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1

WECC releases its first-ever transmission plan for the Western Interconnection  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) announced the release of its first 10-Year Regional Transmission Plan (Plan) for the Western Interconnection.

2

WECC and Peak Update  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

WECC and Peak Update Transmission B O N N E V I L L E P O W E R A D M I N I S T R A T I O N Pre-decisional. For Discussion Purposes Only. WECC and Peak Background In the...

3

Energy-water analysis of the 10-year WECC transmission planning study cases.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 2011 the Department of Energy's Office of Electricity embarked on a comprehensive program to assist our Nation's three primary electric interconnections with long term transmission planning. Given the growing concern over water resources in the western U.S. the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) requested assistance with integrating water resource considerations into their broader electric transmission planning. The result is a project with three overarching objectives: (1) Develop an integrated Energy-Water Decision Support System (DSS) that will enable planners in the Western Interconnection to analyze the potential implications of water stress for transmission and resource planning. (2) Pursue the formulation and development of the Energy-Water DSS through a strongly collaborative process between the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC), Western Governors Association (WGA), the Western States Water Council (WSWC) and their associated stakeholder teams. (3) Exercise the Energy-Water DSS to investigate water stress implications of the transmission planning scenarios put forward by WECC, WGA, and WSWC. The foundation for the Energy-Water DSS is Sandia National Laboratories Energy-Power-Water Simulation (EPWSim) model (Tidwell et al. 2009). The modeling framework targets the shared needs of energy and water producers, resource managers, regulators, and decision makers at the federal, state and local levels. This framework provides an interactive environment to explore trade-offs, and 'best' alternatives among a broad list of energy/water options and objectives. The decision support framework is formulated in a modular architecture, facilitating tailored analyses over different geographical regions and scales (e.g., state, county, watershed, interconnection). An interactive interface allows direct control of the model and access to real-time results displayed as charts, graphs and maps. The framework currently supports modules for calculating water withdrawal and consumption for current and planned electric power generation; projected water demand from competing use sectors; and, surface and groundwater availability. WECC's long range planning is organized according to two target planning horizons, a 10-year and a 20-year. This study supports WECC in the 10-year planning endeavor. In this case the water implications associated with four of WECC's alternative future study cases (described below) are calculated and reported. In future phases of planning we will work with WECC to craft study cases that aim to reduce the thermoelectric footprint of the interconnection and/or limit production in the most water stressed regions of the West.

Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Passell, Howard David; Castillo, Cesar; Moreland, Barbara

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

WECC Variable Generation Planning Reference Book  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This planning reference book is a document reflecting a Western Electricity Coordination Council (WECC) effort to put together multiple sources of information and provide a clear, systemic, comprehensive outline of the problems, both existing and anticipated; their impacts on the system; currently used and proposed solutions by the industry and research community; planning practices; new technologies, equipment, and standards; and expected future trends. This living (periodically updated) document could help WECC and other practicing engineers, especially the younger generation of engineers joining the workforce, to get familiar with a large variety of information related to the integration of variable resources into the WECC system, bypassing in part the need for time-consuming information gathering and learning processes from more experienced engineers or from the literature.

Makarov, Yuri V.; Du, Pengwei; Etingov, Pavel V.; Ma, Jian; Vyakaranam, Bharat

2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

5

WECC Report 1/98 An Integrated Criterion for the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

WECC Report 1/98 An Integrated Criterion for the Persistence of Organic Chemicals Based on Model Science Department of the Procter & Gamble Company, Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S.A. WECC Wania Environmental-416-977-4953, E-mail: frank.wania@utoronto.ca #12;WECC Report 1/98 2 Table of Contents Some Introductory Thoughts

Wania, Frank

6

WECC Variable Generation Planning Reference Book: Appendices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The document titled ďWECC Variable Generation Planning Reference BookĒ. This book is divided into two volumes; one is the main document (volume 1)and the other is appendices (volume 2). The main document is a collection of the best practices and the information regarding the application and impact of variables generation on power system planning. This volume (appendices) has additional information on the following topics: Probabilistic load flow problems. 2. Additional useful indices. 3. high-impact low-frequency (HILF) events. 4. Examples of wide-area nomograms. 5. Transmission line ratings, types of dynamic rating methods. 6. Relative costs per MW-km of different electric power transmission technologies. 7. Ultra-high voltage (UHV) transmission. 8.High voltage direct current (VSC-HVDC). 9. HVDC. 10. Rewiring of existing transmission lines. 11. High-temperature low sag (HTLS) conductors. 12. The direct method and energy functions for transient stability analysis in power systems. 13.Blackouts caused by voltage instability. 14. Algorithm for parameter continuation predictor-corrector methods. 15. Approximation techniques available for security regions. 16. Impacts of wind power on power system small signals stability. 17. FIDVR. 18. FACTS. 19. European planning standard and practices. 20. International experience in wind and solar energy sources. 21. Western Renewable Energy Zones (WREZ). 22. various energy storage technologies. 23. demand response. 24. BA consolidation and cooperation options. 25. generator power management requirements and 26. European planning guidelines.

Makarov, Yuri V.; Du, Pengwei; Etingov, Pavel V.; Ma, Jian; Vyakaranam, Bharat

2013-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

7

Use of the WECC WAMS in Wide Area Probing Tests for Validation of System Performance & Modeling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During 2005 and 2006 the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) performed three major tests of western system dynamics. These tests used a Wide Area Measurement System (WAMS) based primarily on Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) to determine response to events including the insertion of the 1400-MW Chief Joseph braking resistor, probing signals, and ambient events. Test security was reinforced through real-time analysis of wide area effects, and high-quality data provided dynamic profiles for interarea modes across the entire western interconnection. The tests established that low-level optimized pseudo-random Ī20-MW probing with the Pacific DC Intertie (PDCI) roughly doubles the apparent noise that is natural to the power system, providing sharp dynamic information with negligible interference to system operations. Such probing is an effective alternative to use of the 1400-MW Chief Joseph dynamic brake, and it is under consideration as a standard means for assessing dynamic security.

Hauer, John F.; Mittelstadt, William; Martin, Kenneth E.; Burns, J. W.; Lee, Harry; Pierre, John W.; Trudnowski, Daniel

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Estimation of the WECC System Inertia Using Observed Frequency Transients  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Computer models being developed to understand the interaction between demand-response technology, power system deregulation and market transformation depend in part on understanding the relationship between system frequency and load-control. Frequency, load, and plant outage events data collected over the last several years have permitted analysis to determine the Western Electricity Coordination Council (WECC) system's inertia during each event. This data was used to evaluate the relationship of system inertia to total load, which is used to model system response to load curtailment programs in next generation power system simulations.

David P. Chassin; Zhenyu Huang; Matthew K. Donnelly; Candee Hassler; Enrique Ramirez; Cody Ray

2004-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

9

Property:EIA/861/NercWecc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy ResourcesLoadingPenobscot County, Maine:Plug PowerAddressDataFormat JumpNercMro Jump to:NercWecc Jump to:

10

Evaluation of Production Cost Savings from Consolidation of Balancing Authorities in the US Western Interconnection under High Wind and Solar Penetration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper introduces a comprehensive analysis to quantify the potential savings in production cost due to consolidation of 32 US western interconnection Balancing Authorities (BAs). Three simulation scenarios are developed: current Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) BAs structure, full copper-sheet consolidation, and full consolidation with transmission congestion considered. The study uses WECC Transmission Expansion Planning Policy Committee (TEPPC) model that was developed for the year 2020. The model assumes 8% wind and 3% solar energy penetration as percentage of total WECC demand in 2020. Sensitivity analyses are carried out to assess the impact of transmission hurdle rates between WECC BAs on potential benefits. The study shows savings that ranges from $400 Million (2.4% of total one year production cost) to $600 Million (3.2%) per year in thermal units production cost due to consolidation can be achieved. The copper sheet consolidation scenario shows an extra savings of $240 Million (1.4%) per year.

Nguyen, Tony B.; Samaan, Nader A.; Jin, Chunlian

2014-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

11

SAS Output  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

B. U.S. Transformer Outages by Type and NERC region, 2012 Outage Type Eastern Interconnection TRE WECC Contiguous U.S. Circuit Outage Counts Automatic Outages (Sustained) 16.00 --...

12

Energy and water in the Western and Texas interconnects.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Department of Energy's Office of Electricity has initiated a $60M program to assist the electric industry in interconnection-level analysis and planning. The objective of this effort is to facilitate the development or strengthening of capabilities in each of the three interconnections serving the lower 48 states of the United States, to prepare analyses of transmission requirements under a broad range of alternative futures and develop long-term interconnection-wide transmission expansion plans. The interconnections are the Western Interconnection, the Eastern Interconnection, and the Texas Interconnection. One element of this program address the support and development of an integrated energy-water Decision Support System (DSS) that will enable planners in the Western and Texas Interconnections to analyze the potential implications of water stress for transmission and resource planning (the Eastern Interconnection is not participating in this element). Specific objectives include: (1) Develop an integrated Energy-Water Decision Support System (DSS) that will enable planners in the Western and Texas Interconnections to analyze the potential implications of water stress for transmission and resource planning. (2) Pursue the formulation and development of the Energy-Water DSS through a strongly collaborative process between members of this proposal team and the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC), Western Governors Association (WGA), the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) and their associated stakeholder teams. (3) Exercise the Energy-Water DSS to investigate water stress implications of the transmission planning scenarios put forward by WECC, WGA, and ERCOT. The goals of this project are: (1) Develop an integrated Energy-Water Decision Support System (DSS) that will enable planners to analyze the potential implications of water stress for transmission and resource planning. (2) Pursue the formulation and development of the Energy-Water DSS through a strongly collaborative process between Western Electricity Coordinating Council, Electric Reliability Council of Texas, Western Governors Association, and Western States Water Council. (3) Exercise the Energy-Water DSS to investigate water transmission planning scenarios.

Tidwell, Vincent Carroll

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Interconnection Panel  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentationógiven at at the Fall 2012 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meetingódiscusses the interconnection panel, including an overview of the generation interconnection process (GIP), and interconnection agreements and their terms.

14

Interconnection Standards  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

New York first adopted uniform interconnection standards in 1999 (see history below). The Standard Interconnection Requirements (SIR) have subsequently been amended several times since, most...

15

Interconnection Standards  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In November 2005, the Indiana Utility Regulatory Commission (IURC) approved rules governing the interconnection of distributed generation (DG). Indiana's interconnection rules require the state's...

16

Review of the WECC EDT phase 2 EIM benefits analysis and results report.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A region-wide Energy Imbalance Market (EIM) was recently proposed by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC). In order for the Western Area Power Administration (Western) to make more informed decisions regarding its involvement in the EIM, Western asked Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to review the EIM benefits study (the October 2011 revision) performed by Energy and Environmental Economics, Inc. (E3). Key components of the E3 analysis made use of results from a study conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); therefore, we also reviewed the NREL work. This report examines E3 and NREL methods and models used in the EIM study. Estimating EIM benefits is very challenging because of the complex nature of the Western Interconnection (WI), the variability and uncertainty of renewable energy resources, and the complex decisions and potentially strategic bidding of market participants. Furthermore, methodologies used for some of the more challenging aspects of the EIM have not yet matured. This review is complimentary of several components of the EIM study. Analysts and modelers clearly took great care when conducting detailed simulations of the WI using well-established industry tools under stringent time and budget constraints. However, it is our opinion that the following aspects of the study and the interpretation of model results could be improved upon in future analyses. The hurdle rate methodology used to estimate current market inefficiencies does not directly model the underlying causes of sub-optimal dispatch and power flows. It assumes that differences between historical flows and modeled flows can be attributed solely to market inefficiencies. However, flow differences between model results and historical data can be attributed to numerous simplifying assumptions used in the model and in the input data. We suggest that alternative approaches be explored in order to better estimate the benefits of introducing market structures like the EIM. In addition to more efficient energy transactions in the WI, the EIM would reduce the amount of flexibility reserves needed to accommodate forecast errors associated with variable production from wind and solar energy resources. The modeling approach takes full advantage of variable resource diversity over the entire market footprint, but the projected reduction in flexibility reserves may be overly optimistic. While some reduction would undoubtedly occur, the EIM is only an energy market and would therefore not realize the same reduction in reserves as an ancillary services market. In our opinion the methodology does not adequately capture the impact of transmission constraints on the deployment of flexibility reserves. Estimates of flexibility reserves assume that forecast errors follow a normal distribution. Improved estimates could be obtained by using other probability distributions to estimate up and down reserves to capture the underlying uncertainty of these resources under specific operating conditions. Also, the use of a persistence forecast method for solar is questionable, because solar insolation follows a deterministic pattern dictated by the sun's path through the sky. We suggest a more rigorous method for forecasting solar insolation using the sun's relatively predictable daily pattern at specific locations. The EIM study considered only one scenario for hydropower resources. While this scenario is within the normal range over the WI footprint, it represents a severe drought condition in the Colorado River Basin from which Western schedules power. Given hydropower's prominent role in the WI, we recommend simulating a range of hydropower conditions since the relationship between water availability and WI dispatch costs is nonlinear. Also, the representation of specific operational constraints faced by hydropower operators in the WI needs improvements. The model used in the study cannot fully capture all of the EIM impacts and complexities of power system operations. In particular, a primary benefit of the EIM is a shorter dispa

Veselka, T.D.; Poch, L.A.; Botterud, A. (Decision and Information Sciences)

2012-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

17

Analysis of the Impact of Balancing Area Cooperation on the Operation of WECC and the Compounding Effect of Wind and Solar Generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is the intent of this analysis to examine the operational benefits of increased cooperation between a large number of WECC operating regions.

Jordan, G.; Piwko, D.

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Interconnection Standards  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Different rules govern the interconnection of distributed generation facilities in Iowa, depending on whether or not the interconnection is with a utility whose rates are regulated by the Iowa...

19

An Examination of Temporal Trends in Electricity Reliability Based on Reports from U.S. Electric Utilities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SAIDI SAIFI SERC SPP TRE WECC Alaska Systems CoordinatingElectricity Coordinating Council (WECC) Midwest ReliabilityCoordinating Council (WECC). Completeness of reported

Eto, Joseph H.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Dynamic Simulation Studies of the Frequency Response of the Three U.S. Interconnections with Increased Wind Generation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on work performed by the WECC Wind Generator Modeling GroupModeling Approach in the WECC. Ē IEEE Transactions on PowerNational Laboratory. 11. WECC. 2008. WECC Standard BAL-002-

Mackin, Peter

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection tre wecc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Interconnection Standards  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In December 2007, the Connecticut Department of Public Utility Control (DPUC) now called the Public Utilities Regulatory Authority (PURA) approved new interconnection guidelines for distributed...

22

Interconnection Standards  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In February 2004, the Wisconsin Public Service Commission adopted interconnection standards for distributed generation (DG) systems up to 15 megawatts (MW) in capacity. All investor-owned...

23

Interconnection Standards  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Virginia has two interconnection standards: one for net-metered systems and one for systems that are not net-metered.

24

Interconnection Standards  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In July 2010, the Montana Public Service Commission (PSC) adopted interconnection rules, effective August 13, 2010. These rules apply to all electric utilities under the PSC's jurisdiction,...

25

Interconnection Standards  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Michigan Public Service Commission (PSC) first adopted interconnection standards for distributed generation (DG) in September 2003. The original standards provided for 5 levels of...

26

Interconnection Standards  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In September 2007, the Washington Utilities and Transportation Commission (UTC) adopted interconnection standards for distributed generation (DG) systems up to 20 megawatts (MW) in capacity. The...

27

Interconnection Standards  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In December 2005, the Colorado Public Utilities Commission (PUC) adopted standards for net metering and interconnection, as required by Amendment 37, a renewable-energy ballot initiative approved...

28

Interconnection Standards  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In April 2008, Kentucky enacted legislation which required the Kentucky Public Service Commission (PSC) to develop interconnection and net metering guidelines for all retail electric suppliers...

29

Interconnection Standards  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In July 2006 the District of Columbia Public Service Commission (PSC) initiated a formal inquiry into the development of uniform interconnection procedures for on-site distributed generation...

30

Interconnection Standards  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

New Jersey's interconnection standards apply statewide to all electric distribution utilities, but not to the small number of municipal utilities and electric cooperatives in the state. The rules,...

31

Interconnection Guidelines  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

'''''Note: In June 2007, the Arizona Corporation Commission (ACC) initiated a rulemaking process to establish statewide interconnection standards for distributed generation (DG). This proceeding...

32

Interconnection Guidelines  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The South Carolina Public Service Commission (PSC) adopted simplified interconnection guidelines for small distributed generation (DG) in December 2006. These guidelines address renewable-energy...

33

Interconnection Standards  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Pennsylvania Public Utilities Commission was required to adopt interconnection standards and net-metering rules by the Alternative Energy Portfolio Standards Act of 2004.The PUC subsequently...

34

Interconnection Standards  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The North Carolina Utilities Commission (NCUC) adopted comprehensive interconnection standards for distributed generation in June 2008. The NCUC standards, which are similar to the Federal Energy...

35

Interconnection Standards  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Maine Public Utility Commission (PUC) adopted interconnection procedures in January 2010. These rules apply to all transmission and distribution utilities operating in the state and apply to...

36

Interconnection Standards  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Note: Legislation enacted in August 2012 required the Massachusetts Department of Public Utilities (DPU) to develop an enforceable, standard interconnection timeline for distributed generation...

37

Interconnection Resources  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Interconnection is the technical procedures and legal requirements surrounding energy customers' ability to connect their small-scale renewable energy projects with the electricity grid. The...

38

Interconnection Guidelines  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Nebraska enacted legislation in May 2009 [http://nebraskalegislature.gov/FloorDocs/101/PDF/Final/LB436.pdf (LB 436)], establishing general rules for interconnecting and net metering systems that...

39

Interconnection Standards  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In March 2008, the Florida Public Service Commission (PSC) adopted interconnection rules for renewable-energy systems up to two megawatts (MW) in capacity. The PSC rules apply only to the state's...

40

Interconnection Guidelines  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Kansas adopted the Net Metering and Easy Connection Act in May 2009 (see K.S.A. 66-1263 through 66-1271), establishing interconnection guidelines and net metering for customer-owned generators. Net...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection tre wecc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Interconnection Standards  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Oregon has three separate interconnection standards: one for net-metered systems, one for small generator facilities (non-net metered systems) and one for large generator facilities (non-net...

42

Interconnection Guidelines  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Wyoming's net-metering law includes basic interconnection requirements for systems up to 25 kilowatts (kW) in capacity that generate electricity using solar, wind, hydropower or biomass resources....

43

Interconnection Standards  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In 2006, West Virginia stakeholders came together to consider net metering, interconnection as required by the Federal Energy Policy Act (2005) and agreed upon a "Statement of Consensus Among...

44

Interconnection Standards  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

South Dakotaís interconnection standards for distributed generation, adopted by the state Public Utilities Commission (PUC) in May 2009, apply to customers of investor-owned utilities.* The rules...

45

Interconnection Standards  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Vermont has adopted separate interconnection standards for net-metered energy systems that are 150 kW or less, and for all other distributed-generation (DG) systems.

46

Interconnection Standards  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Interconnection in New Mexico is governed by New Mexico Public Regulation Commission (PRC) Rule 568 and Rule 569. These rules, adopted in July 2008, revised and clarified the state's existing rules...

47

Interconnection Standards  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Hawaii has established simplified interconnection rules for small renewables and separate rules for all other distributed generation (DG). For inverter-based systems up to 10 kilowatts (kW) in...

48

Interconnection Standards  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In December 2003, the Nevada Public Utilities Commission (PUC) adopted interconnection standards for customers of NV Energy (formerly Nevada Power and Sierra Pacific Power) with on-site generation...

49

Development and Validation of WECC Variable Speed Wind Turbine Dynamic Models for Grid Integration Studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes reduced-order, simplified wind turbine models for analyzing the stability impact of large arrays of wind turbines with a single point of network interconnection.

Behnke, M.; Ellis, A.; Kazachkov, Y.; McCoy, T.; Muljadi, E.; Price, W.; Sanchez-Gasca, J.

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

2010 Wind Technologies Market Report  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coordinating Council (WECC). 2010. Scope of the EfficientCoordinating Council (WECC) authorized a cost benefitthe Western Interconnection (WECC 2010). Some utilities are

Wiser, Ryan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Advanced Interconnect Development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objectives of this project are to develop cost-effective, optimized materials for intermediate temperature SOFC interconnect and interconnect/electrode interface applications and identify and understand degradation processes in interconnects and at their interfaces with electrodes.

Yang, Z.G.; Maupin, G.; Simner, S.; Singh, P.; Stevenson, J.; Xia, G.

2005-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

52

National Assessment of Energy Storage for Grid Balancing and Arbitrage: Phase 1, WECC  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To examine the role that energy storage could play in mitigating the impacts of the stochastic variability of wind generation on regional grid operation, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) examined a hypothetical 2020 grid scenario in which additional wind generation capacity is built to meet renewable portfolio standard targets in the Western Interconnection. PNNL developed a stochastic model for estimating the balancing requirements using historical wind statistics and forecasting error, a detailed engineering model to analyze the dispatch of energy storage and fast-ramping generation devices for estimating size requirements of energy storage and generation systems for meeting new balancing requirements, and financial models for estimating the life-cycle cost of storage and generation systems in addressing the future balancing requirements for sub-regions in the Western Interconnection. Evaluated technologies include combustion turbines, sodium sulfur (Na-S) batteries, lithium ion batteries, pumped-hydro energy storage, compressed air energy storage, flywheels, redox flow batteries, and demand response. Distinct power and energy capacity requirements were estimated for each technology option, and battery size was optimized to minimize costs. Modeling results indicate that in a future power grid with high-penetration of renewables, the most cost competitive technologies for meeting balancing requirements include Na-S batteries and flywheels.

Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Balducci, Patrick J.; Colella, Whitney G.; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Jin, Chunlian; Nguyen, Tony B.; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Zhang, Yu

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Interconnection networks  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A network of interconnected processors is formed from a vertex symmetric graph selected from graphs GAMMA/sub d/(k) with degree d, diameter k, and (d + 1)exclamation/ (d /minus/ k + 1)exclamation processors for each d greater than or equal to k and GAMMA/sub d/(k, /minus/1) with degree d /minus/ 1, diameter k + 1, and (d + 1)exclamation/(d /minus/ k + 1)exclamation processors for each d greater than or equal to k greater than or equal to 4. Each processor has an address formed by one of the permutations from a predetermined sequence of letters chosen a selected number of letters at a time, and an extended address formed by appending to the address the remaining ones of the predetermined sequence of letters. A plurality of transmission channels is provided from each of the processors, where each processor has one less channel than the selected number of letters forming the sequence. Where a network GAMMA/sub d/(k, /minus/1) is provided, no processor has a channel connected to form an edge in a direction delta/sub 1/. Each of the channels has an identification number selected from the sequence of letters and connected from a first processor having a first extended address to a second processor having a second address formed from a second extended address defined by moving to the front of the first extended address the letter found in the position within the first extended address defined by the channel identification number. The second address is then formed by selecting the first elements of the second extended address corresponding to the selected number used to form the address permutations. 9 figs.

Faber, V.; Moore, J.W.

1988-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

54

851 S.W. Sixth Avenue, Suite 1100 Steve Crow 503-222-5161 Portland, Oregon 97204-1348 Executive Director 800-452-5161  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SUBJECT: WECC Reorganization The Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) is one of nine regional electric reliability councils. The WECC region encompasses the entire Western Interconnection, including (FERC) issued a joint report identifying deficiencies in WECC's management of its reliability

55

Life-Cycle Water Impacts of U.S. Transportation Fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cycle Water Consumption for WECC NERC Region ElectricityCycle Water Withdrawals for WECC NERC Region ElectricityTRE TS&D USDA USGS VC W WECC WSI International Organization

Scown, Corinne Donahue

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

On the Configuration of the US Western Interconnection Voltage Stability Boundary  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

AbstractóStability limits are considered in power system planning and operations to estimate the available stability margins and, if possible, to maximize the utilization of transmission facilities. These important tasks are influenced by configuration of the stability boundary. The paper introduces a new fast approach to explore the voltage stability boundary of a large system and reveal its detailed multidimensional structure. The 17939-bus U.S. Western Interconnection planning model was used to illustrate the method. Significant peculiarities of the boundaryís configuration were identified, including its nonconvexity, discontinuity, branching and internal singularities (ďholesĒ) that were not known before and could not been found by traditional methods. Experiments using WECC system are performed to evaluate the computation time using different methods. Our results show that the proposed methods are very promising in reducing calculation time and complexity

Makarov, Yuri V.; Vyakaranam, Bharat; Wu, Di; Hou, Zhangshuan; Elbert, Stephen T.; Huang, Zhenyu

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

PJM Interconnection (Multiple States)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

PJM (originally Pennsylvania, Jersey, Maryland) Interconnection is a Regional Transmission Organization (RTO) that coordinates the movement of wholesale electricity in all or parts of Delaware,...

58

Interconnect Issues in NE  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation covers interconnect issues in the Northeast and is given at the Spring 2010 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting in Providence, Rhode Island.

59

Perforation patterned electrical interconnects  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This disclosure describes systems and methods for increasing the usable surface area of electrical contacts within a device, such as a thin film solid state device, through the implementation of electrically conductive interconnects. Embodiments described herein include the use of a plurality of electrically conductive interconnects that penetrate through a top contact layer, through one or more multiple layers, and into a bottom contact layer. The plurality of conductive interconnects may form horizontal and vertical cross-sectional patterns. The use of lasers to form the plurality of electrically conductive interconnects from reflowed layer material further aids in the manufacturing process of a device.

Frey, Jonathan

2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

60

Solar cell array interconnects  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Electrical interconnects are disclosed for solar cells or other electronic components using a silver-silicone paste or a lead-tin (Pb-Sn) no-clean fluxless solder cream, whereby the high breakage of thin (<6 mil thick) solar cells using conventional solder interconnect is eliminated. The interconnects of this invention employs copper strips which are secured to the solar cells by a silver-silicone conductive paste which can be used at room temperature, or by a Pb-Sn solder cream which eliminates undesired residue on the active surfaces of the solar cells. Electrical testing using the interconnects of this invention has shown that no degradation of the interconnects developed under high current testing, while providing a very low contact resistance value. 4 figs.

Carey, P.G.; Thompson, J.B.; Colella, N.J.; Williams, K.A.

1995-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection tre wecc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Solar cell array interconnects  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Electrical interconnects for solar cells or other electronic components using a silver-silicone paste or a lead-tin (Pb-Sn) no-clean fluxless solder cream, whereby the high breakage of thin (<6 mil thick) solar cells using conventional solder interconnect is eliminated. The interconnects of this invention employs copper strips which are secured to the solar cells by a silver-silicone conductive paste which can be used at room temperature, or by a Pb-Sn solder cream which eliminates undesired residue on the active surfaces of the solar cells. Electrical testing using the interconnects of this invention has shown that no degradation of the interconnects developed under high current testing, while providing a very low contact resistance value.

Carey, Paul G. (Mountain View, CA); Thompson, Jesse B. (Brentwood, CA); Colella, Nicolas J. (Livermore, CA); Williams, Kenneth A. (Livermore, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Micro-fluidic interconnect  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus for simultaneously aligning and interconnecting microfluidic ports is presented. Such interconnections are required to utilize microfluidic devices fabricated in Micro-Electromechanical-Systems (MEMS) technologies, that have multiple fluidic access ports (e.g. 100 micron diameter) within a small footprint, (e.g. 3 mm.times.6 mm). Fanout of the small ports of a microfluidic device to a larger diameter (e.g. 500 microns) facilitates packaging and interconnection of the microfluidic device to printed wiring boards, electronics packages, fluidic manifolds etc.

Okandan, Murat (Albuquerque, NM); Galambos, Paul C. (Albuquerque, NM); Benavides, Gilbert L. (Los Ranchos, NM); Hetherington, Dale L. (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

63

Passive microfluidic interconnects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Equipment and procedures were developed to test two passive microfluidic interconnect rings held together by the friction forces on the contact surfaces. The second design forms fluid seals by means of thin flared rings ...

Jonnalagadda, Aparna S

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Interconnection Guidelines (Rhode Island)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Rhode Island enacted legislation (HB 6222) in June 2011 to standardize the application process for the interconnection of customer-sited renewable-energy systems to the stateís distribution grid....

65

Puerto Rico- Interconnection Standards  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In 2007, the Autoridad de EnergŪa Electrica de Puerto Rico (PREPA*) adopted interconnection standards based on the standard contained in the federal Energy Policy Act of 2005. PREPA promulgated...

66

Reliability of Electrical Interconnects (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation discusses the status of NREL's research on the reliability of electrical interconnects.

Devoto, D.

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Attachment B Applicants must submit properly completed 1(A/B), S1(A/B), and S5(A/B) forms to certify or precertify  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Authority ∑ WECC interconnection substation location ∑ Commercial Operations Date (date the facility began

68

Learn More About Interconnections | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

About Interconnections Learn More About Interconnections EASTERN INTERCONNECTION North America is comprised of two major and three minor alternating current (AC) power grids or...

69

Capillary interconnect device  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An interconnecting device for connecting a plurality of first fluid-bearing conduits to a corresponding plurality of second fluid-bearing conduits thereby providing fluid communication between the first fluid-bearing conduits and the second fluid-bearing conduits. The device includes a manifold and one or two ferrule plates that are held by compressive axial forces.

Renzi, Ronald F

2013-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

70

QCD Interconnection Effects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heavy objects like the W, Z and t are short-lived compared with typical hadronization times. When pairs of such particles are produced, the subsequent hadronic decay systems may therefore become interconnected. We study such potential effects at Linear Collider energies.

TorbjŲrn SjŲstrand

1999-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

71

QCD Interconnection Effects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heavy objects like the W, Z and t are short-lived compared with typical hadronization times. When pairs of such particles are produced, the subsequent hadronic decay systems may therefore become interconnected. We study such potential effects at Linear Collider energies.

TorbjŲrn SjŲstrand; Valery A. Khoze

1999-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

72

VLSI interconnect Avinoam Kolodny  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1000 10000 100000 Length [um] Power Local total Global total TOTAL globallocal Power Distribution by Wirelength · Total Dynamic Power · Global clock ­ not included · Local signals nets = 66% · Global signals global signals Total dynamic power (Gate, Diffusion and Interconnect) local clock global signals global

Kolodny, Avinoam

73

Transmission Planning Process and Opportunities for Utility-Scale Solar Engagement within the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is a primer for solar developers who wish to engage directly in expediting the regulatory process and removing market barriers related to policy and planning. Market barriers unrelated to technology often limit the expansion of utility-scale solar power, even in areas with exceptional resource potential. Many of these non-technical barriers have to do with policy, regulation, and planning, and hardly ever do they resolve themselves in a timely fashion. In most cases, pre-emptive intervention by interested stakeholders is the easiest way to remove/address such barriers, but it requires knowing how to navigate the institutional waters of the relevant agencies and boards. This report is a primer for solar developers who wish to engage directly in expediting the regulatory process and removing market barriers related to policy and planning. It focuses on the Western Interconnection (WI), primarily because the quality of solar resources in the Southwest makes utility-scale concentrating solar power (CSP) and photovoltaics (PV) economically feasible, and because the relevant institutions have evolved in a way that has opened up opportunities for removing non-technical market barriers. Developers will find in this report a high-level field manual to identify the venues for mitigating and possibly eliminating systemic market obstacles and ensuring that the economic playing field is reasonably level. Project-specific issues such as siting for transmission and generation resources are beyond the scope of this report. Instead, the aim is to examine issues that pervasively affect all utility-scale PV and CSP in the region regardless of where the project may be. While the focus is on the WI, many of the institutions described here also have their counterparts in the Eastern and the Texas interconnections. Specifically, this report suggests a number of critical engagement points relating to generation and transmission planning.

Hein, J.; Hurlbut, D.; Milligan, M.; Coles, L.; Green, B.

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Combining Balancing Areas' Variability: Impacts on Wind Integration in the Western Interconnection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper investigates the potential impact of balancing area cooperation on a large-scale in the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC).

Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; Beuning, S.

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

North American Electric Reliability Corporation Interconnections...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

North American Electric Reliability Corporation Interconnections North American Electric Reliability Corporation Interconnections Map of the North American Electric Reliability...

76

851 S.W. Sixth Avenue, Suite 1100 Steve Crow 503-222-5161 Portland, Oregon 97204-1348 Executive Director 800-452-5161  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

≠ Western Interconnection (WECC) 5 WECC 10 and 20 Year Plans ß In 2007, WECC's Transmission Expansion, WECC expanded this effort under the Regional Transmission Expansion Project (RTEP) project and agreed to develop "Transmission Plans" in 2011 and 2013 #12;7/26/2012 4 WECC 10 and 20 Year Plans The first 10 year

77

GSA-Utility Interconnection Agreements  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentationógiven at at the Fall 2012 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meetingócovers the General Service Administration's (GSA's) utility interconnection agreements.

