zhao, M.; Merand, A.; Ten Brummelaar, T.; McAlister, H.; Turner, N.; Sturmann, J.; Sturmann, L.; Ridgway, S. T.

    2011-05-10

    Near-infrared interferometers have recently imaged a number of rapidly rotating A-type stars, finding levels of gravity darkening inconsistent with theoretical expectations. Here, we present new imaging of both a cooler star {beta} Cas (F2IV) and a hotter one {alpha} Leo (B7V) using the CHARA array and the MIRC instrument at the H band. Adopting a solid-body rotation model with a simple gravity darkening prescription, we modeled the stellar geometric properties and surface temperature distributions, confirming that both stars are rapidly rotating and show gravity darkening anomalies. We estimate the masses and ages of these rapid rotators on L-R{sub pol} and H-R diagrams constructed for non-rotating stars by tracking their non-rotating equivalents. The unexpected fast rotation of the evolved sub-giant {beta} Cas offers a unique test of the stellar core-envelope coupling, revealing quite efficient coupling over the past {approx}0.5 Gyr. Lastly, we summarize all our interferometric determinations of the gravity darkening coefficient for rapid rotators, finding that none match the expectations from the widely used von Zeipel gravity darkening laws. Since the conditions of the von Zeipel law are known to be violated for rapidly rotating stars, we recommend using the empirically derived {beta} = 0.19 for such stars with radiation-dominated envelopes. Furthermore, we note that no paradigm exists for self-consistently modeling heavily gravity-darkened stars that show hot radiative poles with cool convective equators.

  15. Analysis of high-resolution spectra from a hybrid interferometric/dispersive spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ko, Phyllis; Scott, Jill R.; Jovanovic, Igor

    2015-09-05

    To fully take advantage of a low-cost, small footprint hybrid interferometric/dispersive spectrometer, a math- ematical reconstruction technique was developed to accurately capture the high-resolution and relative peak intensities from complex patterns. A Fabry-Perot etalon was coupled to a Czerny-Turner spectrometer, in- creasing spectral resolution by an order of magnitude without the commensurate increase in spectrometer size. Measurement of the industry standard Hg 313.1555/313.1844 nm doublet yielded a ratio of 0.682 with 1.8%error, which agreed well with an independent measurement and literature values. The doublet separation (29 pm), is similar to the U isotope shift (25 pm) at 424.437 nm that is of interest to monitoring nuclear nonpro-liferation activities. Additionally, the technique was applied to a LIBS measurement of the mineral cinnabar (HgS) and resulted in a ratio of 0.681. This reconstruction method could enable significantly smaller, portable high-resolution instruments with isotopic specificity, benefiting a variety of spectroscopic applications.

  16. Analysis of high-resolution spectra from a hybrid interferometric/dispersive spectrometer

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ko, Phyllis; Scott, Jill R.; Jovanovic, Igor

    2015-09-05

    To fully take advantage of a low-cost, small footprint hybrid interferometric/dispersive spectrometer, a math- ematical reconstruction technique was developed to accurately capture the high-resolution and relative peak intensities from complex patterns. A Fabry-Perot etalon was coupled to a Czerny-Turner spectrometer, in- creasing spectral resolution by an order of magnitude without the commensurate increase in spectrometer size. Measurement of the industry standard Hg 313.1555/313.1844 nm doublet yielded a ratio of 0.682 with 1.8%error, which agreed well with an independent measurement and literature values. The doublet separation (29 pm), is similar to the U isotope shift (25 pm) at 424.437 nm thatmore » is of interest to monitoring nuclear nonpro-liferation activities. Additionally, the technique was applied to a LIBS measurement of the mineral cinnabar (HgS) and resulted in a ratio of 0.681. In addition, this reconstruction method could enable significantly smaller, portable high-resolution instruments with isotopic specificity, benefiting a variety of spectroscopic applications.« less

  17. Analysis of high-resolution spectra from a hybrid interferometric/dispersive spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ko, Phyllis; Scott, Jill R.; Jovanovic, Igor

    2015-09-05

    To fully take advantage of a low-cost, small footprint hybrid interferometric/dispersive spectrometer, a math- ematical reconstruction technique was developed to accurately capture the high-resolution and relative peak intensities from complex patterns. A Fabry-Perot etalon was coupled to a Czerny-Turner spectrometer, in- creasing spectral resolution by an order of magnitude without the commensurate increase in spectrometer size. Measurement of the industry standard Hg 313.1555/313.1844 nm doublet yielded a ratio of 0.682 with 1.8%error, which agreed well with an independent measurement and literature values. The doublet separation (29 pm), is similar to the U isotope shift (25 pm) at 424.437 nm that is of interest to monitoring nuclear nonpro-liferation activities. Additionally, the technique was applied to a LIBS measurement of the mineral cinnabar (HgS) and resulted in a ratio of 0.681. In addition, this reconstruction method could enable significantly smaller, portable high-resolution instruments with isotopic specificity, benefiting a variety of spectroscopic applications.

  18. Optical microscope using an interferometric source of two-color, two-beam entangled photons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dress, William B.; Kisner, Roger A.; Richards, Roger K.

    2004-07-13

    Systems and methods are described for an optical microscope using an interferometric source of multi-color, multi-beam entangled photons. A method includes: downconverting a beam of coherent energy to provide a beam of multi-color entangled photons; converging two spatially resolved portions of the beam of multi-color entangled photons into a converged multi-color entangled photon beam; transforming at least a portion of the converged multi-color entangled photon beam by interaction with a sample to generate an entangled photon specimen beam; and combining the entangled photon specimen beam with an entangled photon reference beam within a single beamsplitter. An apparatus includes: a multi-refringent device providing a beam of multi-color entangled photons; a condenser device optically coupled to the multi-refringent device, the condenser device converging two spatially resolved portions of the beam of multi-color entangled photons into a converged multi-color entangled photon beam; a beam probe director and specimen assembly optically coupled to the condenser device; and a beam splitter optically coupled to the beam probe director and specimen assembly, the beam splitter combining an entangled photon specimen beam from the beam probe director and specimen assembly with an entangled photon reference beam.

  19. Modeling and Validation of Performance Limitations for the Optimal Design of Interferometric and Intensity-Modulated Fiber Optic Displacement Sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moro, Erik A.

    2012-06-07

    Optical fiber sensors offer advantages over traditional electromechanical sensors, making them particularly well-suited for certain measurement applications. Generally speaking, optical fiber sensors respond to a desired measurand through modulation of an optical signal's intensity, phase, or wavelength. Practically, non-contacting fiber optic displacement sensors are limited to intensity-modulated and interferometric (or phase-modulated) methodologies. Intensity-modulated fiber optic displacement sensors relate target displacement to a power measurement. The simplest intensity-modulated sensor architectures are not robust to environmental and hardware fluctuations, since such variability may cause changes in the measured power level that falsely indicate target displacement. Differential intensity-modulated sensors have been implemented, offering robustness to such intensity fluctuations, and the speed of these sensors is limited only by the combined speed of the photodetection hardware and the data acquisition system (kHz-MHz). The primary disadvantages of intensity-modulated sensing are the relatively low accuracy (?m-mm for low-power sensors) and the lack of robustness, which consequently must be designed, often with great difficulty, into the sensor's architecture. White light interferometric displacement sensors, on the other hand, offer increased accuracy and robustness. Unlike their monochromatic-interferometer counterparts, white light interferometric sensors offer absolute, unambiguous displacement measurements over large displacement ranges (cm for low-power, 5 mW, sources), necessitating no initial calibration, and requiring no environmental or feedback control. The primary disadvantage of white light interferometric displacement sensors is that their utility in dynamic testing scenarios is limited, both by hardware bandwidth and by their inherent high-sensitivity to Doppler-effects. The decision of whether to use either an intensity

  20. Synthetic analogs of bacterial quorum sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Iyer, Rashi S.; Ganguly, Kumkum; Silks, Louis A.

    2013-01-08

    Bacterial quorum-sensing molecule analogs having the following structures: ##STR00001## and methods of reducing bacterial pathogenicity, comprising providing a biological system comprising pathogenic bacteria which produce natural quorum-sensing molecule; providing a synthetic bacterial quorum-sensing molecule having the above structures and introducing the synthetic quorum-sensing molecule into the biological system comprising pathogenic bacteria. Further is provided a method of targeted delivery of an antibiotic, comprising providing a synthetic quorum-sensing molecule; chemically linking the synthetic quorum-sensing molecule to an antibiotic to produce a quorum-sensing molecule-antibiotic conjugate; and introducing the conjugate into a biological system comprising pathogenic bacteria susceptible to the antibiotic.

  1. Synthetic analogs of bacterial quorum sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Iyer, Rashi; Ganguly, Kumkum; Silks, Louis A.

    2011-12-06

    Bacterial quorum-sensing molecule analogs having the following structures: ##STR00001## and methods of reducing bacterial pathogenicity, comprising providing a biological system comprising pathogenic bacteria which produce natural quorum-sensing molecule; providing a synthetic bacterial quorum-sensing molecule having the above structures and introducing the synthetic quorum-sensing molecule into the biological system comprising pathogenic bacteria. Further is provided a method of targeted delivery of an antibiotic, comprising providing a synthetic quorum-sensing molecule; chemically linking the synthetic quorum-sensing molecule to an antibiotic to produce a quorum-sensing molecule-antibiotic conjugate; and introducing the conjugate into a biological system comprising pathogenic bacteria susceptible to the antibiotic.

  2. Synthetic fossil fuel technologies: health problems and intersociety...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Synthetic fossil fuel technologies: health problems and intersociety cooperation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Synthetic fossil fuel technologies: health ...

  3. Copy of Synthetic Biology of Novel Thermophilic Bacteria for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Copy of Synthetic Biology of Novel Thermophilic Bacteria for Enhanced Production of ... Title: Copy of Synthetic Biology of Novel Thermophilic Bacteria for Enhanced Production of ...

  4. Designer synthetic media for studying microbial-catalyzed biofuel...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Designer synthetic media for studying microbial-catalyzed biofuel production Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Designer synthetic media for studying microbial-catalyzed ...

  5. A Versatile Synthetic Route for the Preparation of Titanium Metal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Versatile Synthetic Route for the Preparation of Titanium Metal-Organic Frameworks ... A Versatile Synthetic Route for the Preparation of Titanium Metal-Organic Frameworks. ...

  6. Synthetic Biology for Advanced Fuels (Opening Keynote Address...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Synthetic Biology for Advanced Fuels (Opening Keynote Address - 2010 JGI User Meeting) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Synthetic Biology for Advanced Fuels (Opening ...

  7. Multipinhole collimator with 20 apertures for a brain SPECT application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Tzu-Cheng; Ellin, Justin R.; Shrestha, Uttam; Seo, Youngho; Huang, Qiu; Gullberg, Grant T.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Several new technologies for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) instrumentation with parallel-hole collimation have been proposed to improve detector sensitivity and signal collection efficiency. Benefits from improved signal efficiency include shorter acquisition times and lower dose requirements. In this paper, the authors show a possibility of over an order of magnitude enhancement in photon detection efficiency (from 7.6 × 10{sup −5} to 1.6 × 10{sup −3}) for dopamine transporter (DaT) imaging of the striatum over the conventional SPECT parallel-hole collimators by use of custom-designed 20 multipinhole (20-MPH) collimators with apertures of 0.75 cm diameter. Methods: Quantifying specific binding ratio (SBR) of {sup 123}I-ioflupane or {sup 123}I-iometopane’s signal at the striatal region is a common brain imaging method to confirm the diagnosis of the Parkinson’s disease. The authors performed imaging of a striatal phantom filled with aqueous solution of I-123 and compared camera recovery ratios of SBR acquired between low-energy high-resolution (LEHR) parallel-hole collimators and 20-MPH collimators. Results: With only two-thirds of total acquisition time (20 min against 30 min), a comparable camera recovery ratio of SBR was achieved using 20-MPH collimators in comparison to that from the LEHR collimator study. Conclusions: Their systematic analyses showed that the 20-MPH collimator could be a promising alternative for the DaT SPECT imaging for brain over the traditional LEHR collimator, which could give both shorter scan time and improved diagnostic accuracy.

  8. Synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pena, Louis A.; Zamora, Paul; Lin, Xinhua; Glass, John D.

    2007-01-23

    The invention provides synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs having at least one peptide chain that binds a heparin-binding growth factor receptor, covalently bound to a hydrophobic linker, which is in turn covalently bound to a non-signaling peptide that includes a heparin-binding domain. The synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs are useful as soluble biologics or as surface coatings for medical devices.

  9. Synthetic CO.sub.2 acceptor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lancet, Michael S.; Curran, George P.

    1981-08-18

    A synthetic CO.sub.2 acceptor consisting essentially of at least one compound selected from the group consisting of calcium oxide and calcium carbonate supported in a refractory carrier matrix, the carrier having the general formula Ca.sub.5 (SiO.sub.4).sub.2 CO.sub.3. A method for producing the synthetic CO.sub.2 acceptor is also disclosed.

