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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection tre wecc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

TRE | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

TRE TRE Dataset Summary Description Datasets are for the US electricity grid system interconnect regions (ASCC, FRCC, HICC, MRO, NPCC, RFC, SERC, SPP, TRE, WECC) for 2008. The data is provided in life cycle inventory (LCI) forms (both xls and xml). A module report and a detailed spreadsheet are also included. Source US Life Cycle Inventory Database Date Released May 01st, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords ASCC FRCC HICC interconnect region LCI life cycle inventory MRO NPCC RFC SERC SPP TRE unit process US utilities WECC Data application/zip icon interconnect_lci_datasets_2008.zip (zip, 6.3 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period License License Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and Licence (PDDL)

2

interconnect region | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

interconnect region interconnect region Dataset Summary Description Datasets are for the US electricity grid system interconnect regions (ASCC, FRCC, HICC, MRO, NPCC, RFC, SERC, SPP, TRE, WECC) for 2008. The data is provided in life cycle inventory (LCI) forms (both xls and xml). A module report and a detailed spreadsheet are also included. Source US Life Cycle Inventory Database Date Released May 01st, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords ASCC FRCC HICC interconnect region LCI life cycle inventory MRO NPCC RFC SERC SPP TRE unit process US utilities WECC Data application/zip icon interconnect_lci_datasets_2008.zip (zip, 6.3 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period License License Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and Licence (PDDL)

3

WECC | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

WECC WECC Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is table 91, and contains only the reference case. The data is broken down into electric power sector, cumulative planned additions,cumulative unplanned additions,cumulative retirements, end-use sector, electricity sales, net energy for load, generation by fuel type and price by service category. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords 2011 AEO EIA Electric Power projections Southwest WECC Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: Electric Power Projections for EMM Region - Western Electricity Coordinating Council / Southwest- Reference Case (xls, 259.1 KiB)

4

WECC 10-Year Plan general presentation  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Bradley Nickell Bradley Nickell Director of Transmission Planning Regional Transmission Expansion Planning (RTEP) DOE EAC Meeting October 20, 2011 2 Regional Transmission Expansion Planning What have we been asked to do? Regional Transmission Expansion Planning (RTEP) Expand the breadth and depth of WECC's existing regional transmission planning processes. * Expand stakeholder participation * Increase the understanding of the connection between reliability, cost, and environment * Produce credible, publically available data and models 3 RTEP Organizational Funding Diagram VGS Integration Topic B WGA WIRAB/CREPC Public Policy $12.0M WREZ Phases 3 & 4 National Labs Request for Technical Assistance/Coordination Topic A WECC/TEPPC Interconnection-wide Planning $14.5M Columbia

5

USLCI Interconnect Region Electricity datasets, 2008 | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

76 76 Varnish cache server Browse Upload data GDR 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load) Throttled (bot load) Guru Meditation: XID: 2142278976 Varnish cache server USLCI Interconnect Region Electricity datasets, 2008 Dataset Summary Description Datasets are for the US electricity grid system interconnect regions (ASCC, FRCC, HICC, MRO, NPCC, RFC, SERC, SPP, TRE, WECC) for 2008. The data is provided in life cycle inventory (LCI) forms (both xls and xml). A module report and a detailed spreadsheet are also included.Datasets include generation and transmission of electricity for each of the interconnect regions. It is representative of the year 2008 mix of fuels used for utility generations for each of the interconnect regions and is based on the EIA electricity reports for all power plants in the US. Detailed information on the methodology is included in the module report and detailed spreadsheet.

6

Energy-water analysis of the 10-year WECC transmission planning study cases.  

