National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for interconnection wiring diagrams

  1. S-700A MOSSBAUER DRIVE INTERCONNECTION DIAGRAM FOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Browder, Tom

    S-700A MOSSBAUER DRIVE INTERCONNECTION DIAGRAM FOR C.A.OPERATION WITH COMPUTER CUMPUEK WITH K A OK OPERATION D V -LIY I SCALER RESET DATA The S-700A drive and K-4 motor can also be used in Constant Velocity the constant velocity motion. The duty cycle is about 85%, and there is provision for the gating of data so

  2. Allostery Wiring Diagrams in the Transitions that Drive the GroEL Reaction Cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thirumalai, Devarajan

    Allostery Wiring Diagrams in the Transitions that Drive the GroEL Reaction Cycle Riina Tehver1 the course of a reaction cycle, biological machines in general, and Escherichia coli chaperonin Gro cycle and undergo large-scale motions that are anticorrelated with the other apical domain residues

  3. Interconnect

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation CurrentHenryInhibitingInteractive Jobs Interactive Jobs To run anInterconnect

  4. Directed nanoscale self-assembly of molecular wires interconnecting nodal points using Monte Carlo simulations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Boscoboinik, A. M.; Manzi, S. J.; Tysoe, W. T.; Pereyra, V. D.; Boscoboinik, J. A.

    2015-09-10

    The influence of directing agents in the self-assembly of molecular wires to produce two-dimensional electronic nanoarchitectures is studied here using a Monte Carlo approach to simulate the effect of arbitrarily locating nodal points on a surface, from which the growth of self-assembled molecular wires can be nucleated. This is compared to experimental results reported for the self-assembly of molecular wires when 1,4-phenylenediisocyanide (PDI) is adsorbed on Au(111). The latter results in the formation of (Au-PDI)n organometallic chains, which were shown to be conductive when linked between gold nanoparticles on an insulating substrate. The present study analyzes, by means of stochasticmore »methods, the influence of variables that affect the growth and design of self-assembled conductive nanoarchitectures, such as the distance between nodes, coverage of the monomeric units that leads to the formation of the desired architectures, and the interaction between the monomeric units. As a result, this study proposes an approach and sets the stage for the production of complex 2D nanoarchitectures using a bottom-up strategy but including the use of current state-of-the-art top-down technology as an integral part of the self-assembly strategy.« less

  5. ALGEBRAS OF OPEN DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS ON THE OPERAD OF WIRING DIAGRAMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spivak, David

    among visual languages such as Feynman diagrams, circuit diagrams, social networks, Petri nets, flow of diagrams and networks to study systems of various sorts. Category theory serves as an organizational to visualize compositions and feedback in networked systems. Traced monoidal categories are a general framework for s

  6. Micro-fluidic interconnect

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Okandan, Murat (Albuquerque, NM); Galambos, Paul C. (Albuquerque, NM); Benavides, Gilbert L. (Los Ranchos, NM); Hetherington, Dale L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-02-28

    An apparatus for simultaneously aligning and interconnecting microfluidic ports is presented. Such interconnections are required to utilize microfluidic devices fabricated in Micro-Electromechanical-Systems (MEMS) technologies, that have multiple fluidic access ports (e.g. 100 micron diameter) within a small footprint, (e.g. 3 mm.times.6 mm). Fanout of the small ports of a microfluidic device to a larger diameter (e.g. 500 microns) facilitates packaging and interconnection of the microfluidic device to printed wiring boards, electronics packages, fluidic manifolds etc.

  7. Optimization of the BEOL Interconnect Stack for Advanced Semiconductor Technology Nodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shah, Pooja Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    2.2 Wire Optimization at System Level . . . . . . . . .3 Experiments for Interconnect Dimension Optimization3.1.1 Optimization of Interconnect Dimensions 3.1.2

  8. Interconnection Panel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation—given at at the Fall 2012 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting—discusses the interconnection panel, including an overview of the generation interconnection process (GIP), and interconnection agreements and their terms.

  9. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    West Virginia's interconnection standards include two levels of review. The qualifications and application fees for each level are as follows:...

  10. Interconnection Guidelines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Rocky Mountain Power (PacifiCorp) has developed an interconnection application for net metering. All other electric utilities in Wyoming -- investor-owned utilities and rural electric associations...

  11. Interconnection Guidelines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The state's utilities independently developed interconnection agreements for distributed generation (DG) prior to the ACC's ongoing proceeding to establish statewide standards. The Salt River...

  12. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Fees for interconnection requests increase with each Level. A Level 1 request must submit $50 fee; a Level 2 request must submit a fee of $50 plus $1/kW of generator capacity; a Level 3 request m...

  13. Interconnection Guidelines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Kansas adopted the Net Metering and Easy Connection Act in May 2009 (see K.S.A. 66-1263 through 66-1271), establishing interconnection guidelines and net metering for customer-owned generators.

  14. A 2-Slot Time-Division Multiplexing (TDM) Interconnect Network for Gigascale Integration (GSI)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joshi, Ajay

    critical-path interconnect on that tier. For a given range of interconnect lengths, this idleness can of the low average activity factor, and can be utilized by sending two binary transitions on a single wire

  15. Engineering. Interconnection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aziz, Adnan

    Networks Digital System Design 9 of 19 ' & $ % Systems Analysis of a Multicomputer Node See Figure 1. Controlled by the partitioning and topology of the system Interconnection Networks Digital System Design 11' & $ % Digital System Design Adnan Aziz The University of Texas Reference: #15; Digital Systems

  16. Electrical interconnect

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frost, John S.; Brandt, Randolph J.; Hebert, Peter; Al Taher, Omar

    2015-10-06

    An interconnect includes a first set of connector pads, a second set of connector pads, and a continuous central portion. A first plurality of legs extends at a first angle from the continuous central portion. Each leg of the first plurality of legs is connected to a connector pad of a first set of connector pads. A second plurality of legs extends at a second angle from the continuous central portion. Each leg of the second plurality of legs is connected to a connector pad of the second set of connector pads. Gaps are defined between legs. The gaps enable movement of the first set of connector pads relative to the second set of connector pads.

  17. E cient Layout of a Passive, Single-Hop, Fiber-Optic Interconnection (among N stations)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E cient Layout of a Passive, Single-Hop, Fiber-Optic Interconnection (among N stations-hop, ber-optic interconnection among n stations, each with two trans- mitters and one receiver, and a round, but the layout of this interconnection poses a challenge both in terms of wiring complex- ity and power budget

  18. Interconnected semiconductor devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grimmer, Derrick P. (White Bear Lake, MN); Paulson, Kenneth R. (North St. Paul, MN); Gilbert, James R. (St. Paul, MN)

    1990-10-23

    Semiconductor layer and conductive layer formed on a flexible substrate, divided into individual devices and interconnected with one another in series by interconnection layers and penetrating terminals.

  19. Thin-film chip-to-substrate interconnect and methods for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuckerman, David B. (Livermore, CA)

    1991-01-01

    Integrated circuit chips are electrically connected to a silica wafer interconnection substrate. Thin film wiring is fabricated down bevelled edges of the chips. A subtractive wire fabrication method uses a series of masks and etching steps to form wires in a metal layer. An additive method direct laser writes or deposits very thin metal lines which can then be plated up to form wires. A quasi-additive or subtractive/additive method forms a pattern of trenches to expose a metal surface which can nucleate subsequent electrolytic deposition of wires. Low inductance interconnections on a 25 micron pitch (1600 wires on a 1 cm square chip) can be produced. The thin film hybrid interconnect eliminates solder joints or welds, and minimizes the levels of metallization. Advantages include good electrical properties, very high wiring density, excellent backside contact, compactness, and high thermal and mechanical reliability.

  20. Interconnection networks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Faber, V.; Moore, J.W.

    1988-06-20

    A network of interconnected processors is formed from a vertex symmetric graph selected from graphs GAMMA/sub d/(k) with degree d, diameter k, and (d + 1)exclamation/ (d /minus/ k + 1)exclamation processors for each d greater than or equal to k and GAMMA/sub d/(k, /minus/1) with degree d /minus/ 1, diameter k + 1, and (d + 1)exclamation/(d /minus/ k + 1)exclamation processors for each d greater than or equal to k greater than or equal to 4. Each processor has an address formed by one of the permutations from a predetermined sequence of letters chosen a selected number of letters at a time, and an extended address formed by appending to the address the remaining ones of the predetermined sequence of letters. A plurality of transmission channels is provided from each of the processors, where each processor has one less channel than the selected number of letters forming the sequence. Where a network GAMMA/sub d/(k, /minus/1) is provided, no processor has a channel connected to form an edge in a direction delta/sub 1/. Each of the channels has an identification number selected from the sequence of letters and connected from a first processor having a first extended address to a second processor having a second address formed from a second extended address defined by moving to the front of the first extended address the letter found in the position within the first extended address defined by the channel identification number. The second address is then formed by selecting the first elements of the second extended address corresponding to the selected number used to form the address permutations. 9 figs.

  1. Wire chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atac, Muzaffer (Wheaton, IL)

    1989-01-01

    A wire chamber or proportional counter device, such as Geiger-Mueller tube or drift chamber, improved with a gas mixture providing a stable drift velocity while eliminating wire aging caused by prior art gas mixtures. The new gas mixture is comprised of equal parts argon and ethane gas and having approximately 0.25% isopropyl alcohol vapor.

  2. Perforation patterned electrical interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frey, Jonathan

    2014-01-28

    This disclosure describes systems and methods for increasing the usable surface area of electrical contacts within a device, such as a thin film solid state device, through the implementation of electrically conductive interconnects. Embodiments described herein include the use of a plurality of electrically conductive interconnects that penetrate through a top contact layer, through one or more multiple layers, and into a bottom contact layer. The plurality of conductive interconnects may form horizontal and vertical cross-sectional patterns. The use of lasers to form the plurality of electrically conductive interconnects from reflowed layer material further aids in the manufacturing process of a device.

  3. Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative - Meeting...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Recovery Act Interconnection Transmission Planning Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative - Meeting Calendars Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning...

  4. Solar cell array interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, P.G.; Thompson, J.B.; Colella, N.J.; Williams, K.A.

    1995-11-14

    Electrical interconnects are disclosed for solar cells or other electronic components using a silver-silicone paste or a lead-tin (Pb-Sn) no-clean fluxless solder cream, whereby the high breakage of thin (<6 mil thick) solar cells using conventional solder interconnect is eliminated. The interconnects of this invention employs copper strips which are secured to the solar cells by a silver-silicone conductive paste which can be used at room temperature, or by a Pb-Sn solder cream which eliminates undesired residue on the active surfaces of the solar cells. Electrical testing using the interconnects of this invention has shown that no degradation of the interconnects developed under high current testing, while providing a very low contact resistance value. 4 figs.

  5. Solar cell array interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, Paul G. (Mountain View, CA); Thompson, Jesse B. (Brentwood, CA); Colella, Nicolas J. (Livermore, CA); Williams, Kenneth A. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    Electrical interconnects for solar cells or other electronic components using a silver-silicone paste or a lead-tin (Pb-Sn) no-clean fluxless solder cream, whereby the high breakage of thin (<6 mil thick) solar cells using conventional solder interconnect is eliminated. The interconnects of this invention employs copper strips which are secured to the solar cells by a silver-silicone conductive paste which can be used at room temperature, or by a Pb-Sn solder cream which eliminates undesired residue on the active surfaces of the solar cells. Electrical testing using the interconnects of this invention has shown that no degradation of the interconnects developed under high current testing, while providing a very low contact resistance value.

  6. Hopper System Diagram

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    System Diagram System Diagram Diagram of IO architecture on Hopper Diagram of external IO services on the Hopper system Last edited: 2011-04-14 15:11:1...

  7. Passive microfluidic interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jonnalagadda, Aparna S

    2005-01-01

    Equipment and procedures were developed to test two passive microfluidic interconnect rings held together by the friction forces on the contact surfaces. The second design forms fluid seals by means of thin flared rings ...

  8. Quantum Photonic Interconnect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jianwei Wang; Damien Bonneau; Matteo Villa; Joshua W. Silverstone; Raffaele Santagati; Shigehito Miki; Taro Yamashita; Mikio Fujiwara; Masahide Sasaki; Hirotaka Terai; Michael G. Tanner; Chandra M. Natarajan; Robert H. Hadfield; Jeremy L. O'Brien; Mark G. Thompson

    2015-09-26

    Integrated photonics has enabled much progress towards quantum technologies. Many applications, including quantum communication, sensing, and distributed and cloud quantum computing, will require coherent photonic interconnection between separate chip-based sub-systems. Large-scale quantum computing systems and architectures may ultimately require quantum interconnects to enable scaling beyond the limits of a single wafer and towards "multi-chip" systems. However, coherently interconnecting separate chips is challenging due to the fragility of these quantum states and the demanding challenges of transmitting photons in at least two media within a single coherent system. Distribution and manipulation of qubit entanglement between multiple devices is one of the most stringent requirements of the interconnected system. Here, we report a quantum photonic interconnect demonstrating high-fidelity entanglement distribution and manipulation between two separate chips, implemented using state-of-the-art silicon photonics. Path-entangled states are generated and manipulated on-chip, and distributed between the chips by interconverting between path-encoding and polarisation-encoding. We use integrated state analysers to confirm a Bell-type violation of $S$=2.638+-0.039 between two chips. With improvements in loss, this quantum interconnect will provide new levels of flexible systems and architectures for quantum technologies.

  9. Reliability of Electrical Interconnects (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devoto, D.

    2014-06-01

    This presentation discusses the status of NREL's research on the reliability of electrical interconnects.

  10. Precision wire feeder for small diameter wire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brandon, Eldon D. (Albuquerque, NM); Hooper, Frederick M. (Albuquerque, NM); Reichenbach, Marvin L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1992-01-01

    A device for feeding small diameter wire having a diameter less than 0.04 mm (16 mil) to a welding station includes a driving wheel for controllably applying a non-deforming driving force to the wire to move the free end of the wire towards the welding station; and a tension device such as a torque motor for constantly applying a reverse force to the wire in opposition to the driving force to keep the wire taut.

  11. Precision wire feeder for small diameter wire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brandon, E.D.; Hooper, F.M.; Reichenbach, M.L.

    1992-08-11

    A device for feeding small diameter wire having a diameter less than 0.04 mm (16 mil) to a welding station includes a driving wheel for controllably applying a non-deforming driving force to the wire to move the free end of the wire towards the welding station; and a tension device such as a torque motor for constantly applying a reverse force to the wire in opposition to the driving force to keep the wire taut. 1 figure.

  12. Superconducting wires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lanagan, M.T.; Poeppel, R.B.; Singh, J.P.; Dos Santos, D.I.; Lumpp, J.K.; Dusek, J.T.; Goretta, K.C.

    1988-06-01

    The requirement of high critical current density has prompted extensive research on ceramic processing of high-T/sub c/ superconductors. An overview of wire fabrication techniques and the limitations they impose on component design will be presented. The effects of processing on microstructure and critical current density will also be discussed. Particle alignment has been observed in extruded samples which is attributed to high shear stresses during plastic forming. Composites of superconductor and silver in several configurations have been made with little deleterious effect on the superconducting properties. 35 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Central American electrical interconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    A technical cooperation grant of $2.25 million, designed to strengthen the capacity of Central American countries to operate their regional interconnected electrical system, was announced by the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB). The grant, extended from the banks Fund for Special Operations, will help improve the capacity of the regions electric power companies to achieve economical, safe operation of the interconnected electric power systems. The funds will also be used to finance regional studies of the accords, procedures, regulations, and supervisory mechanisms for the system, as well as program development and data bases.

  14. Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    A, Interconnection-Level Analysis and Planning Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic A, Interconnection-Level Analysis and Planning A description of the...

  15. Interconnection networks synthesis and optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Yi

    2008-01-01

    Synthesis and Optimization . . . . . . . . . . .1.Wire Style Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. PowerSynthesis and Optimization . 1. Overview . . . . . . . . . .

  16. Capillary interconnect device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Renzi, Ronald F

    2013-11-19

    An interconnecting device for connecting a plurality of first fluid-bearing conduits to a corresponding plurality of second fluid-bearing conduits thereby providing fluid communication between the first fluid-bearing conduits and the second fluid-bearing conduits. The device includes a manifold and one or two ferrule plates that are held by compressive axial forces.

  17. Reversible concentric ring microfluidic interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn, 1980-

    2004-01-01

    A reversible, Chip-to-Chip microfluidic interconnect was designed for use in high temperature, high pressure applications such as chemical microreactor systems. The interconnect uses two sets of concentric, interlocking ...

  18. Automation of Feynman Diagram Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Tentyukov; J. Fleischer

    1998-02-04

    A C-program DIANA (DIagram ANAlyser) for the automation of Feynman diagram evaluations is presented.

  19. Stretched Wire Mechanics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowden, Gordon; /SLAC

    2005-09-06

    Stretched wires are beginning to play an important role in the alignment of accelerators and synchrotron light sources. Stretched wires are proposed for the alignment of the 130 meter long LCLS undulator. Wire position technology has reached sub-micron resolution yet analyses of perturbations to wire straightness are hard to find. This paper considers possible deviations of stretched wire from the simple 2-dimensional catenary form.

  20. Fuel cell system with interconnect

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goettler, Richard; Liu, Zhien

    2015-08-11

    The present invention includes a fuel cell system having a plurality of adjacent electrochemical cells formed of an anode layer, a cathode layer spaced apart from the anode layer, and an electrolyte layer disposed between the anode layer and the cathode layer. The fuel cell system also includes at least one interconnect, the interconnect being structured to conduct free electrons between adjacent electrochemical cells. Each interconnect includes a primary conductor embedded within the electrolyte layer and structured to conduct the free electrons.

  1. Fuel cell system with interconnect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Zhien; Goettler, Richard

    2015-09-29

    The present invention includes a fuel cell system having a plurality of adjacent electrochemical cells formed of an anode layer, a cathode layer spaced apart from the anode layer, and an electrolyte layer disposed between the anode layer and the cathode layer. The fuel cell system also includes at least one interconnect, the interconnect being structured to conduct free electrons between adjacent electrochemical cells. Each interconnect includes a primary conductor embedded within the electrolyte layer and structured to conduct the free electrons.

  2. Fuel cell system with interconnect

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goettler, Richard; Liu, Zhien

    2015-03-10

    The present invention includes a fuel cell system having a plurality of adjacent electrochemical cells formed of an anode layer, a cathode layer spaced apart from the anode layer, and an electrolyte layer disposed between the anode layer and the cathode layer. The fuel cell system also includes at least one interconnect, the interconnect being structured to conduct free electrons between adjacent electrochemical cells. Each interconnect includes a primary conductor embedded within the electrolyte layer and structured to conduct the free electrons.

  3. QER- Comment of WIRES

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Attached please find the components of WIRES Comment to the QER. Please direct any questions to Jim Hoecker, below.

  4. Algorithms for Greechie Diagrams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brendan D. McKay; Norman D. Megill; Mladen Pavicic

    2001-01-21

    We give a new algorithm for generating Greechie diagrams with arbitrary chosen number of atoms or blocks (with 2,3,4,... atoms) and provide a computer program for generating the diagrams. The results show that the previous algorithm does not produce every diagram and that it is at least 100,000 times slower. We also provide an algorithm and programs for checking of Greechie diagram passage by equations defining varieties of orthomodular lattices and give examples from Hilbert lattices. At the end we discuss some additional characteristics of Greechie diagrams.

  5. Carbon Nanomaterials: The Ideal Interconnect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon Nanomaterials: The Ideal Interconnect Technology for Next- Generation ICs Hong Li, Chuan Xu-generation ICs. In this research, carbon nanomaterials, with their many attractive properties, are emerging-a`-vis optical and RF interconnects, and we illustrate why carbon nanomaterials constitute the ideal intercon

  6. Process for electrically interconnecting electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, Paul G. (Mountain View, CA); Thompson, Jesse B. (Brentwood, CA); Colella, Nicolas J. (Livermore, CA); Williams, Kenneth A. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    Electrical interconnects for solar cells or other electronic components using a silver-silicone paste or a lead-tin (Pb--Sn) no-clean fluxless solder cream, whereby the high breakage of thin (<6 mil thick) solar cells using conventional solder interconnect is eliminated. The interconnects of this invention employs copper strips which are secured to the solar cells by a silver-silicone conductive paste which can be used at room temperature, or by a Pb--Sn solder cream which eliminates undesired residue on the active surfaces of the solar cells. Electrical testing using the interconnects of this invention has shown that no degradation of the interconnects developed under high current testing, while providing a very low contact resistance value.

  7. Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    State Agency Input Regarding Electric Resource and Transmission Planning in the Texas Interconnection Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, State Agency...

  8. Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Interconnection on Electric Resource Planning and Priorities Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, Cooperation Among States in the Eastern...

  9. Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Western Interconnection under the Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative, part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. The fundamental purpose of the awards...

  10. Renewable Systems Interconnection: Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kroposki, B.; Margolis, R.; Kuswa, G.; Torres, J.; Bower, W.; Key, T.; Ton, D.

    2008-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy launched the Renewable Systems Interconnection (RSI) study in 2007 to address the challenges to high penetrations of distributed renewable energy technologies. The RSI study consists of 14 additional reports.

  11. Sintered wire annode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Falce, Louis R. (Surprise, AZ); Ives, R. Lawrence (Saratoga, CA)

    2007-12-25

    A plurality of high atomic number wires are sintered together to form a porous rod that is parted into porous disks which will be used as x-ray targets. A thermally conductive material is introduced into the pores of the rod, and when a stream of electrons impinges on the sintered wire target and generates x-rays, the heat generated by the impinging x-rays is removed by the thermally conductive material interspersed in the pores of the wires.

  12. Interconnection Resources | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE INDUSTRIAL TECHNICAL8-02DepartmentInterconnection Resources Interconnection

  13. Wire-inhomogeneity detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gibson, G.H.; Smits, R.G.; Eberhard, P.H.

    1982-08-31

    A device for uncovering imperfections in electrical conducting wire, particularly superconducting wire, by detecting variations in eddy currents. Eddy currents effect the magnetic field in a gap of an inductor, contained in a modified commercial ferrite core, through which the wire being tested is passed. A small increase or decrease in the amount of conductive material, such as copper, in a fixed cross section of wire will unbalance a bridge used to measure the impedance of the inductor, tripping a detector and sounding an alarm.

  14. Tungsten Wire & VISAR Goran Skoro

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    wire tests ­ Alternative approach While waiting for `refurbishment' of our power supply, there is Roger

  15. Reliability of copper interconnects in integrated circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Zung-Sun

    2007-01-01

    As dimensions shrink and current densities increase, the reliability of metal interconnects becomes a serious concern. In copper interconnects, the dominant diffusion path is along the interface between the copper and the ...

  16. Flexible interconnects for fuel cell stacks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lenz, David J.; Chung, Brandon W.; Pham, Ai Quoc

    2004-11-09

    An interconnect that facilitates electrical connection and mechanical support with minimal mechanical stress for fuel cell stacks. The interconnects are flexible and provide mechanically robust fuel cell stacks with higher stack performance at lower cost. The flexible interconnects replace the prior rigid rib interconnects with flexible "fingers" or contact pads which will accommodate the imperfect flatness of the ceramic fuel cells. Also, the mechanical stress of stacked fuel cells will be smaller due to the flexibility of the fingers. The interconnects can be one-sided or double-sided.

  17. The Semigroup of Betti Diagrams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erman, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The recent proof of the Boij-Soederberg conjectures reveals new structure about Betti diagrams of modules, giving a complete description of the cone of Betti diagrams. To understand the integral structure of Betti diagrams, we investigate the semigroup of Betti diagrams. We answer several fundamental questions about this semigroup, such as a proof that the semigroup is finitely generated. We also produce numerous examples which belong to the cone of Betti diagrams but which do not equal the Betti diagram of an actual module.

  18. Wire brush fastening device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meigs, R.A.

    1995-09-19

    A fastening device is provided which is a variation on the conventional nut and bolt. The bolt has a longitudinal axis and threading helically affixed thereon along the longitudinal axis. A nut having a bore extending therethrough is provided. The bore of the nut has a greater diameter than the diameter of the bolt so the bolt can extend through the bore. An array of wire bristles are affixed within the bore so as to form a brush. The wire bristles extend inwardly from the bore and are constructed and arranged of the correct size, length and stiffness to guide the bolt within the bore and to restrain the bolt within the bore as required. A variety of applications of the wire brush nut are disclosed, including a bolt capture device and a test rig apparatus. 13 figs.

  19. Wire brush fastening device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meigs, Richard A. (East Concord, NY)

    1995-01-01

    A fastening device is provided which is a variation on the conventional nut and bolt. The bolt has a longitudinal axis and threading helically affixed thereon along the longitudinal axis. A nut having a bore extending therethrough is provided. The bore of the nut has a greater diameter than the diameter of the bolt so the bolt can extend through the bore. An array of wire bristles are affixed within the bore so as to form a brush. The wire bristles extend inwardly from the bore and are constructed and arranged of the correct size, length and stiffness to guide the bolt within the bore and to restrain the bolt within the bore as required. A variety of applications of the wire brush nut are disclosed, including a bolt capture device and a test rig apparatus.

  20. TEP process flow diagram

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilms, R Scott; Carlson, Bryan; Coons, James; Kubic, William

    2008-01-01

    This presentation describes the development of the proposed Process Flow Diagram (PFD) for the Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP) of ITER. A brief review of design efforts leading up to the PFD is followed by a description of the hydrogen-like, air-like, and waterlike processes. Two new design values are described; the mostcommon and most-demanding design values. The proposed PFD is shown to meet specifications under the most-common and mostdemanding design values.

  1. On web diagrams Jun Murakami

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    On web diagrams Jun Murakami Department of Mathematics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka­ tive invariant is defined in the space of web diagrams, and it includes the Casson­ Walker invariant of the mapping class groups. (cf. [9], [10]) 2. Web space 2.1. Web diagram. To explain the universal perturbative

  2. Improved wire chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atac, M.

    1987-05-12

    An improved gas mixture for use with proportional counter devices, such as Geiger-Mueller tubes and drift chambers. The improved gas mixture provides a stable drift velocity while eliminating wire aging caused by prior art gas mixtures. The new gas mixture is comprised of equal parts argon and ethane gas and having approximately 0.25% isopropyl alcohol vapor. 2 figs.

  3. Interconnect

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation CurrentHenryInhibitingInteractive Jobs Interactive Jobs To run an

  4. Double interconnection fuel cell array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draper, R.; Zymboly, G.E.

    1993-12-28

    A fuel cell array is made, containing number of tubular, elongated fuel cells which are placed next to each other in rows (A, B, C, D), where each cell contains inner electrodes and outer electrodes, with solid electrolyte between the electrodes, where the electrolyte and outer electrode are discontinuous, having two portions, and providing at least two opposed discontinuities which contain at least two oppositely opposed interconnections contacting the inner electrode, each cell having only three metallic felt electrical connectors which contact surrounding cells, where each row is electrically connected to the other. 5 figures.

  5. Double interconnection fuel cell array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draper, Robert (Churchill Boro, PA); Zymboly, Gregory E. (Murrysville, PA)

    1993-01-01

    A fuel cell array (10) is made, containing number of tubular, elongated fuel cells (12) which are placed next to each other in rows (A, B, C, D), where each cell contains inner electrodes (14) and outer electrodes (18 and 18'), with solid electrolyte (16 and 16') between the electrodes, where the electrolyte and outer electrode are discontinuous, having two portions, and providing at least two opposed discontinuities which contain at least two oppositely opposed interconnections (20 and 20') contacting the inner electrode (14), each cell (12) having only three metallic felt electrical connectors (22) which contact surrounding cells, where each row is electrically connected to the other.

  6. SpaceWire model development technology for satellite architecture.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eldridge, John M.; Leemaster, Jacob Edward; Van Leeuwen, Brian P.

    2011-09-01

    Packet switched data communications networks that use distributed processing architectures have the potential to simplify the design and development of new, increasingly more sophisticated satellite payloads. In addition, the use of reconfigurable logic may reduce the amount of redundant hardware required in space-based applications without sacrificing reliability. These concepts were studied using software modeling and simulation, and the results are presented in this report. Models of the commercially available, packet switched data interconnect SpaceWire protocol were developed and used to create network simulations of data networks containing reconfigurable logic with traffic flows for timing system distribution.

  7. Cascade solar cell having conductive interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borden, Peter G. (Menlo Park, CA); Saxena, Ram R. (Saratoga, CA)

    1982-10-26

    Direct ohmic contact between the cells in an epitaxially grown cascade solar cell is obtained by means of conductive interconnects formed through grooves etched intermittently in the upper cell. The base of the upper cell is directly connected by the conductive interconnects to the emitter of the bottom cell. The conductive interconnects preferably terminate on a ledge formed in the base of the upper cell.

  8. Electromigration of Electroplated Gold Interconnects Steve Kilgore, *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schroder, Dieter K.

    Electromigration of Electroplated Gold Interconnects Steve Kilgore, * Craig Gaw, * Haldane Henry Tempe, AZ 85287, U.S.A. ABSTRACT Electromigration tests were performed on passivated electroplated Au

  9. Metal Nitride Diffusion Barriers for Copper Interconnects 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Araujo, Roy A.

    2010-01-14

    Advancements in the semiconductor industry require new materials with improved performance. With the introduction of copper as the interconnect material for integrated circuits, efficient diffusion barriers are required ...

  10. Learn More About Interconnections | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and West to the foot of the Rockies (excluding most of Texas). All of the electric utilities in the Eastern Interconnection are electrically tied together during normal...

  11. Updating Interconnection Screens for PV System Integration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Abraham Ellis, Roger Hill Sandia National Laboratories Tom Key, Kristen Nicole, Jeff Smith Electric Power Research Institute Updating Interconnection Screens for PV System...

  12. Recent Development of SOFC Metallic Interconnect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu JW, Liu XB

    2010-04-01

    Interest in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) stems from their higher e±ciencies and lower levels of emitted pollu- tants, compared to traditional power production methods. Interconnects are a critical part in SOFC stacks, which connect cells in series electrically, and also separate air or oxygen at the cathode side from fuel at the anode side. Therefore, the requirements of interconnects are the most demanding, i:e:, to maintain high elec- trical conductivity, good stability in both reducing and oxidizing atmospheres, and close coe±cient of thermal expansion (CTE) match and good compatibility with other SOFC ceramic components. The paper reviewed the interconnect materials, and coatings for metallic interconnect materials.

  13. Superconducting magnet wire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schuller, Ivan K. (Woodridge, IL); Ketterson, John B. (Evanston, IL); Banerjee, Indrajit (San Jose, CA)

    1986-01-01

    A superconducting tape or wire with an improved critical field is formed of alternating layers of a niobium-containing superconductor such as Nb, NbTi, Nb.sub.3 Sn or Nb.sub.3 Ge with a thickness in the range of about 0.5-1.5 times its coherence length, supported and separated by layers of copper with each copper layer having a thickness in the range of about 170-600 .ANG..

  14. Dual wire welding torch and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diez, Fernando Martinez (Peoria, IL); Stump, Kevin S. (Sherman, IL); Ludewig, Howard W. (Groveland, IL); Kilty, Alan L. (Peoria, IL); Robinson, Matthew M. (Peoria, IL); Egland, Keith M. (Peoria, IL)

    2009-04-28

    A welding torch includes a nozzle with a first welding wire guide configured to orient a first welding wire in a first welding wire orientation, and a second welding wire guide configured to orient a second welding wire in a second welding wire orientation that is non-coplanar and divergent with respect to the first welding wire orientation. A method of welding includes moving a welding torch with respect to a workpiece joint to be welded. During moving the welding torch, a first welding wire is fed through a first welding wire guide defining a first welding wire orientation and a second welding wire is fed through a second welding wire guide defining a second welding wire orientation that is divergent and non-coplanar with respect to the first welding wire orientation.

  15. Tevatron low-beta quadrupole triplet interconnects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oleck, A.R.; Carson, J.A.; Koepke, K.; Sorenson, D.

    1992-04-01

    Installation of cold iron quadrupole magnets in the Low Beta (Superconducting High-Luminosity) upgrade at Fermilab required a newly designed magnet interconnect. The interconnect design and construction experience is presented. Considered are the connections carrying cryogenic fluids, beam vacuum, insulating vacuum, superconducting bus leads, their insulation and mechanical support. Details of the assembly and assembly experience are presented. 2 refs.

  16. Updating Technical Screens for PV Interconnection: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coddington, M.; Ellis, A.; Lynn, K.; Razon, A.; Key, T.; Kroposki, B.; Mather, B.; Hill, R.; Nicole, K.; Smith, J.

    2012-08-01

    Solar photovoltaics (PV) is the dominant type of distributed generation (DG) technology interconnected to electric distribution systems in the United States, and deployment of PV systems continues to increase rapidly. Considering the rapid growth and widespread deployment of PV systems in United States electric distribution grids, it is important that interconnection procedures be as streamlined as possible to avoid unnecessary interconnection studies, costs, and delays. Because many PV interconnection applications involve high penetration scenarios, the process needs to allow for a sufficiently rigorous technical evaluation to identify and address possible system impacts. Existing interconnection procedures are designed to balance the need for efficiency and technical rigor for all DG. However, there is an implicit expectation that those procedures will be updated over time in order to remain relevant with respect to evolving standards, technology, and practical experience. Modifications to interconnection screens and procedures must focus on maintaining or improving safety and reliability, as well as accurately allocating costs and improving expediency of the interconnection process. This paper evaluates the origins and usefulness of the capacity penetration screen, offers potential short-term solutions which could effectively allow fast-track interconnection to many PV system applications, and considers longer-term solutions for increasing PV deployment levels in a safe and reliable manner while reducing or eliminating the emphasis on the penetration screen.

  17. Durability of Metallic Interconnects and Protective Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Zhenguo; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2009-12-15

    To build up a useful voltage, a number of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are electrically connected into series in a stack via interconnects, which are placed between adjacent cells. In addition to functioning as a bi-polar electrical connector, the interconnect also acts as a separator plate that separates the fuel at the anode side of one cell from the air at the cathode side on an adjacent cell. During SOFC operation at the high temperatures, the interconnects are thus simultaneously exposed to the oxidizing air at one side and a reducing fuel that can be either hydrogen or hydrocarbon at the other. Besides, they are in contact with adjacent components, such as electrodes or electrical contacts, seals, etc. With steady reduction in SOFC operating temperatures into the low or intermediate range 600-850oC, oxidation resistant alloys are often used to construct interconnects. However, the metallic interconnects may degrade via interactions at their interfaces with surrounding environments or adjacent components, potentially affecting the stability and performance of interconnects and the SOFC stacks. Thus protection layers are applied to metallic interconnects that also intend to mitigate or prevent chromium migration into cells and the cell poisoning. This chapter provides a comprehensive review of materials for metallic interconnects, their degradation and coating protection.

  18. Optical Interconnection Networks Based on Microring Resonators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    above the millimeter. The failure of copper wires to scale with CMOS transistors has already resulted increasing bandwidth demand. Indeed, the required parallelism is becoming unsustainable because

  19. EIS-0485: Interconnection of the Grande Prairie Wind Farm, Holt...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    5: Interconnection of the Grande Prairie Wind Farm, Holt County, Nebraska EIS-0485: Interconnection of the Grande Prairie Wind Farm, Holt County, Nebraska SUMMARY DOE's Western...

  20. Method for fabricating an interconnected array of semiconductor devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grimmer, Derrick P. (White Bear Lake, MN); Paulson, Kenneth R. (North St. Paul, MN); Gilbert, James R. (St. Paul, MN)

    1989-10-10

    Semiconductor layer and conductive layer formed on a flexible substrate, divided into individual devices and interconnected with one another in series by interconnection layers and penetrating terminals.

  1. EA-1990: Ridgenose Solar Energy Interconnection Facility, Mohave...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    EA-1990: Ridgenose Solar Energy Interconnection Facility, Mohave County, Arizona EA-1990: Ridgenose Solar Energy Interconnection Facility, Mohave County, Arizona The EA was...