  10. Large-Pore Apertures in a Series of Metal-Organic Frameworks...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Terasaki, J. F. Stoddart, and O. M. Yaghi, Science 336 (6084), 1018 (2012) DOI: 10.1126science.1220131 Fig. 1 Abstract: We report a strategy to expand the pore aperture of...

  11. LCLS X-ray mirror measurements using a large aperture visible light

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    interferometer (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: LCLS X-ray mirror measurements using a large aperture visible light interferometer Citation Details In-Document Search Title: LCLS X-ray mirror measurements using a large aperture visible light interferometer Synchrotron or FEL X-ray mirrors are required to deliver an X-ray beam from its source to an experiment location, without contributing significantly to wave front distortion. Accurate mirror figure measurements are required prior

  12. Coupling through tortuous path narrow slot apertures into complex cavities - Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPOGATION, VOL. 48, NO. 3, MARCH 2000 Coupling Through Tortuous Path Narrow Slot Apertures into Complex Cavities Russell P. Jedlicka, Senior Member, IEEE, Steven P. Castillo, Senior Member, IEEE, and Larry K. Warne Abstract-A hybrid finite-element method/method of moments (FEM/MOM) model has been implemented to compute the coupling of fields into a cavity through narrow slot apertures having depth. The model utilizes the slot model of Warne and Chen

  13. A study of cooling time reduction of interferometric cryogenic gravitational wave detectors using a high-emissivity coating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakakibara, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Chen, D.; Tokoku, C.; Uchiyama, T.; Ohashi, M.; Kuroda, K.; Kimura, N.; Suzuki, T.; Koike, S.

    2014-01-29

    In interferometric cryogenic gravitational wave detectors, there are plans to cool mirrors and their suspension systems (payloads) in order to reduce thermal noise, that is, one of the fundamental noise sources. Because of the large payload masses (several hundred kg in total) and their thermal isolation, a cooling time of several months is required. Our calculation shows that a high-emissivity coating (e.g. a diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating) can reduce the cooling time effectively by enhancing radiation heat transfer. Here, we have experimentally verified the effect of the DLC coating on the reduction of the cooling time.

  14. Synthetic heparin-binding factor analogs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pena, Louis A.; Zamora, Paul O.; Lin, Xinhua; Glass, John D.

    2010-04-20

    The invention provides synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs having at least one peptide chain, and preferably two peptide chains branched from a dipeptide branch moiety composed of two trifunctional amino acid residues, which peptide chain or chains bind a heparin-binding growth factor receptor and are covalently bound to a non-signaling peptide that includes a heparin-binding domain, preferably by a linker, which may be a hydrophobic linker. The synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs are useful as pharmaceutical agents, soluble biologics or as surface coatings for medical devices.

  15. New Synthetic Methods for Hypericum Natural Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Insik Jeon

    2006-12-12

    Organic chemistry has served as a solid foundation for interdisciplinary research areas, such as molecular biology and medicinal chemistry. An understanding of the biological activities and structural elucidations of natural products can lead to the development of clinically valuable therapeutic options. The advancements of modern synthetic methodologies allow for more elaborate and concise natural product syntheses. The theme of this study centers on the synthesis of natural products with particularly challenging structures and interesting biological activities. The synthetic expertise developed here will be applicable to analog syntheses and to other research problems.

  16. Model predictions of the results of interferometric observations for stars under conditions of strong gravitational scattering by black holes and wormholes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shatskiy, A. A. Kovalev, Yu. Yu.; Novikov, I. D.

    2015-05-15

    The characteristic and distinctive features of the visibility amplitude of interferometric observations for compact objects like stars in the immediate vicinity of the central black hole in our Galaxy are considered. These features are associated with the specifics of strong gravitational scattering of point sources by black holes, wormholes, or black-white holes. The revealed features will help to determine the most important topological characteristics of the central object in our Galaxy: whether this object possesses the properties of only a black hole or also has characteristics unique to wormholes or black-white holes. These studies can be used to interpret the results of optical, infrared, and radio interferometric observations.

  17. Quantum-noise-limited interferometric measurement of atomic noise: Towards spin squeezing on the Cs clock transition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oblak, Daniel; Tittel, Wolfgang; Vershovski, Anton K.; Mikkelsen, Jens K.; Soerensen, Jens L.; Petrov, Plamen G.; Garrido Alzar, Carlos L.; Polzik, Eugene S.

    2005-04-01

    We investigate theoretically and experimentally a nondestructive interferometric measurement of the state population of an ensemble of laser-cooled and trapped atoms. This study is a step toward generation of (pseudo)spin squeezing of cold atoms targeted at the improvement of the cesium clock performance beyond the limit set by the quantum projection noise of atoms. We calculate the phase shift and the quantum noise of a near-resonant optical probe pulse propagating through a cloud of cold {sup 133}Cs atoms. We analyze the figure of merit for a quantum nondemolition (QND) measurement of the collective pseudospin and show that it can be expressed simply as a product of the ensemble optical density and the pulse-integrated rate of the spontaneous emission caused by the off-resonant probe light. Based on this, we propose a protocol for the sequence of operations required to generate and utilize spin squeezing for the improved atomic clock performance via a QND measurement on the probe light. In the experimental part we demonstrate that the interferometric measurement of the atomic population can reach a sensitivity of the order of {radical}(N{sub at}) in a cloud of N{sub at} cold atoms, which is an important benchmark toward the experimental realization of the theoretically analyzed protocol.

  18. Newmark-Hall synthetic history development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aramayo, G.A.

    1990-11-01

    The methodology used to develop synthetic acceleration time histories with spectral content that envelopes the Newmark-Hall spectra is described. Six acceleration time histories are developed for two conditions of foundation and 3 critical damping factors. The target spectra corresponds to the mediam centered probability level.

  19. Coal based synthetic fuel technology assessment guides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    Seventeen synthetic fuel processes are described in detail and compared on a uniform basis. This work was supported by the Energy Information Administration for the purpose of technology assessment of the processes, their efficiency, the capitalized and operating cost of plants of similar size, possible constraints, possible siting problems, regional effects, pollution control, etc. (LTN)

  20. Immobilization of radioiodine in synthetic boracite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Babad, H.; Strachan, D.M.

    1982-09-23

    A nuclear waste storage product is disclosed in which radioiodine is incorporated in a synthetic boracite. The boracite may be prepared by reacting a transition metal iodide with an alkali horate under mild hydrothermal conditions, drying the reaction product, and then hot pressing.

  1. Spectral light separator based on deep-subwavelength resonant apertures in a metallic film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bykalp, Yasin; Catrysse, Peter B. Shin, Wonseok; Fan, Shanhui

    2014-07-07

    We propose to funnel, select, and collect light spectrally by exploiting the unique properties of deep-subwavelength resonant apertures in a metallic film. In our approach, each aperture has an electromagnetic cross section that is much larger than its physical size while the frequency of the collected light is controlled by its height through the Fabry-Prot resonance mechanism. The electromagnetic crosstalk between apertures remains low despite physical separations in the deep-subwavelength range. The resulting device enables an extremely efficient, subwavelength way to decompose light into its spectral components without the loss of photons and spatial coregistration errors. As a specific example, we show a subwavelength-size structure with three deep-subwavelength slits in a metallic film designed to operate in the mid-wave infrared range between 3 and 5.5??m.

  2. Off-momentum dynamic aperture for lattices in the RHIC heavy ion runs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo Y.; Bai, M.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Gu, X.; Fischer, W.; Marusic, A.; Roser, T.; Tepikian, S.; Zhang, S.

    2012-05-20

    To reduce transverse emittance growth rates from intrabeam scattering in the RHIC heavy ion runs, a lattice with an increased phase advance in the arc FODO cells was adopted in 2008-2011. During these runs, a large beam loss due to limited off-momentum dynamic aperture was observed during longitudinal RF re-bucketing and with transverse cooling. Based on the beam loss observations in the previous ion runs and the calculated off-momentum apertures, we decided to adopt the lattice used before 2008 for the 2012 U-U and Cu-Au runs. The observed beam decay and the measured momentum aperture in the 2012 U-U run are presented.

  3. Power generation with synthetic liquid fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebowitz, H.E.; Rovesti, W.C.; Schreiber, H.

    1984-06-01

    Tests performed burning H-Coal and Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS) coal liquids in a utility combustion turbine, and a test burning EDS in a utility boiler are described. The H-Coal was produced by Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. The EDS was produced in a pilot plant by Exxon Corporation in Baytown, Texas. The test objectives, site preparation, and performance results are discussed for both tests. 8 references, 6 tables.

  4. High-flux, high-temperature thermal vacuum qualification testing of a solar receiver aperture shield

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerslake, T.W.; Mason, L.S.; Strumpf, H.J.

    1997-12-31

    As part of the International Space Station (ISS) Phase 1 program, NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) and the Russian Space Agency (RSA) teamed together to design, build and flight test the world`s first orbital Solar Dynamic Power System (SDPS) on the Russian space station Mir. The Solar Dynamic Flight Demonstration (SDFD) program was to operate a nominal 2 kWe SDPS on Mir for a period up to 1-year starting in late 1997. Unfortunately, the SDFD mission was demanifested from the ISS Phase 1 shuttle program in early 1996. However, substantial flight hardware and prototypical flight hardware was built including a heat receiver and aperture shield. The aperture shield comprises the front face of the cylindrical cavity heat receiver and is located at the focal plane of the solar concentrator. It is constructed of a stainless steel plate with a 1-m outside diameter, a 0.24-m inside diameter and covered with high-temperature, refractory metal multi-foil insulation (MFI). The aperture shield must minimize heat loss from the receiver cavity, provide a stiff, high strength structure to accommodate shuttle launch loads and protect receiver structures from highly concentrated solar fluxes during concentrator off-pointing events. To satisfy Mir operational safety protocols, the aperture shield was required to accommodate direct impingement of the intensely concentrated solar image for a 1-hour period. To verify thermal-structural durability under the anticipated high-flux, high-temperature loading, an aperture shield test article was constructed and underwent a series of two tests in a large thermal vacuum chamber configured with a reflective, point-focus solar concentrator and a solar simulator. The test article was positioned near the focal plane and exposed to concentrated solar flux for a period of 1-hour. In the first test, a near equilibrium temperature of 1862 K was attained in the center of the shield hot spot. In the second test, with increased incident flux, a near

  5. Phase retrieval with the transport-of-intensity equation in an arbitrarily-shaped aperture by iterative discrete cosine transforms

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Huang, Lei; Zuo, Chao; Idir, Mourad; Qu, Weijuan; Asundi, Anand

    2015-04-21

    A novel transport-of-intensity equation (TIE) based phase retrieval method is proposed with putting an arbitrarily-shaped aperture into the optical wavefield. In this arbitrarily-shaped aperture, the TIE can be solved under non-uniform illuminations and even non-homogeneous boundary conditions by iterative discrete cosine transforms with a phase compensation mechanism. Simulation with arbitrary phase, arbitrary aperture shape, and non-uniform intensity distribution verifies the effective compensation and high accuracy of the proposed method. Experiment is also carried out to check the feasibility of the proposed method in real measurement. Comparing to the existing methods, the proposed method is applicable for any types of phasemore » distribution under non-uniform illumination and non-homogeneous boundary conditions within an arbitrarily-shaped aperture, which enables the technique of TIE with hard aperture become a more flexible phase retrieval tool in practical measurements.« less

  6. Apparatus for synthetic imaging of an object

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheen, David M

    2015-01-20

    An apparatus for synthetic imaging of an object is disclosed. The apparatus includes a plurality of transmitter elements spaced apart by a first distance in a first column and a plurality of receiver elements spaced apart by a second distance in a second column. The first distance and the second distance are different. The plurality of transmitter elements is a non-integer multiple of the plurality of receiver elements, and the plurality of receiver elements is a non-integer multiple of the plurality of transmitter elements.

  7. Micro/nanofabricated environments for synthetic biology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collier, Pat [ORNL; Simpson, Michael L [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    A better understanding of how confinement, crowding and reduced dimensionality modulate reactivity and reaction dynamics will aid in the rational and systematic discovery of functionality in complex biological systems. Artificial micro- and nanofabricated structures have helped elucidate the effects of nanoscale spatial confinement and segregation on biological behavior, particularly when integrated with microfluidics, through precise control in both space and time of diffusible signals and binding interactions. Examples of nanostructured interfaces for synthetic biology include the development of cell-like compartments for encapsulating biochemical reactions, nanostructured environments for fundamental studies of diffusion, molecular transport and biochemical reaction kinetics, and regulation of biomolecular interactions as functions of micro- and nanofabricated topological constraints.

