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Sample records for interconnection tre wecc

  1. WECC releases its first-ever transmission plan for the Western Interconnection

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) announced the release of its first 10-Year Regional Transmission Plan (Plan) for the Western Interconnection.

  2. WECC 10-Year Plan general presentation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Present Need *Project development information from: -SCG Common Case Transmission Assumptions (CCTA) -WECC Transmission Project Information Portal Future Congestion *TEPPC study ...

  3. Tre Easton

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Tre Easton is the Special Assistant to the Assistant Secretary in the Office of Congressional and Intergovernmental Affairs.

  4. Interconnect

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Interconnect Interconnect Edison employs the "Dragonfly" topology for the interconnection network. This topology is a group of interconnected local routers connected to other similar router groups by high speed global links. The groups are arranged such that data transfer from one group to another requires only one route through a global link. This topology is composed of circuit boards, copper and optical cables. Routers (represented by the Aries ASIC) are connected to other routers

  5. Energy-water analysis of the 10-year WECC transmission planning study cases.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Passell, Howard David; Castillo, Cesar; Moreland, Barbara

    2011-11-01

    In 2011 the Department of Energy's Office of Electricity embarked on a comprehensive program to assist our Nation's three primary electric interconnections with long term transmission planning. Given the growing concern over water resources in the western U.S. the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) requested assistance with integrating water resource considerations into their broader electric transmission planning. The result is a project with three overarching objectives: (1) Develop an integrated Energy-Water Decision Support System (DSS) that will enable planners in the Western Interconnection to analyze the potential implications of water stress for transmission and resource planning. (2) Pursue the formulation and development of the Energy-Water DSS through a strongly collaborative process between the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC), Western Governors Association (WGA), the Western States Water Council (WSWC) and their associated stakeholder teams. (3) Exercise the Energy-Water DSS to investigate water stress implications of the transmission planning scenarios put forward by WECC, WGA, and WSWC. The foundation for the Energy-Water DSS is Sandia National Laboratories Energy-Power-Water Simulation (EPWSim) model (Tidwell et al. 2009). The modeling framework targets the shared needs of energy and water producers, resource managers, regulators, and decision makers at the federal, state and local levels. This framework provides an interactive environment to explore trade-offs, and 'best' alternatives among a broad list of energy/water options and objectives. The decision support framework is formulated in a modular architecture, facilitating tailored analyses over different geographical regions and scales (e.g., state, county, watershed, interconnection). An interactive interface allows direct control of the model and access to real-time results displayed as charts, graphs and maps. The framework currently supports modules for

  6. Interconnection

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    On December 2015, the Mississippi Public Service Commission (PSC) established net metering in the State accompanied by interconnection standards for distributed generator facilities. 

  7. Property:EIA/861/NercWecc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    operations within the WECC region (Y or N) 1 References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2008 - F861 File Layout-2008.doc Pages using the property "EIA861NercWecc"...

  8. WECC Variable Generation Planning Reference Book

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Du, Pengwei; Etingov, Pavel V.; Ma, Jian; Vyakaranam, Bharat

    2013-05-14

    This planning reference book is a document reflecting a Western Electricity Coordination Council (WECC) effort to put together multiple sources of information and provide a clear, systemic, comprehensive outline of the problems, both existing and anticipated; their impacts on the system; currently used and proposed solutions by the industry and research community; planning practices; new technologies, equipment, and standards; and expected future trends. This living (periodically updated) document could help WECC and other practicing engineers, especially the younger generation of engineers joining the workforce, to get familiar with a large variety of information related to the integration of variable resources into the WECC system, bypassing in part the need for time-consuming information gathering and learning processes from more experienced engineers or from the literature.

  9. Interconnect

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Interconnect Interconnect jaguar xt4 Hopper's "Gemini" network is connected in a 3D torus. Description Hopper's compute nodes are connected via a custom high-bandwidth, low-latency network provided by Cray. The connectivity is in the form of a "mesh" in which each node is connected to other nearby nodes like strands in a fishing net, except that the mesh extends in three dimensions. Each network node handles not only data destined for itself, but also data to be relayed to

  10. 10 Year Transmission Plan for the Western Electricity Interconnection Released

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) announced the release of its first 10-Year Regional Transmission Plan (Plan) for the Western Interconnection. The Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability awarded WECC a $14.5 million grant under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to expand on its transmission planning activities.

  11. WECC QER Comments Mike Moon, VP Registered Entity Oversight

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... tools beyond compliance and enforcement to influence and support the industry a. ...2016 at: http:www.faa.govdocumentlibrarymediaorderfaaorder8000.373.pdf WECC QER Comments ...

  12. WECC QER Comments Jim Robb, CEO

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    characteristics create challenges and separate the West from the Eastern and Texas Interconnections ii. Western Interconnection design results in a high degree of inter-state ...

  13. WECC Variable Generation Planning Reference Book: Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Du, Pengwei; Etingov, Pavel V.; Ma, Jian; Vyakaranam, Bharat

    2013-05-13

    The document titled “WECC Variable Generation Planning Reference Book”. This book is divided into two volumes; one is the main document (volume 1)and the other is appendices (volume 2). The main document is a collection of the best practices and the information regarding the application and impact of variables generation on power system planning. This volume (appendices) has additional information on the following topics: Probabilistic load flow problems. 2. Additional useful indices. 3. high-impact low-frequency (HILF) events. 4. Examples of wide-area nomograms. 5. Transmission line ratings, types of dynamic rating methods. 6. Relative costs per MW-km of different electric power transmission technologies. 7. Ultra-high voltage (UHV) transmission. 8.High voltage direct current (VSC-HVDC). 9. HVDC. 10. Rewiring of existing transmission lines. 11. High-temperature low sag (HTLS) conductors. 12. The direct method and energy functions for transient stability analysis in power systems. 13.Blackouts caused by voltage instability. 14. Algorithm for parameter continuation predictor-corrector methods. 15. Approximation techniques available for security regions. 16. Impacts of wind power on power system small signals stability. 17. FIDVR. 18. FACTS. 19. European planning standard and practices. 20. International experience in wind and solar energy sources. 21. Western Renewable Energy Zones (WREZ). 22. various energy storage technologies. 23. demand response. 24. BA consolidation and cooperation options. 25. generator power management requirements and 26. European planning guidelines.

  14. National Electric Transmission Study 2006 Western Interconnection Analysis

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Western Interconnection 2006 Congestion Assessment Study Prepared by the Western Congestion Analysis Task Force May 08, 2006 2 Western Interconnection 2006 Congestion Study - DOE Task 3 - 1. 2008 Modeling Study 2. 2015 Modeling Study - 2015 Planned Resource Development (IRPs and RPS) 3. W.I. Historical Path Usage Studies - 1999 thru 2005 - Physical congestion - Commercial congestion 3 WCATF Modeling Studies ABB Gridview Model * Model uses WECC 2005 L&R load forecast, modified with NPCC data

  15. Evaluation of Production Cost Savings from Consolidation of Balancing Authorities in the US Western Interconnection under High Wind and Solar Penetration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Tony B.; Samaan, Nader A.; Jin, Chunlian

    2014-12-24

    This paper introduces a comprehensive analysis to quantify the potential savings in production cost due to consolidation of 32 US western interconnection Balancing Authorities (BAs). Three simulation scenarios are developed: current Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) BAs structure, full copper-sheet consolidation, and full consolidation with transmission congestion considered. The study uses WECC Transmission Expansion Planning Policy Committee (TEPPC) model that was developed for the year 2020. The model assumes 8% wind and 3% solar energy penetration as percentage of total WECC demand in 2020. Sensitivity analyses are carried out to assess the impact of transmission hurdle rates between WECC BAs on potential benefits. The study shows savings that ranges from $400 Million (2.4% of total one year production cost) to $600 Million (3.2%) per year in thermal units production cost due to consolidation can be achieved. The copper sheet consolidation scenario shows an extra savings of $240 Million (1.4%) per year.

  16. Interconnection Panel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation—given at at the Fall 2012 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting—discusses the interconnection panel, including an overview of the generation interconnection process (GIP), and interconnection agreements and their terms.

  17. Energy and water in the Western and Texas interconnects.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll

    2010-08-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of Electricity has initiated a $60M program to assist the electric industry in interconnection-level analysis and planning. The objective of this effort is to facilitate the development or strengthening of capabilities in each of the three interconnections serving the lower 48 states of the United States, to prepare analyses of transmission requirements under a broad range of alternative futures and develop long-term interconnection-wide transmission expansion plans. The interconnections are the Western Interconnection, the Eastern Interconnection, and the Texas Interconnection. One element of this program address the support and development of an integrated energy-water Decision Support System (DSS) that will enable planners in the Western and Texas Interconnections to analyze the potential implications of water stress for transmission and resource planning (the Eastern Interconnection is not participating in this element). Specific objectives include: (1) Develop an integrated Energy-Water Decision Support System (DSS) that will enable planners in the Western and Texas Interconnections to analyze the potential implications of water stress for transmission and resource planning. (2) Pursue the formulation and development of the Energy-Water DSS through a strongly collaborative process between members of this proposal team and the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC), Western Governors Association (WGA), the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) and their associated stakeholder teams. (3) Exercise the Energy-Water DSS to investigate water stress implications of the transmission planning scenarios put forward by WECC, WGA, and ERCOT. The goals of this project are: (1) Develop an integrated Energy-Water Decision Support System (DSS) that will enable planners to analyze the potential implications of water stress for transmission and resource planning. (2) Pursue the formulation and development of the Energy

  18. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NOTE: On March 2016, the NY Public Service Commission (PSC) modified the Standard Interconnection Requirements (SIR) increasing the maximum threshold for interconnection capacity of distributed...

  19. Interconnection Standards

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The interconnection standards approved by the PUC also updated Nevada's net-metering policy, originally enacted in 1997. Previously, Nevada Revised Statute 704.774 addressed basic interconnection...

  20. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Utilities must use an interconnection application and interconnection agreement approved by the IURC. A mutual indemnification provision and reasonable time limits on application review are inclu...

  1. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Connecticut's interconnection guidelines, like FERC's standards, include provisions for three levels of systems:

  2. Interconnection Guidelines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    South Carolina's interconnection guidelines apply to Progress Energy, Duke Energy, and South Carolina Electric and Gas.

  3. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    B. U.S. Transformer Outages by Type and NERC region, 2013 Outage Type Eastern Interconnection TRE WECC Contiguous U.S. Circuit Outage Counts Automatic Outages (Sustained) 59.00 --...

  4. Analysis of the Impact of Balancing Area Cooperation on the Operation of WECC and the Compounding Effect of Wind and Solar Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, G.; Piwko, D.

    2013-02-01

    It is the intent of this analysis to examine the operational benefits of increased cooperation between a large number of WECC operating regions.

  5. Interconnection Guidelines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Under this process, an interconnection applicant must submit an application to the utility for an impact study, including a request for an estimate of the cost of interconnecting the proposed sys...

  6. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The interconnection rules set four levels of review for interconnection requests. A project must meet all of the requirements of a given classification in order to be eligible for that level of...

  7. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Utah’s interconnection rules are based on the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission’s (FERC) interconnection standards for small generators, adopted in May 2005 by FERC Order 2006. Utah's rules fo...

  8. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    West Virginia's interconnection standards include two levels of review. The qualifications and application fees for each level are as follows:...

  9. Interconnection Standards

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Note: The North Carolina Utilities Commission approved revised interconnection standards in May 2015. The new standards used the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's most recent Small Generator...

  10. Interconnection Guidelines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The state's utilities independently developed interconnection agreements for distributed generation (DG) prior to the ACC's ongoing proceeding to establish statewide standards. The Salt River Pro...

  11. Interconnection Guidelines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Interconnected customers must comply with all relevant national standards, including those established by the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE), Underwriters Laboratories (U...

  12. Interconnection Standards

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    NOTE: On February 2016, the PA Public Service Commission (PUC) issued a final rulemaking order amending interconnection regulation to reflect the increase in limits on customer generation capacity,...

  13. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Interconnection contacts for the state's electric distribution utilities -- Atlantic City Electric, Rockland Electric, PSE&G, and Jersey Central Power and Light -- are available on the progra...

  14. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Technical screens have been established for each level, and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 1547 technical standard is used for all interconnections. Reasonable time frames ...

  15. Interconnection Standards

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Massachusetts' interconnection standards apply to all forms of distributed generation (DG), including renewables, and to all customers of the state's three investor-owned utilities (Unitil,...

  16. Interconnection Standards

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Iowa Utilities Board (IUB) adopted rules for utilities in May 2010 for the interconnection of distributed generation facilities in Iowa.

  17. Interconnection Standards

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Virginia has two interconnection standards: one for net-metered systems and one for systems that are not net-metered.

  18. Interconnection Guidelines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Rocky Mountain Power (PacifiCorp) has developed an interconnection application for net metering. All other electric utilities in Wyoming -- investor-owned utilities and rural electric associations...

  19. Interconnection Guidelines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Missouri Public Service Commission (PSC) adopted administrative rules for investor-owned utilities that included simplified interconnection standards, and electric cooperatives and municipal ...

  20. Agent-Based Simulation for Interconnection-Scale Renewable Integration and Demand Response Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chassin, David P.; Behboodi, Sahand; Crawford, Curran; Djilali, Ned

    2015-12-23

    This paper collects and synthesizes the technical requirements, implementation, and validation methods for quasi-steady agent-based simulations of interconnectionscale models with particular attention to the integration of renewable generation and controllable loads. Approaches for modeling aggregated controllable loads are presented and placed in the same control and economic modeling framework as generation resources for interconnection planning studies. Model performance is examined with system parameters that are typical for an interconnection approximately the size of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) and a control area about 1/100 the size of the system. These results are used to demonstrate and validate the methods presented.