SciTech Connect

In 2011 the Department of Energy's Office of Electricity embarked on a comprehensive program to assist our Nation's three primary electric interconnections with long term transmission planning. Given the growing concern over water resources in the western U.S. the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) requested assistance with integrating water resource considerations into their broader electric transmission planning. The result is a project with three overarching objectives: (1) Develop an integrated Energy-Water Decision Support System (DSS) that will enable planners in the Western Interconnection to analyze the potential implications of water stress for transmission and resource planning. (2) Pursue the formulation and development of the Energy-Water DSS through a strongly collaborative process between the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC), Western Governors Association (WGA), the Western States Water Council (WSWC) and their associated stakeholder teams. (3) Exercise the Energy-Water DSS to investigate water stress implications of the transmission planning scenarios put forward by WECC, WGA, and WSWC. The foundation for the Energy-Water DSS is Sandia National Laboratories Energy-Power-Water Simulation (EPWSim) model (Tidwell et al. 2009). The modeling framework targets the shared needs of energy and water producers, resource managers, regulators, and decision makers at the federal, state and local levels. This framework provides an interactive environment to explore trade-offs, and 'best' alternatives among a broad list of energy/water options and objectives. The decision support framework is formulated in a modular architecture, facilitating tailored analyses over different geographical regions and scales (e.g., state, county, watershed, interconnection). An interactive interface allows direct control of the model and access to real-time results displayed as charts, graphs and maps. The framework currently supports modules for calculating water withdrawal and consumption for current and planned electric power generation; projected water demand from competing use sectors; and, surface and groundwater availability. WECC's long range planning is organized according to two target planning horizons, a 10-year and a 20-year. This study supports WECC in the 10-year planning endeavor. In this case the water implications associated with four of WECC's alternative future study cases (described below) are calculated and reported. In future phases of planning we will work with WECC to craft study cases that aim to reduce the thermoelectric footprint of the interconnection and/or limit production in the most water stressed regions of the West.

Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Passell, Howard David; Castillo, Cesar; Moreland, Barbara

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Property:EIA/861/NercWecc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

NercWecc NercWecc Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type Boolean. Description: Nerc Wecc Entity conducts business operations within the WECC region (Y or N) [1] References ↑ EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2008 - F861 File Layout-2008.doc Pages using the property "EIA/861/NercWecc" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) 3 3 Phases Energy Services + true + A Aguila Irrigation District + true + Ajo Improvement Co + true + Ak-Chin Electric Utility Authority + true + Alamo Power District No 3 + true + Alder Mutual Light Co, Inc + true + Arizona Electric Pwr Coop Inc + true + Arizona Power Authority + true + Arizona Public Service Co + true + Arkansas River Power Authority + true + Avista Corp + true + Avista Turbine Power, Inc + true +

8

National Electric Transmission Study 2006 Western Interconnection Analysis  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Western Interconnection Western Interconnection 2006 Congestion Assessment Study Prepared by the Western Congestion Analysis Task Force May 08, 2006 2 Western Interconnection 2006 Congestion Study - DOE Task 3 - 1. 2008 Modeling Study 2. 2015 Modeling Study - 2015 Planned Resource Development (IRPs and RPS) 3. W.I. Historical Path Usage Studies - 1999 thru 2005 - Physical congestion - Commercial congestion 3 WCATF Modeling Studies ABB Gridview Model * Model uses WECC 2005 L&R load forecast, modified with NPCC data for the NW, RMATS load forecasts for the Rocky Mtn area and the latest CEC load forecast for California * Hourly load shapes were developed using FERC 714 * Incremental transmission was added to a WECC 2008 case to represent 2015 network topology * WECC path ratings were used, modified as necessary to more closely

9

10 Year Transmission Plan for the Western Electricity Interconnection  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

10 Year Transmission Plan for the Western Electricity 10 Year Transmission Plan for the Western Electricity Interconnection Released 10 Year Transmission Plan for the Western Electricity Interconnection Released October 3, 2011 - 8:11am Addthis Western Electricity Coordinating Council releases its first-ever transmission plan for the Western Interconnection. The Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) announced the release of its first 10-Year Regional Transmission Plan (Plan) for the Western Interconnection. The Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability awarded WECC a $14.5 million grant under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to expand on its transmission planning activities. Looking ahead to 2020, the Plan focuses on how to meet the Western Interconnection's transmission requirements, including transmission

10

Interconnection Panel  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presentationgiven at at the Fall 2012 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meetingdiscusses the interconnection panel, including an overview of the generation interconnection process (GIP), and interconnection agreements and their terms.