  8. Measurements with Pinhole and Coded Aperture Gamma-Ray Imaging Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raffo-Caiado, Ana Claudia; Solodov, Alexander A; Abdul-Jabbar, Najeb M; Hayward, Jason P; Ziock, Klaus-Peter

    2010-01-01

    From a safeguards perspective, gamma-ray imaging has the potential to reduce manpower and cost for effectively locating and monitoring special nuclear material. The purpose of this project was to investigate the performance of pinhole and coded aperture gamma-ray imaging systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). With the aid of the European Commission Joint Research Centre (JRC), radiometric data will be combined with scans from a three-dimensional design information verification (3D-DIV) system. Measurements were performed at the ORNL Safeguards Laboratory using sources that model holdup in radiological facilities. They showed that for situations with moderate amounts of solid or dense U sources, the coded aperture was able to predict source location and geometry within ~7% of actual values while the pinhole gave a broad representation of source distributions

  9. Finding Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas Using a Three-Component Long-Offset Surface Seismic Survey, PSInSAR and Kinematic Structural Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teplow, William J.; Warren, Ian

    2015-08-12

    The DOE cost-share program applied innovative and cutting edge seismic surveying and processing, permanent scatter interferometry-synthetic aperture radar (PSInSAR) and structural kinematics to the exploration problem of locating and mapping largeaperture fractures (LAFs) for the purpose of targeting geothermal production wells. The San Emidio geothermal resource area, which is under lease to USG, contains production wells that have encountered and currently produce from LAFs in the southern half of the resource area (Figure 2). The USG lease block, incorporating the northern extension of the San Emidio geothermal resource, extends 3 miles north of the operating wellfield. The northern lease block was known to contain shallow thermal waters but was previously unexplored by deep drilling. Results of the Phase 1 exploration program are described in detail in the Phase 1 Final Report (Teplow et al., 2011). The DOE cost shared program was completed as planned on September 30, 2014. This report summarizes results from all of Phase 1 and 2 activities.

  10. Dynamic aperture evaluation of the proposed lattices for the RHIC 2009 polarized proton run

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo,Y.; Bai, M.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Fischer, W.; Montag, C.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Satogata, T.; Tepikian, S.; Trbojevic, D.

    2009-01-02

    In the article we evaluate the dynamic apertures of the proposed lattices for the coming Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) 2009 polarized proton (pp) 100 GeV and 250 GeV runs. One goal of this study is to find out the appropriate {beta}* for the coming 2009 pp runs. Another goal is to study the effect of second order chromaticity correction in the RHIC pp runs.

  11. Coded aperture imaging with self-supporting uniformly redundant arrays. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fenimore, E.E.

    1980-09-26

    A self-supporting uniformly redundant array pattern for coded aperture imaging. The invention utilizes holes which are an integer times smaller in each direction than holes in conventional URA patterns. A balance correlation function is generated where holes are represented by 1's, nonholes are represented by -1's, and supporting area is represented by 0's. The self-supporting array can be used for low energy applications where substrates would greatly reduce throughput.

  12. RF/optical shared aperture for high availability wideband communication RF/FSO links

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruggiero, Anthony J; Pao, Hsueh-yuan; Sargis, Paul

    2015-03-24

    An RF/Optical shared aperture is capable of transmitting and receiving optical signals and RF signals simultaneously. This technology enables compact wide bandwidth communications systems with 100% availability in clear air turbulence, rain and fog. The functions of an optical telescope and an RF reflector antenna are combined into a single compact package by installing an RF feed at either of the focal points of a modified Gregorian telescope.

  13. RF/optical shared aperture for high availability wideband communication RF/FSO links

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruggiero, Anthony J; Pao, Hsueh-yuan; Sargis, Paul

    2014-04-29

    An RF/Optical shared aperture is capable of transmitting and receiving optical signals and RF signals simultaneously. This technology enables compact wide bandwidth communications systems with 100% availability in clear air turbulence, rain and fog. The functions of an optical telescope and an RF reflector antenna are combined into a single compact package by installing an RF feed at either of the focal points of a modified Gregorian telescope.

  14. Evaluating the effect of internal aperture variability on transport in kilometer scale discrete fracture networks

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Makedonska, Nataliia; Hyman, Jeffrey D.; Karra, Satish; Painter, Scott L.; Gable, Carl W.; Viswanathan, Hari S.

    2016-06-17

    The apertures of natural fractures in fractured rock are highly heterogeneous. However, in-fracture aperture variability is often neglected in flow and transport modeling and individual fractures are assumed to have uniform aperture distribution. The relative importance of in-fracture variability in flow and transport modeling within kilometer18 scale field–scale fracture networks has been under a matter of debate for a long time because the flow in each single fracture is controlled not only by in-fracture variability but also by boundary conditions. Computational limitations have previously prohibited researchers from investigating the relative importance of in-fracture variability in flow and transport modeling withinmore » large-scale fracture networks. We address this question by incorporating internal heterogeneity of individual fractures into 23 flow simulations within kilometer scale three-dimensional fracture networks, where fracture intensity, P32 (ratio between total fracture area and domain volume) is between 0.027 and 0.031 [1/m]. A recently developed discrete fracture network (DFN) simulation capability, dfnWorks, is used to generate DFNs that include in-fracture aperture variability represented by a stationary log-normal stochastic field with various correlation lengths and variances. The Lagrangian transport parameters, non-reacting travel time and cumulative retention, are calculated along particles streamlines. It is observed that due to local flow channeling early particle travel times are more sensitive to in-fracture variability than the tails of travel time distributions, where no significant effect of the in-fracture transmissivity variations and spatial correlation length is observed.« less

  15. Method for generating small and ultra small apertures, slits, nozzles and orifices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khounsary, Ali M.

    2012-05-22

    A method and device for one or more small apertures, slits, nozzles and orifices, preferably having a high aspect ratio. In one embodiment, one or more alternating layers of sacrificial layers and blocking layers are deposited onto a substrate. Each sacrificial layer is made of a material which preferably allows a radiation to substantially pass through. Each blocking layer is made of a material which substantially blocks the radiation.

  16. Measured Radiation and Background Levels During Transmission of Megawatt Electron Beams Through Millimeter Apertures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alarcon, Ricardo [Arizona State University, Glendale, AZ (United States); Balascuta, S. [Arizona State University, Glendale, AZ (United States); Benson, Stephen V. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Bertozzi, William [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Boyce, James R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Cowan, Ray [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Douglas, David R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Evtushenko, Pavel [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Fisher, P. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ihloff, Ernest E. [Hampton University, Hampton, VA (United States); Kalantarians, Narbe [Hampton University, Hampton, VA (United States); Kelleher, Aidan Michael [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Krossler, W. J. [William and Mary College, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Legg, Robert A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Long, Elena [University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Milner, Richard [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Neil, George R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Ou, Longwu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Schmookler, Barack Abraham [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Tennant, Christopher D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Tschalar, C. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Williams, Gwyn P. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Zhang, Shukui [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2013-11-01

    We report measurements of photon and neutron radiation levels observed while transmitting a 0.43 MW electron beam through millimeter-sized apertures and during beam-off, but accelerating gradient RF-on, operation. These measurements were conducted at the Free-Electron Laser (FEL) facility of the Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory (JLab) using a 100 MeV electron beam from an energy-recovery linear accelerator. The beam was directed successively through 6 mm, 4 mm, and 2 mm diameter apertures of length 127 mm in aluminum at a maximum current of 4.3 mA (430 kW beam power). This study was conducted to characterize radiation levels for experiments that need to operate in this environment, such as the proposed DarkLight Experiment. We find that sustained transmission of a 430 kW continuous-wave (CW) beam through a 2 mm aperture is feasible with manageable beam-related backgrounds. We also find that during beam-off, RF-on operation, multipactoring inside the niobium cavities of the accelerator cryomodules is the primary source of ambient radiation when the machine is tuned for 130 MeV operation.

  17. Casimir-Polder repulsion near edges: Wedge apex and a screen with an aperture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milton, Kimball A.; Abalo, E. K.; Parashar, Prachi; Pourtolami, Nima; Brevik, Iver; Ellingsen, Simen A.

    2011-06-15

    Although repulsive effects have been predicted for quantum vacuum forces between bodies with nontrivial electromagnetic properties, such as between a perfect electric conductor and a perfect magnetic conductor, realistic repulsion seems difficult to achieve. Repulsion is possible if the medium between the bodies has a permittivity in value intermediate to those of the two bodies, but this may not be a useful configuration. Here, inspired by recent numerical work, we initiate analytic calculations of the Casimir-Polder interaction between an atom with anisotropic polarizability and a plate with an aperture. In particular, for a semi-infinite plate, and, more generally, for a wedge, the problem is exactly solvable, and for sufficiently large anisotropy, Casimir-Polder repulsion is indeed possible, in agreement with the previous numerical studies. In order to achieve repulsion, what is needed is a sufficiently sharp edge (not so very sharp, in fact) so that the directions of polarizability of the conductor and the atom are roughly normal to each other. The machinery for carrying out the calculation with a finite aperture is presented. As a motivation for the quantum calculation, we carry out the corresponding classical analysis for the force between a dipole and a metallic sheet with a circular aperture, when the dipole is on the symmetry axis and oriented in the same direction.

  18. Synthetic biology and crop engineering | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Synthetic biology and crop engineering Synthetic biology and crop engineering Breakout Session 2: Frontiers and Horizons Session 2-A: Synthetic Biology and the Promise of Biofuels Jonathan Burbaum, Program Director, Department of Energy, Office of Science, ARPA-E b13_burbaum_2-a.pdf (1.63 MB) More Documents & Publications EIS-0481: Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement EIS-0481: Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement EIS-0481: Notice of Intent to Prepare a Programmatic

  19. Synthetic magnetoelectric coupling in a nanocomposite multiferroic

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jain, P.; Wang, Q.; Roldan, M.; Glavic, A.; Lauter, V.; Urban, C.; Bi, Z.; Ahmed, T.; Zhu, J.; Varela, M.; et al

    2015-03-13

    Given the paucity of single phase multiferroic materials (with large ferromagnetic moment), composite systems seem an attractive solution to realize magnetoelectric coupling between ferromagnetic and ferroelectric order parameters. Despite having antiferromagnetic order, BiFeO₃ (BFO) has nevertheless been a key material due to excellent ferroelectric properties at room temperature. We studied a superlattice composed of 8 repetitions of 6 unit cells of La₀.₇Sr₀.₃MnO₃ (LSMO) grown on 5 unit cells of BFO. Significant net uncompensated magnetization in BFO, an insulating superlattice, is demonstrated using polarized neutron reflectometry. Remarkably, the magnetization enables magnetic field to change the dielectric properties of the superlattice, whichmore » we cite as an example of synthetic magnetoelectric coupling. Importantly, controlled creation of magnetic moment in BFO is a much needed path toward design and implementation of integrated oxide devices for next generation magnetoelectric data storage platforms.« less

  20. Synthetic Information and Decision Informatics for Complex Systems...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dynamics & Simulation Science Laboratory SALISHAN 2010 Tackling Big Data: HPC Approaches to Informatics Synthetic Information and Decision Informatics for Complex Socially-Coupled...

  1. Synthetic biology for microbial production of lipid-based biofuels...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Synthetic biology for microbial production of lipid-based biofuels Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on October 22, 2017 Title: ...

  2. A versatile synthetic route for the preparation of titanium metal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    to mention a general synthetic strategy for various kinds of Ti-MOFs in the literature. ... Sponsoring Org: DOE - BASIC ENERGY SCIENCES Country of Publication: United States Language...

  3. A model for improving microbial biofuel production using a synthetic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Synthetic and Systems Biology; Journal Volume: 4; Related Information: Journal Publication Date: 25 FEB 2010 ...

  4. Intramolecular hydrogen bonding as a synthetic tool to induce...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    hydrogen bonding as a synthetic tool to induce chemical selectivity in acid catalyzed porphyrin synthesis Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Intramolecular hydrogen bonding ...

  5. Environmental data energy technology characterizations: synthetic fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    Environmental Data Energy Technology Characterizations are publications which are intended to provide policy analysts and technical analysts with basic environmental data associated with key energy technologies. This publication provides documentation on synthetic fuels (coal-derived and oil shale). The transformation of the energy in coal and oil shale into a more useful form is described in this publication in terms of major activity areas in the synthetic fuel cycles, that is, in terms of activities which produce either an energy product or a fuel leading to the production of an energy product in a different form. The activities discussed in this document are coal liquefaction, coal gasification, in-situ gasification, and oil shales. These activities represent both well-documented and advanced activity areas. The former activities are characterized in terms of actual operating data with allowance for future modification where appropriate. Emissions are assumed to conform to environmental standards. The advanced activity areas examined are those like coal liquefaction and in-situ retorting of oil shale. For these areas, data from pilot or demonstration plants were used where available; otherwise, engineering studies provided the data. The organization of the chapters in this volume is designed to support the tabular presentation in the summary volume. Each chapter begins with a brief description of the activity under consideration. The standard characteristics, size, availability, mode of functioning and place in the fuel cycle are presented. Next, major legislative and/or technological factors influencing the commercial operation of the activity are offered. Discussions of resources consumed, residuals produced, and economics follow. To aid in comparing and linking the different activity areas, data for each area are normalized to 10/sup 12/ Btu of energy output from the activity.