78

Interconnection Agreements for Onsite Generation  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation covers Interconnection Agreements for Onsite Generation and is given at the Spring 2011 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting.

79

Interconnection Standards for Small Generators  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) adopted "small generator" interconnection standards for distributed energy resources up to 20 megawatts (MW) in capacity in May 2005.* The FERC's...

80

Process for electrically interconnecting electrodes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Electrical interconnects for solar cells or other electronic components using a silver-silicone paste or a lead-tin (Pb--Sn) no-clean fluxless solder cream, whereby the high breakage of thin (<6 mil thick) solar cells using conventional solder interconnect is eliminated. The interconnects of this invention employs copper strips which are secured to the solar cells by a silver-silicone conductive paste which can be used at room temperature, or by a Pb--Sn solder cream which eliminates undesired residue on the active surfaces of the solar cells. Electrical testing using the interconnects of this invention has shown that no degradation of the interconnects developed under high current testing, while providing a very low contact resistance value.

Carey, Paul G. (Mountain View, CA); Thompson, Jesse B. (Brentwood, CA); Colella, Nicolas J. (Livermore, CA); Williams, Kenneth A. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection tre wecc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Dynamic Simulation Studies of the Frequency Response of the Three U.S. Interconnections with Increased Wind Generation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

North America Dynamic Wind Generator Modeling Update, Basedperformed by the WECC Wind Generator Modeling Group and theTo model the interactions between wind generators and the

Mackin, Peter

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Table of Contents Page 1 NERC 2007 Long-Term Reliability Assessment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

..........................................................................................................................................................................35 WECC

83

Optically Interconnected MulticomputersUsing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optically Interconnected MulticomputersUsing Inverted-GraphTopologies Tosuccessfullyexploitthebenefitsofopticaltechnologyinatightlycoupledmulticomputer, the architecturaldesignmust reflectboth the advantages and limitationsof optics. This article systems. Although optics have con- tributed dramatically to long-distance communi- cation and more

Krchnavek, Robert R.

84

Renewable Systems Interconnection: Executive Summary  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy launched the Renewable Systems Interconnection (RSI) study in 2007 to address the challenges to high penetrations of distributed renewable energy technologies. The RSI study consists of 14 additional reports.

Kroposki, B.; Margolis, R.; Kuswa, G.; Torres, J.; Bower, W.; Key, T.; Ton, D.

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Analysis of interconnect microstrip lines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the return loss of the slot-coupled microstrip dipole. Section C presents two simulations of the return loss on the slot- coupled rectangular patch antenna. A. Interconnect of Microstrip Lines Several circuits with the geometry of Figure 1 were fabricated.... Experimental and Theoretical Results of the Interconnect Two circuits were designed and fabricated. Each circuit consists of two substrates as shown in Figure 9. One substrate has an open microstrip line etched in one side and an aperture etched...

Luong, Giam-Minh

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Reliability of copper interconnects in integrated circuits  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

As dimensions shrink and current densities increase, the reliability of metal interconnects becomes a serious concern. In copper interconnects, the dominant diffusion path is along the interface between the copper and the ...

Choi, Zung-Sun

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Sandia National Laboratories: Permitting, Inspection, and Interconnect...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Tagged with: Energy * Inspecting * Interconnection * Permitting * photovoltaic * Photovoltaics * PV * Renewable Energy * solar * Solar Energy * Solar Market Transformation *...

88

New Report Characterizes Existing Offshore Wind Grid Interconnection...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

New Report Characterizes Existing Offshore Wind Grid Interconnection Capabilities New Report Characterizes Existing Offshore Wind Grid Interconnection Capabilities September 3,...

89

Flexible interconnects for fuel cell stacks  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An interconnect that facilitates electrical connection and mechanical support with minimal mechanical stress for fuel cell stacks. The interconnects are flexible and provide mechanically robust fuel cell stacks with higher stack performance at lower cost. The flexible interconnects replace the prior rigid rib interconnects with flexible "fingers" or contact pads which will accommodate the imperfect flatness of the ceramic fuel cells. Also, the mechanical stress of stacked fuel cells will be smaller due to the flexibility of the fingers. The interconnects can be one-sided or double-sided.

Lenz, David J.; Chung, Brandon W.; Pham, Ai Quoc

2004-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

90

Interconnect  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-SeriesFlickrinformation for and NovelFEG-SEM with0,

91

Analysis of drought impacts on electricity production in the Western and Texas interconnections of the United States.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electricity generation relies heavily on water resources and their availability. To examine the interdependence of energy and water in the electricity context, the impacts of a severe drought to assess the risk posed by drought to electricity generation within the western and Texas interconnections has been examined. The historical drought patterns in the western United States were analyzed, and the risk posed by drought to electricity generation within the region was evaluated. The results of this effort will be used to develop scenarios for medium- and long-term transmission modeling and planning efforts by the Western Electricity Coordination Council (WECC) and the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT). The study was performed in response to a request developed by the Western Governors Association in conjunction with the transmission modeling teams at the participating interconnections. It is part of a U.S. Department of Energy-sponsored, national laboratory-led research effort to develop tools related to the interdependency of energy and water as part of a larger interconnection-wide transmission planning project funded under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. This study accomplished three main objectives. It provided a thorough literature review of recent studies of drought and the potential implications for electricity generation. It analyzed historical drought patterns in the western United States and used the results to develop three design drought scenarios. Finally, it quantified the risk to electricity generation for each of eight basins for each of the three drought scenarios and considered the implications for transmission planning. Literature on drought impacts on electricity generation describes a number of examples where hydroelectric generation capacity has been limited because of drought but only a few examples of impact on thermoelectric generation. In all documented cases, shortfalls of generation were met by purchasing power from the market, albeit at higher prices. However, sufficient excess generation and transmission must be available for this strategy to work. Although power purchase was the most commonly discussed drought mitigation strategy, a total of 12 response strategies were identified in the literature, falling into four main categories: electricity supply, electricity demand response, alternative water supplies, and water demand response. Three hydrological drought scenarios were developed based on a literature review and historical data analysis. The literature review helped to identify key drought parameters and data on drought frequency and severity. Historical hydrological drought data were analyzed for the western United States to identify potential drought correlations and estimate drought parameters. The first scenario was a West-wide drought occurring in 1977; it represented a severe drought in five of the eight basins in the study area. A second drought scenario was artificially defined by selecting the conditions from the 10th-percentile drought year for each individual basin; this drought was defined in this way to allow more consistent analysis of risk to electricity generation in each basin. The final scenario was based upon the current low-flow hydro modeling scenario defined by WECC, which uses conditions from the year 2001. These scenarios were then used to quantify the risk to electricity generation in each basin. The risk calculations represent a first-order estimate of the maximum amount of electricity generation that might be lost from both hydroelectric and thermoelectric sources under a worst-case scenario. Even with the conservative methodology used, the majority of basins showed a limited amount of risk under most scenarios. The level of risk in these basins is likely to be amenable to mitigation by known strategies, combined with existing reserve generation and transmission capacity. However, the risks to the Pacific Northwest and Texas Basins require further study. The Pacific Northwest is vulnerable because of its heavy reliance on hydroelectri

Harto, C. B.; Yan, Y. E.; Demissie, Y. K.; Elcock, D.; Tidwell, V. C.; Hallett, K.; Macknick, J.; Wigmosta, M. S.; Tesfa, T. K. (Environmental Science Division); (Sandia National Laboratory); (National Renewable Energy Laboratory); (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

2012-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

92

Double interconnection fuel cell array  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel cell array is made, containing number of tubular, elongated fuel cells which are placed next to each other in rows (A, B, C, D), where each cell contains inner electrodes and outer electrodes, with solid electrolyte between the electrodes, where the electrolyte and outer electrode are discontinuous, having two portions, and providing at least two opposed discontinuities which contain at least two oppositely opposed interconnections contacting the inner electrode, each cell having only three metallic felt electrical connectors which contact surrounding cells, where each row is electrically connected to the other. 5 figures.

Draper, R.; Zymboly, G.E.

1993-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

93

Recent Development of SOFC Metallic Interconnect  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Interest in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) stems from their higher eĪciencies and lower levels of emitted pollu- tants, compared to traditional power production methods. Interconnects are a critical part in SOFC stacks, which connect cells in series electrically, and also separate air or oxygen at the cathode side from fuel at the anode side. Therefore, the requirements of interconnects are the most demanding, i:e:, to maintain high elec- trical conductivity, good stability in both reducing and oxidizing atmospheres, and close coeĪcient of thermal expansion (CTE) match and good compatibility with other SOFC ceramic components. The paper reviewed the interconnect materials, and coatings for metallic interconnect materials.

Wu JW, Liu XB

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

NREL: Technology Deployment - Distributed Generation Interconnection...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Distributed Generation Interconnection Collaborative Become a Member DGIC members are included in quarterly informational meetings and discussions related to distributed PV...

95

Updating Interconnection Screens for PV System Integration  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Abraham Ellis, Roger Hill Sandia National Laboratories Tom Key, Kristen Nicole, Jeff Smith Electric Power Research Institute Updating Interconnection Screens for PV System...

96

Voltage Collapse SimulationVoltage Collapse Simulation (Eastern Interconnection(Eastern Interconnection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PSERC Voltage Collapse SimulationVoltage Collapse Simulation (Eastern Interconnection(Eastern Interconnection Scenario)Scenario) Simulation Prepared by Dennis J. RaySimulation Prepared by Dennis J. Ray Interconnection based on a series of generator and line outages. An actual voltage collapse may not occur due

97

Updating Technical Screens for PV Interconnection: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solar photovoltaics (PV) is the dominant type of distributed generation (DG) technology interconnected to electric distribution systems in the United States, and deployment of PV systems continues to increase rapidly. Considering the rapid growth and widespread deployment of PV systems in United States electric distribution grids, it is important that interconnection procedures be as streamlined as possible to avoid unnecessary interconnection studies, costs, and delays. Because many PV interconnection applications involve high penetration scenarios, the process needs to allow for a sufficiently rigorous technical evaluation to identify and address possible system impacts. Existing interconnection procedures are designed to balance the need for efficiency and technical rigor for all DG. However, there is an implicit expectation that those procedures will be updated over time in order to remain relevant with respect to evolving standards, technology, and practical experience. Modifications to interconnection screens and procedures must focus on maintaining or improving safety and reliability, as well as accurately allocating costs and improving expediency of the interconnection process. This paper evaluates the origins and usefulness of the capacity penetration screen, offers potential short-term solutions which could effectively allow fast-track interconnection to many PV system applications, and considers longer-term solutions for increasing PV deployment levels in a safe and reliable manner while reducing or eliminating the emphasis on the penetration screen.

Coddington, M.; Ellis, A.; Lynn, K.; Razon, A.; Key, T.; Kroposki, B.; Mather, B.; Hill, R.; Nicole, K.; Smith, J.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Pricing in Information-Centric Network Interconnection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

--ICN interconnection, economic incentives, col- laborative caching, non-cooperative games, network pricing. I economic incentives for caching and sharing content in ICN interconnection. For example, an ISP provider Engineering Department, ETH Zurich, Switzerland Abstract--We propose a pricing model to study the economic

Paris-Sud XI, Universitť de

99

FPGA Interconnect Delay Fault Testing Erik Chmelar  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A satisfactory FPGA testing method meets several crite- ria. First, the routing resources must be explicitlyFPGA Interconnect Delay Fault Testing Erik Chmelar Center for Reliable Computing Stanford is a scalable manufactur- ing test method for all SRAM-based FPGAs, able to detect multiple interconnect delay

Stanford University

100

"This work has been submitted to the IEEE for possible publication. Copyright may be transferred without notice, after which this version may no longer be accessible."  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

such as in the Western Electricity Coordination Council (WECC) system. The interconnection of different control areas can of the whole system. The two famous WECC cases in the summers of 1996 and 2000 were both associated with poorly

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection tre wecc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

EPRI PEAC Corp.: Certification Model Program and Interconnection Agreement Tools  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Summarizes the work of EPRI PEAC Corp., under contract to DOE's Distribution and Interconnection R&D, to develop a certification model program and interconnection agreement tools to support the interconnection of distributed energy resources.

Not Available

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Electrically long vertical interconnects for microwave circuits and antennas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Interconnect. . Microstrip Orientation for the Coaxial Interconnect. . . The Microstrip to Coax Transition in Fidelity Original Transition Model New Transition Model 450 mil Stub Transition Response, Transition Capacitance Using the Stub Method. 10... Transition Response (1, =20 mils, w, =60 mila) . . . . 1000 mil Coaxial Line Response . . . The Full Coaxial Interconnect in Fidelity. . Coaxial Interconnect Items in Fidelity Final Simulated Coaxial Interconnect Response The Coaxial Interconnect Test...

Coutant, Matthew Richard

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

The regulation of internet interconnection : assessing network market power  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Interconnection agreements in the telecommunications industry have always been constrained by regulation. Internet interconnection has not received the same level of scrutiny. Recent debates regarding proposed mergers, ...

Maida, Elisabeth M. (Elisabeth Marigo)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Renewable Generation and Interconnection to the Electrical Grid...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Generation and Interconnection to the Electrical Grid in Southern California Renewable Generation and Interconnection to the Electrical Grid in Southern California Presentation...

105

Benefit of Regional Energy Balancing Service on Wind Integration in the Western Interconnection of the United States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Interest in various wide-area balancing schemes to help integrate wind have generated significant interest. As we have shown in past work, large balancing areas not only help with wind integration, but can also increase the efficiency of operations in systems without wind. Recent work on the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) has found that combining balancing over the WestConnect footprint will increase the efficiency of commitment and dispatch at wind penetrations ranging from 10-20% of annual electricity demand, and will be essential for high penetrations and small balancing areas. In addition the Northwest Wind Integration Action Plan recommended balancing area cooperation as a method to help integrate the large potential wind development. In this paper we investigate the potential impact of a proposed Energy Imbalance Service on the ability of the non-market portions of Western Electricity Coordinating Councils (WECC) United States footprint to integrate wind energy. We will utilize data adapted from the WWSIS for the Western Interconnection. The analysis uses time-synchronized wind and load data to evaluate the potential for ramp requirement reduction that could be achieved with combined operation. Chronological analysis and ramp duration analysis quantify the benefit in terms of not only the ramp sizes, but the frequency of the potentially avoided ramps that must be managed by the non-wind generation fleet. Multiple approaches that can be used to achieve these benefits will also be suggested in the paper. We also suggest other approaches that can help achieve much of the benefit of full consolidation without requiring the physical consolidation of balancing areas.

Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; King, J.; Beuning, S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Carbon nanotube interconnects for IC chips  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been investigated as candidate materials to replace or augment the existing copper-based technologies as interconnects for Integrated Circuit (IC) chips. Being ballistic conductors, CNTs are ...

Anwar Ali, Hashina Parveen

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Carbon nanotube synthesis for integrated circuit interconnects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Based on their properties, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been identified as ideal replacements for copper interconnects in integrated circuits given their higher current density, inertness, and higher resistance to ...

Nessim, Gilbert Daniel

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

NREL Variability Analysis for the Western Interconnect (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation investigates the effects of several Energy Imbalance Markets implementations in the Western Interconnect.

Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; King, J.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Accelerating Fatigue Testing for Cu Ribbon Interconnects (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation describes fatigue experiments and discusses dynamic mechanical loading for Cu ribbon interconnects.

Bosco, N.; Silverman, T.; Wohlgemuth , J.; Kurtz, S.; Inoue, M.; Sakurai, K.; Shioda, T.; Zenkoh, H.; Miyashita, M.; Tadanori, T.; Suzuki, S.

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

InterconnectFabric InterconnectFabric SingleBuilding Multi-Building  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Interconnects in Datacenter Networks Opportunities and Challenges for WDM Hong Liu, Cedric F. Lam, and Chris We review the growing need for optical interconnect bandwidth in datacenter networks growth inside datacenter networks. INTRODUCTION The rapid growth of Internet and cloud computing

Tomkins, Andrew

111

Using Interconnected Texts to Highlight Culture in the Foreign Language Classroom  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in analyzing this interconnectivity, teachers should deviseon the nature of interconnectivity in their everydaywill look for the interconnectivity of texts in other

Smith, Maya

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Original Paper Fully interconnected, linear control  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Original Paper Fully interconnected, linear control for limit cycle walking Joseph H Solomon1 and simple control methodologies for these models (Collins & Ruina, 2005; Hobbelen & Wisse, 2008a, 2008b. Corresponding author: Joseph H. Solomon, Northwestern University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 2145

Hartmann, Mitra J. Z.

113

Asynchronous intrusion recovery for interconnected web services  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Asynchronous intrusion recovery for interconnected web services Ramesh Chandra, Taesoo Kim, and tracking down and recovering from such an attack re- quires significant manual effort. Web services for such web services. Aire addresses several challenges, such as propagating repair across services when some

Sabatini, David M.

114

QCD Interconnection Studies at Linear Colliders  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heavy objects like the W, Z and t are short-lived compared with typical hadronization times. When pairs of such particles are produced, the subsequent hadronic decay systems may therefore become interconnected. We study such potential effects at Linear Collider energies.

Valery A. Khoze; TorbjŲrn SjŲstrand

1999-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

115

subcollector Schottky collector contact & interconnect metals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

base collector depletion layer subcollector ohmic metal (a) base collector depletion layer Schottky metal base emitter collector collector We emitter base emitter emitter We Wc Wc (b) Schottky collector contact & interconnect metals Emitter & collector Ohmics undoped collector depletion layer base N

Rodwell, Mark J. W.

116

Fast high-order variation-aware IC interconnect analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Interconnects constitute a dominant source of circuit delay for modern chip designs. The variations of critical dimensions in modern VLSI technologies lead to variability in interconnect performance that must be fully accounted for in timing...

Ye, Xiaoji

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

117

High temperature solid electrolyte fuel cell configurations and interconnections  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

High temperature fuel cell configurations and interconnections are made including annular cells having a solid electrolyte sandwiched between thin film electrodes. The cells are electrically interconnected along an elongated axial outer surface.

Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills, PA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Probing Porosity and Pore Interconnectivity in Crystalline Mesoporous...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Porosity and Pore Interconnectivity in Crystalline Mesoporous TiO2 Using Hyperpolarized Xe-129 NMR. Probing Porosity and Pore Interconnectivity in Crystalline Mesoporous TiO2 Using...

119

VLSI Interconnect Optimization Considering Non-uniform Metal Stacks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

With the advances in process technology, comes the domination of interconnect in the overall propagation delay in modern VLSI designs. Hence, interconnect synthesis techniques, such as buffer insertion, wire sizing and layer assignment play critical...

Tsai, Jung-Tai

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

InterConnections A Report on Interdisciplinary Computing at the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

InterConnections A Report on Interdisciplinary Computing at the University of Maryland Institute be found on pages 6 and 7 of this issue of InterConnections. ; continued on Page 2 Science/UMIACS); (2) use

Gruner, Daniel S.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection tre wecc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

InterConnections A Report on Interdisciplinary Computing at the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

InterConnections A Report on Interdisciplinary Computing at the University of Maryland Institute BY BEN SHNEIDERMANPHOTO BY BEN SHNEIDERMAN #12;2 InterConnections During the past six months, a number

Gruner, Daniel S.

122

STABILITY ANALYSIS OF INTERCONNECTED POWER SYSTEMS COUPLED WITH MARKET DYNAMICS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

STABILITY ANALYSIS OF INTERCONNECTED POWER SYSTEMS COUPLED WITH MARKET DYNAMICS F.L. Alvarado1 J of generators and network interconnections. This paper examines questions of stability in such coupled systems

123

Solar Energy to Benefit from New FERC Interconnection Procedures...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Solar Energy to Benefit from New FERC Interconnection Procedures Solar Energy to Benefit from New FERC Interconnection Procedures October 30, 2014 - 5:15pm Addthis As a major win...

124

WECC 10-Year Plan general presentation  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGYWomen Owned SmallOf The 2012NuclearBradley Nickell Director of Transmission Planning -

125

WECC Response to DOE Quadrennial Energy Review  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGYWomen Owned SmallOf The 2012NuclearBradley Nickell Director of Transmission Planning

126

Interconnected hydro-thermal systems Models, methods, and applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Interconnected hydro-thermal systems Models, methods, and applications Magnus Hindsberger Kgs. Lyngby 2003 IMM-PHD-2003-112 Interconnected hydro-thermalsystems #12;Technical University of Denmark 45882673 reception@imm.dtu.dk www.imm.dtu.dk IMM-PHD-2003-112 ISSN 0909-3192 #12;Interconnected hydro

127

COLLEGE OF COMPUTER, MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES InterConnections  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COLLEGE OF COMPUTER, MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES InterConnections Contents 2 Director for large amounts of data FALL/WINTER 2007 continued on page 4... InterConnections is published. For her work on entity Lise Getoor: From Data to Information Lise Getoor #12;INTERCONNECTIONS Fall

Gruner, Daniel S.

128

Interconnecting PV on New York City's Secondary Network  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Interconnecting PV on New York City's Secondary Network Distribution System K. Anderson, M #12;Technical Report Interconnecting PV on New York NREL/ TP-7A2-46902 City's Secondary Network of Concerns and Solutions to PV Interconnection in New York City 4.0 Utility Application Process Review 5

129

COLLEGE OF COMPUTER, MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES InterConnections  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COLLEGE OF COMPUTER, MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES InterConnections Contents 2 Director Neil Spring: Mapping the Internet 12 Ramani Duriaswami: Processing Sound AUGUST 2008 InterConnections research- ers to gauge similarities and differences continued on page 2. #12;INTERCONNECTIONS AUGUST 2008

Gruner, Daniel S.

130

InterConnections A Report on Interdisciplinary Computing at the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

InterConnections A Report on Interdisciplinary Computing at the University of Maryland Institute of InterConnections. The Center was funded two years ago through the campus enhancement initiative #12;2 InterConnections Three events took place during the past five months, each of which will have

Gruner, Daniel S.

131

Topic A Awardee: Western Electricity Coordinating Council | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

transmission plans for the Eastern and Western Interconnections, and for ERCOT. WECC received notification from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on December 18, 2009...

132

Design, analysis and simulation study of a Scalable all-Optical Interconnection Network (SCOPIN) for multiprocessing systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and flexible all-optical single-hop interconnection network, called Scalable Optical Interconnection Network (SCOPIN)....

Okorafor, Ekpe Apia

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Release Resistant Electrical Interconnections For Mems Devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A release resistant electrical interconnection comprising a gold-based electrical conductor compression bonded directly to a highly-doped polysilicon bonding pad in a MEMS, IMEMS, or MOEMS device, without using any intermediate layers of aluminum, titanium, solder, or conductive adhesive disposed in-between the conductor and polysilicon pad. After the initial compression bond has been formed, subsequent heat treatment of the joint above 363 C creates a liquid eutectic phase at the bondline comprising gold plus approximately 3 wt % silicon, which, upon re-solidification, significantly improves the bond strength by reforming and enhancing the initial bond. This type of electrical interconnection is resistant to chemical attack from acids used for releasing MEMS elements (HF, HCL), thereby enabling the use of a "package-first, release-second" sequence for fabricating MEMS devices. Likewise, the bond strength of an Au--Ge compression bond may be increased by forming a transient liquid eutectic phase comprising Au-12 wt % Ge.

Peterson, Kenneth A. (Albuquerque, NM); Garrett, Stephen E. (Albuquerque, NM); Reber, Cathleen A. (Corrales, NM)

2005-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

134

Interconnection of bundled solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system and method for electrically interconnecting a plurality of fuel cells to provide dense packing of the fuel cells. Each one of the plurality of fuel cells has a plurality of discrete electrical connection points along an outer surface. Electrical connections are made directly between the discrete electrical connection points of adjacent fuel cells so that the fuel cells can be packed more densely. Fuel cells have at least one outer electrode and at least one discrete interconnection to an inner electrode, wherein the outer electrode is one of a cathode and and anode and wherein the inner electrode is the other of the cathode and the anode. In tubular solid oxide fuel cells the discrete electrical connection points are spaced along the length of the fuel cell.

Brown, Michael; Bessette, II, Norman F; Litka, Anthony F; Schmidt, Douglas S

2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

135

Initial Studies on Actionable Control for Improving Small Signal Stability in Interconnected Power Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Power consumption and demand continues to grow around the world. As the electric power grid continues to be put under more stress, the conditions of instability are more likely to occur. One cause of such instabilities is intearea oscillations, such as the oscillation that resulted in the August 10, 1996 blackout of the WECC. This paper explores different potential operations of different devices on the power system to improve the damping of these interarea oscillations using two different simulation models

Tuffner, Francis K.; Huang, Zhenyu; Zhou, Ning; Guttromson, Ross T.; Jayantilal, Avnaesh

2010-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

136

Repairable chip bonding/interconnect process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A repairable, chip-to-board interconnect process which addresses cost and testability issues in the multi-chip modules. This process can be carried out using a chip-on-sacrificial-substrate technique, involving laser processing. This process avoids the curing/solvent evolution problems encountered in prior approaches, as well is resolving prior plating problems and the requirements for fillets. For repairable high speed chip-to-board connection, transmission lines can be formed on the sides of the chip from chip bond pads, ending in a gull wing at the bottom of the chip for subsequent solder.

Bernhardt, Anthony F. (Berkeley, CA); Contolini, Robert J. (Livermore, CA); Malba, Vincent (Livermore, CA); Riddle, Robert A. (Tracy, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Repairable chip bonding/interconnect process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A repairable, chip-to-board interconnect process which addresses cost and testability issues in the multi-chip modules is disclosed. This process can be carried out using a chip-on-sacrificial-substrate technique, involving laser processing. This process avoids the curing/solvent evolution problems encountered in prior approaches, as well is resolving prior plating problems and the requirements for fillets. For repairable high speed chip-to-board connection, transmission lines can be formed on the sides of the chip from chip bond pads, ending in a gull wing at the bottom of the chip for subsequent solder. 10 figs.

Bernhardt, A.F.; Contolini, R.J.; Malba, V.; Riddle, R.A.

1997-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

138

Updating Interconnection Screens for PV System Integration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This white paper evaluates the origins and usefulness of the capacity penetration screen, offer short-term solutions which could effectively allow fast-track interconnection to many PV system applications, and considers longer-term solutions for increasing PV deployment levels in a safe and reliable manner while reducing or eliminating the emphasis on the penetration screen. Short-term and longer-term alternatives approaches are offered as examples; however, specific modifications to screening procedures should be discussed with stakeholders and must ultimately be adopted by state and federal regulatory bodies.

Coddington, M.; Mather, B.; Kroposki, B.; Lynn, K.; Razon, A.; Ellis, A.; Hill, R.; Key, T.; Nicole, K.; Smith, J.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Interconnecting gold islands with DNA origami  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-SeriesFlickrinformation for and NovelFEG-SEM with0,Interconnecting gold islands

140

Environmental Regulation Impacts on Eastern Interconnection Performance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the United States, recent environmental regulations will likely result in the removal of nearly 30 GW of oil and coal-fired generation from the power grid, mostly in the Eastern Interconnection (EI). The effects of this transition on voltage stability and transmission line flows have previously not been studied from a system-wide perspective. This report discusses the results of power flow studies designed to simulate the evolution of the EI over the next few years as traditional generation sources are replaced with environmentally friendlier ones such as natural gas and wind.

Markham, Penn N [ORNL; Liu, Yilu [ORNL; Young II, Marcus Aaron [ORNL

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection tre wecc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Flip chip electrical interconnection by selective electroplating and bonding  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on a glass substrate made of 500/2000 A¬į of Cr/Au with 3150 lm in length and 10 lm in width. Two silicon. The interconnection chip has 102 Cr/Au interconnection lines with 3150 lm in length and 10 lm in width. The bonding pads on the ends of the interconnection lines are 40 lm by 40 lm. A 0.8 lm thick layer of aluminum

Lin, Liwei

142

Impact of High Solar Penetration in the Western Interconnection  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Impact of High Solar Penetration in the Western Interconnection Debra Lew National Renewable Energy Laboratory Nicholas Miller, Kara Clark, Gary Jordan, and Zhi Gao GE Energy...

143

Response from PJM Interconnection LLC and Pepco to Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

PJM Interconnection LLC and Pepco to Department of Energy Request for Information Concerning the Potential Need for Potomac River Station Generation Response from PJM...

144

Pepco and PJM Interconnection Comments on District of Columbia...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Pepco and PJM Interconnection Comments on District of Columbia Public Service Commission, Docket No. EO-05-01 Comments and Answer to Requests for Rehearing Pepco and PJM...

145

CHP: Connecting the Gap between Markets and Utility Interconnection...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Markets and Utility Interconnection and Tariff Practices, 2006 The adoption of combined heat and power (CHP) systems by American industries has made substantial strides in the...

146

Microgrid V2G Charging Station Interconnection Testing (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation by Mike Simpson of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) describes NREL's microgrid vehicle-to-grid charging station interconnection testing.

Simpson, M.

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Optimization of solid oxide fuel cell interconnect design.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Performance of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) is dependent of a set of complex physical and chemical processes occurring simultaneously. Interconnect for SOFC is importantÖ (more)

Pulagam, Krishna C.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Proposed rule for Interconnection for Wind Energy and Other Alternativ...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

REGULATORY COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 35 (Docket No. RM05-4-000) Interconnection for Wind Energy and Other Alternative Technologies (January 24, 2005) AGENCY: Federal Energy...

149

Utility Wind Integration Group Distributed Wind/Solar Interconnection Workshop  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This two-day workshop will answer your questions about interconnecting wind and solar plants and other distributed generation applications to electric distribution systems while providing insight...

150

National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States. A total of 54GW of offshore wind was assumed to be the target for the analyses conducted. A variety of issues are considered including: the anticipated staging of offshore wind; the offshore wind resource availability; offshore wind energy power production profiles; offshore wind variability; present and potential technologies for collection and delivery of offshore wind energy to the onshore grid; potential impacts to existing utility systems most likely to receive large amounts of offshore wind; and regulatory influences on offshore wind development. The technologies considered the reliability of various high-voltage ac (HVAC) and high-voltage dc (HVDC) technology options and configurations. The utility system impacts of GW-scale integration of offshore wind are considered from an operational steady-state perspective and from a regional and national production cost perspective.

Daniel, John P. [ABB Inc; Liu, Shu [ABB Inc; Ibanez, Eduardo [National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Pennock, Ken [AWS Truepower; Reed, Greg [University of Pittsburgh; Hanes, Spencer [Duke Energy

2014-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

151

Updating Small Generator Interconnection Procedures for New Market Conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Federal and state regulators are faced with the challenge of keeping interconnection procedures updated against a backdrop of evolving technology, new codes and standards, and considerably transformed market conditions. This report is intended to educate policymakers and stakeholders on beneficial reforms that will keep interconnection processes efficient and cost-effective while maintaining a safe and reliable power system.

Coddington, M.; Fox, K.; Stanfield, S.; Varnado, L.; Culley, T.; Sheehan, M.

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

COLLEGE OF COMPUTER, MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES InterConnections  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COLLEGE OF COMPUTER, MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES InterConnections Contents 2 Director- tious diseases and water issues.The network would include research from scientists in coun- InterConnections.V.Williams Bldg. University of Maryland College Park, MD 20742-3251 Phone: 301.405.6722 #12;INTERCONNECTIONS

Gruner, Daniel S.

153

Solid-state energy storage module employing integrated interconnect board  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrochemical energy storage device includes a number of solid-state thin-film electrochemical cells which are selectively interconnected in series or parallel through use of an integrated interconnect board. The interconnect board is typically disposed within a sealed housing which also houses the electrochemical cells, and includes a first contact and a second contact respectively coupled to first and second power terminals of the energy storage device. The interconnect board advantageously provides for selective series or parallel connectivity with the electrochemical cells, irrespective of electrochemical cell position within the housing. Fuses and various electrical and electro-mechanical devices, such as bypass, equalization, and communication devices for example, may also be mounted to the interconnect board and selectively connected to the electrochemical cells.

Rouillard, Jean; Comte, Christophe; Daigle, Dominik; Hagen, Ronald A.; Knudson, Orlin B.; Morin, Andre; Ranger, Michel; Ross, Guy; Rouillard, Roger; St-Germain, Philippe; Sudano, Anthony; Turgeon, Thomas A.