11

Interconnection Panel  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Panel Dan Tunnicliff, P.E. Manager, Government Segment, Southern California Edison Southern California Edison Application Processing Technical Scoping Meeting Technical Studies Interconnection Agreement Project Implementation Overview of Generation Interconnection Process (GIP) * Transmission Level Interconnections - Governed by CAISO Tariff. * Generally for 220 kV and higher. * All applications must be submitted to the CAISO. * CAISO administers its tariff, which is approved by FERC. * Distribution Level Interconnections - Governed by SCE's WDAT. * Generally below 220 kV. * All applications must be submitted to SCE. * SCE administers its tariff, which is approved by FERC. 2 Southern California Edison Interconnection agreements are critically

12

Applying a robust control technique to damp low frequency oscillations in the WECC  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper demonstrates the application of a robust technique for damping low frequency oscillations in the WECC. The control is designed by extending the logic of SMA and integrating it with the LMI technique to develop a single-gain feedback controller that is capable of damping oscillations in large systems. It is an integrated form of control because it combines different controllers together so as to prevent any negative interaction between the individual controls. The proposed technique is initially applied to an equivalent model of the WECC system developed in MATLAB and then transferred to a larger and more detailed version created in PSLF. The controllers initially used for the design are the two HVDC lines and an SVC. Three \\{ESDs\\} are added to the model for the improvement of the control. The results indicate that the technique proposed in this paper provides adequate damping to the relevant modes of oscillations and that it can be easily applied to large and complex power system networks.

Anamitra Pal; James S. Thorp; Santosh S. Veda; V.A. Centeno

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Interconnect Issues  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnect Issues in NE Serge Khalife, 15 th April 2010 Agenda  About National Grid and Service territories  Scope and definitions  Interconnection Process Overview  Time Frames and Fees  Governmental Entity Exceptions  Net Metering Limit  Technical Issues  Observations and recommendations  Questions and Answers Service Territories Map Scope and definitions  The Distributed Generation Group at National Grid process interconnection applications on the distribution system typically 10 MW and under with a few exceptions.  ISO-NE process larger interconnection applications on the transmission system. Their timelines and procedures vary from National Grid's Distributed Generation process.  Governmental Entity : The Commonwealth of Massachusetts, or any

14

Interconnection Resources  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Interconnection is the technical procedures and legal requirements surrounding energy customers' ability to connect their small-scale renewable energy projects with the electricity grid. The...

15

Interconnection Standards  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

In July 2010, the Montana Public Service Commission (PSC) adopted interconnection rules, effective August 13, 2010. These rules apply to all electric utilities under the PSC's jurisdiction,...

16

Analysis of the Impact of Balancing Area Cooperation on the Operation of WECC and the Compounding Effect of Wind and Solar Generation  

SciTech Connect

It is the intent of this analysis to examine the operational benefits of increased cooperation between a large number of WECC operating regions.

Jordan, G.; Piwko, D.

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

SAS Output  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

B. U.S. Transformer Outages by Type and NERC region, 2012 Outage Type Eastern Interconnection TRE WECC Contiguous U.S. Circuit Outage Counts Automatic Outages (Sustained) 16.00 --...

18

Interconnect Issues  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Property Property Asset Management Office of General Counsel Real Property Division Richard R. Butterworth Senior Assistant General Counsel (202) 501-4436 richard.butterworth@gsa.gov The Problem: * Most agreements require indemnity clauses - usually either by tariff or by the submission of standard contracts to PSCs * Federal Government precluded from providing indemnity by: * Anti-deficiency Act - 31 U.S.C. 665(a) * Adequacy of Appropriations Act - 41 U.S.C. 11 GSA - Utility Interconnection Agreements GSA - Utility Interconnection Agreements * Exception: Utility Contracts * GAO decisions lay foundation for exception for utility contracts * Narrow exception GSA - Utility Interconnection Agreements * Application to Interconnection Agreements * Keys: Requirement for service Tariff or PSC action on contract

19

Hopper Interconnect  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Interconnect Interconnect Interconnect jaguar xt4 Hopper's "Gemini" network is connected in a 3D torus. Description Hopper's compute nodes are connected via a custom high-bandwidth, low-latency network provided by Cray. The connectivity is in the form of a "mesh" in which each node is connected to other nearby nodes like strands in a fishing net, except that the mesh extends in three dimensions. Each network node handles not only data destined for itself, but also data to be relayed to other nodes. Nodes at the "edges" of the mesh network are connected to nodes at the other edge to form a 3-D torus. The custom chips that route communication over the network are known as "Gemini" and the entire network is often referred to as the "Cray Gemini

20

Advanced Interconnect Development  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project are to develop cost-effective, optimized materials for intermediate temperature SOFC interconnect and interconnect/electrode interface applications and identify and understand degradation processes in interconnects and at their interfaces with electrodes.