  6. Aperture lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.

    2003-01-01

    A discharge lamp includes means for containing a light emitting fill, the fill being capable of absorbing light at one wavelength and re-emitting the light at a different wavelength, the light emitted from the fill having a first spectral power distribution in the absence of reflection of light back into the fill; means for exciting the fill to cause the fill to emit light; and means for reflecting some of the light emitted by the fill back into the fill while allowing some light to exit, the exiting light having a second spectral power distribution with proportionately more light in the visible region as compared to the first spectral power distribution, wherein the light re-emitted by the fill is shifted in wavelength with respect to the absorbed light and the magnitude of the shift is in relation to an effective optical path length. Another discharge lamp includes an envelope; a fill which emits light when excited disposed in the envelope; a source of excitation power coupled to the fill to excite the fill and cause the fill to emit light; and a reflective ceramic structure disposed around the envelope and defining an light emitting opening, wherein the structure comprises a sintered body built up directly on the envelope and made from a combination of alumina and silica.

  7. Development of metal-ceramic coaxial cable Fabry-Pérot interferometric sensors for high temperature monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trontz, Adam; Cheng, Baokai; Zeng, Shixuan; Xiao, Hai; Dong, Junhang

    2015-09-25

    Metal-ceramic coaxial cable Fabry-Pérot interferometric (MCCC-FPI) sensors have been developed using a stainless steel tube and a stainless steel wire as the outer and inner conductors, respectively; a tubular α-alumina insulator; and a pair of air gaps created in the insulator along the cable to serve as weak reflectors for the transmitting microwave (MW) signal. The MCCC-FPI sensors have been demonstrated for high temperature measurements using MW signals in a frequency range of 2–8 GHz. The temperature measurement is achieved by monitoring the frequency shift (Δƒ) of the MW interferogram reflected from the pair of weak reflectors. The MW sensor exhibited excellent linear dependence of Δƒ on temperature; small measurement deviations (±2.7%); and fast response in a tested range of 200–500 °C. The MCCC has the potential for further developing multipoint FPI sensors in a single-cable to achieve in situ and continuous measurement of spatially distributed temperature in harsh environments.

  8. Development of metal-ceramic coaxial cable Fabry-Pérot interferometric sensors for high temperature monitoring

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Trontz, Adam; Cheng, Baokai; Zeng, Shixuan; Xiao, Hai; Dong, Junhang

    2015-09-25

    Metal-ceramic coaxial cable Fabry-Pérot interferometric (MCCC-FPI) sensors have been developed using a stainless steel tube and a stainless steel wire as the outer and inner conductors, respectively; a tubular α-alumina insulator; and a pair of air gaps created in the insulator along the cable to serve as weak reflectors for the transmitting microwave (MW) signal. The MCCC-FPI sensors have been demonstrated for high temperature measurements using MW signals in a frequency range of 2–8 GHz. The temperature measurement is achieved by monitoring the frequency shift (Δƒ) of the MW interferogram reflected from the pair of weak reflectors. The MW sensormore » exhibited excellent linear dependence of Δƒ on temperature; small measurement deviations (±2.7%); and fast response in a tested range of 200–500 °C. The MCCC has the potential for further developing multipoint FPI sensors in a single-cable to achieve in situ and continuous measurement of spatially distributed temperature in harsh environments.« less

  9. FODO-Supercell Based Compact Ring Design with Tunable Momentum Compaction and Optimized Dynamic Aperture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Yipeng; /SLAC

    2012-05-11

    A storage ring with tunable momentum compaction has the advantage in achieving different RMS bunch length with similar RF capacity, which is potentially useful for many applications, such as linear collider damping ring and pre-damping ring where injected beam has a large energy spread and a large transverse emittance. A tunable bunch length also makes the commissioning and fine tuning easier in manipulating the single bunch instabilities. In this paper, a compact ring design based on a supercell is presented, which achieves a tunable momentum compaction while maintaining a large dynamic aperture.

  10. All-reflective optical target illumination system with high numerical aperture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thomas, Carlton E.; Sigler, Robert D.; Hoeger, John G.

    1979-01-01

    An all-reflective optical system for providing illumination of a target focal region at high numerical aperture from a pair of confluent collimated light beams. The collimated beams are each incident upon an associated concave eccentric pupil paraboloidal reflective surface, and thereby each focused through an opening in an associated outer ellipsoidal reflective surface onto a plane reflector. Each beam is reflected by its associated plane reflector onto the opposing concave surface of the outer ellipsoids to be focused through an opening in the plane surface onto an opposing inner concave ellipsoidal reflective surface, and thence onto the target region.

  11. Ion funnel with extended mass range and reduced conductance limit aperture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Smith, Richard D.

    2008-04-01

    An improved ion funnel design is disclosed that decreases the axial RF (parasite) fields at the ion funnel exit. This is achieved by addition of one or more compensation electrodes after the conductance limit electrode. Various RF voltage profiles may be applied to the various electrodes minimizing the parasite axial potential wells. The smallest RF aperture that serves as the conductance limiting electrode is further reduced over standard designs. Overall, the ion funnel improves transmission ranges of both low m/z and high m/z ions, reducing RF activation of ions and decreasing the gas load to subsequent differential pumping stages.

  12. SU-E-T-10: A Dosimetric Comparison of Copper to Lead-Alloy Apertures for Electron Beam Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rusk, B; Hogstrom, K; Gibbons, J; Carver, R

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate dosimetric differences of copper compared to conventional lead-alloy apertures for electron beam therapy. Methods: Copper apertures were manufactured by .decimal, Inc. and matching lead-alloy, Cerrobend, apertures were constructed for 32 square field sizes (2×2 – 20×20 cm{sup 2}) for five applicator sizes (6×6–25×25 cm{sup 2}). Percent depth-dose and off-axis-dose profiles were measured using an electron diode in water with copper and Cerrobend apertures for a subset of aperture sizes (6×6, 10×10, 25×25 cm{sup 2}) and energies (6, 12, 20 MeV). Dose outputs were measured for all field size-aperture combinations and available energies (6–20 MeV). Measurements were taken at 100 and 110 cm SSDs. Using this data, 2D planar absolute dose distributions were constructed and compared. Passing criteria were ±2% of maximum dose or 1-mm distance-to-agreement for 99% of points. Results: A gamma analysis of the beam dosimetry showed 93 of 96 aperture size, applicator, energy, and SSD combinations passed the 2%/1mm criteria. Failures were found for small field size-large applicator combinations at 20 MeV and 100-cm SSD. Copper apertures showed a decrease in bremsstrahlung production due to copper's lower atomic number compared to Cerrobend (greatest difference was 2.5% at 20 MeV). This effect was most prominent at the highest energies with large amounts of shielding material present (small field size-large applicator). Also, an increase in electrons scattered from the collimator edge of copper compared to Cerrobend resulted in an increased dose at the field edge for copper at shallow depths (greatest increase was 1% at 20 MeV). Conclusion: Apertures for field sizes ≥6×6 cm{sup 2} at any energy, or for small fields (≤4×4 cm{sup 2}) at energies <20 MeV, showed dosimetric differences less than 2%/1mm for more than 99% of points. All field size-applicator size-energy combinations passed 3%/1mm criteria for 100% of points. Work partially funded

  13. Simulation study of dynamic aperture with head-on beam-beam compensation in the RHIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Y.; Fischer, W.

    2010-08-01

    In this note we summarize the calculated 10{sup 6} turn dynamic apertures with the proposed head-on beam-beam compensation in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). To compensate the head-on beam-beam effect in the RHIC 250 GeV polarized proton run, we are planning to introduce a DC electron beam with the same transverse profile as the proton beam to collide with the proton beam. Such a device to provide the electron beam is called an electron lens (e-lens). In this note we first present the optics and beam parameters and the tracking setup. Then we compare the calculated dynamic apertures without and with head-on beam-beam compensation. The effects of adjusted phase advances between IP8 and the center of e-lens and second order chromaticity correction are checked. In the end we will scan the proton and electron beam parameters with head-on beam-beam compensation.

  14. Fabrication and Analysis of 150-mm-Aperture Nb3Sn MQXF Coils

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Holik, E. F.; Ambrosio, G.; Anerella, M.; Bossert, R.; Cavanna, E.; Cheng, D.; Dietderich, D. R.; Ferracin, P.; Ghosh, A. K.; Bermudez, S. Izquierdo; et al

    2016-01-12

    The U.S. LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) and CERN are combining efforts for the HiLumi-LHC upgrade to design and fabricate 150-mm-aperture, interaction region quadrupoles with a nominal gradient of 130 T/m using Nb3Sn. To successfully produce the necessary long MQXF triplets, the HiLumi-LHC collaboration is systematically reducing risk and design modification by heavily relying upon the experience gained from the successful 120-mm-aperture LARP HQ program. First generation MQXF short (MQXFS) coils were predominately a scaling up of the HQ quadrupole design allowing comparable cable expansion during Nb3Sn formation heat treatment and increased insulation fraction for electrical robustness. A total ofmore » 13 first generation MQXFS coils were fabricated between LARP and CERN. Systematic differences in coil size, coil alignment symmetry, and coil length contraction during heat treatment are observed and likely due to slight variances in tooling and insulation/cable systems. Analysis of coil cross sections indicate that field-shaping wedges and adjacent coil turns are systematically displaced from the nominal location and the cable is expanding less than nominally designed. Lastly, a second generation MQXF coil design seeks to correct the expansion and displacement discrepancies by increasing insulation and adding adjustable shims at the coil pole and midplanes to correct allowed magnetic field harmonics.« less

  15. Efficiency of a multilayer-Laue-lens with a 102 μm aperture

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Macrander, Albert T.; Kubec, Adam; Conley, Raymond; Bouet, Nathalie; Zhou, Juan; Wojcik, Michael; Maser, Jorg

    2015-08-25

    A multilayer-Laue-lens (MLL) comprised of WSi2/Al layers stacked to a full thickness of 102 microns was characterized for its diffraction efficiency and dynamical diffraction properties by x-ray measurements made in the far field. The achieved aperture roughly doubles the previous maximum reported aperture for an MLL, thereby doubling the working distance. Negative and positive first orders were found to have 14.2 % and 13.0 % efficiencies, respectively. A section thickness of 9.6 μm was determined from Laue-case thickness fringes in the diffraction data. A background gas consisting of 90 % Ar and 10 % N2 was used for sputtering. Thismore » material system was chosen to reduce grown-in stress as the multilayer is deposited. Although some regions of the full MLL exhibited defects, the presently reported results were obtained for a region devoid of defects. The data compare well to dynamical diffraction calculations with Coupled Wave Theory (CWT) which provided confirmation of the optical constants and densities assumed for the CWT calculations.« less

  16. Beamlet based direct aperture optimization for MERT using a photon MLC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henzen, D. Manser, P.; Frei, D.; Volken, W.; Born, E. J.; Joosten, A.; Lssl, K.; Aebersold, D. M.; Chatelain, C.; Fix, M. K.; Neuenschwander, H.; Stampanoni, M. F. M.

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: A beamlet based direct aperture optimization (DAO) for modulated electron radiotherapy (MERT) using photon multileaf collimator (pMLC) shaped electron fields is developed and investigated. Methods: The Swiss Monte Carlo Plan (SMCP) allows the calculation of dose distributions for pMLC shaped electron beams. SMCP is interfaced with the Eclipse TPS (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) which can thus be included into the inverse treatment planning process for MERT. This process starts with the import of a CT-scan into Eclipse, the contouring of the target and the organs at risk (OARs), and the choice of the initial electron beam directions. For each electron beam, the number of apertures, their energy, and initial shape are defined. Furthermore, the DAO requires dosevolume constraints for the structures contoured. In order to carry out the DAO efficiently, the initial electron beams are divided into a grid of beamlets. For each of those, the dose distribution is precalculated using a modified electron beam model, resulting in a dose list for each beamlet and energy. Then the DAO is carried out, leading to a set of optimal apertures and corresponding weights. These optimal apertures are now converted into pMLC shaped segments and the dose calculation for each segment is performed. For these dose distributions, a weight optimization process is launched in order to minimize the differences between the dose distribution using the optimal apertures and the pMLC segments. Finally, a deliverable dose distribution for the MERT plan is obtained and loaded back into Eclipse for evaluation. For an idealized water phantom geometry, a MERT treatment plan is created and compared to the plan obtained using a previously developed forward planning strategy. Further, MERT treatment plans for three clinical situations (breast, chest wall, and parotid metastasis of a squamous cell skin carcinoma) are created using the developed inverse planning strategy. The MERT plans are

  17. Computational optimization of synthetic water channels.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogers, David Michael; Rempe, Susan L. B.