  2. The regulation of internet interconnection : assessing network market power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maida, Elisabeth M. (Elisabeth Marigo)

    2013-01-01

    Interconnection agreements in the telecommunications industry have always been constrained by regulation. Internet interconnection has not received the same level of scrutiny. Recent debates regarding proposed mergers, ...

  3. Perturbations to the Hubble diagram

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Schucker; Ilhem ZouZou

    2005-11-17

    We compute the linear responses of the Hubble diagram to small scalar perturbations in the Robertson-Walker metric and to small peculiar velocities of emitter and receiver. We discuss the monotonicity constraint of the Hubble diagram in the light of these responses.

  4. Improved superconducting magnet wire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schuller, I.K.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1983-08-16

    This invention is directed to a superconducting tape or wire composed of alternating layers of copper and a niobium-containing superconductor such as niobium of NbTi, Nb/sub 3/Sn or Nb/sub 3/Ge. In general, each layer of the niobium-containing superconductor has a thickness in the range of about 0.05 to 1.5 times its coherence length (which for Nb/sub 3/Si is 41 A) with each copper layer having a thickness in the range of about 170 to 600 A. With the use of very thin layers of the niobium composition having a thickness within the desired range, the critical field (H/sub c/) may be increased by factors of 2 to 4. Also, the thin layers of the superconductor permit the resulting tape or wire to exhibit suitable ductility for winding on a magnet core. These compositions are also characterized by relatively high values of critical temperature and therefore will exhibit a combination of useful properties as superconductors.

  5. Promises and problems with metallic interconnects for reduced temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hou, Peggy Y.; Huang, Keqin; Bakker, Wate T.

    1999-01-01

    METALLIC INTERCONNECTS FOR REDUCED TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUELto fuel cell stacks with multiple metallic interconnects.

  6. Distributed Solar Interconnection Challenges and Best Practices

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The continued growth of the distributed solar market in the United States has spurred electric utilities, regulators, and stakeholders to consider improvements to distributed generation (DG) interconnection processes. More than 475,000 solar energy systems were interconnected in the U.S. by the end of 2013, but 1 million are expected by the end of 2017. Based on the SunShot Initiative's current trajectory, permitting, inspection, and interconnection (PII) soft costs are expected to drop from a current cost of $0.17/watt to $0.14/watt by 2020. While the actual cost metrics for utility PII are undetermined, they are real. A survey and interviews conducted by Solar Electric Power Association (SEPA) in 2014 have uncovered utility initiatives to lower the administrative costs of DG interconnection, making the process of connecting to the grid simpler and more transparent for customers.

  7. Design space exploration of photonic interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Chen, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    As processors scale deep into the multi-core and many-core regimes, bandwidth and energy-efficiency of the on-die interconnect network have become paramount design issues. Recognizing potential limits of electrical ...

  8. Asynchronous intrusion recovery for interconnected web services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chandra, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Recovering from attacks in an interconnected system is difficult, because an adversary that gains access to one part of the system may propagate to many others, and tracking down and recovering from such an attack requires ...

  9. Carbon nanotube synthesis for integrated circuit interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nessim, Gilbert Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Based on their properties, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been identified as ideal replacements for copper interconnects in integrated circuits given their higher current density, inertness, and higher resistance to ...

  10. Carbon nanotube interconnects for IC chips

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anwar Ali, Hashina Parveen

    2006-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been investigated as candidate materials to replace or augment the existing copper-based technologies as interconnects for Integrated Circuit (IC) chips. Being ballistic conductors, CNTs are ...

  11. Committed regional electrical interconnection projects in the Middle East

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azzam, M.; Al-Said, A.

    1994-12-01

    Due to the well-known advantages of electrical interconnections and their consequent benefits, Jordan considers the interconnection of its electrical network with the neighboring electrical networks as one of its main corporate strategies. At present the electrical interconnection project of the networks of Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Syria, and Turkey is progressing. To achieve this interconnection project, two feasibility studies were conducted: interconnection of the Egyptian and Jordanian electrical power systems; interconnection of the electrical networks of Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Syria, and Turkey (EIJST interconnection). This presentation reviews these studies and their results.

  12. Causal diagrams for physical models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kinsler, Paul

    2015-01-01

    I present a scheme of drawing causal diagrams based on physically motivated mathematical models expressed in terms of temporal differential equations. They provide a means of better understanding the processes and causal relationships contained within such systems.

  13. InterconnectFabric InterconnectFabric SingleBuilding Multi-Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cortes, Corinna

    Interconnects in Datacenter Networks Opportunities and Challenges for WDM Hong Liu, Cedric F. Lam, and Chris We review the growing need for optical interconnect bandwidth in datacenter networks growth inside datacenter networks. INTRODUCTION The rapid growth of Internet and cloud computing

  14. 1 mil gold bond wire study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huff, Johnathon; McLean, Michael B.; Jenkins, Mark W.; Rutherford, Brian Milne

    2013-05-01

    In microcircuit fabrication, the diameter and length of a bond wire have been shown to both affect the current versus fusing time ratio of a bond wire as well as the gap length of the fused wire. This study investigated the impact of current level on the time-to-open and gap length of 1 mil by 60 mil gold bond wires. During the experiments, constant current was provided for a control set of bond wires for 250ms, 410ms and until the wire fused; non-destructively pull-tested wires for 250ms; and notched wires. The key findings were that as the current increases, the gap length increases and 73% of the bond wires will fuse at 1.8A, and 100% of the wires fuse at 1.9A within 60ms. Due to the limited scope of experiments and limited data analyzed, further investigation is encouraged to confirm these observations.

  15. Smart Wire Grid: Resisting Expectations

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Ramsay, Stewart; Lowe, DeJim

    2014-04-09

    Smart Wire Grid's DSR technology (Discrete Series Reactor) can be quickly deployed on electrical transmission lines to create intelligent mesh networks capable of quickly rerouting electricity to get power where and when it's needed the most. With their recent ARPA-E funding, Smart Wire Grid has been able to move from prototype and field testing to building out a US manufacturing operation in just under a year.

  16. Method of manufacturing superconductor wire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Motowidlo, Leszek

    2014-09-16

    A method for forming Nb.sub.3Sn superconducting wire is provided. The method employs a powder-in-tube process using a high-tin intermetallic compound, such as MnSn.sub.2, for producing the Nb.sub.3Sn. The use of a high-tin intermetallic compound enables the process to perform hot extrusion without melting the high-tin intermetallic compound. Alternatively, the method may entail drawing the wire without hot extrusion.

  17. Smart Wire Grid: Resisting Expectations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsay, Stewart; Lowe, DeJim

    2014-03-03

    Smart Wire Grid's DSR technology (Discrete Series Reactor) can be quickly deployed on electrical transmission lines to create intelligent mesh networks capable of quickly rerouting electricity to get power where and when it's needed the most. With their recent ARPA-E funding, Smart Wire Grid has been able to move from prototype and field testing to building out a US manufacturing operation in just under a year.

  18. HTS Wire Development Workshop: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The 1994 High-Temperature Superconducting Wire Development Workshop was held on February 16--17 at the St. Petersburg Hilton and Towers in St. Petersburg, Florida. The meeting was hosted by Florida Power Corporation and sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Program for Electric Power Systems. The meeting focused on recent high-temperature superconducting wire development activities in the Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Systems program. The meeting opened with a general discussion on the needs and benefits of superconductivity from a utility perspective, the US global competitiveness position, and an outlook on the overall prospects of wire development. The meeting then focused on four important technology areas: Wire characterization: issues and needs; technology for overcoming barriers: weak links and flux pinning; manufacturing issues for long wire lengths; and physical properties of HTS coils. Following in-depth presentations, working groups were formed in each technology area to discuss the most important current research and development issues. The working groups identified research areas that have the potential for greatly enhancing the wire development effort. These areas are discussed in the summary reports from each of the working groups. This document is a compilation of the workshop proceedings including all general session presentations and summary reports from the working groups.

  19. Vibrating wires for beam diagnostics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arutunian, S G; Wittenburg, Kay

    2015-01-01

    A new approach to the technique of scanning by wires is developed. Novelty of the method is that the wire heating quantity is used as a source of information about the number of interacting particles. To increase the accuracy and sensitivity of measurements the wire heating measurement is regenerated as a change of wire natural oscillations frequency. By the rigid fixing of the wire ends on the base an unprecedented sensitivity of the frequency to the temperature and to the corresponding flux of colliding particles. The range of used frequencies (tens of kHz) and speed of processes of heat transfer limit the speed characteristics of proposed scanning method, however, the high sensitivity make it a perspective one for investigation of beam halo and weak beam scanning. Traditional beam profile monitors generally focus on the beam core and loose sensitivity in the halo region where a large dynamic range of detection is necessary. The scanning by a vibrating wire can be also successfully used in profiling and det...

  20. Automotion of domain walls for spintronic interconnects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nikonov, Dmitri E.; Manipatruni, Sasikanth; Young, Ian A.

    2014-06-07

    We simulate “automotion,” the transport of a magnetic domain wall under the influence of demagnetization and magnetic anisotropy, in nanoscale spintronic interconnects. In contrast to spin transfer driven magnetic domain wall motion, the proposed interconnects operate without longitudinal charge current transfer, with only a transient current pulse at domain wall creation and have favorable scaling down to the 20?nm dimension. Cases of both in-plane and out-of-plane magnetization are considered. Analytical dependence of the velocity of domain walls on the angle of magnetization are compared with full micromagnetic simulations. Deceleration, attenuation and disappearance, and reflection of domain walls are demonstrated through simulation. Dependences of the magnetization angle on the current pulse parameters are studied. The energy and delay analysis suggests that automotion is an attractive option for spintronic logic interconnects.

  1. Regulation and investment under uncertainty: An application to power grid interconnection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saphores, Jean-Daniel M; Gravel, E; Bernard, J T

    2004-01-01

    An Application to Power Grid Interconnection. Jean-Danielto the Ontario power grid. This interconnection will allowfor our application to a power grid interconnection. Second,

  2. Plasma arc torch with coaxial wire feed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hooper, Frederick M (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A plasma arc welding apparatus having a coaxial wire feed. The apparatus includes a plasma arc welding torch, a wire guide disposed coaxially inside of the plasma arc welding torch, and a hollow non-consumable electrode. The coaxial wire guide feeds non-electrified filler wire through the tip of the hollow non-consumable electrode during plasma arc welding. Non-electrified filler wires as small as 0.010 inches can be used. This invention allows precision control of the positioning and feeding of the filler wire during plasma arc welding. Since the non-electrified filler wire is fed coaxially through the center of the plasma arc torch's electrode and nozzle, the wire is automatically aimed at the optimum point in the weld zone. Therefore, there is no need for additional equipment to position and feed the filler wire from the side before or during welding.

  3. Californium Recovery from Palladium Wire

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burns, Jon D.

    2014-08-01

    The recovery of 252Cf from palladium-252Cf cermet wires was investigated to determine the feasibility of implementing it into the cermet wire production operation at Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Radiochemical Engineering Development Center. The dissolution of Pd wire in 8 M HNO3 and trace amounts of HCl was studied at both ambient and elevated temperatures. These studies showed that it took days to dissolve the wire at ambient temperature and only 2 hours at 60°C. Adjusting the ratio of the volume of solvent to the mass of the wire segment showed little change in the kinetics of dissolution, which ranged from 0.176 mL/mg down to 0.019 mL/mg. A successful chromatographic separation of 153Gd, a surrogate for 252Cf, from Pd was demonstrated using AG 50x8 cation exchange resin with a bed volume of 0.5 mL and an internal diameter of 0.8 cm.

  4. Energy consumption in optical modulators for interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, David A. B.

    Energy consumption in optical modulators for interconnects David A. B. Miller* Ginzton Laboratory@ee.stanford.edu Abstract: We analyze energy consumption in optical modulators operated in depletion and intended for low, even conceivably being more energy-efficient than an ideal loss-less modulator. ©2012 Optical Society

  5. Electric network interconnection of Mashreq Arab Countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Amin, I.M.; Al-Shehri, A.M.; Opoku, G.; Al-Baiyat, S.A.; Zedan, F.M.

    1994-12-01

    Power system interconnection is a well established practice for a variety of technical and economical reasons. Several interconnected networks exist worldwide for a number of factors. Some of these networks cross international boundaries. This presentation discusses the future developments of the power systems of Mashreq Arab Countries (MAC). MAC consists of Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Yemen. Mac power systems are operated by government or semigovernment bodies. Many of these countries have national or regional electric grids but are generally isolated from each other. With the exception of Saudi Arabia power systems, which employ 60 Hz, all other MAC utilities use 50 Hz frequency. Each country is served by one utility, except Saudi Arabia, which is served by four major utilities and some smaller utilities serving remote towns and small load centers. The major utilities are the Saudi Consolidated electric Company in the Eastern Province (SCECO East), SCECO Center, SCECO West, and SCECO South. These are the ones considered in this study. The energy resources in MAC are varied. Countries such as Egypt, Iraq, and Syria have significant hydro resources.The gulf countries and Iraq have abundant fossil fuel, The variation in energy resources as well as the characteristics of the electric load make it essential to look into interconnections beyond the national boundaries. Most of the existing or planned interconnections involve few power systems. A study involving 12 countries and over 20 utilities with different characteristics represents a very large scale undertaking.

  6. Asynchronous intrusion recovery for interconnected web services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sabatini, David M.

    Asynchronous intrusion recovery for interconnected web services Ramesh Chandra, Taesoo Kim, and tracking down and recovering from such an attack re- quires significant manual effort. Web services for such web services. Aire addresses several challenges, such as propagating repair across services when some

  7. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, John P.; Liu, Shu; Ibanez, Eduardo; Pennock, Ken; Reed, Gregory; Hanes, Spencer

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States.

  8. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study Full Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, John P.; Liu, Shu; Ibanez, Eduardo; Pennock, Ken; Reed, Gregory; Hanes, Spencer

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States.

  9. Solar Energy to Benefit from New FERC Interconnection Procedures...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Energy to Benefit from New FERC Interconnection Procedures Solar Energy to Benefit from New FERC Interconnection Procedures October 30, 2014 - 5:15pm Addthis As a major win...

  10. Equalized on-chip interconnect : modeling, analysis, and design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Byungsub, 1978-

    2010-01-01

    This thesis work explores the use of equalization techniques to improve throughput and reduce power consumption of on-chip interconnect. A theoretical model for an equalized on-chip interconnect is first suggested to provide ...

  11. Interconnect Delay and Area Estimation for Multiple-Pin Nets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, David Z.

    ,000,000 second = 3 years ! #12;Needs for Efficient Interconnect Estimation Models nn EfficiencyEfficiency nn

  12. Incorporating Demand Response into Western Interconnection Transmission Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Satchwell, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Aggregator Programs. Demand Response Measurement andIncorporating Demand Response into Western Interconnection13 Demand Response Dispatch

  13. Antenna coupled photonic wire lasers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Reno, John L.; Kao, Tsung-Kao; Cai, Xiaowei; Lee, Alan W. M.; Hu, Qing

    2015-06-22

    Slope efficiency (SE) is an important performance metric for lasers. In conventional semiconductor lasers, SE can be optimized by careful designs of the facet (or the modulation for DFB lasers) dimension and surface. However, photonic wire lasers intrinsically suffer low SE due to their deep sub-wavelength emitting facets. Inspired by microwave engineering techniques, we show a novel method to extract power from wire lasers using monolithically integrated antennas. These integrated antennas significantly increase the effective radiation area, and consequently enhance the power extraction efficiency. When applied to wire lasers at THz frequency, we achieved the highest single-side slope efficiency (~450more »mW/A) in pulsed mode for DFB lasers at 4 THz and a ~4x increase in output power at 3 THz compared with a similar structure without antennas. This work demonstrates the versatility of incorporating microwave engineering techniques into laser designs, enabling significant performance enhancements.« less

  14. Interconnected hydro-thermal systems Models, methods, and applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Interconnected hydro-thermal systems Models, methods, and applications Magnus Hindsberger Kgs. Lyngby 2003 IMM-PHD-2003-112 Interconnected hydro-thermalsystems #12;Technical University of Denmark 45882673 reception@imm.dtu.dk www.imm.dtu.dk IMM-PHD-2003-112 ISSN 0909-3192 #12;Interconnected hydro

  15. On-chip interconnection architecture optimization using a multicommodity flow approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Yuanfang

    2007-01-01

    Routing Architecture Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . .Timing Analysis in On-Chip Interconnection ArchitectureLarge Scale On-Chip Interconnection Architecture Opti-

  16. Diagrams of affine permutations and their labellings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yun, Taedong

    2013-01-01

    We study affine permutation diagrams and their labellings with positive integers. Balanced labellings of a Rothe diagram of a finite permutation were defined by Fomin- Greene-Reiner-Shimozono, and we extend this notion to ...

  17. LUNAR MASS SPECTROMETER RELIABILITY LOGIC DIAGRAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    point (A) to (F). The block diagram also defines the reliability functions for the purpose of FMEA 1

  18. Release Resistant Electrical Interconnections For Mems Devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peterson, Kenneth A. (Albuquerque, NM); Garrett, Stephen E. (Albuquerque, NM); Reber, Cathleen A. (Corrales, NM)

    2005-02-22

    A release resistant electrical interconnection comprising a gold-based electrical conductor compression bonded directly to a highly-doped polysilicon bonding pad in a MEMS, IMEMS, or MOEMS device, without using any intermediate layers of aluminum, titanium, solder, or conductive adhesive disposed in-between the conductor and polysilicon pad. After the initial compression bond has been formed, subsequent heat treatment of the joint above 363 C creates a liquid eutectic phase at the bondline comprising gold plus approximately 3 wt % silicon, which, upon re-solidification, significantly improves the bond strength by reforming and enhancing the initial bond. This type of electrical interconnection is resistant to chemical attack from acids used for releasing MEMS elements (HF, HCL), thereby enabling the use of a "package-first, release-second" sequence for fabricating MEMS devices. Likewise, the bond strength of an Au--Ge compression bond may be increased by forming a transient liquid eutectic phase comprising Au-12 wt % Ge.

  19. Interconnection of bundled solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Michael; Bessette, II, Norman F; Litka, Anthony F; Schmidt, Douglas S

    2014-01-14

    A system and method for electrically interconnecting a plurality of fuel cells to provide dense packing of the fuel cells. Each one of the plurality of fuel cells has a plurality of discrete electrical connection points along an outer surface. Electrical connections are made directly between the discrete electrical connection points of adjacent fuel cells so that the fuel cells can be packed more densely. Fuel cells have at least one outer electrode and at least one discrete interconnection to an inner electrode, wherein the outer electrode is one of a cathode and and anode and wherein the inner electrode is the other of the cathode and the anode. In tubular solid oxide fuel cells the discrete electrical connection points are spaced along the length of the fuel cell.

  20. Energy Level Diagrams A=10

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansasCommunities EnergyU.S. DOE Office of99 Diagram 4.Energy Kits Energy

  1. Energy Level Diagrams A=11

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansasCommunities EnergyU.S. DOE Office of99 Diagram 4.Energy Kits Energy1

  2. Energy Level Diagrams A=12

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansasCommunities EnergyU.S. DOE Office of99 Diagram 4.Energy Kits Energy12

  3. Energy Level Diagrams A=13

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansasCommunities EnergyU.S. DOE Office of99 Diagram 4.Energy Kits Energy123

  4. Energy Level Diagrams A=14

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansasCommunities EnergyU.S. DOE Office of99 Diagram 4.Energy Kits Energy1234

  5. Energy Level Diagrams A=15

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansasCommunities EnergyU.S. DOE Office of99 Diagram 4.Energy Kits Energy12345

  6. Energy Level Diagrams A=16

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansasCommunities EnergyU.S. DOE Office of99 Diagram 4.Energy Kits Energy123456

  7. Energy Level Diagrams A=17

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansasCommunities EnergyU.S. DOE Office of99 Diagram 4.Energy Kits

  8. Energy Level Diagrams A=18

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansasCommunities EnergyU.S. DOE Office of99 Diagram 4.Energy Kits8 Available

  9. Energy Level Diagrams A=19

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansasCommunities EnergyU.S. DOE Office of99 Diagram 4.Energy Kits8 Available19

  10. Energy Level Diagrams A=20

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansasCommunities EnergyU.S. DOE Office of99 Diagram 4.Energy Kits8

  11. Energy Level Diagrams A=4

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansasCommunities EnergyU.S. DOE Office of99 Diagram 4.Energy Kits84 Available

  12. Energy Level Diagrams A=5

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansasCommunities EnergyU.S. DOE Office of99 Diagram 4.Energy Kits84 Available5

  13. Energy Level Diagrams A=6

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansasCommunities EnergyU.S. DOE Office of99 Diagram 4.Energy Kits84

  14. Energy Level Diagrams A=7

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansasCommunities EnergyU.S. DOE Office of99 Diagram 4.Energy Kits847 Available

  15. Energy Level Diagrams A=8

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansasCommunities EnergyU.S. DOE Office of99 Diagram 4.Energy Kits847

  16. Energy Level Diagrams A=9

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansasCommunities EnergyU.S. DOE Office of99 Diagram 4.Energy Kits8479

  17. Sintered wire cesium dispenser photocathode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Montgomery, Eric J; Ives, R. Lawrence; Falce, Louis R

    2014-03-04

    A photoelectric cathode has a work function lowering material such as cesium placed into an enclosure which couples a thermal energy from a heater to the work function lowering material. The enclosure directs the work function lowering material in vapor form through a low diffusion layer, through a free space layer, and through a uniform porosity layer, one side of which also forms a photoelectric cathode surface. The low diffusion layer may be formed from sintered powdered metal, such as tungsten, and the uniform porosity layer may be formed from wires which are sintered together to form pores between the wires which are continuous from the a back surface to a front surface which is also the photoelectric surface.

  18. Development of Ceramic Interconnect Materials for SOFC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, Kyung J.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Marina, Olga A.

    2010-08-05

    Currently, acceptor-doped lanthanum chromite is the state-of-the-art ceramic interconnect material for high temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) due to its fairly good electronic conductivity and chemical stability in both oxidizing and reducing atmospheres, and thermal compatibility with other cell components. The major challenge for acceptor-doped lanthanum chromite for SOFC interconnect applications is its inferior sintering behavior in air, which has been attributed to the development of a thin layer of Cr2O3 at the interparticle necks during the initial stages of sintering. In addition, lanthanum chromite is reactive with YSZ electrolyte at high temperatures, forming a highly resistive lanthanum zirconate phase (La2Zr2O7), which further complicates co-firing processes. Acceptor-doped yttrium chromite is considered to be one of the promising alternatives to acceptor-doped lanthanum chromite because it is more stable with respect to the formation of hydroxides in SOFC operating conditions, and the formation of impurity phases can be effectively avoided at co-firing temperatures. In addition, calcium-doped yttrium chromite exhibits higher mechanical strength than lanthanum chromite-based materials. The major drawback of yttrium chromite is considered to be its lower electrical conductivity than lanthanum chromite. The properties of yttrium chromites could possibly be improved and optimized by partial substitution of chromium with various transition metals. During FY10, PNNL investigated the effect of various transition metal doping on chemical stability, sintering and thermal expansion behavior, microstructure, electronic and ionic conductivity, and chemical compatibility with other cell components to develop the optimized ceramic interconnect material.

  19. Method and apparatus for laying wire arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horowitz, Seymour M. (6525 Swainland Dr., Oakland, CA 94611); Nesbitt, Dale D. (1712 Marin Ave., Berkeley, CA 94707)

    1986-01-01

    Wire arrays (11) having a continuous wire (12) which is formed into a predetermined pattern and adhered to a backing material or substrate (13) are fabricated by applying adhesive material (16a, 16b) along opposite edge portions (17, 18) of the substrate, positioning a row of winding spools (21) along each of the edge portions and repeatedly extending the wire between and around successive spools at the opposite edge portions. The wound wire is then traveled along each spool toward the substrate and into contact with the adhesive. The spools are then removed and a coating of hardenable material (54) is applied to secure the wound wire to the substrate. Tension in the wire is relieved prior to contact of the wire with the adhesive and a small amount of slack is introduced into the wire before the final coating step. Mechanism (32) is provided for lifting the spools away from the substrate without disturbing the wound wire. The method and apparatus enable manufacture of precisely configured wire arrays without complex or costly equipment and do not require structural alterations in the substrate for the purpose of accommodating to fabrication equipment.

  20. Thermal energy scavenger (rotating wire modules)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hochstein, P.A.; Milton, H.W.; Pringle, W.L.

    1980-11-04

    A thermal energy scavenger assembly is is described including a plurality of temperature-sensitive wires made of material which exhibits shape memory due to a thermoelastic, martensitic phase transformation. The wires are placed in tension between fixed and movable plates which are, in turn, supported by a pair of wheels which are rotatably supported by a housing for rotation about a central axis. A pair of upper and lower cams are fixed to the housing and cam followers react with the respective cams. Each cam transmits forces through a pair of hydraulic pistons. One of the pistons is connected to a movable plate to which one end of the wires are connected whereby a stress is applied to the wires to strain the wires during a first phase and whereby the cam responds to the unstraining of the wires during a second phase. A housing defines fluid compartments through which hot and cold fluid passes and flows radially through the wires whereby the wires become unstrained and shorten in length when subjected to the hot fluid for causing a reaction between the cam followers and the cams to effect rotation of the wheels about the central axis of the assembly, which rotation of the wheels is extracted through beveled gearing. The wires are grouped into a plurality of independent modules with each module having a movable plate, a fixed plate and the associated hydraulic pistons and cam follower. The hydraulic pistons and cam follower of a module are disposed at ends of the wires opposite from the ends of the wires at which the same components of the next adjacent modules are disposed so that the cam followers of alternate modules react with one of the cams and the remaining cam followers of the remaining modules react with the other cam. There is also included stress limiting means in the form of coil springs associated with alternate ends of the wires for limiting the stress or strain in the wires.

  1. Repairable chip bonding/interconnect process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernhardt, Anthony F. (Berkeley, CA); Contolini, Robert J. (Livermore, CA); Malba, Vincent (Livermore, CA); Riddle, Robert A. (Tracy, CA)

    1997-01-01

    A repairable, chip-to-board interconnect process which addresses cost and testability issues in the multi-chip modules. This process can be carried out using a chip-on-sacrificial-substrate technique, involving laser processing. This process avoids the curing/solvent evolution problems encountered in prior approaches, as well is resolving prior plating problems and the requirements for fillets. For repairable high speed chip-to-board connection, transmission lines can be formed on the sides of the chip from chip bond pads, ending in a gull wing at the bottom of the chip for subsequent solder.

  2. Repairable chip bonding/interconnect process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernhardt, A.F.; Contolini, R.J.; Malba, V.; Riddle, R.A.

    1997-08-05

    A repairable, chip-to-board interconnect process which addresses cost and testability issues in the multi-chip modules is disclosed. This process can be carried out using a chip-on-sacrificial-substrate technique, involving laser processing. This process avoids the curing/solvent evolution problems encountered in prior approaches, as well is resolving prior plating problems and the requirements for fillets. For repairable high speed chip-to-board connection, transmission lines can be formed on the sides of the chip from chip bond pads, ending in a gull wing at the bottom of the chip for subsequent solder. 10 figs.

  3. Updating Interconnection Screens for PV System Integration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coddington, M.; Mather, B.; Kroposki, B.; Lynn, K.; Razon, A.; Ellis, A.; Hill, R.; Key, T.; Nicole, K.; Smith, J.

    2012-02-01

    This white paper evaluates the origins and usefulness of the capacity penetration screen, offer short-term solutions which could effectively allow fast-track interconnection to many PV system applications, and considers longer-term solutions for increasing PV deployment levels in a safe and reliable manner while reducing or eliminating the emphasis on the penetration screen. Short-term and longer-term alternatives approaches are offered as examples; however, specific modifications to screening procedures should be discussed with stakeholders and must ultimately be adopted by state and federal regulatory bodies.

  4. Environmental Regulation Impacts on Eastern Interconnection Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markham, Penn N; Liu, Yilu; Young II, Marcus Aaron

    2013-07-01

    In the United States, recent environmental regulations will likely result in the removal of nearly 30 GW of oil and coal-fired generation from the power grid, mostly in the Eastern Interconnection (EI). The effects of this transition on voltage stability and transmission line flows have previously not been studied from a system-wide perspective. This report discusses the results of power flow studies designed to simulate the evolution of the EI over the next few years as traditional generation sources are replaced with environmentally friendlier ones such as natural gas and wind.

  5. Title 16 USC 824a Interconnection and Coordination of Facilities...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Title 16 USC 824a Interconnection and Coordination of Facilities, Emergencies, Transmission to Foreign Countries Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  6. New Report Characterizes Existing Offshore Wind Grid Interconnection...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    the first National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS). The NOWEGIS investigated the key economic and technological factors that will influence the...

  7. CHP: Connecting the Gap between Markets and Utility Interconnection...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Markets and Utility Interconnection and Tariff Practices, 2006 The adoption of combined heat and power (CHP) systems by American industries has made substantial strides in the last...

  8. Microgrid V2G Charging Station Interconnection Testing (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, M.

    2013-07-01

    This presentation by Mike Simpson of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) describes NREL's microgrid vehicle-to-grid charging station interconnection testing.

  9. Review of Direct Metal Bonding for Microelectronic Interconnections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, G.G.

    Microelectronic interconnections require advanced joining techniques. Direct metal bonding methods, which include thercomsonic and thermocompression bonding, offer remarkable advantages over soldering and adhesives joining. ...

  10. Interconnection arrangement of routers of processor boards in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    physical interconnect structure includes routers in service or compute processor boards distributed in an array of cabinets connected in series on each board and to respective...

  11. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, John P.; Liu, Shu; Ibanez, Eduardo; Pennock, Ken; Reed, Greg; Hanes, Spencer

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States. A total of 54GW of offshore wind was assumed to be the target for the analyses conducted. A variety of issues are considered including: the anticipated staging of offshore wind; the offshore wind resource availability; offshore wind energy power production profiles; offshore wind variability; present and potential technologies for collection and delivery of offshore wind energy to the onshore grid; potential impacts to existing utility systems most likely to receive large amounts of offshore wind; and regulatory influences on offshore wind development. The technologies considered the reliability of various high-voltage ac (HVAC) and high-voltage dc (HVDC) technology options and configurations. The utility system impacts of GW-scale integration of offshore wind are considered from an operational steady-state perspective and from a regional and national production cost perspective.

  12. Richard P. Feynman and the Feynman Diagrams

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Web Pages: Richard Feynman (1918 - 1988) Feynman Diagrams Landmarks: Powerful Pictures Los Alamos From Below: Reminiscences 1943-1945, by Richard Feynman, 1975 Plenty of...

  13. Cut set-based risk and reliability analysis for arbitrarily interconnected networks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wyss, Gregory D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01

    Method for computing all-terminal reliability for arbitrarily interconnected networks such as the United States public switched telephone network. The method includes an efficient search algorithm to generate minimal cut sets for nonhierarchical networks directly from the network connectivity diagram. Efficiency of the search algorithm stems in part from its basis on only link failures. The method also includes a novel quantification scheme that likewise reduces computational effort associated with assessing network reliability based on traditional risk importance measures. Vast reductions in computational effort are realized since combinatorial expansion and subsequent Boolean reduction steps are eliminated through analysis of network segmentations using a technique of assuming node failures to occur on only one side of a break in the network, and repeating the technique for all minimal cut sets generated with the search algorithm. The method functions equally well for planar and non-planar networks.

  14. Processing a printed wiring board by single bath electrodeposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meltzer, Michael P. (Oakland, CA); Steffani, Christopher P. (Livermore, CA); Gonfiotti, Ray A. (Livermore, CA)

    2010-12-07

    A method of processing a printed wiring board. Initial processing steps are implemented on the printed wiring board. Copper is plated on the printed wiring board from a bath containing nickel and copper. Nickel is plated on the printed wiring board from a bath containing nickel and copper and final processing steps are implemented on the printed wiring board.

  15. Processing A Printed Wiring Board By Single Bath Electrodeposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meltzer, Michael P. (Oakland, CA); Steffani, Christopher P. (Livermore, CA); Gonfiotti, Ray A. (Livermore, CA)

    2003-04-15

    A method of processing a printed wiring board by single bath electrodeposition. Initial processing steps are implemented on the printed wiring board. Copper is plated on the printed wiring board from a bath containing nickel and copper. Nickel is plated on the printed wiring board from the bath containing nickel and copper and final processing steps are implemented on the printed wiring board.

  16. Thin californium-containing radioactive source wires

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, Ian G (Clinton, TN); Pierce, Larry A (Kingston, TN)

    2012-01-03

    A cermet wire includes at least 1% californium-252 and is characterized by a diameter of no more than 0.0225 inch.

  17. Ignition and spread of electrical wire fires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Xinyan

    2012-01-01

    1.1 Electrical Wire Fires 1.2 Literature Review . . 1.3d) Electrical fires. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .of the fire performance of electrical cables,” Fire Safety

  18. Cost-Constrained Selection of Strand Wire and Number in a Litz-Wire Transformer Winding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cost-Constrained Selection of Strand Wire and Number in a Litz-Wire Transformer Winding C. R. Design of litz-wire windings subject to cost constraints is analyzed. An approximation of nor- malized winding, in terms of a cost function. At the second level, results that are less general but are more

  19. Molecular Electronics: From Devices and Interconnect to Circuits and Architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Seth Copen

    of these emerging nanotechnologies is the assumption that some form of self-assembly will be required to fabricateMolecular Electronics: From Devices and Interconnect to Circuits and Architecture MIRCEA R. STAN and architecture. Based on proposed nanoscale interconnect and device structures, we explore the design space

  20. Motivating Future Interconnects: A Differential Measurement Analysis of PCI Latency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hand, Steven

    Motivating Future Interconnects: A Differential Measurement Analysis of PCI Latency David J. Miller illustrate how an evolution in the common PCI interconnect architecture has worsened latency by a factor, mi- crobenchmark, measurement, PCI Express 1. INTRODUCTION Demand for performance is constantly

  1. Improved Crosstalk Modeling with Applications to Noise Constrained Interconnect Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, David Z.

    Improved Crosstalk Modeling with Applications to Noise Constrained Interconnect Optimization This paper presents a highly accurate yet efficient crosstalk noise model, the 2-˘ model, and applies to be noise immune, ac- curate yet efficient noise models are needed to guide interconnect optimizations

  2. Generalized Lyapunov Function for Stability Analysis of Interconnected Power Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    Generalized Lyapunov Function for Stability Analysis of Interconnected Power Systems M. A. Mahmud of Lyapunov function is necessary to analyze the stability of a system. This paper presents an idea for formulating generalized Lyapunov function for the stability analysis of interconnected power systems. Lyapunov

  3. Updating Small Generator Interconnection Procedures for New Market Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coddington, M.; Fox, K.; Stanfield, S.; Varnado, L.; Culley, T.; Sheehan, M.

    2012-12-01

    Federal and state regulators are faced with the challenge of keeping interconnection procedures updated against a backdrop of evolving technology, new codes and standards, and considerably transformed market conditions. This report is intended to educate policymakers and stakeholders on beneficial reforms that will keep interconnection processes efficient and cost-effective while maintaining a safe and reliable power system.

  4. ECE 423: DSP for Communication Block Diagrams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Connors, Daniel A.

    ECE 423: DSP for Communication Block Diagrams Discrete-time System Analysis/Design Sampling from high-level block diagram operation of a digital system such as microprocessor Simulation Analysis and Quantization DSP System Design/Characterization Real-time DSP Hardware and Software - Understands basic signal

  5. Solid-state energy storage module employing integrated interconnect board

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouillard, Jean; Comte, Christophe; Daigle, Dominik; Hagen, Ronald A.; Knudson, Orlin B.; Morin, Andre; Ranger, Michel; Ross, Guy; Rouillard, Roger; St-Germain, Philippe; Sudano, Anthony; Turgeon, Thomas A.