  1. Review of the WECC EDT phase 2 EIM benefits analysis and results report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veselka, T.D.; Poch, L.A.; Botterud, A.

    2012-04-05

    A region-wide Energy Imbalance Market (EIM) was recently proposed by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC). In order for the Western Area Power Administration (Western) to make more informed decisions regarding its involvement in the EIM, Western asked Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to review the EIM benefits study (the October 2011 revision) performed by Energy and Environmental Economics, Inc. (E3). Key components of the E3 analysis made use of results from a study conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); therefore, we also reviewed the NREL work. This report examines E3 and NREL methods and models used in the EIM study. Estimating EIM benefits is very challenging because of the complex nature of the Western Interconnection (WI), the variability and uncertainty of renewable energy resources, and the complex decisions and potentially strategic bidding of market participants. Furthermore, methodologies used for some of the more challenging aspects of the EIM have not yet matured. This review is complimentary of several components of the EIM study. Analysts and modelers clearly took great care when conducting detailed simulations of the WI using well-established industry tools under stringent time and budget constraints. However, it is our opinion that the following aspects of the study and the interpretation of model results could be improved upon in future analyses. The hurdle rate methodology used to estimate current market inefficiencies does not directly model the underlying causes of sub-optimal dispatch and power flows. It assumes that differences between historical flows and modeled flows can be attributed solely to market inefficiencies. However, flow differences between model results and historical data can be attributed to numerous simplifying assumptions used in the model and in the input data. We suggest that alternative approaches be explored in order to better estimate the benefits of introducing market

  2. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The PSC has published two sets of standard forms for interconnection, available on the program web site. One set pertains to systems smaller than 20 kW while the second set applies to larger syst...

  3. Interconnection Guidelines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Louisiana Public Service Commission (PSC) adopted rules for net metering and interconnection in November 2005. Louisiana's rules, based on those in place in Arkansas, require publicly-owned u...

  4. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Fees for interconnection requests increase with each Level. A Level 1 request must submit $50 fee; a Level 2 request must submit a fee of $50 plus $1/kW of generator capacity; a Level 3 request m...

  5. Interconnection Guidelines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Kansas adopted the Net Metering and Easy Connection Act in May 2009 (see K.S.A. 66-1263 through 66-1271), establishing interconnection guidelines and net metering for customer-owned generators.

  6. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Note: The Public Utilities Commission of Ohio (PUCO) opened a docket (Case 12-2051-EL-RDR) to review interconnection rules for investor-owned utilities. The PUCO adopted amended rules for electric...

  7. Interconnection Standards

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The new rules apply to interconnections of all types of distributed generation systems of less than 10 MW to the electric distribution system for all types of utilities -- investor-owned utilities...

  8. Interconnection Guidelines

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Delmarva, Delaware's only investor-owned electric utility, has four basic levels of interconnection based on system size and system type (inverter-based or non-inverter-based). In June 2011 the...

  9. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The revised standards provide for three separate levels of interconnection based on system capacity and other requirements. The first level, Tier 1 systems, applies generally to systems up to 25...

  10. Interconnection Guidelines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The interconnection guidelines state that the utility can require a customer to have liability insurance, if the insurance is easily available at a reasonable cost to the customer.  No external...

  11. Interconnection Standards

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Hawaii has established simplified interconnection rules for small renewables and separate rules for all other distributed generation (DG). For inverter-based systems up to 10 kilowatts (kW) in ca...

  12. Using Synchrophasors for Frequency Response Analysis in the Western Interconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosterev, Dmitry; Davies, Donald; Etingov, Pavel V.; Silverstein, Alison; Eto, Joseph H.

    2014-10-19

    Frequency response has received a lot of attention in recent years at the national level, which culminated in the development and approval of NERC BAL-003-1 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting Reliability Standard. WECC JSIS, NASPI, BPA, CERTS and PNNL collaborate on the common goals to deliver to the industry applications for frequency response analysis at interconnection, Balancing Authority and individual power plant levels. This paper describes a Frequency Response Analysis Tool that has been used for establishing a frequency response baseline for the Western Interconnection. This paper describes how synchrophasor data is used in for determination of generator characteristics frequency responsive, under load control or baseloaded. This paper also discusses and provides an example of how the frequency response distribution can impact power pick-up on major transmission paths.

  13. Interconnection Coordination with Environment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Interconnection Coordination with Environment John Steward Topics * Interconnection Types - Large Generator Interconnect Procedures (LGIP) * Interconnection Queue - UGP * OATT Revision * Transmission Service Issues * Open Discussion - Thoughts on coordination. Interconnection Types * Generators - Small Generator Interconnection Procedures (under 20MW) - Large Generator Interconnection Procedures (over 20MW) * Load - General Requirements for Interconnection * Transmission Large Generator

  14. Electrical interconnect

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frost, John S.; Brandt, Randolph J.; Hebert, Peter; Al Taher, Omar

    2015-10-06

    An interconnect includes a first set of connector pads, a second set of connector pads, and a continuous central portion. A first plurality of legs extends at a first angle from the continuous central portion. Each leg of the first plurality of legs is connected to a connector pad of a first set of connector pads. A second plurality of legs extends at a second angle from the continuous central portion. Each leg of the second plurality of legs is connected to a connector pad of the second set of connector pads. Gaps are defined between legs. The gaps enable movement of the first set of connector pads relative to the second set of connector pads.

  15. Advanced Interconnect Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Z.G.; Maupin, G.; Simner, S.; Singh, P.; Stevenson, J.; Xia, G.

    2005-01-27

    The objectives of this project are to develop cost-effective, optimized materials for intermediate temperature SOFC interconnect and interconnect/electrode interface applications and identify and understand degradation processes in interconnects and at their interfaces with electrodes.

  16. Puerto Rico- Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Customer-generators seeking to interconnect first submit a standardized "Evaluation Request" to PREPA to determine whether or not the system will qualify for the "Simple Interconnection Process...

  17. Interconnected semiconductor devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grimmer, Derrick P.; Paulson, Kenneth R.; Gilbert, James R.

    1990-10-23

    Semiconductor layer and conductive layer formed on a flexible substrate, divided into individual devices and interconnected with one another in series by interconnection layers and penetrating terminals.

  18. Capacity Value: Evaluation of WECC Rule of Thumb; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, Michael; Ibanez, Eduardo

    2015-06-09

    This presentation compares loss of load expectation and wind and solar capacity values to the rules of thumb used in the Western Interconnection planning and provides alternative recommendations to the modeling efforts of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council's Transmission Expansion Planning Policy Committee.

  19. Interconnection networks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Faber, V.; Moore, J.W.

    1988-06-20

    A network of interconnected processors is formed from a vertex symmetric graph selected from graphs GAMMA/sub d/(k) with degree d, diameter k, and (d + 1)exclamation/ (d /minus/ k + 1)exclamation processors for each d greater than or equal to k and GAMMA/sub d/(k, /minus/1) with degree d /minus/ 1, diameter k + 1, and (d + 1)exclamation/(d /minus/ k + 1)exclamation processors for each d greater than or equal to k greater than or equal to 4. Each processor has an address formed by one of the permutations from a predetermined sequence of letters chosen a selected number of letters at a time, and an extended address formed by appending to the address the remaining ones of the predetermined sequence of letters. A plurality of transmission channels is provided from each of the processors, where each processor has one less channel than the selected number of letters forming the sequence. Where a network GAMMA/sub d/(k, /minus/1) is provided, no processor has a channel connected to form an edge in a direction delta/sub 1/. Each of the channels has an identification number selected from the sequence of letters and connected from a first processor having a first extended address to a second processor having a second address formed from a second extended address defined by moving to the front of the first extended address the letter found in the position within the first extended address defined by the channel identification number. The second address is then formed by selecting the first elements of the second extended address corresponding to the selected number used to form the address permutations. 9 figs.

  20. Agent-Based Simulation for Interconnection-Scale Renewable Integration and Demand Response Studies

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chassin, David P.; Behboodi, Sahand; Crawford, Curran; Djilali, Ned

    2015-12-23

    This paper collects and synthesizes the technical requirements, implementation, and validation methods for quasi-steady agent-based simulations of interconnectionscale models with particular attention to the integration of renewable generation and controllable loads. Approaches for modeling aggregated controllable loads are presented and placed in the same control and economic modeling framework as generation resources for interconnection planning studies. Model performance is examined with system parameters that are typical for an interconnection approximately the size of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) and a control area about 1/100 the size of the system. These results are used to demonstrate and validate the methodsmore » presented.« less

  1. National Assessment of Energy Storage for Grid Balancing and Arbitrage: Phase 1, WECC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Balducci, Patrick J.; Colella, Whitney G.; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Jin, Chunlian; Nguyen, Tony B.; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Zhang, Yu

    2012-06-01

    To examine the role that energy storage could play in mitigating the impacts of the stochastic variability of wind generation on regional grid operation, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) examined a hypothetical 2020 grid scenario in which additional wind generation capacity is built to meet renewable portfolio standard targets in the Western Interconnection. PNNL developed a stochastic model for estimating the balancing requirements using historical wind statistics and forecasting error, a detailed engineering model to analyze the dispatch of energy storage and fast-ramping generation devices for estimating size requirements of energy storage and generation systems for meeting new balancing requirements, and financial models for estimating the life-cycle cost of storage and generation systems in addressing the future balancing requirements for sub-regions in the Western Interconnection. Evaluated technologies include combustion turbines, sodium sulfur (Na-S) batteries, lithium ion batteries, pumped-hydro energy storage, compressed air energy storage, flywheels, redox flow batteries, and demand response. Distinct power and energy capacity requirements were estimated for each technology option, and battery size was optimized to minimize costs. Modeling results indicate that in a future power grid with high-penetration of renewables, the most cost competitive technologies for meeting balancing requirements include Na-S batteries and flywheels.

  2. Printed Module Interconnects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stockert, Talysa R.; Fields, Jeremy D.; Pach, Gregory F.; Mauger, Scott A.; van Hest, Maikel F. A. M.

    2015-06-14

    Monolithic interconnects in photovoltaic modules connect adjacent cells in series, and are typically formed sequentially involving multiple deposition and scribing steps. Interconnect widths of 500 um every 10 mm result in 5% dead area, which does not contribute to power generation in an interconnected solar panel. This work expands on previous work that introduced an alternative interconnection method capable of producing interconnect widths less than 100 um. The interconnect is added to the module in a single step after deposition of the photovoltaic stack, eliminating the need for scribe alignment. This alternative method can be used for all types of thin film photovoltaic modules. Voltage addition with copper-indium-gallium-diselenide (CIGS) solar cells using a 2-scribe printed interconnect approach is demonstrated. Additionally, interconnect widths of 250 um are shown.

  3. Western Interconnection Synchrophasor Project

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Demonstration Project Western Interconnection Synchrophasor Project Resources & Links Demand Response Energy Efficiency Emerging Technologies Synchrophasor measurements are a...

  4. Perforation patterned electrical interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frey, Jonathan

    2014-01-28

    This disclosure describes systems and methods for increasing the usable surface area of electrical contacts within a device, such as a thin film solid state device, through the implementation of electrically conductive interconnects. Embodiments described herein include the use of a plurality of electrically conductive interconnects that penetrate through a top contact layer, through one or more multiple layers, and into a bottom contact layer. The plurality of conductive interconnects may form horizontal and vertical cross-sectional patterns. The use of lasers to form the plurality of electrically conductive interconnects from reflowed layer material further aids in the manufacturing process of a device.

  5. Interconnection Resources | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Interconnection Resources Interconnection Resources Interconnection is the technical procedures and legal requirements surrounding energy customers' ability to connect their small-scale renewable energy projects with the electricity grid. The process is regulated by each state, though utilities are usually tasked with executing the approval process. Find the interconnection resources below. Interconnection of Distributed Generation to Utility Systems: Recommendations for Technical Requirements,

  6. Solar cell array interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, P.G.; Thompson, J.B.; Colella, N.J.; Williams, K.A.

    1995-11-14

    Electrical interconnects are disclosed for solar cells or other electronic components using a silver-silicone paste or a lead-tin (Pb-Sn) no-clean fluxless solder cream, whereby the high breakage of thin (<6 mil thick) solar cells using conventional solder interconnect is eliminated. The interconnects of this invention employs copper strips which are secured to the solar cells by a silver-silicone conductive paste which can be used at room temperature, or by a Pb-Sn solder cream which eliminates undesired residue on the active surfaces of the solar cells. Electrical testing using the interconnects of this invention has shown that no degradation of the interconnects developed under high current testing, while providing a very low contact resistance value. 4 figs.

  7. Solar cell array interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, Paul G.; Thompson, Jesse B.; Colella, Nicolas J.; Williams, Kenneth A.

    1995-01-01

    Electrical interconnects for solar cells or other electronic components using a silver-silicone paste or a lead-tin (Pb-Sn) no-clean fluxless solder cream, whereby the high breakage of thin (<6 mil thick) solar cells using conventional solder interconnect is eliminated. The interconnects of this invention employs copper strips which are secured to the solar cells by a silver-silicone conductive paste which can be used at room temperature, or by a Pb-Sn solder cream which eliminates undesired residue on the active surfaces of the solar cells. Electrical testing using the interconnects of this invention has shown that no degradation of the interconnects developed under high current testing, while providing a very low contact resistance value.

  8. North American Electric Reliability Corporation Interconnections...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Interconnections North American Electric Reliability Corporation Interconnections Map of the North American Electric Reliability Corporation Interconnection showing the Eastern, ...

  9. Micro-fluidic interconnect

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Okandan, Murat; Galambos, Paul C.; Benavides, Gilbert L.; Hetherington, Dale L.