2004-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

154

Solid-state energy storage module employing integrated interconnect board  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is directed to an improved electrochemical energy storage device. The electrochemical energy storage device includes a number of solid-state, thin-film electrochemical cells which are selectively interconnected in series or parallel through use of an integrated interconnect board. The interconnect board is typically disposed within a sealed housing which also houses the electrochemical cells, and includes a first contact and a second contact respectively coupled to first and second power terminals of the energy storage device. The interconnect board advantageously provides for selective series or parallel connectivity with the electrochemical cells, irrespective of electrochemical cell position within the housing. Fuses and various electrical and electromechanical devices, such as bypass, equalization, and communication devices for example, may also be mounted to the interconnect board and selectively connected to the electrochemical cells.

Rouillard, Jean; Comte, Christophe; Daigle, Dominik; Hagen, Ronald A.; Knudson, Orlin B.; Morin, Andre; Ranger, Michel; Ross, Guy; Rouillard, Roger; St-Germain, Philippe; Sudano, Anthony; Turgeon, Thomas A.

2003-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

155

A High-Performance Optoelectronic Interconnect Router: Using Increased Bandwidth to Enable Latency Reduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

D R A FT 1 A High-Performance Optoelectronic Interconnect Router: Using Increased Bandwidth optoelectronic interconnection network router capable of supplying and efficiently utilizing higher bandwidth routing, interconnection network, latency hiding/reduction techniques, optoelectronic router. 1

Pinkston, Timothy M.

156

Near-Bulk Conductivity of Gold Nanowires as Nanoscale Interconnects and the Role of Atomically  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Near-Bulk Conductivity of Gold Nanowires as Nanoscale Interconnects and the Role of Atomically, a significant portion of the chip is composed of interconnects. Besides, the engineering problems associated loss, signal degradation, interconnection delays, and other performance limitations related

Zubarev, Eugene

157

MODEL OF PLASMA CURRENT IN TRE TOKAPOLE S.C. Prager, J.C. Sprott, T.R. Osborne and K. Miller  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MODEL OF PLASMA CURRENT IN TRE TOKAPOLE by S.C. Prager, J.C. Sprott, T.R. Osborne and K. Miller August 1978 Plasma Studies PLP 756 University of Wisconsin These PLP reports are preliminary and informal transmitted without consent of the authors. #12;-1- The magnitude of the toroidal plasma current

Sprott, Julien Clinton

158

E-Print Network 3.0 - attach interconnection technology Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Barbara; NONE Collection: Biology and Medicine ; Engineering 7 Call for Papers Optoelectronic Interconnects XII (OE113) Summary: interconnect technologies ultra-short reach...

159

Exact Coupling Threshold for Structural Transition in Interconnected Networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Interconnected networks are mathematical representation of systems where two or more simple networks are coupled to each other. Depending on the coupling weight between the two components, the interconnected network can function in two regimes: one where the two networks are structurally distinguishable, and one where they are not. The coupling threshold--denoting this structural transition--is one of the most crucial concepts in interconnected networks. Yet, current information about the coupling threshold is limited. This letter presents an analytical expression for the exact value of the coupling threshold and outlines network interrelation implications.

Sahneh, Faryad Darabi; Van Mieghem, Piet

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

5 F 13 Optica1 Interconnection T ransmitter Power BER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

¬ľ 5¬ł ¬§ √ľ √? √ł √ź √ź √ļ ¬ł √? √≠ ¬ģ F√? 13 Optica1 Interconnection√? T ransmitter Power √ć BER√? √? √Ľ - ¬° √ľ √?

Choi, Woo-Young

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection tre wecc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Interconnecting PV on New York City's Secondary Network Distribution System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study describes technical assistance provided by NREL to help New York City and Con Edison improve the interconnection of distributed PV systems on a secondary network distribution system.

Anderson, K.; Coddington, M.; Burman, K.; Hayter, S.; Kroposki, B.; Watson, A.

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Energy scalability of on-chip interconnection networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

On-chip interconnection networks (OCN) such as point-to-point networks and buses form the communication backbone in multiprocessor systems-on-a-chip, multicore processors, and tiled processors. OCNs consume significant ...

Konstantakopoulos, Theodoros K., 1977-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Evaluation of phase change materials for reconfigurable interconnects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The possible use of programmable integrated circuit interconnect vias using an indirectly heated phase change material is evaluated. Process development and materials investigations are examined. Devices capable of multiple ...

Khoo, Chee Ying

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Handshake and Circulation Flow Control in Nanaphotonic Interconnects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

leads to low bandwidth utilization. This thesis proposes two handshake schemes for nanophotonic interconnects in CMPs, Global Handshake (GHS) and Distributed Handshake (DHS), which get rid of the traditional credit-based flow control, reduce the average...

Jayabalan, Jagadish

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

165

Mortality Dependence of Cu Dual Damascene Interconnects on Adjacent Segments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electromigration experiments have been carried out on straight interconnects that have single vias at each end, and are divided into two segments by a via in the center ("dotted-I" structures). For dotted-i structures in ...

Chang, Choon Wai

166

Low-Swing Signaling on Monolithically Integrated Global Graphene Interconnects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper, we characterize the performance of monolithically integrated graphene interconnects on a prototype 0.35-?m CMOS chip. The test chip implements an array of transmitter/receivers to analyze the end-to-end data ...

Lee, Kyeong-Jae

167

The Other Face of On-Chip Interconnect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The multicore revolution has changed the way we think about computing. The same movement has also changed the way we look at on-chip interconnect because it is a key determinant of the performance and power efficiency of ...

Agarwal, Anant

168

Fabrication and Characterization of Through-Substrate Interconnects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We developed a through-substrate copper-damascene interconnect technology in silicon with minimal impedance. Via impedance was extracted using parameter measurements at 50 GHz that were matched to simple circuit models. ...

del Alamo, Jesus A.

169

Advanced Unit Commitment Strategies in the United States Eastern Interconnection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project sought to evaluate the impacts of high wind penetrations on the U.S. Eastern Interconnection and analyze how different unit commitment strategies may affect these impacts.

Meibom, P.; Larsen, H. V.; Barth, R.; Brand, H.; Tuohy, A.; Ela, E.

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Photovoltaic Systems Interconnected onto Secondary Network Distribution Systems Ė Success Stories  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This report examines six case studies of photovoltaic (PV) systems integrated into secondary network systems. The six PV systems were chosen for evaluation because they are interconnected to secondary network systems located in four major Solar America Cities.

171

Interconnecting PV on NYC's Secondary Network Distribution System  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

To assess ways to improve the interconnection process, NREL conducted a four-part study with support from DOE. The NREL team then compiled the final reports from each study into this report.

172

Developing Generic Dynamic Models for the 2030 Eastern Interconnection Grid  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) has built three major power flow cases for the 2030 Eastern Interconnection (EI) based on various levels of energy/environmental policy conditions, technology advances, and load growth. Using the power flow cases, this report documents the process of developing the generic 2030 dynamic models using typical dynamic parameters. The constructed model was validated indirectly using the synchronized phasor measurements by removing the wind generation temporarily.

Kou, Gefei [ORNL; Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; Markham, Penn N [ORNL; Liu, Yilu [ORNL

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

EA-1990: Ridgenose Solar Energy Interconnection Facility, Mohave County, Arizona  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOEís Western Area Power Administration (Desert Southwest Region) is preparing an EA that will assess the potential environmental impacts of a proposal to interconnect the planned Ridgenose Solar Energy Project to Westernís transmission system. Westernís actions could include constructing less than a mile of new transmission line from the solar facility to an existing substation, constructing an interconnection substation, and adding, moving, or modifying structures.

174

Solid-state energy storage module employing integrated interconnect board  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is directed to an improved electrochemical energy storage device. The electrochemical energy storage device includes a number of solid-state, thin-film electrochemical cells which are selectively interconnected in series or parallel through use of an integrated interconnect board. The interconnect board is typically disposed within a sealed housing which also houses the electrochemical cells, and includes a first contact and a second contact respectively coupled to first and second power terminals of the energy storage device. The interconnect board advantageously provides for selective series or parallel connectivity with the electrochemical cells, irrespective of electrochemical cell position within the housing. In one embodiment, a sheet of conductive material is processed by employing a known milling, stamping, or chemical etching technique to include a connection pattern which provides for flexible and selective interconnecting of individual electrochemical cells within the housing, which may be a hermetically sealed housing. Fuses and various electrical and electro-mechanical devices, such as bypass, equalization, and communication devices for example, may also be mounted to the interconnect board and selectively connected to the electrochemical cells.

Rouillard, Jean (Saint-Luc, CA); Comte, Christophe (Montreal, CA); Daigle, Dominik (St-Hyacinthe, CA); Hagen, Ronald A. (Stillwater, MN); Knudson, Orlin B. (Vadnais Heights, MN); Morin, Andre (Longueuil, CA); Ranger, Michel (Lachine, CA); Ross, Guy (Beloeil, CA); Rouillard, Roger (Beloeil, CA); St-Germain, Philippe (Outremont, CA); Sudano, Anthony (Laval, CA); Turgeon, Thomas A. (Fridley, MN)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Synchronicity: Nature and Psyche in an Interconnected Universe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, calling it the ?biggest blunder? of his life. I will give a few details of the controversies in cosmology from 1922 through the 1950s (for a detailed study see Big Bang by Simon Singh, 2004), which would include the time frame for Jung?s formula- tions... In sketching out details as he understood them, Lema?tre gave the first scientific description ( 1??) Chapter 1 of what would become the Big Bang model in 1927 at the Solvay con- ference. According to Singh, Einstein informed him of Friedmann?s work while...

Cambray, Joseph

2009-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

176

Net Metering and Interconnection Procedures-- Incorporating Best Practices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

State utility commissions and utilities themselves are actively developing and revising their procedures for the interconnection and net metering of distributed generation. However, the procedures most often used by regulators and utilities as models have not been updated in the past three years, in which time most of the distributed solar facilities in the United States have been installed. In that period, the Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC) has been a participant in more than thirty state utility commission rulemakings regarding interconnection and net metering of distributed generation. With the knowledge gained from this experience, IREC has updated its model procedures to incorporate current best practices. This paper presents the most significant changes made to IREC√?¬?√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?s model interconnection and net metering procedures.

Jason Keyes, Kevin Fox, Joseph Wiedman, Staff at North Carolina Solar Center

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Hermetic aluminum radio frequency interconnection and method for making  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides a light-weight, hermetic coaxial radio-frequency (RF) interconnection having an electrically conductive outer housing made of aluminum or an aluminum alloy, a central electrical conductor made of ferrous or non-ferrous material, and a cylinder of dielectric material comprising a low-melting-temperature, high-thermal-expansion aluminophosphate glass composition for hermetically sealing between the aluminum-alloy outer housing and the ferrous or non-ferrous center conductor. The entire RF interconnection assembly is made permanently hermetic by thermally fusing the center conductor, glass, and housing concurrently by bringing the glass to the melt point by way of exposure to an atmospheric temperature sufficient to melt the glass, less than 540.degree. C., but that does not melt the center conductor or the outer aluminum or aluminum alloy housing. The composition of the glass used is controlled to provide a suitable low dielectric constant so that an appropriate electrical characteristic impedance, for example 50 ohms, can be achieved for an electrical interconnection that performs well at high radio frequencies and also provides an interconnection maintaining a relatively small physical size.

Kilgo, Riley D. (Albuquerque, NM); Kovacic, Larry (Albuquerque, NM); Brow, Richard K. (Rolla, MO)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Energy and Reliability in Future NOC Interconnected CMPS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this dissertation, I explore energy and reliability in future NoC (Network-on-Chip) interconnected CMPs (chip multiprocessors) as they have become a first-order constraint in future CMP design. In the first part, we target the root cause...

Kim, Hyungjun

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

A Holistic Approach to Designing Energy-Efficient Cluster Interconnects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, new data centers in the Seattle area are forecast to increase the city's power demands by 25 percentA Holistic Approach to Designing Energy-Efficient Cluster Interconnects Eun Jung Kim, Member, IEEE--Designing energy-efficient clusters has recently become an important concern to make these systems economically

Kim, Eun Jung "EJ"

180

Optimum Wire Tapering for Minimum Power Dissipation in RLC Interconnects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

tapering is shown to reduce the (a CMOS inverter) with the driver (a CMOS inverter). The power dissipatedOptimum Wire Tapering for Minimum Power Dissipation in RLC Interconnects Magdy A. El-Moursy and Eby G. Friedman Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Rochester Rochester, New

Friedman, Eby G.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection tre wecc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

High-temperature quenching of electrical resistance in graphene interconnects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

into the chip interconnect design the materials with low electrical resistance and high thermal con- ductivity dependence of the resistance were explained by the thermal generation of the electron-hole pairs and carrier, increased total thermal boundary resistance of the chip layers, incorporation of the alternative dielectric

182

innovati nInterconnection Standards Guide Integration of Distributed  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Engineers (IEEE). The goal: to create consensus standards with participation from industry, utilities, government, and others to guide the integration of renewable and other small electricity generation, or used IEEE 1547 in the development of their own interconnection standards, and the Energy Policy Act

183

Dynamic management of water transfer between two interconnected river basins  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dynamic management of water transfer between two interconnected river basins Francisco Cabo Katrin cause environmental damage in the donor basin. The recipient faces a trade-off between paying the price of the irrigated soil, or demand for water for highly productive activities like tourism), then the existence

Boyer, Edmond

184

Electric power from offshore wind via synoptic-scale interconnection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electric power from offshore wind via synoptic-scale interconnection Willett Kemptona,1 , Felipe M regional estimate, Kempton et al. (2) calculated that two-thirds of the offshore wind power off the U in the U.S. Atlantic region is already underway. Fig. 1 shows as black squares offshore wind developments

Firestone, Jeremy

185

Preliminary Characterisation of Low-Temperature Bonded Copper Interconnects for 3-D Integrated Circuits  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Three dimensional (3-D) integrated circuits can be fabricated by bonding previously processed device layers using metal-metal bonds that also serve as layer-to-layer interconnects. Bonded copper interconnects test structures ...

Leong, Hoi Liong

186

Multiparameter Moment Matching Model Reduction Approach for Generating Geometrically Parameterized Interconnect Performance Models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper we describe an approach for generating geometrically-parameterized integrated-circuit interconnect models that are efficient enough for use in interconnect synthesis. The model generation approach presented ...

Daniel, Luca

187

Length Effects on the Reliability of Dual-Damascene Cu Interconnects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The effects of interconnect length on the reliability of dual-damascene Cu metallization have been investigated. As in Al-based interconnects, the lifetimes of Cu lines increase with decreasing length. However, unlike ...

Wei, F.

188

Vibration control in plates by uniformly distributed PZT actuators interconnected via electric networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

improve the performances of piezoelectric actuation. internal resonance / equivalent circuits 1Vibration control in plates by uniformly distributed PZT actuators interconnected via electric vibrations of plates by means of a set of electrically-interconnected piezoelectric actuators is described

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

189

H C26 Performance Analysis of Optica1 Interconnection Systems Inch-ing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Analysis of Optica1 Interconnection Systems Inch- ing T ransmitter T emperature Dependence .√® ¬Į √? , √? √? √¨

Choi, Woo-Young

190

Reliability of Nano-Structured Nickel Interconnections Replacing FlipChip Solder Assembly without Underfill  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reliability of Nano-Structured Nickel Interconnections Replacing FlipChip Solder Assembly without of Technology, GA 30332-0560 Abstract This paper reports the reliability of fine pitch interconnections using lower stresses in the interconnections and enhance reliability though they add electrical parasitics

Swaminathan, Madhavan

191

Supplying Baseload Power and Reducing Transmission Requirements by Interconnecting Wind Farms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Supplying Baseload Power and Reducing Transmission Requirements by Interconnecting Wind Farms is not used to supply baseload electric power today. Interconnecting wind farms through the transmission grid farms are interconnected in an array, wind speed correlation among sites decreases and so does

192

Analysis of free-space optical interconnects for the three-dimensional optoelectronic stacked processor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Analysis of free-space optical interconnects for the three-dimensional optoelectronic stacked of free-space optical interconnect for the three-dimensional optoelectronic stacked processor (3DOESP) has VLSI; Optoelectronics; VCSELs 1. Introduction Current electronic interconnection technology cannot keep

Esener, Sadik C.

193

Optimization and Visualization of the North American Eastern Interconnect Power Market  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optimization and Visualization of the North American Eastern Interconnect Power Market Douglas R uses a first generation OPF model of the Eastern Interconnect to gauge the potential benefits deriving, there is sufficient low cost capacity to keep peak demand prices in the Eastern Interconnect below $50 MWH. Under

194

Ionized physical vapor deposition of integrated circuit interconnects* J. Hopwood,a)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ionized physical vapor deposition of integrated circuit interconnects* J. Hopwood,a) Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 Received 19 November 1997; accepted 25 November 1997 Interconnects to the interconnection of semiconductor devices while the remaining 10 percent is due to transistor-related delay

195

Interconnection of nitrogen fixers and iron in the Pacific Ocean: Theory and numerical simulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Interconnection of nitrogen fixers and iron in the Pacific Ocean: Theory and numerical simulations, F. Monteiro, and M. J. Follows (2012), Interconnection of nitrogen fixers and iron in the Pacific interconnected. Microbial community structure is shaped by the variable physical, chemical and predatory

196

Network Interconnection with Two-Sided User Benefits Benjamin E. Hermalin & Michael L. Katz  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Network Interconnection with Two-Sided User Benefits Benjamin E. Hermalin & Michael L. Katz Walter Abstract Previous work on network interconnection has tended to overlook that both the sender and receiver interconnection charge is independent of the "direction" of the message and is used to induce optimal end

Sadoulet, Elisabeth

197

THE ANALYSYS OF INFORMATION IMPACTS IN COORDINATING DEFENCE AGAINST MALICIOUS ATTACKS FOR INTERCONNECTED  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FOR INTERCONNECTED POWER SYSTEMS Ettore Bompard George Gross Roberto Napoli Fei Xue Politecnico di Torino University) in an interconnected power system to counteract such attacks has become an important problem. This paper presents to the interconnected system operators on the outcomes of the decision making process under attack. A 34-buses test

Gross, George

198

Many SIMD interconnection networks have been proposed. To put the different approaches into perspective, this analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Many SIMD interconnection networks have been proposed. To put the different approaches==Emumuuu Interconnection Netwots for SIMD Machines Howard Jay Siegel Purdue University With the advent of microprocessors our discussion to SIMD machine networks (other types are explored else- where17-19). Interconnecting N

199

Interconnecting PV on New York City's Secondary Network Distribution System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has teamed with cities across the country through the Solar America Cities (SAC) partnership program to help reduce barriers and accelerate implementation of solar energy. The New York City SAC team is a partnership between the City University of New York (CUNY), the New York City Mayor s Office of Long-term Planning and Sustainability, and the New York City Economic Development Corporation (NYCEDC).The New York City SAC team is working with DOE s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Con Edison, the local utility, to develop a roadmap for photovoltaic (PV) installations in the five boroughs. The city set a goal to increase its installed PV capacity from1.1 MW in 2005 to 8.1 MW by 2015 (the maximum allowed in 2005). A key barrier to reaching this goal, however, is the complexity of the interconnection process with the local utility. Unique challenges are associated with connecting distributed PV systems to secondary network distribution systems (simplified to √?¬?√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?networks√?¬?√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Ě in this report). Although most areas of the country use simpler radial distribution systems to distribute electricity, larger metropolitan areas like New York City typically use networks to increase reliability in large load centers. Unlike the radial distribution system, where each customer receives power through a single line, a network uses a grid of interconnected lines to deliver power to each customer through several parallel circuits and sources. This redundancy improves reliability, but it also requires more complicated coordination and protection schemes that can be disrupted by energy exported from distributed PV systems. Currently, Con Edison studies each potential PV system in New York City to evaluate the system s impact on the network, but this is time consuming for utility engineers and may delay the customer s project or add cost for larger installations. City leaders would like to streamline this process to facilitate faster, simpler, and less expensive distributed PV system interconnections. To assess ways to improve the interconnection process, NREL conducted a four-part study with support from DOE. The NREL team then compiled the final reports from each study into this report. In Section 1√?¬?√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?PV Deployment Analysis for New York City√?¬?√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?we analyze the technical potential for rooftop PV systems in the city. This analysis evaluates potential PV power production in ten Con Edison networks of various locations and building densities (ranging from high density apartments to lower density single family homes). Next, we compare the potential power production to network loads to determine where and when PV generation is most likely to exceed network load and disrupt network protection schemes. The results of this analysis may assist Con Edison in evaluating future PV interconnection applications and in planning future network protection system upgrades. This analysis may also assist other utilities interconnecting PV systems to networks by defining a method for assessing the technical potential of PV in the network and its impact on network loads. Section 2√?¬?√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?A Briefing for Policy Makers on Connecting PV to a Network Grid√?¬?√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?presents an overview intended for nontechnical stakeholders. This section describes the issues associated with interconnecting PV systems to networks, along with possible solutions. Section 3√?¬?√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?Technical Review of Concerns and Solutions to PV Interconnection in New Y

K. Anderson; M. Coddington; K. Burman; S. Hayter; B. Kroposki; and A. Watson

2009-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

200

Spontaneous synchronization driven by energy transport in interconnected networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Understanding dynamical processes on networks is an important area of research in complex systems, with far reaching implications and applications in many real-world cases. Here we introduce and study a model of intertwined dynamics on interconnected networks, inspired by the human brain, which consists of bidirectionally coupled synchronization and energy transport processes. Remarkably, the proposed model allows the emergence of spontaneous switch-like synchronization transitions driven by the energy transport dynamics, which qualitatively mirror the transitions observed in human brain dynamics between resting-state and cognitive activity. We provide a steady-state analytical explanation for the observed behavior and show that the switch-like transition is robust over a wide range of model parameters and network topologies. Finally, we suggest that the complexity inherent in other interconnected dynamical processes might be responsible for various other emergent behaviors observed in natural systems.

Vincenzo Nicosia; Per Sebastian Skardal; Vito Latora; Alex Arenas

2015-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection tre wecc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Reliability assessment of autonomous power systems incorporating HVDC interconnection links  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this paper is to present an improved computational method for the overall reliability assessment of autonomous power systems that may or may not contain HVdc interconnection links. This is a hybrid method based on a Monte-Carlo simulation sequential approach which incorporates an analytical approach for the reliability modeling of the HVdc transmission links. The developed models and techniques have been implemented into a computer program that can be used to simulate the operational practices and characteristics of the overall system under study efficiently and realistically. A set of reliability indices are calculated for each load-point of interest and the entire system while a set of additional indices is calculated for quantifying the reliability performance of the interconnection links under the specified operating requirements. The analysis of a practical system is also included for a number of studies representing its various operating and design characteristics.

Dialynas, E.N.; Koskolos, N.C. [National Technical Univ., Athens (Greece). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering] [National Technical Univ., Athens (Greece). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Agoris, D. [Public Power Corp., Athens (Greece)] [Public Power Corp., Athens (Greece)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Series interconnected photovoltaic cells and method for making same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A novel photovoltaic module and method for constructing the same are disclosed. The module includes a plurality of photovoltaic cells formed on a substrate and laterally separated by interconnection regions. Each cell includes a bottom electrode, a photoactive layer and a top electrode layer. Adjacent cells are connected in electrical series by way of a conductive-buffer line. The buffer line is also useful in protecting the bottom electrode against severing during downstream layer cutting processes. 11 figs.

Albright, S.P.; Chamberlin, R.R.; Thompson, R.A.

1995-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

203

Corrosion of Metallic SOFC Interconnects in Coal Syngas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With recent reductions in the operating temperature of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC), the potential of using metallic interconnect has gone up. There is also an interest in using Coal syngas as the fuel gas and thus there is a need to analyze the behavior and performance of metallic interconnects when exposed to Coal syngas. Three high temperature material alloys, Crofer 22 APU, Ebrite and Haynes 230, having the potential to be used as SOFC interconnects were studied in simulated wet coal syngas. These alloys were exposed to syngas at 800 degrees C and for 100 hours. The exposure to coal syngas led to the formation of oxides and spinels, which evidently led to an increase in electrical resistance. Oxidation in a reducing and carburizing environment leads to unique phase and morphology formations. A comparative analysis was carried out for all the three alloys, wherein the samples were characterized by using SEM, EDS, Raman and X-Ray diffraction to obtain the morphology, thickness, composition and crystal structure of the oxides and spinels

Dastane, R.R. (University of West Virginia); Liu, X. (University of West Virginia); Johnson, C., Mao, Scott (University of Pittsburgh)

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Spontaneous synchronization driven by energy transport in interconnected networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Understanding dynamical processes on networks is an important area of research in complex systems, with far reaching implications and applications in many real-world cases. However, the research to date has mainly focused on single dynamical processes occurring on isolated networks, and very little is known about the more interesting and realistic case of different kinds of intertwined dynamical processes taking place on interconnected networks. An example of the non-trivial combination of two types of dynamics can be found in the human brain, where cerebral circulation delivers the nutrients and oxygenated blood needed for the activity of the different brain areas, and in turn the activity of a region can induce changes in the distribution of blood flow. Here, we introduce and study a model of intertwined dynamics on interconnected networks, inspired by the human brain, which consists of bidirectionally coupled synchronization and energy transport processes. Remarkably, the proposed model allows the emergence of spontaneous switch-like synchronization transitions driven by the energy transport dynamics, which qualitatively mirror the transitions observed in human brain dynamics between resting-state and cognitive activity. We provide a steady-state analytical explanation for the observed behavior and furthermore show that the switch-like transition is robust over a wide range of model parameters and network topologies. We suggest that the complexity inherent in other interconnected dynamical processes might be responsible for various other emergent behaviors observed in natural systems.

Vincenzo Nicosia; Per Sebastian Skardal; Vito Latora; Alex Arenas

2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

205

Monolithically interconnected GaAs solar cells: A new interconnection technology for high voltage solar cell output  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Photovoltaic linear concentrator arrays can benefit from high performance solar cell technologies being developed at AstroPower. Specifically, these are the integration of thin GaAs solar cell and epitaxial lateral overgrowth technologies with the application of monolithically interconnected solar cell (MISC) techniques. This MISC array has several advantages which make it ideal for space concentrator systems. These are high system voltage, reliable low cost monolithically formed interconnections, design flexibility, costs that are independent of array voltage, and low power loss from shorts, opens, and impact damage. This concentrator solar cell will incorporate the benefits of light trapping by growing the device active layers over a low-cost, simple, PECVD deposited silicon/silicon dioxide Bragg reflector. The high voltage-low current output results in minimal 12R losses while properly designing the device allows for minimal shading and resistance losses. It is possible to obtain open circuit voltages as high as 67 volts/cm of solar cell length with existing technology. The projected power density for the high performance device is 5 kW/m for an AMO efficiency of 26% at 1 5X. Concentrator solar cell arrays are necessary to meet the power requirements of specific mission platforms and can supply high voltage power for electric propulsion systems. It is anticipated that the high efficiency, GaAs monolithically interconnected linear concentrator solar cell array will enjoy widespread application for space based solar power needs. Additional applications include remote man-portable or ultra-light unmanned air vehicle (UAV) power supplies where high power per area, high radiation hardness and a high bus voltage or low bus current are important. The monolithic approach has a number of inherent advantages, including reduced cost per interconnect and increased reliability of array connections. There is also a high potential for a large number of consumer products.

Dinetta, L.C.; Hannon, M.H.

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Estimation of WECC System Inertia Using Observed Frequency Transients  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As demand for electricity in the western United States increases, stresses upon the aging power grid are intensifying. Computer models based on complex mathematical relationships are being developed to assist in understanding the impact of deregulation and market transformation. Frequency, load, and plant outage events data collected over the last several years. Analysis of these events was performed to determine frequency deviation and the systems inertial constant (M) during each event. Utilizing a theoretical relationship that relates system inertia to power loss, M was calculated for 157 events. The relationship of M to system wide load was then examined.

Chassin, David P.; Huang, Zhenyu; Donnelly, Matt K.; Hassler, Candee A.; Ramirez, Enrique; Ray, Cody W.

2005-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

207

SWITCH-WECC Data, Assumptions, and Model Formulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.......................................................................................... 22 2.9.2 Existing Hydroelectric and Pumped Hydroelectric Plants

Kammen, Daniel M.

208

SWITCH-WECC http://rael.berkeley.edu/switch  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-synchronized demand, wind output, and solar output data per investment period ∑ Linearized unit-commitment #12; and solar power in California. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, Energy and Resources., 2013. SunShot solar power reduces costs and uncertainty in future low-carbon electricity systems

Kammen, Daniel M.

209

Final Report on Transmission Pricing in the Western Interconnection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under this project, the Committee on Regional Electric Power Cooperation (CREPC) of the Western Interstate Energy Board developed a ''western pricing and congestion management proposal'' in order to foster efficient wholesale power markets and efficient use and expansion of the transmission grid. Drafts of this paper provided useful information to states/provinces in the Western Interconnection as Western Regional Transmission Organization (RTO) transmission pricing proposals have continued to evolve. Throughout the project there has been a gradual, but incomplete agreement on pricing systems to be used by RTOs in the West.

Douglas C. Larson; Lawrence Nordell

2003-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

210

Novel Composite Materials for SOFC Cathode-Interconnect Contact  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarized the research efforts and major conclusions of our University Coal Research Project, which focused on developing a new class of electrically-conductive, Cr-blocking, damage-tolerant Ag-perovksite composite materials for the cathode-interconnect contact of intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks. The Ag evaporation rate increased linearly with air flow rate initially and became constant for the air flow rate {ge} {approx} 1.0 cm {center_dot} s{sup -1}. An activation energy of 280 KJ.mol{sup -1} was obtained for Ag evaporation in both air and Ar+5%H{sub 2}+3%H{sub 2}O. The exposure environment had no measurable influence on the Ag evaporation rate as well as its dependence on the gas flow rate, while different surface morphological features were developed after thermal exposure in the oxidizing and reducing environments. Pure Ag is too volatile at the SOFC operating temperature and its evaporation rate needs to be reduced to facilitate its application as the cathode-interconnect contact. Based on extensive evaporation testing, it was found that none of the alloying additions reduced the evaporation rate of Ag over the long-term exposure, except the noble metals Au, Pt, and Pd; however, these noble elements are too expensive to justify their practical use in contact materials. Furthermore, the addition of La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}MnO{sub 3} (LSM) into Ag to form a composite material also did not significantly modify the Ag evaporation rate. The Ag-perovskite composites with the perovskite being either (La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4})(Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2})O{sub 3} (LSCF) or LSM were systematically evaluated as the contact material between the ferritic interconnect alloy Crofer 22 APU and the LSM cathode. The area specific resistances (ASRs) of the test specimens were shown to be highly dependent on the volume percentage and the type of the perovskite present in the composite contact material as well as the amount of thermal cycling that the specimens were subjected to during testing. The Ag-LSCF composite contact materials proved more effective in trapping Cr within the contact material and preventing Cr migration into the cathode than the Ag-LSM composites. Ag-perovskite composite contact materials are promising candidates for use in intermediate-temperature SOFC stacks with ferritic stainless steel interconnects due to their ability to maintain acceptably low ASRs while reducing Cr migration into the cathode material.

J. H. Zhu

2009-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

211

Electromigration kinetics and critical current of Pb-free interconnects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electromigration kinetics of Pb-free solder bump interconnects have been studied using a single bump parameter sweep technique. By removing bump to bump variations in structure, texture, and composition, the single bump sweep technique has provided both activation energy and power exponents that reflect atomic migration and interface reactions with fewer samples, shorter stress time, and better statistics than standard failure testing procedures. Contact metallurgies based on Cu and Ni have been studied. Critical current, which corresponds to the Blech limit, was found to exist in the Ni metallurgy, but not in the Cu metallurgy. A temperature dependence of critical current was also observed.

Lu, Minhua; Rosenberg, Robert [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States)

2014-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

212

Series interconnected photovoltaic cells and method for making same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A novel photovoltaic module (10) and method for constructing the same are disclosed. The module (10) includes a plurality of photovoltaic cells (12) formed on a substrate (14) and laterally separated by interconnection regions (15). Each cell (12) includes a bottom electrode (16), a photoactive layer (18) and a top electrode layer (20). Adjacent cells (12) are connected in electrical series by way of a conductive-buffer line (22). The buffer line (22) is also useful in protecting the bottom electrode (16) against severing during downstream layer cutting processes.