    2003-11-04

    The present invention is directed to an improved electrochemical energy storage device. The electrochemical energy storage device includes a number of solid-state, thin-film electrochemical cells which are selectively interconnected in series or parallel through use of an integrated interconnect board. The interconnect board is typically disposed within a sealed housing which also houses the electrochemical cells, and includes a first contact and a second contact respectively coupled to first and second power terminals of the energy storage device. The interconnect board advantageously provides for selective series or parallel connectivity with the electrochemical cells, irrespective of electrochemical cell position within the housing. Fuses and various electrical and electromechanical devices, such as bypass, equalization, and communication devices for example, may also be mounted to the interconnect board and selectively connected to the electrochemical cells.

  6. Solid-state energy storage module employing integrated interconnect board

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouillard, Jean; Comte, Christophe; Daigle, Dominik; Hagen, Ronald A.; Knudson, Orlin B.; Morin, Andre; Ranger, Michel; Ross, Guy; Rouillard, Roger; St-Germain, Philippe; Sudano, Anthony; Turgeon, Thomas A.

    2004-09-28

    An electrochemical energy storage device includes a number of solid-state thin-film electrochemical cells which are selectively interconnected in series or parallel through use of an integrated interconnect board. The interconnect board is typically disposed within a sealed housing which also houses the electrochemical cells, and includes a first contact and a second contact respectively coupled to first and second power terminals of the energy storage device. The interconnect board advantageously provides for selective series or parallel connectivity with the electrochemical cells, irrespective of electrochemical cell position within the housing. Fuses and various electrical and electro-mechanical devices, such as bypass, equalization, and communication devices for example, may also be mounted to the interconnect board and selectively connected to the electrochemical cells.

  7. EAC Recommendations for DOE Action Regarding Non-Wires Solutions...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Non-Wires Solutions - October 17, 2012 EAC Recommendations for DOE Action Regarding Non-Wires Solutions - October 17, 2012 EAC Recommendations for DOE Action Regarding Non-Wires...

  8. Energy and water in the Western and Texas interconnects.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll

    2010-08-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of Electricity has initiated a $60M program to assist the electric industry in interconnection-level analysis and planning. The objective of this effort is to facilitate the development or strengthening of capabilities in each of the three interconnections serving the lower 48 states of the United States, to prepare analyses of transmission requirements under a broad range of alternative futures and develop long-term interconnection-wide transmission expansion plans. The interconnections are the Western Interconnection, the Eastern Interconnection, and the Texas Interconnection. One element of this program address the support and development of an integrated energy-water Decision Support System (DSS) that will enable planners in the Western and Texas Interconnections to analyze the potential implications of water stress for transmission and resource planning (the Eastern Interconnection is not participating in this element). Specific objectives include: (1) Develop an integrated Energy-Water Decision Support System (DSS) that will enable planners in the Western and Texas Interconnections to analyze the potential implications of water stress for transmission and resource planning. (2) Pursue the formulation and development of the Energy-Water DSS through a strongly collaborative process between members of this proposal team and the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC), Western Governors Association (WGA), the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) and their associated stakeholder teams. (3) Exercise the Energy-Water DSS to investigate water stress implications of the transmission planning scenarios put forward by WECC, WGA, and ERCOT. The goals of this project are: (1) Develop an integrated Energy-Water Decision Support System (DSS) that will enable planners to analyze the potential implications of water stress for transmission and resource planning. (2) Pursue the formulation and development of the Energy-Water DSS through a strongly collaborative process between Western Electricity Coordinating Council, Electric Reliability Council of Texas, Western Governors Association, and Western States Water Council. (3) Exercise the Energy-Water DSS to investigate water transmission planning scenarios.

  9. Superconducting wire with improved strain characteristics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luhman, Thomas (Westhampton Beach, NY); Klamut, Carl J. (E. Patchogue, NY); Suenaga, Masaki (Bellport, NY); Welch, David (Stony Brook, NY)

    1982-01-01

    A superconducting wire comprising a superconducting filament and a beryllium strengthened bronze matrix in which the addition of beryllium to the matrix permits a low volume matrix to exhibit reduced elastic deformation after heat treating which increases the compression of the superconducting filament on cooling and thereby improves the strain characteristics of the wire.

  10. Superconducting wire with improved strain characteristics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luhman, Thomas (Westhampton Beach, NY); Klamut, Carl J. (East Patchogue, NY); Suenaga, Masaki (Bellport, NY); Welch, David (Stony Brook, NY)

    1982-01-01

    A superconducting wire comprising a superconducting filament and a beryllium strengthened bronze matrix in which the addition of beryllium to the matrix permits a low volume matrix to exhibit reduced elastic deformation after heat treating which increases the compression of the superconducting filament on cooling and thereby improve the strain characteristics of the wire.

  11. A Hubble Diagram for Quasars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risaliti, Guido

    2015-01-01

    We present a new method to test the cosmological model, and to estimate the cosmological parameters, based on the non-linear relation between ultraviolet and X-ray luminosity of quasars. We built a data set of ~1,250 quasars by merging several literature samples with X-ray measurements at 2 keV and SDSS photometry, which was used to estimate the extinction-corrected 2500~\\AA\\ flux. We obtained three main results: (1) we checked the non-linear relation between X-ray and UV luminosities in small redshift bins up to z~6, confirming that it holds at all redshifts with the same slope; (2) we built a Hubble diagram for quasars up to z~6, which is well matched to that of supernovae in the common z=0-1.4 redshift interval, and extends the test of the cosmological model up to z~6; (3) we showed that this non-linear relation is a powerful tool to estimate cosmological parameters. With present data, assuming a $\\Lambda$CDM model, we obtain $\\Omega_M$=0.21$^{+0.08}_{-0.10}$ and $\\Omega_\\Lambda$=0.95$^{+0.30}_{-0.20}$ ($\\...

  12. Method of preparing composite superconducting wire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verhoeven, John D. (Ames, IA); Gibson, Edwin D. (Ames, IA); Finnemore, Douglas K. (Ames, IA); Ostenson, Jerome E. (Ames, IA); Schmidt, Frederick A. (Ames, IA); Owen, Charles V. (Ames, IA)

    1985-08-06

    An improved method of preparing composite multifilament superconducting wire of Nb.sub.3 Sn in a copper matrix which eliminates the necessity of coating the drawn wire with tin. A generalized cylindrical billet of an alloy of copper containing at least 15 weight percent niobium, present in the copper as discrete, randomly distributed and oriented dendritic-shaped particles, is provided with at least one longitudinal opening which is filled with tin to form a composite drawing rod. The drawing rod is then drawn to form a ductile composite multifilament wire containing a filament of tin. The ductile wire containing the tin can then be wound into magnet coils or other devices before heating to diffuse the tin through the wire to react with the niobium forming Nb.sub.3 Sn. Also described is an improved method for making large billets of the copper-niobium alloy by consumable-arc casting.

  13. An Updated Assessement of Copper Wire Thefts from Electric Utilities...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    An Updated Assessement of Copper Wire Thefts from Electric Utilities - October 2010 An Updated Assessement of Copper Wire Thefts from Electric Utilities - October 2010 The U.S....

  14. Optimization of energy and throughput for pipelined VLSI interconnect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, Kevin Clark

    2010-01-01

    and a reduction in critical path latency enhances throughputthe long wire from the critical path, allowing the systeminterconnect paths from the critical path. Systems tolerant

  15. Strain tolerant microfilamentary superconducting wire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Finnemore, D.K.; Miller, T.A.; Ostenson, J.E.; Schwartzkopf, L.A.; Sanders, S.C.

    1993-02-23

    A strain tolerant microfilamentary wire capable of carrying superconducting currents is provided comprising a plurality of discontinuous filaments formed from a high temperature superconducting material. The discontinuous filaments have a length at least several orders of magnitude greater than the filament diameter and are sufficiently strong while in an amorphous state to withstand compaction. A normal metal is interposed between and binds the discontinuous filaments to form a normal metal matrix capable of withstanding heat treatment for converting the filaments to a superconducting state. The geometry of the filaments within the normal metal matrix provides substantial filament-to-filament overlap, and the normal metal is sufficiently thin to allow supercurrent transfer between the overlapped discontinuous filaments but is also sufficiently thick to provide strain relief to the filaments.

  16. Reveal: A Tool to Reverse Engineer Class Diagrams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malloy, Brian

    class diagrams, graphviz, the tool that we use to draw the class diagrams, and about keystone the parser UML class diagrams, the graphviz tool, and the keystone parser front- end that we use to parse the C

  17. LANSCE wire scanning diagnostics device mechanical design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is one of the major experimental science facilities at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The core of LANSCE's work lies in the operation of a powerful linear accelerator, which accelerates protons up to 84% the speed oflight. These protons are used for a variety of purposes, including materials testing, weapons research and isotopes production. To assist in guiding the proton beam, a series of over one hundred wire scanners are used to measure the beam profile at various locations along the half-mile length of the particle accelerator. A wire scanner is an electro-mechanical device that moves a set of wires through a particle beam and measures the secondary emissions from the resulting beam-wire interaction to obtain beam intensity information. When supplemented with data from a position sensor, this information is used to determine the cross-sectional profile of the beam. This measurement allows beam operators to adjust parameters such as acceleration, beam steering, and focus to ensure that the beam reaches its destination as effectively as possible. Some of the current wire scanners are nearly forty years old and are becoming obsolete. The problem with current wire scanners comes in the difficulty of maintenance and reliability. The designs of these wire scanners vary making it difficult to keep spare parts that would work on all designs. Also many of the components are custom built or out-dated technology and are no longer in production.

  18. Plastic Deformation of 2D Crumpled Wires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M A F Gomes; V P Brito; A S O Coelho; C C Donato

    2008-11-17

    When a single long piece of elastic wire is injected trough channels into a confining two-dimensional cavity, a complex structure of hierarchical loops is formed. In the limit of maximum packing density, these structures are described by several scaling laws. In this paper it is investigated this packing process but using plastic wires which give origin to completely irreversible structures of different morphology. In particular, it is studied experimentally the plastic deformation from circular to oblate configurations of crumpled wires, obtained by the application of an axial strain. Among other things, it is shown that in spite of plasticity, irreversibility, and very large deformations, scaling is still observed.

  19. Annihilation diagrams in two-body nonleptonic decays of charmed...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    FEYNMAN DIAGRAM; TWO-BODY PROBLEM; AXIAL VECTOR MESONS; KOBAYASHI-MASKAWA MATRIX; PSEUDOSCALAR MESONS; BASIC INTERACTIONS; BOSONS; CHARM PARTICLES; DECAY; DIAGRAMS;...

  20. Interconnecting PV on New York City's Secondary Network Distribution System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, K.; Coddington, M.; Burman, K.; Hayter, S.; Kroposki, B.; Watson, A.

    2009-12-01

    This study describes technical assistance provided by NREL to help New York City and Con Edison improve the interconnection of distributed PV systems on a secondary network distribution system.

  1. Nanoantenna couplers for metal-insulator-metal waveguide interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Onbasli, Mehmet Cengiz

    State-of-the-art copper interconnects suffer from increasing spatial power dissipation due to chip downscaling and RC delays reducing operation bandwidth. Wide bandwidth, minimized Ohmic loss, deep sub-wavelength confinement ...

  2. Energy and Reliability in Future NOC Interconnected CMPS 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Hyungjun

    2013-08-01

    In this dissertation, I explore energy and reliability in future NoC (Network-on-Chip) interconnected CMPs (chip multiprocessors) as they have become a first-order constraint in future CMP design. In the first part, we ...

  3. Passive Reduced Order Modeling of Multiport Interconnects via Semidefinite Programming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahmood, Zohaib

    In this paper we present a passive reduced order modeling algorithm for linear multiport interconnect structures. The proposed technique uses rational fitting via semidefinite programming to identify a passive transfer ...

  4. Interconnecting PV on NYC's Secondary Network Distribution System

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    To assess ways to improve the interconnection process, NREL conducted a four-part study with support from DOE. The NREL team then compiled the final reports from each study into this report.

  5. Photovoltaic Systems Interconnected onto Secondary Network Distribution Systems – Success Stories

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report examines six case studies of photovoltaic (PV) systems integrated into secondary network systems. The six PV systems were chosen for evaluation because they are interconnected to secondary network systems located in four major Solar America Cities.

  6. Intrachip clock signal distribution via si-based optical interconnect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahn, Donghwan

    2007-01-01

    The Optical clocking has emerged as an innovative alternative approach to the electrical clocking, in order to overcome the difficulties associated with electrical interconnects in the synchronization of high-performance ...

  7. Utility-Interconnected Photovoltaic Systems STEVENS III,JOHN...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    STEVENS III,JOHN W.; BONN,RUSSELL H.; GINN,JERRY W.; GONZALEZ,SIGIFREDO; KERN,GREG 14 SOLAR ENERGY; 24 POWER TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION; INTERCONNECTED POWER SYSTEMS;...

  8. Fast high-order variation-aware IC interconnect analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ye, Xiaoji

    2009-05-15

    verification. However, handling a multitude of inter-die/intra-die variations and assessing their impacts on circuit performance can dramatically complicate the timing analysis. In this thesis, three practical interconnect delay and slew analysis methods...

  9. Advanced Unit Commitment Strategies in the United States Eastern Interconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meibom, P.; Larsen, H. V.; Barth, R.; Brand, H.; Tuohy, A.; Ela, E.

    2011-08-01

    This project sought to evaluate the impacts of high wind penetrations on the U.S. Eastern Interconnection and analyze how different unit commitment strategies may affect these impacts.

  10. Load frequency control of interconnected power systems with system constraints 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choudhury, Md Ershadul H

    1993-01-01

    So far, researches in load frequency controls ( LFC) are involved in analysis of dynamic responses under normal conditions of the - interconnected power systems. In This research considers some system constraints (for example, one area fails...

  11. Solar Energy to Benefit from New FERC Interconnection Procedures...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    from New FERC Interconnection Procedures October 30, 2014 - 5:15pm Addthis As a major win for solar and testament to the impact of DOE SunShot funded research at the national...

  12. Fabrication and Characterization of Through-Substrate Interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    del Alamo, Jesus A.

    We developed a through-substrate copper-damascene interconnect technology in silicon with minimal impedance. Via impedance was extracted using parameter measurements at 50 GHz that were matched to simple circuit models. ...

  13. Evaluation of phase change materials for reconfigurable interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khoo, Chee Ying

    2010-01-01

    The possible use of programmable integrated circuit interconnect vias using an indirectly heated phase change material is evaluated. Process development and materials investigations are examined. Devices capable of multiple ...

  14. Developing Generic Dynamic Models for the 2030 Eastern Interconnection Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kou, Gefei; Hadley, Stanton W; Markham, Penn N; Liu, Yilu

    2013-12-01

    The Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) has built three major power flow cases for the 2030 Eastern Interconnection (EI) based on various levels of energy/environmental policy conditions, technology advances, and load growth. Using the power flow cases, this report documents the process of developing the generic 2030 dynamic models using typical dynamic parameters. The constructed model was validated indirectly using the synchronized phasor measurements by removing the wind generation temporarily.

  15. Improvements to Existing Jefferson Lab Wire Scanners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCaughan, Michael D. [JLAB; Tiefenback, Michael G. [JLAB; Turner, Dennis L. [JLAB

    2013-06-01

    This poster will detail the augmentation of selected existing CEBAF wire scanners with commercially available hardware, PMTs, and self created software in order to improve the scanners both in function and utility.

  16. t matrix of metallic wire structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhan, T. R. Chui, S. T.

    2014-04-14

    To study the electromagnetic resonance and scattering properties of complex structures of which metallic wire structures are constituents within multiple scattering theory, the t matrix of individual structures is needed. We have recently developed a rigorous and numerically efficient equivalent circuit theory in which retardation effects are taken into account for metallic wire structures. Here, we show how the t matrix can be calculated analytically within this theory. We illustrate our method with the example of split ring resonators. The density of states and cross sections for scattering and absorption are calculated, which are shown to be remarkably enhanced at resonant frequencies. The t matrix serves as the basic building block to evaluate the interaction of wire structures within the framework of multiple scattering theory. This will open the door to efficient design and optimization of assembly of wire structures.

  17. Solid-state energy storage module employing integrated interconnect board

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouillard, Jean (Saint-Luc, CA); Comte, Christophe (Montreal, CA); Daigle, Dominik (St-Hyacinthe, CA); Hagen, Ronald A. (Stillwater, MN); Knudson, Orlin B. (Vadnais Heights, MN); Morin, Andre (Longueuil, CA); Ranger, Michel (Lachine, CA); Ross, Guy (Beloeil, CA); Rouillard, Roger (Beloeil, CA); St-Germain, Philippe (Outremont, CA); Sudano, Anthony (Laval, CA); Turgeon, Thomas A. (Fridley, MN)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an improved electrochemical energy storage device. The electrochemical energy storage device includes a number of solid-state, thin-film electrochemical cells which are selectively interconnected in series or parallel through use of an integrated interconnect board. The interconnect board is typically disposed within a sealed housing which also houses the electrochemical cells, and includes a first contact and a second contact respectively coupled to first and second power terminals of the energy storage device. The interconnect board advantageously provides for selective series or parallel connectivity with the electrochemical cells, irrespective of electrochemical cell position within the housing. In one embodiment, a sheet of conductive material is processed by employing a known milling, stamping, or chemical etching technique to include a connection pattern which provides for flexible and selective interconnecting of individual electrochemical cells within the housing, which may be a hermetically sealed housing. Fuses and various electrical and electro-mechanical devices, such as bypass, equalization, and communication devices for example, may also be mounted to the interconnect board and selectively connected to the electrochemical cells.

  18. Exploration of Pipelined FPGA Interconnect Structures Akshay Sharma Katherine Compton Carl Ebeling Scott Hauck

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hochberg, Michael

    1 Exploration of Pipelined FPGA Interconnect Structures Akshay Sharma Katherine Compton Carl the interconnect structure of pipelined FPGAs. Specifically, we explore the effects of interconnect register, and the flexibility of the interconnect structure on the performance of a pipelined FPGA. Our experiments with the Ra

  19. Energetic additive manufacturing process with feed wire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harwell, Lane D. (Albuquerque, NM); Griffith, Michelle L. (Albuquerque, NM); Greene, Donald L. (Corrales, NM); Pressly, Gary A. (Sandia Park, NM)

    2000-11-07

    A process for additive manufacture by energetic wire deposition is described. A source wire is fed into a energy beam generated melt-pool on a growth surface as the melt-pool moves over the growth surface. This process enables the rapid prototyping and manufacture of fully dense, near-net shape components, as well as cladding and welding processes. Alloys, graded materials, and other inhomogeneous materials can be grown using this process.

  20. Sustainable Energy Solutions Task 1.0: Networked Monitoring and Control of Small Interconnected Wind Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janet.twomey@wichita.edu

    2010-04-30

    EXECUTIVE SUMARRY This report presents accomplishments, results, and future work for one task of five in the Wichita State University Sustainable Energy Solutions Project: To develop a scale model laboratory distribution system for research into questions that arise from networked control and monitoring of low-wind energy systems connected to the AC distribution system. The lab models developed under this task are located in the Electric Power Quality Lab in the Engineering Research Building on the Wichita State University campus. The lab system consists of four parts: 1. A doubly-fed induction generator 2. A wind turbine emulator 3. A solar photovoltaic emulator, with battery energy storage 4. Distribution transformers, lines, and other components, and wireless and wired communications and control These lab elements will be interconnected and will function together to form a complete testbed for distributed resource monitoring and control strategies and smart grid applications testing. Development of the lab system will continue beyond this project.

  1. Stability of chromite interconnections in dual environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, T.R.; Stevenson, J.W.; Raney, P.; Pederson, L.R.

    1994-11-01

    One of the most critical technical concerns in high-temperature SOFCs is the physical, chemical, and electrical stability of the interconnect (typically a doped lanthanum chromite) in the dual (oxidizing and reducing atmosphere) SOFC environment. The reducing or fuel side may experience oxygen partial pressures (P(O{sub 2})) from 10{sup {minus}18} to 10{sup {minus}6} atmospheres, while the oxidizing side may have P(O{sub 2}) from 10{sup {minus}6} to greater than 1 atm. These conditions limit the possible candidate materials to lanthanum or yttrium chromites. In the past decade, much work has centered on development of air-sinterable chromites and understanding their physical properties; little work, however, has focused on the stability of these chromites in dual environments. Chromite powders were synthesized using the glycine-nitrate process. The powders were calcined at 1,000 C for 1 hour and then uniaxially pressed into bars (46mm x 16mm x 3mm) at 55 MPa and isostatically pressed at 138 MPa. Samples were sintered in air. The dependence of the physical properties of sintered lanthanum chromites upon ambient P(O{sub 2}) and temperature (using dilatometry, thermogravimetric analysis, and oxygen permeation measurements) were studied. La{sub 1{minus}x}A{sub x}CrO{sub 3} and Y{sub 1{minus}x}Ca{sub x}CrO{sub 3}, where A is Ca or Sr and x was varied from 0.1 to 0.4 were evaluated in this study. The P(O{sub 2}) was varied using a buffered CO{sub 2}/Ar-4%H{sub 2} gas system, enabling expansion measurements to be made over a partial pressure range from 10{sup {minus}5} to 10{sup {minus}18} atmosphere at 800, 900, and 1,000 C.

  2. Non-Planar On-Shell Diagrams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sebastian Franco; Daniele Galloni; Brenda Penante; Congkao Wen

    2015-03-17

    We initiate a systematic study of non-planar on-shell diagrams in N=4 SYM and develop powerful technology for doing so. We introduce canonical variables generalizing face variables, which make the dlog form of the on-shell form explicit. We make significant progress towards a general classification of arbitrary on-shell diagrams by means of two classes of combinatorial objects: generalized matching and matroid polytopes. We propose a boundary measurement that connects general on-shell diagrams to the Grassmannian. Our proposal exhibits two important and non-trivial properties: positivity in the planar case and it matches the combinatorial description of the diagrams in terms of generalized matroid polytopes. Interestingly, non-planar diagrams exhibit novel phenomena, such as the emergence of constraints on Plucker coordinates beyond Plucker relations when deleting edges, which are neatly captured by the generalized matching and matroid polytopes. This behavior is tied to the existence of a new type of poles in the on-shell form at which combinations of Plucker coordinates vanish. Finally, we introduce a prescription, applicable beyond the MHV case, for writing the on-shell form as a function of minors directly from the graph.

  3. Using Euler Diagrams in Traditional Library Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verroust-Blondet, Anne

    Using Euler Diagrams in Traditional Library Environments J´er^ome Thi`evre, Marie-Luce Viaud 1 INA for traditional library environments, which allows the user to elaborate easily and efficiently new strategies one is an interactive representation of the structures composing the documentary kernel of the library

  4. Combinatorische Algoritmen: Binary Decision Diagrams, Deel III

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kosters, Walter

    Decision Diagram (BDD) en hebben we Algoritme C gezien die ons snel het aantal oplossingen van f(x) = 1 door Algoritme B dat oplossingen met een maximaal gewicht kan genereren. In dit deel zullen we uitwerkingen bekijken van Algoritme B (Hoofdstuk 2) en passen we daarna Algoritme C aan om de genererende

  5. Spintronic switches for ultra low energy global interconnects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharad, Mrigank Roy, Kaushik

    2014-05-07

    We present ultra-low energy interconnect design using nano-scale spin-torque (ST) switches for global data-links. Emerging spin-torque phenomena can lead to ultra-low-voltage, high-speed current-mode magnetic-switches. ST-switches can simultaneously provide large trans-impedance gain by employing magnetic tunnel junctions, to convert current-mode signals into large-swing voltage levels. Such device-characteristics can be used in the design of energy-efficient current-mode global interconnects.

  6. Spectroscopic properties of colloidal indium phosphide quantum wires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Lin-Wang; Wang, Fudong; Yu, Heng; Li, Jingbo; Hang, Qingling; Zemlyanov, Dmitry; Gibbons, Patrick C.; Wang, Lin-Wang; Janes, David B.; Buhro, William E.

    2008-07-11

    Colloidal InP quantum wires are grown by the solution-liquid-solid (SLS) method, and passivated with the traditional quantum dots surfactants 1-hexadecylamine and tri-n-octylphosphine oxide. The size dependence of the band gaps in the wires are determined from the absorption spectra, and compared to other experimental results for InP quantum dots and wires, and to the predictions of theory. The photoluminescence behavior of the wires is also investigated. Efforts to enhance photoluminescence efficiencies through photochemical etching in the presence of HF result only in photochemical thinning or photo-oxidation, without a significant influence on quantum-wire photoluminescence. However, photo-oxidation produces residual dot and rod domains within the wires, which are luminescent. The results establish that the quantum-wire band gaps are weakly influenced by the nature of the surface passivation, and that colloidal quantum wires have intrinsically low photoluminescence efficiencies.

  7. Wiring cost and topological participation of the mouse brain connectome

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubinov, Mikail; Ypma, Rolf J. F.; Watson, Charles; Bullmore, Edward T.

    2015-07-27

    Brain connectomes are topologically complex systems, anatomically embedded in 3D space. Anatomical conservation of “wiring cost” explains many but not all aspects of these networks. Here, we examined the relationship between topology and wiring cost...

  8. Unexpectedly, Navy?s Superlaser Blasts Away a Record (Wired)...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    www.wired.comdangerroom201102unexpectedly-navys-superlaser-blasts-away-a-record Submitted: Friday, February 18...

  9. Method for fabricating thin californium-containing radioactive source wires

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, Ian G; Pierce, Larry A

    2006-08-22

    A method for reducing the cross-sectional diameter of a radioactive californium-containing cermet wire while simultaneously improving the wire diameter to a more nearly circular cross section. A collet fixture is used to reduce the wire diameter by controlled pressurization pulses while simultaneously improving the wire cross-sectional diameter. The method is especially suitable for use in hot cells for the production of optimized cermet brachytherapy sources that contain large amounts of radioactive californium-252.

  10. Moon Rock Reveals Hot Molten Core | Wired Science from Wired.com http://blog.wired.com/wiredscience/2009/01/moon-magnet.html 1 of 4 1/16/2009 2:39 PM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weiss, Benjamin P.

    All Wired Moon Rock Reveals Hot Molten Core | Wired Science from Wired.com http://blog Science from Wired.com http://blog.wired.com/wiredscience/2009/01/moon-magnet.html 2 of 4 1/16/2009 2

  11. 20/02/2009 15:34Scientists Exploit Bacterial Laziness to Beat Disease | Wired Science from Wired.com Page 1 of 3http://blog.wired.com/wiredscience/2009/02/lazybugs.html

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    West, Stuart

    .com Page 1 of 3http://blog.wired.com/wiredscience/2009/02/lazybugs.html WIRED Science RSS Feed And don | Wired Science from Wired.com Page 2 of 3http://blog.wired.com/wiredscience/2009/02/lazybugs

  12. Logistical Networking Sharing More than the Wires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plank, Jim

    1 Logistical Networking Sharing More than the Wires Micah Beck, Terry Moore, Jim Plank, Martin: logistical networking, active networking, storage, caching, electronic mail Abstract: Logistical Networking into account all the network's underlying physical resources. In this paper we contrast Logistical and Active

  13. EXCITONIC EIGENSTATES OF DISORDERED SEMICONDUCTOR QUANTUM WIRES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to be symmetric, continuous, and coercive. The disorder of the wire is modelled by adding a potential in the Hamil.meier@uni-paderborn.de http://www.global-sci.com/ Global Science Preprint #12;2 1 Introduction Semiconductors of semiconductors are exploited in solar cells, light emitting diodes, and lasers, and, furthermore, future

  14. Composite wire microelectrode and method of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isaacs, H.S.; Aldykiewicz, A.J. Jr.

    1996-12-03

    A composite wire microelectrode for making electro-chemical measurements, and method of making same, are disclosed. The microelectrode includes an inner conductive sensing wire and an outer tube that is oxidized to form a dielectric, self-healing oxide layer around the sensing wire. 4 figs.

  15. Composite wire microelectrode and method of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isaacs, Hugh S. (Shoreham, NY); Aldykiewicz, Jr., Antonio J. (Thiells, NY)

    1996-12-03

    A composite wire microelectrode for making electro-chemical measurements, and method of making same. The microelectrode includes an inner conductive sensing wire and an outer tube that is oxidized to form a dielectric, self-healing oxide layer around the sensing wire.

  16. Flip chip electrical interconnection by selective electroplating and bonding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Liwei

    Flip chip electrical interconnection by selective electroplating and bonding L.-W. Pan, P. Yuen, L resistance of the electroplating bond is 12 W. This process has potential applications in replacing-step approach for high-density electrical in- terconnection by using flip chip selective electroplating

  17. Electric power from offshore wind via synoptic-scale interconnection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    Electric power from offshore wind via synoptic-scale interconnection Willett Kemptona,1 , Felipe M regional estimate, Kempton et al. (2) calculated that two-thirds of the offshore wind power off the U in the U.S. Atlantic region is already underway. Fig. 1 shows as black squares offshore wind developments

  18. Bargaining-based Energy Trading Market for Interconnected Microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianwei

    Bargaining-based Energy Trading Market for Interconnected Microgrids Hao Wang, Jianwei Huang trading among mul- tiple connected microgrids, and analyzes the impacts of such trading on the microgrids' costs. In our model, microgrids with excessive power generations can trade with other microgrids

  19. GRAIL : Graphical Representation of Activity, Interconnection and Loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stepney, Susan

    GRAIL : Graphical Representation of Activity, Interconnection and Loading Susan Stepney GEC One of the tools being developed as part of ParSiFal is GRAIL. It represents an occam program flow of control, not communication channels): Susan Stepney. "GRAIL: Graphical Representation

  20. Hermetic aluminum radio frequency interconnection and method for making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kilgo, Riley D. (Albuquerque, NM); Kovacic, Larry (Albuquerque, NM); Brow, Richard K. (Rolla, MO)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a light-weight, hermetic coaxial radio-frequency (RF) interconnection having an electrically conductive outer housing made of aluminum or an aluminum alloy, a central electrical conductor made of ferrous or non-ferrous material, and a cylinder of dielectric material comprising a low-melting-temperature, high-thermal-expansion aluminophosphate glass composition for hermetically sealing between the aluminum-alloy outer housing and the ferrous or non-ferrous center conductor. The entire RF interconnection assembly is made permanently hermetic by thermally fusing the center conductor, glass, and housing concurrently by bringing the glass to the melt point by way of exposure to an atmospheric temperature sufficient to melt the glass, less than 540.degree. C., but that does not melt the center conductor or the outer aluminum or aluminum alloy housing. The composition of the glass used is controlled to provide a suitable low dielectric constant so that an appropriate electrical characteristic impedance, for example 50 ohms, can be achieved for an electrical interconnection that performs well at high radio frequencies and also provides an interconnection maintaining a relatively small physical size.

  1. On-chip Interconnection Network for Accelerator-Rich Architectures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cong, Jason "Jingsheng"

    -purpose cores. Driven by the need for energy efficiency, the in- dustry has proposed incorporating accelerators to interact with the memory system. For this reason, an open question is: How should the accelerators, coresOn-chip Interconnection Network for Accelerator-Rich Architectures Jason Cong Michael Gill Yuchen

  2. Silicon Micro-Needles with Flexible Interconnections , Y. Hanein1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Department of Zoology, University of Washington, Seattle WA 98195 Abstract - A flexible polyimide to carry elements such as amplifiers, battery or memory. The interconnecting scheme uses two polyimide base and the micro-electrodes, while the polyimide layers provide flexible insulation. The current

  3. Techniques in the Control of Interconnected Plants Morten Hovd \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    . The production planning level typically operates on the timescale of days. Although the higher levelsTechniques in the Control of Interconnected Plants Morten Hovd \\Lambda Fantoft Prosess Teknostallen; 1 INTRODUCTION For many real­life multivariable control problems, traditional single­loop control

  4. Techniques in the Control of Interconnected Plants Morten Hovd

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    . The production planning level typically operates on the timescale of days. Although the higher levelsTechniques in the Control of Interconnected Plants Morten Hovd Fantoft Prosess Teknostallen N-7030-life multivariable control problems, traditional single-loop control theory is clearly incomplete. This occurs when

  5. A Model for Interlevel Coupling Noise in Multilevel Interconnect ' Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swaminathan, Madhavan

    A Model for Interlevel Coupling Noise in Multilevel Interconnect ' Structures Martin Saint- case noise is simulated using an RC transmission line model that includes the timing of the attackers noise model is sometimes very desirable, in particular for the design of clock distribution networks

  6. Hi-LION: Hierarchical Large-Scale Interconnection Optical Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoo, S. J. Ben

    Hi-LION: Hierarchical Large-Scale Interconnection Optical Network With AWGRs [Invited] Zheng Cao, Roberto Proietti, and S. J. B. Yoo Abstract--This paper proposes Hi-LION, a hierarchical large wavelength routing property of AWGRs together with electrical switching inside the processors, Hi-LION can

  7. EA-1989: Cliffrose Solar Energy Interconnection Project, Mohave County, Arizona

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE’s Western Area Power Administration (Western) is preparing an EA that will assess the potential environmental impacts of interconnecting the proposed Cliffrose Solar Energy Project in Mohave County, Arizona, to Western’s transmission system at the existing Griffith Substation. Additional information is available at http://www.wapa.gov/dsw/environment/CliffroseSolarEnergyProject.html.

  8. Interconnection economics of small power systems -- A case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bloethe, W.G.; Thakar, H.C. [Sargent and Lundy, Chicago, IL (United States); Kim, L.C. [Sarawak Electricity Supply Corp., Kuching (Malaysia); Samin, S. [PT PLN Persero, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    1996-11-01

    The advantages of interconnecting large electric power systems has been almost universally accepted in those parts of North America that are not geographically isolated. However, interconnecting power systems can result in significant economic advantages, even in those parts of the world where power systems are small and widely separated. This paper examines two small, isolated power systems on the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia. The Malaysian State of Srawak lies on the north coast of Borneo. With an area of 123,156 square km (47,555 square mi.) and population of 1.7 million, it is the largest, but most sparsely populated, state in the Federation of Malaysia. Its neighbor to the south is the Indonesian Province of West Kalimantan. A study examining the feasibility of interconnecting these two power systems was undertaken in 1994 as a part of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) initiative to interconnect the power systems in the region. The ASEAN region is characterized by rapidly growing economies and rapid load growth.

  9. SHIELDING AREA OPTIMIZATION UNDER THE SOLUTION OF INTERCONNECT CROSSTALK1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Lei

    SHIELDING AREA OPTIMIZATION UNDER THE SOLUTION OF INTERCONNECT CROSSTALK1 1 This paper is supported integrity. Simultaneous shield insertion and net ordering (SINO) has been shown to be effective to reduce both capacitive and inductive coupling. Although shield insertion could reduce crosstalk efficiently

  10. An Optical Interconnection Architecture for Large Packet Switches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Italy ABSTRACT The design of switching architectures for today's telecommunication networks needsICTON 2007 An Optical Interconnection Architecture for Large Packet Switches A. Bianco, E. Carta, D to consider the limits imposed by electronic technology; in particular, it must take into account power

  11. Record of Decision for the Electrical Interconnection of the...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Administration Record of Decision for the Electrical Interconnection of the Windy Point Wind Energy Project November 2006 B o n n e v i l l e P o w e r A d m i n i s t r a t i o...

  12. 10 Year Transmission Plan for the Western Electricity Interconnection Released

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) announced the release of its first 10-Year Regional Transmission Plan (Plan) for the Western Interconnection. The Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability awarded WECC a $14.5 million grant under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to expand on its transmission planning activities.