Yang, Z.G.; Maupin, G.; Simner, S.; Singh, P.; Stevenson, J.; Xia, G.

2005-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection tre wecc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Learn More About Interconnections  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

North America is comprised of two major and three minor alternating current (AC) power grids or interconnections. The Eastern Interconnection reaches from Central Canada Eastward to the Atlantic...

22

Underwriters Laboratories: Streamlining Interconnection  

SciTech Connect

Summarizes Underwriters Laboratories' work under contract to DOE's Distribution and Interconnection R&D to develop a streamlined system to interconnect distributed generators with the utility grid.

Not Available

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Underwriters Laboratories: Streamlining Interconnection  

SciTech Connect

Summarizes Underwriters Laboratories' work under contract to DOE's Distribution and Interconnection R&D to develop a streamlined system to interconnect distributed generators with the utility grid.

Not Available

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Interconnection | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Interconnection Interconnection Jump to: navigation, search Interconnection standards govern the technical and procedural process by which an electric customer connects an electric-generating system to the grid. Interconnection standards specify the technical, contractual, metering, and rate rules that system owners and utilities must abide by. Standards for systems interconnected at the distribution level are typically adopted by state public utility commissions, while the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) has adopted standards for systems interconnected at the transmission level. Not all states have adopted interconnection standards, and some state’ standards apply only to investor-owned utilities, – not to municipal utilities and electric cooperatives. [1]

25

Western Interconnection Synchrophasor Project  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Project Western Interconnection Synchrophasor Project Resources & Links Demand Response Energy Efficiency Emerging Technologies Synchrophasor measurements are a type of...

26

Incorporating Energy Efficiency into Western Interconnection Transmission Planning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

WALC WAUW WECC Total SPSC High DSM Case Non- Coincident PeakCAGRs (2010-2032) WECC Reference Case SPSC High DSM CaseQuan, 2010, Incorporating DSM into the Load Forecast.

Barbose, Galen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Interconnect Issues in NE  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presentation covers interconnect issues in the Northeast and is given at the Spring 2010 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting in Providence, Rhode Island.

28

Perforation patterned electrical interconnects  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This disclosure describes systems and methods for increasing the usable surface area of electrical contacts within a device, such as a thin film solid state device, through the implementation of electrically conductive interconnects. Embodiments described herein include the use of a plurality of electrically conductive interconnects that penetrate through a top contact layer, through one or more multiple layers, and into a bottom contact layer. The plurality of conductive interconnects may form horizontal and vertical cross-sectional patterns. The use of lasers to form the plurality of electrically conductive interconnects from reflowed layer material further aids in the manufacturing process of a device.

Frey, Jonathan

2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

29

North American Electric Reliability Corporation Interconnections...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnections North American Electric Reliability Corporation Interconnections Map of the North American Electric Reliability Corporation Interconnection showing the Eastern,...

30

Solar cell array interconnects  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Electrical interconnects are disclosed for solar cells or other electronic components using a silver-silicone paste or a lead-tin (Pb-Sn) no-clean fluxless solder cream, whereby the high breakage of thin (<6 mil thick) solar cells using conventional solder interconnect is eliminated. The interconnects of this invention employs copper strips which are secured to the solar cells by a silver-silicone conductive paste which can be used at room temperature, or by a Pb-Sn solder cream which eliminates undesired residue on the active surfaces of the solar cells. Electrical testing using the interconnects of this invention has shown that no degradation of the interconnects developed under high current testing, while providing a very low contact resistance value. 4 figs.

Carey, P.G.; Thompson, J.B.; Colella, N.J.; Williams, K.A.