    2006-02-28

    An apparatus for simultaneously aligning and interconnecting microfluidic ports is presented. Such interconnections are required to utilize microfluidic devices fabricated in Micro-Electromechanical-Systems (MEMS) technologies, that have multiple fluidic access ports (e.g. 100 micron diameter) within a small footprint, (e.g. 3 mm.times.6 mm). Fanout of the small ports of a microfluidic device to a larger diameter (e.g. 500 microns) facilitates packaging and interconnection of the microfluidic device to printed wiring boards, electronics packages, fluidic manifolds etc.

  10. Interconnection Standards for Small Generators

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NOTE: On July 2016, FERC issued Order 827 revising the Small Generation Interconnection Agreement (SGIA) to require newly interconnecting small generators under 20 MW to ride through abnormal...

  11. Reliability of Electrical Interconnects (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devoto, D.

    2014-06-01

    This presentation discusses the status of NREL's research on the reliability of electrical interconnects.

  12. SOFC INTERCONNECT DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diane M. England

    2004-03-16

    An interconnect for an SOFC stack is used to connect fuel cells into a stack. SOFC stacks are expected to run for 40,000 hours and 10 thermal cycles for the stationary application and 10,000 hours and 7000 thermal cycles for the transportation application. The interconnect of a stack must be economical and robust enough to survive the SOFC stack operation temperature of 750 C and must maintain the electrical connection to the fuel cells throughout the lifetime and under thermal cycling conditions. Ferritic and austenitic stainless steels, and nickel-based superalloys were investigated as possible interconnect materials for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks. The alloys were thermally cycled in air and in a wet nitrogen-argon-hydrogen (N2-Ar-H2-H2O) atmosphere. Thermogravimetry was used to determine the parabolic oxidation rate constants of the alloys in both atmospheres. The area-specific resistance of the oxide scale and metal substrates were measured using a two-probe technique with platinum contacts. The study identifies two new interconnect designs which can be used with both bonded and compressive stack sealing mechanisms. The new interconnect designs offer a solution to chromium vaporization, which can lead to degradation of some (chromium-sensitive) SOFC cathodes.

  13. Capillary interconnect device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Renzi, Ronald F

    2013-11-19

    An interconnecting device for connecting a plurality of first fluid-bearing conduits to a corresponding plurality of second fluid-bearing conduits thereby providing fluid communication between the first fluid-bearing conduits and the second fluid-bearing conduits. The device includes a manifold and one or two ferrule plates that are held by compressive axial forces.

  14. Combining Balancing Areas' Variability: Impacts on Wind Integration in the Western Interconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; Beuning, S.

    2010-07-01

    This paper investigates the potential impact of balancing area cooperation on a large-scale in the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC).

  15. Fuel cell system with interconnect

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Zhien; Goettler, Richard; Delaforce, Philip Mark

    2016-03-08

    The present invention includes a fuel cell system having an interconnect that reduces or eliminates diffusion (leakage) of fuel and oxidant by providing an increased densification, by forming the interconnect as a ceramic/metal composite.

  16. Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A, Interconnection-Level Analysis and Planning Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic A, Interconnection-Level Analysis and Planning A description of the ...

  17. Interconnection of Distributed Energy Resources

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Interconnection of Distributed Energy Resources Delivered to: Transmission and Grid Basics for Tribal Economic and Energy Development Dave Narang Principal Engineer, NREL March 30, 2016 2 Discussion Topics * Distribution System Interconnections - Part 1 o Background o Distribution Systems Overview o Electric Utility Operations o Emerging Topics in Grid Integration o DOE Grid Modernization Initiative * Distribution System Interconnections - Part 2 o Permitting o Interconnection * Wrap up o

  18. Interconnection Transmission Planning: Awards | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Interconnection Transmission Planning: Awards Interconnection Transmission Planning: Awards List of Interconnection Transmission Planning awards under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act organized by interconnection including the organization and amount of Recovery Act funding Interconnection Transmission Planning: Awards (39.73 KB) More Documents & Publications EAC Recommendations for DOE Action Regarding Interconnection-Wide Planning - June 6, 2013 Report: Impacts of Demand-Side

  19. Southern California Edison Interconnection Process Challenges

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Southeastern Power Administration Southeastern Power Administration Southeastern Power Administration View All Maps Addthis

    Southern California Edison Interconnection Process Challenges Roger Salas P.E. Generation Interconnection Manager Southern California Edison Different Jurisdictional Tariffs  Three Interconnection Tariffs in CA  State of California Interconnection Tariff (CA Rule 21)  SCE's FERC Interconnection Tariff (WDAT)  TO Tariff (for transmission interconnected

  20. Transmission Planning Process and Opportunities for Utility-Scale Solar Engagement within the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hein, J.; Hurlbut, D.; Milligan, M.; Coles, L.; Green, B.

    2011-11-01

    This report is a primer for solar developers who wish to engage directly in expediting the regulatory process and removing market barriers related to policy and planning. Market barriers unrelated to technology often limit the expansion of utility-scale solar power, even in areas with exceptional resource potential. Many of these non-technical barriers have to do with policy, regulation, and planning, and hardly ever do they resolve themselves in a timely fashion. In most cases, pre-emptive intervention by interested stakeholders is the easiest way to remove/address such barriers, but it requires knowing how to navigate the institutional waters of the relevant agencies and boards. This report is a primer for solar developers who wish to engage directly in expediting the regulatory process and removing market barriers related to policy and planning. It focuses on the Western Interconnection (WI), primarily because the quality of solar resources in the Southwest makes utility-scale concentrating solar power (CSP) and photovoltaics (PV) economically feasible, and because the relevant institutions have evolved in a way that has opened up opportunities for removing non-technical market barriers. Developers will find in this report a high-level field manual to identify the venues for mitigating and possibly eliminating systemic market obstacles and ensuring that the economic playing field is reasonably level. Project-specific issues such as siting for transmission and generation resources are beyond the scope of this report. Instead, the aim is to examine issues that pervasively affect all utility-scale PV and CSP in the region regardless of where the project may be. While the focus is on the WI, many of the institutions described here also have their counterparts in the Eastern and the Texas interconnections. Specifically, this report suggests a number of critical engagement points relating to generation and transmission planning.

  1. Fuel cell system with interconnect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goettler, Richard; Liu, Zhien

    2015-08-11

    The present invention includes a fuel cell system having a plurality of adjacent electrochemical cells formed of an anode layer, a cathode layer spaced apart from the anode layer, and an electrolyte layer disposed between the anode layer and the cathode layer. The fuel cell system also includes at least one interconnect, the interconnect being structured to conduct free electrons between adjacent electrochemical cells. Each interconnect includes a primary conductor embedded within the electrolyte layer and structured to conduct the free electrons.

  2. Fuel cell system with interconnect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Zhien; Goettler, Richard

    2015-09-29

    The present invention includes a fuel cell system having a plurality of adjacent electrochemical cells formed of an anode layer, a cathode layer spaced apart from the anode layer, and an electrolyte layer disposed between the anode layer and the cathode layer. The fuel cell system also includes at least one interconnect, the interconnect being structured to conduct free electrons between adjacent electrochemical cells. Each interconnect includes a primary conductor embedded within the electrolyte layer and structured to conduct the free electrons.

  3. Fuel cell system with interconnect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goettler, Richard; Liu, Zhien

    2015-03-10

    The present invention includes a fuel cell system having a plurality of adjacent electrochemical cells formed of an anode layer, a cathode layer spaced apart from the anode layer, and an electrolyte layer disposed between the anode layer and the cathode layer. The fuel cell system also includes at least one interconnect, the interconnect being structured to conduct free electrons between adjacent electrochemical cells. Each interconnect includes a primary conductor embedded within the electrolyte layer and structured to conduct the free electrons.

  4. GSA-Utility Interconnection Agreements

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation—given at at the Fall 2012 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting—covers the General Service Administration's (GSA's) utility interconnection agreements.

  5. Interconnection Agreements for Onsite Generation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation covers Interconnection Agreements for Onsite Generation and is given at the Spring 2011 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting.

  6. Learn More About Interconnections | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Learn More About Interconnections Learn More About Interconnections Learn More About Interconnections EASTERN INTERCONNECTION North America is comprised of two major and three minor alternating current (AC) power grids or "interconnections." The Eastern Interconnection reaches from Central Canada Eastward to the Atlantic coast (excluding Québec), South to Florida and West to the foot of the Rockies (excluding most of Texas). All of the electric utilities in the Eastern Interconnection

  7. Process for electrically interconnecting electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, Paul G.; Thompson, Jesse B.; Colella, Nicolas J.; Williams, Kenneth A.

    2002-01-01

    Electrical interconnects for solar cells or other electronic components using a silver-silicone paste or a lead-tin (Pb--Sn) no-clean fluxless solder cream, whereby the high breakage of thin (<6 mil thick) solar cells using conventional solder interconnect is eliminated. The interconnects of this invention employs copper strips which are secured to the solar cells by a silver-silicone conductive paste which can be used at room temperature, or by a Pb--Sn solder cream which eliminates undesired residue on the active surfaces of the solar cells. Electrical testing using the interconnects of this invention has shown that no degradation of the interconnects developed under high current testing, while providing a very low contact resistance value.

  8. Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative - Meeting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative - Meeting Calendars Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative - Meeting Calendars Click on the links below to ...

  9. Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Western Interconnection on Electric Resource Planning and Priorities Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, Cooperation Among States in the Western ...

  10. Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Eastern Interconnection on Electric Resource Planning and Priorities Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, Cooperation Among States in the Eastern ...

  11. EAC Recommendations for DOE Action Regarding Interconnection...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Interconnection-Wide Planning - June 6, 2013 EAC Recommendations for DOE Action Regarding Interconnection-Wide Planning - June 6, 2013 EAC Recommendations for DOE Action Regarding ...

  12. Kinsus Interconnect Technology Corp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kinsus Interconnect Technology Corp Jump to: navigation, search Name: Kinsus Interconnect Technology Corp Place: Taiwan Sector: Solar Product: Engaged in the manufacture of chip...

  13. Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    the Texas Interconnection Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, State Agency Input Regarding Electric Resource and Transmission Planning in the Texas ...

  14. New Mexico Interconnection Manual | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Manual Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library General: New Mexico Interconnection Manual Abstract This manual sets forth common interconnection...

  15. Renewable Systems Interconnection: Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kroposki, B.; Margolis, R.; Kuswa, G.; Torres, J.; Bower, W.; Key, T.; Ton, D.

    2008-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy launched the Renewable Systems Interconnection (RSI) study in 2007 to address the challenges to high penetrations of distributed renewable energy technologies. The RSI study consists of 14 additional reports.

  16. Topic A Awardee: Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative Topic A Awardee: Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative The Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) was initiated by a coalition of regional Planning Authorities. These Planning Authorities are entities listed on the NERC compliance registry as Planning Authorities and represent the entire Eastern Interconnection. The EIPC was founded to be a broad-based,

  17. Manufacturing of planar ceramic interconnects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, B.L.; Coffey, G.W.; Meinhardt, K.D.; Armstrong, T.R.

    1996-12-31

    The fabrication of ceramic interconnects for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and separator plates for electrochemical separation devices has been a perennial challenge facing developers. Electrochemical vapor deposition (EVD), plasma spraying, pressing, tape casting and tape calendering are processes that are typically utilized to fabricate separator plates or interconnects for the various SOFC designs and electrochemical separation devices. For sake of brevity and the selection of a planar fuel cell or gas separation device design, pressing will be the only fabrication technique discussed here. This paper reports on the effect of the characteristics of two doped lanthanum manganite powders used in the initial studies as a planar porous separator for a fuel cell cathode and as a dense interconnect for an oxygen generator.

  18. Topic B Awardee: Eastern Interconnection States' Planning Council...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Eastern Interconnection States' Planning Council Topic B Awardee: Eastern Interconnection States' Planning Council The Eastern Interconnection States' Planning Council (EISPC) is ...

  19. Sandia Energy - Permitting, Inspection, and Interconnection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Permitting, Inspection, and Interconnection Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Photovoltaics Solar Market Transformation Permitting, Inspection, and...

  20. Formation of interconnections to microfluidic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Matzke, Carolyn M.; Ashby, Carol I. H.; Griego, Leonardo

    2003-07-29

    A method is disclosed to form external interconnections to a microfluidic device for coupling of a fluid or light or both into a microchannel of the device. This method can be used to form optical or fluidic interconnections to microchannels previously formed on a substrate, or to form both the interconnections and microchannels during the same process steps. The optical and fluidic interconnections are formed parallel to the plane of the substrate, and are fluid tight.

  1. Distributed PV Interconnection Screening Procedures and Online...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Third largest public power utility in the nation ... Site Plan 3-Line Drawing Solar Contract ... interconnection and easements if needed ...

  2. NREL: Technology Deployment - Distributed Generation Interconnection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Collaborative Distributed Generation Interconnection Collaborative Become a Member DGIC members are included in quarterly informational meetings and discussions related to distributed PV interconnection practices, research, and innovation. For more information, contact Kristen Ardani. Subscribe to DGIC Updates Learn about upcoming webinars and other DGIC announcements. NREL facilitates the Distributed Generation Interconnection Collaborative (DGIC) with support from the Smart Electric Power

  3. Cyber Security for Electric Infrastructure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Reliability Entity (TRE), Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) Better ... all enabling technologies that promise to increase power-grid resilience and reliability. ...