    2012-12-01

    Membranes for liquid and gas separations and ion transport are critical to water purification, osmotic energy generation, fuel cells, batteries, supercapacitors, and catalysis. Often these membranes lack pore uniformity and robustness under operating conditions, which can lead to a decrease in performance. The lack of uniformity means that many pores are non-functional. Traditional membranes overcome these limitations by using thick membrane materials that impede transport and selectivity, which results in decreased performance and increased operating costs. For example, limitations in membrane performance demand high applied pressures to deionize water using reverse osmosis. In contrast, cellular membranes combine high flux and selective transport using membrane-bound protein channels operating at small pressure differences. Pore size and chemistry in the cellular channels is defined uniformly and with sub-nanometer precision through protein folding. The thickness of these cellular membranes is limited to that of the cellular membrane bilayer, about 4 nm thick, which enhances transport. Pores in the cellular membranes are robust under operating conditions in the body. Recent efforts to mimic cellular water channels for efficient water deionization produced a significant advance in membrane function. The novel biomimetic design achieved a 10-fold increase in membrane permeability to water flow compared to commercial membranes and still maintained high salt rejection. Despite this success, there is a lack of understanding about why this membrane performs so well. To address this lack of knowledge, we used highperformance computing to interrogate the structural and chemical environments experienced by water and electrolytes in the newly created biomimetic membranes. We also compared the solvation environments between the biomimetic membrane and cellular water channels. These results will help inform future efforts to optimize and tune the performance of synthetic

  18. Synthetic muscle experiment will likely return to Earth in March |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Synthetic muscle experiment will likely return to Earth in March By Jeanne Jackson DeVoe October 26, 2015 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook A photo taken by Astronaut Scott Kelly of a sample of the synthetic muscle experiment floating in the International Space Station. (Photo by Scott Kelly, Courtesy of NASA ) A photo taken by Astronaut Scott Kelly of a sample of the synthetic muscle experiment floating in the International Space Station. Gallery: A

  19. SU-E-T-295: Simultaneous Beam Sampling and Aperture Shape Optimization for Station Parameter Optimized Radiation Therapy (SPORT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zarepisheh, M; Li, R; Xing, L; Ye, Y; Boyd, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Station Parameter Optimized Radiation Therapy (SPORT) was recently proposed to fully utilize the technical capability of emerging digital LINACs, in which the station parameters of a delivery system, (such as aperture shape and weight, couch position/angle, gantry/collimator angle) are optimized altogether. SPORT promises to deliver unprecedented radiation dose distributions efficiently, yet there does not exist any optimization algorithm to implement it. The purpose of this work is to propose an optimization algorithm to simultaneously optimize the beam sampling and aperture shapes. Methods: We build a mathematical model whose variables are beam angles (including non-coplanar and/or even nonisocentric beams) and aperture shapes. To solve the resulting large scale optimization problem, we devise an exact, convergent and fast optimization algorithm by integrating three advanced optimization techniques named column generation, gradient method, and pattern search. Column generation is used to find a good set of aperture shapes as an initial solution by adding apertures sequentially. Then we apply the gradient method to iteratively improve the current solution by reshaping the aperture shapes and updating the beam angles toward the gradient. Algorithm continues by pattern search method to explore the part of the search space that cannot be reached by the gradient method. Results: The proposed technique is applied to a series of patient cases and significantly improves the plan quality. In a head-and-neck case, for example, the left parotid gland mean-dose, brainstem max-dose, spinal cord max-dose, and mandible mean-dose are reduced by 10%, 7%, 24% and 12% respectively, compared to the conventional VMAT plan while maintaining the same PTV coverage. Conclusion: Combined use of column generation, gradient search and pattern search algorithms provide an effective way to optimize simultaneously the large collection of station parameters and significantly improves

  20. Potential Additives to Promote Seal Swell in Synthetic Fuels...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Synthetic, fuels derived from the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process using natural gas or coal-derived synthesis gas as feedstocks can be used for powering ground vehicles, aircraft, ...

  1. Slanted annular aperture arrays as enhanced-transmission metamaterials: Excitation of the plasmonic transverse electromagnetic guided mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ndao, Abdoulaye; Salut, Roland; Baida, Fadi I.; Belkhir, Abderrahmane

    2013-11-18

    We present here the fabrication and the optical characterization of slanted annular aperture arrays engraved into silver film. An experimental enhanced transmission based on the excitation of the cutoff-less plasmonic guided mode of the nano-waveguides (the transmission electron microscopy mode) is demonstrated and agrees well with the theoretical predicted results. By the way, even if it is less efficient (70% → 20%), an enhanced transmission can occur at larger wavelength value (720 nm–930 nm) compared to conventional annular aperture arrays structure by correctly setting the metal thickness.

  2. Synthetic muscle developed with PPPL scientists' help ready for launch |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Synthetic muscle developed with PPPL scientists' help ready for launch By Jeanne Jackson DeVoe April 8, 2015 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Gallery: The Dragon spacecraft in orbit. Photo courtesy of NASA) (Photo by Photo courtesy of NASA) The Dragon spacecraft in orbit. Photo courtesy of NASA) The synthetic muscle material before it was packed for transport to the International Space Station. ( Photo courtesy of NASA ) (Photo by Photo courtesy of

  3. Application of Synthetic Diesel Fuels | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Synthetic Diesel Fuels Application of Synthetic Diesel Fuels 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters 2005_deer_schaberg.pdf (462.75 KB) More Documents & Publications Effect of GTL Diesel Fuels on Emissions and Engine Performance The Potential of GTL Diesel to Meet Future Exhaust Emission Limits Performance Characteristics of Coal-to-Liquids (CTL) Diesel in a 50-State Emissions Compliant Passenger Car

  4. Intramolecular hydrogen bonding as a synthetic tool to induce chemical

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    selectivity in acid catalyzed porphyrin synthesis Intramolecular hydrogen bonding as a synthetic tool to induce chemical selectivity in acid catalyzed porphyrin synthesis Authors: Megiatto, J. D., Patterson, D., Sherman, B. D., Moore, T. A., Gust, D., and Moore, A. L. Title: Intramolecular hydrogen bonding as a synthetic tool to induce chemical selectivity in acid catalyzed porphyrin synthesis Source: Chemical Communications Year: 2012 Volume: 48 Pages: 4558-4560 ABSTRACT: A straightforward

  5. Synthetic environment employing a craft for providing user perspective reference

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maples, Creve; Peterson, Craig A.

    1997-10-21

    A multi-dimensional user oriented synthetic environment system allows application programs to be programmed and accessed with input/output device independent, generic functional commands which are a distillation of the actual functions performed by any application program. A shared memory structure allows the translation of device specific commands to device independent, generic functional commands. Complete flexibility of the mapping of synthetic environment data to the user is thereby allowed. Accordingly, synthetic environment data may be provided to the user on parallel user information processing channels allowing the subcognitive mind to act as a filter, eliminating irrelevant information and allowing the processing of increase amounts of data by the user. The user is further provided with a craft surrounding the user within the synthetic environment, which craft, imparts important visual referential an motion parallax cues, enabling the user to better appreciate distances and directions within the synthetic environment. Display of this craft in close proximity to the user's point of perspective may be accomplished without substantially degrading the image resolution of the displayed portions of the synthetic environment.

  6. Measurements of aperture and beam lifetime using movable beam scrapers in Indus-2 electron storage ring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Pradeep; Ghodke, A. D.; Karnewar, A. K.; Holikatti, A. C.; Yadav, S.; Puntambekar, T. A.; Singh, G.; Singh, P.

    2013-12-15

    In this paper, the measurements of vertical and horizontal aperture which are available for stable beam motion in Indus-2 at beam energy 2.5 GeV using movable beam scrapers are presented. These beam scrapers are installed in one of the long straight sections in the ring. With the movement of beam scrapers towards the beam centre, the beam lifetime is measured. The beam lifetime data obtained from the movement of vertical and horizontal beam scrapers are analyzed. The contribution of beam loss due to beam-gas scattering (vacuum lifetime) and electron-electron scattering within a beam bunch (Touschek lifetime) is separated from the measured beam lifetime at different positions of the beam scrapers. Vertical and horizontal beam sizes at scrapers location are estimated from the scraper movement towards the beam centre in quantum lifetime limit and their values closely agree with measured value obtained using X-ray diagnostic beamline.

  7. Optimization of dynamic aperture for hadron lattices in eRHIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jing, Yichao; Litvinenko, Vladimir; Trbojevic, Dejan

    2015-05-03

    The potential upgrade of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) to an electron ion collider (eRHIC) involves numerous extensive changes to the existing collider complex. The expected very high luminosity is planned to be achieved at eRHIC with the help of squeezing the beta function of the hadron ring at the IP to a few cm, causing a large rise of the natural chromaticities and thus bringing with it challenges for the beam long term stability (Dynamic aperture). We present our effort to expand the DA by carefully tuning the nonlinear magnets thus controlling the size of the footprints in tune space and all lower order resonance driving terms. We show a reasonably large DA through particle tracking over millions of turns of beam revolution.

  8. Fast-neutron coded-aperture imaging of special nuclear material configurations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. A. Hausladen; M. A. Blackston; E. Brubaker; D. L. Chichester; P. Marleau; R. J. Newby

    2012-07-01

    In the past year, a prototype fast-neutron coded-aperture imager has been developed that has sufficient efficiency and resolution to make the counting of warheads for possible future treaty confirmation scenarios via their fission-neutron emissions practical. The imager is constructed from custom-built pixelated liquid scintillator detectors. The liquid scintillator detectors enable neutron-gamma discrimination via pulse shape, and the pixelated construction enables a sufficient number of pixels for imaging in a compact detector with a manageable number of channels of readout electronics. The imager has been used to image neutron sources at ORNL, special nuclear material (SNM) sources at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR) facility, and neutron source and shielding configurations at Sandia National Laboratories. This paper reports on the design and construction of the imager, characterization measurements with neutron sources at ORNL, and measurements with SNM at the INL ZPPR facility.

  9. Debris-less method and apparatus for forming apertures in hollow metallic articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jordan, C.L.; Chodelka, E.J.

    1980-06-24

    This invention is a method for forming an aperture in a wall of a hollow metallic article without introducing metallic debris therein. In a typical operation, an annular groove is formed in an exterior portion of the wall. The groove defines an annular wall segment, and the bottom of the groove is shaped to slope downwardly away from the segment to form a tapered annular web which connects the segment to the wall. Any suitable coupling is attached to the outer face of the segment, as by welding. Pull then is applied to the coupling to effect circumferential breakage of the web, thus forming a removable single-piece wall fragment consisting of the web and segment. The fragment and the coupling member attached thereto then are removed from the wall.

  10. Polarization-dependent atomic dipole traps behind a circular aperture for neutral-atom quantum computing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillen-Christandl, Katharina; Copsey, Bert D.

    2011-02-15

    The neutral-atom quantum computing community has successfully implemented almost all necessary steps for constructing a neutral-atom quantum computer. We present computational results of a study aimed at solving the remaining problem of creating a quantum memory with individually addressable sites for quantum computing. The basis of this quantum memory is the diffraction pattern formed by laser light incident on a circular aperture. Very close to the aperture, the diffraction pattern has localized bright and dark spots that can serve as red-detuned or blue-detuned atomic dipole traps. These traps are suitable for quantum computing even for moderate laser powers. In particular, for moderate laser intensities ({approx}100 W/cm{sup 2}) and comparatively small detunings ({approx}1000-10 000 linewidths), trap depths of {approx}1 mK and trap frequencies of several to tens of kilohertz are achieved. Our results indicate that these dipole traps can be moved by tilting the incident laser beams without significantly changing the trap properties. We also explored the polarization dependence of these dipole traps. We developed a code that calculates the trapping potential energy for any magnetic substate of any hyperfine ground state of any alkali-metal atom for any laser detuning much smaller than the fine-structure splitting for any given electric field distribution. We describe details of our calculations and include a summary of different notations and conventions for the reduced matrix element and how to convert it to SI units. We applied this code to these traps and found a method for bringing two traps together and apart controllably without expelling the atoms from the trap and without significant tunneling probability between the traps. This approach can be scaled up to a two-dimensional array of many pinholes, forming a quantum memory with single-site addressability, in which pairs of atoms can be brought together and apart for two-qubit gates for quantum computing.

  11. Finding Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas Using a Three-Component Long-Offset Surface Seismic Survey

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project summary: Drilling into large aperture open fractures (LAFs) typically yield production wells with high productivity and low pressure drawdown. Developing geophysical and geologic techniques for identifying and precisely mapping LAFsin 3-D will greatly reduce dry hole risk and the overall number of wells required for reaching a particular geothermal field power capacity.

  12. Study of 2-in1 large-aperture Nb3Sn IR quadrupoles for the LHC luminosity upgrade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kashikhin, V.V.; Zlobin, A.V.; /Fermilab

    2006-06-01

    Double-aperture Nb{sub 3}Sn quadrupoles with asymmetric coils and with cold and warm iron yokes were studied for the dipole-first upgrade scenario of the LHC Interaction Regions (IR). This paper describes the magnet design concepts and discusses their performance parameters, including field gradient and field quality limitations.