1995-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

31

RidgenoseSolarInterconnectionProject  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cliffrose Solar Energy Interconnection Project DOEEA-1989 Western Area Power Administration (Western) is responding to a request from Longview Solar, LLC, to interconnect their...

32

Micro-fluidic interconnect  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus for simultaneously aligning and interconnecting microfluidic ports is presented. Such interconnections are required to utilize microfluidic devices fabricated in Micro-Electromechanical-Systems (MEMS) technologies, that have multiple fluidic access ports (e.g. 100 micron diameter) within a small footprint, (e.g. 3 mm.times.6 mm). Fanout of the small ports of a microfluidic device to a larger diameter (e.g. 500 microns) facilitates packaging and interconnection of the microfluidic device to printed wiring boards, electronics packages, fluidic manifolds etc.

Okandan, Murat (Albuquerque, NM); Galambos, Paul C. (Albuquerque, NM); Benavides, Gilbert L. (Los Ranchos, NM); Hetherington, Dale L. (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

33

Reliability of Electrical Interconnects (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation discusses the status of NREL's research on the reliability of electrical interconnects.

Devoto, D.

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Interconnection Standards | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards Jump to: navigation, search Interconnection standards govern the technical and procedural process by which an electric customer connects an electric-generating system to the grid. Interconnection standards specify the technical, contractual, metering, and rate rules that system owners and utilities must abide by. Standards for systems interconnected at the distribution level are typically adopted by state public utility commissions, while the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) has adopted standards for systems interconnected at the transmission level. Not all states have adopted interconnection standards, and some states’ standards apply only to investor-owned utilities – not to municipal utilities and electric cooperatives. [1]

35

Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards < Back Eligibility Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Buying & Making Electricity Solar Wind Program Info State Nevada Program Type Interconnection Provider Public Utilities Commission of Nevada In December 2003, the Nevada Public Utilities Commission (PUC) adopted interconnection standards for customers of NV Energy (formerly Nevada Power and Sierra Pacific Power) with on-site generation up to 20 megawatts (MW) in capacity. These standards are largely consistent with IEEE 1547 standards, California's interconnection rule (California Rule 21) and the model interconnection agreement developed by the National Association of

36

Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards < Back Eligibility Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Buying & Making Electricity Water Energy Sources Solar Wind Program Info State Maine Program Type Interconnection Provider Maine Public Utilities Commission The Maine Public Utility Commission (PUC) adopted interconnection procedures in January 2010. These rules apply to all transmission and distribution utilities operating in the state and apply to all distribution generation (not just renewables). Maine's interconnection procedures, based in part on the Interstate Renewable Energy Council Inc. 2006 Model Interconnection Procedures,* identify four different tiers with

37

Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Wind Energy Sources Solar Program Info State Indiana Program Type Interconnection Provider Indiana Utility Regulatory Commission In November 2005, the Indiana Utility Regulatory Commission (IURC) approved rules governing the interconnection of distributed generation (DG). Indiana's interconnection rules require the state's investor-owned utilities to provide three levels of interconnection to customer-generators.

38

Transmission Planning Process and Opportunities for Utility-Scale Solar Engagement within the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC)  

SciTech Connect

This report is a primer for solar developers who wish to engage directly in expediting the regulatory process and removing market barriers related to policy and planning. Market barriers unrelated to technology often limit the expansion of utility-scale solar power, even in areas with exceptional resource potential. Many of these non-technical barriers have to do with policy, regulation, and planning, and hardly ever do they resolve themselves in a timely fashion. In most cases, pre-emptive intervention by interested stakeholders is the easiest way to remove/address such barriers, but it requires knowing how to navigate the institutional waters of the relevant agencies and boards. This report is a primer for solar developers who wish to engage directly in expediting the regulatory process and removing market barriers related to policy and planning. It focuses on the Western Interconnection (WI), primarily because the quality of solar resources in the Southwest makes utility-scale concentrating solar power (CSP) and photovoltaics (PV) economically feasible, and because the relevant institutions have evolved in a way that has opened up opportunities for removing non-technical market barriers. Developers will find in this report a high-level field manual to identify the venues for mitigating and possibly eliminating systemic market obstacles and ensuring that the economic playing field is reasonably level. Project-specific issues such as siting for transmission and generation resources are beyond the scope of this report. Instead, the aim is to examine issues that pervasively affect all utility-scale PV and CSP in the region regardless of where the project may be. While the focus is on the WI, many of the institutions described here also have their counterparts in the Eastern and the Texas interconnections. Specifically, this report suggests a number of critical engagement points relating to generation and transmission planning.