  4. Flexible interconnects for fuel cell stacks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lenz, David J.; Chung, Brandon W.; Pham, Ai Quoc

    2004-11-09

    An interconnect that facilitates electrical connection and mechanical support with minimal mechanical stress for fuel cell stacks. The interconnects are flexible and provide mechanically robust fuel cell stacks with higher stack performance at lower cost. The flexible interconnects replace the prior rigid rib interconnects with flexible "fingers" or contact pads which will accommodate the imperfect flatness of the ceramic fuel cells. Also, the mechanical stress of stacked fuel cells will be smaller due to the flexibility of the fingers. The interconnects can be one-sided or double-sided.

  5. New Report Characterizes Existing Offshore Wind Grid Interconnection...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Report Characterizes Existing Offshore Wind Grid Interconnection Capabilities New Report Characterizes Existing Offshore Wind Grid Interconnection Capabilities September 3, 2014 - ...

  6. Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic A,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Interconnection-Level Analysis and Planning | Department of Energy A, Interconnection-Level Analysis and Planning Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic A, Interconnection-Level Analysis and Planning A description of the requirements for Topic A for all Interconnections under the Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative, part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic A, Interconnection-Level

  7. Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative - Meeting Calendars |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative - Meeting Calendars Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative - Meeting Calendars Click on the links below to access each awardee's meeting and events calendar. Eastern Interconnection Topic A Awardee: Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative Topic B Awardee: Eastern Interconnection States' Planning Council Western Interconnection Topic A Awardee: Western Electricity Coordinating Council Topic B

  8. Double interconnection fuel cell array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draper, R.; Zymboly, G.E.

    1993-12-28

    A fuel cell array is made, containing number of tubular, elongated fuel cells which are placed next to each other in rows (A, B, C, D), where each cell contains inner electrodes and outer electrodes, with solid electrolyte between the electrodes, where the electrolyte and outer electrode are discontinuous, having two portions, and providing at least two opposed discontinuities which contain at least two oppositely opposed interconnections contacting the inner electrode, each cell having only three metallic felt electrical connectors which contact surrounding cells, where each row is electrically connected to the other. 5 figures.

  9. Double interconnection fuel cell array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draper, Robert; Zymboly, Gregory E.

    1993-01-01

    A fuel cell array (10) is made, containing number of tubular, elongated fuel cells (12) which are placed next to each other in rows (A, B, C, D), where each cell contains inner electrodes (14) and outer electrodes (18 and 18'), with solid electrolyte (16 and 16') between the electrodes, where the electrolyte and outer electrode are discontinuous, having two portions, and providing at least two opposed discontinuities which contain at least two oppositely opposed interconnections (20 and 20') contacting the inner electrode (14), each cell (12) having only three metallic felt electrical connectors (22) which contact surrounding cells, where each row is electrically connected to the other.

  10. Cascade solar cell having conductive interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borden, Peter G.; Saxena, Ram R.

    1982-10-26

    Direct ohmic contact between the cells in an epitaxially grown cascade solar cell is obtained by means of conductive interconnects formed through grooves etched intermittently in the upper cell. The base of the upper cell is directly connected by the conductive interconnects to the emitter of the bottom cell. The conductive interconnects preferably terminate on a ledge formed in the base of the upper cell.

  11. Distributed PV Interconnection: Recent Analysis Findings

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Make Smart Solar Decisions Distributed Solar Interconnection: Challenges and Best ... 50, Arizona: 54, Colorado: 63, New York: 68 New Jersey: 90 System Size Mean Median Std. ...

  12. Recent Development of SOFC Metallic Interconnect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu JW, Liu XB

    2010-04-01

    Interest in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) stems from their higher eciencies and lower levels of emitted pollu- tants, compared to traditional power production methods. Interconnects are a critical part in SOFC stacks, which connect cells in series electrically, and also separate air or oxygen at the cathode side from fuel at the anode side. Therefore, the requirements of interconnects are the most demanding, i:e:, to maintain high elec- trical conductivity, good stability in both reducing and oxidizing atmospheres, and close coecient of thermal expansion (CTE) match and good compatibility with other SOFC ceramic components. The paper reviewed the interconnect materials, and coatings for metallic interconnect materials.

  13. PUCT DG Interconnection Manual | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - GuideHandbook: PUCT DG Interconnection ManualPermittingRegulatory GuidanceGuideHandbook...

  14. Renewable Energy Interconnection and Storage - Technical Aspects...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Interconnection and Storage - Technical Aspects Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Spain Installed Wind Capacity Website Focus Area: Renewable Energy...

  15. North American Electric Reliability Corporation Interconnections...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Map of the North American Electric Reliability Corporation Interconnection showing the Eastern, Western, and Teaxs Interconnectins. North American Electric Reliability Corporation...

  16. Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative News Release ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) today announced that its diverse array of stakeholders has reached consensus on the final set of "resource expansion ...

  17. Generation Interconnection and Deliverability Allocation Procedures...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Interconnection and Deliverability Allocation Procedures Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- Permit ApplicationPermit Application:...

  18. RAPID/Geothermal/Transmission Siting & Interconnection | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to the public for compensation. See AS 42.05.990(5) for additional information. NA Geothermal Transmission Siting & Interconnection in California California Energy...

  19. Learn More About Interconnections | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Eastern Interconnection reaches from Central Canada Eastward to the Atlantic coast (excluding Qubec), South to Florida and West to the foot of the Rockies (excluding most of ...

  20. Frequency Instability Problems in North American Interconnections

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Instability Problems in North American Interconnections Prepared by: Energy Sector Planning and Analysis (ESPA) ... would make the situation worse during an emergency event. ...

  1. Tevatron low-beta quadrupole triplet interconnects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oleck, A.R.; Carson, J.A.; Koepke, K.; Sorenson, D.

    1992-04-01

    Installation of cold iron quadrupole magnets in the Low Beta (Superconducting High-Luminosity) upgrade at Fermilab required a newly designed magnet interconnect. The interconnect design and construction experience is presented. Considered are the connections carrying cryogenic fluids, beam vacuum, insulating vacuum, superconducting bus leads, their insulation and mechanical support. Details of the assembly and assembly experience are presented. 2 refs.

  2. Mitigation Measures for Distributed PV Interconnection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mitigation Measures for Distributed Interconnection" Michael Coddington with National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Robert Broderick with Sandia National Laboratories July 9, 2014 2 Speakers Michael Coddington Principal Investigator Distributed Grid Integration NREL Robert Broderick Technical Lead Distributed Grid Integration Programs Sandia National Laboratories Kristen Ardani Solar Analyst, (today's moderator) NREL 3 INTERCONNECTION, SCREENING & MITIGATION PRACTICES OF 21 UTILITIES

  3. Durability of Metallic Interconnects and Protective Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Zhenguo; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2009-12-15

    To build up a useful voltage, a number of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are electrically connected into series in a stack via interconnects, which are placed between adjacent cells. In addition to functioning as a bi-polar electrical connector, the interconnect also acts as a separator plate that separates the fuel at the anode side of one cell from the air at the cathode side on an adjacent cell. During SOFC operation at the high temperatures, the interconnects are thus simultaneously exposed to the oxidizing air at one side and a reducing fuel that can be either hydrogen or hydrocarbon at the other. Besides, they are in contact with adjacent components, such as electrodes or electrical contacts, seals, etc. With steady reduction in SOFC operating temperatures into the low or intermediate range 600-850oC, oxidation resistant alloys are often used to construct interconnects. However, the metallic interconnects may degrade via interactions at their interfaces with surrounding environments or adjacent components, potentially affecting the stability and performance of interconnects and the SOFC stacks. Thus protection layers are applied to metallic interconnects that also intend to mitigate or prevent chromium migration into cells and the cell poisoning. This chapter provides a comprehensive review of materials for metallic interconnects, their degradation and coating protection.

  4. Updating Technical Screens for PV Interconnection: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coddington, M.; Ellis, A.; Lynn, K.; Razon, A.; Key, T.; Kroposki, B.; Mather, B.; Hill, R.; Nicole, K.; Smith, J.

    2012-08-01

    Solar photovoltaics (PV) is the dominant type of distributed generation (DG) technology interconnected to electric distribution systems in the United States, and deployment of PV systems continues to increase rapidly. Considering the rapid growth and widespread deployment of PV systems in United States electric distribution grids, it is important that interconnection procedures be as streamlined as possible to avoid unnecessary interconnection studies, costs, and delays. Because many PV interconnection applications involve high penetration scenarios, the process needs to allow for a sufficiently rigorous technical evaluation to identify and address possible system impacts. Existing interconnection procedures are designed to balance the need for efficiency and technical rigor for all DG. However, there is an implicit expectation that those procedures will be updated over time in order to remain relevant with respect to evolving standards, technology, and practical experience. Modifications to interconnection screens and procedures must focus on maintaining or improving safety and reliability, as well as accurately allocating costs and improving expediency of the interconnection process. This paper evaluates the origins and usefulness of the capacity penetration screen, offers potential short-term solutions which could effectively allow fast-track interconnection to many PV system applications, and considers longer-term solutions for increasing PV deployment levels in a safe and reliable manner while reducing or eliminating the emphasis on the penetration screen.

  5. Analysis of drought impacts on electricity production in the Western and Texas interconnections of the United States.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harto, C. B.; Yan, Y. E.; Demissie, Y. K.; Elcock, D.; Tidwell, V. C.; Hallett, K.; Macknick, J.; Wigmosta, M. S.; Tesfa, T. K.

    2012-02-09

    Electricity generation relies heavily on water resources and their availability. To examine the interdependence of energy and water in the electricity context, the impacts of a severe drought to assess the risk posed by drought to electricity generation within the western and Texas interconnections has been examined. The historical drought patterns in the western United States were analyzed, and the risk posed by drought to electricity generation within the region was evaluated. The results of this effort will be used to develop scenarios for medium- and long-term transmission modeling and planning efforts by the Western Electricity Coordination Council (WECC) and the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT). The study was performed in response to a request developed by the Western Governors Association in conjunction with the transmission modeling teams at the participating interconnections. It is part of a U.S. Department of Energy-sponsored, national laboratory-led research effort to develop tools related to the interdependency of energy and water as part of a larger interconnection-wide transmission planning project funded under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. This study accomplished three main objectives. It provided a thorough literature review of recent studies of drought and the potential implications for electricity generation. It analyzed historical drought patterns in the western United States and used the results to develop three design drought scenarios. Finally, it quantified the risk to electricity generation for each of eight basins for each of the three drought scenarios and considered the implications for transmission planning. Literature on drought impacts on electricity generation describes a number of examples where hydroelectric generation capacity has been limited because of drought but only a few examples of impact on thermoelectric generation. In all documented cases, shortfalls of generation were met by purchasing power

  6. Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, Cooperation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Among States in the Eastern Interconnection on Electric Resource Planning and Priorities | Department of Energy Eastern Interconnection on Electric Resource Planning and Priorities Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, Cooperation Among States in the Eastern Interconnection on Electric Resource Planning and Priorities A description of the requirements for Topic B for the Eastern Interconnection under the Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative, part of

  7. Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, Cooperation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Among States in the Western Interconnection on Electric Resource Planning and Priorities | Department of Energy Western Interconnection on Electric Resource Planning and Priorities Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, Cooperation Among States in the Western Interconnection on Electric Resource Planning and Priorities A description of the requirements for Topic B for the Western Interconnection under the Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative, part of

  8. Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, State

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Agency Input Regarding Electric Resource and Transmission Planning in the Texas Interconnection | Department of Energy State Agency Input Regarding Electric Resource and Transmission Planning in the Texas Interconnection Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, State Agency Input Regarding Electric Resource and Transmission Planning in the Texas Interconnection A description of the requirements for Topic B for the Texas Interconnect under the Interconnection-Wide

  9. FERC Order No. 2003 Appendix 5 - Optional Interconnection Study...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    5 - Optional Interconnection Study Agreement Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Form: FERC Order No. 2003 Appendix 5 - Optional Interconnection...

  10. RAPID/Geothermal/Transmission Siting & Interconnection/California...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of the application process. Following the necessary interconnection studies, CAISO will enter into a Generator Interconnection Agreement with the developer. California Energy...

  11. Solar Energy to Benefit from New FERC Interconnection Procedures...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the adoption of new "fast track" rules to make the interconnection process ... the adoption of new "fast track" rules to make the interconnection process ...

  12. Improving Data Transparency for the Distributed PV Interconnection...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Data Transparency for the Distributed PV Page 1 of 21 Interconnection Process Emergent ... The topic for today is: Improving Data Transparency for the Distributed PV Interconnection ...

  13. Method for fabricating an interconnected array of semiconductor devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grimmer, Derrick P.; Paulson, Kenneth R.; Gilbert, James R.

    1989-10-10

    Semiconductor layer and conductive layer formed on a flexible substrate, divided into individual devices and interconnected with one another in series by interconnection layers and penetrating terminals.

  14. FERC Order No. 792 - Interconnection Agreement | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    FERC Order No. 792 - Interconnection Agreement Abstract FERC Order No. 792, Small Generator Interconnection Agreement, current through June 3, 2013. Form Type Other Form Topic...

  15. FERC Order No. 792 - Interconnection Request | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    792 - Interconnection RequestLegal Abstract FERC Order No. 792, Attachment 2, Small Generator Interconnection Request Form, current through June 3, 2014. Published NA Year...

  16. CHP: Connecting the Gap between Markets and Utility Interconnection...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Connecting the Gap between Markets and Utility Interconnection and Tariff Practices, 2006 CHP: Connecting the Gap between Markets and Utility Interconnection and Tariff Practices, ...

  17. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Transmission Siting & Interconnection...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    federal review). Bulk Transmission Transmission Siting & Interconnection in New Mexico New Mexico Statutes (N.M.S.) 62-9-1, 62-9-3(B), and 62-9-3.2 No Location Permit may be...