Albright, Scot P. (El Paso, TX); Chamberlin, Rhodes R. (El Paso, TX); Thompson, Roger A. (Littleton, CO)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Evaluation of a Functional Interconnect System for SOFC's  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of this project was to validate the concept and application of a functional interconnect, based on a ferritic stainless steel, for a solid oxide fuel cell through manufacturing trials, laboratory testing, and field experience. The materials of construction and their surfaces were to be optimized for the particular service conditions and include low-cost ferritic stainless steels, novel postprocess treatments, and third-party coatings. This work aimed to optimize specific aspects of substrate alloy chemistry and to study the effects of long-term exposures on resistive oxide film structure and chemistry, interaction with applied surface coatings, and effectiveness of novel surface treatments.

Matthew Bender; James Rakowski

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

214

Western Interconnection Energy Imbalance Market Status and Prospects (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation describes how a new wholesale electricity market for energy imbalance ancillary services could be implemented and operated. Some conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Method for calculating additional reserve requirements due to wind and solar production; (2) EIM results in substantial reduction in reserves requirements and ramping demand; (3) Reduced participation reduces benefits for all but reduces the benefits to non-participants the most; (4) Full participation leads to maximum benefit across the Western Interconnection, up to 42% of total reserve requirement; and (5) Regional EIM implementations have smaller but substantial benefits.

Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; King, J.; Beuning, S.

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

National Electric Transmission Study 2006 Western Interconnection Analysis  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGY TAXBalanced Scorecard Federal2 to:DieselEnergy AuditorWestern Interconnection 2006

216

Interconnection of Direct-drive Wind Turbines Using A Series Connected DC Grid.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This thesis presents the concept of a "distributed HVDC converter" for offshore wind farms. The proposed converter topology allows series interconnection of wind turbines obviatingÖ (more)

Veilleux, Etienne

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Comparing Germany's and California's Interconnection Processes for PV Systems (White Paper)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Establishing interconnection to the grid is a recognized barrier to the deployment of distributed energy generation. This report compares interconnection processes for photovoltaic projects in California and Germany. This report summarizes the steps of the interconnection process for developers and utilities, the average length of time utilities take to process applications, and paperwork required of project developers. Based on a review of the available literature, this report finds that while the interconnection procedures and timelines are similar in California and Germany, differences in the legal and regulatory frameworks are substantial.

Tweedie, A.; Doris, E.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Generation Interconnection Policies and Wind Power: A Discussion of Issues, Problems, and Potential Solutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the adoption and implementation of FERC Order 2003 and the reasons for the sharp rise in generation interconnection filings in recent years.

Porter, K.; Fink, S.; Mudd, C.; DeCesaro, J.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Electrical isolation of component cells in monolithically interconnected modules  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A monolithically interconnected photovoltaic module having cells which are electrically connected which comprises a substrate, a plurality of cells formed over the substrate, each cell including a primary absorber layer having a light receiving surface and a p-region, formed with a p-type dopant, and an n-region formed with an n-type dopant adjacent the p-region to form a single pn-junction, and a cell isolation diode layer having a p-region, formed with a p-type dopant, and an n-region formed with an n-type dopant adjacent the p-region to form a single pn-junction, the diode layer intervening the substrate and the absorber layer wherein the absorber and diode interfacial regions of a same conductivity type orientation, the diode layer having a reverse-breakdown voltage sufficient to prevent inter-cell shunting, and each cell electrically isolated from adjacent cells with a vertical trench trough the pn-junction of the diode layer, interconnects disposed in the trenches contacting the absorber regions of adjacent cells which are doped an opposite conductivity type, and electrical contacts.

Wanlass, Mark W. (Golden, CO)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

On Irregular Interconnect Fabrics for Self-Assembled Nanoscale Electronics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nanoscale electronics and novel fabrication technologies bear unique opportunities for self-assembling multi-billion component systems in a largely random manner, which would likely lower fabrication costs significantly compared to a definite ad hoc assembly. It has been shown that communication networks with the small-world property have major advantages in terms of transport characteristics and robustness over regularly connected systems. In this paper we pragmatically investigate the properties of an irregular, abstract, yet physically plausible small-world interconnect fabric that is inspired by modern network-on-chip paradigms. We vary the framework's key parameters, such as the connectivity, the number of switch blocks, the number of virtual channels, the routing strategy, the distribution of long- and short-range connections, and measure the network's transport characteristics and robustness against failures. We further explore the ability and efficiency to solve two simple toy problems, the synchronization and the density classification task. The results confirm that (1) computation in irregular assemblies is a promising new computing paradigm for nanoscale electronics and (2) that small-world interconnect fabrics have major advantages over local CA-like topologies. Finally, the results will help to make important design decisions for building self-assembled electronics in a largely random manner.

Christof Teuscher

2006-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection tre wecc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Extraction and Modeling of the Optoelectronic Characteristics of an Optical Interconnect Link  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Extraction and Modeling of the Optoelectronic Characteristics of an Optical Interconnect Link a technique that enables the extraction and modeling of some of the channel's optoelectronic characteristics and optoelectronic com- ponents utilized in the link. 1. Introduction In the last decade optical interconnects have

Esener, Sadik C.

222

Predictions, Challenges, and Opportunities in CMOS Compatible On-Chip Optical Interconnect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to a few picoseconds. IV. ELECTRICAL VS. OPTICAL INTERCONNECTS Different criteria used in the design of the . Friedman Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Rochester, Rochester, New York for electrical interconnect. Predictions of the performance of CMOS compatible optical devices are made based

Friedman, Eby G.

223

Plasticity contributions to interface adhesion in thin-film interconnect structures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Plasticity contributions to interface adhesion in thin-film interconnect structures Michael Lanea of plasticity in thin copper layers on the interface fracture resistance in thin-film interconnect structures yield properties together with a plastic flow model for the metal layers were used to predict

Vainchtein, Anna

224

Power Reduction of CMP Communication Networks via RF-Interconnects M-C. Frank Chang  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- alized via integration of Radio Frequency Interconnect (RF- I) through on-chip transmission lines of analog waves over on- chip transmission lines. These technologies include radio fre- quency interconnect latency and low energy consumption [5][7]. RF-I transmission lines provide single-cycle cross

Cong, Jason "Jingsheng"

225

Control Design for Interconnected Power Systems with OLTCs via Robust Decentralized Control  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Control Design for Interconnected Power Systems with OLTCs via Robust Decentralized Control the problem of designing a decentralized control of interconnected power systems, with OLTC and SVCs, under-scale Markov jump parameter systems framework. In this paper, unlike other control schemes, OLTC transformers

Pota, Himanshu Roy

226

Catalytic bipolar interconnection plate for use in a fuel cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A bipolar interconnection plate for use between adjacent fuel cell units in a stacked fuel cell assembly. Each plate is manufactured from an intermetallic composition, examples of which include NiAl or Ni.sub.3 Al which can catalyze steam reforming of hydrocarbons. Distributed within the intermetallic structure of the plate is a ceramic filler composition. The plate includes a first side with gas flow channels therein and a second side with fuel flow channels therein. A protective coating is applied to the first side, with exemplary coatings including strontium-doped or calcium-doped lanthanum chromite. To produce the plate, Ni and Al powders are combined with the filler composition, compressed at a pressure of about 10,000-30,000 psi, and heated to about 600.degree.-1000.degree. C. The coating is then applied to the first side of the completed plate using liquid injection plasma deposition or other deposition techniques.

Lessing, Paul A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Catalytic bipolar interconnection plate for use in a fuel cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A bipolar interconnection plate is described for use between adjacent fuel cell units in a stacked fuel cell assembly. Each plate is manufactured from an intermetallic composition, examples of which include NiAl or Ni{sub 3}Al which can catalyze steam reforming of hydrocarbons. Distributed within the intermetallic structure of the plate is a ceramic filler composition. The plate includes a first side with gas flow channels therein and a second side with fuel flow channels therein. A protective coating is applied to the first side, with exemplary coatings including strontium-doped or calcium-doped lanthanum chromite. To produce the plate, Ni and Al powders are combined with the filler composition, compressed at a pressure of about 10,000--30,000 psi, and heated to about 600--1000 C. The coating is then applied to the first side of the completed plate using liquid injection plasma deposition or other deposition techniques. 6 figs.

Lessing, P.A.

1996-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

228

Geothermal Power and Interconnection: The Economics of Getting to Market  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides a baseline description of the transmission issues affecting geothermal technologies. The report begins with a comprehensive overview of the grid, how it is planned, how it is used, and how it is paid for. The report then overlays onto this 'big picture' three types of geothermal technologies: conventional hydrothermal systems; emerging technologies such as enhanced engineered geothermal systems (EGS) and geopressured geothermal; and geothermal co-production with existing oil and gas wells. Each category of geothermal technology has its own set of interconnection issues, and these are examined separately for each. The report draws conclusions about each technology's market affinities as defined by factors related to transmission and distribution infrastructure. It finishes with an assessment of selected markets with known geothermal potential, identifying those that offer the best prospects for near-term commercial development and for demonstration projects.

Hurlbut, D.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Quantum Dissipative Systems and Feedback Control Design by Interconnection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The purpose of this paper is to extend J.C. Willems' theory of dissipative systems to the quantum domain. This general theory, which combines perspectives from the quantum physics and control engineering communities, provides useful methods for analysis and design of dissipative quantum systems. We describe the interaction of the plant and a class of exosystems in general quantum feedback network terms. Our results include an infinitesimal characterization of the dissipation property, which generalizes the well-known Positive Real and Bounded Real Lemmas, and is used to study some properties of quantum dissipative systems. We also show how to formulate control design problems using quantum network models, which implements Willems' `control by interconnection' for open quantum systems. This control design formulation includes, for example, standard problems of stabilization, regulation, and robust control.

Matthew R. James; John Gough

2009-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

230

Efficient algorithm to compute mutually connected components in interconnected networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mutually connected components (MCCs) play an important role as a measure of resilience in the study of interconnected networks. Despite their importance, an efficient algorithm to obtain physical properties of all MCCs during the removals of links is not available. Here, using a well-known fully-dynamic graph algorithm, we propose an efficient algorithm to accomplish this. We show that the time complexity of this algorithm is approximately $\\mathcal{O}(N^{1.2})$, which is more efficient than the brute-force algorithm with complexity $\\mathcal{O}(N^{2})$. We anticipate this algorithm to allow simulations with complex dynamic rules to research a size regime that was not permitted before.

Hwang, S; Lee, Deokjae; Kahng, B

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Abstract--It is impractical to analyze all of the possible contingencies in a large-scale interconnected power network.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

University. He joined PJM Interconnection as a transmission planning engineer recently. (e-mail: chenq@pjm

McCalley, James D.

232

Seasonal Movements and Spatial Distributions of Common Carp in an Interconnected Glacial Lake System in Eastern South Dakota  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

0 Seasonal Movements and Spatial Distributions of Common Carp in an Interconnected Glacial Lake in an Interconnected Glacial Lake System in Eastern South Dakota This thesis is approved as a creditable Distributions of Common Carp in an Interconnected Glacial Lake System in Eastern South Dakota Matthew J.

233

p r o g r e s s r e p o r t s Interconnect: A Fundamental Constraint  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

p r o g r e s s r e p o r t s Interconnect: A Fundamental Constraint André DeHon e n g e n i o u devices. This shows up most clearly when we need to interconnect physically distinct computa- tional to implement some larger computation or compu- tational structure. The interconnect which links these elements

Haile, Sossina M.

234

Solid oxide fuel cell with internal reforming, catalyzed interconnect for use therewith, and methods  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A catalyzed interconnect for an SOFC electrically connects an anode and an anodic current collector and comprises a metallic substrate, which provides space between the anode and anodic current collector for fuel gas flow over at least a portion of the anode, and a catalytic coating on the metallic substrate comprising a catalyst for catalyzing hydrocarbon fuel in the fuel gas to hydrogen rich reformate. An SOFC including the catalyzed anodic inter-connect, a method for operating an SOFC, and a method for making a catalyzed anodic interconnect are also disclosed.

Liu, Di-Jia; Guan, Jie; Minh, Nguyen

2010-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

235

Nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems: Opportunities, interconnections, and needs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As the U.S. energy system evolves, the amount of electricity from variable-generation sources is likely to increase, which could result in additional times when electricity demand is lower than available production. Thus, purveyors of technologies that traditionally have provided base-load electricityósuch as nuclear power plantsócan explore new operating procedures to deal with the associated market signals. Concurrently, innovations in nuclear reactor design coupled with sophisticated control systems now allow for more complex apportionment of heat within an integrated system such as one linked to energy-intensive chemical processes. This paper explores one opportunity Ė nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems. These are defined as integrated facilities comprised of nuclear reactors, renewable energy generation, and industrial processes that can simultaneously address the need for grid flexibility, greenhouse gas emission reductions, and optimal use of investment capital. Six aspects of interaction (interconnections) between elements of nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems are identified: Thermal, electrical, chemical, hydrogen, mechanical, and information. Additionally, system-level aspects affect selection, design, and operation of this hybrid system type. Throughout the paper, gaps and research needs are identified to promote further exploration of the topic.

Mark F. Ruth; Owen R. Zinaman; Mark Antkowiak; Richard D. Boardman; Robert S. Cherry; Morgan D. Bazilian

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Assessment of Industrial Load for Demand Response across Western Interconnect  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Demand response (DR) has the ability to both increase power grid reliability and potentially reduce operating system costs. Understanding the role of demand response in grid modeling has been difficult due to complex nature of the load characteristics compared to the modeled generation and the variation in load types. This is particularly true of industrial loads, where hundreds of different industries exist with varying availability for demand response. We present a framework considering industrial loads for the development of availability profiles that can provide more regional understanding and can be inserted into analysis software for further study. The developed framework utilizes a number of different informational resources, algorithms, and real-world measurements to perform a bottom-up approach in the development of a new database with representation of the potential demand response resource in the industrial sector across the U.S. This tool houses statistical values of energy and demand response (DR) potential by industrial plant and geospatially locates the information for aggregation for different territories without proprietary information. This report will discuss this framework and the analyzed quantities of demand response for Western Interconnect (WI) in support of evaluation of the cost production modeling with power grid modeling efforts of demand response.

Alkadi, Nasr E [ORNL; Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Ma, Ookie [United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Pulsed laser planarization of metal films for multilevel interconnects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Multilevel interconnect schemes for integrated circuits generally require one or more planarization steps, in order to maintain an acceptably flat topography for lithography and thin-film step coverage on the higher levels. Traditional approaches have involved planarization of the interlevel insulation (dielectric) layers, either by spin-on application (e.g., polyimide), or by reflow (e.g., phosphosilicate glass). We have pursued an alternative approach, in which each metal level is melted (hence planarized) using a pulsed laser prior to patterning. Short (approx.1 ..mu..s) pulses are used to preclude undesirable metallurgical reactions between the film, adhesion or barrier layer, and dielectric layer. Laser planarization of metals is particularly well suited to multilevel systems which include ground or power planes. Results are presented for planarization of gold films on SiO/sub 2/ dielectric layers using a flashlamp-pumped dye laser. The pulse duration is approx.1 ..mu..s, which allows the heat pulse to uniformly penetrate the gold while not penetrating substantially through the underlying SiO/sub 2/ (hence not perturbing the lower levels of metal). Excellent planarization of the gold films is achieved (less than 0.1 ..mu..m surface roughness, even starting with extreme topographic variations), as well as improved conductivity. To demonstrate the process, numerous planarized two-layer structures (transmission lines under a ground plane) were fabricated and characterized. 9 refs., 2 figs.

Tuckerman, D.B.; Schmitt, R.L.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS): Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides an independent review included an initial evaluation of the technical configuration and capital costs of establishing an undersea cable system and examining impacts to the existing electric transmission systems as a result of interconnecting the islands.

Woodford, D.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Energy Scalability of On-Chip Interconnection Networks in Multicore Architectures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

On-chip interconnection networks (OCNs) such as point-to-point networks and buses form the communication backbone in systems-on-a-chip, multicore processors, and tiled processors. OCNs can consume significant portions of ...

Agarwal, Anant

2008-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

240

Modeling and Analysis of Large-Scale On-Chip Interconnects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in computer aided design areas. This dissertation presents new methodologies for addressing the above two important challenging issues for large scale on-chip interconnect modeling and analysis: In the past, the standard statistical circuit modeling techniques...

Feng, Zhuo

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection tre wecc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Reliability of Multi-Terminal Copper Dual-Damascene Interconnect Trees  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electromigration tests on different Cu dual-damascene interconnect tree structures consisting of various numbers of straight via-to-via lines connected at the common middle terminal have been carried out. Like Al-based ...

Gan, C.L.

242

Determination of Interfacial Adhesion Strength between Oxide Scale and Substrate for Metallic SOFC Interconnects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The interfacial adhesion strength between the oxide scale and the substrate is crucial to the reliability and durability of metallic interconnects in SOFC operating environments. It is necessary, therefore, to establish a methodology to quantify the interfacial adhesion strength between the oxide scale and the metallic interconnect substrate, and furthermore to design and optimize the interconnect material as well as the coating materials to meet the design life of an SOFC system. In this paper, we present an integrated experimental/analytical methodology for quantifying the interfacial adhesion strength between oxide scale and a ferritic stainless steel interconnect. Stair-stepping indentation tests are used in conjunction with subsequent finite element analyses to predict the interfacial strength between the oxide scale and Crofer 22 APU substrate.

Sun, Xin; Liu, Wenning N.; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2008-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

243

Fast Algorithms for High Frequency Interconnect Modeling in VLSI Circuits and Packages  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to handle multiple dielectrics and magnetic materials. In this research, we solve three problems in interconnect modeling for high frequency circuits and packages. 1) Multiple dielectrics are common in integrated circuits and packages. We propose the first...

Yi, Yang

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

244

ACTIVE SUBSTRATES FOR OPTOELECTRONIC INTERCONNECT Donald Chiarulli, Steven Levitan, Jason Bakos  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACTIVE SUBSTRATES FOR OPTOELECTRONIC INTERCONNECT Donald Chiarulli, Steven Levitan, Jason Bakos Semiconductor ABSTRACT We present the design of an intelligent optoelectronic chip carrier (IOCC the sapphire. The result is an optoelectronic package that supports full CMOS performance, is mechanically

Bakos, Jason D.

245

Process based cost modeling of emerging optoelectronic interconnects : implications for material platform choice  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Continuously increasing demand for processing power, storage capacity, and I/O capacity in personal computing, data network, and display interface suggests that optical interconnects may soon supplant copper not only for ...

Liu, Shan, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

High-performance parallel processors based on star-coupled wavelength division multiplexing optical interconnects  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

As the performance of individual elements within parallel processing systems increases, increased communication capability between distributed processor and memory elements is required. There is great interest in using fiber optics to improve interconnect communication beyond that attainable using electronic technology. Several groups have considered WDM, star-coupled optical interconnects. The invention uses a fiber optic transceiver to provide low latency, high bandwidth channels for such interconnects using a robust multimode fiber technology. Instruction-level simulation is used to quantify the bandwidth, latency, and concurrency required for such interconnects to scale to 256 nodes, each operating at 1 GFLOPS performance. Performance scales have been shown to .apprxeq.100 GFLOPS for scientific application kernels using a small number of wavelengths (8 to 32), only one wavelength received per node, and achievable optoelectronic bandwidth and latency.

Deri, Robert J. (Pleasanton, CA); DeGroot, Anthony J. (Castro Valley, CA); Haigh, Ronald E. (Arvada, CO)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Record of Decision for the Electrical Interconnection of the Windy Point Wind Energy Project.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has decided to offer contract terms for interconnection of 250 megawatts (MW) of power to be generated by the proposed Windy Point Wind Energy Project (Wind Project) into the Federal Columbia River Transmission System (FCRTS). Windy Point Partners, LLC (WPP) propose to construct and operate the proposed Wind Project and has requested interconnection to the FCRTS. The Wind Project will be interconnected at BPA's Rock Creek Substation, which is under construction in Klickitat County, Washington. The Rock Creek Substation will provide transmission access for the Wind Project to BPA's Wautoma-John Day No.1 500-kilovolt (kV) transmission line. BPA's decision to offer terms to interconnect the Wind Project is consistent with BPA's Business Plan Final Environmental Impact Statement (BP EIS) (DOE/EIS-0183, June 1995), and the Business Plan Record of Decision (BP ROD, August 15, 1995). This decision thus is tiered to the BP ROD.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Interconnection of on-site photovoltaic generation to the electric utility. [Conference paper  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electrical interconnection with the local electric utility of small, privately owned, on-site photovoltaic generating systems will be necessary. Legal guidelines exist through PURPA, administered by FERC, to establish interconnection, but economic viability will be the deciding factor in constructing photovoltaic generating systems. Although nationally recognized technical standards do not yet exist for interconnecting photovoltaic generation with an electric utility, most utilities have considered the need for developing cogeneration standards, and a few have developed such standards independently. Additional costs incurred by utilities in providing service interconnections to customers with cogeneration will be passed along to those customers, either as a direct assessment or as part of the applicable rate schedule. An economic-analysis methodology has been developed to allow comparing various possible photovoltaic-generating-system configurations under different utility rate structures and varying economic climates on a consistent basis.

Eichler, C.H.; Kilar, L.A.; Stiller, P.H.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

EIS-0438: Interconnection of the Proposed Hermosa West Wind Farm Project, Albany County, Wyoming  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

After the applicant withdrew its request to interconnect the proposed Hermosa West Wind Farm Project with Western Area Power Administrationís transmission system, Western cancelled preparation of an EIS to evaluate the potential environmental impacts of the proposal.

250

ELECTRIFICATION OF ISOLATED AREAS BY INTERCONNECTING DIFFERENT RENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY: A SUSTANAIBLE APPROACH  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

development integration of different aspects: > human > social > technical > economic > environmental FirstELECTRIFICATION OF ISOLATED AREAS BY INTERCONNECTING DIFFERENT RENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY intend to join their efforts to develop a technique to generate electricity from primary renewable

251

Relevance of Generation Interconnection Procedures to Feed-in Tariffs in the United States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Feed-in tariffs (FITs) have been used to promote renewable electricity development in over 40 countries throughout the past two decades. These policies generally provide guaranteed prices for the full system output from eligible generators for a fixed time period (typically 15-20 years). Due in part to the success of FIT policies in Europe, some jurisdictions in the United States are considering implementing similar policies, and a few have already put such policies in place. This report is intended to offer some guidance to policymakers and regulators on how generator interconnection procedures may affect the implementation of FITs and how state generator interconnection procedures can be formulated to support state renewable energy objectives. This report is based on a literature review of model interconnection procedures formulated by several organizations, as well as other documents that have reviewed, commented on, and in some cases, ranked state interconnection procedures.

Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Rogers, J.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Design of a decentralized detection filter for a class of interconnected LTI systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this thesis, we consider the problem of designing a decentralized detection filter for a class of homogeneous interconnected systems. In this class of systems, all subsystems have an identical structure. A fault in a subsystem propagates via...

Shankar, Shamanth

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

The Influence of Adjacent Segment on the Reliability of Cu Dual Damascene Interconnects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Three terminal ‚??dotted-Ií interconnect structures, with vias at both ends and an additional via in the middle, were tested under various test conditions. Mortalities (failures) were found in right segments with jL value ...

Chang, Choon Wai

254

Guest Editorial for Special Issue on High-Performance Multichip Interconnections  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The ten papers in this special issue focus on high-performance multichip interconnections. The papers span novel transmitter and receiver equalization and data-recovery architectures, channel architecture organizations, ...

Stojanovic, Vladimir Marko

255

Reliable low latency I/O in torus-based interconnection networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In today's high performance computing environment I/O remains the main bottleneck in achieving the optimal performance expected of the ever improving processor and memory technologies. Interconnection networks therefore combines processing units...

Azeez, Babatunde

2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

256

Fully Integrated Graphene and Carbon Nanotube Interconnects for Gigahertz High-Speed Cmos Electronics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon-based nanomaterials such as metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), and graphene have been considered as some of the most promising candidates for future interconnect technology ...

Chen, Xiangyu

257

EIS-0437: Interconnection of the Buffalo Ridge III Wind Project, Brookings and Deuel Counties, South Dakota  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This EIS evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to interconnect the Heartland Wind, LLC, proposed Buffalo Ridge III Wind Project in Brookings and Deuel Counties, South Dakota, to DOEís Western Area Power Administration transmission system.

258

Priority Based Switch Allocator in Adaptive Physical Channel Regulator for On Chip Interconnects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chip multiprocessors (CMPs) are now popular design paradigm for microprocessors due to their power, performance and complexity advantages where a number of relatively simple cores are integrated on a single die. On chip interconnection network (No...

Mahapatra, Sonali

2014-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

259

Reuse Distance Based Circuit Replacement in Silicon Photonic Interconnection Networks for HPC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-scale distance, can help to further scale data-movement capabilities in high performance computing (HPC demands within high performance computing (HPC) systems. Silicon photonic (SiP) interconnects [1-3], which

Bergman, Keren

260

Phase 2 Report: Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS); Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides an independent review including an initial evaluation of the technical configuration and capital costs of establishing an undersea cable system and examining impacts to the existing electric transmission systems as a result of interconnecting the islands

Woodford, D.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection tre wecc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Demonstration of monolithically integrated graphene interconnects for low-power CMOS applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In recent years, interconnects have become an increasingly difficult design challenge as their relative performance has not improved at the same pace with transistor scaling. The specifications for complex features, clock ...

Lee, Kyeong-Jae

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Innovative Distributed Power Grid Interconnection and Control Systems: Final Report, December 11, 2000 - August 30, 2005  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The contract goal was to further advance distributed generation in the marketplace by making installations more cost-effective and compatible with existing systems. This was achieved by developing innovative grid interconnection and control systems.

DePodesta, K.; Birlingmair, D.; West, R.

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Renewable Generation and Interconnection to the Electrical Grid in Southern California  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation covers the topic of "Renewable Generation and Interconnection to the Electrical Grid in Southern California," given at the Spring 2010 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting in Providence, Rhode Island.

264

E-Print Network 3.0 - at-speed interconnect bist Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: at-speed interconnect bist Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC TESTING: Theory and Applications 19,...

265

Pricing Games among Interconnected Microgrids Gaurav S. Kasbekar and Saswati Sarkar  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Pricing Games among Interconnected Microgrids Gaurav S. Kasbekar and Saswati Sarkar Abstract than, less than or as much aggregate power as it requires. G. Kasbekar and S. Sarkar

Sarkar, Saswati

266

ELECTR-5939; No of Pages 6 Please cite this article in press as: A. Sopinka, Variable Energy Resources: VERy Interesting Implications for the Western Interconnect, Electr. J. (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tej.2013.04.015  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Resources: VERy Interesting Implications for the Western Interconnect, Electr. J. (2013), http Interconnect Variable energy resources (VERs) are growing in the Western Interconnect. To backstop The North American bulk power system is comprised of four interconnected regions: the Western Interconnect

Pedersen, Tom

267

THOR Concept Complex simulation Autonomous control Conclusion Interconnection of the behavior-based control  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Schmidt Interconnection of iB2C and a detailed machine model rrlab.cs.uni-kl.de 2 #12;THOR Concept Complex of iB2C and a detailed machine model rrlab.cs.uni-kl.de 3 #12;THOR Concept Complex simulation Schmidt Interconnection of iB2C and a detailed machine model rrlab.cs.uni-kl.de 5 #12;THOR Concept Complex

Berns, Karsten

268

Upgrade of the LHC magnet interconnections thermal shielding  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The about 1700 interconnections (ICs) between the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) superconducting magnets include thermal shielding at 50-75 K, providing continuity to the thermal shielding of the magnet cryostats to reduce the overall radiation heat loads to the 1.9 K helium bath of the magnets. The IC shield, made of aluminum, is conduction-cooled via a welded bridge to the thermal shield of the adjacent magnets which is actively cooled. TIG welding of these bridges made in the LHC tunnel at installation of the magnets induced a considerable risk of fire hazard due to the proximity of the multi-layer insulation of the magnet shields. A fire incident occurred in one of the machine sectors during machine installation, but fortunately with limited consequences thanks to prompt intervention of the operators. LHC is now undergoing a 2 years technical stop during which all magnet's ICs will have to be opened to consolidate the magnet electrical connections. The IC thermal shields will therefore have to be removed and re-installed after the work is completed. In order to eliminate the risk of fire hazard when re-welding, it has been decided to review the design of the IC shields, by replacing the welded bridges with a mechanical clamping which also preserves its thermal function. An additional advantage of this new solution is the ease in dismantling for maintenance, and eliminating weld-grinding operations at removal needing radioprotection measures because of material activation after long-term operation of the LHC. This paper describes the new design of the IC shields and in particular the theoretical and experimental validation of its thermal performance. Furthermore a status report of the on-going upgrade work in the LHC is given.

Musso, Andrea; Barlow, Graeme; Bastard, Alain; Charrondiere, Maryline; Deferne, Guy; Dib, GaŽlle; Duret, Max; Guinchard, Michael; Prin, Hervť; Craen, Arnaud Vande; Villiger, Gilles [CERN European Organization for Nuclear Research, Meyrin 1211, Geneva 23, CH (Switzerland); Chrul, Anna [The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul.Radzikowskiego 152, 31-324 Krakow (Poland); Damianoglou, Dimitrios [NTUA National Technical University of Athens, Heeron Polytechniou 9, 15780 Zografou (Greece); Strychalski, Micha? [Wroclaw University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Wyb. Wyspianskiego 27, Wroclaw, 50-370 (Poland); Wright, Loren [Lancaster University, Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4YW (United Kingdom)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

269

Revised Record of Decision for the Electrical Interconnection of the Summit/Westward Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has decided to amend its July 25, 2003, Record of Decision (ROD) regarding the proposed Summit/Westward Project (Project) to offer contract terms for an optional interconnection of this Project into the Federal Columbia River Transmission System (FCRTS). Under this optional interconnection plan, BPA would integrate electric power from the Project into the FCRTS at a point adjacent to Clatskanie People's Utility District (CPUD) existing Wauna Substation. In order to deliver power to this location, CPUD would develop a new substation (Bradbury Substation) at a site near the Project and a new 230-kV transmission line from there to CPUD's Wauna Substation, which is already connected to the FCRTS. As part of this revised decision, BPA will facilitate CPUD development of the Bradbury-Wauna transmission line by allowing joint use of BPA right-of-way. This will involve reconstructing a section of BPA's 115-kV Allston-Astoria No. 1 transmission line from single-circuit H-frame wood-pole design to double-circuit single metal pole design. Terms of BPA participation in CPUD's development of the Bradbury-Wauna transmission line will be documented in a Construction Agreement. This optional interconnection plan is in addition to BPA's previous offer for interconnection of the Project at BPA's Allston Substation, as documented in the July 25, 2003, ROD. As with the initial interconnection plan, the decision to offer terms to interconnect the Project through the optional interconnection plan is consistent with BPA's Business Plan Final Environmental Impact Statement (BP EIS) (DOE/EIS-0183, June 1995), and the Business Plan Record of Decision (BP ROD, August 1995). This decision thus is similarly tiered to the Business Plan ROD.

N /A

2004-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

270

Plastic deformation in Al (Cu) interconnects stressed by electromigration and studied by synchrotron polychromatic X-ray microdiffraction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Plastic deformation in Al (Cu) interconnects stressed bygrain orientation [7], study plastic deformation [12-15] andThis aspect of EM-induced plastic deformation in grains

Chen, Kai; Advanced Light Source; UCLA

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Thin-film chip-to-substrate interconnect and methods for making same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Integrated circuit chips are electrically connected to a silica wafer interconnection substrate. Thin film wiring is fabricated down bevelled edges of the chips. A subtractive wire fabrication method uses a series of masks and etching steps to form wires in a metal layer. An additive method direct laser writes or deposits very thin metal lines which can then be plated up to form wires. A quasi-additive or subtractive/additive method forms a pattern of trenches to expose a metal surface which can nucleate subsequent electrolytic deposition of wires. Low inductance interconnections on a 25 micron pitch (1600 wires on a 1 cm square chip) can be produced. The thin film hybrid interconnect eliminates solder joints or welds, and minimizes the levels of metallization. Advantages include good electrical properties, very high wiring density, excellent backside contact, compactness, and high thermal and mechanical reliability.

Tuckerman, David B. (Livermore, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Thin-film chip-to-substrate interconnect and methods for making same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Integrated circuit chips are electrically connected to a silicon wafer interconnection substrate. Thin film wiring is fabricated down bevelled edges of the chips. A subtractive wire fabrication method uses a series of masks and etching steps to form wires in a metal layer. An additive method direct laser writes or deposits very thin lines which can then be plated up to form wires. A quasi-additive or subtractive/additive method forms a pattern of trenches to expose a metal surface which can nucleate subsequent electrolytic deposition of wires. Low inductance interconnections on a 25 micron pitch (1600 wires on a 1 cm square chip) can be produced. The thin film hybrid interconnect eliminates solder joints or welds, and minimizes the levels of metallization. Advantages include good electrical properties, very high wiring density, excellent backside contact, compactness, and high thermal and mechanical reliability. 6 figs.