  13. Development and evaluation of aperture-based complexity metrics using film and EPID measurements of static MLC openings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Götstedt, Julia; Karlsson Hauer, Anna; Bäck, Anna

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Complexity metrics have been suggested as a complement to measurement-based quality assurance for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). However, these metrics have not yet been sufficiently validated. This study develops and evaluates new aperture-based complexity metrics in the context of static multileaf collimator (MLC) openings and compares them to previously published metrics. Methods: This study develops the converted aperture metric and the edge area metric. The converted aperture metric is based on small and irregular parts within the MLC opening that are quantified as measured distances between MLC leaves. The edge area metric is based on the relative size of the region around the edges defined by the MLC. Another metric suggested in this study is the circumference/area ratio. Earlier defined aperture-based complexity metrics—the modulation complexity score, the edge metric, the ratio monitor units (MU)/Gy, the aperture area, and the aperture irregularity—are compared to the newly proposed metrics. A set of small and irregular static MLC openings are created which simulate individual IMRT/VMAT control points of various complexities. These are measured with both an amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging device and EBT3 film. The differences between calculated and measured dose distributions are evaluated using a pixel-by-pixel comparison with two global dose difference criteria of 3% and 5%. The extent of the dose differences, expressed in terms of pass rate, is used as a measure of the complexity of the MLC openings and used for the evaluation of the metrics compared in this study. The different complexity scores are calculated for each created static MLC opening. The correlation between the calculated complexity scores and the extent of the dose differences (pass rate) are analyzed in scatter plots and using Pearson’s r-values. Results: The complexity scores calculated by the edge

  14. Dual chain synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zamora, Paul O.; Pena, Louis A.; Lin, Xinhua

    2009-10-06

    The invention provides synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs having two peptide chains each branched from a branch moiety, such as trifunctional amino acid residues, the branch moieties separated by a first linker of from 3 to about 20 backbone atoms, which peptide chains bind a heparin-binding growth factor receptor and are covalently bound to a non-signaling peptide that includes a heparin-binding domain, preferably by a second linker, which may be a hydrophobic second linker. The synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs are useful as pharmaceutical agents, soluble biologics or as surface coatings for medical devices.

  15. Dual chain synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zamora, Paul O.; Pena, Louis A.; Lin, Xinhua

    2012-04-24

    The invention provides synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs having two peptide chains each branched from a branch moiety, such as trifunctional amino acid residues, the branch moieties separated by a first linker of from 3 to about 20 backbone atoms, which peptide chains bind a heparin-binding growth factor receptor and are covalently bound to a non-signaling peptide that includes a heparin-binding domain, preferably by a second linker, which may be a hydrophobic second linker. The synthetic heparin-binding growth factor analogs are useful as pharmaceutical agents, soluble biologics or as surface coatings for medical devices.

  16. Kapitza problem for the magnetic moments of synthetic antiferromagnetic systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dzhezherya, Yu. I.; Demishev, K. O.; Korenivskii, V. N.

    2012-08-15

    The dynamics of magnetization in synthetic antiferromagnetic systems with the magnetic dipole coupling in a rapidly oscillating field has been examined. It has been revealed that the system can behave similar to the Kapitza pendulum. It has been shown that an alternating magnetic field can be efficiently used to control the magnetic state of a cell of a synthetic antiferromagnet. Analytical relations have been obtained between the parameters of such an antiferromagnet and an external magnetic field at which certain quasistationary states are implemented.

  17. Analysis to determine the maximum dimensions of flexible apertures in sensored security netting products.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murton, Mark; Bouchier, Francis A.; vanDongen, Dale T.; Mack, Thomas Kimball; Cutler, Robert Paul; Ross, Michael P.

    2013-08-01

    Although technological advances provide new capabilities to increase the robustness of security systems, they also potentially introduce new vulnerabilities. New capability sometimes requires new performance requirements. This paper outlines an approach to establishing a key performance requirement for an emerging intrusion detection sensor: the sensored net. Throughout the security industry, the commonly adopted standard for maximum opening size through barriers is a requirement based on square inches-typically 96 square inches. Unlike standard rigid opening, the dimensions of a flexible aperture are not fixed, but variable and conformable. It is demonstrably simple for a human intruder to move through a 96-square-inch opening that is conformable to the human body. The longstanding 96-square-inch requirement itself, though firmly embedded in policy and best practice, lacks a documented empirical basis. This analysis concluded that the traditional 96-square-inch standard for openings is insufficient for flexible openings that are conformable to the human body. Instead, a circumference standard is recommended for these newer types of sensored barriers. The recommended maximum circumference for a flexible opening should be no more than 26 inches, as measured on the inside of the netting material.

  18. All-reflective optical target illumination system with high numerical aperture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sigler, Robert D.

    1978-01-01

    An all-reflective optical system for providing illumination of a target focal region at high numerical aperture from a pair of co-axially, confluent collimated light beams. A target cavity is defined by a pair of opposed inner ellipsoidal reflectors having respective first focal points within a target region and second focal points at a vertex opening in the opposing reflector. Outwardly of each inner reflector is the opposed combination of a spherical reflector, and an outer generally ellipsoidal reflector having an aberrated first focal point coincident with the focus of the opposing spherical reflector and a second focal point coincident with the second focal point of the opposing inner ellipsoidal reflector through a vertex opening in the spherical reflector. The confluent collimated beams are incident through vertex openings in the outer ellipsoidal reflectors onto respective opposing spherical reflectors. Each beam is reflected by the associated spherical reflector onto the opposing outer ellipsoidal reflector and focused thereby onto the opposing inner ellipsoidal reflector, and then onto the target region.

  19. AN IMAGE-PLANE ALGORITHM FOR JWST'S NON-REDUNDANT APERTURE MASK DATA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenbaum, Alexandra Z.; Pueyo, Laurent; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Lacour, Sylvestre

    2015-01-10

    The high angular resolution technique of non-redundant masking (NRM) or aperture masking interferometry (AMI) has yielded images of faint protoplanetary companions of nearby stars from the ground. AMI on James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)'s Near Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph (NIRISS) has a lower thermal background than ground-based facilities and does not suffer from atmospheric instability. NIRISS AMI images are likely to have 90%-95% Strehl ratio between 2.77 and 4.8 μm. In this paper we quantify factors that limit the raw point source contrast of JWST NRM. We develop an analytic model of the NRM point spread function which includes different optical path delays (pistons) between mask holes and fit the model parameters with image plane data. It enables a straightforward way to exclude bad pixels, is suited to limited fields of view, and can incorporate effects such as intra-pixel sensitivity variations. We simulate various sources of noise to estimate their effect on the standard deviation of closure phase, σ{sub CP} (a proxy for binary point source contrast). If σ{sub CP} < 10{sup –4} radians—a contrast ratio of 10 mag—young accreting gas giant planets (e.g., in the nearby Taurus star-forming region) could be imaged with JWST NIRISS. We show the feasibility of using NIRISS' NRM with the sub-Nyquist sampled F277W, which would enable some exoplanet chemistry characterization. In the presence of small piston errors, the dominant sources of closure phase error (depending on pixel sampling, and filter bandwidth) are flat field errors and unmodeled variations in intra-pixel sensitivity. The in-flight stability of NIRISS will determine how well these errors can be calibrated by observing a point source. Our results help develop efficient observing strategies for space-based NRM.

  20. Active galactic nucleus and quasar science with aperture masking interferometry on the James Webb Space Telescope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ford, K. E. Saavik; McKernan, Barry; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Martel, André R.; Koekemoer, Anton; Lafrenière, David; Parmentier, Sébastien

    2014-03-10

    Due to feedback from accretion onto supermassive black holes (SMBHs), active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are believed to play a key role in ΛCDM cosmology and galaxy formation. However, AGNs extreme luminosities and the small angular size of their accretion flows create a challenging imaging problem. We show that the James Webb Space Telescope's Near Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph (JWST-NIRISS) Aperture Masking Interferometry (AMI) mode will enable true imaging (i.e., without any requirement of prior assumptions on source geometry) at ∼65 mas angular resolution at the centers of AGNs. This is advantageous for studying complex extended accretion flows around SMBHs and in other areas of angular-resolution-limited astrophysics. By simulating data sequences incorporating expected sources of noise, we demonstrate that JWST-NIRISS AMI mode can map extended structure at a pixel-to-pixel contrast of ∼10{sup –2} around an L = 7.5 point source, using short exposure times (minutes). Such images will test models of AGN feedback, fueling, and structure (complementary with ALMA observations), and are not currently supported by any ground-based IR interferometer or telescope. Binary point source contrast with NIRISS is ∼10{sup –4} (for observing binary nuclei in merging galaxies), significantly better than current ground-based optical or IR interferometry. JWST-NIRISS's seven-hole non-redundant mask has a throughput of 15%, and utilizes NIRISS's F277W (2.77 μm), F380M (3.8 μm), F430M (4.3 μm), and F480M (4.8 μm) filters. NIRISS's square pixels are 65 mas per side, with a field of view ∼2' × 2'. We also extrapolate our results to AGN science enabled by non-redundant masking on future 2.4 m and 16 m space telescopes working at long-UV to near-IR wavelengths.

  1. Renewable Energy from Synthetic Biology (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Keasling, Jay

    2011-04-28

    Jay Keasling, co-leader of Berkeley Lab's Helios Project, is a groundbreaking researcher in the new scientific field of synthetic biology. In Helios, he directs the biology program, incorporating a range of approaches to increasing the efficacy and economy of plants and cellulose-degrading microbes to make solar-based fuels. He is a UC Berkeley professor of Chemical and Bioengineering, and founder of Amyris Biotechnologies, a company that was honored as a Technology Pioneer for 2006 by the World Economic Forum. Keasling has succeeded in using synthetic biology to develop a yeast-based production scheme for precursors of the antimalarial drug artemisinin in work funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

  2. Synthetic nanotubes lay foundation for new technology: Artificial pores

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    mimic key features of natural pores | Argonne National Laboratory Synthetic nanotubes lay foundation for new technology: Artificial pores mimic key features of natural pores By Tona Kunz * July 17, 2012 Tweet EmailPrint Scientists have overcome key design hurdles to expand the potential uses of nanopores and nanotubes. The creation of smart nanotubes with selective mass transport opens up a wider range of applications for water purification, chemical separation and fighting disease.

  3. Synthetic Biology: Engineering, Evolution and Design (SEED) Conference 2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voigt, Christopher

    2014-07-01

    SEED2014 focused on advances in the science and technology emerging from the field of synthetic biology. We broadly define this as technologies that accelerate the process of genetic engineering. It highlighted new tool development, as well as the application of these tools to diverse problems in biotechnology, including therapeutics, industrial chemicals and fuels, natural products, and agriculture. Systems spanned from in vitro experiments and viruses, through diverse bacteria, to eukaryotes (yeast, mammalian cells, plants).

  4. Synthetic Antimicrobial Oligomers Induce Composition-dependent Topological

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transition in Membranes Synthetic Antimicrobial Oligomers Induce Composition-dependent Topological Transition in Membranes The development of bacterial resistance to conventional antibiotics is a major public health concern. For example, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) have emerged as common nosocomial (hospital-originating) infections. Circumvention of such resistance may be possi ble by emulating

  5. CO2 Removal using a Synthetic Analogue of Carbonic Anhydrase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harry Cordatos

    2010-09-14

    Project attempts to develop a synthetic analogue for carbonic anhydrase and incorporate it in a membrane for separation of CO2 from coal power plant flue gas. Conference poster presents result of first 9 months of project progress including concept, basic system architecture and membrane properties target, results of molecular modeling for analogue - CO2 interaction, and next steps of testing analogue resistance to flue gas contaminants.

  6. Pentavalent Uranium Chemistry - Synthetic Pursuit Of A Rare Oxidation State

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graves, Christopher R; Kiplinger, Jaqueline L

    2009-01-01

    This feature article presents a comprehensive overview of pentavalent uranium systems in non-aqueous solution with a focus on the various synthetic avenues employed to access this unusual and very important oxidation state. Selected characterization data and theoretical aspects are also included. The purpose is to provide a perspective on this rapidly evolving field and identify new possibilities for future developments in pentavalent uranium chemistry.

  7. Method and apparatus for removing heat from electronic devices using synthetic jets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sharma, Rajdeep; Weaver, Jr., Stanton Earl; Seeley, Charles Erklin; Arik, Mehmet; Icoz, Tunc; Wolfe, Jr., Charles Franklin; Utturkar, Yogen Vishwas

    2014-04-15

    An apparatus for removing heat comprises a heat sink having a cavity, and a synthetic jet stack comprising at least one synthetic jet mounted within the cavity. At least one rod and at least one engaging structure to provide a rigid positioning of the at least one synthetic jet with respect to the at least one rod. The synthetic jet comprises at least one orifice through which a fluid is ejected.

  8. Method and apparatus for removing heat from electronic devices using synthetic jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, Rajdeep; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Seeley, Charles Erklin; Arik, Mehmet; Icoz, Tunc; Wolfe, Jr., Charles Franklin; Utturkar, Yogen Vishwas

    2015-11-24

    An apparatus for removing heat comprises a heat sink having a cavity, and a synthetic jet stack comprising at least one synthetic jet mounted within the cavity. At least one rod and at least one engaging structure to provide a rigid positioning of the at least one synthetic jet with respect to the at least one rod. The synthetic jet comprises at least one orifice through which a fluid is ejected.