Hein, J.; Hurlbut, D.; Milligan, M.; Coles, L.; Green, B.

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

interconnect | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

interconnect interconnect Dataset Summary Description Emissions from energy use in buildings are usually estimated on an annual basis using annual average multipliers. Using annual numbers provides a reasonable estimation of emissions, but it provides no indication of the temporal nature of the emissions. Therefore, there is no way of understanding the impact on emissions from load shifting and peak shaving technologies such as thermal energy storage, on-site renewable energy, and demand control. Source NREL Date Released April 11th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated April 11th, 2011 (3 years ago) Keywords buildings carbon dioxide emissions carbon footprinting CO2 commercial buildings electricity emission factors ERCOT hourly emission factors interconnect nitrogen oxides NOx

40

Central American electrical interconnection  

SciTech Connect

A technical cooperation grant of $2.25 million, designed to strengthen the capacity of Central American countries to operate their regional interconnected electrical system, was announced by the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB). The grant, extended from the banks Fund for Special Operations, will help improve the capacity of the regions electric power companies to achieve economical, safe operation of the interconnected electric power systems. The funds will also be used to finance regional studies of the accords, procedures, regulations, and supervisory mechanisms for the system, as well as program development and data bases.

Not Available

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection tre wecc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards < Back Eligibility Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Wind Energy Sources Solar Home Weatherization Program Info State Michigan Program Type Interconnection Provider Michigan Public Service Commission The Michigan Public Service Commission (PSC) first adopted interconnection standards for distributed generation (DG) in September 2003. The original standards provided for 5 levels of interconnection with cutoffs at 30 kilowatts (kW), 150 kW, 750 kW, and 2 megawatts (MW), but left many details

42

Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Solar Wind Program Info State Oregon Program Type Interconnection Provider Oregon Public Utility Commission Oregon has three separate interconnection standards: one for net-metered systems, one for small generator facilities (non-net metered systems) and one for large generator facilities (non-net metered systems). Oregon has also established separate net metering requirements and interconnection standards for the state's primary investor-owned utilities (PGE and

43

Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Wind Energy Sources Solar Home Weatherization Program Info State District of Columbia Program Type Interconnection Provider Washington Utilities and Transportation Commission In September 2007, the Washington Utilities and Transportation Commission (UTC) adopted interconnection standards for distributed generation (DG) systems up to 20 megawatts (MW) in capacity. The revised standards provide for two separate levels of interconnection based on system capacity. The

44

Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Solar Buying & Making Electricity Home Weatherization Water Wind Program Info State Kentucky Program Type Interconnection Provider Kentucky Public Service Commission In April 2008, Kentucky enacted legislation which required the Kentucky Public Service Commission (PSC) to develop interconnection and net metering guidelines for all retail electric suppliers operating in Kentucky (excluding TVA utilities). The Kentucky PSC adopted those guidelines on January 8, 2009 (Order 2008-00169). The PSC's rules set forth a two-tiered approach to simplify the interconnection process:

45

Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Energy Sources Solar Wind Program Info State Maryland Program Type Interconnection Provider Maryland Public Service Commission In April 2007, Maryland enacted legislation ([http://mgaleg.maryland.gov/2007RS/chapters_noln/Ch_119_sb0595E.pdf S.B. 595]) requiring the Maryland Public Service Commission (PSC) to form a small generator interconnection working group to develop interconnection standards and procedures that are "consistent with nationally adopted

46

Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Wind Energy Sources Solar Program Info State New York Program Type Interconnection Provider New York State Department of Public Service New York first adopted uniform interconnection standards in 1999 (see history below). The Standard Interconnection Requirements (SIR) have subsequently been amended several times since, most recently with the adoption of far reaching revisions in February 2009. Several more minor