  18. Distributed Solar Interconnection Challenges and Best Practices

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The continued growth of the distributed solar market in the United States has spurred electric utilities, regulators, and stakeholders to consider improvements to distributed generation (DG) interconnection processes. More than 475,000 solar energy systems were interconnected in the U.S. by the end of 2013, but 1 million are expected by the end of 2017. Based on the SunShot Initiative's current trajectory, permitting, inspection, and interconnection (PII) soft costs are expected to drop from a current cost of $0.17/watt to $0.14/watt by 2020. While the actual cost metrics for utility PII are undetermined, they are real. A survey and interviews conducted by Solar Electric Power Association (SEPA) in 2014 have uncovered utility initiatives to lower the administrative costs of DG interconnection, making the process of connecting to the grid simpler and more transparent for customers.

  19. Distributed PV Interconnection Screening Procedures and Online...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... of merchant plants or plants interconnecting to our grid just to sell into the grid. ... And actually maybe just following up on the harmonic issues that you mentioned a question ...

  20. PJM Interconnection, LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: PJM Interconnection, LLC Place: Norristown, PA References: SGIC1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. PJM...

  1. Frequency Instability Problems in North American Interconnections

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Frequency Instability Problems in North American Interconnections May 1, 2011 DOE/NETL-2011/1473 Frequency Instability Problems in North American Interconnections Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness

  2. Distributed PV Interconnection Recent Analysis Findings

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Recent Analysis Findings Page 1 of 18 Kristen Ardani, Miriam Makhyoun Page 1 of 18 [Speaker: Kristen Ardani] Cover Slide: Good afternoon, everyone. Thank you for joining the Distributed Generation Interconnection Collaborative informational webinar. Today, we are kicking off 2015 with a joint presentation from SEPA and NREL, in which each will discuss recent research and analysis findings related to interconnection. Slide 2: So really, the purpose of today's meeting is to hear recent research

  3. Distributed PV Interconnection: Recent Analysis Findings

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    January 21, 2015 "NREL and SEPA Recent Analysis Findings" Miriam Makhyoun, Solar Electric Power Association (SEPA) Kristen Ardani, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) 2 Purpose of Today's Meeting * Hear results from SEPA's recent survey of utility interconnection practices. o SEPA finds that utilities confront common challenges as they move towards more streamlined interconnection application processing. * Hear NREL results of forthcoming DGIC data collection and analysis,

  4. Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative News Release

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 NEWS RELEASE FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE May 23, 2011 Contact: David Whiteley d.a.whiteley@att.net 314-753-6200 Eastern Interconnection Grid Planning Authorities to Study Set of Stakeholder-Identified Electric System Futures The Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) today announced that its diverse array of stakeholders has reached consensus on the final set of "resource expansion futures" to be studied as part of the electric system transmission planning effort funded by

  5. Overview of the Distributed Generation Interconnection Collaborative

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    December 17, 2013 Overview presentation for group call, 1:00-2:30EST 2 October 21,2013 NREL and EPRI facilitated workshop of electric utilities, PV developers, PUCs, and other stakeholders to discuss the formulation of a collaborative effort focused on distributed PV interconnection: - Data and informational gaps/needs - Persistent challenges - Replicable innovation - Informed decision making and planning for anticipated rise in distributed PV interconnection Based on stakeholder input and

  6. Interconnecting gold islands with DNA origami

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Interconnecting gold islands with DNA origami Authors: Ding, B., Wu, H., Xu, W., Zhao, Z., Liu, Y., Yu, H., and Yan, H. Title: Interconnecting gold islands with DNA origami Source: Nano Lett. Year: 2010 Volume: 10 Pages: 5065-5069 ABSTRACT: Scaffolded DNA origami has recently emerged as a versatile, programmable method to fold DNA into arbitrarily shaped nanostructures that are spatially addressable, with sub-10-nm resolution. Toward functional DNA nanotechnology, one of the key challenges is to

  7. Innovation in the Interconnection Application Process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation in the Interconnection Application Process" Ken Parks, SDG&E and Bob Woerner, PG&E April 2, 2014 2 Purpose of Today's Meeting * Learn about recent innovations in the distributed PV interconnection process * Examine how certain challenges related to increased demand for distributed PV can be addressed through revised application processes and procedures * Hear specific examples from electric utilities in mature solar markets (SDG&E and PG&E) 3 Speakers Ken Parks

  8. Table 8.12a Electric Noncoincident Peak Load and Capacity Margin: Summer Peak Period, 1986-2011 (Megawatts, Except as Noted)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a Electric Noncoincident Peak Load and Capacity Margin: Summer Peak Period, 1986-2011 (Megawatts, Except as Noted) Year Noncoincident Peak Load 1 by North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) 2 Regional Assessment Area Capacity Margin 21 (percent) Eastern Interconnection ERCOT 4 Western Inter- connection All Inter- connections FRCC 5 NPCC 6 Balance of Eastern Region 3 ECAR 7,8 MAAC 8,9 MAIN 8,10 MAPP 11 MISO 12 MRO 13 PJM 14 RFC 8,15 SERC 16 SPP 17 Subtotal TRE 18 WECC 19 Total 20

  9. Word Pro - Untitled1

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Table 8.12b Electric Noncoincident Peak Load and Capacity Margin: Winter Peak Period, 1986-2011 (Megawatts, Except as Noted) Year Noncoincident Peak Load 1 by North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) 2 Regional Assessment Area Capacity Margin 21 (percent) Eastern Interconnection ERCOT 4 Western Inter- connection All Inter- connections FRCC 5 NPCC 6 Balance of Eastern Region 3 ECAR 7,8 MAAC 8,9 MAIN 8,10 MAPP 11 MISO 12 MRO 13 PJM 14 RFC 8,15 SERC 16 SPP 17 Subtotal TRE 18 WECC 19

  10. Accelerating Fatigue Testing for Cu Ribbon Interconnects (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bosco, N.; Silverman, T.; Wohlgemuth , J.; Kurtz, S.; Inoue, M.; Sakurai, K.; Shioda, T.; Zenkoh, H.; Miyashita, M.; Tadanori, T.; Suzuki, S.

    2013-05-01

    This presentation describes fatigue experiments and discusses dynamic mechanical loading for Cu ribbon interconnects.

  11. NREL Variability Analysis for the Western Interconnect (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; King, J.

    2011-07-01

    This presentation investigates the effects of several Energy Imbalance Markets implementations in the Western Interconnect.

  12. Accelerating Fatigue Testing for Cu Ribbon Interconnects | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Accelerating Fatigue Testing for Cu Ribbon Interconnects Accelerating Fatigue Testing for Cu Ribbon Interconnects Presented at the 2013 Photovoltaic Module Reliability Workshop; 26-27 February 2013; Denver, Colorado 58369.pdf (3.59 MB) More Documents & Publications Thermal Cycling Combined with Dynamic Mechanical Load: Preliminary Report Physics of Failure of Electrical Interconnects Reliability of Electrical Interconnects

  13. Advanced Platform for Development and Evaluation of Grid Interconnection

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Systems Using Hardware-in-the-Loop: Part III - Grid Interconnection System Evaluator (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Advanced Platform for Development and Evaluation of Grid Interconnection Systems Using Hardware-in-the-Loop: Part III - Grid Interconnection System Evaluator Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Advanced Platform for Development and Evaluation of Grid Interconnection Systems Using Hardware-in-the-Loop: Part III - Grid Interconnection System

  14. Advanced Platform for Development and Evaluation of Grid Interconnection

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Systems Using Hardware-in-the-Loop: Part III -- Grid Interconnection System Evaluator: Preprint (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Advanced Platform for Development and Evaluation of Grid Interconnection Systems Using Hardware-in-the-Loop: Part III -- Grid Interconnection System Evaluator: Preprint Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Advanced Platform for Development and Evaluation of Grid Interconnection Systems Using Hardware-in-the-Loop: Part III -- Grid Interconnection

  15. Automotion of domain walls for spintronic interconnects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nikonov, Dmitri E.; Manipatruni, Sasikanth; Young, Ian A.

    2014-06-07

    We simulate “automotion,” the transport of a magnetic domain wall under the influence of demagnetization and magnetic anisotropy, in nanoscale spintronic interconnects. In contrast to spin transfer driven magnetic domain wall motion, the proposed interconnects operate without longitudinal charge current transfer, with only a transient current pulse at domain wall creation and have favorable scaling down to the 20 nm dimension. Cases of both in-plane and out-of-plane magnetization are considered. Analytical dependence of the velocity of domain walls on the angle of magnetization are compared with full micromagnetic simulations. Deceleration, attenuation and disappearance, and reflection of domain walls are demonstrated through simulation. Dependences of the magnetization angle on the current pulse parameters are studied. The energy and delay analysis suggests that automotion is an attractive option for spintronic logic interconnects.

  16. Interconnection Testing of Distributed Resources: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kroposki, B.; Basso, T.; DeBlasio, R.

    2004-02-01

    With the publication of IEEE 1547-2003(TM) Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Resources With Electric Power Systems, the electric power industry has a need to develop tests and procedures to verify that interconnection equipment meets 1547 technical requirements. A new standard, IEEE P1547.1(TM), is being written to give detailed tests and procedures for confirming that equipment meets the interconnection requirements. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory has been validating test procedures being developed as part of IEEE P1547.1. As work progresses on the validation of those procedures, information and test reports are passed on to the working group of IEEE P1547.1 for future revisions.

  17. Planarization of metal films for multilevel interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuckerman, David B.

    1987-01-01

    In the fabrication of multilevel integrated circuits, each metal layer is anarized by heating to momentarily melt the layer. The layer is melted by sweeping laser pulses of suitable width, typically about 1 microsecond duration, over the layer in small increments. The planarization of each metal layer eliminates irregular and discontinuous conditions between successive layers. The planarization method is particularly applicable to circuits having ground or power planes and allows for multilevel interconnects. Dielectric layers can also be planarized to produce a fully planar multilevel interconnect structure. The method is useful for the fabrication of VLSI circuits, particularly for wafer-scale integration.

  18. Planarization of metal films for multilevel interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuckerman, D.B.

    1989-03-21

    In the fabrication of multilevel integrated circuits, each metal layer is planarized by heating to momentarily melt the layer. The layer is melted by sweeping laser pulses of suitable width, typically about 1 microsecond duration, over the layer in small increments. The planarization of each metal layer eliminates irregular and discontinuous conditions between successive layers. The planarization method is particularly applicable to circuits having ground or power planes and allows for multilevel interconnects. Dielectric layers can also be planarized to produce a fully planar multilevel interconnect structure. The method is useful for the fabrication of VLSI circuits, particularly for wafer-scale integration. 6 figs.

  19. Planarization of metal films for multilevel interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuckerman, D.B.

    1985-06-24

    In the fabrication of multilevel integrated circuits, each metal layer is planarized by heating to momentarily melt the layer. The layer is melted by sweeping lase pulses of suitable width, typically about 1 microsecond duration, over the layer in small increments. The planarization of each metal layer eliminates irregular and discontinuous conditions between successive layers. The planarization method is particularly applicable to circuits having ground or power planes and allows for multilevel interconnects. Dielectric layers can also be planarized to produce a fully planar multilevel interconnect structure. The method is useful for the fabrication of VLSI circuits, particularly for wafer-scale integration.

  20. Planarization of metal films for multilevel interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuckerman, David B.

    1989-01-01

    In the fabrication of multilevel integrated circuits, each metal layer is anarized by heating to momentarily melt the layer. The layer is melted by sweeping laser pulses of suitable width, typically about 1 microsecond duration, over the layer in small increments. The planarization of each metal layer eliminates irregular and discontinuous conditions between successive layers. The planarization method is particularly applicable to circuits having ground or power planes and allows for multilevel interconnects. Dielectric layers can also be planarized to produce a fully planar multilevel interconnect structure. The method is useful for the fabrication of VLSI circuits, particularly for wafer-scale integration.

  1. Planarization of metal films for multilevel interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuckerman, D.B.

    1985-08-23

    In the fabrication of multilevel integrated circuits, each metal layer is planarized by heating to momentarily melt the layer. The layer is melted by sweeping laser pulses of suitable width, typically about 1 microsecond duration, over the layer in small increments. The planarization of each metal layer eliminates irregular and discontinuous conditions between successive layers. The planarization method is particularly applicable to circuits having ground or power planes and allows for multilevel interconnects. Dielectric layers can also be planarized to produce a fully planar multilevel interconnect structure. The method is useful for the fabrication of VLSI circuits, particularly for wafer-scale integration.

  2. Interconnect assembly for an electronic assembly and assembly method therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerbsch, Erich William

    2003-06-10

    An interconnect assembly and method for a semiconductor device, in which the interconnect assembly can be used in lieu of wirebond connections to form an electronic assembly. The interconnect assembly includes first and second interconnect members. The first interconnect member has a first surface with a first contact and a second surface with a second contact electrically connected to the first contact, while the second interconnect member has a flexible finger contacting the second contact of the first interconnect member. The first interconnect member is adapted to be aligned and registered with a semiconductor device having a contact on a first surface thereof, so that the first contact of the first interconnect member electrically contacts the contact of the semiconductor device. Consequently, the assembly method does not require any wirebonds, but instead merely entails aligning and registering the first interconnect member with the semiconductor device so that the contacts of the first interconnect member and the semiconductor device make electrically contact, and then contacting the second contact of the first interconnect member with the flexible finger of the second interconnect member.

  3. U.S. Virgin Islands Establishes Interconnection Standards to Clear the Way for Grid Interconnection

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    U.S. Virgin Islands Establishes Interconnection Standards to Clear the Way for Grid Interconnection The Energy Development in Island Nations (EDIN)-U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) pilot project offers a valuable example of how to translate technical analysis to an effective, effcient regulatory and policy environment that facilitates the integra- tion of renewable energy into the existing electricity system. Faced with electricity prices more than four times higher than the U.S. average, USVI Gov.