  9. Method and apparatus for removing heat from electronic devices using synthetic jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, Rajdeep; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Seeley, Charles Erklin; Arik, Mehmet; Icoz, Tunc; Wolfe Jr, Charles Franklin; Utturkar, Yogen Vishwas

    2015-12-01

    An apparatus for removing heat comprises a heat sink having a cavity, and a synthetic jet stack comprising at least one synthetic jet mounted within the cavity. At least one rod and at least one engaging structure to provide a rigid positioning of the at least one synthetic jet with respect to the at least one rod. The synthetic jet comprises at least one orifice through which a fluid is ejected.

  10. Multiphase Fluid Flow in Deformable Variable-Aperture Fractures - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Detwiler, Russell

    2014-04-30

    capillary forces and redistribution of fluids. These coupled processes enhance channel formation and the potential for development of fast flow paths through fractures. (2) Dissolution in fractures subjected to normal stress can result in behaviors ranging from development of dissolution channels and rapid permeability increases to fracture healing and significant permeability decreases. The timescales associated with advective transport of dissolved ions in the fracture, mineral dissolution rates, and diffusion within the adjacent porous matrix dictate the sign and magnitude of the resulting permeability changes. Furthermore, a high-? resolution mechanistic model that couples elastic deformation of contacts and aperture-?dependent dissolution rates predicts the range of observed behaviors reasonably well. (3) ERT has potential as a tool for monitoring gas leakage in deep formations. Using probabilistic inversion methods further enhances the results by providing uncertainty estimates of inverted parameters.

  11. Method for producing and regenerating a synthetic CO.sub.2 acceptor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lancet, Michael S [Pittsburgh, PA; Curran, George P [Pittsburgh, PA; Gorin, Everett [San Rafael, CA

    1982-01-01

    A method for producing a synthetic CO.sub.2 acceptor by feeding a mixture of finely divided silica and at least one finely divided calcium compound selected from the group consisting of calcium oxide and calcium carbonate to a fluidized bed; operating the fluidized bed at suitable conditions to produce pellets of synthetic CO.sub.2 acceptor and recovering the pellets of synthetic CO.sub.2 acceptor from the fluidized bed. Optionally, spent synthetic CO.sub.2 acceptor can be charged to the fluidized bed to produce regenerated pellets of synthetic CO.sub.2 acceptor.

  12. Method for producing and regenerating a synthetic CO[sub 2] acceptor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lancet, M. S.; Curran, G. P.; Gorin, E.

    1982-05-18

    A method is described for producing a synthetic CO[sub 2] acceptor by feeding a mixture of finely divided silica and at least one finely divided calcium compound selected from the group consisting of calcium oxide and calcium carbonate to a fluidized bed; operating the fluidized bed at suitable conditions to produce pellets of synthetic CO[sub 2] acceptor and recovering the pellets of synthetic CO[sub 2] acceptor from the fluidized bed. Optionally, spent synthetic CO[sub 2] acceptor can be charged to the fluidized bed to produce regenerated pellets of synthetic CO[sub 2] acceptor. 1 fig.

  13. SU-E-T-453: A Novel Daily QA System for Robotic Image Guided Radiosurgery with Variable Aperture Collimator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, L; Nelson, B

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: A novel end-to-end system using a CCD camera and a scintillator based phantom that is capable of measuring the beam-by-beam delivery accuracy of Robotic Radiosurgery has been developed and reported in our previous work. This work investigates its application to end-to-end type daily QA for Robotic Radiosurgery (Cyberknife) with Variable Aperture Collimator (Iris). Methods: The phantom was first scanned with a CT scanner at 0.625 slice thickness and exported to the Cyberknife Muliplan (v4.6) treatment planning system. An isocentric treatment plan was created consisting of ten beams of 25 Monitor Units each using Iris apertures of 7.5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 mm. The plan was delivered six times in two days on the Cyberknife G4 system with fiducial tracking on the four metal fiducials embedded in phantom with re-positioning between the measurements. The beam vectors (X, Y, Z) are measured and compared with the plan from the machine delivery file (XML file). The Iris apertures (FWHM) were measured from the beam flux map and compared with the commissioning data. Results: The average beam positioning accuracies of the six deliveries are 0.71 0.40 mm, 0.72 0.44 mm, 0.74 0.42 mm, 0.70 0.40 mm, 0.79 0.44 mm and 0.69 0.41 mm respectively. Radiation beam width (FWHM) variations are within 0.05 mm, and they agree with the commissioning data within 0.22 mm. The delivery time for the plan is about 7 minutes and the results are given instantly. Conclusion: The experimental results agree with stated sub-millimeter delivery accuracy of Cyberknife system. Beam FWHM variations comply with the 0.2 mm accuracy of the Iris collimator at SAD. The XRV-100 system has proven to be a powerful tool in performing end-to-end type tests for Robotic Image Guided Radiosurgery Daily QA.

  14. Multi-epoch very long baseline interferometric observations of the nuclear starburst region of NGC 253: Improved modeling of the supernova and star formation rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rampadarath, H.; Morgan, J. S.; Tingay, S. J.; Lenc, E.

    2014-01-01

    The results of multi-epoch observations of the southern starburst galaxy, NGC 253, with the Australian Long Baseline Array at 2.3 GHz are presented. As with previous radio interferometric observations of this galaxy, no new sources were discovered. By combining the results of this survey with Very Large Array observations at higher frequencies from the literature, spectra were derived and a free-free absorption model was fitted of 20 known sources in NGC 253. The results were found to be consistent with previous studies. The supernova remnant, 5.48-43.3, was imaged with the highest sensitivity and resolution to date, revealing a two-lobed morphology. Comparisons with previous observations of similar resolution give an upper limit of 10{sup 4} km s{sup 1} for the expansion speed of this remnant. We derive a supernova rate of <0.2 yr{sup 1} for the inner 300 pc using a model that improves on previous methods by incorporating an improved radio supernova peak luminosity distribution and by making use of multi-wavelength radio data spanning 21 yr. A star formation rate of SFR(M ? 5 M {sub ?}) < 4.9 M {sub ?} yr{sup 1} was also estimated using the standard relation between supernova and star formation rates. Our improved estimates of supernova and star formation rates are consistent with studies at other wavelengths. The results of our study point to the possible existence of a small population of undetected supernova remnants, suggesting a low rate of radio supernova production in NGC 253.

  15. Modular synthetic inverters from zinc finger proteins and small RNAs

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hsia, Justin; Holtz, William J.; Maharbiz, Michel M.; Arcak, Murat; Keasling, Jay D.; Rao, Christopher V.

    2016-02-17

    Synthetic zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) can be created to target promoter DNA sequences, repressing transcription. The binding of small RNA (sRNA) to ZFP mRNA creates an ultrasensitive response to generate higher effective Hill coefficients. Here we combined three “off the shelf” ZFPs and three sRNAs to create new modular inverters in E. coli and quantify their behavior using induction fold. We found a general ordering of the effects of the ZFPs and sRNAs on induction fold that mostly held true when combining these parts. We then attempted to construct a ring oscillator using our new inverters. In conclusion, our chosenmore » parts performed insufficiently to create oscillations, but we include future directions for improvement upon our work presented here.« less

  16. Design and Fabrication of a Single-Aperture 11T Nb3Sn Dipole Model for LHC Upgrades

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andreev, N.; Apollinari, G.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Nobrega, F.; Novitski, I.; Turrioni, D.; Yamada, R.; Zlobin, A.V.; Auchmann, B.; Karppinen, M.; /CERN

    2011-11-28

    The planned upgrade of the LHC collimation system includes additional collimators to be installed in the dispersion suppressor areas of points 2, 3 and 7. To provide the necessary longitudinal space for the collimators, a replacement of 8.33 T Nb-Ti LHC main dipoles with 11 T dipoles based on Nb{sub 3}Sn superconductor compatible with the LHC lattice and main systems is being considered. To demonstrate this possibility FNAL and CERN have started a joint program to develop a 2 m long single-aperture dipole magnet with the nominal field of 11 T at {approx}11.85 kA current and 60 mm bore. This paper describes the demonstrator magnet magnetic and mechanical designs and analysis, coil fabrication procedure. The Nb{sub 3}Sn strand and cable parameters and test results are also reported.

  17. Full aperture backscatter station imager diagnostics system for far-field imaging of laser plasma instabilities on Nova

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilke, M.D.; Fernandez, J.C.; Berggren, R.R.; Horton, R.F.; Montgomery, D.S.; Faulkner, J.A.; Looney, L.D.; Jimerson, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    In ICF, the understanding of laser plasma scattering processes is essential for laser target coupling and for controlling the symmetry of indirect drive implosions. The existing Nova full aperture backscatter station has been useful in understanding laser plasma instabilities occurring in hohlraums by measuring the quantity, spectral distribution, and near-field spatial distributions of Brillouin and more recently Raman backscatter. Equally important is an understanding of the far-field spatial intensity distribution which could help in understanding filamentation, threshold and saturation processes. This article describes a broadband, color-corrected far-field imager and associated diagnostics capable of imaging the source of scattered light to better than 25 {mu}m resolution. Brillouin and Raman backscatter can be imaged through the Nova beam-7 focusing lens or the imager can be used like a microscope to image side scatter from other beams. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  18. Edge-facet pumped, multi-aperture, thin-disk laser geometry for very high average power output scaling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zapata, Luis E.

    2004-12-21

    The average power output of a laser is scaled, to first order, by increasing the transverse dimension of the gain medium while increasing the thickness of an index matched light guide proportionately. Strategic facets cut at the edges of the laminated gain medium provide a method by which the pump light introduced through edges of the composite structure is trapped and passes through the gain medium repeatedly. Spontaneous emission escapes the laser volume via these facets. A multi-faceted disk geometry with grooves cut into the thickness of the gain medium is optimized to passively reject spontaneous emission generated within the laser material, which would otherwise be trapped and amplified within the high index composite disk. Such geometry allows the useful size of the laser aperture to be increased, enabling the average laser output power to be scaled.

  19. Innovative regulatory approach for synthetic-based muds.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.

    1998-10-22

    The oil and gas industry has historically used water-based muds (WBMs) and oil-based muds (OBMs) in offshore drilling operations. WBMs are less expensive and are widely used. Both the WBMs and the associated drill cuttings maybe discharged from the platform to the sea provided that U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) discharge limitations are met. In some wells, however, difficult drilling conditions may force a switch from a WBM to an OBM. Neither the OBM nor the associated drill cuttings may be discharged. The OBM is hauled to shore, where it is processed for reuse, while the associated cuttings are injected in a disposal well at the platform or hauled to shore to a disposal facility. Both of these options are expensive. Synthetic-based muds (SBMs) are drilling fluids that use synthetic organic chemicals as base fluids. SBMs were developed to replace OBMs in difficult drilling situations. SBMs are more expensive than OBMs; however, they have superior environmental properties that may permit the cuttings to be discharged on-site. Like OBMs, SBMs are hauled ashore for processing and reuse after the well is drilled. The existing national effluent limitations guidelines (ELGs) for the offshore industry do not include requirements for SBM-cuttings since SBMs were not commonly in use at the time the ELGs were adopted. In late 1997, EPA announced that it would modify the offshore ELGs to include requirements for discharges of cuttings drilled with SBMs. For the first time in the history of the ELG program, EPA is following an innovative presumptive rulemaking process that will lead to development of draft regulations in one year rather than the 4- to 6-year period usually needed. With direction from the federal government to stakeholders concerning information needs for the regulatory development the industry has established several working groups to collect new scientific information on SBMs. This paper describes the presumptive rulemaking process and summarizes

  20. A simple technique to reduce evaporation of crystallization droplets by using plate lids with apertures for adding liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zipper, Lauren E.; Aristide, Xavier; Bishop, Dylan P.; Joshi, Ishita; Kharzeev, Julia; Patel, Krishna B.; Santiago, Brianna M.; Joshi, Karan; Dorsinvil, Kahille; Sweet, Robert M.; Soares, Alexei S.

    2014-11-28

    This article describes the use of evaporation control lids that are fitted to crystallization plates to improve the reproducibility of trials using as little as 5 nl. The plate lids contain apertures which are large enough for the transfer of protein containing droplets, but small enough to greatly reduce the rate of evaporation during the time needed to prepare the plate. A method is described for using plate lids to reduce evaporation in low-volume vapor-diffusion crystallization experiments. The plate lids contain apertures through which the protein and precipitants were added to different crystallization microplates (the reservoir was filled before fitting the lids). Plate lids were designed for each of these commonly used crystallization microplates. This system minimizes the dehydration of crystallization droplets containing just a few nanolitres of protein and precipitant, and results in more reproducible diffraction from the crystals. For each lid design, changes in the weight of the plates were used to deduce the rate of evaporation under different conditions of temperature, air movement, droplet size and precipitant. For comparison, the state of dehydration was also visually assessed throughout the experiment. Finally, X-ray diffraction methods were used to compare the diffraction of protein crystals that were conventionally prepared against those that were prepared on plates with plate lids. The measurements revealed that the plate lids reduced the rate of evaporation by 63–82%. Crystals grown in 5 nl drops that were set up with plate lids diffracted to higher resolution than similar crystals from drops that were set up without plate lids. The results demonstrate that plate lids can be instrumental for improving few-nanolitre crystallizations.