  13. innovati nInterconnection Standards Guide Integration of Distributed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Engineers (IEEE). The goal: to create consensus standards with participation from industry, utilitiesinnovati nInterconnection Standards Guide Integration of Distributed Energy Resources Across for more than a decade. IEEE 1547: Consensus Standard Paves the Way NREL researchers have always believed

  14. Through-substrate interconnects for 3-D integration and RF systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Joyce H. (Joyce Hsia-Sing), 1974-

    2007-01-01

    Interconnects on silicon chips are fabricated on the top surface with an ever-increasing number of metal layers necessary to just meet performance needs. While devices have scaled according to Moore's law, interconnects ...

  15. Performance evaluation of configurable arrays with mesh interconnections and wormhole routing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krishnamoorthy, Deviusha

    1997-01-01

    Large scale multiprocessors are built on a particular interconnection network with a fixed number of processors. The interconnections are based on topologies like mesh, hypercube, etc. If the logical domain of a problem does not map to the physical...

  16. From Hubble diagrams to scale factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Schucker; Andre Tilquin

    2005-06-20

    We present a lower bound on the radius of the universe today $a_0$ and a monotonicity constraint on the Hubble diagram. Our theoretical input is Einstein's kinematics and maximally symmetric universes. Present supernova data yield $a_0 > 1.2\\cdot 10^{26}$ m. A first attempt to quantify the monotonicity constraint is described. We do not see any indication of non-monotonicity.

  17. Density-Enthalpy Phase Diagram 0D Boiler Simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vuik, Kees

    Density-Enthalpy Phase Diagram 0D Boiler Simulation Finite Element Method Further Research Finite Transitions #12;Density-Enthalpy Phase Diagram 0D Boiler Simulation Finite Element Method Further Research;Density-Enthalpy Phase Diagram 0D Boiler Simulation Finite Element Method Further Research Goal

  18. Examples on Typesetting Commutative Diagrams Using X Y -pic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Xiao-Wu

    Examples on Typesetting Commutative Diagrams Using X Y -pic M. Alsani Edition 1 E-mail: alsani using X Y -pic's \\xymatrixf...g command which view commutative diagrams as \\matrix-like diagrams". The printout is an attempt to introduce the complete newcomer to X Y -pic. July 10, 2001 #12; Contents 1

  19. A Guidebook on Grid Interconnection and Islanded Operation of Mini-Grid Power Systems Up to 200 kW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greacen, Chris

    2014-01-01

    wp-content/uploads/2010/01/IREC-Interconnection-Procedures-investor-owned utility IREC: Interstate Renewable EnergyRenewable Energy Council (IREC) Model Interconnection

  20. Nanophotonic Optical Interconnection Network Architecture for On-Chip and Off-Chip Communications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergman, Keren

    for an integrated low-power, high-bandwidth optical interconnection network based on microring resonator technology for the next generation of high-performance architectures. The need for an interconnect solution providing lowNanophotonic Optical Interconnection Network Architecture for On-Chip and Off-Chip Communications

  1. Integration of a waveguide self-electrooptic effect device and a vertically coupled interconnect waveguide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vawter, G. Allen (Corrales, NM)

    2008-02-26

    A self-electrooptic effect device ("SEED") is integrated with waveguide interconnects through the use of vertical directional couplers. Light initially propagating in the interconnect waveguide is vertically coupled to the active waveguide layer of the SEED and, if the SEED is in the transparent state, the light is coupled back to the interconnect waveguide.

  2. Low Power Multilevel Interconnect Networks Using Wave-Pipelined Multiplexed (WPM) Routing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joshi, Ajay

    Low Power Multilevel Interconnect Networks Using Wave-Pipelined Multiplexed (WPM) Routing Ajay 30332, USA {joshi, vinita, jeff}@ece.gatech.edu Abstract A low power multilevel interconnect architecture that uses wave-pipelined multiplexed (WPM) interconnect routing is proposed in this paper. WPM

  3. Supplying Baseload Power and Reducing Transmission Requirements by Interconnecting Wind Farms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Supplying Baseload Power and Reducing Transmission Requirements by Interconnecting Wind Farms is not used to supply baseload electric power today. Interconnecting wind farms through the transmission grid farms are interconnected in an array, wind speed correlation among sites decreases and so does

  4. Investigation of Mechanical Properties of Cryogenically Treated Music Wire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heptonstall, A; Robertson, N A

    2015-01-01

    It has been reported that treating music wire (high carbon steel wire) by cooling to cryogenic temperatures can enhance its mechanical properties with particular reference to those properties important for musical performance. We use such wire for suspending many of the optics in Advanced LIGO, the upgrade to LIGO - the Laser Interferometric Gravitational-Wave Observatory. Two properties that particularly interest us are mechanical loss and breaking strength. A decrease in mechanical loss would directly reduce the thermal noise associated with the suspension, thus enhancing the noise performance of mirror suspensions within the detector. An increase in strength could allow thinner wire to be safely used, which would enhance the dilution factor of the suspension, again leading to lower suspension thermal noise. In this article we describe the results of an investigation into some of the mechanical properties of music wire, comparing untreated wire with the same wire which has been cryogenically treated. For th...

  5. Sinc function representation and three-loop master diagrams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Easther, Richard; Guralnik, Gerald; Hahn, Stephen

    2001-04-15

    We test the Sinc function representation, a novel method for numerically evaluating Feynman diagrams, by using it to evaluate the three-loop master diagrams. Analytical results have been obtained for all these diagrams, and we find excellent agreement between our calculations and the exact values. The Sinc function representation converges rapidly, and it is straightforward to obtain accuracies of 1 part in 10{sup 6} for these diagrams and with longer runs we found results better than 1 part in 10{sup 12}. Finally, this paper extends the Sinc function representation to diagrams containing massless propagators.

  6. Packing of elastic wires in flexible shells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vetter, Roman; Herrmann, Hans J

    2015-01-01

    The packing problem of long thin filaments that are injected into confined spaces is of fundamental interest for physicists, biologists and materials engineers alike. How linear threads pack and coil is well known only for the ideal case of rigid containers, however. Here, we force long elastic rods into flexible spatial confinement borne by an elastic shell to examine under which conditions recently acquired knowledge on wire packing in rigid spheres breaks down. We find that unlike in rigid cavities, friction plays a key role by giving rise to the emergence of two distinct packing patterns. At low friction, the wire densely coils into an ordered toroidal bundle with semi-ellipsoidal cross section, while at high friction, it packs into a highly disordered, self-similar structure. These two morphologies are shown to be separated by a continuous phase transition.

  7. Packing of elastic wires in flexible shells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roman Vetter; Falk K. Wittel; Hans J. Herrmann

    2015-04-03

    The packing problem of long thin filaments that are injected into confined spaces is of fundamental interest for physicists, biologists and materials engineers alike. How linear threads pack and coil is well known only for the ideal case of rigid containers, however. Here, we force long elastic rods into flexible spatial confinement borne by an elastic shell to examine under which conditions recently acquired knowledge on wire packing in rigid spheres breaks down. We find that unlike in rigid cavities, friction plays a key role by giving rise to the emergence of two distinct packing patterns. At low friction, the wire densely coils into an ordered toroidal bundle with semi-ellipsoidal cross section, while at high friction, it packs into a highly disordered, self-similar structure. These two morphologies are shown to be separated by a continuous phase transition.

  8. Aging analyses of aircraft wire insulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GILLEN,KENNETH T.; CLOUGH,ROGER LEE; CELINA,MATHIAS C.; AUBERT,JAMES H.; MALONE,G. MICHAEL

    2000-05-08

    Over the past two decades, Sandia has developed a variety of specialized analytical techniques for evaluating the long-term aging and stability of cable insulation and other related materials. These techniques have been applied to cable reliability studies involving numerous insulation types and environmental factors. This work has allowed the monitoring of the occurrence and progression of cable material deterioration in application environments, and has provided insights into material degradation mechanisms. It has also allowed development of more reliable lifetime prediction methodologies. As a part of the FAA program for intrusive inspection of aircraft wiring, they are beginning to apply a battery of techniques to assessing the condition of cable specimens removed from retired aircraft. It is anticipated that in a future part of this program, they may employ these techniques in conjunction with accelerated aging methodologies and models that the authros have developed and employed in the past to predict cable lifetimes. The types of materials to be assessed include 5 different wire types: polyimide, PVC/Glass/Nylon, extruded XL-polyalkene/PVDF, Poly-X, and XL-ETFE. This presentation provides a brief overview of the main techniques that will be employed in assessing the state of health of aircraft wire insulation. The discussion will be illustrated with data from their prior cable aging studies, highlighting the methods used and their important conclusions. A few of the techniques that they employ are widely used in aging studies on polymers, but others are unique to Sandia. All of their techniques are non-proprietary, and maybe of interest for use by others in terms of application to aircraft wiring analysis. At the end of this report is a list showing some leading references to papers that have been published in the open literature which provide more detailed information on the analytical techniques for elastomer aging studies. The first step in the investigation of aircraft wiring is to evaluate the applicability of their various techniques to aircraft cables, after which they expect to identify a limited subset of techniques which are appropriate for each of the major aircraft wiring types. The techniques of initial interest in the studies of aging aircraft wire are as follows: optical microscopy; mandrel bend test; tensile test/elongation at break; density measurements; modulus profiling/(spatially-resolved micro-hardness); oxygen induction time/oxygen induction temperature (by differential scanning calorimetry); solvent-swelling/gel fraction; infrared spectroscopy (with chemical derivatization as warranted); chemiluminescence; thermo-oxidative wear-out assessment; The first two techniques are the simplest and quickest to apply; those further down the list tend to be more information rich and in some cases more sensitive, but also generally more specialized and more time consuming to run. Accordingly, the procedure will be to apply the simplest tests for purposes of preliminary screening of large numbers of samples. For any given material type, it can be expected that only a limited number of the other techniques will prove to be useful, and therefore, the more specialized techniques will be used on a limited number of selected samples. Samples of aircraft wiring have begun to be released to the authors in late April; they include in this report some limited and preliminary data on these materials.

  9. Exploiting level sensitive latches in wire pipelining 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seth, Vikram

    2005-02-17

    margin for setup time and clock skew, i.e. in the interval of [T -Tp,T -Tsetup-Tskew], as shown by the yellow shaded interval in Figure 3 for positive level sensitive latches. Here Tp is the duration of positive clock signal level... occupy certain region and disallow repeater or synchronous element insertions. In this scenario, the timing flexibility of latches can facilitate further TCLK TP Tn Tsetup 8 improvement on latency compared with flip-flop based wire...

  10. Advanced Unit Commitment Strategies for the US Eastern Interconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ela, E.; Meibom, P.; Barth, R.; Tuohy, A.; Milligan, M.

    2010-01-01

    With increasing penetrations of wind power on the eastern interconnection of the United States, much research has been discussed on how the increased uncertainty may change how the system is operated. In particular, unit commitment programs which decide what units need to be started up in order to meet the changing demand at least cost may need to have modifications in order to reduce costs and improve reliability on a power system with increasing uncertain variables. This paper outlines a study undertaken for the U.S. Eastern Interconnection in which different advanced unit commitment strategies were simulated for three different years to evaluate the benefits that may occur from using these strategies as an operational tool.

  11. Modular cryogenic interconnects for multi-qubit devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colless, J. I.; Reilly, D. J.

    2014-11-15

    We have developed a modular interconnect platform for the control and readout of multiple solid-state qubits at cryogenic temperatures. The setup provides 74 filtered dc-bias connections, 32 control and readout connections with ?3 dB frequency above 5 GHz, and 4 microwave feed lines that allow low loss (less than 3 dB) transmission 10 GHz. The incorporation of a radio-frequency interposer enables the platform to be separated into two printed circuit boards, decoupling the simple board that is bonded to the qubit chip from the multilayer board that incorporates expensive connectors and components. This modular approach lifts the burden of duplicating complex interconnect circuits for every prototype device. We report the performance of this platform at milli-Kelvin temperatures, including signal transmission and crosstalk measurements.

  12. Interconnecting PV on New York City's Secondary Network Distribution System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Anderson; M. Coddington; K. Burman; S. Hayter; B. Kroposki; and A. Watson

    2009-11-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has teamed with cities across the country through the Solar America Cities (SAC) partnership program to help reduce barriers and accelerate implementation of solar energy. The New York City SAC team is a partnership between the City University of New York (CUNY), the New York City Mayor s Office of Long-term Planning and Sustainability, and the New York City Economic Development Corporation (NYCEDC).The New York City SAC team is working with DOE s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Con Edison, the local utility, to develop a roadmap for photovoltaic (PV) installations in the five boroughs. The city set a goal to increase its installed PV capacity from1.1 MW in 2005 to 8.1 MW by 2015 (the maximum allowed in 2005). A key barrier to reaching this goal, however, is the complexity of the interconnection process with the local utility. Unique challenges are associated with connecting distributed PV systems to secondary network distribution systems (simplified to ���¢��������networks���¢������� in this report). Although most areas of the country use simpler radial distribution systems to distribute electricity, larger metropolitan areas like New York City typically use networks to increase reliability in large load centers. Unlike the radial distribution system, where each customer receives power through a single line, a network uses a grid of interconnected lines to deliver power to each customer through several parallel circuits and sources. This redundancy improves reliability, but it also requires more complicated coordination and protection schemes that can be disrupted by energy exported from distributed PV systems. Currently, Con Edison studies each potential PV system in New York City to evaluate the system s impact on the network, but this is time consuming for utility engineers and may delay the customer s project or add cost for larger installations. City leaders would like to streamline this process to facilitate faster, simpler, and less expensive distributed PV system interconnections. To assess ways to improve the interconnection process, NREL conducted a four-part study with support from DOE. The NREL team then compiled the final reports from each study into this report. In Section 1���¢��������PV Deployment Analysis for New York City���¢��������we analyze the technical potential for rooftop PV systems in the city. This analysis evaluates potential PV power production in ten Con Edison networks of various locations and building densities (ranging from high density apartments to lower density single family homes). Next, we compare the potential power production to network loads to determine where and when PV generation is most likely to exceed network load and disrupt network protection schemes. The results of this analysis may assist Con Edison in evaluating future PV interconnection applications and in planning future network protection system upgrades. This analysis may also assist other utilities interconnecting PV systems to networks by defining a method for assessing the technical potential of PV in the network and its impact on network loads. Section 2���¢��������A Briefing for Policy Makers on Connecting PV to a Network Grid���¢��������presents an overview intended for nontechnical stakeholders. This section describes the issues associated with interconnecting PV systems to networks, along with possible solutions. Section 3���¢��������Technical Review of Concerns and Solutions to PV Interconnection in New Y

  13. Using Synchrophasors for Frequency Response Analysis in the Western Interconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosterev, Dmitry; Davies, Donald; Etingov, Pavel V.; Silverstein, Alison; Eto, Joseph H.

    2014-10-19

    Frequency response has received a lot of attention in recent years at the national level, which culminated in the development and approval of NERC BAL-003-1 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting Reliability Standard. WECC JSIS, NASPI, BPA, CERTS and PNNL collaborate on the common goals to deliver to the industry applications for frequency response analysis at interconnection, Balancing Authority and individual power plant levels. This paper describes a Frequency Response Analysis Tool that has been used for establishing a frequency response baseline for the Western Interconnection. This paper describes how synchrophasor data is used in for determination of generator characteristics – frequency responsive, under load control or baseloaded. This paper also discusses and provides an example of how the frequency response distribution can impact power pick-up on major transmission paths.

  14. Spontaneous synchronization driven by energy transport in interconnected networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vincenzo Nicosia; Per Sebastian Skardal; Vito Latora; Alex Arenas

    2015-02-26

    Understanding dynamical processes on networks is an important area of research in complex systems, with far reaching implications and applications in many real-world cases. Here we introduce and study a model of intertwined dynamics on interconnected networks, inspired by the human brain, which consists of bidirectionally coupled synchronization and energy transport processes. Remarkably, the proposed model allows the emergence of spontaneous switch-like synchronization transitions driven by the energy transport dynamics, which qualitatively mirror the transitions observed in human brain dynamics between resting-state and cognitive activity. We provide a steady-state analytical explanation for the observed behavior and show that the switch-like transition is robust over a wide range of model parameters and network topologies. Finally, we suggest that the complexity inherent in other interconnected dynamical processes might be responsible for various other emergent behaviors observed in natural systems.

  15. Characteristics of Interconnected Delta-Hydride Precipitates in Zr

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L.J. Carroll; M.R. Tonks; T.M. Lillo; B.S. Fromm; DC Haggard; T.C. Morris; W.D. Swank; T.L. Trowbridge; M.C. Carroll

    2014-09-01

    Characterization of extended delta-ZrH1.66 structures in unalloyed zirconium by electron backscatter diffraction analysis confirms that they consist of many interconnected precipitates of multiple, but distinctly related, orientations. The expected orientation relationship of (0001)a-Zr//(111)delta-ZrH1.66 is confirmed between the hydride and one of the surrounding a-Zr matrix grains. The delta-ZrH1.66 precipitates do not extend in a discrete crystalline orientation, but are regularly divided by 60° type {111} twins in which adjacent delta-ZrH1.66 grains share a {111} plane. The observed matching of the close-packed FCC planes of impinging or twinned hydrides within an interconnected structure enables the minimization of the overall interfacial energy through successive nucleation and growth events and twinning.

  16. Series interconnected photovoltaic cells and method for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albright, S.P.; Chamberlin, R.R.; Thompson, R.A.

    1995-01-31

    A novel photovoltaic module and method for constructing the same are disclosed. The module includes a plurality of photovoltaic cells formed on a substrate and laterally separated by interconnection regions. Each cell includes a bottom electrode, a photoactive layer and a top electrode layer. Adjacent cells are connected in electrical series by way of a conductive-buffer line. The buffer line is also useful in protecting the bottom electrode against severing during downstream layer cutting processes. 11 figs.

  17. Design and analysis of high performance multistage interconnection networks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhogavilli, Suresh K

    1993-01-01

    Major Subject: Electrical Engineering ABSTRACT Design and Analysis of High Performance Multistage Interconnection Networks. (December 1993) Suresh K. Bhogavilli, B. Tech. , J. N. T. University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Hosame Abu-Amara Small... the next stage buffers are not full. Thus r, = A and this value doesn't change with network size. But this model results in cycle loss, When a packet from the full buffer moves forward, a cycle is lost since it will not allow the packets...

  18. SOFC Interconnect and Compressive Seal Development at PNNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, Y S.; Yang, Z Gary; Singh, Prabhakar; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Xia, Gordon

    2005-11-01

    The development of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology represents an opportunity to achieve significant improvements in energy conversion efficiency and reduction of undesirable emissions. However, many technical challenges still need to be overcome before the utilization of the advantages of SOFC can take place. These challenges include the need for improved interconnects and seals for planar SOFC stacks. In this paper, we briefly summarize recent progress at PNNL in these two research areas.

  19. Chromium Vaporization Reduction by Nickel Coatings For SOEC Interconnect Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael V. Glazoff; Sergey N. Rashkeev; J. Stephen Herring

    2014-09-01

    The vaporization of Cr-rich volatile species from interconnect materials is a major source of degradation that limits the lifetime of planar solid oxide devices systems with metallic interconnects, including Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells, or SOECs. Some metallic coatings (Ni, Co, and Cu) significantly reduce the Cr release from interconnects and slow down the oxide scale growth on the steel substrate. To shed additional light upon the mechanisms of such protection and find a suitable coating material for ferritic stainless steel materials, we used a combination of first-principles calculations, thermodynamics, and diffusion modeling to investigate which factors determine the quality of the Ni metallic coating at stainless steel interconnector. We found that the Cr migration in Ni coating is determined by a delicate combination of the nickel oxidation, Cr diffusion, and phase transformation processes. Although the formation of Cr2O3 oxide is more exothermic than that of NiO, the kinetic rate of the chromia formation in the coating layer and its surface is significantly reduced by the low mobility of Cr in nickel oxide and in NiCr2O4 spinel. These results are in a good agreement with diffusion modeling for Cr diffusion through Ni coating layer on the ferritic 441 steel substrate.

  20. Critical point analysis of phase envelope diagram

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soetikno, Darmadi; Siagian, Ucok W. R.; Kusdiantara, Rudy Puspita, Dila Sidarto, Kuntjoro A. Soewono, Edy; Gunawan, Agus Y.

    2014-03-24

    Phase diagram or phase envelope is a relation between temperature and pressure that shows the condition of equilibria between the different phases of chemical compounds, mixture of compounds, and solutions. Phase diagram is an important issue in chemical thermodynamics and hydrocarbon reservoir. It is very useful for process simulation, hydrocarbon reactor design, and petroleum engineering studies. It is constructed from the bubble line, dew line, and critical point. Bubble line and dew line are composed of bubble points and dew points, respectively. Bubble point is the first point at which the gas is formed when a liquid is heated. Meanwhile, dew point is the first point where the liquid is formed when the gas is cooled. Critical point is the point where all of the properties of gases and liquids are equal, such as temperature, pressure, amount of substance, and others. Critical point is very useful in fuel processing and dissolution of certain chemicals. Here in this paper, we will show the critical point analytically. Then, it will be compared with numerical calculations of Peng-Robinson equation by using Newton-Raphson method. As case studies, several hydrocarbon mixtures are simulated using by Matlab.

  1. Preliminary Master Logic Diagram for ITER operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cadwallader, L.C.; Taylor, N.P.; Poucet, A.E.

    1998-04-01

    This paper describes the work performed to develop a Master Logic Diagram (MLD) for the operations phase of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The MLD is a probabilistic risk assessment tool used to identify the broad set of potential initiating events that could lead to an offsite radioactive or toxic chemical release from the facility under study. The MLD described here is complementary to the failure modes and effects analyses (FMEAs) that have been performed for ITER`s major plant systems in the engineering evaluation of the facility design. While the FMEAs are a bottom-up or component level approach, the MLD is a top-down or facility level approach to identifying the broad spectrum of potential events. Strengths of the MLD are that it analyzes the entire plant, depicts completeness in the accident initiator process, provides an independent method for identification, and can also identify potential system interactions. MLDs have been used successfully as a hazard analysis tool. This paper describes the process used for the ITER MLD to treat the variety of radiological and toxicological source terms present in the ITER design. One subtree of the nineteen page MLD is shown to illustrate the levels of the diagram.

  2. Monolithically interconnected GaAs solar cells: A new interconnection technology for high voltage solar cell output

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dinetta, L.C.; Hannon, M.H.

    1995-10-01

    Photovoltaic linear concentrator arrays can benefit from high performance solar cell technologies being developed at AstroPower. Specifically, these are the integration of thin GaAs solar cell and epitaxial lateral overgrowth technologies with the application of monolithically interconnected solar cell (MISC) techniques. This MISC array has several advantages which make it ideal for space concentrator systems. These are high system voltage, reliable low cost monolithically formed interconnections, design flexibility, costs that are independent of array voltage, and low power loss from shorts, opens, and impact damage. This concentrator solar cell will incorporate the benefits of light trapping by growing the device active layers over a low-cost, simple, PECVD deposited silicon/silicon dioxide Bragg reflector. The high voltage-low current output results in minimal 12R losses while properly designing the device allows for minimal shading and resistance losses. It is possible to obtain open circuit voltages as high as 67 volts/cm of solar cell length with existing technology. The projected power density for the high performance device is 5 kW/m for an AMO efficiency of 26% at 1 5X. Concentrator solar cell arrays are necessary to meet the power requirements of specific mission platforms and can supply high voltage power for electric propulsion systems. It is anticipated that the high efficiency, GaAs monolithically interconnected linear concentrator solar cell array will enjoy widespread application for space based solar power needs. Additional applications include remote man-portable or ultra-light unmanned air vehicle (UAV) power supplies where high power per area, high radiation hardness and a high bus voltage or low bus current are important. The monolithic approach has a number of inherent advantages, including reduced cost per interconnect and increased reliability of array connections. There is also a high potential for a large number of consumer products.

  3. Contents ISS and Lyapunov functions Input-to-state stability and interconnections Lyapunov functions Simplicial fixed point algor Lyapunov Functions for Interconnected Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hafstein, Sigurđur Freyr

    Contents ISS and Lyapunov functions Input-to-state stability and interconnections Lyapunov functions Simplicial fixed point algor Lyapunov Functions for Interconnected Systems Fabian Wirth Institute of Mathematics, University of W¨urzburg Workshop on Algorithms for Dynamical Systems and Lyapunov Functions

  4. Electromigration in metal interconnects is the most pernicious failure mechanism in semiconductor integrated circuits (ICs). Early electromigration investigations were primarily focused on aluminum interconnects for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electromigration in metal interconnects is the most pernicious failure mechanism in semiconductor interconnects for silicon-based ICs. An alternative metallization compatible with gallium arsenide (Ga at higher current densities and elevated temperatures. Gold-based metallization was implemented on Ga

  5. System and method for evaluating a wire conductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Panozzo, Edward; Parish, Harold

    2013-10-22

    A method of evaluating an electrically conductive wire segment having an insulated intermediate portion and non-insulated ends includes passing the insulated portion of the wire segment through an electrically conductive brush. According to the method, an electrical potential is established on the brush by a power source. The method also includes determining a value of electrical current that is conducted through the wire segment by the brush when the potential is established on the brush. The method additionally includes comparing the value of electrical current conducted through the wire segment with a predetermined current value to thereby evaluate the wire segment. A system for evaluating an electrically conductive wire segment is also disclosed.

  6. Influence of insulating coating on aluminum wire explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yang; Wu, Jian; Sheng, Liang; Zhao, Jizhen; Zhang, Mei; Yuan, Yuan; Peng, Bodong; Li, Xingwen

    2014-10-15

    Single wire explosions are widely used in understanding the early stages of z-pinch experiments. This paper presents a serial of experiments conducted on the pulse power generator with ?1?kA peak current and ?10?ns rising time in Xi'an Jiao Tong University. Polyimide coated aluminum wires and uncoated ones were tested under three different voltages to analyze the effect of insulating coating. Experimental results showed that insulating coating can increase the energy deposition 10%?30% in aluminum wires by delaying the voltage collapse and raising the maximum load resistance. The substantial energy deposition resulted in about 20% faster expansion rates for coated wires. Experimental evidence that plasma channel shunts the current from the wire core was observed by streak camera and schlieren graphs. This paper also briefly discussed the influence of nonuniform coating on the morphology of wire expansion.

  7. About Us Contact Us Site Map Privacy Statement Terms of Use 2009 Business Wire More Business Wire sites: Business Wired blog Canada UK/Ireland Deutschland France Italy Japan EON Online Press Release Tradeshownews.com

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aksay, Ilhan A.

    sites: Business Wired blog Canada UK/Ireland Deutschland France Italy Japan EON Online Press Release

  8. Proceedings of the Workshop on Radiation Damage to Wire Chambers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kadyk, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    from chamber cleaning, outgassing from elastomers or otherTPC -- perhaps by normal outgassing and perhaps by reactionproperites and low outgassing. WIRE CHAMBER DEGRADATION AT

  9. Topological phase diagram and saddle point singularity in a tunable...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Topological phase diagram and saddle point singularity in a tunable topological crystalline insulator Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly...

  10. Series interconnected photovoltaic cells and method for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albright, Scot P. (El Paso, TX); Chamberlin, Rhodes R. (El Paso, TX); Thompson, Roger A. (Littleton, CO)

    1995-01-01

    A novel photovoltaic module (10) and method for constructing the same are disclosed. The module (10) includes a plurality of photovoltaic cells (12) formed on a substrate (14) and laterally separated by interconnection regions (15). Each cell (12) includes a bottom electrode (16), a photoactive layer (18) and a top electrode layer (20). Adjacent cells (12) are connected in electrical series by way of a conductive-buffer line (22). The buffer line (22) is also useful in protecting the bottom electrode (16) against severing during downstream layer cutting processes.

  11. Production process for advanced space satellite system cables/interconnects.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendoza, Luis A.

    2007-12-01

    This production process was generated for the satellite system program cables/interconnects group, which in essences had no well defined production process. The driver for the development of a formalized process was based on the set backs, problem areas, challenges, and need improvements faced from within the program at Sandia National Laboratories. In addition, the formal production process was developed from the Master's program of Engineering Management for New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology in Socorro New Mexico and submitted as a thesis to meet the institute's graduating requirements.

  12. Western Interconnection Energy Imbalance Market Status and Prospects (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; King, J.; Beuning, S.

    2011-10-01

    This presentation describes how a new wholesale electricity market for energy imbalance ancillary services could be implemented and operated. Some conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Method for calculating additional reserve requirements due to wind and solar production; (2) EIM results in substantial reduction in reserves requirements and ramping demand; (3) Reduced participation reduces benefits for all but reduces the benefits to non-participants the most; (4) Full participation leads to maximum benefit across the Western Interconnection, up to 42% of total reserve requirement; and (5) Regional EIM implementations have smaller but substantial benefits.

  13. Oak Ridge K-25 Site Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 2, Technology Logic Diagrams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fellows, R.L.

    1993-02-26

    The Oak Ridge K-25 Technology Logic Diagram (TLD), a decision support tool for the K-25 Site, was developed to provide a planning document that relates envirorunental restoration and waste management problems at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD technique identifies the research necessary to develop these technologies to a state that allows for technology transfer and application to waste management, remedial action, and decontamination and decommissioning activities. The TLD consists of four separate volumes-Vol. 1, Vol. 2, Vol. 3A, and Vol. 3B. Volume 1 provides introductory and overview information about the TLD. This volume, Volume 2, contains logic diagrams with an index. Volume 3 has been divided into two separate volumes to facilitate handling and use.

  14. Humidity effects on wire insulation breakdown strength.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Appelhans, Leah

    2013-08-01

    Methods for the testing of the dielectric breakdown strength of insulation on metal wires under variable humidity conditions were developed. Two methods, an ASTM method and the twisted pair method, were compared to determine if the twisted pair method could be used for determination of breakdown strength under variable humidity conditions. It was concluded that, although there were small differences in outcomes between the two testing methods, the non-standard method (twisted pair) would be appropriate to use for further testing of the effects of humidity on breakdown performance. The dielectric breakdown strength of 34G copper wire insulated with double layer Poly-Thermaleze/Polyamide-imide insulation was measured using the twisted pair method under a variety of relative humidity (RH) conditions and exposure times. Humidity at 50% RH and below was not found to affect the dielectric breakdown strength. At 80% RH the dielectric breakdown strength was significantly diminished. No effect for exposure time up to 140 hours was observed at 50 or 80%RH.

  15. Plasticity of metal wires in torsion: molecular dynamics and dislocation dynamics simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Wei

    Plasticity of metal wires in torsion: molecular dynamics and dislocation dynamics simulations-4040 Abstract The orientation dependent plasticity in metal nanowires is investigated using molecular dynamics metal wires controls the mechanisms of plastic deformation. For wires oriented along 110 , dislocations

  16. Systems Using Hardware-in-the-Loop: Part III -- Grid Interconnection...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    B.; Shirazi, M.; Coddington, M.; Kroposki, B. 24 POWER TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION; 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION ELECTRICITY; GRID; ICS; INTERCONNECTION;...

  17. Generation Interconnection Policies and Wind Power: A Discussion of Issues, Problems, and Potential Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porter, K.; Fink, S.; Mudd, C.; DeCesaro, J.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the adoption and implementation of FERC Order 2003 and the reasons for the sharp rise in generation interconnection filings in recent years.

  18. WECC releases its first-ever transmission plan for the Western Interconnection

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) announced the release of its first 10-Year Regional Transmission Plan (Plan) for the Western Interconnection.

  19. Comparing Germany's and California's Interconnection Processes for PV Systems (White Paper)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tweedie, A.; Doris, E.

    2011-07-01

    Establishing interconnection to the grid is a recognized barrier to the deployment of distributed energy generation. This report compares interconnection processes for photovoltaic projects in California and Germany. This report summarizes the steps of the interconnection process for developers and utilities, the average length of time utilities take to process applications, and paperwork required of project developers. Based on a review of the available literature, this report finds that while the interconnection procedures and timelines are similar in California and Germany, differences in the legal and regulatory frameworks are substantial.

  20. Protective coating on stainless steel interconnect for SOFCs: Oxidation kinetics and electrical properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Xuan; Hou, Peggy Y.; Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2004-01-01

    PROTECTIVE COATING ON STAINLESS STEEL INTERCONNECT FORcoatings on commercial stainless steel alloys that allow forTABLES Table 1. Stainless steel composition in Weight%

  1. Superconducting Wires Enabled by Nanodots wins Nano50TM Award

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    includes nanoscale columns of non-superconducting material embedded within the superconductorSuperconducting Wires Enabled by Nanodots wins Nano50TM Award HTS Wires Enabled via 3D Self-Assembly of Insulating Nanodots Background · For most large-scale applications of high-temperature superconducting (HTS

  2. Wired Wireless Broadcast Emulation Daniel Havey, Roman Chertov, Kevin Almeroth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Almeroth, Kevin C.

    Wired Wireless Broadcast Emulation Daniel Havey, Roman Chertov, Kevin Almeroth Department, rchertov, almeroth} @cs.ucsb.edu Abstract-A wired testbed's usefulness for wireless re search hinges on its ability to faithfully reproduce the wireless medium. One of the key properties of a wireless medium is its

  3. Terahertz metal wire waveguide Q. Cao and J. Jahns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jahns, Jürgen

    Terahertz metal wire waveguide Q. Cao and J. Jahns Quite recently, it was found that [1] a simple metal wire can effectively guide terahertz (THz) waves. This unexpected finding paves the way for a wide problems. It is well known that surface plasmons can be excited by periodic structures like metal gratings

  4. Characterisation of severely deformed austenitic stainless steel wire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    . Experimental procedure Stainless steel (316L) wires with 190 mm diameter in the annealed state are usedCharacterisation of severely deformed austenitic stainless steel wire H. S. Wang1 , J. R. Yang1 of 316L austenitic stainless steel has been examined using TEM and X-ray diffraction. The deformation

  5. Design of automotive X-by-Wire systems Cdric Wilwert

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Navet, Nicolas

    Design of automotive X-by-Wire systems Cédric Wilwert PSA Peugeot - Citroën 92000 La Garenne Phone : +33 3 83 58 17 62 simonot@loria.fr CONTENTS Design of automotive X-by-Wire systems ................................................................................................................................ 9 3.2 Main time-triggered protocols for automotive industry

  6. Disordering transitions in vortex matter: peak effect and phase diagram

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scalettar, Richard T.

    Disordering transitions in vortex matter: peak effect and phase diagram C.J. Olson a,*, C- order nature of this transition. In YBCO a rapid increase in Jc as a function of magnetic field vortex phase diagram as a function of magnetic field and temperature. For increasing field or temperature

  7. Drawing Area-Proportional Venn-3 Diagrams with Convex Polygons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kent, University of

    Drawing Area-Proportional Venn-3 Diagrams with Convex Polygons Peter Rodgers1 , Jean Flower2 , Gem Modelling Group, University of Brighton, UK {g.e.stapleton,john.howse}@brighton.ac.uk Abstract. Area-proportional intersections have a specified numerical value. In these diagrams, the areas of the re- gions are in proportion

  8. Electrical isolation of component cells in monolithically interconnected modules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wanlass, Mark W. (Golden, CO)

    2001-01-01

    A monolithically interconnected photovoltaic module having cells which are electrically connected which comprises a substrate, a plurality of cells formed over the substrate, each cell including a primary absorber layer having a light receiving surface and a p-region, formed with a p-type dopant, and an n-region formed with an n-type dopant adjacent the p-region to form a single pn-junction, and a cell isolation diode layer having a p-region, formed with a p-type dopant, and an n-region formed with an n-type dopant adjacent the p-region to form a single pn-junction, the diode layer intervening the substrate and the absorber layer wherein the absorber and diode interfacial regions of a same conductivity type orientation, the diode layer having a reverse-breakdown voltage sufficient to prevent inter-cell shunting, and each cell electrically isolated from adjacent cells with a vertical trench trough the pn-junction of the diode layer, interconnects disposed in the trenches contacting the absorber regions of adjacent cells which are doped an opposite conductivity type, and electrical contacts.

  9. Intermetallic alloy welding wires and method for fabricating the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Santella, M.L.; Sikka, V.K.