  4. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, John P.; Liu, Shu; Ibanez, Eduardo; Pennock, Ken; Reed, Gregory; Hanes, Spencer

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States.

  5. High temperature solid electrolyte fuel cell configurations and interconnections

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isenberg, Arnold O.

    1984-01-01

    High temperature fuel cell configurations and interconnections are made including annular cells having a solid electrolyte sandwiched between thin film electrodes. The cells are electrically interconnected along an elongated axial outer surface.

  6. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study Full Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, John P.; Liu, Shu; Ibanez, Eduardo; Pennock, Ken; Reed, Gregory; Hanes, Spencer

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States.

  7. Recovery Act Interconnection Transmission Planning | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Recovery Act Interconnection Transmission Planning Recovery Act Interconnection Transmission Planning View a Map of the Interconnections View a Map of the Interconnections Robust and reliable transmission and distribution networks are essential to achieving the Administration's clean energy goals, including the development, integration, and delivery of new renewable and other low-carbon resources in the electricity sector, and the use of these resources to displace petroleum-based fuels in the

  8. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States. NOWEGIS Full Report.pdf (20.21 MB) NOWEGIS Executive Summary.pdf (808.92 KB) More Documents &

  9. EAC Recommendations for DOE Action Regarding Interconnection-Wide Planning

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    - June 6, 2013 | Department of Energy Interconnection-Wide Planning - June 6, 2013 EAC Recommendations for DOE Action Regarding Interconnection-Wide Planning - June 6, 2013 EAC Recommendations for DOE Action Regarding Interconnection-Wide Planning, approved at the June 5-6, 2013 EAC Meeting. EAC Recommendations for DOE Action on Interconnection-Wide Planning - June 6, 2013 (147.93 KB) More Documents & Publications Electricity Advisory Committee Meeting Presentations October 2011 -

  10. Innovation and Success in Solar Net Metering and Interconnection |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Net Metering and Interconnection Innovation and Success in Solar Net Metering and Interconnection This document summarizes the latest developments in solar net metering and interconnection. webinar_080713_solar_net_metering_connection.pdf (2.09 MB) More Documents & Publications webinar_innovation_net_metering_interconnection.doc PRESENTATION: OVERVIEW OF THE SUNSHOT INITIATIVE Final Report - Chicago Region Solar Market Transformation Team

  11. Release Resistant Electrical Interconnections For Mems Devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Garrett, Stephen E.; Reber, Cathleen A.

    2005-02-22

    A release resistant electrical interconnection comprising a gold-based electrical conductor compression bonded directly to a highly-doped polysilicon bonding pad in a MEMS, IMEMS, or MOEMS device, without using any intermediate layers of aluminum, titanium, solder, or conductive adhesive disposed in-between the conductor and polysilicon pad. After the initial compression bond has been formed, subsequent heat treatment of the joint above 363 C creates a liquid eutectic phase at the bondline comprising gold plus approximately 3 wt % silicon, which, upon re-solidification, significantly improves the bond strength by reforming and enhancing the initial bond. This type of electrical interconnection is resistant to chemical attack from acids used for releasing MEMS elements (HF, HCL), thereby enabling the use of a "package-first, release-second" sequence for fabricating MEMS devices. Likewise, the bond strength of an Au--Ge compression bond may be increased by forming a transient liquid eutectic phase comprising Au-12 wt % Ge.

  12. Architecture for on-die interconnect

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khare, Surhud; More, Ankit; Somasekhar, Dinesh; Dunning, David S.

    2016-03-15

    In an embodiment, an apparatus includes: a plurality of islands configured on a semiconductor die, each of the plurality of islands having a plurality of cores; and a plurality of network switches configured on the semiconductor die and each associated with one of the plurality of islands, where each network switch includes a plurality of output ports, a first set of the output ports are each to couple to the associated network switch of an island via a point-to-point interconnect and a second set of the output ports are each to couple to the associated network switches of a plurality of islands via a point-to-multipoint interconnect. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  13. Development of Interconnect Technologies for Particle Detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tripathi, Mani

    2015-01-29

    This final report covers the three years of this grant, for the funding period 9/1/2010 - 8/31/2013. The project consisted of generic detector R&D work at UC Davis, with an emphasis on developing interconnect technologies for applications in HEP. Much of the work is done at our Facility for Interconnect Technologies (FIT) at UC Davis. FIT was established using ARRA funds, with further studies supported by this grant. Besides generic R&D work at UC Davis, FIT is engaged in providing bump bonding help to several DOE supported detector R&D efforts. Some of the developmental work was also supported by funding from other sources: continuing CMS project funds and the Linear Collider R&D funds. The latter program is now terminated. The three year program saw a good deal of progress on several fronts, which are reported here.

  14. Interconnection of bundled solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Michael; Bessette, II, Norman F; Litka, Anthony F; Schmidt, Douglas S

    2014-01-14

    A system and method for electrically interconnecting a plurality of fuel cells to provide dense packing of the fuel cells. Each one of the plurality of fuel cells has a plurality of discrete electrical connection points along an outer surface. Electrical connections are made directly between the discrete electrical connection points of adjacent fuel cells so that the fuel cells can be packed more densely. Fuel cells have at least one outer electrode and at least one discrete interconnection to an inner electrode, wherein the outer electrode is one of a cathode and and anode and wherein the inner electrode is the other of the cathode and the anode. In tubular solid oxide fuel cells the discrete electrical connection points are spaced along the length of the fuel cell.

  15. Overview of Western's Interconnected Bulk Electric System

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Western's Interconnected Bulk Electric System Western Area Power Admin. Objectives * Describe Western Area Power Administration Region and Facilities Overview * Explain Fundamentals of Electricity, Power Transformers and Transmission Lines * Discuss Overview of the Bulk Electric System (BES) * Objectives Review Western's Service Area Western marketing areas and offices 3 Wholesale Power Services * Markets 10,479 MW from 56 Federal hydropower projects owned by Bureau of Reclamation (BOR) , Army

  16. D R A F T Evaluating Interconnect

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    R A F T Evaluating Interconnect and Virtualization Performance for High Performance Computing Lavanya Ramakrishnan R. Shane Canon Krishna Muriki Iwona Sakrejda Nicholas J. Wright NERSC, CRD, IT, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab Berkeley, CA 94720 {lramakrishnan,scanon,kmuriki,isakrejda,njwright}@lbl.gov ABSTRACT Scientists are increasingly considering cloud com- puting platforms to satisfy their computational needs. Previous work has shown that virtualized cloud en- vironments can have significant

  17. Performance testing of small interconnected wind systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, G.L.; Krauss, O.; Miller, J.

    1984-05-01

    There is a need for performance information on small windmills intended for interconnected operation with utility distribution service. The owner or prospective buyer needs the data to estimate economic viability and service reliability, while the utility needs it to determine interconnection arrangements, maintain quality of power delivered by its line, and to answer customer inquiries. No existing testing program provides all the information needed, although the Rocky Flats test site comes close. To fill this need for Michigan, Consumers Power Company and the Michigan Electric Cooperative Association helped support a two-year program at Michigan State University involving extensive performance testing of an Enertech 1500 and a 4-kW Dakota with a Gemini inverter. The performance study suggested measurements necessary to characterize SWECS for interconnected operation. They include SWECS energy output to a-c line, miles of wind passing the rotor, var-hour metering for average var consumption, and recording watt, current, and voltmeters to assess SWECS output variability. Added instruments for waveform measurement (to assess power quality) are also needed. Typical data taken at the MSU test site are used to illustrate the techniques and preliminary data from a current project is given. Finally, conclusions about SWECS performance are listed.

  18. Media Release Media Contact FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE Heather Rasmussen

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Media Release Media Contact FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE Heather Rasmussen September 22, 2011 Communication Specialist (801) 819-7623 hrasmussen@wecc.biz WECC releases its first-ever transmission plan for the Western Interconnection The Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) announced the release of its first 10-Year Regional Transmission Plan (Plan) for the Western Interconnection. Looking ahead to 2020, the Plan focuses on how to meet the Western Interconnection's transmission requirements;

  19. Melinda M. Higgins | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Media Release Media Contact FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE Heather Rasmussen September 22, 2011 Communication Specialist (801) 819-7623 hrasmussen@wecc.biz WECC releases its first-ever transmission plan for the Western Interconnection The Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) announced the release of its first 10-Year Regional Transmission Plan (Plan) for the Western Interconnection. Looking ahead to 2020, the Plan focuses on how to meet the Western Interconnection's transmission requirements;

  20. WECC Response to DOE Quadrennial Energy Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Environmental Data, Tools, and Reports Preferred Environmental Data Set The Preferred Environmental Data Set is a spreadsheet that lists all data sets obtained or reviewed for ...

  1. Initial Studies on Actionable Control for Improving Small Signal Stability in Interconnected Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuffner, Francis K.; Huang, Zhenyu; Zhou, Ning; Guttromson, Ross T.; Jayantilal, Avnaesh

    2010-06-14

    Power consumption and demand continues to grow around the world. As the electric power grid continues to be put under more stress, the conditions of instability are more likely to occur. One cause of such instabilities is intearea oscillations, such as the oscillation that resulted in the August 10, 1996 blackout of the WECC. This paper explores different potential operations of different devices on the power system to improve the damping of these interarea oscillations using two different simulation models

  2. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Colorado | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the Regional Entity responsible for coordinating and promoting Bulk Electric System reliability in the Western Interconnection, including in Colorado. In addition, WECC provides...

  3. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Idaho | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the Regional Entity responsible for coordinating and promoting Bulk Electric System reliability in the Western Interconnection, including in Idaho. In addition, WECC provides an...

  4. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Montana | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Western Interconnection power grids and is part of two NERC regions - the Midwest Reliability Organization (MRO) and Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC). MRO's...

  5. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Washington | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the Regional Entity responsible for coordinating and promoting Bulk Electric System reliability in the Western Interconnection, including in Washington. In addition, WECC provides...

  6. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Nevada | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the Regional Entity responsible for coordinating and promoting Bulk Electric System reliability in the Western Interconnection, including in Nevada. WECC also provides an...

  7. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Arizona | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the Regional Entity responsible for coordinating and promoting Bulk Electric System reliability in the Western Interconnection, including Arizona. WECC also provides an...

  8. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Oregon | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the Regional Entity responsible for coordinating and promoting Bulk Electric System reliability in the Western Interconnection, including Oregon. WECC also provides an environment...

  9. Development of Ceramic Interconnect Materials for SOFC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, Kyung J.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Marina, Olga A.

    2010-08-05

    Currently, acceptor-doped lanthanum chromite is the state-of-the-art ceramic interconnect material for high temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) due to its fairly good electronic conductivity and chemical stability in both oxidizing and reducing atmospheres, and thermal compatibility with other cell components. The major challenge for acceptor-doped lanthanum chromite for SOFC interconnect applications is its inferior sintering behavior in air, which has been attributed to the development of a thin layer of Cr2O3 at the interparticle necks during the initial stages of sintering. In addition, lanthanum chromite is reactive with YSZ electrolyte at high temperatures, forming a highly resistive lanthanum zirconate phase (La2Zr2O7), which further complicates co-firing processes. Acceptor-doped yttrium chromite is considered to be one of the promising alternatives to acceptor-doped lanthanum chromite because it is more stable with respect to the formation of hydroxides in SOFC operating conditions, and the formation of impurity phases can be effectively avoided at co-firing temperatures. In addition, calcium-doped yttrium chromite exhibits higher mechanical strength than lanthanum chromite-based materials. The major drawback of yttrium chromite is considered to be its lower electrical conductivity than lanthanum chromite. The properties of yttrium chromites could possibly be improved and optimized by partial substitution of chromium with various transition metals. During FY10, PNNL investigated the effect of various transition metal doping on chemical stability, sintering and thermal expansion behavior, microstructure, electronic and ionic conductivity, and chemical compatibility with other cell components to develop the optimized ceramic interconnect material.

  10. Repairable chip bonding/interconnect process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernhardt, A.F.; Contolini, R.J.; Malba, V.; Riddle, R.A.

    1997-08-05

    A repairable, chip-to-board interconnect process which addresses cost and testability issues in the multi-chip modules is disclosed. This process can be carried out using a chip-on-sacrificial-substrate technique, involving laser processing. This process avoids the curing/solvent evolution problems encountered in prior approaches, as well is resolving prior plating problems and the requirements for fillets. For repairable high speed chip-to-board connection, transmission lines can be formed on the sides of the chip from chip bond pads, ending in a gull wing at the bottom of the chip for subsequent solder. 10 figs.

  11. Redding Direct Interconnection Project, Shasta County, California:

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    As required under the California Environemtnal Quality Act (CEQA), the City of Redding (City) has prepared an Environmental Impact report (EIR) for the proposed Direct interconnection Project. Western Area Power Administration (Western) is also required to prepare an environmental assessment (EA) under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) due to its involvement in the Project. Since the City has alrady prepared their EIR, this EA will briefly summarize the impact assessment field work and findings from the City's EIR. The EIR is attached as an appendix to this EA. 21 refs., 20 figs., 10 tabs.

  12. Updating Interconnection Screens for PV System Integration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coddington, M.; Mather, B.; Kroposki, B.; Lynn, K.; Razon, A.; Ellis, A.; Hill, R.; Key, T.; Nicole, K.; Smith, J.