  1. SU-E-T-593: Clinical Evaluation of Direct Aperture Optimization in Head/Neck and Prostate IMRT Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hosini, M; GALAL, M; Emam, I; Kamal, G; Algohary, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the planning and dosimetric advantages of direct aperture optimization (DAO) over beam-let optimization in IMRT treatment of head and neck (H/N) and prostate cancers. Methods: Five Head and Neck as well as five prostate patients were planned using the beamlet optimizer in Elekta-Xio ver 4.6 IMRT treatment planning system. Based on our experience in beamlet IMRT optimization, PTVs in H/N plans were prescribed to 70 Gy delivered by 7 fields. While prostate PTVs were prescribed to 76 Gy with 9 fields. In all plans, fields were set to be equally spaced. All cases were re-planed using Direct Aperture optimizer in Prowess Panther ver 5.01 IMRT planning system at same configurations and dose constraints. Plans were evaluated according to ICRU criteria, number of segments, number of monitor units and planning time. Results: For H/N plans, the near maximum dose (D2) and the dose that covers 95% D95 of PTV has improved by 4% in DAO. For organs at risk (OAR), DAO reduced the volume covered by 30% (V30) in spinal cord, right parotid, and left parotid by 60%, 54%, and 53% respectively. This considerable dosimetric quality improvement achieved using 25% less planning time and lower number of segments and monitor units by 46% and 51% respectively. In DAO prostate plans, Both D2 and D95 for the PTV were improved by only 2%. The V30 of the right femur, left femur and bladder were improved by 35%, 15% and 3% respectively. On the contrary, the rectum V30 got even worse by 9%. However, number of monitor units, and number of segments decreased by 20% and 25% respectively. Moreover the planning time reduced significantly too. Conclusion: DAO introduces considerable advantages over the beamlet optimization in regards to organs at risk sparing. However, no significant improvement occurred in most studied PTVs.

  2. Findings and recommendations of the advisory panel on synthetic fuels. Advisory panel on synthetic fuels. Report for the Committee on Science and Technology, US House of Representatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    In a report to the US House of Representatives Committee on Science and Technology, the Advisory Panel defines the most critical energy problem facing the US: obtaining a sufficient supply of liquid hydrocarbons for transportation fuel and for other applications where substitution would be difficult, costly, and time-consuming. Any substantial contribution from synthetic fuels must involve the use of coal, oil shale, and biomass, with the raw materials coming from as many different regions of the country as possible. The panel makes recommendations regarding (1) the emphasis of the Department of Energy's synthetic-fuel demonstration program, (2) implementation of a synthetic-fuel production program, and (3) mitigation of the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of synthetic-fuel production. The panel specifically maintains that federal assistance to commercial-scale projects should be available on a competitive basis to those organizations willing to take substantial marketing risks.

  3. Photoreactive synthetic regulator of protein function and methods of use thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trauner, Dirk; Isacoff, Ehud Y; Kramer, Richard H; Banghart, Matthew R; Fortin, Doris L; Mourot, Alexandre

    2015-03-31

    The present disclosure provides a photoreactive synthetic regulator of protein function. The present disclosure further provides a light-regulated polypeptide that includes a subject synthetic regulator. Also provided are cells and membranes comprising a subject light-regulated polypeptide. The present disclosure further provides methods of modulating protein function, involving use of light.

  4. Uranium Removal from Contaminated Groundwater by Synthetic Resins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, Debra H.; Gu, Baohua; Watson, David B; Parmele, C. S.

    2008-01-01

    Synthetic resins are shown to be effective in removing uranium from contaminated groundwater. Batch and field column tests showed that strong-base anion-exchange resins were more effective in removing uranium from both near-neutral-pH (6.5)- and high-pH (8)-low-nitrate-containing ground waters, than metal-chelating resins, which removed more uranium from acidic-pH (5)-high-nitrate-containing groundwater from the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) Y-12 S-3 Ponds area in Tennessee, USA. Dowex 1-X8 and Purolite A-520E anion-exchange resins removed more uranium from high-pH (8)-low-nitrate-containing synthetic groundwater in batch tests than metal-chelating resins. The Dowex{trademark} 21K anion-exchange resin achieved a cumulative loading capacity of 49.8 mg g{sup -1} before breakthrough in a field column test using near-neutral-pH (6.5)-low-nitrate-containing groundwater. However, in an acidic-pH (5)-high-nitrate-containing groundwater, metal-chelating resins Diphonix and Chelex-100 removed more uranium than anion-exchange resins. In 15 mL of acidic-pH (5)-high-nitrate-containing groundwater spiked with 20 mg L{sup -1} uranium, the uranium concentrations ranged from 0.95 mg L{sup -1} at 1-h equilibrium to 0.08 mg L{sup -1} at 24-h equilibrium for Diphonix and 0.17 mg L{sup -1} at 1-h equilibrium to 0.03 mg L{sup -1} at 24-h equilibrium for Chelex-100. Chelex-100 removed more uranium in the first 10 min in the 100 mL of acidic-(pH 5)-high-nitrate-containing groundwater (5 mg L{sup -1} uranium); however, after 10 min, Diphonix equaled or out-performed Chelex-100. This study presents an improved understanding of the selectivity and sorption kinetics of a range of ion-exchange resins that remove uranium from both low- and high-nitrate-containing groundwaters with varying pHs.

  5. Recent Advances on Carbon Nanospheres. Synthetic Routes and Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Pengfei; Qiao, Zhenan; Dai, Sheng

    2015-04-02

    Carbon-based materials are the most popular material types in both fundamental research and industrial applications, partly because of their well-controlled nano-morphologies. In the past two decades, we have witnessed a number of breakthroughs in carbon research: fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and more recently graphene. Nowadays, carbon nanospheres are attracting more and more attention worldwide due to their excellent performance in various fields: drug delivery, heterogeneous catalysis, encapsulation of support and electrode materials. Actually, spherical carbon is an old material, whereas controlling carbon spheres in the nanometer range is a recent story. In the past 5 years, it has become possible to precisely control the particle size, surface area, pore size, chemical composition, and dispersity of carbon nanospheres. Toward this end, a number of synthetic strategies are emerging, such as hydrothermal carbonization of biomass-based resources, extended Stöber synthesis, and organic–organic self-assembly via different binding methods. In this feature article, we summarize recent routes for carbon nanospheres and briefly touch on their applications to shed light on the potential of this field. Throughout this article, a special emphasis is placed on the possible modulation of spherical structures at the nanoscale, and we wish to inspire many more designs and applications of carbon nanostructures in the near future.

  6. Recent Advances on Carbon Nanospheres. Synthetic Routes and Applications

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Pengfei; Qiao, Zhenan; Dai, Sheng

    2015-04-02

    Carbon-based materials are the most popular material types in both fundamental research and industrial applications, partly because of their well-controlled nano-morphologies. In the past two decades, we have witnessed a number of breakthroughs in carbon research: fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and more recently graphene. Nowadays, carbon nanospheres are attracting more and more attention worldwide due to their excellent performance in various fields: drug delivery, heterogeneous catalysis, encapsulation of support and electrode materials. Actually, spherical carbon is an old material, whereas controlling carbon spheres in the nanometer range is a recent story. In the past 5 years, it has become possible tomore » precisely control the particle size, surface area, pore size, chemical composition, and dispersity of carbon nanospheres. Toward this end, a number of synthetic strategies are emerging, such as hydrothermal carbonization of biomass-based resources, extended Stöber synthesis, and organic–organic self-assembly via different binding methods. In this feature article, we summarize recent routes for carbon nanospheres and briefly touch on their applications to shed light on the potential of this field. Throughout this article, a special emphasis is placed on the possible modulation of spherical structures at the nanoscale, and we wish to inspire many more designs and applications of carbon nanostructures in the near future.« less

  7. A Laser Interferometric Miniature Sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carr, Dustin W., PhD.; Baldwin, Patrick C.; Milburn, Howard; Robinson, David

    2011-09-12

    This is the second year of a Phase II Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract geared towards the development of a new seismic sensor. Ground-based seismic monitoring systems have proven to be very capable in identifying nuclear tests, and can provide somewhat precise information on the location and yield of the explosive device. Making these measurements, however, currently requires very expensive and bulky seismometers that are difficult to deploy in places where they are most needed. A high performance, compact device can enable rapid deployment of large scale arrays, which can in turn be used to provide higher quality data during times of critical need. The use of a laser interferometer-based device has shown considerable promise, while also presenting significant challenges. The greatest strength of this optical readout technique is the ability to decouple the mechanical design from the transducer, thus enabling a miniaturized design that is not accessible with conventional sensing techniques. However, the nonlinearity in the optical response must be accounted for in the sensor output. Previously, we had proposed using a force-feedback approach to position the sensor at a point of maximum linearity. However, it can be shown that the combined nonlinearities of the optical response and the force-feedback curve necessarily results in a significant amount of unwanted noise at low frequencies. Having realized this, we have developed a new approach that eliminates force feedback, allowing the proof mass to move freely at all times. This takes advantage of some advanced optical spatial filtering that was developed at Symphony Acoustics for other types of sensors, and was recently adapted to this work. After processing the signals in real time, the digital output of the device is intrinsically linear, and the sensor can operate at any orientation with the same level of resolution, while instantly adapting to significant changes in orientation. Ultimately, we expect the dynamic range to be up to 180 dB. Currently, we have observed the noise floor in a 0.1 Hz to 10 Hz bandwidth to be near -160 dB/Hz relative to 1 m2/s4. To meet the objectives of this program, we are finalizing the design of a 3 axis sensor for shallow borehole deployments, with a diameter of 40 mm and a length a 150 mm.

  8. Interferometric fiber optic displacement sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farah, John

    1999-01-01

    A method is presented to produce a change in the optical path length in the gap between two single mode optical fibers proportional to the lateral displacement of either fiber end normal to its axis. This is done with the use of refraction or diffraction at the interface between a guiding and non-guiding media to change the direction of propagation of the light in the gap. A method is also presented for laying a waveguide on a cantilever so that the displacement of the tip of the cantilever produces a proportional path length change in the gap by distancing the waveguide from the neutral axis of the cantilever. The fiber is supported as a cantilever or a waveguide is deposited on a micromachined cantilever and incorporated in an interferometer which is made totally on a silicon substrate with the use of integrated-optic technology. A resonant element in the form of a micro-bridge is incorporated in the ridge waveguide and produces a frequency output which is readily digitizeable and immune to laser frequency noise. Finally, monolithic mechanical means for phase modulation are provided on the same sensor substrate. This is done by vibrating the cantilever or micro-bridge either electrically or optically.

  9. Interferometric fiber optic displacement sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farah, J.

    1995-05-30

    A method is presented to produce a change in the optical path length in the gap between two single mode optical fibers proportional to the lateral displacement of either fiber end normal to its axis. This is done with the use of refraction or diffraction at the interface between a guiding and non-guiding media to change the direction of propagation of the light in the gap. A method is also presented for laying a waveguide on a cantilever so that the displacement of the tip of the cantilever produces a proportional path length change in the gap by distancing the waveguide from the neutral axis of the cantilever. The fiber is supported as a cantilever or a waveguide is deposited on a micromachined cantilever and incorporated in an interferometer which is made totally on a silicon substrate with the use of integrated-optic technology. A resonant element in the form of a micro-bridge is incorporated in the ridge waveguide and produces a frequency output which is readily digitizeable and immune to laser frequency noise. Finally, monolithic mechanical means for phase modulation are provided on the same sensor substrate. This is done by vibrating the cantilever or micro-bridge either electrically or optically. 29 figs.

  10. Interferometric fiber optic displacement sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farah, J.

    1999-04-06

    A method is presented to produce a change in the optical path length in the gap between two single mode optical fibers proportional to the lateral displacement of either fiber end normal to its axis. This is done with the use of refraction or diffraction at the interface between a guiding and non-guiding media to change the direction of propagation of the light in the gap. A method is also presented for laying a waveguide on a cantilever so that the displacement of the tip of the cantilever produces a proportional path length change in the gap by distancing the waveguide from the neutral axis of the cantilever. The fiber is supported as a cantilever or a waveguide is deposited on a micromachined cantilever and incorporated in an interferometer which is made totally on a silicon substrate with the use of integrated-optic technology. A resonant element in the form of a micro-bridge is incorporated in the ridge waveguide and produces a frequency output which is readily digitizeable and immune to laser frequency noise. Finally, monolithic mechanical means for phase modulation are provided on the same sensor substrate. This is done by vibrating the cantilever or micro-bridge either electrically or optically. 23 figs.