    1996-06-11

    Welding wires for welding together intermetallic alloys of nickel aluminides, nickel-iron aluminides, iron aluminides, or titanium aluminides, and preferably including additional alloying constituents are fabricated as two-component, clad structures in which one component contains the primary alloying constituent(s) except for aluminum and the other component contains the aluminum constituent. This two-component approach for fabricating the welding wire overcomes the difficulties associated with mechanically forming welding wires from intermetallic alloys which possess high strength and limited ductilities at elevated temperatures normally employed in conventional metal working processes. The composition of the clad welding wires is readily tailored so that the welding wire composition when melted will form an alloy defined by the weld deposit which substantially corresponds to the composition of the intermetallic alloy being joined. 4 figs.

  10. Intermetallic alloy welding wires and method for fabricating the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Santella, Michael L. (Knoxville, TN); Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1996-01-01

    Welding wires for welding together intermetallic alloys of nickel aluminides, nickel-iron aluminides, iron aluminides, or titanium aluminides, and preferably including additional alloying constituents are fabricated as two-component, clad structures in which one component contains the primary alloying constituent(s) except for aluminum and the other component contains the aluminum constituent. This two-component approach for fabricating the welding wire overcomes the difficulties associated with mechanically forming welding wires from intermetallic alloys which possess high strength and limited ductilities at elevated temperatures normally employed in conventional metal working processes. The composition of the clad welding wires is readily tailored so that the welding wire composition when melted will form an alloy defined by the weld deposit which substantially corresponds to the composition of the intermetallic alloy being joined.

  11. Method and apparatus for diamond wire cutting of metal structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parsells, Robert; Gettelfinger, Geoff; Perry, Erik; Rule, Keith

    2005-04-19

    A method and apparatus for diamond wire cutting of metal structures, such as nuclear reactor vessels, is provided. A diamond wire saw having a plurality of diamond beads with beveled or chamfered edges is provided for sawing into the walls of the metal structure. The diamond wire is guided by a plurality of support structures allowing for a multitude of different cuts. The diamond wire is cleaned and cooled by CO.sub.2 during the cutting process to prevent breakage of the wire and provide efficient cutting. Concrete can be provided within the metal structure to enhance cutting efficiency and reduce airborne contaminants. The invention can be remotely controlled to reduce exposure of workers to radioactivity and other hazards.

  12. Comparison of quantum confinement effects between quantum wires and dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Jingbo; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2004-03-30

    Dimensionality is an important factor to govern the electronic structures of semiconductor nanocrystals. The quantum confinement energies in one-dimensional quantum wires and zero-dimensional quantum dots are quite different. Using large-scale first-principles calculations, we systematically study the electronic structures of semiconductor (including group IV, III-V, and II-VI) surface-passivated quantum wires and dots. The band-gap energies of quantum wires and dots have the same scaling with diameter for a given material. The ratio of band-gap-increases between quantum wires and dots is material-dependent, and slightly deviates from 0.586 predicted by effective-mass approximation. Highly linear polarization of photoluminescence in quantum wires is found. The degree of polarization decreases with the increasing temperature and size.

  13. The (magnetized) effective QCD phase diagram

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alejandro Ayala

    2015-09-02

    I present the highlights of a recent study of the effective QCD phase diagram on the temperature T and quark chemical potential mu plane, where the strong interactions are modeled using the linear sigma model coupled to quarks. The phase transition line is found from the effective potential at finite T and mu taking into account the plasma screening effects. We find the location of the critical end point (CEP) to be (mu^CEP/T_c,T^CEP/T_c) \\sim (1.2,0.8), where T_c is the (pseudo)critical temperature for the crossover phase transition at vanishing mu. This location lies within the region found by lattice inspired calculations. Since the linear sigma model does not exhibit confinement, I argue that the location is due to the proper treatment of the plasma screening effects and not to the size of the confining scale. I also comment on the extension of this study to determine the dependence of the CEP's location on the strength of an external magnetic field.

  14. Power Reduction of CMP Communication Networks via RF-Interconnects M-C. Frank Chang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cong, Jason "Jingsheng"

    Power Reduction of CMP Communication Networks via RF-Interconnects M-C. Frank Chang , Jason Cong multiprocessors scale to a greater number of processing cores, on-chip interconnection networks will ex- perience dramatic increases in both bandwidth demand and power dissipation. Fortunately, promising gains can be re

  15. Plasticity contributions to interface adhesion in thin-film interconnect structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vainchtein, Anna

    Plasticity contributions to interface adhesion in thin-film interconnect structures Michael Lanea of plasticity in thin copper layers on the interface fracture resistance in thin-film interconnect structures yield properties together with a plastic flow model for the metal layers were used to predict

  16. FIBER-OPTIC BUS-ORIENTED SINGLE-HOP INTERCONNECTIONS AMONG MULTI-TRANSCEIVER STATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,ooffer substantial advantages in power budget and the maximum number of stations that can be interconnected withoutFIBER-OPTIC BUS-ORIENTED SINGLE-HOP INTERCONNECTIONS AMONG MULTI-TRANSCEIVER STATIONS Yitzhak Birk among a set of stations, each equipped with multiple, say c, transmitters and receivers. It employs cz

  17. Electrically interconnected assemblies of microscale device components by printing and molding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    Electrically interconnected assemblies of microscale device components by printing and molding Mo process that occurs prior to or simultaneously with a soft lithographic molding step that defines relief of the process, in which transfer printing for device placement and molding for electrical interconnect occur

  18. Interconnect-aware High-level Synthesis for Low Power Lin Zhong and Niraj K. Jha

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhong, Lin

    optimizes interconnects for power. We take physical design information into account for this pur- pose], the switching activity on CDFG edges is profiled. It is used with the floorplanner to optimize the powerInterconnect-aware High-level Synthesis for Low Power Lin Zhong and Niraj K. Jha Dept

  19. PV Interconnection Risk Analysis through Distribution System Impact Signatures and Feeder Zones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PV Interconnection Risk Analysis through Distribution System Impact Signatures and Feeder Zones Grid Integration Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, NM, USA Abstract-- High penetrations of PV reliability problems. In order to improve the interconnection study process, the use of feeder zones and PV

  20. Ablation dynamics in coiled wire-array Z-pinches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, G. N.; Lebedev, S. V.; Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Swadling, G.; Chittenden, J. P.; Bland, S. N.; Harvey-Thompson, A.; Knapp, P. F.; Blesener, I. C.; McBride, R. D.; Chalenski, D. A.; Blesener, K. S.; Greenly, J. B.; Pikuz, S. A.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Hammer, D. A.; Kusse, B. R.

    2013-02-15

    Experiments to study the ablation dynamics of coiled wire arrays were performed on the MAGPIE generator (1 MA, 240 ns) at Imperial College, and on the COBRA generator at Cornell University's Laboratory of Plasma Studies (1 MA, 100 ns). The MAGPIE generator was used to drive coiled wires in an inverse array configuration to study the distribution of ablated plasma. Using interferometry to study the plasma distribution during the ablation phase, absolute quantitative measurements of electron line density demonstrated very high density contrasts between coiled ablation streams and inter-stream regions many millimetres from the wire. The measured density contrasts for a coiled array were many times greater than that observed for a conventional array with straight wires, indicating that a much greater axial modulation of the ablated plasma may be responsible for the unique implosion dynamics of coiled arrays. Experiments on the COBRA generator were used to study the complex redirection of plasma around a coiled wire that gives rise to the ablation structure exhibited by coiled arrays. Observations of this complex 3D plasma structure were used to validate the current model of coiled array ablation dynamics [Hall et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 065003 (2008)], demonstrating irrefutably that plasma flow from the wires behaves as predicted. Coiled wires were observed to ablate and implode in the same manner on both machines, indicating that current rise time should not be an issue for the scaling of coiled arrays to larger machines with fast current rise times.

  1. Beam Position and Phase Monitor - Wire Mapping System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watkins, Heath A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shurter, Robert B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gilpatrick, John D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kutac, Vincent G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Derwin [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-04-10

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) deploys many cylindrical beam position and phase monitors (BPPM) throughout the linac to measure the beam central position, phase and bunched-beam current. Each monitor is calibrated and qualified prior to installation to insure it meets LANSCE requirements. The BPPM wire mapping system is used to map the BPPM electrode offset, sensitivity and higher order coefficients. This system uses a three-axis motion table to position the wire antenna structure within the cavity, simulating the beam excitation of a BPPM at a fundamental frequency of 201.25 MHz. RF signal strength is measured and recorded for the four electrodes as the antenna position is updated. An effort is underway to extend the systems service to the LANSCE facility by replacing obsolete electronic hardware and taking advantage of software enhancements. This paper describes the upgraded wire positioning system's new hardware and software capabilities including its revised antenna structure, motion control interface, RF measurement equipment and Labview software upgrades. The main purpose of the wire mapping system at LANSCE is to characterize the amplitude response versus beam central position of BPPMs before they are installed in the beam line. The wire mapping system is able to simulate a beam using a thin wire and measure the signal response as the wire position is varied within the BPPM aperture.

  2. Geothermal Power and Interconnection: The Economics of Getting to Market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hurlbut, D.

    2012-04-01

    This report provides a baseline description of the transmission issues affecting geothermal technologies. The report begins with a comprehensive overview of the grid, how it is planned, how it is used, and how it is paid for. The report then overlays onto this 'big picture' three types of geothermal technologies: conventional hydrothermal systems; emerging technologies such as enhanced engineered geothermal systems (EGS) and geopressured geothermal; and geothermal co-production with existing oil and gas wells. Each category of geothermal technology has its own set of interconnection issues, and these are examined separately for each. The report draws conclusions about each technology's market affinities as defined by factors related to transmission and distribution infrastructure. It finishes with an assessment of selected markets with known geothermal potential, identifying those that offer the best prospects for near-term commercial development and for demonstration projects.

  3. Gold-based electrical interconnections for microelectronic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peterson, Kenneth A. (Albuquerque, NM); Garrett, Stephen E. (Albuquerque, NM); Reber, Cathleen A. (Corrales, NM); Watson, Robert D. (Tijeras, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A method of making an electrical interconnection from a microelectronic device to a package, comprising ball or wedge compression bonding a gold-based conductor directly to a silicon surface, such as a polysilicon bonding pad in a MEMS or IMEMS device, without using layers of aluminum or titanium disposed in-between the conductor and the silicon surface. After compression bonding, optional heating of the bond above 363 C. allows formation of a liquid gold-silicon eutectic phase containing approximately 3% (by weight) silicon, which significantly improves the bond strength by reforming and enhancing the initial compression bond. The same process can be used for improving the bond strength of Au--Ge bonds by forming a liquid Au-12Ge eutectic phase.

  4. Catalytic bipolar interconnection plate for use in a fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lessing, P.A.

    1996-03-05

    A bipolar interconnection plate is described for use between adjacent fuel cell units in a stacked fuel cell assembly. Each plate is manufactured from an intermetallic composition, examples of which include NiAl or Ni{sub 3}Al which can catalyze steam reforming of hydrocarbons. Distributed within the intermetallic structure of the plate is a ceramic filler composition. The plate includes a first side with gas flow channels therein and a second side with fuel flow channels therein. A protective coating is applied to the first side, with exemplary coatings including strontium-doped or calcium-doped lanthanum chromite. To produce the plate, Ni and Al powders are combined with the filler composition, compressed at a pressure of about 10,000--30,000 psi, and heated to about 600--1000 C. The coating is then applied to the first side of the completed plate using liquid injection plasma deposition or other deposition techniques. 6 figs.

  5. Wire bond vibration of forward pixel tracking detector of CMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atac, M.; /Fermilab; Gobbi, B.; /Northwestern U.; Kwan, S.; Pischalnikov, Y.; /Fermilab; Spencer, E.; /Northwestern U.; Sellberg, G.; Pavlicek, V.; /Fermilab

    2006-10-01

    Wire bonds of the Forward Pixel (FPix) tracking detectors are oriented in the direction that maximizes Lorentz Forces relative to the 4 Tesla field of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Detector's magnet. The CMS Experiment is under construction at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, Geneva, Switzerland. We were concerned about Lorentz Force oscillating the wires at their fundamental frequencies and possibly fracturing or breaking them at their heels, as happened with the CDF wire bonds. This paper reports a study to understand what conditions break such bonds.

  6. Wire number dependence of the implosion dynamics, stagnation, and radiation output of tungsten wire arrays at Z driver

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazarakis, Michael G.; Stygar, William A.; Sinars, Daniel B.; Cuneo, Michael E.; Nash, Thomas J.; Chandler, Gordon A.; Keith Matzen, M.; Porter, John L.; Struve, Kenneth W.; McDaniel, Dillon H. [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Deeney, Christopher E. [National Nuclear Security Administration, Washington, D.C. 20585 (United States); Douglas, Melissa R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Chittenden, Jerry [Imperial College, London, SW and 2BW (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    We report results of the experimental campaign, which studied the initiation, implosion dynamics, and radiation yield of tungsten wire arrays as a function of the wire number. The wire array dimensions and mass were those of interest for the Z-pinch driven Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program. An optimization study of the x-ray emitted peak power, rise time, and full width at half maximum was effectuated by varying the wire number while keeping the total array mass constant and equal to {approx}5.8 mg. The driver utilized was the {approx}20-MA Z accelerator before refurbishment in its usual short pulse mode of 100 ns. We studied single arrays of 20-mm diameter and 1-cm height. The smaller wire number studied was 30 and the largest 600. It appears that 600 is the highest achievable wire number with present day's technology. Radial and axial diagnostics were utilized including crystal monochromatic x-ray backlighter. An optimum wire number of {approx}375 was observed which was very close to the routinely utilized 300 for the ICF program in Sandia.

  7. A State-Level Comparison of Processes and Timelines for Distributed Photovoltaic Interconnection in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ardani, K.; Davidson, C.; Margolis, R.; Nobler, E.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents results from an analysis of distributed photovoltaic (PV) interconnection and deployment processes in the United States.

  8. Phase diagram of Josephson junction between

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    diagram of Josephson junction betweensandssuperconductors in the dirty limit...

  9. Mapping Proton Wires in Proteins: Carbonic Anhydrase and GFP Chromophore Biosynthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agmon, Noam

    Mapping Proton Wires in Proteins: Carbonic Anhydrase and GFP Chromophore Biosynthesis Ai Shinobu developed an algorithm for mapping proton wires in proteins and applied it to the X-ray structures of human proteins, we find more extensive proton wires than typically reported. In CA-II the active site wire exits

  10. Spectroscopic properties of colloidal indium phosphide quantum wires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weng, Fudong

    2008-01-01

    experimental results for InP quantum dots and wires, and tohave been achieved with InP quantum dots. 1,2 Therefore, ahas proven successful for InP quantum dots. 1,2 We show that

  11. Power generation with laterally packaged piezoelectric fine wires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    Power generation with laterally packaged piezoelectric fine wires Rusen Yang1 , Yong Qin1 , Liming we report a flexible power generator that is based on cyclic stretching­releasing of a piezoelectric

  12. Ductile alloy and process for preparing composite superconducting wire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verhoeven, John D. (Ames, IA); Finnemore, Douglas K. (Ames, IA); Gibson, Edwin D. (Ames, IA); Ostenson, Jerome E. (Ames, IA)

    1983-03-29

    An alloy for the commercial production of ductile superconducting wire is prepared by melting together copper and at least 15 weight percent niobium under non-oxygen-contaminating conditions, and rapidly cooling the melt to form a ductile composite consisting of discrete, randomly distributed and orientated dendritic-shaped particles of niobium in a copper matrix. As the wire is worked, the dendritric particles are realigned parallel to the longitudinal axis and when drawn form a plurality of very fine ductile superconductors in a ductile copper matrix. The drawn wire may be tin coated and wound into magnets or the like before diffusing the tin into the wire to react with the niobium. Impurities such as aluminum or gallium may be added to improve upper critical field characteristics.

  13. Properties of plain weave metallic wire mesh screens Zenghui Zhao

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peles, Yoav

    , heat pipes, solar energy collector, thermal insu- lation, etc. Structures or laminates made of wire heat transfer by coating the heat transfer surface with a mesh screen is found in [2]. In recent years

  14. Method of fabricating a homogeneous wire of inter-metallic alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ohriner, Evan Keith (Knoxville, TN); Blue, Craig Alan (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01

    A method for fabricating a homogeneous wire of inter-metallic alloy comprising the steps of providing a base-metal wire bundle comprising a metal, an alloy or a combination thereof; working the wire bundle through at least one die to obtain a desired dimension and to form a precursor wire; and, controllably heating the precursor wire such that a portion of the wire will become liquid while simultaneously maintaining its desired shape, whereby substantial homogenization of the wire occurs in the liquid state and additional homogenization occurs in the solid state resulting in a homogenous alloy product.

  15. Wire rope superconducting cable for diurnal load leveling SMES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Costello, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    The design of a wire rope cable for a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) unit is discussed. The superconducting wires in the rope permit the passage of large currents in the relatively small conductors of the windings and hence cause large electromagnetic forces to act on the rope. The diameter of the rope, from a strength point of view, can be considerably reduced by supporting the rope at various points along its length.

  16. Process for producing fine and ultrafine filament superconductor wire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kanithi, Hem C. (15 Briar Ct., Chesire, CT 06410)

    1992-01-01

    A process for producing a superconductor wire made up of a large number of round monofilament rods is provided for, comprising assembling a multiplicity of round monofilaments inside each of a multiplicity of thin wall hexagonal tubes and then assembling a number of said thin wall hexagonal tubes within an extrusion can and subsequently consolidating, extruding and drawing the entire assembly down to the desired wire size.

  17. Process for producing fine and ultrafine filament superconductor wire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kanithi, H.C.

    1992-02-18

    A process for producing a superconductor wire made up of a large number of round monofilament rods is provided for, comprising assembling a multiplicity of round monofilaments inside each of a multiplicity of thin wall hexagonal tubes and then assembling a number of said thin wall hexagonal tubes within an extrusion can and subsequently consolidating, extruding and drawing the entire assembly down to the desired wire size. 8 figs.

  18. Quantum computer of wire circuit architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. A. Moiseev; F. F. Gubaidullin; S. N. Andrianov

    2010-01-07

    First solid state quantum computer was built using transmons (cooper pair boxes). The operation of the computer is limited because of using a number of the rigit cooper boxes working with fixed frequency at temperatures of superconducting material. Here, we propose a novel architecture of quantum computer based on a flexible wire circuit of many coupled quantum nodes containing controlled atomic (molecular) ensembles. We demonstrate wide opportunities of the proposed computer. Firstly, we reveal a perfect storage of external photon qubits to multi-mode quantum memory node and demonstrate a reversible exchange of the qubits between any arbitrary nodes. We found optimal parameters of atoms in the circuit and self quantum modes for quantum processing. The predicted perfect storage has been observed experimentally for microwave radiation on the lithium phthalocyaninate molecule ensemble. Then also, for the first time we show a realization of the efficient basic two-qubit gate with direct coupling of two arbitrary nodes by using appropriate atomic frequency shifts in the circuit nodes. Proposed two-qubit gate runs with a speed drastically accelerated proportionally to the number of atoms in the node. The direct coupling and accelerated two-qubit gate can be realized for large number of the circuit nodes. Finally, we describe two and three-dimensional scalable architectures that pave the road to construction of universal multi-qubit quantum computer operating at room temperatures.

  19. Laser Wire and Beam Position Monitor tests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boogert, S T; Lyapin, A; Nevay, L; Snuverink, J

    2013-01-01

    This subtask involved two main activities; Firstly the development and subsequent usage of high resolution beam position monitors (BPM) for the International Linear Collider (ILC) and Compact Linear Collider projects (CLIC); and secondly the development of a laser-wire (LW) transverse beam size measurement systems. This report describes the technical progress achieved at a large-scale test ILC compatible BPM system installed at the Accelerator Test Facility 2 (ATF2). The ATF2 is an energy-scaled demonstration system for the final focus systems required to deliver the particle beams to collision at the ILC and CLIC. The ATF2 cavity beam position monitor system is one of the largest of its kind and rivals systems used at free electron lasers. The ATF2 cavity beam position system has achieved a position resolutionof 250 nm (with signal attuenation) and 27 nm (without attenuation). The BPM system has been used routinely for lattice diagnostics, beam based alignment and wakefield measurements. Extensive experience...

  20. A Proportional Wire Chamber Array: GRAND's Status

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Poirier; C. D'Andrea; M. Lopez del Puerto; E. Strahler; J. Vermedahl

    2003-06-18

    Project GRAND is a 100m x 100m air shower array of position sensitive proportional wire chambers (PWCs) located at 41.7 degrees North and 86.2 degrees West at an elevation of 220m above sea level. Its convenient location adjacent to the campus of the University of Notre Dame makes it a good training ground for students. There are 64 stations each with eight 1.29 m^2 PWCs. The geometry of the stations allows for the angles of charged secondaries to be determined to within 0.26 degrees in each of two orthogonal planes; muons are differentiated from electrons and hadrons by means of a steel plate. Two triggers are run simultaneously: a multiple hit coincidence trigger, rich in extensive air showers, and a single track trigger, rich in secondary muon tracks. The former trigger is sensitive to primary energies greater than ~100 TeV, the latter to energies greater than ~10 GeV.

    1. Processing and mechanical behavior of hypereutectoid steel wires

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Lesuer, D.R.; Syn, C.K.; Sherby, O.D.; Kim, D.K.

      1996-06-25

      Hypereutectoid steels have the potential for dramatically increasing the strength of wire used in tire cord and in other high strength wire applications. The basis for this possible breakthrough is the elimination of a brittle proeutectoid network that can form along grain boundaries if appropriate processing procedures and alloy additions are used. A review is made of work done by Japanese and other researchers on eutectoid and mildly hypereutectoid wires. A linear extrapolation of the tensile strength of fine wires predicts higher strengths at higher carbon contents. The influence of processing, alloy additions and carbon content in optimizing the strength, ductility and fracture behavior of hypereutectoid steels is presented. It is proposed that the tensile strength of pearlitic wires is dictated by the fracture strength of the carbide lamella at grain boundary locations in the carbide. Methods to improve the strength of carbide grain boundaries and to decrease the carbide plate thickness will contribute to enhancing the ultrahigh strength obtainable in hypereutectoid steel wires. 23 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

    2. Noise in the wire: the real impact of wire resistance for the Johnson (-like) noise based secure communicator

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Laszlo B. Kish; Jacob Scheuer

      2010-03-16

      We re-evaluate the impact of wire resistance on the noise voltage and current in the Johnson-(like)-noise based secure communicator, correcting the result presented in [Physics Letters A 359 (2006) 737]. The analysis shown here is based on the fluctuation-dissipation and the linear response theorems. The results indicate that the impact of wire resistance in practical communicators is significantly lower than the previous estimation.

    3. Solid oxide fuel cell with internal reforming, catalyzed interconnect for use therewith, and methods

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Liu, Di-Jia; Guan, Jie; Minh, Nguyen

      2010-06-08

      A catalyzed interconnect for an SOFC electrically connects an anode and an anodic current collector and comprises a metallic substrate, which provides space between the anode and anodic current collector for fuel gas flow over at least a portion of the anode, and a catalytic coating on the metallic substrate comprising a catalyst for catalyzing hydrocarbon fuel in the fuel gas to hydrogen rich reformate. An SOFC including the catalyzed anodic inter-connect, a method for operating an SOFC, and a method for making a catalyzed anodic interconnect are also disclosed.

    4. Geothermal Power and Interconnection: The Economics of Getting to Market

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Hurlbut, David

      2012-04-23

      This report provides a baseline description of the transmission issues affecting geothermal technologies. It is intended for geothermal experts in either the private or public sector who are less familiar with how the electricity system operates beyond the geothermal plant. The report begins with a comprehensive overview of the grid, how it is planned, how it is used, and how it is paid for. The report then overlays onto this "big picture" three types of geothermal technologies: conventional hydrothermal systems; emerging technologies such as enhanced engineered geothermal systems (EGS) and geopressured geothermal; and geothermal co-production with existing oil and gas wells. Each category of geothermal technology has its own set of interconnection issues, and these are examined separately for each. The report draws conclusions about each technology’s market affinities as defined by factors related to transmission and distribution infrastructure. It finishes with an assessment of selected markets with known geothermal potential, identifying those that offer the best prospects for near-term commercial development and for demonstration projects.

    5. Assessment of Industrial Load for Demand Response across Western Interconnect

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Alkadi, Nasr E; Starke, Michael R; Ma, Ookie

      2013-11-01

      Demand response (DR) has the ability to both increase power grid reliability and potentially reduce operating system costs. Understanding the role of demand response in grid modeling has been difficult due to complex nature of the load characteristics compared to the modeled generation and the variation in load types. This is particularly true of industrial loads, where hundreds of different industries exist with varying availability for demand response. We present a framework considering industrial loads for the development of availability profiles that can provide more regional understanding and can be inserted into analysis software for further study. The developed framework utilizes a number of different informational resources, algorithms, and real-world measurements to perform a bottom-up approach in the development of a new database with representation of the potential demand response resource in the industrial sector across the U.S. This tool houses statistical values of energy and demand response (DR) potential by industrial plant and geospatially locates the information for aggregation for different territories without proprietary information. This report will discuss this framework and the analyzed quantities of demand response for Western Interconnect (WI) in support of evaluation of the cost production modeling with power grid modeling efforts of demand response.

    6. Diamond Wire Saw for Precision Machining of Laser Target Components

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Bono, M J; Bennett, D W

      2005-08-08

      The fabrication of precision laser targets requires a wide variety of specialized mesoscale manufacturing techniques. The diamond wire saw developed in this study provides the capability to precisely section meso-scale workpieces mounted on the assembly stations used by the Target Fabrication Group. This new capability greatly simplifies the fabrication of many types of targets and reduces the time and cost required to build the targets. A variety of materials are used to fabricate targets, including metals, plastics with custom designed chemical formulas, and aerogels of various densities. The materials are usually provided in the form of small pieces or cast rods that must be machined to the required shape. Many of these materials, such as metals and some plastics, can be trimmed using a parting tool on a diamond turning machine. However, other materials, such as aerogels and brittle materials, cannot be adequately cut with a parting tool. In addition, the geometry of the parts often requires that the workpieces be held in a special assembly station, which excludes the use of a parting tool. In the past, these materials were sectioned using a small, handheld coping saw that used a diamond-impregnated wire as a blade. This miniature coping saw was effective, but it required several hours to cut through certain materials. Furthermore, the saw was guided by hand and often caused significant damage to fragile aerogels. To solve these problems, the diamond wire saw shown in Figure 1 was developed. The diamond wire saw is designed to machine through materials that are mounted in the Target Fabrication Group's benchtop assembly stations. These assembly stations are the primary means of aligning and assembling target components, and there is often a need to machine materials while they are mounted in the assembly stations. Unfortunately, commercially available saws are designed for very different applications and are far too large to be used with the assembly stations. Therefore, a custom diamond wire saw was designed and constructed. The diamond wire saw cuts through workpieces using a continuous loop of diamond-impregnated wire of length 840 mm. The wire loop runs around several idler pulleys and is driven by a simple geared DC motor that rotates at 17 rpm. The linear speed of the wire is 107 inches/minute. The saw is oriented at an angle of 20{sup o} from horizontal, so the operator can view the wire through the cutout at the front end of the saw. When looking through a microscope or camera with a horizontal line of sight, the operator can clearly see the wire as it cuts through the workpiece, as shown in the right side of Figure 1. The saw is mounted on a two-axis stage that allows the operator to align the wire with the workpiece. To cut through the workpiece, the operator drives the wire through the workpiece by turning the feed micrometer. An image of the interior of the diamond wire saw appears in Figure 2. This picture was taken after removing the protective cover plate from the saw.

    7. The Relevance of Generation Interconnection Procedures to Feed-in Tariffs in the United States

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Fink, Sari; Porter, Kevin; Rogers, Jennifer

      2010-10-01

      Feed-in tariffs (FITs) have been used to promote renewable electricity development in over 40 countries throughout the past two decades. These policies generally provide guaranteed prices for the full system output from eligible generators for a fixed time period (typically 15–20 years). Due in part to the success of FIT policies in Europe, some jurisdictions in the United States are considering implementing similar policies, and a few have already put such policies in place. This report is intended to offer some guidance to policymakers and regulators on how generator interconnection procedures may affect the implementation of FITs and how state generator interconnection procedures can be formulated to support state renewable energy objectives. This report is based on a literature review of model interconnection procedures formulated by several organizations, as well as other documents that have reviewed, commented on, and in some cases, ranked state interconnection procedures.

    8. Relevance of Generation Interconnection Procedures to Feed-in Tariffs in the United States

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Rogers, J.

      2010-10-01

      Feed-in tariffs (FITs) have been used to promote renewable electricity development in over 40 countries throughout the past two decades. These policies generally provide guaranteed prices for the full system output from eligible generators for a fixed time period (typically 15-20 years). Due in part to the success of FIT policies in Europe, some jurisdictions in the United States are considering implementing similar policies, and a few have already put such policies in place. This report is intended to offer some guidance to policymakers and regulators on how generator interconnection procedures may affect the implementation of FITs and how state generator interconnection procedures can be formulated to support state renewable energy objectives. This report is based on a literature review of model interconnection procedures formulated by several organizations, as well as other documents that have reviewed, commented on, and in some cases, ranked state interconnection procedures.

    9. EIS-0437: Interconnection of the Buffalo Ridge III Wind Project, Brookings and Deuel Counties, South Dakota

      Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

      This EIS evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to interconnect the Heartland Wind, LLC, proposed Buffalo Ridge III Wind Project in Brookings and Deuel Counties, South Dakota, to DOE’s Western Area Power Administration transmission system.

    10. Reuse Distance Based Circuit Replacement in Silicon Photonic Interconnection Networks for HPC

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Bergman, Keren

      -scale distance, can help to further scale data-movement capabilities in high performance computing (HPC demands within high performance computing (HPC) systems. Silicon photonic (SiP) interconnects [1-3], which

    11. Modeling and Analysis of Large-Scale On-Chip Interconnects 

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Feng, Zhuo

      2010-07-14

      dimensional process-voltage-temperature (PVT) variations demand much more modeling and analysis efforts than ever before, while the analysis of large scale on-chip interconnects that requires solving tens of millions of unknowns imposes great challenges...

    12. Sandia Energy - Energy and Water in the Western and Texas Interconnect...

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      Energy and Water in the Western and Texas Interconnects Home Climate & Earth Systems WaterEnergy Nexus Decision Models for Integrating EnergyWater Energy and Water in the Western...

    13. High-performance parallel processors based on star-coupled wavelength division multiplexing optical interconnects

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Deri, Robert J. (Pleasanton, CA); DeGroot, Anthony J. (Castro Valley, CA); Haigh, Ronald E. (Arvada, CO)

      2002-01-01

      As the performance of individual elements within parallel processing systems increases, increased communication capability between distributed processor and memory elements is required. There is great interest in using fiber optics to improve interconnect communication beyond that attainable using electronic technology. Several groups have considered WDM, star-coupled optical interconnects. The invention uses a fiber optic transceiver to provide low latency, high bandwidth channels for such interconnects using a robust multimode fiber technology. Instruction-level simulation is used to quantify the bandwidth, latency, and concurrency required for such interconnects to scale to 256 nodes, each operating at 1 GFLOPS performance. Performance scales have been shown to .apprxeq.100 GFLOPS for scientific application kernels using a small number of wavelengths (8 to 32), only one wavelength received per node, and achievable optoelectronic bandwidth and latency.

    14. EIS-0485: Interconnection of the Grande Prairie Wind Farm, Holt County, Nebraska

      Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

      DOE’s Western Area Power Administration prepared an EIS to evaluate the environmental impacts of interconnecting the proposed Grande Prairie Wind Farm, in Holt County, near O’Neill, Nebraska, to Western’s power transmission system.

    15. EIS-0438: Interconnection of the Proposed Hermosa West Wind Farm Project, Albany County, Wyoming

      Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

      After the applicant withdrew its request to interconnect the proposed Hermosa West Wind Farm Project with Western Area Power Administration’s transmission system, Western cancelled preparation of an EIS to evaluate the potential environmental impacts of the proposal.

    16. NMAC 17.9.569 Interconnection of Generating Facilities with a...

      Open Energy Info (EERE)

      NMAC 17.9.569 Interconnection of Generating Facilities with a Rated Capacity Greater than 10 MW Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document-...

    17. NMAC 17.9.568 Interconnection of Generating Facilities with a...

      Open Energy Info (EERE)

      NMAC 17.9.568 Interconnection of Generating Facilities with a Rated Capacity up to and including 10 MW Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal...

    18. Reliable low latency I/O in torus-based interconnection networks 

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Azeez, Babatunde

      2007-04-25

      In today's high performance computing environment I/O remains the main bottleneck in achieving the optimal performance expected of the ever improving processor and memory technologies. Interconnection networks therefore ...

    19. Optically Interconnected Data Center Architecture for Bandwidth Intensive Energy Efficient Networking

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Bergman, Keren

      Optically Interconnected Data Center Architecture for Bandwidth Intensive Energy Efficient will either be prohibitively costly, overly complex, or result in unsustainable energy requirements. Network of communication-intensive applications. Recent network architectures based on optical circuit switching leverage

    20. Fully Integrated Graphene and Carbon Nanotube Interconnects for Gigahertz High-Speed Cmos Electronics

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Chen, Xiangyu

      Carbon-based nanomaterials such as metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), and graphene have been considered as some of the most promising candidates for future interconnect technology ...

    1. Innovative Distributed Power Grid Interconnection and Control Systems: Final Report, December 11, 2000 - August 30, 2005

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      DePodesta, K.; Birlingmair, D.; West, R.

      2006-03-01

      The contract goal was to further advance distributed generation in the marketplace by making installations more cost-effective and compatible with existing systems. This was achieved by developing innovative grid interconnection and control systems.

    2. Solid oxide fuel cell with single material for electrodes and interconnect

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      McPheeters, Charles C. (Naperville, IL); Nelson, Paul A. (Wheaton, IL); Dees, Dennis W. (Downers Grove, IL)

      1994-01-01

      A solid oxide fuel cell having a plurality of individual cells. A solid oxide fuel cell has an anode and a cathode with electrolyte disposed therebetween, and the anode, cathode and interconnect elements are comprised of substantially one material.

    3. Design of a decentralized detection filter for a class of interconnected LTI systems 

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Shankar, Shamanth

      2001-01-01

      In this thesis, we consider the problem of designing a decentralized detection filter for a class of homogeneous interconnected systems. In this class of systems, all subsystems have an identical structure. A fault in a subsystem propagates via...

    4. ACTIVE SUBSTRATES FOR OPTOELECTRONIC INTERCONNECT Donald Chiarulli, Steven Levitan, Jason Bakos

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Bakos, Jason D.

      silicon on sapphire technology and the adaptation of laser drilling techniques to create vias through different from a conventional BGA chip carrier. It is an active device, not a passive interconnect

    5. Determining Interconnections in Chemical Reaction Networks Antonis Papachristodoulou and Ben Recht

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Recht, Ben

      Determining Interconnections in Chemical Reaction Networks Antonis Papachristodoulou and Ben Recht Abstract-- We present a methodology for robust determina- tion of chemical reaction network' dynamics. We illustrate our methodology on a hypothetical chemical reaction network under various

    6. Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS): Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Woodford, D.

      2011-02-01

      This report provides an independent review included an initial evaluation of the technical configuration and capital costs of establishing an undersea cable system and examining impacts to the existing electric transmission systems as a result of interconnecting the islands.

    7. Phase 2 Report: Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS); Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Woodford, D.

      2011-02-01

      This report provides an independent review including an initial evaluation of the technical configuration and capital costs of establishing an undersea cable system and examining impacts to the existing electric transmission systems as a result of interconnecting the islands

    8. A continuous distribution method for reliability evaluation of interconnected power systems 

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Chintaluri, Gouri Mohana

      1993-01-01

      the interconnection effects. Several studies are reported using IEEE-RTS and EPRI System E. The indices of LOLE, EUE and LOLF are obtained and are compared with those of the recursive method for accuracy and efficiency....