Tuckerman, D.B.

1988-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

273

Interconnections between various analytic approaches applicable to third-order nonlinear differential equations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We unearth the interconnection between various analytical methods which are widely used in the current literature to identify integrable nonlinear dynamical systems described by third-order nonlinear ordinary differentiable equations (ODEs). We establish an important interconnection between extended Prelle-Singer procedure and {\\lambda}-symmetries approach applicable to third-order ODEs to bring out the various linkages associated with these different techniques. By establishing this interconnection we demonstrate that given any one of the quantities as a starting point in the family consisting of Jacobi last multipliers, Darboux polynomials, Lie point symmetries, adjoint-symmetries, {\\lambda}-symmetries, integrating factors and null forms one can derive the rest of the quantities in this family in a straightforward and unambiguous manner. We also illustrate our findings with three specific examples.

R. Mohanasubha; V. K. Chandrasekar; M. Senthilvelan; M. Lakshmanan

2015-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

274

Development of Readout Interconnections for the Si-W Calorimeter of SiD  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The SiD collaboration is developing a Si-W sampling electromagnetic calorimeter, with anticipated application for the International Linear Collider. Assembling the modules for such a detector will involve special bonding technologies for the interconnections, especially for attaching a silicon detector wafer to a flex cable readout bus. We review the interconnect technologies involved, including oxidation removal processes, pad surface preparation, solder ball selection and placement, and bond quality assurance. Our results show that solder ball bonding is a promising technique for the Si-W ECAL, and unresolved issues are being addressed.

Woods, M.; Fields, R.G.; Holbrook, B.; Lander, R.L.; Moskaleva, A.; Neher, C.; Pasner, J.; Tripathi, M.; /UC, Davis; Brau, J.E.; Frey, R.E.; Strom, D.; /Oregon U.; Breidenbach, M.; Freytag, D.; Haller, G.; Herbst, R.; Nelson, T.; /SLAC; Schier, S.; Schumm, B.; /UC, Santa Cruz

2012-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

275

Proposal to negotiate amendments to an existing contract for the assembly of interconnections for the LHC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This document concerns the proposal to negotiate amendments to the existing contract for the assembly of interconnections for the LHC. For the reasons explained in this document, the Finance Committee is invited to approve amendments to the existing contract with the consortium INEO (FR), ENDEL (FR) and GTI (NL) for the assembly of interconnections for the LHC for a total amount of 5 181 403 euros (8 095 424 Swiss francs), subject to revision, bringing the total amount of the contract to a maximum of 14 974 239 euros (23 395 751 Swiss francs), subject to revision. The amounts in Swiss francs have been calculated using the present rate of exchange.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Method of bonding an interconnection layer on an electrode of an electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrochemical cell containing an air electrode, contacting electrolyte and electronically conductive interconnection layer, and a fuel electrode, has the interconnection layer attached by: (A) applying a thin, closely packed, discrete layer of LaCrO[sub 3] particles, doped with an element selected from the group consisting of Ca, Sr, Co, Ba, Mg and their mixtures on a portion of the air electrode, and then (B) electrochemical vapor depositing a dense skeletal structure between and around the doped LaCrO[sub 3] particles. 2 figs.

Pal, U.B.; Isenberg, A.O.; Folser, G.R.

1992-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

277

Wind/PV Generation for Frequency Regulation and Oscillation Damping in the Eastern Interconnection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the control of renewable energy sources, including the variable-speed wind generators and solar photovoltaic (PV) generators, for frequency regulation and inter-area oscillation damping in the U.S. Eastern Interconnection (EI). In this report, based on the user-defined wind/PV generator electrical control model and the 16,000-bus Eastern Interconnection dynamic model, the additional controllers for frequency regulation and inter-area oscillation damping are developed and incorporated and the potential contributions of renewable energy sources to the EI system frequency regulation and inter-area oscillation damping are evaluated.

Liu, Yong [The University of Tennessee, Knoxville; Gracia, Jose R [ORNL; Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; Liu, Yilu [ORNL

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Development of Readout Interconnections for the Si-W Calorimeter of SiD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The SiD collaboration is developing a Si-W sampling electromagnetic calorimeter, with anticipated application for the International Linear Collider. Assembling the modules for such a detector will involve special bonding technologies for the interconnections, especially for attaching a silicon detector wafer to a flex cable readout bus. We review the interconnect technologies involved, including oxidation removal processes, pad surface preparation, solder ball selection and placement, and bond quality assurance. Our results show that solder ball bonding is a promising technique for the Si-W ECAL, and unresolved issues are being addressed.

M. Woods; R. G. Fields; B. Holbrook; R. L. Lander; A. Moskaleva; C. Neher; J. Pasner; M. Tripathi; J. E. Brau; R. E. Frey; D. Strom; M. Breidenbach; D. Freytag; G. Haller; R. Herbst; T. Nelson; S. Schier; B. Schumm

2011-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

279

Long-Distance Interconnection as Solar Resource Intermittency Solution: Optimizing the Use of Energy Storage and the Geographic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Energy Storage and the Geographic Dispersion + Interconnection of Solar Generating Facilities. Marc J. R energy targets. Variability of the solar resource occurs across many different temporal scales: from energy storage and Long-distance interconnection coupled with geographic dispersion of solar generating

280

Impact of Wind Turbine Penetration on the Dynamic Performance of Interconnected Power Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to stability problems caused by wind power integration. In the grid impact studies of wind power integrationImpact of Wind Turbine Penetration on the Dynamic Performance of Interconnected Power Systems M. J connected to a higher voltage level, their impact is becoming more widespread. The European Wind Energy

Pota, Himanshu Roy

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection tre wecc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Can Software Reliability Outperform Hardware Reliability in High-Performance Interconnects?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Can Software Reliability Outperform Hardware Reliability in High-Performance Interconnects? A Case, Myrinet, InfiniBand, and others HPC networks are generally quite reliable without additional protocols link With this in mind, how should reliability be implemented? 3 #12;Onload or Offload? Some networks

Panda, Dhabaleswar K.

282

Changing photovoltaic array interconnections to reduce mismatch losses: a case study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) ­ Grenoble, France **Grupo de Investigacion y Desarollo en Energia Solar y Automatica (IDEA) ­ Jaén, Spain a wide variety of plants ranging from utility-sized solar trackers to residential building-integrated PV, resulting in lower energy production yields. The traditional series-parallel interconnection scheme of solar

Boyer, Edmond

283

Interconnected Slums: Water, Sanitation and Health in Abidjan, Co^te d'Ivoire  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Interconnected Slums: Water, Sanitation and Health in Abidjan, Co^te d'Ivoire BRIGIT OBRIST, GUE contributed to this paper are: Gue¬īladio Cisse¬ī (Centre Suisse de Recherches Scientifiques, Abidjan, Co^te d'Ivoire¬ītude de cas comparative, il examine les re¬īponses aux proble`mes environnementaux dans un contexte aussi

Richner, Heinz

284

Transparent, Low Power Optical WDM Interface for Off-Chip Interconnects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and other related circuitry (e.g. for thermal stability). In CMOS technology [6], the total power dissipated static power dissipation of the interface. The dynamic power is proportional to the gate capacitance (CTransparent, Low Power Optical WDM Interface for Off-Chip Interconnects Odile Liboiron

Bergman, Keren

285

An energy vision: the transformation towards sustainability --interconnected challenges and solutions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(RCPs) [2 ], the International Energy Agency's World Energy Outlook [3,4 ], and several modeAn energy vision: the transformation towards sustainability -- interconnected challenges Nilsson8 and KR Smith9 The energy system is currently facing a number of challenges, most notably high

Silver, Whendee

286

Optimization of Interconnects Between Accelerators and Shared Memories in Dark Silicon Jason Cong and Bingjun Xiao  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optimization of Interconnects Between Accelerators and Shared Memories in Dark Silicon Jason Cong, 90095 {cong, xiao}@cs.ucla.edu Abstract--Application-specific accelerators provide orders-of- magnitude improvement in energy-efficiency over CPUs, and accelerator-rich computing platforms are showing promise

Cong, Jason "Jingsheng"

287

Selection and Evaluation of Heat-Resistant Alloys for Planar SOFC Interconnect Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Over the past several years, the steady reduction in SOFC operating temperatures to the intermediate range of 700~850oC [1] has made it feasible for lanthanum chromite to be supplanted by metals or alloys as the interconnect materials. Compared to doped lanthanum chromite, metals or alloys offer significantly lower raw material and fabrication costs. However, to be a durable and reliable, a metal or alloy has to satisfy several functional requirements specific to the interconnect under SOFC operating conditions. Specifically, the interconnect metal or alloy should possess the following properties: (i) Good surface stability (resistance to oxidation, hot corrosion, and carburization) in both cathodic (air) and anodic (fuel) atmospheres; (ii) Thermal expansion matching to the ceramic PEN (positive cathode-electrolyte-negative anode) and seal materials (as least for a rigid seal design); (iii) High electrical conductivity through both the bulk material and in-situ formed oxide scales; (iv) Bulk and interfacial thermal mechanical reliability and durability at the operating temperature; (v) Compatibility with other materials in contact with interconnects such as seals and electrical contact materials.

Yang, Z Gary; Weil, K. Scott; Paxton, Dean M.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

2002-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

288

Risk analysis via heterogeneous models of SCADA interconnecting Power Grids and Telco Networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for an electrical power distribution grid. The modeling techniques we discuss aim at providing a probabilistic demonstrate their applicability by modeling and #12;analyzing an actual SCADA system for an electrical powerRisk analysis via heterogeneous models of SCADA interconnecting Power Grids and Telco Networks A

Tronci, Enrico

289

EA-1884: Invenergy Interconnection for the Wray Wind Energy Project, Town of Wray, Yuma County, CO  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOEís Western Area Power Administration is preparing this EA to evaluate the environmental impacts of interconnecting the proposed Wray Wind Energy Project, for approximately 90 megawatts of wind generation, to Westernís existing Wray Substation in Yuma County, Colorado.

290

Modeling and Simulation Environment for Photonic Interconnection Networks in High Performance Computing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at the scale of high performance computer clusters and warehouse scale data centers, system level simulations and results for rack scale photonic interconnection networks for high performance computing. Keywords: optical to the newsworthy power consumption [3], latency [4] and bandwidth challenges [5] of high performance computing (HPC

Bergman, Keren

291

Solid oxide fuel cell with single material for electrodes and interconnect  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid oxide fuel cell is described having a plurality of individual cells. A solid oxide fuel cell has an anode and a cathode with electrolyte disposed there between, and the anode, cathode and interconnect elements are comprised of substantially one material. 9 figs.

McPheeters, C.C.; Nelson, P.A.; Dees, D.W.

1994-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

292

CarPal: interconnecting overlay networks for a community-driven shared mobility  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CarPal: interconnecting overlay networks for a community-driven shared mobility VincenzoName.lastName@sophia.inria.fr Abstract. Car sharing and car pooling have proven to be an effective solution to reduce the amount of such effectiveness. Keywords. Peer to peer, overlay networks, case study, information retrieval, car sharing 1

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

293

Optically Interconnected Data Center Architecture for Bandwidth Intensive Energy Efficient Networking  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optically Interconnected Data Center Architecture for Bandwidth Intensive Energy Efficient) 854 2900, e-mail: howard@ee.columbia.edu ABSTRACT The relentless rise of data-intensive cloud will either be prohibitively costly, overly complex, or result in unsustainable energy requirements. Network

Bergman, Keren

294

EIS-0485: Interconnection of the Grande Prairie Wind Farm, Holt County, Nebraska  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOEís Western Area Power Administration is preparing an EIS to evaluate the environmental impacts of interconnecting the proposed Grande Prairie Wind Farm, in Holt County, near OíNeill, Nebraska, to Westernís power transmission system. The project website is http://www.wapa.gov/ugp/Environment/GrandePrairie.htm.

295

Interconnection phenomena in $W^+W^-$ and $t\\bar t$ events  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I will attempt to survey some selected physics issues on QCD interconnection phenomena in the processes $e^+e^-\\to W^+W^-\\to$ 4 jets and $e^+e^-\\to t\\bar t \\to b W^+\\bar b W^-$. Possible consequences for LEP2 and future linear $e^+e^-$ colliders are briefly discussed.

Valery A. Khoze

1998-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

296

Synthesis of electrical networks interconnecting PZT actuators to damp mechanical vibrations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper proves that it is possible to damp mechanical vibrations of some beam frames by means of piezoelectric actuators interconnected via passive networks. We create a kind of electromechanical wave guide where the electrical velocity group equals the mechanical one thus enabling an electromechanical energy transfer. Numerical simulations are presented which prove the technical feasibility of proposed device

F. dell'Isola; E. G. Henneke; M. Porfiri

2010-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

297

Advanced Unit Commitment Strategies for the U.S. Eastern Interconnection: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper outlines a study undertaken for the U.S. Eastern Interconnection in which different advanced unit commitment strategies were simulated for three different years to evaluate the benefits that may occur from using these strategies as an operational tool.

Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; Meibom, P.; Barth, R.; Tuohy, A.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

HVDC Control Strategies to Improve Transient Stability in Interconnected Power Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HVDC Control Strategies to Improve Transient Stability in Interconnected Power Systems J. Hazra Dpt of Li`ege, Belgium, dernst@ulg.ac.be Abstract--This paper presents three HVDC modulation strate- gies flow settings through the HVDC-links. The proposed techniques are tested on the IEEE 24-Bus reliability

Boyer, Edmond

299

Transient Analysis of a CMOS Inverter Driving Resistive Interconnect Kevin T. Tang and Eby G. Friedman  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are characterized by the th power law model. In order to emphasize the nonlinear behavior of a CMOS inverterTransient Analysis of a CMOS Inverter Driving Resistive Interconnect Kevin T. Tang and Eby G. Friedman Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Rochester Rochester, New York

Friedman, Eby G.

300

A Self-Reconfigurable Lightweight Interconnect for Scalable Processor Fabrics Heiner Giefers and Marco Platzner  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, energy, and execution time. Therefore it is of high interest to also study alternative interconnects compile-time informa- tion and reconfigures the global network due to program demands. We consider data of the switch's ports. Communication within a sub-bus is established by broadcasting to the bus segment

Hellebrand, Sybille

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection tre wecc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Application Of Ti-Based Self-Formation Barrier Layers To Cu Dual-Damascene Interconnects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cu interconnects have been used extensively in ULSI devices. However, large resistance-capacitance delay and poor device reliability have been critical issues as the device feature size has reduced to nanometer scale. In order to achieve low resistance and high reliability of Cu interconnects, we have applied a thin Ti-based self-formed barrier (SFB) using Cu(Ti) alloy seed to 45nm-node dual damascene interconnects and evaluated its performance. The line resistance and via resistance decreased significantly, compared with those of conventional Ta/TaN barriers. The stress migration performance was also drastically improved using the SFB process. A performance of time dependent dielectric breakdown revealed superior endurance. These results suggest that the Ti-based SFB process is one of the most promising candidates for advanced Cu interconnects. TEM and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy observations for characterization of the Ti-based SFB structure were also performed. The Ti-based SFB consisted of mainly amorphous Ti oxides. Amorphous or crystalline Ti compounds such as TiC, TiN, and TiSi formed beneath Cu alloy films, and the formation varied with dielectric.

Ito, Kazuhiro; Kohama, Kazuyuki [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Ohmori, Kazuyuki; Mori, Kenichi; Maekawa, Kazuyoshi; Asai, Koyu [Process Technology Div., Renesas Electronics Corporation, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki 312-8504 (Japan); Murakami, Masanori [The Ritsumeikan Trust, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto 604-8520 (Japan)

2010-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

302

Effect of Via Separationand Low-k Dielectric Materials on the Thermal Characteristics of Cu Interconnects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effect of Via Separationand Low-k Dielectric Materials on the Thermal Characteristics of Cu in low-k based interconnect structures by providing lower thermal resistance paths. In this paper that the temperature is highly dependent on the via separation. A 3-D electro-thermal simulation methodology using

303

WHAT IS A NETWORK? (Gas and Electricity) A complex, interconnected group or  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

WHAT IS A NETWORK? (Gas and Electricity) A complex, interconnected group or system Electricity and Gas: A system used to distribute electricity and gas around the world/certain area, by compromising to minimise costs and generate the most electricity and gas as possible, which maximises profits

Wright, Francis

304

Phase 1 - Evaluation of a Functional Interconnect System for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project is focused on evaluating the suitability of materials and complex multi-materials systems for use as solid oxide fuel cell interconnects. ATI Allegheny Ludlum has generated promising results for interconnect materials which incorporate modified surfaces. Methods for producing these surfaces include cladding, which permits the use of novel materials, and modifications via unique thermomechanical processing, which allows for the modification of materials chemistry. The University of Pittsburgh is assisting in this effort by providing use of their in-place facilities for dual atmosphere testing and ASR measurements, along with substantial work to characterize post-exposure specimens. Carnegie Mellon is testing interconnects for chromia scale spallation resistance using macro-scale and nano-scale indentation tests. Chromia spallation can increase electrical resistance to unacceptable levels and interconnect systems must be developed that will not experience spallation within 40,000 hours at operating temperatures. Spallation is one of three interconnect failure mechanisms, the others being excessive growth of the chromia scale (increasing electrical resistance) and scale evaporation (which can poison the cathode). The goal of indentation fracture testing at Carnegie Mellon is to accelerate the evaluation of new interconnect systems (by inducing spalls at after short exposure times) and to use fracture mechanics to understand mechanisms leading to premature interconnect failure by spallation. Tests include bare alloys from ATI and coated systems from DOE Laboratories and industrial partners, using ATI alloy substrates. West Virginia University is working towards developing a cost-effective material for use as a contact material in the cathode chamber of the SOFC. Currently materials such as platinum are well suited for this purpose, but are cost-prohibitive. For the solid-oxide fuel cell to become a commercial reality it is imperative that lower cost components be developed. Based on the results obtained to date, it appears that sterling silver could be an inexpensive, dependable candidate for use as a contacting material in the cathode chamber of the solid-oxide fuel cell. Although data regarding pure silver samples show a lower rate of thickness reduction, the much lower cost of sterling silver makes it an attractive alternative for use in SOFC operation.

James M. Rakowski

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

305

A novel design for monolithic interconnected modules (MIMs) for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power conversion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The design for the fabrication of Monolithic Interconnected Modules (MIMs) for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power conversion described in this paper utilizes a novel, interdigitated contacting scheme that increases the flexibility in the size of the component cells and hence the output current and voltage of the module. This flexibility is gained at the expense of only minimally increased grid obscuration. Because the design uses the grid fingers of the component cells as the interconnect structure, the area of the device used for this purpose becomes negligible. In this paper the authors report on the specifics of the design as well as issues related to the fabrication of the modules. Preliminary performance data for representative modules also are offered.

Ward, J.S.; Duda, A.; Wanlass, M.W. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Bipolar plating of metal contacts onto oxide interconnection for solid oxide electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is a method of forming an adherent metal deposit on a conducting layer of a tube sealed at one end. The tube is immersed with the sealed end down into an aqueous solution containing ions of the metal to be deposited. An ionically conducting aqueous fluid is placed inside the tube and a direct current is passed from a cathode inside the tube to an anode outside the tube. Also disclosed is a multi-layered solid oxide fuel cell tube which consists of an inner porous ceramic support tube, a porous air electrode covering the support tube, a non-porous electrolyte covering a portion of the air electrode, a non-porous conducting interconnection covering the remaining portion of the electrode, and a metal deposit on the interconnection.

Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills Boro, PA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

On certain analytical methods in finding integrable systems and their interconnections  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper, to begin with, we review six different analytical methods which are widely used to derive symmetries, integrating factors, multipliers, Darboux polynomials and integrals of second order nonlinear ordinary differential equations. We illustrate the algorithm behind each method by considering a nonlinear oscillator equation as an example. In the second part of this paper, we examine the interconnections between these methods. We establish a road map between extended Prelle-Singer procedure with all other methods cited above and thereby demonstrate the interplay between Lie point symmetries, $\\lambda$-symmetries, adjoint symmetries, null forms, integrating factors, Darboux polynomials, and Jacobi multipliers of second order integrable ODEs. The interconnections are illustrated with the same example finally.

R. Mohanasubha; V. K. Chandrasekar; M. Senthilvelan; M. Lakshmanan

2015-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

308

Interconnection arrangement of routers of processor boards in array of cabinets supporting secure physical partition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A multiple processor computing apparatus includes a physical interconnect structure that is flexibly configurable to support selective segregation of classified and unclassified users. The physical interconnect structure includes routers in service or compute processor boards distributed in an array of cabinets connected in series on each board and to respective routers in neighboring row cabinet boards with the routers in series connection coupled to routers in series connection in respective neighboring column cabinet boards. The array can include disconnect cabinets or respective routers in all boards in each cabinet connected in a toroid. The computing apparatus can include an emulator which permits applications from the same job to be launched on processors that use different operating systems.

Tomkins, James L. (Albuquerque, NM); Camp, William J. (Albuquerque, NM)

2007-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

309

System Impacts from Interconnection of Distributed Resources: Current Status and Identification of Needs for Further Development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents and evaluates system impacts from the interconnection of distributed resources to transmission and distribution systems, including a focus on renewable distributed resource technologies. The report also identifies system impact-resolution approaches and actions, including extensions of existing approaches. Lastly, the report documents the current challenges and examines what is needed to gain a clearer understanding of what to pursue to better avoid or address system impact issues.

Basso, T. S.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Viscosity Solutions of Systems of PDEs with Interconnected Obstacles and Switching Problem  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper deals with existence and uniqueness of a solution in viscosity sense, for a system of m variational partial differential inequalities with inter-connected obstacles. A particular case is the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellmann system of the Markovian stochastic optimal m-states switching problem. The switching cost functions depend on (t,x). The main tool is the notion of systems of reflected backward stochastic differential equations with oblique reflection.

Hamadene, S., E-mail: hamadene@univ-lemans.fr; Morlais, M. A., E-mail: Marie_Amelie.Morlais@univ-lemans.fr [Universite du Maine, LMM (France)

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

311

Examination of Potential Benefits of an Energy Imbalance Market in the Western Interconnection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the Western Interconnection, there is significant interest in improving approaches to wide-area coordinated operations of the bulk electric power system, in part because of the increasing penetration of variable generation. One proposed solution is an energy imbalance market. This study focused on that approach alone, with the goal of identifying the potential benefits of an energy imbalance market in the year 2020.

Milligan, M.; Clark, K.; King, J.; Kirby, B.; Guo, T.; Liu, G.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Corrosion and Protection of Metallic Interconnects in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Energy security and increased concern over environmental protection have spurred a dramatic world-wide growth in research and development of fuel cells, which electrochemically convert incoming fuel into electricity with no or low pollution. Fuel cell technology has become increasingly attractive to a number of sectors, including utility, automotive, and defense industries. Among the various types of fuel cells, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) operate at high temperature (typically 650-1,000 C) and have advantages in terms of high conversion efficiency and the flexibility of using hydrocarbon fuels, in addition to hydrogen. The high temperature operation, however, can lead to increased mass transport and interactions between the surrounding environment and components that are required to be stable during a lifetime of thousands of hours and up to hundreds of thermal cycles. For stacks with relatively low operating temperatures (<800 C), the interconnects that are used to electrically connect a number of cells in series are typically made from cost-effective metals or alloys. The metallic interconnects must demonstrate excellent stability in a very challenging environment during SOFC operation, as they are simultaneously exposed to both an oxidizing (air) environment on the cathode side and a reducing environment (hydrogen or a reformed hydrocarbon fuel) on the anode side. Other challenges include the fact that water vapor is likely to be present in both of these environments, and the fuel is likely to contain impurities, such as sulfides. Since the fuel is usually a reformed hydrocarbon fuel, such as natural gas, coal gas, biogas, gasoline, etc., the interconnect is exposed to a wet carbonaceous environment at the anode side. Finally, the interconnect must be stable towards any adjacent components, such as electrodes, seals and electrical contact materials, with which it is in physical contact.

Yang, Z Gary; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Singh, Prabhakar

2007-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

313

State-Level Comparison of Processes and Timelines for Distributed Photovoltaic Interconnection in the United States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents results from an analysis of distributed photovoltaic (PV) interconnection and deployment processes in the United States. Using data from more than 30,000 residential (up to 10 kilowatts) and small commercial (10-50 kilowatts) PV systems, installed from 2012 to 2014, we assess the range in project completion timelines nationally (across 87 utilities in 16 states) and in five states with active solar markets (Arizona, California, New Jersey, New York, and Colorado).

Ardani, K.; Davidson, C.; Margolis, R.; Nobler, E.

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Effect of interconnect creep on long-term performance of SOFC of one cell stacks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Creep deformation becomes relevant for a material when the operating temperature is near or exceeds half of its melting temperature (in degrees of Kelvin). The operating temperatures for most of the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) under development in the SECA program are around 1073oK. High temperature ferritic alloys are potential candidates as interconnect (IC) materials and spacers due to their low cost and CTE compatibility with other SOFC components. Since the melting temperature of most stainless steel is around 1800oK, possible creep deformation of IC under the typical cell operating temperature should not be neglected. In this paper, the effects of interconnect creep behavior on stack geometry change and stress redistribution of different cell components are predicted and summarized. The goal of the study is to investigate the performance of the fuel cell stack by obtaining the fuel and air channel geometry changes due to creep of the ferritic stainless steel interconnect, therefore indicating possible SOFC performance change under long term operations. IC creep models were incorporated into SOFC-MP and Mentat FC, and finite element analyses were performed to quantify the deformed configuration of the SOFC stack under the long term steady state operating temperature. It is found that creep behavior of the ferritic stainless steel IC contributes to narrowing of both the fuel and the air flow channels. In addition, stress re-distribution of the cell components suggests the need for a compliant sealing material that also relaxes at operating temperature.

Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Life Prediction of Coated and Uncoated Metallic Interconnect for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxidation reaction of the ferritic stainless interconnects in a typical SOFC working environment is unavoidable and the thickness of the oxide scale will continue to grow with operating time, even with protective coatings. The interfacial strength of the various interfaces for the uncoated and coated ferritic interconnects is crucial to long term performance of SOFCs. In this paper, we employ an integrated experimental/modeling approach to quantify the interfacial strength and to further predict the life of Crofer 22 APU as SOFC interconnect under isothermal cooling condition. The life of Crofer 22 APU was predicted by comparing the predicted interfacial strength, interfacial stresses induced by the cooling process from the operating temperature to room temperature, together with the growth kinetics of oxide scale with and without spinel coating. It was found that the interfacial strength between the oxide scale and Crofer 22 APU substrate decreases with the growth of the oxide scale. The interfacial strength of the oxide scale and spinel coating is much higher than that of the oxide scale and Crofer 22 APU substrate. With the spinel coating, the predicted life of the Crofer 22 APU is significantly longer than that of the uncoated Crofer 22 APU.

Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

316

Evaluation of a Surface Treatment on the Performance of Stainless Steels for SOFC Interconnect Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pack cementation-like Cerium based surface treatments have been found to be effective in enhancing the oxidation resistance of ferritic steels (Crofer 22APU) for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. The application of either a CeN- or CeO2 based surface treatment results in a decrease in weight gain by a factor of three after 4000 hours exposure to air+3%H2O at 800oC. Similar oxide scales formed on treated and untreated surfaces, with a continuous Cr-Mn outer oxide layer and a continuous inner Cr2O3 layer formed on the surface. However, the thickness of the scales, and the amount of internal oxidation were significantly reduced with the treatment, leading to the decrease in oxidation rate. This presentation will detail the influence of the treatment on the electrical properties of the interconnect. Half-cell experiments (LSM cathode sandwiched between two steel interconnects) and full SOFC button cell experiments were run with treated and untreated interconnects. Preliminary results indicate the Ce treatment can improve SOFC performance.

Alman, D.E.; Holcomb, Adler, T.A.; G.R.; Wilson, R.D.; Jablonski, P.D.

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Dynamic Directories: A Mechanism for Reducing On-Chip Interconnect Power in Multicores  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AbstractóOn-chip interconnection networks consume a significant fraction of the chipís power, and the rapidly increasing core counts in future technologies is going to further aggravate their impact on the chipís overall power consumption. A large fraction of the traffic originates not from data messages exchanged between sharing cores, but from the communication between the cores and intermediate hardware structures (i.e., directories) for the purpose of maintaining coherence in the presence of conflicting updates. In this paper, we propose Dynamic Directories, a method allowing the directories to be placed arbitrarily in the chip by piggy-backing the virtual to physical address translation. This eliminates a large fraction of the on-chip interconnect traversals, hence reducing the power consumption. Through trace-driven and cycle-accurate simulation in a range of scientific and Map-Reduce applications, we show that our technique reduces the power and energy expended by the on-chip interconnect by up to 37 % (16.4 % on average) with negligible hardware overhead and a small improvement in performance (1.3 % on average). 21 Keywords-On-chip networks; Non-uniform caches; Multicore architecture

Abhishek Das; Matt Schuchhardt; Nikos Hardavellas; Gokhan Memik; Alok Choudhary

318

Low-power approaches for parallel, free-space photonic interconnects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Future advances in the application of photonic interconnects will involve the insertion of parallel-channel links into Multi-Chip Modules (MCMS) and board-level parallel connections. Such applications will drive photonic link components into more compact forms that consume far less power than traditional telecommunication data links. These will make use of new device-level technologies such as vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers and special low-power parallel photoreceiver circuits. Depending on the application, these device technologies will often be monolithically integrated to reduce the amount of board or module real estate required by the photonics. Highly parallel MCM and board-level applications will also require simplified drive circuitry, lower cost, and higher reliability than has been demonstrated in photonic and optoelectronic technologies. An example is found in two-dimensional point-to-point array interconnects for MCM stacking. These interconnects are based on high-efficiency Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VCSELs), Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor (HBT) photoreceivers, integrated micro-optics, and MCM-compatible packaging techniques. Individual channels have been demonstrated at 100 Mb/s, operating with a direct 3.3V CMOS electronic interface while using 45 mW of electrical power. These results demonstrate how optoelectronic device technologies can be optimized for low-power parallel link applications.

Carson, R.F.; Lovejoy, M.L.; Lear, K.L.; WSarren, M.E.; Seigal, P.K.; Craft, D.C.; Kilcoyne, S.P.; Patrizi, G.A.; Blum, O.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

319

Reactive power interconnection requirements for PV and wind plants : recommendations to NERC.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Voltage on the North American bulk system is normally regulated by synchronous generators, which typically are provided with voltage schedules by transmission system operators. In the past, variable generation plants were considered very small relative to conventional generating units, and were characteristically either induction generator (wind) or line-commutated inverters (photovoltaic) that have no inherent voltage regulation capability. However, the growing level of penetration of non-traditional renewable generation - especially wind and solar - has led to the need for renewable generation to contribute more significantly to power system voltage control and reactive power capacity. Modern wind-turbine generators, and increasingly PV inverters as well, have considerable dynamic reactive power capability, which can be further enhanced with other reactive support equipment at the plant level to meet interconnection requirements. This report contains a set of recommendations to the North-America Electricity Reliability Corporation (NERC) as part of Task 1-3 (interconnection requirements) of the Integration of Variable Generation Task Force (IVGTF) work plan. The report discusses reactive capability of different generator technologies, reviews existing reactive power standards, and provides specific recommendations to improve existing interconnection standards.

McDowell, Jason (General Electric, Schenectady, NY); Walling, Reigh (General Electric, Schenectady, NY); Peter, William (SunPower, Richmond, CA); Von Engeln, Edi (NV Energy, Reno, NV); Seymour, Eric (AEI, Fort Collins, CO); Nelson, Robert (Siemens Wind Turbines, Orlando, FL); Casey, Leo (Satcon, Boston, MA); Ellis, Abraham; Barker, Chris. (SunPower, Richmond, CA)

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Design and implementation of a large integrated crossbar switch for a 256 x 256 x 8 interconnection network  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is determined by a detailed yield analysis. Index Terms-Crossbar switch 7 buffer, delay, interconnection networks, packet, clock cycle, arbitration, performance, priority, yield analysis, latch, decoder, packaging, ball grid array....

Naik, Rajeshwar

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection tre wecc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

High-speed graphene interconnects monolithically integrated with CMOS ring oscillators operating at 1.3GHz  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have successfully experimentally integrated graphene interconnects with commercial 0.25 ¬Ņm technology CMOS ring oscillator circuit using conventional fabrication techniques, and demonstrated high speed on-chip graphene ...