    2012-02-01

    This white paper evaluates the origins and usefulness of the capacity penetration screen, offer short-term solutions which could effectively allow fast-track interconnection to many PV system applications, and considers longer-term solutions for increasing PV deployment levels in a safe and reliable manner while reducing or eliminating the emphasis on the penetration screen. Short-term and longer-term alternatives approaches are offered as examples; however, specific modifications to screening procedures should be discussed with stakeholders and must ultimately be adopted by state and federal regulatory bodies.

  13. Repairable chip bonding/interconnect process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernhardt, Anthony F.; Contolini, Robert J.; Malba, Vincent; Riddle, Robert A.

    1997-01-01

    A repairable, chip-to-board interconnect process which addresses cost and testability issues in the multi-chip modules. This process can be carried out using a chip-on-sacrificial-substrate technique, involving laser processing. This process avoids the curing/solvent evolution problems encountered in prior approaches, as well is resolving prior plating problems and the requirements for fillets. For repairable high speed chip-to-board connection, transmission lines can be formed on the sides of the chip from chip bond pads, ending in a gull wing at the bottom of the chip for subsequent solder.

  14. Environmental Regulation Impacts on Eastern Interconnection Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markham, Penn N; Liu, Yilu; Young II, Marcus Aaron

    2013-07-01

    In the United States, recent environmental regulations will likely result in the removal of nearly 30 GW of oil and coal-fired generation from the power grid, mostly in the Eastern Interconnection (EI). The effects of this transition on voltage stability and transmission line flows have previously not been studied from a system-wide perspective. This report discusses the results of power flow studies designed to simulate the evolution of the EI over the next few years as traditional generation sources are replaced with environmentally friendlier ones such as natural gas and wind.

  15. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, John P.; Liu, Shu; Ibanez, Eduardo; Pennock, Ken; Reed, Greg; Hanes, Spencer

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States. A total of 54GW of offshore wind was assumed to be the target for the analyses conducted. A variety of issues are considered including: the anticipated staging of offshore wind; the offshore wind resource availability; offshore wind energy power production profiles; offshore wind variability; present and potential technologies for collection and delivery of offshore wind energy to the onshore grid; potential impacts to existing utility systems most likely to receive large amounts of offshore wind; and regulatory influences on offshore wind development. The technologies considered the reliability of various high-voltage ac (HVAC) and high-voltage dc (HVDC) technology options and configurations. The utility system impacts of GW-scale integration of offshore wind are considered from an operational steady-state perspective and from a regional and national production cost perspective.

  16. Method of doping interconnections for electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pal, Uday B.; Singhal, Subhash C.; Moon, David M.; Folser, George R.

    1990-01-01

    A dense, electronically conductive interconnection layer 26 is bonded on a porous, tubular, electronically conductive air electrode structure 16, optionally supported by a ceramic support 22, by (A) forming a layer of oxide particles of at least one of the metals Ca, Sr, Co, Ba or Mg on a part 24 of a first surface of the air electrode 16, (B) heating the electrode structure, (C) applying a halide vapor containing at least lanthanum halide and chromium halide to the first surface and applying a source of oxygen to a second opposite surface of the air electrode so that they contact at said first surface, to cause a reaction of the oxygen and halide and cause a dense lanthanum-chromium oxide structure to grow, from the first electrode surface, between and around the oxide particles, where the metal oxide particles get incoporated into the lanthanum-chromium oxide structure as it grows thicker with time, and the metal ions in the oxide particles diffuse into the bulk of the lanthamum-chromium oxide structure, to provide a dense, top, interconnection layer 26 on top of the air electrode 16. A solid electrolyte layer 18 can be applied to the uncovered portion of the air electrode, and a fuel electrode 20 can be applied to the solid electrolyte, to provide an electrochemical cell 10.

  17. New Report Characterizes Existing Offshore Wind Grid Interconnection

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Capabilities | Department of Energy Characterizes Existing Offshore Wind Grid Interconnection Capabilities New Report Characterizes Existing Offshore Wind Grid Interconnection Capabilities September 3, 2014 - 10:49am Addthis The Energy Department today released the first National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS). The NOWEGIS investigated the key economic and technological factors that will influence the integration of offshore wind energy onto the national grid.

  18. Current Solutions: Recent Experience in Interconnecting Distributed Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, M.

    2003-09-01

    This report catalogues selected real-world technical experiences of utilities and customers that have interconnected distributed energy assets with the electric grid. This study was initiated to assess the actual technical practices for interconnecting distributed generation and had a particular focus on the technical issues covered under the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 1547(TM) Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Resources With Electric Power Systems.

  19. Enhanced Modeling and Monitoring Tools for Distributed PV Interconnection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enhanced Modeling and Monitoring Tools for Distributed PV Interconnection Page 1 of 27 Kristen Ardani, Rick Thompson, Mark Rawson, David Pinney Page 1 of 27 [Speaker: Kristen Ardani] Cover Slide: Thank you everyone for joining us today for the DG Interconnection Collaborative's informational webinar. The focus of today's presentation will be on enhanced modeling and monitoring tools for distributed PV interconnection. We have a guest speaker from Green Tech Media (GTM) today, Rick Thompson. So

  20. Motion to Intervene and Initial Comments of PJM Interconnection...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    electric transmission facilities at the Bunce Creek station that interconnect ITC with Hydro One Networks Inc electric transmission facilities at the Michigan-Ontario border. ...

  1. South West Interconnected System SWIS | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: South West Interconnected System (SWIS) Place: Perth, Western Australia, Australia Zip: 6000 Product: Utility serving South West Australia, a subsidiary of...

  2. Microgrid V2G Charging Station Interconnection Testing (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, M.

    2013-07-01

    This presentation by Mike Simpson of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) describes NREL's microgrid vehicle-to-grid charging station interconnection testing.

  3. Improving Data Transparency for the Distributed PV Interconnection...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... - 06May15 - v11.pptx 21 Privileged and Confidential Work Product - Limited Distribution ... Borrego Solar Systems, Inc. Private & Confidential MA Interconnection Performance ...

  4. Response from PJM Interconnection LLC and Pepco to Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Need for Potomac River Station Generation Response from PJM Interconnection LLC and Pepco to Department of Energy Request for Information Concerning the Potential Need for ...

  5. EA-2018: Front Range-Midway Solar Interconnection Project; El...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Western Area Power Administration is preparing an EA that analyzes the potential environmental impacts of interconnecting a proposed photovoltaic solar facility adjacent to ...

  6. Pepco and PJM Interconnection Comments on District of Columbia...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    on February 17, 2006. Potomac Electric Power Company and PJM Interconnection, L.L.C. ... Director of the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality in the captioned proceeding . ...

  7. Community Wind Handbook/Research Interconnecting behind Your...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    your local utility. Most utilities and other electricity providers require you to enter into a formal agreement with them before you are allowed to interconnect your wind...

  8. Optical system properties of a reconfigurable MEMS interconnect...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    system properties of a reconfigurable MEMS interconnect. Citation Details In-Document ... Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 42 ...

  9. Title 16 USC 824a Interconnection and Coordination of Facilities...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    a Interconnection and Coordination of Facilities, Emergencies, Transmission to Foreign Countries Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document-...

  10. EA-1989: Cliffrose Solar Energy Interconnection Project, Mohave...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    the potential environmental impacts of interconnecting the proposed Cliffrose Solar Energy Project in Mohave County, Arizona, to Western's transmission system at the existing...

  11. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers: Interconnection Standards Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2003-10-01

    Summarizes the work of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 1547 Working Group to develop a set of standards to guide the interconnection of distributed generation.

  12. Energy and Water in the Western and Texas Interconnects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in the Western and Texas Interconnects - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future ...

  13. Power System Generation and Inter-Connection Planning Model ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Generation and Inter-Connection Planning Model (SUPER) AgencyCompany Organization: Latin American Energy Organization Sector: Energy Focus Area: Renewable Energy, Hydro...

  14. Virtual interconnection platform initiative scoping study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yong; Kou, Gefei; Pan, Zuohong; Liu, Yilu; King Jr., Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Due to security and liability concerns, the research community has limited access to realistic large-scale power grid models to test and validate new operation and control methodologies. It is also difficult for industry to evaluate the relative value of competing new tools without a common platform for comparison. This report proposes to develop a large-scale virtual power grid model that retains basic features and represents future trends of major U.S. electric interconnections. This model will include realistic power flow and dynamics information as well as a relevant geospatial distribution of assets. This model will be made widely available to the research community for various power system stability and control studies and can be used as a common platform for comparing the efficacies of various new technologies.

  15. SAS Output

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    A. U.S. Transmission Circuit Outages by Type and NERC region, 2013 Outage Type FRCC MRO NPCC RFC SERC SPP TRE WECC Contiguous U.S. Circuit Outage Counts Automatic Outages...

  16. Solar panel with interconnects and masking structure, and method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaddy, E.M.; Dominguez, R.

    1991-04-30

    This patent describes a solar panel. It includes: solar cells having radiation absorbing surface and opposed back surfaces; conducting means for interconnecting the solar cells; a transparent superstrate upon one surface of which radiation absorbing surfaces are mounted; and means upon a surface of the transparent superstrate for masking the interconnecting means.

  17. Updating Small Generator Interconnection Procedures for New Market Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coddington, M.; Fox, K.; Stanfield, S.; Varnado, L.; Culley, T.; Sheehan, M.

    2012-12-01

    Federal and state regulators are faced with the challenge of keeping interconnection procedures updated against a backdrop of evolving technology, new codes and standards, and considerably transformed market conditions. This report is intended to educate policymakers and stakeholders on beneficial reforms that will keep interconnection processes efficient and cost-effective while maintaining a safe and reliable power system.

  18. Solid-state energy storage module employing integrated interconnect board

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouillard, Jean; Comte, Christophe; Daigle, Dominik; Hagen, Ronald A.; Knudson, Orlin B.; Morin, Andre; Ranger, Michel; Ross, Guy; Rouillard, Roger; St-Germain, Philippe; Sudano, Anthony; Turgeon, Thomas A.

    2003-11-04

    The present invention is directed to an improved electrochemical energy storage device. The electrochemical energy storage device includes a number of solid-state, thin-film electrochemical cells which are selectively interconnected in series or parallel through use of an integrated interconnect board. The interconnect board is typically disposed within a sealed housing which also houses the electrochemical cells, and includes a first contact and a second contact respectively coupled to first and second power terminals of the energy storage device. The interconnect board advantageously provides for selective series or parallel connectivity with the electrochemical cells, irrespective of electrochemical cell position within the housing. Fuses and various electrical and electromechanical devices, such as bypass, equalization, and communication devices for example, may also be mounted to the interconnect board and selectively connected to the electrochemical cells.

  19. Solid-state energy storage module employing integrated interconnect board

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouillard, Jean; Comte, Christophe; Daigle, Dominik; Hagen, Ronald A.; Knudson, Orlin B.; Morin, Andre; Ranger, Michel; Ross, Guy; Rouillard, Roger; St-Germain, Philippe; Sudano, Anthony; Turgeon, Thomas A.

    2004-09-28

    An electrochemical energy storage device includes a number of solid-state thin-film electrochemical cells which are selectively interconnected in series or parallel through use of an integrated interconnect board. The interconnect board is typically disposed within a sealed housing which also houses the electrochemical cells, and includes a first contact and a second contact respectively coupled to first and second power terminals of the energy storage device. The interconnect board advantageously provides for selective series or parallel connectivity with the electrochemical cells, irrespective of electrochemical cell position within the housing. Fuses and various electrical and electro-mechanical devices, such as bypass, equalization, and communication devices for example, may also be mounted to the interconnect board and selectively connected to the electrochemical cells.

  20. Fuel cell electrode interconnect contact material encapsulation and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derose, Anthony J.; Haltiner, Jr., Karl J.; Gudyka, Russell A.; Bonadies, Joseph V.; Silvis, Thomas W.

    2016-05-31

    A fuel cell stack includes a plurality of fuel cell cassettes each including a fuel cell with an anode and a cathode. Each fuel cell cassette also includes an electrode interconnect adjacent to the anode or the cathode for providing electrical communication between an adjacent fuel cell cassette and the anode or the cathode. The interconnect includes a plurality of electrode interconnect protrusions defining a flow passage along the anode or the cathode for communicating oxidant or fuel to the anode or the cathode. An electrically conductive material is disposed between at least one of the electrode interconnect protrusions and the anode or the cathode in order to provide a stable electrical contact between the electrode interconnect and the anode or cathode. An encapsulating arrangement segregates the electrically conductive material from the flow passage thereby, preventing volatilization of the electrically conductive material in use of the fuel cell stack.

  1. Electricity Advisory Committee Meeting Presentations October 2011 -

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Processes | Department of Energy Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Processes Electricity Advisory Committee Meeting Presentations October 2011 - Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Processes Panel Discussion on Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Processes Interconnection-Wide Planning in the Eastern Interconnection - David Whiteley, Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative WECC Regional Transmission Expansion Planning

  2. U.S. Geothermal Signs Interconnection Agreement for Neal Hot...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Project Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: U.S. Geothermal Signs Interconnection Agreement for Neal Hot Springs Power Project Abstract...

  3. Utility-Interconnected Photovoltaic Systems STEVENS III,JOHN...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    STEVENS III,JOHN W.; BONN,RUSSELL H.; GINN,JERRY W.; GONZALEZ,SIGIFREDO; KERN,GREG 14 SOLAR ENERGY; 24 POWER TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION; INTERCONNECTED POWER SYSTEMS;...

  4. Physics of Failure of Electrical Interconnects | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation ape036_devoto_2011_p.pdf (402.27 KB) More Documents & Publications Physics of Failure of Electrical Interconnects Reliability

  5. Fan-In Communications On A Cray Gemini Interconnect (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Using the Cray Gemini interconnect as our platform, we present a study of an important class of communication operations the fan-in communication pattern. By its nature, fan-in ...