    9. Demonstration of monolithically integrated graphene interconnects for low-power CMOS applications

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Lee, Kyeong-Jae

      2011-01-01

      In recent years, interconnects have become an increasingly difficult design challenge as their relative performance has not improved at the same pace with transistor scaling. The specifications for complex features, clock ...

    10. Record of Decision for the Electrical Interconnection of the Windy Point Wind Energy Project.

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

      2006-11-01

      The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has decided to offer contract terms for interconnection of 250 megawatts (MW) of power to be generated by the proposed Windy Point Wind Energy Project (Wind Project) into the Federal Columbia River Transmission System (FCRTS). Windy Point Partners, LLC (WPP) propose to construct and operate the proposed Wind Project and has requested interconnection to the FCRTS. The Wind Project will be interconnected at BPA's Rock Creek Substation, which is under construction in Klickitat County, Washington. The Rock Creek Substation will provide transmission access for the Wind Project to BPA's Wautoma-John Day No.1 500-kilovolt (kV) transmission line. BPA's decision to offer terms to interconnect the Wind Project is consistent with BPA's Business Plan Final Environmental Impact Statement (BP EIS) (DOE/EIS-0183, June 1995), and the Business Plan Record of Decision (BP ROD, August 15, 1995). This decision thus is tiered to the BP ROD.

    11. Companion Gaming: Improving the Quality of Gaming Experiences through Interconnected Gameplay 

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Ross, Jacob

      2013-08-30

      In recent years, video game publishers and developers such as Ubisoft, Bioware, Microsoft, Capcom, Wideload Games, and NeatherRealm have all attempted to increase brand engagement by means of increased interconnectivity between games of the same...

    12. On the State of the Art of Metal Interconnects for SOFC Application

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Jablonski@netl.doe.gov

      2011-02-27

      One of the recent developments for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) is oxide component materials capable of operating at lower temperatures such as 700-800C. This lower temperature range has provided for the consideration of metallic interconnects which have several advantages over ceramic interconnects: low cost, ease in manufacturing, and high conductivity. Most metals and alloys will oxidize under both the anode and cathode conditions within an SOFC, thus a chief requirement is that the base metal oxide scale must be electrically conductive since this constitutes the majority of the electrical resistance in a metallic interconnect. Common high temperature alloys form scales that contain chrome, silicon and aluminum oxides among others. Under SOFC operating conditions chrome oxide is a semi-conductor while silicon and aluminum oxides are insulators. In this talk we will review the evolution in candidate alloys and surface modifications which constitute an engineered solution for SOFC interconnect applications.

    13. Determination of Interfacial Adhesion Strength between Oxide Scale and Substrate for Metallic SOFC Interconnects

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Sun, Xin; Liu, Wenning N.; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

      2008-01-21

      The interfacial adhesion strength between the oxide scale and the substrate is crucial to the reliability and durability of metallic interconnects in SOFC operating environments. It is necessary, therefore, to establish a methodology to quantify the interfacial adhesion strength between the oxide scale and the metallic interconnect substrate, and furthermore to design and optimize the interconnect material as well as the coating materials to meet the design life of an SOFC system. In this paper, we present an integrated experimental/analytical methodology for quantifying the interfacial adhesion strength between oxide scale and a ferritic stainless steel interconnect. Stair-stepping indentation tests are used in conjunction with subsequent finite element analyses to predict the interfacial strength between the oxide scale and Crofer 22 APU substrate.

    14. A HR-like Diagram for Solar/Stellar Flares and Corona -- Emission Measure vs Temperature Diagram

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Kazunari Shibata; Takaaki Yokoyama

      2002-06-03

      In our previous paper, we have presented a theory to explain the observed universal correlation between the emission measure ($EM=n^2 V$) and temperature (T) for solar/stellar flares on the basis of the magnetic reconnection model with heat conduction and chromospheric evaporation. Here n is the electron density and V is the volume. By extending our theory to general situations, we examined the EM-T diagram in detail, and found the following properties: 1) The universal correlation sequence (``main sequence flares'') with $EM \\propto T^{17/2}$ corresponds to the case of constant heating flux or equivalently the case of constant magnetic field strength in the reconnection model. 2) The EM-T diagram has a forbidden region, where gas pressure of flares exceeds magnetic pressure. 3) There is a coronal branch with $EM \\propto T^{15/2}$ for $T 10^7$ K. This branch is situated left side of the main sequence flares in the EM-T diagram. 4) There is another forbidden region determined by the length of flare loop; a lower limit of flare loop is $10^7$ cm. Small flares near this limit correspond to nanoflares observed by SOHO/EIT. 5) We can plot flare evolution track on the EM-T diagram. A flare evolves from the coronal branch to main sequence flares, then returns to the coronal branch eventually. These properties of the EM-T diagram are similar to those of the HR diagram for stars, and thus we propose that the EM-T diagram is quite useful to estimate the physical quantities (loop length, heating flux, magnetic field strength, total energy and so on) of flares and corona when there is no spatially resolved imaging observations.

    15. Extrusion of metal oxide superconducting wire, tube or ribbon

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Dusek, Joseph T.

      1993-10-05

      A process for extruding a superconducting metal oxide composition YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-x provides a wire (tube or ribbon) having a cohesive mass and a degree of flexibility together with enhanced electrical properties. Wire diameters in the range of 6-85 mils have been produced with smaller wires on the order of 10 mils in diameter exhibiting enhanced flexibility for forming braided, or multistrand, configurations for greater current carrying capacity. The composition for extrusion contains a polymeric binder to provide a cohesive mass to bind the particles together during the extrusion process with the binder subsequently removed at lower temperatures during sintering. The composition for extrusion further includes a deflocculent, an organic plasticizer and a solvent which also are subsequently removed during sintering. Electrically conductive tubing with an inner diameter of 52 mil and an outer diameter of 87-355 mil has also been produced. Flat ribbons have been produced in the range of 10-125 mil thick by 100-500 mil wide. The superconducting wire, tube or ribbon may include an outer ceramic insulating sheath co-extruded with the wire, tubing or ribbon.

    16. Sequential Voronoi diagram calculations using simple chemical reactions

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Costello, Ben de Lacy; Adamatzky, Andy

      2012-01-01

      In our recent paper [de Lacy Costello et al. 2010] we described the formation of complex tessellations of the plane arising from the various reactions of metal salts with potassium ferricyanide and ferrocyanide loaded gels. In addition to producing colourful tessellations these reactions are naturally computing generalised Voronoi diagrams of the plane. The reactions reported previously were capable of the calculation of three distinct Voronoi diagrams of the plane. As diffusion coupled with a chemical reaction is responsible for the calculation then this is achieved in parallel. Thus an increase in the complexity of the data input does not utilise additional computational resource. Additional benefits of these chemical reactions is that a permanent record of the Voronoi diagram calculation (in the form of precipitate free bisectors) is achieved, so there is no requirement for further processing to extract the calculation results. Previously it was assumed that the permanence of the results was also a potenti...

    17. Phase diagram of the five-vertex model

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Gulacsi, M. (Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati, Strada Costiera 11, Miramare, 34014 Trieste (Italy) Theory Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS-B262, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)); Van Beijeren, H. (Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Utrecht (Netherlands)); Levi, A.C. (Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati, Strada Costiera 11, Miramare, 34014 Trieste (Italy) Universita di Genova, Dipartimento di Fisica, 16146 Genova (Italy))

      1993-04-01

      Within the ice-type models, the solution of the five-vertex model is obtained with the use of the Bethe ansatz. Since the allowed number of vertex types is odd, the arrow-reversal symmetry of the system is broken by construction. Due to this, the exact solution obtained and the phase diagram are very different from those of the symmetric six-vertex model. A connection to the asymmetric six-vertex model (of which the five-vertex model is an extreme case) is made. The different regions of the phase diagram are described and the transitions between them are analyzed. Several aspects of the phase diagram are unusual, i.e., the ordered phases (both ferroelectric and antiferroelectric) are frozen-in phases and the disordered phase is replaced by a ferrielectric phase. In the free-fermion case, the known results of the modified KDP model are recovered.

    18. Upgrade of the LHC magnet interconnections thermal shielding

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Musso, Andrea; Barlow, Graeme; Bastard, Alain; Charrondiere, Maryline; Deferne, Guy; Dib, Gaëlle; Duret, Max; Guinchard, Michael; Prin, Hervé; Craen, Arnaud Vande; Villiger, Gilles [CERN European Organization for Nuclear Research, Meyrin 1211, Geneva 23, CH (Switzerland); Chrul, Anna [The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul.Radzikowskiego 152, 31-324 Krakow (Poland); Damianoglou, Dimitrios [NTUA National Technical University of Athens, Heeron Polytechniou 9, 15780 Zografou (Greece); Strychalski, Micha? [Wroclaw University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Wyb. Wyspianskiego 27, Wroclaw, 50-370 (Poland); Wright, Loren [Lancaster University, Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4YW (United Kingdom)

      2014-01-29

      The about 1700 interconnections (ICs) between the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) superconducting magnets include thermal shielding at 50-75 K, providing continuity to the thermal shielding of the magnet cryostats to reduce the overall radiation heat loads to the 1.9 K helium bath of the magnets. The IC shield, made of aluminum, is conduction-cooled via a welded bridge to the thermal shield of the adjacent magnets which is actively cooled. TIG welding of these bridges made in the LHC tunnel at installation of the magnets induced a considerable risk of fire hazard due to the proximity of the multi-layer insulation of the magnet shields. A fire incident occurred in one of the machine sectors during machine installation, but fortunately with limited consequences thanks to prompt intervention of the operators. LHC is now undergoing a 2 years technical stop during which all magnet's ICs will have to be opened to consolidate the magnet electrical connections. The IC thermal shields will therefore have to be removed and re-installed after the work is completed. In order to eliminate the risk of fire hazard when re-welding, it has been decided to review the design of the IC shields, by replacing the welded bridges with a mechanical clamping which also preserves its thermal function. An additional advantage of this new solution is the ease in dismantling for maintenance, and eliminating weld-grinding operations at removal needing radioprotection measures because of material activation after long-term operation of the LHC. This paper describes the new design of the IC shields and in particular the theoretical and experimental validation of its thermal performance. Furthermore a status report of the on-going upgrade work in the LHC is given.

    19. Annual Coded Wire Program Missing Production Groups, 1996 Annual Report.

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Pastor, S.M. [Fish and Wildlife Service, Vancouver, WA (United States). Columbia River Fisheries Program Office

      1997-07-01

      In 1989 the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) began funding the evaluation of production groups of juvenile anadromous fish not being coded-wire tagged for other programs. These groups were the ``Missing Production Groups``. Production fish released by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) without representative coded-wire tags during the 1980`s are indicated as blank spaces on the survival graphs in this report. The objectives of the ``Missing Production Groups`` program are: to estimate the total survival of each production group, to estimate the contribution of each production group to various fisheries, and to prepare an annual report for all USFWS hatcheries in the Columbia River basin. Coded-wire tag recovery information will be used to evaluate the relative success of individual brood stocks. This information can also be used by salmon harvest managers to develop plans to allow the harvest of excess hatchery fish while protecting threatened, endangered, or other stocks of concern.

    20. Design of a wire imaging synchrotron radiation detector

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Kent, J.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.J.; Hogan, A.; King, M.; Rowe, W.; Watson, S.; Von Zanthier, C. ); Briggs, D.D. ); Levi, M. )

      1990-01-01

      This paper documents the design of a detector invented to measure the positions of synchrotron radiation beams for the precision energy spectrometers of the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). The energy measurements involve the determination, on a pulse-by-pulse basis, of the separation of pairs of intense beams of synchrotron photons in the MeV energy range. The detector intercepts the beams with arrays of fine wires. The ejection of Compton recoil electrons results in charges being developed in the wires, thus enabling a determination of beam positions. 10 refs., 4 figs.

    1. Thermodynamic and kinetic control of the lateral Si wire growth

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Dedyulin, Sergey N. Goncharova, Lyudmila V.

      2014-03-24

      Reproducible lateral Si wire growth has been realized on the Si (100) surface. In this paper, we present experimental evidence showing the unique role that carbon plays in initiating lateral growth of Si wires on a Si (100) substrate. Once initiated in the presence of ?5 ML of C, lateral growth can be achieved in the range of temperatures, T?=?450–650?°C, and further controlled by the interplay of the flux of incoming Si atoms with the size and areal density of Au droplets. Critical thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of the growth are discussed in detail.

    2. SINR Diagrams: Convexity and its Applications in Wireless Networks

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      SINR Diagrams: Convexity and its Applications in Wireless Networks Chen Avin Yuval Emek Erez Kantor and quality of connections in a wireless network are described by physical models such as the signal the behavior of wireless networks, and may play a key role in the development of suitable algorithms

    3. Variants of Jump Flooding Algorithm for Computing Discrete Voronoi Diagrams

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Tan, Tiow Seng

      ] that builds a cone for every input (point) site and renders these cones to obtain the Voronoi diagram as the lower envelop of these cones. Denny [2] presents a similar method using a pre-computed texture in place, their speeds reduce with the increase in the number of sites. Recent advances in the graphics processing unit

    4. Authorized Investigator's Laboratory Survey Record Room Diagram and Survey Instruments

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Sniadecki, Nathan J.

      . 4) All records must be available for inspection and kept for 3 calendar years. Survey InstrumentsAuthorized Investigator's Laboratory Survey Record Room Diagram and Survey Instruments u Instrument Code * Model # Serial # Type Action Level Instrument action level is twice the bkg count

    5. Feature Diagrams and Logics: There and Back Again Krzysztof Czarnecki

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Czarnecki, Krzysztof

      Feature Diagrams and Logics: There and Back Again Krzysztof Czarnecki University of Waterloo fami- lies. In their basic form, feature models contain manda- tory/optional features, feature groups in prod- uct families [15, 11, 4]. In their basic form, feature mod- els contain mandatory

    6. 6d SCFTs, 5d Dualities and Tao Web Diagrams

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Hayashi, Hirotaka; Lee, Kimyeong; Yagi, Futoshi

      2015-01-01

      We propose 5d descriptions of 6d ${\\cal N}=(1,0)$ superconformal field theories arising from Type IIA brane configurations with an $O8^-$-plane. We T-dualize the brane diagram along a compactification circle and obtain a 5-brane web diagram with two $O7^-$-planes. The gauge theory description of the resulting 5d theory for a given 6d superconformal field theory is not unique, and we argue that the non-uniqueness leads to various dual 5d gauge theories. There are three sources which lead to the 5d dualities. One type comes from either resolving both or one of the two $O7^-$-planes. The two situations give us two different ways to read off a 5d gauge theory from essentially the same web diagram. The second type originates from different distributions of D5 or D7-branes, shifting the gauge group ranks of the 5d quiver theory. The last one comes from the 90 or 45 degree rotations of the 5-brane web diagram, which is a part of the $SL(2,\\mathbb{Z})$ duality of Type IIB string theory, leading to completely differen...

    7. A Retargetable Framework for Interactive Diagram Recognition Edward H. Lank

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Lank, Edward

      @cs.sfsu.edu Abstract The design of new diagram recognition systems remains a challenging problem. Ideally, recognition, researchers face the challenge of designing robust recognition systems that work on real input data be augmented with domain specific recognition components. Recognition systems have been designed to analyze UML

    8. Power-Aware FPGA Logic Synthesis Using Binary Decision Diagrams

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Tessier, Russell

      with signal switching estimates to achieve power-efficient circuit networks. The results of synthesis and subsequent power-aware technology mapping are evaluated using two distinct physical design platforms Circuits]: Design Aids General Terms Algorithms Keywords FPGA, Binary decision diagram, Dynamic power 1

    9. Phase stabilities at a glance: Stability diagrams of nickel dipnictides

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Bachhuber, F.; School of Chemical Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland ; Rothballer, J.; Weihrich, R.; Söhnel, T.; Centre for Theoretical Chemistry and Physics, The New Zealand Institute for Advanced Study, Massey University Auckland, Auckland

      2013-12-07

      In the course of the recent advances in chemical structure prediction, a straightforward type of diagram to evaluate phase stabilities is presented based on an expedient example. Crystal structures and energetic stabilities of dipnictides NiPn{sub 2} (Pn = N, P, As, Sb, Bi) are systematically investigated by first principles calculations within the framework of density functional theory using the generalized gradient approximation to treat exchange and correlation. These dipnictides show remarkable polymorphism that is not yet understood systematically and offers room for the discovery of new phases. Relationships between the concerned structures including the marcasite, the pyrite, the arsenopyrite/CoSb{sub 2}, and the NiAs{sub 2} types are highlighted by means of common structural fragments. Electronic stabilities of experimentally known and related AB{sub 2} structure types are presented graphically in so-called stability diagrams. Additionally, competing binary phases are taken into consideration in the diagrams to evaluate the stabilities of the title compounds with respect to decomposition. The main purpose of the stability diagrams is the introduction of an image that enables the estimation of phase stabilities at a single glance. Beyond that, some of the energetically favored structure types can be identified as potential new phases.

    10. Cloud computing and hyperbolic Voronoi diagrams on the sphere

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Pavel Bleher; Caroline Shouraboura

      2012-03-13

      In this work we study the minimization problem for the total distance in a cloud computing network on the sphere. We give a solution to this problem in terms of hyperbolic Voronoi diagrams on the sphere. We present results of computer simulations illustrating the solution.

    11. STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF PRIVATE WIRE LAWS ON DEVELOPMENT OF COMBINED...

      Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

      STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF PRIVATE WIRE LAWS ON DEVELOPMENT OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER FACILITIE STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF PRIVATE WIRE LAWS ON DEVELOPMENT OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER...

    12. THE EFFECT OF PRIVATE WIRE LAWS ON DEVELOPMENT OF COMBINED HEAT...

      Office of Environmental Management (EM)

      THE EFFECT OF PRIVATE WIRE LAWS ON DEVELOPMENT OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER FACILITIES THE EFFECT OF PRIVATE WIRE LAWS ON DEVELOPMENT OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER FACILITIES Section...

    13. 1/30/2014 These TinyWindmills Work, and Ten Could Fit in a Grain of Rice | Wired Design | Wired.com http://www.wired.com/design/2014/01/mini-windmills-power-iphone/ 1/7

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Chiao, Jung-Chih

      1/30/2014 These TinyWindmills Work, and Ten Could Fit in a Grain of Rice | Wired Design | Wired.com http://www.wired.com/design/2014/01/mini-windmills-power-iphone/ 1/7 The itty-bitty blades are examples's Next Design Concept Share on Facebook 282 shares Tweet 86 184 These Tiny Windmills Work, and Ten Could

    14. The cone of Betti diagrams over a hypersurface ring of low embedding dimension

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Berkesch, Christine; Erman, Daniel; Gibbons, Courtney

      2011-01-01

      We give a complete description of the cone of Betti diagrams over a standard graded hypersurface ring of the form k[x,y]/, where q is a homogeneous quadric. We also provide a finite algorithm for decomposing Betti diagrams, including diagrams of infinite projective dimension, into pure diagrams. Boij--Soederberg theory completely describes the cone of Betti diagrams over a standard graded polynomial ring; our result provides the first example of another graded ring for which the cone of Betti diagrams is entirely understood.

    15. Navy's Superlaser Is More Than a Weapon (Wired.com) | Jefferson...

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      wired.comdangerroom201011navys-super-laser-wont-just-be-a-weapon Submitted: Wednesday, November 10, 2010...

    16. Design and optimization of high-performance low-power CMOS VLSI interconnects

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Zhang, Yulei

      2011-01-01

      expression, T-lines will consume less energy as technologyT-line structures consume less energy at each technologyIII.1.D. RC wires consume the largest energy among all six

    17. Copyright 2000 FT Asia Intelligence Wire All rights reserved

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Copyright 2000 FT Asia Intelligence Wire All rights reserved Copyright 2000 The Hindu THE HINDU May 10, 2000 LENGTH: 1384 words HEADLINE: The Hindu-Editorial: Development and goal-setting - I BYLINE: NIRUPAM BAJPAI & JEFFREY D. SACHS BODY: WHILE PRESENTING the Union Budget for 2000-01, the Finance

    18. Carbon Fiber Components with Integrated Wiring for Millirobot Prototyping *

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Fearing, Ron

      assembly tool. Index Terms ­ millimeter-scale robots, modular part construction, integrated wiring, flexure and develop a construction kit for fabricating almost any design, similar to the kits that are available even during large motions. Future work will include the automated assembly of the parts with a low cost

    19. First Test Results of the New LANSCE Wire Scanner

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Sedillo, James Daniel

      2011-01-01

      The Beam Diagnostics and Instrumentation Team (BDIT) at Los Alamos National Laboratory's LANSCE facility is presently developing a new and improved wire scanner diagnostics system controlled by National Instrument's cRIO platform. This paper describes the current state of development of the control system along with the results gathered from the latest actuator motion performance and accelerator-beam data acquisition tests.

    20. A Laser-Wire System at the ATF Extraction Line

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Boogert, S.T.; Blair, G.; Boorman, G.; Bosco, A.; Deacon, L.; Driouichi, C.; Karataev, P.; /Royal Holloway, U. of London; Kamps, T.; /BESSY, Berlin; Delerue, N.; Dixit, S.; Foster, B.; Gannaway, F.; Howell, D.F.; Qureshi, M.; Reichold, A.; Senanayake, R.; /Oxford U.; Aryshev, A.; Hayano, H.; Kubo, K.; Terunuma, N.; Urakawa, J.; /KEK, Tsukuba /Liverpool

      2007-02-12

      A new laser-wire (LW) system has been installed at the ATF extraction line at KEK, Tsukuba. The system aims at a micron-scale laser spot size and employs a mode-locked laser system. The purpose-built interaction chamber, light delivery optics, and lens systems are described, and the first results are presented.

    1. Superradiance in a two-channel quantum wire

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Tayebi, A.; Zelevinsky, V.

      2014-10-15

      A one-dimensional, two-channel quantum wire is studied in the effective non-Hermitian Hamiltonian framework. Analytical expressions are derived for the band structure of the isolated wire. Quantum states and transport properties of the wire coupled to two ideal leads at the edges are studied in detail. The width distribution of the quasistationary states varies as a function of the coupling strength to the environment. At weak coupling, all the eigenenergies uniformly acquire small widths. The picture changes entirely at strong coupling, a certain number of states (“super-radiant”) are greatly broadened, while the rest remain long-lived states, a pure quantum mechanical effect as a consequence of quantum interference. The transition between the two regimes greatly influences the transport properties of the system. The maximum transmission through the wire occurs at the super-radiance transition. We consider also a realistic situation with energy-dependent coupling to the continuum due to the existence of decay threshold where super-radiance still plays a significant role in transport properties of the system.

    2. Cure cycle evaluation for multilayer printed wiring boards

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Lula, J.W.

      1980-06-01

      The cure cycle for multilayer printed wiring boards (PWBs) made from general-puspore, fire-retardant epoxy/glass (GF) material has been evaluated for the optimum delamination resistance at soldering temperatures. The results that, for the epoxy resin system used to manufacture multilayer PWBs at Bendix Kansas City, a wide range of cure cycle variations has a minimal effect on delamination resistance.

    3. Characterization of Fe–Cr alloy metallic interconnects coated with LSMO using the aerosol deposition process

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Huang, Jian-Jia [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Fu, Yen-Pei, E-mail: ypfu@mail.ndhu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Dong Hwa University, Shoufeng, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Wang, Jian-Yih [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Dong Hwa University, Shoufeng, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Yung-Neng [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Longtan, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Lee, Shyong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Jin-Cherng [Department of Physics, Fu Jen Catholic University, Xinzhuang, New Taipei City, Taiwan (China)

      2014-03-01

      Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Lanthanum strontium manganite (LSMO) as the protective layer for metallic interconnects was successfully prepared by aerosol deposition method (AD). • The microstructure, electrical resistance and composition for LSMO-coated Fe–Cr alloys undergoing high temperature, long-hour oxidation were investigated. • The denser protective layer prepared by AD might effectively prohibit the growth of oxidized scale after long time running at 800 °C in air. - Abstract: A Fe–Cr alloy, used for metallic interconnects, was coated with a protective layer of lanthanum strontium manganite (LSMO) using the aerosol deposition method (AD). The effects of the LSMO protective layer, which was coated on the Fe–Cr interconnects using AD, on the area specific resistance (ASR) during high temperature oxidation and the Cr evaporation behaviors were systematically investigated in this paper. The microstructures, morphologies, and compositions of the oxidized scales that appeared on the LSMO-coated Fe–Cr alloy after annealing at 800 °C for 750 h in air were examined using SEM equipped with EDS. The EPMA mapping of the LSMO-coated Fe–Cr interconnects undergoing long term, high-temperature oxidation was used to explain the formation layers of the oxidized scale, which consists of (Mn,Cr){sub 3}O{sub 4} and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers. Moreover, the experimental results revealed that the AD process is a potential method for preparing denser protective layers with highly desirable electrical properties for metallic interconnects.

    4. Mechanical characterization of NiTi wires under pure bending G.Antherieu1

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Payan, Yohan

      crystallographic states: cold-worked, austenitic and martensitic. Results of a bending test on a steel wire and moment measurement during pure bending tests on steel wires (Figure 1) Bending moment/load measurements.m; the minimum reached radius of curvature was about 1.5cm. Results of a bending test on a steel wire

    5. Plasticity of metal wires in torsion: Molecular dynamics and dislocation dynamics simulations

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Cai, Wei

      Plasticity of metal wires in torsion: Molecular dynamics and dislocation dynamics simulations t The orientation dependent plasticity in metal nanowires is investigated using molecular dynamics and dislocation wires controls the mechanisms of plastic deformation. For wires oriented along /1 1 0S, dislocations

    6. Development/Plasticity/Repair Wiring Stability of the Adult Drosophila Olfactory Circuit

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Luo, Liqun

      Development/Plasticity/Repair Wiring Stability of the Adult Drosophila Olfactory Circuit after Institute of Molecular Pathology, 1030 Vienna, Austria Neuronal wiring plasticity in response to experience. Here, we assess wiring plasticity in a discrete neural map represented by the adult Drosophila

    7. Analysis of Minimum Cost in Shape-Optimized Litz-Wire Inductor Windings

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Analysis of Minimum Cost in Shape-Optimized Litz-Wire Inductor Windings C. R. Sullivan J. D. Mc the IEEE. #12;Analysis of Minimum Cost in Shape-Optimized Litz-Wire Inductor Windings Charles R. Sullivan://engineering.dartmouth.edu/inductor Abstract--Litz-wire windings for gapped inductors are optimized for minimum cost within a loss constraint

    8. Optimal Choice for Number of Strands in a Litz-Wire Transformer Winding

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Optimal Choice for Number of Strands in a Litz-Wire Transformer Winding C. R. Sullivan Found Choice for Number of Strands in a Litz-Wire Transformer Winding Charles R. Sullivan Thayer School/inductor Abstract -- The number of strands to minimize loss in a litz-wire transformer winding is determined

    9. Numerical simulation of wire-coating: the influence of temperature boundary conditions

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Wapperom, Peter

      Numerical simulation of wire-coating: the influence of temperature boundary conditions Peter-2800 Lyngby (Danmark) Abstract A finite element program has been used to analyze the wire-coating and power-law index will be examined. Keywords: polymeric fluids; wire coating; Carreau model; nonisothermal

    10. Plastic deformation in Al (Cu) interconnects stressed by electromigration and studied by synchrotron polychromatic X-ray microdiffraction

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Chen, Kai; Advanced Light Source; UCLA

      2008-01-01

      Plastic deformation in Al (Cu) interconnects stressed bygrain orientation [7], study plastic deformation [12-15] andThis aspect of EM-induced plastic deformation in grains

    11. Sankey Diagram of Energy Flow in U.S. Manufacturing | Department...

      Office of Environmental Management (EM)

      Energy Flow in U.S. Manufacturing Sankey Diagram of Energy Flow in U.S. Manufacturing The U.S. Manufacturing Sector Sankey diagram below shows the amount of total primary energy in...

    12. Sankey Diagram of Nonprocess Energy Flow in U.S. Manufacturing...

      Energy Savers [EERE]

      Nonprocess Energy Flow in U.S. Manufacturing Sector Sankey Diagram of Nonprocess Energy Flow in U.S. Manufacturing Sector The Nonprocess Energy Sankey diagram below shows inputs of...

    13. Polyurethane spray coating of aluminum wire bonds to prevent corrosion and suppress resonant oscillations

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Izen, Joseph; The ATLAS collaboration; Kurth, Matthew Glenn

      2015-01-01

      Unencapsulated aluminum wedge wire bonds are common in particle-physics pixel and strip detectors. Industry-favored bulk encapsulation is eschewed due to the range of operating temperatures and radiation. Wire bond failures are a persistent, source of tracking detector failure Unencapsulated bonds are vulnerable to condensation-induced corrosion, particularly when halides are present. Oscillations from periodic Lorenz forces are documented as another source of wire bond failure. Spray application of polyurethane coatings, performance of polyurethane-coated wire bonds after climate chamber exposure, and resonant properties of PU-coated wire bonds and their resistance to periodic Lorenz forces will be described.

    14. Higher-order gravitational lensing reconstruction using Feynman diagrams

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Jenkins, Elizabeth E.; Manohar, Aneesh V.; Yadav, Amit P.S.; Waalewijn, Wouter J. E-mail: amanohar@ucsd.edu E-mail: ayadav@physics.ucsd.edu

      2014-09-01

      We develop a method for calculating the correlation structure of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) using Feynman diagrams, when the CMB has been modified by gravitational lensing, Faraday rotation, patchy reionization, or other distorting effects. This method is used to calculate the bias of the Hu-Okamoto quadratic estimator in reconstructing the lensing power spectrum up to  O (?{sup 4}) in the lensing potential ?. We consider both the diagonal noise TT TT, EB EB, etc. and, for the first time, the off-diagonal noise TT TE, TB EB, etc. The previously noted large  O (?{sup 4}) term in the second order noise is identified to come from a particular class of diagrams. It can be significantly reduced by a reorganization of the ? expansion. These improved estimators have almost no bias for the off-diagonal case involving only one B component of the CMB, such as EE EB.

    15. Oak Ridge K-25 Site Technology Logic Diagram

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Fellows, R.L. (ed.)

      1993-02-26

      The Oak Ridge K-25 Technology Logic Diagram (TLD), a decision support tool for the K-25 Site, was developed to provide a planning document that relates environmental restoration and waste management problems at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD technique identifies the research necessary to develop these technologies to a state that allows for technology transfer and application to waste management, remedial action, and decontamination and decommissioning activities. The TLD consists of four separate volumes-Vol. 1, Vol. 2, Vol. 3A, and Vol. 3B. Volume 1 provides introductory and overview information about the TLD. Volume 2 contains logic diagrams. Volume 3 has been divided into two separate volumes to facilitate handling and use. This report is part A of Volume 3 concerning characterization, decontamination, and dismantlement.

    16. Size dependent phase diagrams of Nickel-Carbon nanoparticles

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Magnin, Yann; Amara, Hakim; Ducastelle, François; Bichara, Christophe

      2015-01-01

      The carbon rich phase diagrams of nickel-carbon nanoparticles, relevant to catalysis and catalytic chemical vapor deposition synthesis of carbon nanotubes, are calculated for system sizes up to about 3 nanometers (807 Ni atoms). A tight binding model for interatomic interactions drives the Grand Canonical Monte Carlo simulations used to locate solid, core/shell and liquid stability domains, as a function of size, temperature and carbon chemical potential or concentration. Melting is favored by carbon incorporation from the nanoparticle surface, resulting in a strong relative lowering of the eutectic temperature and a phase diagram topology different from the bulk one. This should be taken into account in our understanding of the nanotube growth mechanisms.

    17. Oak Ridge K-25 Site Technology Logic Diagram

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Fellows, R.L.

      1993-02-26

      The Oak Ridge K-25 Technology Logic Diagram (TLD), a decision support tool for the K-25 Site, was developed to provide a planning document that relates envirorunental restoration and waste management problems at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD technique identifies the research necessary to develop these technologies to a state that allows for technology transfer and application to waste management, remedial action, and decontamination and decommissioning activities. The TLD consists of four separate volumes-Vol. 1, Vol. 2, Vol. 3A, and Vol. 3B. Volume 1 provides introductory and overview information about the TLD. This volume, Volume 2, contains logic diagrams with an index. Volume 3 has been divided into two separate volumes to facilitate handling and use.

    18. Development of Readout Interconnections for the Si-W Calorimeter of SiD

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Woods, M.; Fields, R.G.; Holbrook, B.; Lander, R.L.; Moskaleva, A.; Neher, C.; Pasner, J.; Tripathi, M.; /UC, Davis; Brau, J.E.; Frey, R.E.; Strom, D.; /Oregon U.; Breidenbach, M.; Freytag, D.; Haller, G.; Herbst, R.; Nelson, T.; /SLAC; Schier, S.; Schumm, B.; /UC, Santa Cruz

      2012-09-14

      The SiD collaboration is developing a Si-W sampling electromagnetic calorimeter, with anticipated application for the International Linear Collider. Assembling the modules for such a detector will involve special bonding technologies for the interconnections, especially for attaching a silicon detector wafer to a flex cable readout bus. We review the interconnect technologies involved, including oxidation removal processes, pad surface preparation, solder ball selection and placement, and bond quality assurance. Our results show that solder ball bonding is a promising technique for the Si-W ECAL, and unresolved issues are being addressed.

    19. Wind/PV Generation for Frequency Regulation and Oscillation Damping in the Eastern Interconnection

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Liu, Yong; Gracia, Jose R; Hadley, Stanton W; Liu, Yilu

      2013-12-01

      This report presents the control of renewable energy sources, including the variable-speed wind generators and solar photovoltaic (PV) generators, for frequency regulation and inter-area oscillation damping in the U.S. Eastern Interconnection (EI). In this report, based on the user-defined wind/PV generator electrical control model and the 16,000-bus Eastern Interconnection dynamic model, the additional controllers for frequency regulation and inter-area oscillation damping are developed and incorporated and the potential contributions of renewable energy sources to the EI system frequency regulation and inter-area oscillation damping are evaluated.

    20. Method of bonding an interconnection layer on an electrode of an electrochemical cell

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Pal, U.B.; Isenberg, A.O.; Folser, G.R.

      1992-01-14

      An electrochemical cell containing an air electrode, contacting electrolyte and electronically conductive interconnection layer, and a fuel electrode, has the interconnection layer attached by: (A) applying a thin, closely packed, discrete layer of LaCrO[sub 3] particles, doped with an element selected from the group consisting of Ca, Sr, Co, Ba, Mg and their mixtures on a portion of the air electrode, and then (B) electrochemical vapor depositing a dense skeletal structure between and around the doped LaCrO[sub 3] particles. 2 figs.

    1. 6d SCFTs, 5d Dualities and Tao Web Diagrams

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Hirotaka Hayashi; Sung-Soo Kim; Kimyeong Lee; Futoshi Yagi

      2015-09-10

      We propose 5d descriptions of 6d ${\\cal N}=(1,0)$ superconformal field theories arising from Type IIA brane configurations with an $O8^-$-plane. We T-dualize the brane diagram along a compactification circle and obtain a 5-brane web diagram with two $O7^-$-planes. The gauge theory description of the resulting 5d theory for a given 6d superconformal field theory is not unique, and we argue that the non-uniqueness leads to various dual 5d gauge theories. There are three sources which lead to the 5d dualities. One type comes from either resolving both or one of the two $O7^-$-planes. The two situations give us two different ways to read off a 5d gauge theory from essentially the same web diagram. The second type originates from different distributions of D5 or D7-branes, shifting the gauge group ranks of the 5d quiver theory. The last one comes from the 90 or 45 degree rotations of the 5-brane web diagram, which is a part of the $SL(2,\\mathbb{Z})$ duality of Type IIB string theory, leading to completely different group structure. These lead to a very rich class of dualities between 5d gauge theories whose UV completion is the same 6d superconformal field theory. We also explore Higgsing of the 6d theories and their 5d counterparts. Decoupling the same flavors from the dual 5d theories gives rise to another dual 5d theories whose UV completion is the same 5d superconformal field theory. Finally we propose the 6d description of 5d theories which is obtained by a generalization of 5d $T_N$ theories with additional flavors, which turns out not to be in the class of Type IIA brane construction generically.