Chen, Xiangyu

322

Turk J Elec Engin, VOL.17, NO.1 2009, c TUBITAK Accurate Prediction of Crosstalk for RC Interconnects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Interconnects Selahattin SAYIL, Merlyn RUDRAPATI Department of Electrical Engineering, Lamar University P.O. Box 10029, Beaumont, TX 77710, U.S.A. e-mail: sayil@ee.lamar.edu Abstract This work proposes an accurate

Sayil, Selahattin

323

Observation of Joule Heating-Assisted Electromigration Failure Mechanisms for Dual Damascene Cu/SiO? Interconnects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Failure mechanisms observed in electromigration (EM) stressed dual damascene Cu/SiO? interconnects trees were studied and simulated. Failure sites with ‚??melt patchí or ‚??craterí are common for test structures in the top ...

Chang, Choon Wai

324

Design and analysis of a 3-dimensional cluster multicomputer architecture using optical interconnection for petaFLOP computing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this dissertation, the design and analyses of an extremely scalable distributed multicomputer architecture, using optical interconnects, that has the potential to deliver in the order of petaFLOP performance is presented in detail. The design...

Okorafor, Ekpe Apia

2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

325

Fatal Void Size Comparisons in Via-Below and Via-Above Cu Dual-Damascene Interconnects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The median-times-to-failure (t??ís) for straight dual-damascene via-terminated copper interconnect structures, tested under the same conditions, depend on whether the vias connect down to underlaying leads ...

Choi, Z.-S.

326

Full-wave Surface Integral Equation Method for Electromagnetic-circuit Simulation of Three-dimensional Interconnects in Layered Media  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FULL-WAVE SURFACE INTEGRAL EQUATION METHOD FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC-CIRCUIT SIMULATION OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL INTERCONNECTS IN LAYERED MEDIA A Dissertation by NUR KURT KARSILAYAN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY May 2010 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering FULL-WAVE SURFACE INTEGRAL EQUATION METHOD FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC-CIRCUIT SIMULATION OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL INTERCONNECTS...

Karsilayan, Nur

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

327

Interconnection Standards  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

'''''Note: In July 2012, the Public Utilities Commission of Ohio (PUCO) opened a docket ([http://dis.puc.state.oh.us/CaseRecord.aspx?CaseNo=12-2051&x=0&y=0 Case 12-0251-EL-ORD]) to review...

328

Interconnection Standards  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

New Hampshire requires all utilities selling electricity in the state to offer net metering to customers who own or operate systems up to one megawatt (1 MW) in capacity that generate electricity...

329

Interconnection Guidelines  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In April 2001, Arkansas enacted legislation directing the Arkansas Public Service Commission (PSC) to establish net-metering rules for certain renewable-energy systems. The Arkansas Public Service...

330

Interconnection Guidelines  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Missouri enacted legislation (S.B. 54) in June 2007 requiring all of the state's electric utilities -- including municipal utilities and electric cooperatives -- to offer net metering to customers...

331

Interconnection Guidelines  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

'''''Note: Delaware law ([http://delcode.delaware.gov/title26/c010/index.shtml#1014 26 Del. C. ß 1014]) requires the Delaware Public Service Commission (PSC), Delaware Electric Cooperative (DEC),...

332

Interconnection Standards  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Minnesota's net-metering law, enacted in 1983, applies to all investor-owned utilities, municipal utilities and rural electric cooperatives. Qualifying facilities of less than 1,000 kilowatts (kW)...

333

Interconnection Standards  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In August 2007, Illinois enacted legislation [http://www.ilga.gov/legislation/publicacts/fulltext.asp?Name=095-0420&GA... (S.B. 680)] requiring the Illinois Commerce Commission (ICC) to...

334

Interconnection Standards  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In April 2007, Maryland enacted legislation ([http://mgaleg.maryland.gov/2007RS/chapters_noln/Ch_119_sb0595E.pdf S.B. 595]) requiring the Maryland Public Service Commission (PSC) to form a small...

335

Interconnection Standards  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Utah requires the state's only investor-owned utility, Rocky Mountain Power (RMP), and most electric cooperatives* to offer net metering to customers who generate electricity using solar energy,...

336

Interconnection Guidelines  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Georgia Cogeneration and Distributed Generation Act of 2001 allows residential electricity customers with photovoltaic (PV) systems, wind-energy systems or fuel cells up to 10 kilowatts (kW) in...

337

Interconnection Standards  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Texas Public Utility Regulatory Act (PURA) of 1999 included a provision that "a customer is entitled to have access to on-site distributed generation". As a result, the Public Utility...

338

Interconnection Standards  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

'''''Note: The California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) approved a [http://docs.cpuc.ca.gov/EFILE/MOTION/162852.PDF proposed settlement] in September 2012, enacting the first fundamental...

339

Interconnection Guidelines  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

'''''Note: Ongoing proceedings related to net metering can be found in [http://lpscstar.louisiana.gov/star/portal/lpsc/page/Dockets/portal.aspx Docket R-31417.]'''''...

340

Hopper Interconnect  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-SeriesFlickr FlickrGuidedCH2MLLC HistoryVeterans | NationalFile Storage

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection tre wecc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Mixed-mode singularity and temperature effects on dislocation nucleation in strained interconnects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Dislocations can be nucleated from sharp geometric features in strained interconnects due to thermal expansion coefficient mismatch, lattice mismatch, or stresses that arise during material processing. The asymptotic stress fields near the edge root can be described by mixed-mode singularities, which depend on the dihedral angle and material properties, and a transverse T-stress, which depends on how residual stress is realized in the interconnects. The critical condition for stress nucleation can be determined when an appropriate measure of the stress intensity factors (SIFs) reaches a critical value. Such a method, however, does not offer an explicit picture of the dislocation nucleation process so that it has difficulties in studying complicated structures, mode mixity effects, and more importantly the temperature effects. Based on the Peierls concept, a dislocation can be described by a continuous slip field, and the dislocation nucleation condition corresponds when the total potential energy reaches a stationary state. Through implementing this ad hoc interface model into a finite element framework, it is found that dislocation nucleation becomes more difficult with the increase of mode mixity and T-stress, or the decrease of the width-to-height ratio of the surface pad, while the shape of the surface pad, being a square or a long line, plays a less important role. The Peierls dislocation model also allows us to determine the activation energy, which is the energy needed for the thermal activation of a dislocation when the applied load is lower than the athermal critical value. The calculated saddle point configuration compares favorably the molecular simulations in literature. Suggestions on making immortal strained interconnects are provided.

Lee, Jinhaeng [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Gao, Yanfei [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

IEEE Smart Grid Series of Standards IEEE 2030 (Interoperability) and IEEE 1547 (Interconnection) Status: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The IEEE American National Standards smart grid publications and standards development projects IEEE 2030, which addresses smart grid interoperability, and IEEE 1547TM, which addresses distributed resources interconnection with the grid, have made substantial progress since 2009. The IEEE 2030TM and 1547 standards series focus on systems-level aspects and cover many of the technical integration issues involved in a mature smart grid. The status and highlights of these two IEEE series of standards, which are sponsored by IEEE Standards Coordinating Committee 21 (SCC21), are provided in this paper.

Basso, T.; DeBlasio, R.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Value of Improved Wind Power Forecasting in the Western Interconnection (Poster)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Wind power forecasting is a necessary and important technology for incorporating wind power into the unit commitment and dispatch process. It is expected to become increasingly important with higher renewable energy penetration rates and progress toward the smart grid. There is consensus that wind power forecasting can help utility operations with increasing wind power penetration; however, there is far from a consensus about the economic value of improved forecasts. This work explores the value of improved wind power forecasting in the Western Interconnection of the United States.

Hodge, B.

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Viscosity solutions of systems of PDEs with interconnected obstacles and Multi modes switching problems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper deals with existence and uniqueness, in viscosity sense, of a solution for a system of m variational partial differential inequalities with inter-connected obstacles. A particular case of this system is the deterministic version of the Verification Theorem of the Markovian optimal m-states switching problem. The switching cost functions are arbitrary. This problem is connected with the valuation of a power plant in the energy market. The main tool is the notion of systems of reflected BSDEs with oblique reflection.

HamadŤne, Said

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Geometric effects modelling for the PJM interconnection system. Part 1; Earth surface potentials computation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes an ionospheric source current model and development of an earth resistivity model used to calculate geomagnetic induced currents (GIC) on the Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland Interconnection (PJM). Ionospheric current is modelled as a gaussian distributed current sheet above the earth. Geological details are included by dividing the PJM service area into 11 different earth resistivity regions. The resulting earth surface potential (ESP) at each power system substation is then calculated. A companion paper describes how this ESP is applied to the power system model to calculate the geomagnetic induced current in the power system equipment and facilities.

Towle, J.N. (Diversified EM, Seattle, WA (US)); Prabhakara, F.S. (Power Technologies, Inc., Schenectady, NY (US)); Ponder, J.Z. (PJM Interconnection, Norristown, PA (US))

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Geomagnetic effects modelling for the PJM interconnection system. Part 2; Geomagnetically induced current study results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of a computer program for calculation of geomagnetically induced current (GIC) and a GIC power system model for the Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland Interconnection is described in this paper. Results of GIC for three different ionospheric source configurations are shown. A new method is presented for estimating GIC in unmetered parts of the system based on a few measurements and precalculated geomagnetic disturbance conditions. The use of an interactive, menu driven GIC program to study mitigation concepts including the effects of line outages, line series capacitors, transformer neutral blocking resistors and transformer neutral blocking capacitors is also presented.

Prabhakara, F.S.; Hannett, L.N.; Ringlee, R.J. (Power Technologies, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States)); Ponder, J.Z. (PJM Interconnection, Norristown, PA (US))

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Monolithic interconnected module with a tunnel junction for enhanced electrical and optical performance  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved thermophotovoltaic (TPV) n/p/n device is provided. Monolithic Interconnected Modules (MIMS), semiconductor devices converting infrared radiation to electricity, have been developed with improved electrical and optical performance. The structure is an n-type emitter on a p-type base with an n-type lateral conduction layer. The incorporation of a tunnel junction and the reduction in the amount of p-type material used results in negligible parasitic absorption, decreased series resistance, increased voltage and increased active area. The novel use of a tunnel junction results in the potential for a TPV device with efficiency greater than 24%.

Murray, Christopher S. (Bethel Park, PA); Wilt, David M. (Bay Village, OH)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

U.S. Army Fort Carson Interconnection Agreement | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up from theDepartment of EnergyTheDepartment of1: OracleHanford WasteInterconnection

349

851 S.W. Sixth Avenue, Suite 1100 Steve Crow 503-222-5161 Portland, Oregon 97204-1348 Executive Director 800-452-5161  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC). WECC has been relatively successful in developing 10 (and soon 20

350

Effects of Temporal Wind Patterns on the Value of Wind-Generated Electricity in California and the Northwest  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Laboratory, private communi- cation, March 12, 2004. WECC, "WECC 2006 Power Supply Assessment," Western Electricity

Wiser, Ryan H

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Dynamic Simulation Studies of the Frequency Response of the Three U.S. Interconnections with Increased Wind Generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Utility Systems Efficiencies, Inc. was tasked by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to conduct dynamic simulation studies of the three U.S. interconnections (Eastern, Western, and Texas). The simulations were prepared in support of LBNL's project for the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to study frequency-response-related issues that must be addressed to operate the power system reliably with large amounts of variable renewable generation. The objective of the simulation studies of each interconnection was to assess the effects of different amounts of wind generation on frequency behavior of each interconnection following a sudden loss of generation. The scenarios created to study these effects considered an operating circumstance in which system load is at or close to its minimum. The event studied was the sudden loss of the largest amount of generation recorded within each interconnection. The simulations calculated the impact of this event on interconnection frequency for three levels of wind generation. In addition to varying the amount of wind generation, the simulations varied the amount of operating reserves between a high level representative of current operating practices and a low level representative of the minimum required by present operating rules.

Mackin, Peter; Daschmans, R.; Williams, B.; Haney, B.; Hung, R.; Ellis, J.

2010-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

352

Developing TiAIN Coatings for Intermediate Temperature-Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Interconnect Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

TiN-type coatings have potential to be used as SOFC interconnect coatings SOFC because of their low resistance and high temperature stability. In this research, various (Ti,Al)N coatings were deposited on stainless steels by filtered-arc method. ASR and XRD tests were conducted on these coatings, and SEM/EDAX analysis were conducted after ASR and XRD tests. SEM/EDAX analyses show that (Ti,Al)N remains stable at temperature up to 700įC. It is also indicated that Al has beneficial effect on the stability of TiN type coatings. At 900įC, (Ti-30Al)N is fully oxidized and some of (Ti-50Al)N coating still remains as nitride. The analyses on cross-sectional samples show that these coatings are effective barrier to the Cr migration. In summary, (Ti.Al)N coatings are good candidates for the SOFC interconnect applications at 700įC. The future directions of this research are to improve the stability of these coatings by alloy-doping and to develop multi-layer coatings.

Liu, X. (West Virginia University); Johnson, C.D.; Li, C. (West Virginia University); Xu, J. (West Virginia University); Cross, C.

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Producing thin film photovoltaic modules with high integrity interconnects and dual layer contacts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

High performance photovoltaic modules are produced with improved interconnects by a special process. Advantageously, the photovoltaic modules have a dual layer back (rear) contact and a front contact with at least one layer. The front contact and the inner layer of the back contact can comprise a transparent conductive oxide. The outer layer of the back contact can comprise a metal or metal oxide. The front contact can also have a dielectric layer. In one form, the dual layer back contact comprises a zinc oxide inner layer and an aluminum outer layer and the front contact comprises a tin oxide inner layer and a silicon dioxide dielectric outer layer. One or more amorphous silicon-containing thin film semiconductors can be deposited between the front and back contacts. The contacts can be positioned between a substrate and an optional superstrate. During production, the transparent conductive oxide layer of the front contact is scribed by a laser, then the amorphous silicon-containing semiconductors and inner layer of the dual layer back contact are simultaneously scribed and trenched (drilled) by the laser and the trench is subsequently filled with the same metal as the outer layer of the dual layer back contact to provide a superb mechanical and electrical interconnect between the front contact and the outer layer of the dual layer back contact. The outer layer of the dual layer back contact can then be scribed by the laser. For enhanced environmental protection, the photovoltaic modules can be encapsulated.

Jansen, Kai W. (Lawrenceville, NJ); Maley, Nagi (Exton, PA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

GaAsSb-based heterojunction tunnel diodes for tandem solar cell interconnects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report a new approach to tunnel junctions that employs a pseudomorphic GaAsSb layer to obtain a band alignment at a InGaAs or InAlAs p-n junction favorable for forward bias tunneling. Since the majority of the band offset between GaAsSb and InGaAs or InAlAs is in the valence band, when an GaAsSb layer is placed at an InGaAs or InAlAs p-n junction the tunneling distance is reduced and the tunneling current is increased. For all doping levels studied, the presence of the GaAsSb-layer enhanced the forward tunneling characteristics. In fact, in a InGaAs/GaAsSb tunnel diode a peak tunneling current sufficient for a 1000 sun intercell interconnect was achieved with p = 1.5{times}l0{sup 18} cm{sup -3} while a similarly doped all-InGaAs diode was rectifying. This approach affords a new degree of freedom in designing tunnel junctions for tandem solar cell interconnects. Previously only doping levels could be varied to control the tunneling properties. Our approach relaxes the doping requirements by employing a GaAsSb-based heterojunction.

Zolper, J.C.; Klem, J.F.; Plut, T.A.; Tigges, C.P.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Electrodeposition of Mn-Co Alloys on Stainless Steels for SOFC Interconnect Application  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chromium-containing ferritic stainless steels are the most popular materials for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) interconnect applications because of its oxidation resistance and easy fabrication process. However, excessive scale growth and chromium evaporation will degrade the cell performance. Highly conductive coatings that resist oxide scale growth and chromium evaporation may prevent both of these problems. Mn1.5Co1.5O4 spinel is one of the most promising coatings for interconnect application because of its high conducitivy, good chromium retention capability, as well as good CTE match. Electroplating of alloys or thin film multilayers followed by controlled oxidation to the desired spinel phase offers an additional deposition option. In the present study binary Mn/Co alloys was fabricated by electrodeposition, and polarization curves were used to characterize the cathodic reactions on substrate surface. By controlling the current density precisely, coatings with Mn/Co around 1:1 has been successfully deposited in Mn/Co =10 solutions, SEM and EDX was used to characterize the surface morphology and composition.

Wu, J. (West Virginia University); Jiang, Y. (West Virginia University); Johnson, C.; Gong, M. (West Virginia University); Liu, X. (West Virginia University)

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Renewable portfolio standards, Greenhouse gas reduction, and Long-Line transmission investments in the WECC  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

New, long-distance transmission lines to remote areas with concentrations of high-quality renewable resources can help western states meet the challenges of increasing renewable energy procurement and reducing greenhouse gas emissions more cost-effectively than reliance on local resources alone. The approach applied here to the Western Electricity Coordinating Council is useful for an initial determination of the net benefits of long-line transmission between regions with heterogeneous resource quality. (author)

Olson, Arne; Orans, Ren; Allen, Doug; Moore, Jack; Woo, C.K.

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

357

A G LO BA L P OW E R TECHNOLO GIES CO M PA N Y SolarTieTM Grid Interconnection Solution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

G f¬∑ Shipments to date sufficient to power 10 GW of wind power SWind Plant Interconnection Solutions's Wind-Generated Electricity "Powered by AMSC¬ģ" Wind Turbine Designs, Controls & Converters ¬∑ Relied upon utilized at more than 70 wind plants worldwide ¬∑ Shipments to date sufficient to allow interconnection 4 p

Homes, Christopher C.

358

Electrical and Optical On-Chip Interconnects in Scaled Microprocessors Guoqing Chen, Hui Chen, Mikhail Haurylau, Nicholas Nelson, David Albonesi, Philippe M. Fauchet, and Eby G. Friedman  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electrical and Optical On-Chip Interconnects in Scaled Microprocessors Guoqing Chen, Hui Chen of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, 14627 Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, 14853 Abstract-- Interconnect has

Albonesi, David H.

359

1068 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VERY LARGE SCALE INTEGRATION (VLSI) SYSTEMS, VOL. 11, NO. 6, DECEMBER 2003 Equivalent-Circuit Interconnect Modeling Based on  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-chip long interconnects that are represented as distributed RLC transmission lines. The proposed delay model transmission line model, equivalent circuit, interconnect modeling, passivity, transient simulation. I as distributed RLC transmission lines. Manuscript received December 3, 2002. This work was supported in part

Mazumder, Pinaki

360

Tubular solid oxide fuel cells with porous metal supports and ceramic interconnections  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell structure capable of operating at from 600.degree. C. to 800.degree. C. having a very thin porous hollow elongated metallic support tube having a thickness from 0.10 mm to 1.0 mm, preferably 0.10 mm to 0.35 mm, a porosity of from 25 vol. % to 50 vol. % and a tensile strength from 700 GPa to 900 GPa, which metallic tube supports a reduced thickness air electrode having a thickness from 0.010 mm to 0.2 mm, a solid oxide electrolyte, a cermet fuel electrode, a ceramic interconnection and an electrically conductive cell to cell contact layer.

Huang, Kevin (Export, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA)

2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection tre wecc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Cut set-based risk and reliability analysis for arbitrarily interconnected networks  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method for computing all-terminal reliability for arbitrarily interconnected networks such as the United States public switched telephone network. The method includes an efficient search algorithm to generate minimal cut sets for nonhierarchical networks directly from the network connectivity diagram. Efficiency of the search algorithm stems in part from its basis on only link failures. The method also includes a novel quantification scheme that likewise reduces computational effort associated with assessing network reliability based on traditional risk importance measures. Vast reductions in computational effort are realized since combinatorial expansion and subsequent Boolean reduction steps are eliminated through analysis of network segmentations using a technique of assuming node failures to occur on only one side of a break in the network, and repeating the technique for all minimal cut sets generated with the search algorithm. The method functions equally well for planar and non-planar networks.

Wyss, Gregory D. (Albuquerque, NM)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Electrode and method of interconnection sintering on an electrode of an electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrode structure is made by applying a base layer of doped LaCrO[sub 3] particles on a portion of an electrode and then coating the particles with a top layer composition such as CaO+Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], SrO+Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], or BaO+Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], and then heating the composition for a time effective to melt the composition and allow it to fill any open porosity in the base layer of doped LaCrO[sub 3] to form an interconnection, after which solid oxide electrolyte can be applied to the remaining portion of the electrode and the electrolyte can be covered with a cermet exterior electrode. 2 figures.

Ruka, R.J.; Kuo, L.J.H.

1994-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

363

BI-LAYER p-n JUNCTION INTERCONNECTIONS FOR COAL BASED SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this report, a new approach for lower operating temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) interconnections (IC) consisting of a bi-layer structure is proposed and analyzed. The bi-layer structure consists of a p-type layer exposed to cathodic gas (air/oxygen) and an n-type layer exposed to anodic gas (fuel). It is theoretically shown that the interfacial oxygen partial pressure which is an important design variable, is dependent primarily on the oxygen partial pressure gradient across the IC, the low level oxygen conductivities of the two layers and is largely independent of their electronic conductivities and the total current density through the IC material. Experimental difficulties in fabricating bi-layer structures are presently being addressed.

Srikanth Gopalan

2005-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

364

Laterally Interconnected Self-Organizing Maps in Hand-Written Digit Recognition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An application of laterally interconnected self-organizing maps (LISSOM) to handwritten digit recognition is presented. The lateral connections learn the correlations of activity between units on the map. The resulting excitatory connections focus the activity into local patches and the inhibitory connections decorrelate redundant activity on the map. The map thus forms internal representations that are easy to recognize with e.g. a perceptron network. The recognition rate on a subset of NIST database 3 is 4.0% higher with LISSOM than with a regular Self-Organizing Map (SOM) as the front end, and 15.8% higher than recognition of raw input bitmaps directly. These results form a promising starting point for building pattern recognition systems with a LISSOM map as a front end. 1 Introduction Hand-written digit recognition has become one of the touchstone problems in neural networks recently. Large databases of training examples such as the NIST (National Institute of Standards and Tech...

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Integrated Energy-Water Planning in the Western and Texas Interconnections  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

While long-term regional electricity transmission planning has traditionally focused on cost, infrastructure utilization, and reliability, issues concerning the availability of water represent an emerging issue. Thermoelectric expansion must be considered in the context of competing demands from other water use sectors balanced with fresh and non-fresh water supplies subject to climate variability. An integrated Energy-Water Decision Support System (DSS) is being developed that will enable planners in the Western and Texas Interconnections to analyze the potential implications of water availability and cost for long-range transmission planning. The project brings together electric transmission planners (Western Electricity Coordinating Council and Electric Reliability Council of Texas) with western water planners (Western Governorsí Association and the Western States Water Council). This paper lays out the basic framework for this integrated Energy-Water DSS.

Vincent Tidwell; John Gasper; Robert Goldstein; Jordan Macknick; Gerald Sehlke; Michael Webber; Mark Wigmosta

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Vibration control in plates by uniformly distributed PZT actuators interconnected via electric networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper a novel device aimed at controlling the mechanical vibrations of plates by means of a set of electrically-interconnected piezoelectric actuators is described. The actuators are embedded uniformly in the plate wherein they connect every node of an electric network to ground, thus playing the two-fold role of capacitive element in the electric network and of couple suppliers. A mathematical model is introduced to describe the propagation of electro-mechanical waves in the device; its validity is restricted to the case of wave-forms with wave-length greater than the dimension of the piezoelectric actuators used. A self-resonance criterion is established which assures the possibility of electro-mechanical energy exchange. Finally the problem of vibration control in simply supported and clamped plates is addressed; the optimal net-impedance is determined. The results indicate that the proposed device can improve the performances of piezoelectric actuation

Stefano Vidoli; Francesco dell'Isola

2010-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

367

Beta Test Plan for Advanced Inverters Interconnecting Distributed Resources with Electric Power Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides a preliminary (beta) test plan for grid interconnection systems of advanced inverter-based DERs. It follows the format and methodology/approach established by IEEE Std 1547.1, while incorporating: 1. Upgraded tests for responses to abnormal voltage and frequency, and also including ride-through. 2. A newly developed test for voltage regulation, including dynamic response testing. 3. Modified tests for unintentional islanding, open phase, and harmonics to include testing with the advanced voltage and frequency response functions enabled. Two advanced inverters, one single-phase and one three-phase, were tested under the beta test plan. These tests confirmed the importance of including tests for inverter dynamic response, which varies widely from one inverter to the next.

Hoke, A.; Chakraborty, S.; Basso, T.; Coddington, M.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

SURFACE-MODIFIED FERRITIC INTERCONNECT MATERIALS FOR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Interconnects are a critical element of an SOFC assembly and although much work has focused on chromium and chromium-iron alloys containing an oxide that is both oxidation resistant and electrically conductive, the thermal instability of typical native metal oxides allow interdiffusion of cations across the interconnect-electrode boundary that ultimately leads to degradation of SOFC performance. Phase I of the SECA Core Technology Program has been a one-year effort to investigate and evaluate the feasibility of: (1) Ion implanting an alumina-scale forming ferritic steel, such as FeCrAlY, to form an interconnect material with low resistance (< 0.1 {Omega}/cm{sup 2}) in oxidizing/reducing environments up to 800 C, and (2) Maintaining the above low resistance metric for an extended time (> 1000 hours at 800 C) in contact with an LSF cathode material. We confirmed, as part of our oxidation kinetics evaluation of FeCrAlY and 430 ferritic steel, the parabolic growth of a mixed chromia/alumina scale on FeCrAlY and a single chromia layer in the case of the 430 stainless steel; the outer contiguous layer of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, in the case of FeCrAlY, forming a stable, self-limiting, protective scale with no detectable cation interdiffusion between FeCrAlY and an LSF electrode even after 1000 hours at 800 C in air. To render the alumina scale conductive, we implanted either titanium or niobium ions into FeCrAlY scales to a fixed depth (0.12 {micro}m), varying only the thickness of the oxide. ASR for an un-doped FeCrAlY oxide scale (i.e., alumina) was more than an order of magnitude greater than the 430 control sample whereas, the ASR for the doped FeCrAlY oxide scale sample was comparable to the 430 control sample; hence, the resistance of a doped alumina scale on FeCrAlY was equal to the resistance of a chromia-scale forming alloy, such as 430 (chromia scales of which are typically < 0.1 {Omega}-cm). Along with the ASR measurements, AC impedance measurements were conducted to evaluate conduction mechanisms. From the AC impedance measurements, we observed that the addition of niobium resulted in at least a two order of magnitude reduction in resistance over the un-doped specimen and that the conduction in the doped alumina scale was pure electronic conduction, as opposed to mixed ionic-electronic conduction (dominated by intrinsic (ionic) defects) for the un-doped alumina scales. The DC resistance component was {approx}4 {Omega} although when this value is adjusted to account for the system resistance (i.e., leads, junctions, etc.), the ASR was determined to be < 0.1 {Omega}-cm; even after 1000 hours at 800 C in air. Our results have clearly shown that dopant additions increase the electronic conductivity of alumina forming scale alloys, such as FeCrAlY, transforming from a mixed ionic/electronic conduction mechanism. Just as importantly, the demonstrated stable formation of an alumina scale was shown to be an advantage over conventional pure chromia forming alloys as interconnect materials.

Bruce R. Lanning; James Arps; Ronghua Wei; Goeff Dearnaley

2004-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

369

Support pedestals for interconnecting a cover and nozzle band wall in a gas turbine nozzle segment  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas turbine nozzle segment has outer and inner band portions. Each band portion includes a nozzle wall, a cover and an impingement plate between the cover and nozzle wall defining two cavities on opposite sides of the impingement plate. Cooling steam is supplied to one cavity for flow through the apertures of the impingement plate to cool the nozzle wall. Structural pedestals interconnect the cover and nozzle wall and pass through holes in the impingement plate to reduce localized stress otherwise resulting from a difference in pressure within the chamber of the nozzle segment and the hot gas path and the fixed turbine casing surrounding the nozzle stage. The pedestals may be cast or welded to the cover and nozzle wall.

Yu, Yufeng Phillip (Simpsonville, SC); Itzel, Gary Michael (Simpsonville, SC); Webbon, Waylon Willard (Greenville, SC); Bagepalli, Radhakrishna (Schenectady, NY); Burdgick, Steven Sebastian (Schenectady, NY); Kellock, Iain Robertson (Simpsonville, SC)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

DC electrodeposition of MnĖCo alloys on stainless steels for SOFC interconnect application  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High conductivity coatings that resist oxide scale growth and reduce chromium evaporation are needed to make stainless steel interconnect materials viable for long-term stable operation of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). Mn1.5Co1.5O4 spinel is one of the most promising coatings for interconnect application because of its high conductivity, good chromium retention capability, as well as good CTE match to ferritic stainless steels. MnĖCo electrodeposition followed by oxidization is potentially a low cost method for fabrication of (Mn,Co)3O4 spinel coatings. This work looks at the co-deposition of MnĖCo alloys for this application. As a guide to optimize the deposition process, characterizations of the cathodic reactions and reaction potentials are done using polarization curves. It was found that as cobalt concentration was varied that the alloy composition became richer in cobalt, indicating that the deposition is regular co-deposition process. It was also found that at 0.05M Co concentration in excess gluconate the MnĖCo alloys composition could be tuned by varying the current density. Coatings with MnĖCo around 1:1 could be obtained at a current density of 250 mA/cm2. However, the higher potential increased hydrogen production making the films more porous. Oxidation of the alloy coatings showed that much of the porosities could be eliminated during oxidation. It was found in a number of samples that fully dense coatings where obtained. The composition of the oxidized coating was found to become enriched in Mn, possibly due to the Mn fast diffusion from the substrate.

Wu, Junwei; Jiang, Yinglu; Johnson, Christopher; Liu, Xingbo

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

624 IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, VOL. 9, NO. 2, MARCH/APRIL 2003 Optoelectronic Interconnection Technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optoelectronic Interconnection Technology in the HOLMS System Paul Lukowicz, Member, IEEE, J√ľrgen Jahns, Member. S√ľllau, J. F. Snowdon, M. Wirz, and G. Tr√∂ster Invited Paper Abstract--The High-Speed Optoelectronic and economical by developing optoelectronic packaging tech- nology compatible with standard electronic assembly

Jahns, J√ľrgen

372

On-Chip Copper-Based vs. Optical Interconnects: Delay Uncertainty, Latency, Power, and Bandwidth Density Comparative Predictions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

On-Chip Copper-Based vs. Optical Interconnects: Delay Uncertainty, Latency, Power, and Bandwidth. Albonesi, Philippe M. Fauchet, and Eby G. Friedman Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of Rochester, Rochester, New York, 14627 Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering,Cornell University

Friedman, Eby G.

373

Initial Performance Evaluation of the Cray SeaStar Interconnect Ron Brightwell Kevin Pedretti Keith D. Underwood  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Initial Performance Evaluation of the Cray SeaStar Interconnect Ron Brightwell Kevin Pedretti Keith supercomputer. The SeaStar was designed specifically to meet the performance and reliability needs of a large-scale, distributed-memory scientific computing platform. In this paper, we present an initial performance evaluation

Brightwell, Ron

374

Observers for Interconnected Nonlinear and Linear Systems Havard Fjr Grip a, Ali Saberi a, and Tor A. Johansen b  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Observers for Interconnected Nonlinear and Linear Systems Hįavard Fjśr Grip a, Ali Saberi a (Esfandiari and Khalil, 1987; Saberi and Sannuti, 1990), and non-left-invertible systems (e.g., Gauthier, Hammouri, and Othman, 1992; Bornard and Hammouri, 2002; Grip and Saberi, 2010); the exploitation

Johansen, Tor Arne

375

Power Transmission Lines: A New Interconnect Design to Eliminate Simultaneous Switching Noise A. Ege Engin and Madhavan Swaminathan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Power Transmission Lines: A New Interconnect Design to Eliminate Simultaneous Switching Noise A of the coupling between the signal lines and the power delivery network (PDN) in off-chip signaling. This coupling presents a new PDN design, called as the power transmission line, which overcomes these problems

Swaminathan, Madhavan

376

Characterization of micro-contact resistance between a gold nanocrystalline line and a tungsten electrode probe in interconnect fatigue testing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An electromechanically-coupled micro-contact resistance measurement system is built to mimic the contact process during fatigue testing of nanoscale-thickness interconnects using multiple probe methods. The design combines an optical microscope, high-resolution electronic balance, and micromanipulator-controlled electric probe, and is coupled with electrical measurements to investigate microscale contact physics. Experimental measurements are performed to characterize the contact resistance response of the gold nanocrystalline pad of a 35-nm-thick interconnect under mechanical force applied by a tungsten electrode probe. Location of a stable region for the contact resistance and the critical contact force provides better understanding of micro-contact behavior relative to the effects of the contact force and the nature of the contact surface. Increasing contact temperature leads to reduced contact resistance, softens the pad material, and modifies the contact surface. The stability of both contact resistance and interconnect resistance is studied under increasing contact force. Major fluctuations emerge when the contact force is less than the critical contact force, which shows that temporal contact resistance will affect interconnect resistance measurement accuracy, even when using the four-wire method. This performance is demonstrated experimentally by heating the Au line locally with a laser beam. Finally, the contact resistances are calculated using the LET (LiĖEtsionĖTalke) model together with combined Holm and Sharvin theory under various contact forces. Good agreement between the results is obtained. This research provides a way to measure change in interconnect line resistance directly under a stable contact resistance regime with a two-wire method that will greatly reduce the experimental costs.