  6. Interconnecting PV on New York City's Secondary Network Distribution System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, K.; Coddington, M.; Burman, K.; Hayter, S.; Kroposki, B.; Watson, A.

    2009-12-01

    This study describes technical assistance provided by NREL to help New York City and Con Edison improve the interconnection of distributed PV systems on a secondary network distribution system.

  7. Topic B Awardee: Eastern Interconnection States' Planning Council

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Eastern Interconnection States' Planning Council (EISPC) is an historic endeavor initially funded by an award from the United States Department of Energy (DOE) pursuant to a provision of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA).

  8. Interconnecting PV on NYC's Secondary Network Distribution System

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    To assess ways to improve the interconnection process, NREL conducted a four-part study with support from DOE. The NREL team then compiled the final reports from each study into this report.

  9. Advanced Unit Commitment Strategies in the United States Eastern Interconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meibom, P.; Larsen, H. V.; Barth, R.; Brand, H.; Tuohy, A.; Ela, E.

    2011-08-01

    This project sought to evaluate the impacts of high wind penetrations on the U.S. Eastern Interconnection and analyze how different unit commitment strategies may affect these impacts.

  10. FERC Order No. 2003 Appendix 6 - Large Generator Interconnection...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    FERC Order No. 2003 Appendix 6 - Large Generator Interconnection Agreement Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Form: FERC Order No. 2003 Appendix 6 -...

  11. Distributed PV Interconnection Screening Procedures and Online Tools

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Screening Procedures and Online Tools Page 1 of 9 Kristen Ardani, Joel Dickinson, Max Berger, David Crowell, Jeff Dickinson, Kelly Webster Page 1 of 9 [Speaker: Kristen Ardani] Cover Slide: Thank you everyone for joining us today for the DG Interconnection Collaborative. My name is Kristen Ardani,I'm an analyst here at NREL and the lead facilitator of the DGIC. We are fortunate today to have speakers Joel Dickinson of Salt River Project. We are going to discuss distributed PV interconnection

  12. Distributed PV Interconnection Screening Procedures and Online Tools

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Distributed PV Interconnection Screening Procedures and Online Tools" Joel Dickinson with Salt River Project Solar Initiatives Group August 27, 2014 2 Speakers Joel Dickinson Sr. Engineer Salt River Project Kristen Ardani Solar Analyst National Renewable Energy Laboratory (DGIC moderator) August 27th, 2014 Joel Dickinson, P.E. Sr. Engineer Solar Initiatives Distributed PV Interconnection Screening and Online Tools Salt River Project  Established in 1903 after Theodore Roosevelt signed

  13. Developing Generic Dynamic Models for the 2030 Eastern Interconnection Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kou, Gefei; Hadley, Stanton W; Markham, Penn N; Liu, Yilu

    2013-12-01

    The Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) has built three major power flow cases for the 2030 Eastern Interconnection (EI) based on various levels of energy/environmental policy conditions, technology advances, and load growth. Using the power flow cases, this report documents the process of developing the generic 2030 dynamic models using typical dynamic parameters. The constructed model was validated indirectly using the synchronized phasor measurements by removing the wind generation temporarily.

  14. EA-1990: Ridgenose Solar Energy Interconnection Facility, Mohave County, Arizona

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE’s Western Area Power Administration (Desert Southwest Region) is preparing an EA that will assess the potential environmental impacts of a proposal to interconnect the planned Ridgenose Solar Energy Project to Western’s transmission system. Western’s actions could include constructing less than a mile of new transmission line from the solar facility to an existing substation, constructing an interconnection substation, and adding, moving, or modifying structures.

  15. CHP: Connecting the Gap between Markets and Utility Interconnection and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tariff Practices, 2006 | Department of Energy Connecting the Gap between Markets and Utility Interconnection and Tariff Practices, 2006 CHP: Connecting the Gap between Markets and Utility Interconnection and Tariff Practices, 2006 The adoption of combined heat and power (CHP) systems by American industries has made substantial strides in the last few years. The purpose of this report is threefold: one, to expose still existent barriers to entry for proposed CHP facilities; secondarily, to

  16. Solid-state energy storage module employing integrated interconnect board

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouillard, Jean; Comte, Christophe; Daigle, Dominik; Hagen, Ronald A.; Knudson, Orlin B.; Morin, Andre; Ranger, Michel; Ross, Guy; Rouillard, Roger; St-Germain, Philippe; Sudano, Anthony; Turgeon, Thomas A.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an improved electrochemical energy storage device. The electrochemical energy storage device includes a number of solid-state, thin-film electrochemical cells which are selectively interconnected in series or parallel through use of an integrated interconnect board. The interconnect board is typically disposed within a sealed housing which also houses the electrochemical cells, and includes a first contact and a second contact respectively coupled to first and second power terminals of the energy storage device. The interconnect board advantageously provides for selective series or parallel connectivity with the electrochemical cells, irrespective of electrochemical cell position within the housing. In one embodiment, a sheet of conductive material is processed by employing a known milling, stamping, or chemical etching technique to include a connection pattern which provides for flexible and selective interconnecting of individual electrochemical cells within the housing, which may be a hermetically sealed housing. Fuses and various electrical and electro-mechanical devices, such as bypass, equalization, and communication devices for example, may also be mounted to the interconnect board and selectively connected to the electrochemical cells.

  17. Electronic interconnects and devices with topological surface states and methods for fabricating same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yazdani, Ali; Ong, N. Phuan; Cava, Robert J.

    2016-05-03

    An interconnect is disclosed with enhanced immunity of electrical conductivity to defects. The interconnect includes a material with charge carriers having topological surface states. Also disclosed is a method for fabricating such interconnects. Also disclosed is an integrated circuit including such interconnects. Also disclosed is a gated electronic device including a material with charge carriers having topological surface states.

  18. U.S. Army Fort Carson Interconnection Agreement | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Interconnection Agreement U.S. Army Fort Carson Interconnection Agreement Document describes a sample interconnection agreement for the U.S. Army Fort Carson photovoltaic (PV) project financed through a power purchase agreement (PPA). Download the U.S. Army Fort Carson interconnection agreement. (1.77 MB) More Documents & Publications U.S. Army Fort Carson Interconnection Agreement Fort Carson Photovoltaic System U.S. Army Fort Carson Environmental Document GovEnergy 2008 Session

  19. Secondary Network Distribution Systems Background and Issues Related to the Interconnection of Distributed Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Behnke, M.; Erdman, W.; Horgan, S.; Dawson, D.; Feero, W.; Soudi, F.; Smith, D.; Whitaker, C.; Kroposki, B.

    2005-07-01

    This document addresses the technical considerations associated with the interconnection of distributed resources (DR) with secondary network distribution systems. It provides an overview of the characteristics of distribution systems and interconnection requirements and identifies unique issues specific to network interconnections. It also identifies the network-specific interconnection issues for which test protocols should be developed. Recommended criteria and requirements for the interconnection of DR with network distribution systems are presented.

  20. Net Metering and Interconnection Procedures-- Incorporating Best Practices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jason Keyes, Kevin Fox, Joseph Wiedman, Staff at North Carolina Solar Center

    2009-04-01

    State utility commissions and utilities themselves are actively developing and revising their procedures for the interconnection and net metering of distributed generation. However, the procedures most often used by regulators and utilities as models have not been updated in the past three years, in which time most of the distributed solar facilities in the United States have been installed. In that period, the Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC) has been a participant in more than thirty state utility commission rulemakings regarding interconnection and net metering of distributed generation. With the knowledge gained from this experience, IREC has updated its model procedures to incorporate current best practices. This paper presents the most significant changes made to IREC’s model interconnection and net metering procedures.

  1. Advancements in Distributed Generation Issues: Interconnection, Modeling, and Tariffs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, H.; Kroposki, B.; Basso, T.; Treanton, B. G.

    2007-01-01

    The California Energy Commission is cost-sharing research with the Department of Energy through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to address distributed energy resources (DER) topics. These efforts include developing interconnection and power management technologies, modeling the impacts of interconnecting DER with an area electric power system, and evaluating possible modifications to rate policies and tariffs. As a result, a DER interconnection device has been developed and tested. A workshop reviewed the status and issues of advanced power electronic devices. Software simulations used validated models of distribution circuits that incorporated DER, and tests and measurements of actual circuits with and without DER systems are being conducted to validate these models. Current policies affecting DER were reviewed and rate making policies to support deployment of DER through public utility rates and policies were identified. These advancements are expected to support the continued and expanded use of DER systems.

  2. Pepco and PJM Interconnection Comments on District of Columbia Public

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Service Commission, Docket No. EO-05-01 Comments and Answer to Requests for Rehearing | Department of Energy Pepco and PJM Interconnection Comments on District of Columbia Public Service Commission, Docket No. EO-05-01 Comments and Answer to Requests for Rehearing Pepco and PJM Interconnection Comments on District of Columbia Public Service Commission, Docket No. EO-05-01 Comments and Answer to Requests for Rehearing Docket No. EO-05-01: In accordance with Order No. 202-06-1, issued by the

  3. Spintronic switches for ultra low energy global interconnects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharad, Mrigank Roy, Kaushik

    2014-05-07

    We present ultra-low energy interconnect design using nano-scale spin-torque (ST) switches for global data-links. Emerging spin-torque phenomena can lead to ultra-low-voltage, high-speed current-mode magnetic-switches. ST-switches can simultaneously provide large trans-impedance gain by employing magnetic tunnel junctions, to convert current-mode signals into large-swing voltage levels. Such device-characteristics can be used in the design of energy-efficient current-mode global interconnects.

  4. IEEE 1547 Series of Standards: Interconnection Issues; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basso, T.; DeBlasio, R.

    2003-09-01

    IEEE 1547TM 2003 Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Resources With Electric Power Systems is the first in the 1547 series of planned interconnection standards. Major issues and a wealth of constructive dialogue arose during 1547 development. There was also a perceived increased vitality in updating complementary IEEE standards and developing additional standards to accommodate modern electrical and electronics systems and improved grid communications and operations. Power engineers and other stakeholders looking to the future are poised to incorporate 1547 into their knowledge base to help transform our nation's aging distribution systems while alleviating some of the burden on existing transmission systems.

  5. Solar Energy to Benefit from New FERC Interconnection Procedures

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As a major win for solar and testament to the impact of Department of Energys SunShot Initiative funded research at the national labs, this past month Federal Energy Regulatory Commission announced the adoption of new fast track rules to make the interconnection process dramatically cheaper and faster for small wholesale energy projects, representing a major improvement with nationwide impacts.

  6. Hermetic aluminum radio frequency interconnection and method for making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kilgo, Riley D.; Kovacic, Larry; Brow, Richard K.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a light-weight, hermetic coaxial radio-frequency (RF) interconnection having an electrically conductive outer housing made of aluminum or an aluminum alloy, a central electrical conductor made of ferrous or non-ferrous material, and a cylinder of dielectric material comprising a low-melting-temperature, high-thermal-expansion aluminophosphate glass composition for hermetically sealing between the aluminum-alloy outer housing and the ferrous or non-ferrous center conductor. The entire RF interconnection assembly is made permanently hermetic by thermally fusing the center conductor, glass, and housing concurrently by bringing the glass to the melt point by way of exposure to an atmospheric temperature sufficient to melt the glass, less than 540.degree. C., but that does not melt the center conductor or the outer aluminum or aluminum alloy housing. The composition of the glass used is controlled to provide a suitable low dielectric constant so that an appropriate electrical characteristic impedance, for example 50 ohms, can be achieved for an electrical interconnection that performs well at high radio frequencies and also provides an interconnection maintaining a relatively small physical size.

  7. On the Path to SunShot- Interconnection Process

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In the On the Path to SunShot report series, the Emerging Issues and Challenges with Integrating High Levels of Solar into the Distribution System report highlights improvements needed to current solar interconnection processes, associated standards and codes, and compensation mechanisms. This work is critical to facilitating distributed PV deployment so they embrace PV’s contributions to system-wide operations.

  8. Interconnection economics of small power systems -- A case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bloethe, W.G.; Thakar, H.C. [Sargent and Lundy, Chicago, IL (United States); Kim, L.C. [Sarawak Electricity Supply Corp., Kuching (Malaysia); Samin, S. [PT PLN Persero, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    1996-11-01

    The advantages of interconnecting large electric power systems has been almost universally accepted in those parts of North America that are not geographically isolated. However, interconnecting power systems can result in significant economic advantages, even in those parts of the world where power systems are small and widely separated. This paper examines two small, isolated power systems on the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia. The Malaysian State of Srawak lies on the north coast of Borneo. With an area of 123,156 square km (47,555 square mi.) and population of 1.7 million, it is the largest, but most sparsely populated, state in the Federation of Malaysia. Its neighbor to the south is the Indonesian Province of West Kalimantan. A study examining the feasibility of interconnecting these two power systems was undertaken in 1994 as a part of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) initiative to interconnect the power systems in the region. The ASEAN region is characterized by rapidly growing economies and rapid load growth.

  9. EA-1989: Cliffrose Solar Energy Interconnection Project, Mohave County, Arizona

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE’s Western Area Power Administration (Western) is preparing an EA that will assess the potential environmental impacts of interconnecting the proposed Cliffrose Solar Energy Project in Mohave County, Arizona, to Western’s transmission system at the existing Griffith Substation. Additional information is available at http://www.wapa.gov/dsw/environment/CliffroseSolarEnergyProject.html.

  10. File:08-CA-b - CAISO Interconnection Request Process.pdf | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    8-CA-b - CAISO Interconnection Request Process.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Metadata File:08-CA-b - CAISO Interconnection Request Process.pdf Size...