    2. (An)isotropy of the Hubble diagram: comparing hemispheres

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Dominik J. Schwarz; Bastian Weinhorst

      2007-09-12

      We test the isotropy of the Hubble diagram. At small redshifts, this is possible without assumptions on the cosmic inventory and provides a fundamental test of the cosmological principle. At higher redshift we check for the self-consistency of the LambdaCDM model. At small redshifts, we use public supernovae (SNe) Ia data to determine the deceleration parameter q_0 and the SN calibration on opposite hemispheres. For the complete data sets we fit Omega_M and the SN calibration on opposite hemispheres. A statistically significant anisotropy of the Hubble diagram at redshifts z 95% C.L.). While data from the North Galactic hemisphere favour the accelerated expansion of the Universe, data from the South Galactic hemisphere are not conclusive. The hemispheric asymmetry is maximal toward a direction close to the equatorial poles. The discrepancy between the equatorial North and South hemispheres shows up in the SN calibration. For the LambdaCDM model fitted to all available SNe, we find the same asymmetry. The alignment of discrepancies between hemispheric Hubble diagrams with the equatorial frame seems to point toward a systematic error in the SN search, observation, analysis or data reduction. We also find that our model independent test cannot exclude the case of the deceleration of the expansion at a statistically significant level.

    3. 08/23/2007 11:01 AMWired Science -Wired Blogs Page 1 of 4http://blog.wired.com/wiredscience/2007/08/life-on-earth--.html

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Glaser, Rainer

      08/23/2007 11:01 AMWired Science - Wired Blogs Page 1 of 4http://blog.wired.com/wiredscience/2007 Windmill: Smaller Slower Better Top Stories #12;08/23/2007 11:01 AMWired Science - Wired Blogs Page 2 of 4http://blog.wired.com/wiredscience/2007/08/life-on-earth--.html might exist in the solar system

    4. Extended Abstract: Constructing Area-Proportional Venn and Euler Diagrams with Three Circles

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Kent, University of

      Extended Abstract: Constructing Area-Proportional Venn and Euler Diagrams with Three Circles to their respective populations; such diagrams are referred to as area-proportional [1] and are intended to enhance readability. In [1], the authors describe an algorithm for constructing area-proportional 3-Venn diagrams

    5. Non--Atomic Components of Data Flow Diagrams: Stores, Persistent Flows,

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Symanzik, Jürgen

      Non--Atomic Components of Data Flow Diagrams: Stores, Persistent Flows, and Tests for Empty Flows J NON--ATOMIC COMPONENTS OF DATA FLOW DIAGRAMS: STORES, PERSISTENT FLOWS, AND TESTS FOR EMPTY FLOWS of these common features of traditional Data Flow Diagrams elevates the expressive power of FDFD's, or whether

    6. A CSP View on UMLRT structure diagrams Clemens Fischer, ErnstRudiger Olderog and Heike Wehrheim

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Habel, Annegret

      A CSP View on UML­RT structure diagrams Clemens Fischer, Ernst­R¨udiger Olderog and Heike Wehrheim UML­RT structure diagrams together with the formal method CSP­OZ combining CSP and Object­Z. While CSP­OZ is used for specifying the system components themselves (by CSP­OZ classes), UML­RT diagrams provide

    7. Ionisation losses and wire scanner heating evaluation, possible solutions, application to the LHC

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Fischer, C

      2000-01-01

      Harmful heating mechanisms, resulting in wire breakage, limit the utilisation of wire scanner monitors to below a given beam intensity. This threshold depends on the accelerator design parameters. In lepton colliders, the short beam bunches generate strong wake-fields inside the vacuum pipe which are sensed by the wire and are the predominant current limit. These effects can be minimised by a smooth design of the monitor cross section and by choosing a wire made of an insulating material [1]. A second source of energy deposition inside the wire, also present in hadron machines, and even when the wire material is insulating, results from collision and ionisation of the wire material atoms by the incident beam particles. Calculations are presented to evaluate the efficiency of this process and a possible solution is suggested which may reduce this limitation. An example is given for the case of the LHC.

    8. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ADVANCED PACKAGING, VOL. 33, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2010 37 Novel 3-D Coaxial Interconnect System for Use

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      LaMeres, Brock J.

      IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ADVANCED PACKAGING, VOL. 33, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2010 37 Novel 3-D Coaxial Interconnect System for Use in System-in-Package Applications Brock J. LaMeres, Senior Member, IEEE of a novel die-to-die interconnect system for deployment in system-in-package (SiP) applications

    9. Improved Crosstalk Modeling for Noise Constrained Interconnect Optimization Jason Cong, David Zhigang Pan and Prasanna V. Srinivas

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Pan, David Z.

      Improved Crosstalk Modeling for Noise Constrained Interconnect Optimization Jason Cong, David This paper presents a much improved, highly accurate yet effi- cient crosstalk noise model, the 2-˘ model, and applies it to noise- constrained interconnect optimizations. Compared with previous crosstalk noise models

    10. Long-Distance Interconnection as Solar Resource Intermittency Solution: Optimizing the Use of Energy Storage and the Geographic

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      of Energy Storage and the Geographic Dispersion + Interconnection of Solar Generating Facilities. Marc J. R energy targets. Variability of the solar resource occurs across many different temporal scales: from energy storage and Long-distance interconnection coupled with geographic dispersion of solar generating

    11. Energetic Electrons and Nuclear Transmutations in Exploding Wires

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      A. Widom; Y. N. Srivastava; L. Larsen

      2007-09-08

      Nuclear transmutations and fast neutrons have been observed to emerge from large electrical current pulses passing through wire filaments which are induced to explode. The nuclear reactions may be explained as inverse beta transitions of energetic electrons absorbed either directly by single protons in Hydrogen or by protons embedded in other more massive nuclei. The critical energy transformations to the electrons from the electromagnetic field and from the electrons to the nuclei are best understood in terms of coherent collective motions of the many flowing electrons within a wire filament. Energy transformation mechanisms have thus been found which settle a theoretical paradox in low energy nuclear reactions which has remained unresolved for over eight decades. It is presently clear that nuclear transmutations can occur under a much wider range of physical conditions than was heretofore thought possible.

    12. Wrapping process for fabrication of A-15 superconducting composite wires

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Suenaga, M.; Klamut, C.J.; Luhman, T.S.

      1980-08-15

      A method for fabricating superconducting wires wherein a billet of copper containing filaments of niobium or vanadium is rolled to form a strip which is wrapped about a tin-alloy core to form a composite. The alloy is a tin-copper alloy for niobium filaments and a gallium-copper alloy for vanadium filaments. The composite is then drawn down to a desired wire size and heat treated. During the heat treatment process, the tin in the bronze reacts with the niobium to form the superconductor niobium tin. In the case where vanadium is used, the gallium in the gallium bronze reacts with the vanadium to form the superconductor vanadium gallium. This new process eliminates the costly annealing steps, external tin plating and drilling of bronze ingots required in a number of prior art processes.

    13. Polyimide/glass multilayer printed wiring boards. Final report

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Lula, J.W.

      1984-07-01

      Multilayer printed wiring boards (PWBs) were manufactured from a polyimide/glass reinforced copper-clad laminate and prepreg. A lamination cycle and innerlayer copper surface treatment were developed that gave satisfactory delamination resistance at soldering temperatures. When compared to similar epoxy/glass multilayer PWBs, the polyimide PWBs had higher thermal stability, greater resistance to raised lands, fewer plating voids, less outgassing, and adhesion that was equivalent to urethane foam encapsulants.

    14. An Asynchronous Interconnect Architecture for Device Security Enhancement Simon Hollis, Simon W. Moore

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Moore, Simon

      interconnect over distances as short as 1mm. 1 Introduction The International Technology Roadmap for Semicon- connect, based loosely on the asynchronous GasP architec- ture. It has a number of advantages over throughput and latency figures from simulation on a 0.18µm technology and show that it is viable for use

    15. Flexible-Bandwidth Power-Aware Optical Interconnects with Source Synchronous Technique

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Yoo, S. J. Ben

      @ucdavis.edu, sbyoo@ucdavis.edu Abstract: This paper investigates energy savings in data centers with flexible-bandwidth power- aware source-synchronous optical interconnects. Network simulations show 5× energy savings. Link-PA source synchronous link and investigate the energy saving for a fat-tree network. Finally we report

    16. CPS-IP: Cyber Physical Systems Interconnection Protocol Department of Computer

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      He, Tian

      heterogeneity of CPS systems at three different levels: function interoperability, policy regulation of the devices used in cyber physical system have very limited memory, computing capability and energy, whichCPS-IP: Cyber Physical Systems Interconnection Protocol Shan Lin Department of Computer Science

    17. Reliability of Wireless On-Chip Interconnects Based on Carbon Nanotube Antennas

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Pande, Partha Pratim

      Reliability of Wireless On-Chip Interconnects Based on Carbon Nanotube Antennas A. Nojeh1 , P Engineering University of British Columbia 2332 Main Mall Vancouver, BC, Canada 2 School of Electrical of the research effort in the emerging area of nanoelectronics has revolved around creating novel devices

    18. Changing photovoltaic array interconnections to reduce mismatch losses: a case study

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Boyer, Edmond

      Changing photovoltaic array interconnections to reduce mismatch losses: a case study D. Picault*, B.grenoble-inp.fr ; seddik.bacha@ g2elab.grenoble-inp.fr Abstract- Partial shading of photovoltaic (PV) modules can affect schemes are presented. I. INTRODUCTION The global photovoltaic market has tremendously increased this past

    19. LCL Filter Design and Performance Analysis for Grid Interconnected Systems , M.Godoy Simes*

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Simőes, Marcelo Godoy

      ** Petroleum Institute, Electrical Engineering Department, Abu Dhabi, UAE. Abstract--The use of power--filter; harmonics; inverter; power quality; pulse width-modulated (PWM) inverters; I. INTRODUCTION Voltage sourceLCL Filter Design and Performance Analysis for Grid Interconnected Systems A. Reznik* , M

    20. Solid oxide fuel cell with single material for electrodes and interconnect

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      McPheeters, C.C.; Nelson, P.A.; Dees, D.W.

      1994-07-19

      A solid oxide fuel cell is described having a plurality of individual cells. A solid oxide fuel cell has an anode and a cathode with electrolyte disposed there between, and the anode, cathode and interconnect elements are comprised of substantially one material. 9 figs.

    1. Mitigating FPGA Interconnect Soft Errors by In-Place LUT Inversion

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      He, Lei

      , power and perfor- mance. Recent logic re-synthesis techniques, such as ROSE [2], IPR [3], IPD [4] and R2Mitigating FPGA Interconnect Soft Errors by In-Place LUT Inversion Naifeng Jing1 , Ju-Yueh Lee2 the Soft Error Rate (SER) at chip level, and reveal a locality and NP-Hardness of the IPV problem. We

    2. Mitigating FPGA Interconnect Soft Errors by In-Place LUT Inversion

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      He, Lei

      but with high overhead in area, power and performance. Recent logic re-synthesis techniques, such as ROSE [2Mitigating FPGA Interconnect Soft Errors by In-Place LUT Inversion Naifeng Jing1 , Ju-Yueh Lee2 the Soft Error Rate (SER) at chip level, and reveal a locality and NP-Hardness of the IPV problem. We

    3. Pricing Games among Interconnected Microgrids Gaurav S. Kasbekar and Saswati Sarkar

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Sarkar, Saswati

      1 Pricing Games among Interconnected Microgrids Gaurav S. Kasbekar and Saswati Sarkar Abstract--We consider a scenario with multiple independent microgrids close to each other in a region that are connected to each other and to the central grid (macrogrid). In each time slot, a given microgrid may produce more

    4. Impact of Wind Turbine Penetration on the Dynamic Performance of Interconnected Power Systems

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Pota, Himanshu Roy

      to their limits using flexible AC transmission system devices (FACTS), and also due to the increased penetration, Australia and India, a large number of wind farms are currently interconnected into transmission networks far away from load centres and connected into relatively weak transmission networks [3]. The presence

    5. EA-1884: Invenergy Interconnection for the Wray Wind Energy Project, Town of Wray, Yuma County, CO

      Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

      DOE’s Western Area Power Administration is preparing this EA to evaluate the environmental impacts of interconnecting the proposed Wray Wind Energy Project, for approximately 90 megawatts of wind generation, to Western’s existing Wray Substation in Yuma County, Colorado.

    6. Risk analysis via heterogeneous models of SCADA interconnecting Power Grids and Telco Networks

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Tronci, Enrico

      Risk analysis via heterogeneous models of SCADA interconnecting Power Grids and Telco Networks A and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems has led to an improvement of Power Grid operations and functionalities power grid services are increasingly depending upon the adequate functionality of SCADA system which

    7. An energy vision: the transformation towards sustainability --interconnected challenges and solutions

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Kammen, Daniel M.

      An energy vision: the transformation towards sustainability -- interconnected challenges of the energy system is of critical importance for achieving major societal objec- tives, such as sustainable system are needed. In this paper, we discuss the multiple challenges and possible sustain- able energy

    8. Performance of Utility Interconnected Photovoltaic Inverters Operating Beyond Typical Modes of Operation

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      distributed energy resource (DER) systems now represents a significant part of the renewable generation mix to grow this may not be the case. In California, the largest US PV renewable market, the FY12 installed year, the interconnection standards are allowing distributed energy resource equipment to provide

    9. Modeling and Simulation Environment for Photonic Interconnection Networks in High Performance Computing

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Bergman, Keren

      at the scale of high performance computer clusters and warehouse scale data centers, system level simulations and results for rack scale photonic interconnection networks for high performance computing. Keywords: optical to the newsworthy power consumption [3], latency [4] and bandwidth challenges [5] of high performance computing (HPC

    10. Control of Interconnected Mechanical Systems Asif Sabanovi*, Nadira Sabanovi*, Kouhei Ohnishi**

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Yanikoglu, Berrin

      Control of Interconnected Mechanical Systems Asif Sabanovi*, Nadira Sabanovi*, Kouhei Ohnishi: In this paper control systems design approach, based on siding mode methods, that allows maintain some robots or control of haptic systems - is presented. It is shown that all basic motion control problems

    11. Mechanism Design and Approximation Our world is an interconnected collection of economic and computational

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Fiat, Amos

      1 Mechanism Design and Approximation Our world is an interconnected collection of economic in transportation networks, and market and auc- tion design can lead to mechanisms for allocating and exchanging. #12;2 Mechanism Design and Approximation of individual strategies is complex and the space of possible

    12. Synthesis of electrical networks interconnecting PZT actuators to damp mechanical vibrations

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      F. dell'Isola; E. G. Henneke; M. Porfiri

      2010-08-30

      This paper proves that it is possible to damp mechanical vibrations of some beam frames by means of piezoelectric actuators interconnected via passive networks. We create a kind of electromechanical wave guide where the electrical velocity group equals the mechanical one thus enabling an electromechanical energy transfer. Numerical simulations are presented which prove the technical feasibility of proposed device

    13. Estimating Reliability and Throughput of Source-synchronous Wave-pipelined Interconnect

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Lemieux, Guy

      Destination Clk gen Data Forwarded clock (generated at source) (c) SSWP: Source synchronous, wave pipelinedEstimating Reliability and Throughput of Source-synchronous Wave-pipelined Interconnect Paul Teehan to distinguish between static and dynamic sources of tim- ing uncertainty, because source-synchronous wave

    14. Advanced Unit Commitment Strategies for the U.S. Eastern Interconnection: Preprint

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; Meibom, P.; Barth, R.; Tuohy, A.

      2010-10-01

      This paper outlines a study undertaken for the U.S. Eastern Interconnection in which different advanced unit commitment strategies were simulated for three different years to evaluate the benefits that may occur from using these strategies as an operational tool.

    15. Approximation and Mechanism Our world is an interconnected collection of economic and computational systems wherein

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Fiat, Amos

      Chapter 1 Approximation and Mechanism Design Our world is an interconnected collection of economic to mechanisms for exchanging goods or services that are good in terms of revenue or social benefit. The two on a combined computational and economic theory for the study and design of mechanisms. A central theme

    16. Discrete-time Lyapunov based small-gain theorem for parameterized interconnected ISS systems

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Nesic, Dragan

      Discrete-time Lyapunov based small-gain theorem for parameterized interconnected ISS systems Dina via the Lyapunov method. In particular, an ISS Lyapunov function for the overall system is constructed from the ISS Lyapunov functions of the two subsystems. We consider parameterized families of discrete

    17. Through-Wafer Interconnects for High Degree of Freedom MEMS Deformable Mirrors

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Bifano, Thomas

      Through-Wafer Interconnects for High Degree of Freedom MEMS Deformable Mirrors Alioune Diouf 1 Spinelli Place, Cambridge, MA 02138 Abstract The development of an assembly and packaging process for MEMS University MEMS DMs are surface-micromachined polysilicon double-cantilever actuator architecture

    18. A THz transverse electromagnetic mode two-dimensional interconnect layer incorporating quasi-optics

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      of transmitting subpicosecond pulses in the transverse electromagnetic TEM mode over arbitrarily long paths near the cutoff fre- quency. Such pulse broadening does not occur for the trans- verse electromagneticA THz transverse electromagnetic mode two-dimensional interconnect layer incorporating quasi

    19. Communication Requirements and Interconnect Optimization forHigh-End Scientific Applications

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Kamil, Shoaib; Oliker, Leonid; Pinar, Ali; Shalf, John

      2007-11-12

      The path towards realizing peta-scale computing isincreasingly dependent on building supercomputers with unprecedentednumbers of processors. To prevent the interconnect from dominating theoverall cost of these ultra-scale systems, there is a critical need forhigh-performance network solutions whose costs scale linearly with systemsize. This work makes several unique contributions towards attaining thatgoal. First, we conduct one of the broadest studies to date of high-endapplication communication requirements, whose computational methodsinclude: finite-difference, lattice-bolzmann, particle in cell, sparselinear algebra, particle mesh ewald, and FFT-based solvers. Toefficiently collect this data, we use the IPM (Integrated PerformanceMonitoring) profiling layer to gather detailed messaging statistics withminimal impact to code performance. Using the derived communicationcharacterizations, we next present fit-trees interconnects, a novelapproach for designing network infrastructure at a fraction of thecomponent cost of traditional fat-tree solutions. Finally, we propose theHybrid Flexibly Assignable Switch Topology (HFAST) infrastructure, whichuses both passive (circuit) and active (packet) commodity switchcomponents to dynamically reconfigure interconnects to suit thetopological requirements of scientific applications. Overall ourexploration leads to a promising directions for practically addressingthe interconnect requirements of future peta-scale systems.

    20. Homogenous BSCCO-2212 Round Wires for Very High Field Magnets

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Dr. Scott Campbell

      2012-06-30

      The performance demands on modern particle accelerators generate a relentless push towards higher field magnets. In turn, advanced high field magnet development places increased demands on superconducting materials. Nb3Sn conductors have been used to achieve 16 T in a prototype dipole magnet and are thought to have the capability for {approx}18 T for accelerator magnets (primarily dipoles but also higher order multipole magnets). However there have been suggestions and proposals for such magnets higher than 20 T. The High Energy Physics Community (HEP) has identified important new physics opportunities that are enabled by extremely high field magnets: 20 to 50 T solenoids for muon cooling in a muon collider (impact: understanding of neutrinos and dark matter); and 20+ T dipoles and quadrupoles for high energy hadron colliders (impact: discovery reach far beyond present). This proposal addresses the latest SBIR solicitation that calls for grant applications that seek to develop new or improved superconducting wire technologies for magnets that operate at a minimum of 12 Tesla (T) field, with increases up to 15 to 20 T sought in the near future (three to five years). The long-term development of accelerator magnets with fields greater than 20 T will require superconducting wires having significantly better high-field properties than those possessed by current Nb{sub 3}Sn or other A15 based wires. Given the existing materials science base for Bi-2212 wire processing, we believe that Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub y} (Bi-2212) round wires can be produced in km-long piece lengths with properties suitable to meet both the near term and long term needs of the HEP community. The key advance will be the translation of this materials science base into a robust, high-yield wire technology. While the processing and application of A15 materials have advanced to a much higher level than those of the copper oxide-based, high T{sub c} (HTS) counterparts, the HTS materials have the very significant advantage of an extremely high H{sub c2}. For this reason, Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub y} (Bi-2212, or 2212) in the form of a multifilamentary Ag alloy matrix composite is beginning to attract the interest of the magnet community for future extremely high-field magnets or magnet-insert coils for 4.2K operation. Fig. 1 shows an example of excellent JE (engineering current density) in Bi-2212 round wire at fields up to 45 T, demonstrating the potential for high field applications of this material. For comparison, the Nb{sub 3}Sn wires used in magnets in the 16-18 T range typically perform with J{sub E} in the range 200-500 A/mm{sup 2}; the Bi-2212 wire retains this level of performance to fields at least as high as 45 T, and probably significantly higher. Bi-2212 conductors have in fact been used to generate a 25 T field in a superconducting insert magnet. These two factors- the very high field critical current performance of Bi-2212, and the already demonstrated capability of this material for high field magnets up to 25 T, strongly suggest this material as a leading contender for the next generation high field superconducting (HFS) wire. This potential was recognized by the US Academy of Science's Committee on Opportunities in High Magnetic Field Science. Their report of the same name specifically calls out the high field potential for this material, and suggests that 30 T magnets appear feasible based on the performance of 2212. There are several requirements for HFS conductors. The most obvious is J{sub E} (B, T), the engineering current density at the field and temperature of operation. As shown in Fig. 1, Bi-2212 excels in this regard. Stability requirements for magnets dictate that the effective filament diameter should be less than 30 micrometers, something that Bi-2212 multifilamentary wire can uniquely satisfy among the HFS superconducting wire technologies. Additional requirements include mechanical properties that prevent stress limitation of J{sub E} at the operating conditions, resistive transition index (n-value) suffic

    1. Phase 1 - Evaluation of a Functional Interconnect System for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      James M. Rakowski

      2006-09-30

      This project is focused on evaluating the suitability of materials and complex multi-materials systems for use as solid oxide fuel cell interconnects. ATI Allegheny Ludlum has generated promising results for interconnect materials which incorporate modified surfaces. Methods for producing these surfaces include cladding, which permits the use of novel materials, and modifications via unique thermomechanical processing, which allows for the modification of materials chemistry. The University of Pittsburgh is assisting in this effort by providing use of their in-place facilities for dual atmosphere testing and ASR measurements, along with substantial work to characterize post-exposure specimens. Carnegie Mellon is testing interconnects for chromia scale spallation resistance using macro-scale and nano-scale indentation tests. Chromia spallation can increase electrical resistance to unacceptable levels and interconnect systems must be developed that will not experience spallation within 40,000 hours at operating temperatures. Spallation is one of three interconnect failure mechanisms, the others being excessive growth of the chromia scale (increasing electrical resistance) and scale evaporation (which can poison the cathode). The goal of indentation fracture testing at Carnegie Mellon is to accelerate the evaluation of new interconnect systems (by inducing spalls at after short exposure times) and to use fracture mechanics to understand mechanisms leading to premature interconnect failure by spallation. Tests include bare alloys from ATI and coated systems from DOE Laboratories and industrial partners, using ATI alloy substrates. West Virginia University is working towards developing a cost-effective material for use as a contact material in the cathode chamber of the SOFC. Currently materials such as platinum are well suited for this purpose, but are cost-prohibitive. For the solid-oxide fuel cell to become a commercial reality it is imperative that lower cost components be developed. Based on the results obtained to date, it appears that sterling silver could be an inexpensive, dependable candidate for use as a contacting material in the cathode chamber of the solid-oxide fuel cell. Although data regarding pure silver samples show a lower rate of thickness reduction, the much lower cost of sterling silver makes it an attractive alternative for use in SOFC operation.

    2. Study of the precursor and non-precursor implosion regimes in wire array Z-pinches

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Papp, D.; Ivanov, V. V.; Anderson, A. A.; Altemara, S. D.; Talbot, B. R.; Jones, B.; Haboub, A.

      2012-09-15

      Star-like and closely spaced nested wire array configurations were investigated in precursor and non-precursor implosions. Closely spaced nested cylindrical arrays have inner and outer arrays with equal wire numbers, and inner and outer wires aligned to each other. The gap between the outer and inner wires is not more than 1 mm. Calculation of magnetic fields shows that the small gap results in a reversed, outward j Multiplication-Sign B force on the inner wires. Closely spaced arrays of 6-16 wires with outer diameter of 16 mm and with gaps of {Delta}R = 0.25-1 mm were tested. 6-8-wire arrays with a gap of {Delta}R = 0.4-1 mm imploded without precursor, but precursor was present in loads with 12-16 wires and {Delta}R = 0.25-1 mm. Implosion dynamics of closely spaced arrays was similar to that of star-like arrays. Implosion time was found to decrease with decreased wire numbers. Star array configurations were designed with a numerical scheme to implode with or without precursor. The lack of precursor resulted in a marginal improvement in total x-ray yield and power, and up to 20% increase in Al K-shell yield. The Al K-shell radiated energy was found to increase with decreasing the number of arrays in closely spaced and star-like wire arrays.

    3. Effects of photon escape on diagnostic diagrams for HII regions

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      C. Giammanco; J. E. Beckman; B. Cedres

      2005-04-11

      In this article we first outline the mounting evidence that a significant fraction of the ionizing photons emitted by OB stars within HII regions escape from their immediate surroundings and explain how an HII region structure containing high density contrast in homogeneities facilitates this escape. Next we describe sets of models containing inhomogeneities which are used to predict tracks in the commonly used diagnostic diagrams (based on ratios of emission lines) whose only independent variable is the photon escape fraction, xi. We show that the tracks produced by the models in two of the most cited of these diagrams conform well to the distribution of observed data points, with the models containing optically thick inhomogeneities ("CLUMPY" models) yielding somewhat better agreement than those with optically thin inhomogeneities ("FF" models). We show how variations in the ionization parameter U, derived from emission line ratios, could be due to photon escape. Using a rather wide range of assumptions about the filling factor of dense clumps we find, for a selected set of regions observed in M51 photon escape fraction ranging between 30% and 50%. We show, using oxygen as the test element, that models with different assumptions about the gas inhomogeneity will give variations in the abundance values derived from diagnostic diagrams, but do not claim here to have a fully developed set of diagnostic tools to improve abundance determinations made in this way. We finally propose a combination of line ratios with the absolute Halpha luminosity of a given HII region, which allows us to determine the photon escape fraction, and hence resolve the degeneracy between U and xi.

    4. Equations of state and phase diagrams of hydrogen isotopes

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Urlin, V. D.

      2013-11-15

      A new form of the semiempirical equation of state proposed for the liquid phase of hydrogen isotopes is based on the assumption that its structure is formed by cells some of which contain hydrogen molecules and others contain hydrogen atoms. The values of parameters in the equations of state of the solid (molecular and atomic) phases as well as of the liquid phase of hydrogen isotopes (protium and deuterium) are determined. Phase diagrams, shock adiabats, isentropes, isotherms, and the electrical conductivity of compressed hydrogen are calculated. Comparison of the results of calculations with available experimental data in a wide pressure range demonstrates satisfactory coincidence.

    5. Nuclear-matter--quark-matter phase diagram with strangeness

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Barz, H. W.; Friman, B. L.; Knoll, J.; Schulz, H.

      1989-07-01

      A phenomenological equation of state of strongly interacting matter, including strange degrees of freedom, is presented. It is shown that the hyperon and kaon interactions must be included, in order to obtain a reasonable description of the deconfinement transition at high baryon densities. The consequences of kaon condensation on the nuclear-matter--quark-matter phase diagram are explored. The relative particle abundances obtained in an isentropic expansion of a blob of quark-gluon plasma are presented for different initial conditions. Implications for ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions are briefly discussed.

    6. On-chip Optical Interconnect Roadmap: Challenges and Critical Directions Mikhail Haurylau, Hui Chen, Jidong Zhang, Guoqing Chen, Nicholas A. Nelson,

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Friedman, Eby G.

      On-chip Optical Interconnect Roadmap: Challenges and Critical Directions Mikhail Haurylau, Hui Chen work we use the In- ternational Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) predictions for the EI. ELECTRICAL INTERCONNECTS ROADMAP In order to estimate EI performance, an RLC interconnect with optimized

    7. Solid State Electronics (ECE 103) ECE MS Comp Exam, Fall 2013 (a) Draw the energy band diagram of a piece of Si at room temperature (label the diagram) and

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      California at San Diego, University of

      Solid State Electronics (ECE 103) ­ ECE MS Comp Exam, Fall 2013 (a) Draw the energy band diagram of a piece of Si at room temperature (label the diagram) and use the band diagram to illustrate the doping (r.t.). (b) Use band diagrams to illustrate the formation of p/n junction. (c) For a p/n+ diode, p-Si

    8. A diagram for the evaporation status of extrasolar planets

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Etangs, A L

      2006-01-01

      To describe the evaporation status of the extrasolar planets, we propose to consider an energy diagram in which the potential energy of the planets is plotted versus the energy received by the upper atmosphere. Here we present a basic method to estimate these quantities. For the potential energy, we include the modification of the gravity field by the tidal forces from the parent stars. This description allows a quick estimate of both the escape rate of the atmospheric gas and the lifetime of a planet against the evaporation process. In the energy diagram, we find an evaporation-forbidden region in which a gaseous planet would evaporate in less than 5 billion years. With their observed characteristics, all extrasolar planets are found outside this evaporation-forbidden region. The escape rates are estimated to be in the range 10^5 g/s to 10^{12} g/s, with few cases above 10^{11} g/s. The estimated escape rate for HD209458b is found to be consistent with the lower limit of 10^{10} g/s obtained from interpretat...

    9. Oak Ridge K-25 Site Technology Logic Diagram

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Fellows, R.L. (ed.)

      1993-02-26

      The Oak Ridge K-25 Technology Logic Diagram (TLD), a decision support tool for the K-25 Site, was developed to provide a planning document that relates environmental restoration and waste management problems at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD technique identifies the research necessary to develop these technologies to a state that allows for technology transfer and application to waste management, remedial action, and decontamination and decommissioning activities. The TLD consists of four separate volumes-Vol. 1, Vol. 2, Vol. 3A, and Vol. 3B. This Volume, Volume 1 provides introductory and overview information about the TLD. Volume 2 contains logic diagrams. Volume 3 has been divided into two separate volumes to facilitate handling and use. This volume is divided into ten chapters. The first chapter is a brief introduction, and the second chapter details the technical approach of the TLD. These categories are the work activities necessary for successful decontamination and decommissioning, waste management, and remedial action of the K-25 Site. The categories are characterization, decontamination, dismantlement, robotics and automation, remedial action, and waste management. Materials disposition is addressed in Chap. 9. The final chapter contains regulatory compliance information concerning waste management, remedial action, and decontamination and decommissioning.

    10. The fundamental Diagram of Pedestrian Model with Slow Reaction

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Fang, Jun; Hu, Hao; Xu, Zhaohui; Li, Huan

      2015-01-01

      The slow-to-start models are a classical cellular automata model in simulating vehicle traffic. However, to our knowledge, the slow-to-start effect has not considered in modeling pedestrian dynamic. We verify the similar behavior between pedestrian and vehicle, and propose an new lattice gas (LG) model called the slow reaction (SR) model to describe the pedestrian's delayed reaction in single-file movement. We simulate and reproduce the Seyfried's field experiments at the research centre Julich, and use its empirical data to validate our SR model. We compare the SR model with the standard LG model. We test different probability of slow reaction ps in SR model and found the simulation data of ps=0.3 fit the empirical data best. The RMS error of mean velocity of SR model is smaller than that of standard LG model. In the range of ps=0.1~0.3, our fundamental diagram between velocity and density by simulation coincides with field experiments. The distribution of individual velocity in fundamental diagram in SR mod...

    11. Health Monitoring of Drive Connected Three-Phase Induction Motors ----- From Wired Towards Wireless Sensor Networks

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Xue, Xin

      2009-01-01

      A Statistical Evaluation," in Sensor, Mesh and Ad Hocmotor. Wireless sensor spectrum Evaluation board spectruminside Wired sensor outside Evaluation board outside (b)

    12. Final report on development of Pulse Arrested Spark Discharge (PASD) for aging aircraft wiring application.

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Lockner, Thomas Ramsbeck; Howard, R. Kevin; Peńa, Gary Edward; Schneider, Larry X.; Higgins, Matthew B.; Glover, Steven Frank

      2006-09-01

      Pulsed Arrested Spark Discharge (PASD) is a Sandia National Laboratories Patented, non-destructive wiring system diagnostic that has been developed to detect defects in aging wiring systems in the commercial aircraft fleet. PASD was previously demonstrated on relatively controlled geometry wiring such as coaxial cables and shielded twisted-pair wiring through a contract with the U.S. navy and is discussed in a Sandia National Laboratories report, SAND2001-3225 ''Pulsed Arrested Spark Discharge (PASD) Diagnostic Technique for the Location of Defects in Aging Wiring Systems''. This report describes an expansion of earlier work by applying the PASD technique to unshielded twisted-pair and discrete wire configurations commonly found in commercial aircraft. This wiring is characterized by higher impedances as well as relatively non-uniform impedance profiles that have been found to be challenging for existing aircraft wiring diagnostics. Under a three year contract let by the Federal Aviation Administration, Interagency Agreement DTFA-03-00X90019, this technology was further developed for application on aging commercial aircraft wiring systems. This report describes results of the FAA program with discussion of previous work conducted under U.S. Department of Defense funding.

    13. Low Power Quasi-Resonant Interconnects Jonathan Rosenfeld and Eby G. Friedman

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Friedman, Eby G.

      of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Rochester Rochester, New York 14627-0231 A primary signaling and optoelectronic links [3] have also been con- sidered. An alternative approach exploiting wire. This approach lowers the power consumption, since the energy resonates between the electric and magnetic fields

    14. Testing the 2-element 4-wire delta watthour meter 

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Grasshoff, Lynn Howard

      1950-01-01

      & and other material& and for affording valuable suggestions for the prepaxation of this thesis. Appreciation is also exnxressed to M! . R. H. Mighell and Mr. H. E. Trekell of the General Electric Company fax supplying a ~ire delta meter and various... four wire delta system is used to supply polyphase and single phase loads from a bank of delta-oonneeted transformers. The squit is illustrated in Pigure L, Polyphase loads are supplied in the usual manner from the three lines a b-o, and single phase...

    15. Thermoelectric performance of various benzo-difuran wires

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Péterfalvi, Csaba G.; Grace, Iain; Manrique, Dávid Zs.; Lambert, Colin J., E-mail: c.lambert@lancaster.ac.uk [Department of Physics, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom)

      2014-05-07

      Using a first principles approach to electron transport, we calculate the electrical and thermoelectrical transport properties of a series of molecular wires containing benzo-difuran subunits. We demonstrate that the side groups introduce Fano resonances, the energy of which is changing with the electronegativity of selected atoms in it. We also study the relative effect of single, double, or triple bonds along the molecular backbone and find that single bonds yield the highest thermopower, approximately 22 ?V/K at room temperature, which is comparable with the highest measured values for single-molecule thermopower reported to date.

    16. Double-sided polyimide printed wiring boards. Final report

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Lula, J.W.

      1982-04-01

      Double-sided polyimide/glass printed wiring boards (PWBs) were evaluated for high temperature performance and compared to epoxy/glass PWBs (type GH). Test specimens, as well as sample PWBs, were manufactured from both materials and tested for thermal stability, moisture absorption, copper peel strength, and resistance to soldering damage. Although the polyimide laminate absorbed more than twice the amount of moisture as the epoxy laminate, the polyimide laminate had greater thermal stability, retained greater peel strength at elevated temperatures, and showed comparatively little damage during soldering processes.