Ling, Xue; Wang, Yusheng [Department of Engineering Mechanics, AML, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Li, Xide, E-mail: lixide@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Engineering Mechanics, AML, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Center for Nano and Micro Mechanics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

377

Probing the Geometry and Interconnectivity of Pores in Organic Aerogels Using Hyperpolarized 129Xe NMR Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aerogels represent a class of novel open-pore materials with high surface area and nanometer pore sizes. They exhibit extremely low mass densities, low thermal conductivity, good acoustic insulation, and low dielectric constants. These materials have potential applications in catalysis, advanced separation techniques, energy storage, environmental remediation, and as insulating materials. Organic aerogels are stiffer and stronger than silica aerogels and are better insulators with higher thermal resistance. Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (RF) aerogels are typically prepared through the base-catalyzed sol-gel polymerization of resorcinol with formaldehyde in aqueous solution to produce gels, which are then dried in supercritical CO2.1,2 The [resorcinol]/ [catalyst] (R/C) ratio of the starting sol-gel solution has been determined to be the dominant factor that affects the properties of RF aerogels. Since the unique microstructures of aerogels are responsible for their unusual properties, characterizing the detailed porous structures and correlating them with the processing parameters are vital to establish rational design principles for novel organic aerogels with tailored properties. In this communication we report the first use of hyperpolarized (HP) 129Xe NMR to probe the geometry and interconnectivity of pores in RF aerogels and to correlate these with synthetic conditions. Our work demonstrates that HP 129Xe NMR is so far the only method for accurately measuring the free volume-to-surface-area (Vg/S) ratios for soft mesoporous materials without using any geometric models.

Moudrakovski, Igor L.; Wang, Li Q.; Baumann, T.; Satcher, J. H.; Exarhos, Gregory J.; Ratcliffe, C. I.; Ripmeester, J. A.

2004-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

378

High-performance, lattice-mismatched InGaAs/InP monolithic interconnected modules (MIMs)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High performance, lattice-mismatched p/n InGaAs/lnP monolithic interconnected module (MIM) structures were developed for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) applications. A MIM device consists of several individual InGaAs photovoltaic (PV) cells series-connected on a single semi-insulating (S.I.) InP substrate. Both interdigitated and conventional (i.e., non-interdigitated) MIMs were fabricated. The energy bandgap (Eg) for these devices was 0.60 eV. A compositionally step-graded InPAs buffer was used to accommodate a lattice mismatch of 1.1% between the active InGaAs cell structure and the InP substrate. 1x1-cm, 15-cell, 0.60-eV MIMs demonstrated an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 5.2 V (347 mV per cell) and a fill factor of 68.6% at a short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 2.0 A/cm{sup 2}, under flashlamp testing. The reverse saturation current density (Jo) was 1.6x10{sup {minus}6} A/cm{sup 2}. Jo values as low as 4.1x10{sup {minus}7} A/cm{sup 2} were also observed with a conventional planar cell geometry.

Fatemi, Navid S.; Wilt, David M.; Hoffman, Richard W., Jr.; Stan, Mark S.; Weizer, Victor G.; Jenkins, Phillip P.; Khan, Osman S.; Murray, Christopher S.; Scheiman, David; Brinker, David

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Monte Carlo analysis of a monolithic interconnected module with a back surface reflector  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recently, the photon Monte Carlo code, RACER-X, was modified to include wave-length dependent absorption coefficients and indices of refraction. This work was done in an effort to increase the code`s capabilities to be more applicable to a wider range of problems. These new features make RACER-X useful for analyzing devices like monolithic interconnected modules (MIMs) which have etched surface features and incorporates a back surface reflector (BSR) for spectral control. A series of calculations were performed on various MIM structures to determine the impact that surface features and component reflectivities have on spectral utilization. The traditional concern of cavity photonics is replaced with intra-cell photonics in the MIM design. Like the cavity photonic problems previously discussed, small changes in optical properties and/or geometry can lead to large changes in spectral utilization. The calculations show that seemingly innocuous surface features (e.g., trenches and grid lines) can significantly reduce the spectral utilization due to the non-normal incident photon flux. Photons that enter the device through a trench edge are refracted onto a trajectory where they will not escape. This leads to a reduction in the number of reflected below bandgap photons that return to the radiator and reduce the spectral utilization. In addition, trenches expose a lateral conduction layer in this particular series of calculations which increase the absorption of above bandgap photons in inactive material.

Ballinger, C.T.; Charache, G.W. [Lockheed Martin Corp., Schenectady, NY (United States); Murray, C.S. [Bettis Atomic Power Lab., West Mifflin, PA (United States)

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Degradation of solid oxide fuel cell metallic interconnects in fuels containing sulfur  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrogen is the main fuel for all types of fuel cells except direct methanol fuel cells. Hydrogen can be generated from all manner of fossil fuels, including coal, natural gas, diesel, gasoline, other hydrocarbons, and oxygenates (e.g., methanol, ethanol, butanol, etc.). Impurities in the fuel can cause significant performance problems and sulfur, in particular, can decrease the cell performance of fuel cells, including solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). In the SOFC, the high (800-1000įC) operating temperature yields advantages (e.g., internal fuel reforming) and disadvantages (e.g., material selection and degradation problems). Significant progress in reducing the operating temperature of the SOFC from ~1000 ļC to ~750 ļC may allow less expensive metallic materials to be used for interconnects and as balance of plant (BOP) materials. This paper provides insight on the material performance of nickel, ferritic steels, and nickel-based alloys in fuels containing sulfur, primarily in the form of H2S, and seeks to quantify the extent of possible degradation due to sulfur in the gas stream.

Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection tre wecc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Evaluation of SmCo and SmCoN magnetron sputtering coatings for SOFC interconnect applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cobalt or cobalt containing coatings are promising for SOFC interconnect applications because of their high conductivity. We have investigated SmCo and SmCoN coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering from a SmCo (5% Sm) target on to Crofer 22 APU substrates. The composition, structure, surface morphology, and electrical conductivity of the coated substrates were characterized by SEM/EDX, XRD and ASR measurements. Addition of Sm enhances the oxidation resistance and the Cr retention capability of the coatings. The use of nitride as a precursor stabilizes Sm during oxidation of the films, thus inhibiting diffusion of Fe, resulting in a more compact coating and lowering ASR. The combined advantages of Sm addition to cobalt and the use of a nitride as a precursor, makes SmCoN coatings a promising new interconnect coating material.

Wu, Junwei (West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV); Jiang, Yinglu (Univ. of Science and Technology, Beijing, China); Johnson, C.D.; Liu, Xingbo (West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV)

2008-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

382

Operating Reserve Implication of Alternative Implementations of an Energy Imbalance Service on Wind Integration in the Western Interconnection: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the past few years, there has been significant interest in alternative ways to manage power systems over a larger effective electrical footprint. Large regional transmission organizations in the Eastern Interconnection have effectively consolidated balancing areas, achieving significant economies of scale that result in a reduction in required reserves. Conversely, in the Western Interconnection there are many balancing areas, which will result in challenges if there is significant wind and solar energy development in the region. A recent proposal to the Western Electricity Coordinating Council suggests a regional energy imbalance service (EIS). To evaluate this EIS, a number of analyses are in process or are planned. This paper describes one part of an analysis of the EIS's implication on operating reserves under several alternative scenarios of the market footprint and participation. We improve on the operating reserves method utilized in the Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study and apply this modified approach to data from the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study.

Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; King, J.; Beuning, S.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Analysis of the Impact of Balancing Area Cooperation on the Operation of the Western Interconnection with Wind and Solar Generation (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation describes the analysis of the impact of balancing area cooperation on the operation of the Western Interconnection with wind and solar generation, including a discussion of operating reserves, ramping, production simulation, and conclusions.

Milligan, M.; Lew, D.; Jordan, G.; Piwko, R.; Kirby, B.; King, J.; Beuning, S.

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

40 Gb/s Data Transmission Over a 1 m Long Multimode Polymer Spiral Waveguide for Board-Level Optical Interconnects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-based interconnects when operating at high data rates, such as electromagnetic interference (EMI), limited bandwidth and large power consumption, have led to the consideration of the use of optical technologies in high-speed board-level communication links [4...

Bamiedakis, Nikolaos; Chen, Jian; Westbergh, Petter; Gustavsson, Johan S.; Larsson, Anders; Penty, Richard V.; White, Ian H.

2014-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

385

INVESTIGATION OF NOVEL ALLOY TiC-Ni-Ni3Al FOR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL INTERCONNECT APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cell interconnect materials must meet stringent requirements. Such interconnects must operate at temperatures approaching 800 C while resisting oxidation and reduction, which can occur from the anode and cathode materials and the operating environment. They also must retain their electrical conductivity under these conditions and possess compatible coefficients of thermal expansion as the anode and cathode. Results are presented in this report for fuel cell interconnect candidate materials currently under investigation based upon nano-size titanium carbide (TiC) powders. The TiC is liquid phase sintered with either nickel (Ni) or nickel-aluminide (Ni{sub 3}Al) in varying concentrations. The oxidation resistance of the submicron grain TiC-metal materials is presented as a function weight change versus time at 700 C and 800 C for varying content of metal/intermetallic in the system. Electrical conductivity at 800 C as a function of time is also presented for TiC-Ni to demonstrate the vitality of these materials for interconnect applications. TGA studies showed that the weight gain was 0.8 mg/cm{sup 2} for TiC(30)-Ni(30wt.%) after 100 hours in wet air at 800 C and the weight gain was calculated to be 0.5205 mg/cm{sup 2} for TiC(30)- Ni(10 wt.%) after 100 hours at 700 C and 100 hours at 800 C. At room temperature the electrical conductivity was measured to be 2444 1/[ohm.cm] for TiC-Ni compositions. The electrical conductivities at 800 C in air was recorded to be 19 1/[ohm.cm] after 125 hours. Two identical samples were supplied to PNNL (Dr. Jeff Stevenson) for ASR testing during the pre-decision period and currently they are being tested there. Fabrication, oxidation resistance and electrical conductivity studies indicate that TiC-Ni-Ni{sub 3}Al ternary appears to be a very important system for the development of interconnect composition for solid oxide fuel cells.

Rasit Koc; Geoffrey Swift; Hua Xie

2005-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

386

Effect of SOFC Interconnect-Coating Interactions on Coating Properties and Performance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The high operating temperature of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) provides good fuel flexibility which expands potential applications, but also creates materials challenges. One such challenge is the interconnect material, which was the focus of this project. In particular, the objective of the project was to understand the interaction between the interconnect alloy and ceramic coatings which are needed to minimize chromium volatilization and the associated chromium poisoning of the SOFC cathode. This project focused on coatings based on manganese cobalt oxide spinel phases (Mn,Co)3O4, which have been shown to be effective as coatings for ferritic stainless steel alloys. Analysis of diffusion couples was used to develop a model to describe the interaction between (Mn,Co)3O4 and Cr2O3 in which a two-layer reaction zone is formed. Both layers form the spinel structure, but the concentration gradients at the interface appear like a two-phase boundary suggesting that a miscibility gap is present in the spinel solid solution. A high-chromium spinel layer forms in contact with Cr2O3 and grows by diffusion of manganese and cobalt from the coating material to the Cr2O3. The effect of coating composition, including the addition of dopants, was evaluated and indicated that the reaction rate could be decreased with additions of iron, titanium, nickel and copper. Diffusion couples using stainless steel alloys (which form a chromia scale) had some similarities and some differences as compared to those with Cr2O3. The most notable difference was that the high-chromium spinel layer did not form in the diffusion couples with stainless steel alloys. This difference can be explained using the reaction model developed in this project. In particular, the chromia scale grows at the expense of the alloy, the high-chromia layer grows at the expense of chromia scale and the high-chromia layer is consumed by diffusion of chromium into the coating material. If the last process (dissolution of high-chromium spinel phase) is faster than the second process (formation of high-chromium spinel phase), the high-chromium layer may be consumed. The other important result of this mechanism is that it could result in a constant scale thickness if the scale forms at the same rate as it is consumed. This helps to explain the unexpected observation that the area specific resistance (ASR) of a SOFC with a (Mn,Co)3O4-coated ferritic stainless steel cathode becomes constant after long exposures. The project also evaluated the possibility of reducing the chromium content in a stainless steel alloy using experimental alloys. The conclusion of this evaluation is that at least 17-18% chromium is needed for good oxidation resistance is needed even if the alloy is coated with a spinel coating. Additional details on these findings are provided in a later section of this report and in the publications listed below.

Jeffrey W. Fergus

2012-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

387

Regulation, Allocation, and Leakage in Cap-and-Trade Markets for CO2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the Western Electricity Coordinat- ing Council (WECC).The WECC is the organization responsible for coordinatingof these regions. First The WECC periodically reports on the

Bushnell, Jim B; Chen, Yihsu

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

The Cost of Transmission for Wind Energy: A Review of Transmission Planning Studies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

publications.html PG&E. 2007a. WECC Regional PlanningCalifornia Electric: WECC Regional Planning Project,Presentation January 23,2008 WECC Regional Planning Review

Mills, Andrew D.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Coupling Renewable Energy Supply with Deferrable Demand  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

8.1.1 The WECC Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Generation mix of the WECC model . . . . . . . . . . . .Net load of WECC for each day type (not including wind power

Papavasiliou, Anthony

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

2011 Wind Technologies Market Report  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

June 2012. Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC).2011. WECC Efficient Dispatch Toolkit Cost-Benefit Analysis.Coordinating Council (WECC). 2010. Scope of the Efficient

Bolinger, Mark

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Energy Efficiency as a Preferred Resource: Evidence from Utility Resource Plans in the Western United States and Canada  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coordinating Council (WECC) (2005). Hourly Demands 1998-Coordinating Council (WECC, 2005). 3 To compare utilitiesíone to three years. The WECC control area roughly includes

Hopper, Nichole

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

REAL TIME SYSTEM OPERATIONS 2006-2007  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Table 1: Spectral content of WECC data Arnold SchwarzeneggerCoordinating†Council†(WECC)†utility† transmission†Coordinating†Council†(WECC)† coordination,†and†North†

Eto, Joseph H.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Uncertainties in the Value of Bill Savings from Behind-the-Meter, Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Roles of Electricity Market Conditions, Retail Rate Design, and Net Metering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coordinating Council (WECC) region with increasedgeneration in the wider WECC region, at least partially.the region of study were WECC, geographic diversity of solar

Darghouth, Naim Richard

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Approaches To Integrating A HIgh Penertration Of Solar PV and CPV Onto The Electrical Grid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electric Coordinating Council (WECC), the National RenewableSubstations Recommendations For WECC Transmission Expansioncoordinated with the CAISO and WECC. OTHER The target budget

Hill, Steven Craig

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AD? OpenDocument WECC 2005, Frequency Response Standard,30-minute response. Finally, a WECC proposes a reduction ineach Balancing Area to a single WECC wide spinning reserve

Heffner, Grayson

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Delivering Energy Efficiency to Middle Income Single Family Households  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cohen (DOE), Todd Conkey (WECC), Neely Crane-Smit (MNCEE),Diamond (LBNL), George Edgar (WECC), Lara Ettenson & team (Assistance Program WECC Ė Wisconsin Energy Conservation

Zimring, Mark

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Understanding Bulk Power Reliability: The Importance of Good Data and A Critical Review of Existing Sources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

separation ConEd NY - Terrorist Attack WECC- AZNMSNVcontractor accident WECC- NWPP severe weather Date #Rain TransEnergie short circuit WECC line fault Jacksonville

Fisher, Emily

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

FINAL PROJECT REPORT LOAD MODELING TRANSMISSION RESEARCH  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Air†Conditioner†Testing†in†WECC,Ē†IEEE†Power† Engineering†Air†Conditioner†Modeling,†WECC†Load†Modeling†Task† Force†in†power†system†studies:†WECC†progress†update,?†Power†and†

Lesieutre, Bernard

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electric Coordinating Council (WECC); Fred LeBlanc, WesternAdministration (WAPA) and WECC; and Dorris Lam, Californiaon System Stability. WECC system stability is enhanced when

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Financial Analysis of Incentive Mechanisms to Promote Energy Efficiency: Case Study of a Prototypical Southwest Utility  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Conservation Corporation (WECC) 1993. ďEvaluation of DSMnumber of future years (WECC 1993). Disallowance of theseutilityís financial strength (WECC 1993). Utilities focused

Cappers, Peter

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection tre wecc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Energy Efficiency in Western Utility Resource Plans: Impacts on Regional Resources Assessment and Support for WGA Policies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PNM PSCO PSE PUC SDG&E SCE WECC average megawatts Britishwith appropriate NERC and WECC committees and subcommitteesconsistent across NERC, WECC and state/regional assessments

Hopper, Nicole; Goldman, Charles; Schlegal, Jeff

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Assessment of Solder Interconnect Integrity in Dismantled Electronic Components from N57 and B61 Tube-Type Radars  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aging analyses were performed on solder joints from two radar units: (1) a laboratory, N57 tube-type radar unit and (2) a field-returned, B61-0, tube-type radar unit. The cumulative temperature environments experienced by the units during aging were calculated from the intermetallic compound layer thickness and the mean Pb-rich phase particle size metrics for solder joints in the units, assuming an aging time of 35 years for both radars. Baseline aging metrics were obtained from a laboratory test vehicle assembled at AS/FM and T; the aging kinetics of both metrics were calculated from isothermal aging experiments. The N57 radar unit interconnect board solder joints exhibited very little aging. The eyelet solder joints did show cracking that most likely occurred at the time of assembly. The eyelet, SA1126 connector solder joints, showed some delamination between the Cu pad and underlying laminate. The B61 field-returned radar solder joints showed a nominal degree of aging. Cracking of the eyelet solder joints was observed. The Pb-rich phase particle measurements indicated additional aging of the interconnects as a result of residual stresses. Cracking of the terminal pole connector, pin-to-pin solder joint was observed; but it was not believed to jeopardize the electrical functionality of the interconnect. Extending the stockpile lifetime of the B61 tube-type radar by an additional 20 years would not be impacted by the reliability of the solder joints with respect to further growth of the intermetallic compound layer. Additional coarsening of the Pb-rich phase will increase the joints' sensitivity to thermomechanical fatigue.

Rejent, J.A.; Vianco, P.T.; Woodrum, R.A.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Operating Reserve Reductions from a Proposed Energy Imbalance Market with Wind and Solar Generation in the Western Interconnection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper considers several alternative forms of an energy imbalance market (EIM) proposed in the nonmarket areas of the Western Interconnection. The proposed EIM includes two changes in operating practices that independently reduce variability and increase access to responsive resources: balancing authority cooperation and sub-hourly dispatch. As the penetration of variable generation increases on the power system, additional interest in coordination would likely occur. Several alternative approaches could be used, but consideration of any form of coordinated unit commitment is beyond the scope of this analysis. This report examines the benefits of several possible EIM implementations--both separately and in concert.

King, J.; Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.; Beuning, S.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Proposal for the award of a contract for the assembly on the CERN site of interconnections for the LHC machine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This document concerns the award of a contract for the assembly on the CERN site of interconnections for the LHC machine. Following a market survey carried out among 70 firms in fourteen Member States, a call for tenders (IT-3099/AT/LHC) was sent on 14 April 2003 to one firm and four consortia in five Member States. By the closing date, CERN had received three tenders from three consortia in four Member States. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with the consortium INEO (FR), ENDEL (FR) and GTI (NL), the lowest bidder, for the assembly on the CERN site of interconnections for the LHC machine for a total amount of 6 792 836 euros (10 475 917 Swiss francs), subject to revision for inflation after 1 January 2006. The rate of exchange used is that stipulated in the tender. The consortium has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: NL - 51%; FR - 49%.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Mathematical models of interconnections between composition and properties of oils in the Apsheron oil-and gas-bearing region of Azerbaijan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports on the example of oils in the Apsheron oil- and gas-bearing region and Apsheron archipelago located in the western part of the Southern Caspian depression, of which the authors have developed mathematical models of a group hydrocarbon composition; interconnection between oil density and content of asphalt-resin materials, benzine, and ligroin; interconnections between oil density and viscosity and temperature; and interconnections between content of asphalt-resin properties and low-temperature fractions. The models obtained enable us to extrapolate factual data on composition and properties of oils beyond the limits of fixed depths of burial of oil-saturated reservoirs both to a zone of great depths and increased temperatures where hydrocarbons were in a gaseous or oil and gaseous state, and to a zone of near-surface conditions where oils acquire the consistency of asphalts.

Buryakovsky, L.A.; Dzhevanshir, R.D. (Inst. of Deep Oil and Gas Deposits, Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences, 33 Narimanov Prospect, Baku 370143, Azerbaijan (SU))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Frequency Control Performance Measurement and Requirements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Standard Drafting Team, September 30. [81] WECC Tutorial onSpeed Governors, WECC Control Work Group, February 1998,http://www.wecc.biz/library/WECC%20Documents/Documents%

Illian, Howard F.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Changes in the Economic Value of Variable Generation at High Penetration Levels: A Pilot Case Study of California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PV REC RPS RT SAM T&D TES WECC WREZ WWSIS VG VOLL AncillaryCoordinating Council (WECC). http://www.wecc.biz/committees/Coordinating Council (WECC). TEPPC TAS 2020 Dataset

Mills, Andrew

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Use of Frequency Response Metrics to Assess the Planning and Operating Requirements for Reliable Integration of Variable Renewable Generation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Responsive Reserve Report. WECC Frequency Responsive Reserve=&View={BB5A76DA-21C8-48FC-9468-F82B395DF8F9} WECC.2008. WECC Standard BAL-002-WECC-1 - Contingency Reserves.

Eto, Joseph H.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Interactions between Energy Efficiency Programs funded under the Recovery Act and Utility Customer-Funded Energy Efficiency Programs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Minnesota OES), Sue Hason (WECC), Alan Hee, Robert Jackson (Power), Kathy Kuntz (WECC), Thad Kurowski (Colorado GEO),

Goldman, Charles A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Using CrAIN Multilayer Coatings to Improve Oxidation Resistance of Steel Interconnects for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stacks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The requirements of low cost and high-tempurature corrosion resistance for bipolar interconnect plates in solid oxide fuel cell stacks has directed attention to the use of metal plates with oxidation resistant coatings. We have investigatedt he performance of steel plates with multilayer coatings consisting of CrN for electrical conductivity and CrAIN for oxidation resistance. The coatings were deposited usin large area filterd arc deposition technolgy, and subsequently annealed in air for up to 25 hours at 800 degrees celsius. The composition, structer and morphology of the coated plates were characterized using RBS, nuclear reaction analysis, AFM and TEM techniques. By altering the architecture of the layers within the coatings, the rate of oxidation was reduced by more than an order of magnitute. Electrical resistance was measured at room temperature.

Smith, Richard J.; Tripp, C.; Knospe, Anders; Ramana, C. V.; Gorokhovsky, Vladimir I.; Shutthanandan, V.; Gelles, David S.

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Grid Interconnection and Performance Testing Procedures for Vehicle-To-Grid (V2G) Power Electronics: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bidirectional power electronics can add vehicle-to-grid (V2G) capability in a plug-in vehicle, which then allows the vehicle to operate as a distributed resource (DR). The uniqueness of the battery-based V2G power electronics requires a test procedure that will not only maintain IEEE interconnection standards, but can also evaluate the electrical performance of the vehicle working as a DR. The objective of this paper is to discuss a recently published NREL technical report that provides interim test procedures for V2G vehicles for their integration into the electrical distribution systems and for their performance in terms of continuous output power, efficiency, and losses. Additionally, some other test procedures are discussed that are applicable to a V2G vehicle that desires to provide power reserve functions. A few sample test results are provided based on testing of prototype V2G vehicles at NREL.

Kramer, W.; Chakraborty, S.; Kroposki, B.; Hoke, A.; Martin, G.; Markel, T.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Maze Solving Automatons for Self-Healing of Open Interconnects: Modular Add-on for Circuit Boards  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present the circuit board integration of a self-healing mechanism to repair open faults. The electric field driven mechanism physically restores fractured interconnects in electronic circuits and has the ability to solve mazes. The repair is performed by conductive particles dispersed in an insulating fluid. We demonstrate the integration of the healing module onto printed circuit boards and the ability of maze solving. We model and perform experiments on the influence of the geometry of the conductive particles as well as the terminal impedances of the route on the healing efficiency. The typical heal rate is 10 $\\mu$m/s with healed route having resistance of 100 $\\Omega$ to 20 k$\\Omega$ depending on the materials and concentrations used.

Aswathi Nair; Karthik Raghunandan; Vaddi Yaswanth; Sreelal Shridharan; Sanjiv Sambandan

2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

413

Sustainable Energy Solutions Task 1.0: Networked Monitoring and Control of Small Interconnected Wind Energy Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

EXECUTIVE SUMARRY This report presents accomplishments, results, and future work for one task of five in the Wichita State University Sustainable Energy Solutions Project: To develop a scale model laboratory distribution system for research into questions that arise from networked control and monitoring of low-wind energy systems connected to the AC distribution system. The lab models developed under this task are located in the Electric Power Quality Lab in the Engineering Research Building on the Wichita State University campus. The lab system consists of four parts: 1. A doubly-fed induction generator 2. A wind turbine emulator 3. A solar photovoltaic emulator, with battery energy storage 4. Distribution transformers, lines, and other components, and wireless and wired communications and control These lab elements will be interconnected and will function together to form a complete testbed for distributed resource monitoring and control strategies and smart grid applications testing. Development of the lab system will continue beyond this project.

Janet.twomey@wichita.edu

2010-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

414

High Performance Ceramic Interconnect Material for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs): Ca- and Transition Metal-doped Yttrium Chromite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of transition metal substitution on thermal and electrical properties of Ca-doped yttrium chromite was investigated in relation to use as a ceramic interconnect in high temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). 10 at% Co, 4 at% Ni, and 1 at% Cu substitution on B-site of 20 at% Ca-doped yttrium chromite led to a close match of thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) with that of 8 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), and a single phase Y0.8Ca0.2Cr0.85Co0.1Ni0.04Cu0.01O3 remained stable between 25 and 1100 degree C over a wide oxygen partial pressure range. Doping with Cu significantly facilitated densification of yttrium chromite. Ni dopant improved both electrical conductivity and dimensional stability in reducing environments, likely through diminishing the oxygen vacancy formation. Substitution with Co substantially enhanced electrical conductivity in oxidizing atmosphere, which was attributed to an increase in charge carrier density and hopping mobility. Electrical conductivity of Y0.8Ca0.2Cr0.85Co0.1Ni0.04Cu0.01O3 at 900 degree C is 57 S/cm in air and 11 S/cm in fuel (pO2=5◊10^-17 atm) environments. Chemical compatibility of doped yttrium chromite with other cell components was verified at the processing temperatures. Based on the chemical and dimensional stability, sinterability, and thermal and electrical properties, Y0.8Ca0.2Cr0.85Co0.1Ni0.04Cu0.01O3 is suggested as a promising SOFC ceramic interconnect to potentially overcome technical limitations of conventional acceptor-doped lanthanum chromites.

Yoon, Kyung J.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Marina, Olga A.

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

415

Preprint of a paper to appear in Applied Optics, Vol. 33, No. 11, November 1994 A Scalable Optical Hypercubebased Interconnection Network for Massively  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Preprint of a paper to appear in Applied Optics, Vol. 33, No. 11, November 1994 A Scalable Optical of massively parallel computers. This paper presents a new modular optical interconnection network, called an Optical Multi­Mesh Hypercube (OMMH), which is both size­ and time­scalable. The OMMH combines positive

Louri, Ahmed

416

Modeling, Optimization and Power Efficiency Comparison of High-speed Inter-chip Electrical and Optical Interconnect Architectures in Nanometer CMOS Technologies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-bandwidth inter-chip optical interconnect architectures have the potential to address this increasing I/O bandwidth. Considering future tera-scale systems, power dissipation of the high-speed I/O link becomes a significant concern. This work presents a design flow...

Palaniappan, Arun

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

417

Energy-based modelling and simulation of the interconnection of a back-to-back converter and a doubly-fed induction machine*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

] and references therein). In this approach, energy plays a fundamental role, port variables are conjugated) the structure matrix, describing how energy flows inside the system, and (c) the power ports, some of which mayEnergy-based modelling and simulation of the interconnection of a back-to-back converter

Batlle, Carles

418

Leakage-Aware Interconnect for On-Chip Network Yuh-Fang Tsai, Vijaykrishnan Narayaynan, Yuan Xie, and Mary Jane Irwin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-performance nanoscale architectures, power consumption remains a significant constraint. In the deep sub-micron era, the interconnect wires and associated driver circuits consume an increasing fraction of the energy budget driver of one output port. To manage the leakage power in standby mode, a sleep transistor N5 which

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

419

Effects of Oxide Thickness on Scale and Interface Stresses under Isothermal Cooling and Micro-Indentation for Ferritic Stainless Steel Interconnect  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Interconnects in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) provide the electrical connection between the individual cells, as well as separate the anode air from the cathode fuel for each cell. The recently developed anode-supported planar SOFCs design allows the cell working temperature to be 800oC and lower, which led to the proposed use of ferritic stainless steel as interconnects and current collectors in the SOFC systems. Many experimental studies have shown that metal based interconnects will go through surface oxidation under the typical operating temperature and environment of an SOFC system. Since the oxide scale is formed at the outer surface of interconnect, its microstructure (morphology, texture), properties (electrical, thermal and mechanical properties), and structural integrity/stability will have a significant impact on the performance of interconnect. In this paper, we study the oxide growth kinetics and stresses generated during scale growth the thermal cycling for Cr-Fe based alloy, e.g. Crofer 22 APU. The goal is to predict the interconnect life under typical operating conditions and thermal cycles. First, a mathematical model is developed based on the growth of scale and coupling relation between diffusion and stress field. The following phenomena are considered: 1) The predominant cationic diffusion and cation distribution within the oxide scale in transient state and steady state; 2) Chemical reaction within the scale as well as the growth kinetics of the oxide scale; 3) Stresses distribution during the oxidation, especially for mid- and long-term treatment; 4) Coupling relationship or interaction between oxidation induced stresses and mass diffusion within the scale. Next, thermal stresses generated due to temperature changes in thermal cycling are predicted using finite element analyses for different substrate and scale thickness. In general, very high compressive in-plane stresses are predicted for the oxide layer. Also, high shear stress is also predicted on the oxide/substrate interface. The predicted shear stress on the interface is used to compare with the experimentally determined bond strength to predict delamination. Finally, scale spallation and IC life prediction are predicted by comparing the compressive stress in the scale with the critical buckling load for the delaminated scale.

Sun, Xin; Liu, Wenning N.; Vetrano, John S.; Yang, Zhenguo; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2007-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

420

Flexibility Reserve Reductions from an Energy Imbalance Market with High Levels of Wind Energy in the Western Interconnection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The anticipated increase in variable generation in the Western Interconnection (WI) over the next several years has raised concerns about how to maintain system balance, especially in smaller Balancing Areas (BAs). Given renewable portfolio standards in the West, it is possible that more than 50 gigawatts (GW) of wind capacity will be installed by 2020. Significant quantities of solar generation are likely to be added as well. The consequent increase in variability and uncertainty that must be managed by the conventional generation fleet and responsive load make it attractive to consider ways in which Balancing Area Authorities (BAAs) can pool their variability and response resources, thus taking advantage of geographic and temporal diversity to increase overall operational efficiency. Our analysis considers several alternative forms of an Energy Imbalance Market (EIM) that have been proposed in the non-market areas of the WI. The proposed EIM includes two changes in operating practices that independently reduce variability and increase access to responsive resources: BAA cooperation and sub-hourly dispatch. As proposed, the EIM does not consider any form of coordinated unit commitment; however, over time it is possible that BAAs would develop formal or informal coordination plans. This report examines the benefits of several possible EIM implementations, both separately and in concert.