    17. Formulation of Molding Materials From Recycled Printed Wiring Boards

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Lula, J.W.; Bohnert, G.W.

      1998-04-20

      The objective of this project was to formulate the pulverized electronic waste (PEW) stream derived from grinding obsolete electronic assemblies and combine this material with thermoplastic or thermosetting polymers into useful, high-value commercial products materials. PEW consists primarily of various thermoset plastic materials and glass fibers from the printed wiring boards, along with ceramic pieces from chip carriers and other electronic components. Typically, the thermosetting materials have the same desirable properties as in the original electronic assembly, including relatively high temperature resistance, excellent chemical resistance, and flame retardancy. These properties combine to make PEW an inherently good inert filler material for plastic composites.

    18. Vacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire Structure in Gallium Selenide Layers

      Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

      AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking WithTelecentric viewing systemVacancyVacancy-Induced Nanoscale Wire

    19. Y-12 Plant decontamination and decommissioning technology logic diagram for Building 9201-4. Volume 2: Technology logic diagram

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      1994-09-01

      The Y-12 Plant Decontamination and Decommissioning Technology Logic Diagram for Building 9201-4 (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) problems at Bldg. 9201-4 to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. This TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed for sufficient development of these technologies to allow for technology transfer and application to D and D and waste management (WM) activities. It is essential that follow-on engineering studies be conducted to build on the output of this project. These studies will begin by selecting the most promising technologies identified in the TLD and by finding an optimum mix of technologies that will provide a socially acceptable balance between cost and risk. The TLD consists of three fundamentally separate volumes: Vol. 1 (Technology Evaluation), Vol. 2 (Technology Logic Diagram), and Vol. 3 (Technology Evaluation Data Sheets). Volume 2 contains the logic linkages among environmental management goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 2 has been divided into five sections: Characterization, Decontamination, Dismantlement, Robotics/Automation, and Waste Management. Each section contains logical breakdowns of the Y-12 D and D problems by subject area and identifies technologies that can be reasonably applied to each D and D challenge.

    20. In situ study on low-k interconnect time-dependent-dielectric-breakdown mechanisms

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Boon Yeap, Kong, E-mail: KongBoon.Yeap@globalfoundries.com [GLOBALFOUNDRIES, Fab8, 400 Stonebreak Rd. Extension, Malta, New York 12020 (United States); Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems, Maria-Reiche-Str. 2, D-01109 Dresden (Germany); Gall, Martin; Liao, Zhongquan; Sander, Christoph; Muehle, Uwe; Zschech, Ehrenfried [Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems, Maria-Reiche-Str. 2, D-01109 Dresden (Germany); Justison, Patrick [GLOBALFOUNDRIES, Fab8, 400 Stonebreak Rd. Extension, Malta, New York 12020 (United States); Aubel, Oliver; Hauschildt, Meike; Beyer, Armand; Vogel, Norman [GLOBALFOUNDRIES Dresden Module One LLC and Co. KG, Wilschdorfer Landstr. 101, D-01109 Dresden (Germany)

      2014-03-28

      An in situ transmission-electron-microscopy methodology is developed to observe time-dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB) in an advanced Cu/ultra-low-k interconnect stack. A test structure, namely a “tip-to-tip” structure, was designed to localize the TDDB degradation in small dielectrics regions. A constant voltage is applied at 25?°C to the “tip-to-tip” structure, while structural changes are observed at nanoscale. Cu nanoparticle formation, agglomeration, and migration processes are observed after dielectric breakdown. The Cu nanoparticles are positively charged, since they move in opposite direction to the electron flow. Measurements of ionic current, using the Triangular-Voltage-Stress method, suggest that Cu migration is not possible before dielectric breakdown, unless the Cu/ultra-low-k interconnect stacks are heated to 200?°C and above.

    1. Interconnection arrangement of routers of processor boards in array of cabinets supporting secure physical partition

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Tomkins, James L. (Albuquerque, NM); Camp, William J. (Albuquerque, NM)

      2007-07-17

      A multiple processor computing apparatus includes a physical interconnect structure that is flexibly configurable to support selective segregation of classified and unclassified users. The physical interconnect structure includes routers in service or compute processor boards distributed in an array of cabinets connected in series on each board and to respective routers in neighboring row cabinet boards with the routers in series connection coupled to routers in series connection in respective neighboring column cabinet boards. The array can include disconnect cabinets or respective routers in all boards in each cabinet connected in a toroid. The computing apparatus can include an emulator which permits applications from the same job to be launched on processors that use different operating systems.

    2. Bipolar plating of metal contacts onto oxide interconnection for solid oxide electrochemical cell

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Isenberg, A.O.

      1987-03-10

      Disclosed is a method of forming an adherent metal deposit on a conducting layer of a tube sealed at one end. The tube is immersed with the sealed end down into an aqueous solution containing ions of the metal to be deposited. An ionically conducting aqueous fluid is placed inside the tube and a direct current is passed from a cathode inside the tube to an anode outside the tube. Also disclosed is a multi-layered solid oxide fuel cell tube which consists of an inner porous ceramic support tube, a porous air electrode covering the support tube, a non-porous electrolyte covering a portion of the air electrode, a non-porous conducting interconnection covering the remaining portion of the electrode, and a metal deposit on the interconnection. 1 fig.

    3. Bipolar plating of metal contacts onto oxide interconnection for solid oxide electrochemical cell

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills Boro, PA)

      1987-01-01

      Disclosed is a method of forming an adherent metal deposit on a conducting layer of a tube sealed at one end. The tube is immersed with the sealed end down into an aqueous solution containing ions of the metal to be deposited. An ionically conducting aqueous fluid is placed inside the tube and a direct current is passed from a cathode inside the tube to an anode outside the tube. Also disclosed is a multi-layered solid oxide fuel cell tube which consists of an inner porous ceramic support tube, a porous air electrode covering the support tube, a non-porous electrolyte covering a portion of the air electrode, a non-porous conducting interconnection covering the remaining portion of the electrode, and a metal deposit on the interconnection.

    4. An analytical model for a class of processor-memory interconnection networks

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Conterno, R.; Melen, R.

      1987-11-01

      The performance of a delta interconnection network for multiprocessors is evaluated in a circuit switching environment. An error is pointed out in previous literature and an exact analytical model is given for regeneration systems, where a connection request is considered lost if not immediately granted. An approximated numerical method is suggested for the correction of the analytical results, which gave outputs in very good agreement with the simulation of real systems where requests are maintained.

    5. Viscosity Solutions of Systems of PDEs with Interconnected Obstacles and Switching Problem

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Hamadene, S. Morlais, M. A.

      2013-04-15

      This paper deals with existence and uniqueness of a solution in viscosity sense, for a system of m variational partial differential inequalities with inter-connected obstacles. A particular case is the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellmann system of the Markovian stochastic optimal m-states switching problem. The switching cost functions depend on (t,x). The main tool is the notion of systems of reflected backward stochastic differential equations with oblique reflection.

    6. Examination of Potential Benefits of an Energy Imbalance Market in the Western Interconnection

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Milligan, M.; Clark, K.; King, J.; Kirby, B.; Guo, T.; Liu, G.

      2013-03-01

      In the Western Interconnection, there is significant interest in improving approaches to wide-area coordinated operations of the bulk electric power system, in part because of the increasing penetration of variable generation. One proposed solution is an energy imbalance market. This study focused on that approach alone, with the goal of identifying the potential benefits of an energy imbalance market in the year 2020.

    7. State-Level Comparison of Processes and Timelines for Distributed Photovoltaic Interconnection in the United States

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Ardani, K.; Davidson, C.; Margolis, R.; Nobler, E.

      2015-01-01

      This report presents results from an analysis of distributed photovoltaic (PV) interconnection and deployment processes in the United States. Using data from more than 30,000 residential (up to 10 kilowatts) and small commercial (10-50 kilowatts) PV systems, installed from 2012 to 2014, we assess the range in project completion timelines nationally (across 87 utilities in 16 states) and in five states with active solar markets (Arizona, California, New Jersey, New York, and Colorado).

    8. U.S. Army Fort Carson Interconnection Agreement | Department of Energy

      Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

      AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCEDInstallers/ContractorsPhotovoltaicsStateof Energy| Department ofAttacks ||Interconnection

    9. Feasibility studies of a power interconnection system for Central American countries: SIEPAC project

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Gomez, T.; Enamorado, J.C. (Univ. Pontificia Comillas, Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Investigacion Tecnologica); Vela, A. (Empresa Nacional de Electricidad, Madrid (Spain))

      1994-06-01

      The electrical systems of the Central American countries are linked by 230 kV ac weak border interconnections forming two separated subsystems. The first one includes Guatemala and El Salvador, and the other one comprises the systems of Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. As a consequence, unrestricted energy exchanges among all countries are not possible. This article describes the SIEPAC project which consists of a 1,678 km long 500 kV ac power transmission line that would link the six electrical systems of the region through seven power substations (one for each country and two in Panama), installed close to the highest demand national centers and six control centers of energy (one for each country) to allow coordinated operation of the interconnection.This project also considers a set of complementary assets (230 ac power transmission lines into some countries and the border transmission line between El Salvador and Honduras, and various other equipment). The power transmission line will greatly reinforce the actual border interconnections, which have a reduced capacity of exchange and technical problems associated with the stability of a weak longitudinal system. On the other hand, economic savings for the region would be achieved, coming from a higher coordination level in the operation and planning of their systems.

    10. Reactive power interconnection requirements for PV and wind plants : recommendations to NERC.

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      McDowell, Jason; Walling, Reigh; Peter, William; Von Engeln, Edi; Seymour, Eric; Nelson, Robert; Casey, Leo; Ellis, Abraham; Barker, Chris.

      2012-02-01

      Voltage on the North American bulk system is normally regulated by synchronous generators, which typically are provided with voltage schedules by transmission system operators. In the past, variable generation plants were considered very small relative to conventional generating units, and were characteristically either induction generator (wind) or line-commutated inverters (photovoltaic) that have no inherent voltage regulation capability. However, the growing level of penetration of non-traditional renewable generation - especially wind and solar - has led to the need for renewable generation to contribute more significantly to power system voltage control and reactive power capacity. Modern wind-turbine generators, and increasingly PV inverters as well, have considerable dynamic reactive power capability, which can be further enhanced with other reactive support equipment at the plant level to meet interconnection requirements. This report contains a set of recommendations to the North-America Electricity Reliability Corporation (NERC) as part of Task 1-3 (interconnection requirements) of the Integration of Variable Generation Task Force (IVGTF) work plan. The report discusses reactive capability of different generator technologies, reviews existing reactive power standards, and provides specific recommendations to improve existing interconnection standards.

    11. Effect of interconnect creep on long-term performance of SOFC of one cell stacks

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

      2008-02-01

      Creep deformation becomes relevant for a material when the operating temperature is near or exceeds half of its melting temperature (in degrees of Kelvin). The operating temperatures for most of the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) under development in the SECA program are around 1073oK. High temperature ferritic alloys are potential candidates as interconnect (IC) materials and spacers due to their low cost and CTE compatibility with other SOFC components. Since the melting temperature of most stainless steel is around 1800oK, possible creep deformation of IC under the typical cell operating temperature should not be neglected. In this paper, the effects of interconnect creep behavior on stack geometry change and stress redistribution of different cell components are predicted and summarized. The goal of the study is to investigate the performance of the fuel cell stack by obtaining the fuel and air channel geometry changes due to creep of the ferritic stainless steel interconnect, therefore indicating possible SOFC performance change under long term operations. IC creep models were incorporated into SOFC-MP and Mentat FC, and finite element analyses were performed to quantify the deformed configuration of the SOFC stack under the long term steady state operating temperature. It is found that creep behavior of the ferritic stainless steel IC contributes to narrowing of both the fuel and the air flow channels. In addition, stress re-distribution of the cell components suggests the need for a compliant sealing material that also relaxes at operating temperature.

    12. Evaluation of a Surface Treatment on the Performance of Stainless Steels for SOFC Interconnect Applications

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Alman, D.E.; Holcomb, Adler, T.A.; G.R.; Wilson, R.D.; Jablonski, P.D.

      2007-04-01

      Pack cementation-like Cerium based surface treatments have been found to be effective in enhancing the oxidation resistance of ferritic steels (Crofer 22APU) for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. The application of either a CeN- or CeO2 based surface treatment results in a decrease in weight gain by a factor of three after 4000 hours exposure to air+3%H2O at 800oC. Similar oxide scales formed on treated and untreated surfaces, with a continuous Cr-Mn outer oxide layer and a continuous inner Cr2O3 layer formed on the surface. However, the thickness of the scales, and the amount of internal oxidation were significantly reduced with the treatment, leading to the decrease in oxidation rate. This presentation will detail the influence of the treatment on the electrical properties of the interconnect. Half-cell experiments (LSM cathode sandwiched between two steel interconnects) and full SOFC button cell experiments were run with treated and untreated interconnects. Preliminary results indicate the Ce treatment can improve SOFC performance.

    13. Oxidation Resistant, Cr Retaining, Electrically Conductive Coatings on Metallic Alloys for SOFC Interconnects

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Vladimir Gorokhovsky

      2008-03-31

      This report describes significant results from an on-going, collaborative effort to enable the use of inexpensive metallic alloys as interconnects in planar solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) through the use of advanced coating technologies. Arcomac Surface Engineering, LLC, under the leadership of Dr. Vladimir Gorokhovsky, is investigating filtered-arc and filtered-arc plasma-assisted hybrid coating deposition technologies to promote oxidation resistance, eliminate Cr volatility, and stabilize the electrical conductivity of both standard and specialty steel alloys of interest for SOFC metallic interconnect (IC) applications. Arcomac has successfully developed technologies and processes to deposit coatings with excellent adhesion, which have demonstrated a substantial increase in high temperature oxidation resistance, stabilization of low Area Specific Resistance values and significantly decrease Cr volatility. An extensive matrix of deposition processes, coating compositions and architectures was evaluated. Technical performance of coated and uncoated sample coupons during exposures to SOFC interconnect-relevant conditions is discussed, and promising future directions are considered. Cost analyses have been prepared based on assessment of plasma processing parameters, which demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed surface engineering process for SOFC metallic IC applications.

    14. Energy Flow Diagram | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

      Office of Science (SC) Website

      Science for Energy Flow Energy Flow Diagram Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BES Funding Opportunities Basic Energy...

    15. Poisson equation for the Mercedes diagram in string theory at genus one

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Basu, Anirban

      2015-01-01

      The Mercedes diagram has four trivalent vertices which are connected by six links such that they form the edges of a tetrahedron. This three loop Feynman diagram contributes to the D^{12} R^4 amplitude at genus one in type II string theory, where the vertices are the points of insertion of the graviton vertex operators, and the links are the scalar propagators on the toroidal worldsheet. We obtain a modular invariant Poisson equation satisfied by the Mercedes diagram, where the source terms involve one and two loop Feynman diagrams. We calculate its contribution to the D^{12} R^4 amplitude.

    16. Databases and Inter-Connectivity in Ground-Based Astronomy T. von Hippel and C. M. Mountain

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Databases and Inter-Connectivity in Ground-Based Astronomy T. von Hippel and C. M. Mountain Gemini-CONNECTIVITY IN GROUND-BASED ASTRONOMY T. von Hippel, C. M. Mountain* Gemini Observatory, 670 N. A'ohoku Place, Hilo

    17. Cost-Effectivenessof PhotovoltaicGenerationIn A Transmission-Constrained Load Area of An InterconnectedSystem

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Gross, George

      Abstract: Electric power systems of today are experiencing a difficulty of constrained transmission lines, present electric system networks are experiencing the difficulty of constrained transmission lines: Photovoltaic Generation, Power System Economics, Dispersed Generation, Transmission-Constrained Interconnected

    18. High-speed graphene interconnects monolithically integrated with CMOS ring oscillators operating at 1.3GHz

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Chen, Xiangyu

      We have successfully experimentally integrated graphene interconnects with commercial 0.25 Âżm technology CMOS ring oscillator circuit using conventional fabrication techniques, and demonstrated high speed on-chip graphene ...

    19. Fatal Void Size Comparisons in Via-Below and Via-Above Cu Dual-Damascene Interconnects

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Choi, Z.-S.

      The median-times-to-failure (t??’s) for straight dual-damascene via-terminated copper interconnect structures, tested under the same conditions, depend on whether the vias connect down to underlaying leads ...

    20. Multi-Ridge Fitting for Ring-Diagram Helioseismology

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Greer, Benjamin J; Toomre, Juri

      2014-01-01

      Inferences of sub-surface flow velocities using local domain ring-diagram helioseismology depend on measuring the frequency splittings of oscillation modes seen in acoustic power spectra. Current methods for making these measurements utilize maximum-likelihood fitting techniques to match a model of modal power to the spectra. The model typically describes a single oscillation mode, and each mode in a given power spectrum is fit independently. We present a new method that produces measurements with greater reliability and accuracy by fitting multiple modes simultaneously. We demonstrate how this method permits measurements of sub-surface flows deeper into the Sun while providing higher uniformity in data coverage and velocity response closer to the limb of the solar disk. While the previous fitting method performs better for some measurements of low-phase-speed modes, we find this new method to be particularly useful for high phase-speed modes and small spatial areas.

    1. The phase diagram and hardness of carbon nitrides

      DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

      Dong, Huafeng; Oganov, Artem R.; Moscow Inst. of Physics and Technology; Northwestern Polytechnical Univ., Xi'an; Zhu, Qiang; Qian, Guang-Rui

      2015-05-06

      Novel superhard materials, especially those with superior thermal and chemical stability, are needed to replace diamond. Carbon nitrides (C-N), which are likely to possess these characteristics and have even been expected to be harder than diamond, are excellent candidates. Here we report three new superhard and thermodynamically stable carbon nitride phases. Based on a systematic evolutionary structure searches, we report a complete phase diagram of the C-N system at 0–300 GPa and analyze the hardest metastable structures. Surprisingly, we find that at zero pressure, the earlier proposed graphitic-C3N4 structure (P6-bar m2) is dynamically unstable, and we find the lowest-energy structuremore »based on s-triazine unit and s-heptazine unit.« less

    2. The phase diagram and hardness of carbon nitrides

      DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

      Dong, Huafeng; Oganov, Artem R.; Zhu, Qiang; Qian, Guang-Rui

      2015-05-06

      Novel superhard materials, especially those with superior thermal and chemical stability, are needed to replace diamond. Carbon nitrides (C-N), which are likely to possess these characteristics and have even been expected to be harder than diamond, are excellent candidates. Here we report three new superhard and thermodynamically stable carbon nitride phases. Based on a systematic evolutionary structure searches, we report a complete phase diagram of the C-N system at 0–300 GPa and analyze the hardest metastable structures. Surprisingly, we find that at zero pressure, the earlier proposed graphitic-C3N4 structure (P_6m2) is dynamically unstable, and we find the lowest-energy structure based on s-triazine unit and s-heptazine unit.

    3. Wire Scanner Beam Profile Measurements for the LANSCE Facility

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Gilpatrick, John D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gruchalla, Michael E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Derwin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pillai, Chandra [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sedillo, James Daniel [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, Brian G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

      2012-05-15

      The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is replacing beam profile measurement systems, commonly known as Wire Scanners (WS). Using the principal of secondary electron emission, the WS measurement system moves a wire or fiber across an impinging particle beam, sampling a projected transverse-beam distribution. Because existing WS actuators and electronic components are either no longer manufactured or home-built with antiquated parts, a new WS beam profile measurement is being designed, fabricated, and tested. The goals for these new WS's include using off-the-shelf components while eliminating antiquated components, providing quick operation while allowing for easy maintainability, and tolerating external radioactivation. The WS measurement system consists of beam line actuators, a cable plant, an electronics processor chassis, and software located both in the electronics chassis (National Instruments LabVIEW) and in the Central Control Room (EPICS-based client software). This WS measurement system will measure Hand H{sup +} LANSCE-facility beams and will also measure less common beams. This paper describes these WS measurement systems.

    4. Electromechanical characterization of superconducting wires and tapes at 77 K

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Bjoerstad, Roger

      The strain dependency of the critical current in state-of-the-art cuprate high-temperature superconductors (HTS) has been characterized. A universal test machine (UTM) combined with a critical current measurement system has been used to characterize the mechanical and the superconducting properties of conductors immersed in an open liquid nitrogen dewar. A set-up has been developed in order to perform simultaneous measurements of the superconductor lattice parameter changes, critical current, as well as the stress and strain at 77 K in self-field in a high energy synchrotron beamline. The HTS tapes and wires studied were based on YBCO, Bi-2223 and Bi-2212. The YBCO tapes were produced by SuperPower and American Superconductors (AMSC). Two types of Bi-2223 tapes, HT and G, were produced by Sumitomo Electric Industries (SEI). The Bi-2212 wires were produced by Oxford Superconducting Technology (OST) using Nexans granulate precursor, before undergoing a specialized over pressure (OP) processing and heat treatmen...

    5. Wire-chamber radiation detector with discharge control

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Perez-Mendez, V.; Mulera, T.A.

      1982-03-29

      A wire chamber; radiation detector has spaced apart parallel electrodes and grids defining an ignition region in which charged particles or other ionizing radiations initiate brief localized avalanche discharges and defining an adjacent memory region in which sustained glow discharges are initiated by the primary discharges. Conductors of the grids at each side of the memory section extend in orthogonal directions enabling readout of the X-Y coordinates of locations at which charged particles were detected by sequentially transmitting pulses to the conductors of one grid while detecting transmissions of the pulses to the orthogonal conductors of the other grid through glow discharges. One of the grids bounding the memory region is defined by an array of conductive elements each of which is connected to the associated readout conductor through a separate resistance. The wire chamber avoids ambiguities and imprecisions in the readout of coordinates when large numbers of simultaneous or; near simultaneous charged particles have been detected. Down time between detection periods and the generation of radio frequency noise are also reduced.

    6. Universal quantum computation in a semiconductor quantum wire network

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Sau, Jay D.; Das Sarma, S.; Tewari, Sumanta

      2010-11-15

      Universal quantum computation (UQC) using Majorana fermions on a two-dimensional topological superconducting (TS) medium remains an outstanding open problem. This is because the quantum gate set that can be generated by braiding of the Majorana fermions does not include any two-qubit gate and also no single-qubit {pi}/8 phase gate. In principle, it is possible to create these crucial extra gates using quantum interference of Majorana fermion currents. However, it is not clear if the motion of the various order parameter defects (vortices, domain walls, etc.), to which the Majorana fermions are bound in a TS medium, can be quantum coherent. We show that these obstacles can be overcome using a semiconductor quantum wire network in the vicinity of an s-wave superconductor, by constructing topologically protected two-qubit gates and any arbitrary single-qubit phase gate in a topologically unprotected manner, which can be error corrected using magic-state distillation. Thus our strategy, using a judicious combination of topologically protected and unprotected gate operations, realizes UQC on a quantum wire network with a remarkably high error threshold of 0.14 as compared to 10{sup -3} to 10{sup -4} in ordinary unprotected quantum computation.

    7. Method of forming a leak proof plasma sprayed interconnection layer on an electrode of an electrochemical cell

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Kuo, Lewis J. H. (Monroeville, PA); Vora, Shailesh D. (Monroeville, PA)

      1995-01-01

      A dense, substantially gas-tight, electrically conductive interconnection layer is formed on an electrode structure of an electrochemical cell by: (A) providing an electrode structure; (B) forming on a selected portion of the electrode surface, an interconnection layer having the general formula La.sub.1-x M.sub.x Cr.sub.1-y N.sub.y O.sub.3, where M is a dopant selected from the group of Ca, Sr, Ba, and mixtures thereof, and where N is a dopant selected from the group of Mg, Co, Ni, Al, and mixtures thereof, and where x and y are each independently about 0.075-0.25, by thermally spraying, preferably plasma arc spraying, a flux added interconnection spray powder, preferably agglomerated, the flux added powder comprising flux particles, preferably including dopant, preferably (CaO).sub.12. (Al.sub.2 O.sub.3).sub.7 flux particles including Ca and Al dopant, and LaCrO.sub.3 interconnection particles, preferably undoped LaCrO.sub.3, to form a dense and substantially gas-tight interconnection material bonded to the electrode structure by a single plasma spraying step; and, (C) heat treating the interconnection layer at from about 1200.degree. to 1350.degree. C. to further densify and heal the micro-cracks and macro-cracks of the thermally sprayed interconnection layer. The result is a substantially gas-tight, highly doped, electrically conductive interconnection material bonded to the electrode structure. The electrode structure can be an air electrode, and a solid electrolyte layer can be applied to the unselected portion of the air electrode, and further a fuel electrode can be applied to the solid electrolyte, to form an electrochemical cell for generation of electrical power.

    8. Method of forming a leak proof plasma sprayed interconnection layer on an electrode of an electrochemical cell

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Kuo, L.J.H.; Vora, S.D.

      1995-02-21

      A dense, substantially gas-tight, electrically conductive interconnection layer is formed on an electrode structure of an electrochemical cell by: (A) providing an electrode structure; (B) forming on a selected portion of the electrode surface, an interconnection layer having the general formula La{sub 1{minus}x}M{sub x}Cr{sub 1{minus}y}N{sub y}O{sub 3}, where M is a dopant selected from the group of Ca, Sr, Ba, and mixtures thereof, and where N is a dopant selected from the group of Mg, Co, Ni, Al, and mixtures thereof, and where x and y are each independently about 0.075--0.25, by thermally spraying, preferably plasma arc spraying, a flux added interconnection spray powder, preferably agglomerated, the flux added powder comprising flux particles, preferably including dopant, preferably (CaO){sub 12}(Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 7} flux particles including Ca and Al dopant, and LaCrO{sub 3} interconnection particles, preferably undoped LaCrO{sub 3}, to form a dense and substantially gas-tight interconnection material bonded to the electrode structure by a single plasma spraying step; and (C) heat treating the interconnection layer at from about 1,200 to 1,350 C to further densify and heal the micro-cracks and macro-cracks of the thermally sprayed interconnection layer. The result is a substantially gas-tight, highly doped, electrically conductive interconnection material bonded to the electrode structure. The electrode structure can be an air electrode, and a solid electrolyte layer can be applied to the unselected portion of the air electrode, and further a fuel electrode can be applied to the solid electrolyte, to form an electrochemical cell for generation of electrical power. 4 figs.

    9. Development of Ni1-xCoxO as the cathode/interconnect contact for solid oxide fuel cells

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Lu, Zigui; Xia, Guanguang; Templeton, Joshua D.; Li, Xiaohong S.; Nie, Zimin; Yang, Zhenguo; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

      2011-06-01

      A new type of material, Ni1-xCoxO, was developed for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathode/interconnect contact applications. The phase structure, coefficient of thermal expansion, sintering behavior, electrical property, and mechanical bonding strength of these materials were evaluated against the requirements of the SOFC cathode/interconnect contact. A dense cathode/interconnect contact layer was developed through reaction sintering from Ni and Co metal powders. An area specific resistance (ASR) as low as 5.5 mohm.cm2 was observed after 1000 h exposure in air at 800 °C for the LSM/Ni0.33Co0.67O/AISI441 assembly. Average mechanical strengths of 6.8 and 5.0 MPa were obtained for the cathode/contact/cathode and interconnect/contact/interconnect structures, respectively. The significantly low ASR was probably due to the dense structure and therefore improved electrical conductivity of the Ni0.33Co0.67O contact and the good bonding of the interfaces between the contact and the cathode, and between the contact and the interconnect.

    10. RESULTS OF STRETCHED WIRE FIELD INTEGRAL MEASUREMENTS ON THE MINI-UNDULATOR MAGNET-COMPARISON OF RESULTS OBTAINED FROM CIRCULAR AND TRANSLATIONAL MOTION OF THE INTEGRATING WIRE.

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      SOLOMON, L.

      1998-05-01

      Measurements of the multipole content of the Mini-Undulator magnet have been made with two different integrating wire techniques. Both measurements used 43 strand Litz wire stretched along the length of the magnet within the magnet gap. In the first technique, the wire motion was purely translational, while in the second technique the wire was moved along a circular path. The induced voltage in the Litz wire was input into a Walker integrator, and the integrator output was analyzed as a function of wire position for determination of the multipole content of the magnetic field. The mini-undulator magnet is a 10 period, 80 mm per period hybrid insertion device. For all the data contained herein the magnet gap was set at 49 mm. In the mini-undulator magnet, the iron poles are 18mm x 32mm x 86mm, and the Samarium Cobalt permanent magnet blocks are 22mm x 21mm x 110mm. For this magnet, which is a shortened prototype for the NSLS Soft X-Ray Undulator Magnet, the undulator parameter K = 0.934 B(Tesla){lambda}(cm), and B(tesla) = 0.534/sinh({pi}Gap/{lambda}). At a gap of 49 mm, the magnetic field is 1590 Gauss. The 43 strand Litz wire is supported on motorized x-y stages at both ends of the magnet, which are controlled by stepping motors through a Labview program. One leg of the wire loop is within the magnet gap, and the other leg is in an essentially field free region. Only the leg of the wire loop within the magnet gap is moved during data acquisition. The Litz wire is tensioned with 11.5 pounds, and is wrapped with a supporting tape which is itself tensioned with 18 pounds through a spring and turnbuckle arrangement. With this setup the sag in the wire over the 72 inch span is less than 0.003 inches, as measured with survey instruments. Photographs of the setup are shown.

    11. Critical-Current Reduction in Thin Superconducting Wires Due to Current Crowding

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Hortensius, H.L.; Driessen, E.F.C.; Klapwijk, T.M.; Berggren, K.K.; Clem, John

      2012-05-03

      We demonstrate experimentally that the critical current in superconducting NbTiN wires is dependent on their geometrical shape, due to current-crowding effects. Geometric patterns such as 90{degrees} corners and sudden expansions of wire width are shown to result in the reduction of critical currents. The results are relevant for single-photon detectors as well as parametric amplifiers.

    12. Cut-wire-pair structures as two-dimensional magnetic metamaterials

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Cut-wire-pair structures as two-dimensional magnetic metamaterials David A. Powell, Ilya V-dimensional metamaterial suitable for scaling to optical frequencies. We fabricate the cut-wire metamaterial operating. © 2008 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: (160.3918) Metamaterials; (350.4010) Microwaves References

    13. Water Alignment, Dipolar Interactions, and Multiple Proton Occupancy during Water-Wire Proton Transport

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Levine, Alex J.

      Water Alignment, Dipolar Interactions, and Multiple Proton Occupancy during Water-Wire Proton Angeles, California ABSTRACT A discrete multistate kinetic model for water-wire proton transport is constructed and analyzed using Monte Carlo simulations. In the model, each water molecule can be in one

    14. Motion of charged particles in magnetic fields created by symmetric configurations of wires

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      . Furthermore, the circular wire system can be interpreted as a simplified model of the levitated magnetic, this paper illustrates that very simple magnetic con- figurations can give rise to complicated, even chaoticMotion of charged particles in magnetic fields created by symmetric configurations of wires Jacobo

    15. MULTI-CRITERIA DECISION MAKING IN DESIGN OF PRINTED WIRE , O. Palusinski

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Palusinski, Olgierd A.

      MULTI-CRITERIA DECISION MAKING IN DESIGN OF PRINTED WIRE BOARDS by Y. Tokat 1 , O. Palusinski 2 , and F. Szidarovszky 1 Abstract This paper presents an application of multi-criteria decision making in system level design of printed wire boards. The main decision variable is the number of signal layers

    16. Understanding Irreversible Degradation of Nb3Sn Wires with Fundamental Fracture Mechanics

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Zhai, Yuhu; Calzolaio, Ciro; Senatore, Carmine

      2014-08-01

      Irreversible performance degradation of advanced Nb3Sn superconducting wires subjected to transverse or axial mechanical loading is a critical issue for the design of large-scale fusion and accelerator magnets such as ITER and LHC. Recent SULTAN tests indicate that most cable-in-conduit conductors for ITER coils made of Nb3Sn wires processed by various fabrication techniques show similar performance degradation under cyclic loading. The irreversible degradation due to filament fracture and local strain accumulation in Nb3Sn wires cannot be described by the existing strand scaling law. Fracture mechanic modeling combined with X-ray diffraction imaging of filament micro-crack formation inside the wires under mechanical loading may reveal exciting insights to the wire degradation mechanisms. We apply fundamental fracture mechanics with a singularity approach to study influence of wire filament microstructure of initial void size and distribution to local stress concentration and potential crack propagation. We report impact of the scale and density of the void structure on stress concentration in the composite wire materials for crack initiation. These initial defects result in an irreversible degradation of the critical current beyond certain applied stress. We also discuss options to minimize stress concentration in the design of the material microstructure for enhanced wire performance for future applications.

    17. Study of transparent and nontransparent regimes of implosion in star wire arrays

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Ivanov, V. V.; Astanovitskiy, A. L.; Papp, D.; Altemara, S. D.; Chittenden, J. P.; Bland, S. N.; Jones, B.

      2010-10-15

      Star wire arrays were used to control the imploding plasma flows and study plasma interpenetration. These arrays consisted of linear 'rays' aligned azimuthally and extending from the vertical axis. Star arrays with two close located wires ('gates') instead of a single wire on the inner cylinder were studied for transparent and nontransparent regimes of propagation of imploding plasma through the gates. Nontransparent mode of collision is typical for regular star wire arrays and it was also observed in Al stars with gate wires of regular length and with the gate width of 0.3-2 mm. The cascade process of implosion in stars and trapping of imploding plasma in 1-2 mm gates were modeled with the three-dimensional resistive magnetohydrodynamics code. The intermediate semitransparent mode of collision was observed in Al stars with long Al 'gate' wires. A transparent mode was observed in Al stars with long stainless steel or W gate wires. Applications of wire arrays with controlled plasma flows are discussed.

    18. Liquid film instability of wire coating J-M. Buchlin and S. Zuccher

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Zuccher, Simone

      Liquid film instability of wire coating J-M. Buchlin and S. Zuccher von Karman Institute, Rhode free dip coating and annular jet wiping is presented. The experiments are conducted on a dedicated of the operating conditions. 1- Introduction The coating of wires with a liquid film is encountered in many

    19. Influence of filler wire composition on weld microstructures of a 444 ferritic stainless steel grade

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Paris-Sud XI, Université de

      1 Influence of filler wire composition on weld microstructures of a 444 ferritic stainless steel, wetting and grain structure of the fusion zone. Keywords: ferritic stainless steel, GMAW, filler wire) presented a new design approach to replace traditional manifolds made of cast iron to stainless steel tubes

    20. Development and application of composite overhead ground wire with optical fibers

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Tsujimoto, K.; Kato, T.; Okazato, A.; Sakurada, H.

      1983-05-01

      A overhead ground wire composed with optical fibers has been developed, as well as the accessories and the joints. The overhead ground wire is provided with an aluminum pipe at the core thereof in which the optical fibers are inserted. The composite overhead ground wire with optical fibers was installed for the Kaga-Reinan 500 kV overhead transmission line in autumn, 1981 for the purposes of observing lightning and using as telecommunication line, as well. After the successful performance of the optical fiber, especially in view of transmission loss after installation, has been proved, the composite overhead ground wire is now being checked for the purposes as stated above. The ground wire was also installed for the Tsuruga Test Line at about the same time and investigations were started to confirm the reliability of the optical fiber to be over a long period of time under severe meteorological conditions such as strong winds and icing. The construction of the composite ground wire with optical fibers is such that the optical fibers contained therein are not restrained by the ground wire itself. This enables insertion and pulling out of optical fiber cables. Tests were conducted at certain sections of the Kaga-Reinan Line to confirm that there was no change in the performance of the optical fibers due to such operations of insertion and pulling out. This report briefly discusses the development of the composite ground wire with optical fibers, its installation and the test results.