King, J.; Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.; S. Beuning

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection tre wecc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Method for depositing a uniform layer of particulate material on the surface of an article having interconnected porosity  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is a method for depositing liquid-suspended particles on an immersed porous article characterized by interconnected porosity. In one form of the invention, coating is conducted in a vessel containing an organic liquid supporting a colloidal dispersion of graphite sized to lodge in surface pores of the article. The liquid comprises a first volatile component (e.g., acetone) and a second less-volatile component (e.g., toluene) containing a dissolved organic graphite-bonding agent. The liquid also contains an organic agent (e.g., cellulose gum) for maintaining the particles in suspension. A porous carbon article to be coated is immersed in the liquid so that it is permeated therewith. While the liquid is stirred to maintain a uniform blend, the vessel headspace is evacuated to effect flashing-off of the first component from the interior of the article. This causes particle-laden liquid exterior of the article to flow inwardly through its surface pores, lodging particles in these pores and forming a continuous graphite coating. The coated article is retrieved and heated to resin-bond the graphite. The method can be used to form a smooth, adherent, continuous coating of various materials on various porous articles. The method is rapid and reproducible.

Wrenn, G.E. Jr.; Lewis, J. Jr.

1982-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

422

Current induced annealing and electrical characterization of single layer graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition for future interconnects in VLSI circuits  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Single layer graphene (SLG) grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been investigated for its prospective application as horizontal interconnects in very large scale integrated circuits. However, the major bottleneck for its successful application is its degraded electronic transport properties due to the resist residual trapped in the grain boundaries and on the surface of the polycrystalline CVD graphene during multi-step lithographic processes, leading to increase in its sheet resistance up to 5 M?/sq. To overcome this problem, current induced annealing has been employed, which helps to bring down the sheet resistance to 10?k?/sq (of the order of its initial value). Moreover, the maximum current density of ?1.2?◊?10{sup 7?}A/cm{sup 2} has been obtained for SLG (1?◊?2.5??m{sup 2}) on SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate, which is about an order higher than that of conventionally used copper interconnects.

Prasad, Neetu, E-mail: neetu.prasad@south.du.ac.in, E-mail: neetu23686@gmail.com; Kumari, Anita; Bhatnagar, P. K.; Mathur, P. C. [Department of Electronic Science, University of Delhi South Campus, Benito Juarez Road, New Delhi 110021 (India); Bhatia, C. S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

423

Effect of Creep of Ferritic Interconnect on Long-Term Performance of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stacks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-temperature ferritic alloys are potential candidates as interconnect (IC) materials and spacers due to their low cost and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) compatibility with other components for most of the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) . However, creep deformation becomes relevant for a material when the operating temperature exceeds or even is less than half of its melting temperature (in degrees of Kelvin). The operating temperatures for most of the SOFCs under development are around 1,073 K. With around 1,800 K of the melting temperature for most stainless steel, possible creep deformation of ferritic IC under the typical cell operating temperature should not be neglected. In this paper, the effects of IC creep behavior on stack geometry change and the stress redistribution of different cell components are predicted and summarized. The goal of the study is to investigate the performance of the fuel cell stack by obtaining the changes in fuel- and air-channel geometry due to creep of the ferritic stainless steel IC, therefore indicating possible changes in SOFC performance under long-term operations. The ferritic IC creep model was incorporated into software SOFC-MP and Mentat-FC, and finite element analyses were performed to quantify the deformed configuration of the SOFC stack under the long-term steady-state operating temperature. It was found that the creep behavior of the ferritic stainless steel IC contributes to narrowing of both the fuel- and the air-flow channels. In addition, stress re-distribution of the cell components suggests the need for a compliant sealing material that also relaxes at operating temperature.

Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Expandable LED array interconnect  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A light emitting device that can function as an array element in an expandable array of such devices. The light emitting device comprises a substrate that has a top surface and a plurality of edges. Input and output terminals are mounted to the top surface of the substrate. Both terminals comprise a plurality of contact pads disposed proximate to the edges of the substrate, allowing for easy access to both terminals from multiple edges of the substrate. A lighting element is mounted to the top surface of the substrate. The lighting element is connected between the input and output terminals. The contact pads provide multiple access points to the terminals which allow for greater flexibility in design when the devices are used as array elements in an expandable array.

Yuan, Thomas Cheng-Hsin; Keller, Bernd

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Reliability of Electrical Interconnects  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

426

Fast interconnect optimization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). .................... 15 9Ifalpha1 B-dominates alpha2 at v1, beta1 dominates beta2 at v. ........... 17 10 Candidate tree A(v1) of four candidates. Fields qa, ca and ra are 0 for all candidates. ........................... 20 11 Candidate tree A(v) of four candidates after... the wire is added. .... 21 12 Update of candidate tree A(v) when some nodes are visited. ..... 22 13 Four candidates with their buffer types and locations: alpha4 has no buffer, alpha3 has one buffer at v3, alpha2 has one buffer at v2,andalpha1 consists...

Li, Zhuo

2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

427

Interconnection Guidelines (Alaska)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In October 2009, the Regulatory Commission of Alaska (RCA) approved net metering regulations. These rules were finalized and approved by the lieutenant governor in January 2010 and became effective...

428

GSA- Utility Interconnection Agreements  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation given at the Spring 2010 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting in Providence, Rhode Island.

429

Capillary interconnect device  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A manifold for connecting external capillaries to the inlet and/or outlet ports of a microfluidic device for high pressure applications is provided. The fluid connector for coupling at least one fluid conduit to a corresponding port of a substrate that includes: (i) a manifold comprising one or more channels extending therethrough wherein each channel is at least partially threaded, (ii) one or more threaded ferrules each defining a bore extending therethrough with each ferrule supporting a fluid conduit wherein each ferrule is threaded into a channel of the manifold, (iii) a substrate having one or more ports on its upper surface wherein the substrate is positioned below the manifold so that the one or more ports is aligned with the one or more channels of the manifold, and (iv) means for applying an axial compressive force to the substrate to couple the one or more ports of the substrate to a corresponding proximal end of a fluid conduit.

Renzi, Ronald F. (Tracy, CA)

2007-12-25T23:59:59.000Z

430

Western Interconnection Synchrophasor Project  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched FerromagnetismWaste and MaterialsWenjun DengWISP Sign In About | Careers | Contact |

431

Interconnection | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar Powerstories on climate compatible development JumpOhio

432

Interconnection Standards (Utah  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to:46 - 429 Throttled (bot load) ErrorEnergyInnovationInterContinental Hotels

433

Performance of a Dynamically Controlled Inverter in a Photovoltaic System Interconnected with a Secondary Network Distribution System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 2008, a 300 kW{sub peak} photovoltaic (PV) system was installed on the rooftop of the Colorado Convention Center (CCC). The installation was unique for the electric utility, Xcel Energy, as it had not previously permitted a PV system to be interconnected on a building served by the local secondary network distribution system (network). The PV system was installed with several provisions; one to prevent reverse power flow, another called a dynamically controlled inverter (DCI), that curtails the output of the PV inverters to maintain an amount of load supplied by Xcel Energy at the CCC. The DCI system utilizes current transformers (CTs) to sense power flow to insure that a minimum threshold is maintained from Xcel Energy through the network transformers. The inverters are set to track the load on each of the three phases and curtail power from the PV system when the generated PV system current reaches 95% of the current on any phase. This is achieved by the DCI, which gathers inputs from current transformers measuring the current from the PV array, Xcel, and the spot network load. Preventing reverse power flow is a critical technical requirement for the spot network which serve this part of the CCC. The PV system was designed with the expectation that the DCI system would not curtail the PV system, as the expected minimum load consumption was historically higher than the designed PV system size. However, the DCI system has operated many days during the course of a year, and the performance has been excellent. The DCI system at the CCC was installed as a secondary measure to insure that a minimum level of power flows to the CCC from the Xcel Energy network. While this DCI system was intended for localized control, the system could also reduce output percent if an external smart grid control signal was employed. This paper specifically focuses on the performance of the innovative design at this installation; however, the DCI system could also be used for new s- art grid-enabled distribution systems where renewables power contributions at certain conditions or times may need to be curtailed.

Coddington, M. H.; Kroposki, B. D.; Basso, T.; Berger, D.; Crowell, K.; Hayes, J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Wafer Bonding and Epitaxial Transfer of GaSb-based Epitaxy to GaAs for Monolithic Interconnection of Thermophotovoltaic Devices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

GaInAsSb/AlGaAsSb/InAsSb/GaSb epitaxial layers were bonded to semi-insulating GaAs handle wafers with SiO{sub x}/Ti/Au as the adhesion layer for monolithic interconnection of thermophotovoltaic (TPV) devices. Epitaxial transfer was completed by removal of the GaSb substrate, GaSb buffer, and InAsSb etch-stop layer by selective chemical etching. The SiO{sub x}/TiAu provides not only electrical isolation, but also high reflectivity and is used as an internal back-surface reflector. Characterization of wafer-bonded epitaxy by high-resolution x-ray diffraction and time-decay photoluminescence indicates minimal residual stress and enhancement in optical quality. 0.54-eV GaInAsSb cells were fabricated and monolithically interconnected in series. A 10-junction device exhibited linear voltage building with an open-circuit voltage of 1.8 V.

C.A. Wang; D.A. Shiau; P.G. Murphy; P.W. O'brien; R.K. Huang; M.K. Connors; A.C. Anderson; D. Donetsky; S. Anikeev; G. Belenky; D.M. Depoy; G. Nichols

2003-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

435

Proposal to negotiate an amendment to an existing contract for the supply and installation of interconnecting pipework for cryogenics and cooling of the LHC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This document concerns the proposal to negotiate an amendment to an existing contract for the supply and installation of interconnecting pipework for cryogenics and cooling of the LHC. For the reasons explained in this document, the Finance Committee is invited to approve an amendment to the existing contract for the supply and installation of interconnecting pipework for cryogenics and cooling of the LHC with the firm DEMONT (IT) for an amount exceeding the previously approved amount of 3 818 877 euros (5 881 000 Swiss francs) by up to 2 157 800 euros (3 323 000 Swiss francs), subject to revision for inflation, bringing the total contract amount to a maximum amount of 5 976 677 euros (9 204 000 Swiss francs), subject to revision for inflation. The rate of exchange used is that stipulated in the initial tender (CERN/FC/4322). The firm has declared the following origin of the equipment covered by this adjudication proposal: IT - 85%, CZ - 5%, SK - 4%, FR - 3%, PL - 3%.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Joseph MORSEL COMMENT PEUT-ON TRE PARISIEN ?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

appartenance. Bref, derrière le pastiche de la question posée au Persan Rica, il faut voir une remise en cause

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

437

TRE AT I s E - Department of Mathematics, Purdue University  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mnr?m in Demmrk-?reet, 3'. link at King l Edward's ... and UfeliulJScience, wherein the Safety, Wealth and Glory .... all,I anti belt known by thol'e of the No-. \\-

438

Proposal to negotiate an amendment for the installation of QRL sector 7-8 to the existing contract for the assembly of interconnections for the LHC machine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This document concerns the proposal to negotiate an amendment to the existing contract for the assembly of interconnections for the LHC machine to include the installation of sector 7-8 of the cryogenic ring line (QRL). For the reasons explained in this document, the Finance Committee is invited to approve an amendment for the installation of QRL sector 7-8 to an existing contract with the consortium INEO (FR), ENDEL (FR) and GTI (NL) for an amount not exceeding 840 000 euros (1 286 000 Swiss francs), not subject to revision, bringing the total amount of the contract to an amount of 9 192 836 euros (14 080 000 Swiss francs). The amounts in Swiss francs have been calculated using the present rate of exchange.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Post-processing of polymer foam tissue scaffolds with high power ultrasound: a route to increased pore interconnectivity, pore size and fluid transport  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We expose thick polymer foam tissue scaffolds to high power ultrasound and study its effect on the openness of the pore architecture and fluid transport through the scaffold. Our analysis is supported by measurements of fluid uptake during insonification and imaging of the scaffold microstructure via x-ray computed tomography, scanning electron microscopy and acoustic microscopy. The ultrasonic treatment is found to increase the mean pore size by over 10%. More striking is the improvement in fluid uptake: for scaffolds with only 40% water uptake via standard immersion techniques, we can routinely achieve full saturation of the scaffold over approximately one hour of exposure. These desirable modifications occur with no loss of scaffold integrity and negligible mass loss, and are optimized when the ultrasound treatment is coupled to a pre-wetting stage with ethanol. Our findings suggest that high power ultrasound is a highly targetted and efficient means to promote pore interconnectivity and fluid transport in thick foam tissue scaffolds.

N J Watson; R K Johal; Y Reinwald; L J White; A M Ghaemmaghami; S P Morgan; F R A J Rose; M J W Povey; N G Parker

2013-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

440

Int. J. Critical Infrastructures, Vol. 3, Nos. 1/2, 2007 235 Copyright 2007 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Council (WECC). We present simulations to show the change in the WECC system over 20 years. We explain-term model. The usefulness of the model is illustrated by showing simulated impacts on the WECC system due

Ford, Andrew

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection tre wecc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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441

Distributed Energy Resource Optimization Using a Software as Service (SaaS) Approach at the University of California, Davis Campus  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SaaS TCF TOU UCD USDOE WAPA WECC Building Automation SystemCoordinating Council (WECC), and the emissions represent theother words, electricity in WECC is assumed fully fungible

Michael, Stadler

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Renewable Portfolio Standards in the United States - A Status Report with Data Through 2007  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PUC PV REC RPS SEP TWh WECC WREGIS alternative complianceoriginating within M-RETS; OR: WECC for unbundled RECs, U.S.portion of WECC and delivered to LSE for renewable

Wiser, Ryan

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Mass Market Demand Response and Variable Generation Integration Issues: A Scoping Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

D.C. E-Three (2011) WECC EDT Phase 2 EIM Benefits Analysis &2011. 23 pages. NREL/TP-5500-49218. WECC (2010) ProposedConcepts For the WECC Efficient Dispatch Toolkit Energy

Cappers, Peter

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Physical Impacts of Climate Change on the Western US Electricity System: A Scoping Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lett. 34:L19703. [46] WECC 2005. Power Supply Assessment.=index&req=getit&lid [56] WECC Planning Data White Paper,Coordinating Council (WECC) [46, 55, 56], while our

Coughlin, Katie

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Exploration of Resource and Transmission Expansion Decisions in the Western Renewable Energy Zone Initiative  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Investments in the WECC. Ē The Electricity Journal 22(9):Coordinating Council (WECC). In Section 3 we examine theannual energy demand in the WECC with new RE for a target

Mills, Andrew D

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration -- Phase 2 Findings from the Summer of 2008  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

than required by NERC and WECC reliability rules. 2. TheRMSE SCADA SCE SDP VHF WAN WECC Air conditioning AutonomousElectric Coordinating Council (WECC) rules for contingency

Eto, Joseph H.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Commercial and Industrial Base Intermittent Resource Management Pilot  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Grid in accordance with WECC standards. Operating Reserves 5required to meet NERC and WECC reliability standards. Theseand Operator (CAISO 2010c). WECC Standard BAL-STD-002-0 Ė

Kiliccote, Sila

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

The Implementation of California AB 32 and its Impact on Wholesale Electricity Markets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the dirtiest plants in the WECC fall into two categories,Capacity factors of non-Cal WECC plants (> 75 MW) with CO2consumed elsewhere in the WECC. If those regions are not

Bushnell, Jim B

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Cap-and-Trade Modeling and Analysis: Congested Electricity Market Equilibrium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2.4 Case Study: WECC 225-Bus2.4.1 Characteristics of the WECC 225-Bus3.2.1 Characteristics of the WECC 225-Bus System . . . . . .

Limpaitoon, Tanachai

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Exploration of Resource and Transmission Expansion Decisions in the Western Renewable Energy Zone Initiative  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Investments in the WECC. Ē The Electricity Journal 22(9):when unbundled RECs are allowed on a WECC-wide basis.renewable energy costs WECC-wide by using RECs is found to

Mills, Andrew

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Assessing Vehicle Electricity Demand Impacts on California Electricity Supply  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

System Operator. WECC (2006) Information Summary, Westernx SDG&E SMR SMUD TID v VMT WECC San Diego Gas & ElectricCoordinating Council (WECC) differ somewhat from the CEC and

McCarthy, Ryan W.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

A Regional Approach to Market Monitoring in the West  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RTO SMUD SCED SCUC SSG-WI WAPA WECC Arizona Public Serviceaggregated form. For example, WECC publishes a daily reportfor three sub-regions of WECC, but the report does not

Barmack, Matthew; Kahn, Edward; Tierney, Susan; Goldman, Charles

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Real Time Grid Reliability Management 2005  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to be Incorporated into the WECC Phasor Network PMU Locationand Validation in the WECC. Ē IEEE Transactions on PowerkV line in the Portland area. WECC system was separated into

Eto, Joe

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

California's Greenhouse Gas Policies: Local Solutions to a Global Problem?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RPS programs of states in the WECC is from The Database forRenewables Natural Gas Oil Coal AZ-NM OR-WA Rest of WECCTotal WECC % Total WECC Source: Plattís Powerdat database.

Bushnell, Jim B; Peterman, Carla Joy; Wolfram, Catherine D

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Driving Demand for Home Energy Improvements: Motivating residential customers to invest in comprehensive upgrades that eliminate energy waste, avoid high utility bills, and spur the economy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Conservation Corporation (WECC). The projectĎs goal was toConservation Corporation (WECC was contracted to support theRESNET RFP RPV SMUD VCEM WECC ZIP Baltimore Neighborhood

Fuller, Merrian C.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Arnold Schwarzenegger REAL-TIME GRID RELIABILITY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.....................................................6 1.1.1 Summary of Recommendations by WECC.....................................................6 1.1.2 WECC Voltage Stability Criteria ....................................................................9 1

457

Document 2006-17 September 19, 2006 Pacific Northwest Resource Adequacy Implementation Plan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coordinating Council (WECC) is developing guidelines to recommend appropriate methodologies for assessing resource adequacy. Although the NERC and WECC efforts act as drivers, momentum is also building within

458

851 S.W. Sixth Avenue, Suite 1100 Steve Crow 503-222-5161 Portland, Oregon 97204-1348 Executive Director 800-452-5161  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nameplate White Book Winter WECC Winter WECC Summer EIA Winter EIA Summer Beaver 1-7 521 586.2 521 497 470

459

Document 2006-22 November 15, 2006 Pacific Northwest Resource Adequacy Warning Implementation Plan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coordinating Council (WECC) is developing guidelines to recommend appropriate methodologies for assessing resource adequacy. Although the NERC and WECC efforts act as drivers, momentum is also building within

460

Strategic Planning  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

a single BPA data repository * Data quality improvements * Improve model alignment with WECC planning data * Improve WECC base case coordination * Align the BPA data model with...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection tre wecc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Keep in mind, that with formality, often comes more of a standing...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Advisor, Department of Energy (confirmed) Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) RTEP Status Update Byron Woertz, Senior Project Manager, WECC (confirmed) Western...

462

Sandia National Laboratories: Transmission Grid Integration  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Grid Integration, Wind Energy Sandia finalized and submitted the updated "WECC Wind Power Plant Dynamic Model-ing Guide" and the "WECC PV Power Plant Dynamic Modeling...

463

Sandia National Laboratories: Modeling & Analysis  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Grid Integration, Wind Energy Sandia finalized and submitted the updated "WECC Wind Power Plant Dynamic Model-ing Guide" and the "WECC PV Power Plant Dynamic Modeling...

464

Three-phase power conversion system for utility-interconnected PV applications. Phase 1 technical progress report, 1 October 1995--17 April 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes work performed by Omnion Power Corporation under Phase 1 of a two-phase subcontract. During this phase, Omnion researchers: designed an advanced product specification to guide prototype design and development; analyzed field failure data with Omnion`s hard-switched insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistor technology hardware to better understand where design improvements were needed; presented and reviewed product specifications with key customers/users; drafted a working product specification to serve as a baseline in developing the new power conversion system; developed the core-resonant converter technology in conjunction with Soft Switching Technologies Corp.; designed a 100-kW prototype power conversion system; designed a prototype system package; initiated interaction with vendors to optimize component selection and specifications; initiated the preparation of design documentation; built the prototype core-resonant converter and initiated preliminary testing; and initiated the assembly of a 1-kW prototype power conversion system. This work has demonstrated the potential of the soft-switching resonant DC link (RDCL) inverter and its application to a three-phase utility-interconnected PV power conversion system. The RDCL inverter has demonstrated its advantage over hard-switching pulse-width modulated inverters in terms of efficiency and audible noise. With proper package design and manufacturing process design and implementation, the RDCL power conversion system has the potential to be low-cost and reliable with superior performance.

Porter, D.G.; Meyer, H.; Leang, W. [Omnion Power Engineering Corp., East Troy, WI (United States)

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Geometrically Parameterized Interconnect Performance Models for Interconnect Synthesis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Singapore Jacob White Massachusetts Institute of Technology ABSTRACT In this paper we describe an approach or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page. To copy

Daniel, Luca

466

Misalignment corrections in optical interconnects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

J. Ekman, X. Wang, P. J. Marchand, H. Spaanenburg, F. E.2001). S. Esener and P. Marchand, "Present status and futureF. Ozkan, W. L. Hendrick, P. J. Marchand and S. C. Esener, "

Song, Deqiang

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Misalignment corrections in optical interconnects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

configuration to avoid the power loss caused by the beamsfrom the first one. The power loss due to misalignment wasthis case there is 3dB power loss for input beam and another

Song, Deqiang

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Interconnection networks synthesis and optimization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Synthesis and Optimization . . . . . . . . . . .1.Wire Style Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. PowerSynthesis and Optimization . 1. Overview . . . . . . . . . .

Zhu, Yi

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Interconnection networks synthesis and optimization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

straints when the routing area is 3000 um, 5000 um 6000 umfor the tightest area constraint 3000 um. When ? is 0.8, all3000, 7000 and 11000 as small, moderate and large grid area,

Zhu, Yi

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

RidgenoseSolarInterconnectionProject  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared0 Resource Program September Department of EnergyAboutCliffrose

471

RidgenoseSolarInterconnectionProject  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared0 Resource Program September Department of EnergyAboutCliffrose

472

Interconnection Resources | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Career Scientists'Montana.ProgramJulietipDepartmentJune 20, 2012STD-1189-2008NRD-115)The

473

Interconnection Standards | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's Heat JumpInc Place: EdenOverview Of The Data, Regional Patterns |

474

Transmission Design at the National Level: Benefits, Risks and Possible Paths Forward  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) Dale Osborn, Consulting Advisor, Transmission Management, Midwest

475

DRAFT Released for Public Comment February 14, 2008 W. Bill Booth  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coordinating Council (WECC) for consideration in its assessment of West-wide resource adequacy. The term

476

Arnold Schwarzenegger INTERMITTENCY ANALYSIS PROJECT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the Tehachapi, Imperial, Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) and Frontier Line working groups

477

21 a 25 de maio de 2006 May 21rst  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

recently, studies of the WECC power systems, which spans the western US, have identified load modelling

478

DATE Apr 26 2011 RECD. Apr 26 2011  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coordinating Council (WECC). The proposed changes include new Conditions of Certification for the gas turbine

479

Energy Research and Development Division FINAL PROJECT REPORT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

................................................................. 1 1.0 Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) WAMS (Wide Area Measurement System

480

Energy Optimization (Electric)- Residential Efficiency Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Energy Optimization Programs, administered by WECC, provides residential electric incentives for the following Michigan utilities:

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481

Energy Optimization (Electric)- Commercial Efficiency Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Energy Optimization Programs, administered by WECC, provides commercial electric incentives for the following Michigan utilities:

482

Renewable source controls for grid stability.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this study was to evaluate the small signal and transient stability of the Western Electric- ity Coordinating Council (WECC) under high penetrations of renewable energy, and to identify control technologies that would improve the system performance. The WECC is the regional entity responsible for coordinating and promoting bulk electric system reliability in the Western Interconnection. Transient stability is the ability of the power system to maintain synchronism after a large disturbance while small signal stability is the ability of the power system to maintain synchronism after a small disturbance. Tran- sient stability analysis usually focuses on the relative rotor angle between synchronous machines compared to some stability margin. For this study we employed generator speed relative to system speed as a metric for assessing transient stability. In addition, we evaluated the system transient response using the system frequency nadir, which provides an assessment of the adequacy of the primary frequency control reserves. Small signal stability analysis typically identi es the eigenvalues or modes of the system in response to a disturbance. For this study we developed mode shape maps for the di erent scenarios. Prony analysis was applied to generator speed after a 1.4 GW, 0.5 second, brake insertion at various locations. Six di erent WECC base cases were analyzed, including the 2022 light spring case which meets the renewable portfolio standards. Because of the di culty in identifying the cause and e ect relationship in large power system models with di erent scenarios, several simulations were run on a 7-bus, 5-generator system to isolate the e ects of di erent con gurations. Based on the results of the study, for a large power system like the WECC, incorporating frequency droop into wind/solar systems provides a larger bene t to system transient response than replacing the lost inertia with synthetic inertia. From a small signal stability perspective, the increase in renewable penetration results in subtle changes to the system modes. In gen- eral, mode frequencies increase slightly, and mode shapes remain similar. The system frequency nadir for the 2022 light spring case was slightly lower than the other cases, largely because of the reduced system inertia. However, the nadir is still well above the minimum load shedding frequency of 59.5 Hz. Finally, several discrepancies were identi ed between actual and reported wind penetration, and additional work on wind/solar modeling is required to increase the delity of the WECC models.

Byrne, Raymond Harry; Elliott, Ryan Thomas; Neely, Jason C.; Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto; Schoenwald, David Alan; Grant, Lisa

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

A Study of Contacts and Back-Surface Reflectors for 0.6eV Ga0.32In0.68As/InAs0.32P0.68 Thermophotovoltaic Monolithically Interconnected Modules  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems have recently rekindled a high level of interest for a number of applications. In order to meet the requirement of low-temperature ({approx}1000 C) TPV systems, 0.6-eV Ga0.32In0.68As/InAs0.32P0.68 TPV monolithically interconnected modules (MIMs) have been developed at the National Renewable energy Laboratory (NREL)[1]. The successful fabrication of Ga0.32In0.68As/InAs0.32P0.68 MIMs depends on developing and optimizing of several key processes. Some results regarding the chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-SiO2 insulating layer, selective chemical etch via sidewall profiles, double-layer antireflection coatings, and metallization via interconnects have previously been given elsewhere [2]. In this paper, we report on the study of contacts and back-surface reflectors. In the first part of this paper, Ti/Pd/Ag and Cr/Pd/Ag contact to n-InAs0.32P0.68and p-Ga0.32In0.68As are investigated. The transfer length method (TLM) was used for measuring of specific contact resistance Rc. The dependence of Rc on different doping levels and different pre-treatment of the two semiconductors will be reported. Also, the adhesion and the thermal stability of Ti/Pd/Ag and Cr/Pd/Ag contacts to n-InAs0.32P0.68and p-Ga0.32In0.68As will be presented. In the second part of this paper, we discuss an optimum back-surface reflector (BSR) that has been developed for 0.6-eV Ga0.32In0.68As/InAs0.32P0.68 TPV MIM devices. The optimum BSR consists of three layers: {approx}1300{angstrom} MgF2 (or {approx}1300{angstrom} CVD SiO2) dielectric layer, {approx}25{angstrom} Ti adhesion layer, and {approx}1500{angstrom} Au reflection layer. This optimum BSR has high reflectance, good adhesion, and excellent thermal stability.

Wu, X.; Duda, A.; Carapella, J. J.; Ward, J. S.; Webb, J. D.; Wanlass, M. W.

1998-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

484

Territoire, bien-tre et inclusion sociale, Confrences cadres LE SYSTEME REGIONAL D'INNOVATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Territoire, bien-être et inclusion sociale, Conférences cadres 26 LE SYSTEME REGIONAL D'INNOVATION la période fordiste, l'innovation y est analysée comme le résultat d'un produit social et)" #12;Territoire, bien-être et inclusion sociale, Conférences cadres 27 Le système régional d'innovation

Boyer, Edmond

485

Formation l'tranger, fuite des cerveaux et bien-tre national  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of university systems, individuals' abilities, sunk costs of education, as well as labour market conditions gain, international migration, sunk costs, educational grants JEL classification codes: F22, F15 hal

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

486

Comunicato stampa Uno sguardo in anteprima sulla tre giorni pi attesa dal mondo ICT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

'unico nodo in tutta l'Europa meridionale, perché gli altri si trovano a Berlino, Parigi, Stoccolma, Helsinki

487

ausTralian cenTre for biosecuriTy and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

· Climate change Our Environmental Economics programs focus on natural-resource management economics and natural resource management. AC BEE maintains a central focus on engaging with, and assisting management · Species conservation · Agricultural productivity · Biodiversity · Soil and water management

Botea, Adi

488

Power Systems Engineering Research Center PSERC Background Paper  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

using the standard planning models of WECC, the model showed the system to be operating normally while independently at BPA, Powertech and WSU, respectively, giving solidity to the conclusions. Of the two WECC

489

851 S.W. Sixth Avenue, Suite 1100 Steve Crow 503-222-5161 Portland, Oregon 97204-1348 Executive Director 800-452-5161  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to refine and revise standards to reflect improved methods and changing conditions ∑ Work with WECC adequacy;Northwest Power and Conservation Council Transmission ∑ Participate in WECC activities and assessment ≠ Wind

490

851 S.W. Sixth Avenue, Suite 1100 Steve Crow 503-222-5161 Portland, Oregon 97204-1348 Executive Director 800-452-5161  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the nation's power supplies. We expect that the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC adequacy assessment for the Pacific Northwest power supply will aid WECC's efforts. ∑ The Bonneville Power

491

851 S.W. Sixth Avenue, Suite 1100 Steve Crow 503-222-5161 Portland, Oregon 97204-1348 Executive Director 800-452-5161  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the nation's power supplies. The Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) is in the process for the Northwest and the corresponding adequacy assessments will aid in WECC's efforts. The Bonneville Power

492

Customer Forum 34 Agenda  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

- 1:00 Lunch 1:00 - 1:30 Mid-C Topics Update on regional Mid-C discussions 1:30 - 2:00 WECC Operating Reserve Requirement Describe ongoing efforts to implement WECC BAL-002- 02...

493

W. Bill Booth Bruce A. Measure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the nation's power supplies. We expect that the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC adequacy assessment for the Pacific Northwest power supply will aid WECC's efforts. ∑ The Bonneville Power

494

Sixth Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan Chapter 7: Transmission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, there has been significant progress in both areas. The Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) has and significant progress in the last five years. Both regional and WECC-wide organizations have been created

495

A Smart Grid Vulnerability Analysis Framework for Coordinated Variable Structure Switching Attacks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the approach. Moreover the insights gained from the vulnerability analysis of the WECC system are consistent approach is detailed in Section III along with an illustration of the procedure on the WECC 3-machine, 9

Kundur, Deepa

496

Abstract--The California Independent System Operator Corporation (CAISO) is in charge of managing the electricity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the entire WECC network and consists of the detailed representation of the CAISO control grid and a simplified representation of the WECC (Western Electricity Coordinating Council) bulk power system. Creating

McCalley, James D.

497

851 S.W. Sixth Avenue, Suite 1100 Steve Crow 503-222-5161 Portland, Oregon 97204-1348 Executive Director 800-452-5161  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) has done a study, which is now being reviewed by BPA studied by WECC. The committee also had a report on the Regional Technical Forum's Policy Advisory

498

Arnold Schwarzenegger REAL-TIME GRID RELIABILITY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.........................................................................................................3 1.2. Overview of WECC-CA ISO Phasor Network ................................................................................................................21 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: Current and Future WECC-California ISO Phasor Data Communication Network

499

Modeling Interregional Transmission Congestion in the National Energy Modeling System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

5 Figure 1-4 Four-Node Example Based on the WECC6 Figure 1-5 Four-Node Example Based on the WECCPAE PBA RA RON SERC TWh WECC Annual Energy Outlook U.S.

Gumerman, Etan; Chan, Peter; Lesieutre, Bernard; Marnay, Chris; Wang, Juan

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

851 S.W. Sixth Avenue, Suite 1100 Steve Crow 503-222-5161 Portland, Oregon 97204-1348 Executive Director 800-452-5161  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that this interim regional standard be submitted to the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) in order to inform WECC's ongoing process to develop West- wide adequacy standards. The term "standard