47

Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards < Back Eligibility Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Wind Energy Sources Solar Program Info State Connecticut Program Type Interconnection Provider Public Utilities Regulatory Authority In December 2007, the Connecticut Department of Public Utility Control (DPUC) now called the Public Utilities Regulatory Authority (PURA) approved new interconnection guidelines for distributed energy systems up to 20 megawatts (MW) in capacity. Connecticut's interconnection guidelines apply to the state's two investor-owned utilities -- Connecticut Light and Power

48

Interconnection Guidelines | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Guidelines Interconnection Guidelines Interconnection Guidelines < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Buying & Making Electricity Energy Sources Solar Wind Program Info State Delaware Program Type Interconnection Provider Delaware Public Service Commission '''''Note: Delaware law ([http://delcode.delaware.gov/title26/c010/index.shtml#1014 26 Del. C. § 1014]) requires the Delaware Public Service Commission (PSC), Delaware Electric Cooperative (DEC), and municipal utilities to develop interconnection rules using as a guide the Interstate Renewable Energy Council's (IREC) model interconnection rules and the U.S. Department of

49

Interconnection Guidelines | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Guidelines Interconnection Guidelines Interconnection Guidelines < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Residential Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Wind Energy Sources Solar Program Info State Arizona Program Type Interconnection Provider Arizona Corporation Commission '''''Note: In June 2007, the Arizona Corporation Commission (ACC) initiated a rulemaking process to establish statewide interconnection standards for distributed generation (DG). This proceeding is still in progress. Until the new official rules go into effect, the commission has recommended that the utilities use the [http://images.edocket.azcc.gov/docketpdf/0000074361.pdf Interconnection

50

Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards < Back Eligibility Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Wind Energy Sources Solar Program Info State Hawaii Program Type Interconnection Provider Hawaii Public Utilities Commission Hawaii has established simplified interconnection rules for small renewables and separate rules for all other distributed generation (DG). For inverter-based systems up to 10 kilowatts (kW) in capacity (and inverter-based DG under 250 kW on islands other than Kauai), there is a simple application process for interconnection. Systems must use inverters

51

Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Energy Sources Solar Home Weatherization Wind Program Info State Pennsylvania Program Type Interconnection Provider Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission The Pennsylvania Public Utilities Commission was required to adopt interconnection standards and net-metering rules by the Alternative Energy Portfolio Standards Act of 2004.The PUC subsequently adopted interconnection standards for net-metered distributed generation (DG)

52

Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Tribal Government Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Wind Energy Sources Solar Home Weatherization Program Info State South Dakota Program Type Interconnection Provider S.D. Public Utilities Commission South Dakota's interconnection standards for distributed generation, adopted by the state Public Utilities Commission (PUC) in May 2009, apply to customers of investor-owned utilities.* The rules provide for four levels of interconnection for systems up to 10 megawatts (MW) in capacity:

53

Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Wind Energy Sources Solar Home Weatherization Water Program Info State North Carolina Program Type Interconnection Provider North Carolina Utilities Commission The North Carolina Utilities Commission (NCUC) adopted comprehensive interconnection standards for distributed generation in June 2008. The NCUC standards, which are similar to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC) interconnection standards for small generators,

54

VLSI interconnect Avinoam Kolodny  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1000 10000 100000 Length [um] Power Local total Global total TOTAL globallocal Power Distribution by Wirelength · Total Dynamic Power · Global clock ­ not included · Local signals nets = 66% · Global signals global signals Total dynamic power (Gate, Diffusion and Interconnect) local clock global signals global

Kolodny, Avinoam

55

Reversible concentric ring microfluidic interconnects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A reversible, Chip-to-Chip microfluidic interconnect was designed for use in high temperature, high pressure applications such as chemical microreactor systems. The interconnect uses two sets of concentric, interlocking ...

Thompson, Mary Kathryn, 1980-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

North American Electric Reliability Corporation Interconnections...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

North American Electric Reliability Corporation Interconnections North American Electric Reliability Corporation Interconnections Map of the North American Electric Reliability...

57

Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

You are here You are here Home » Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Water Solar Wind Program Info State Iowa Program Type Interconnection Provider Iowa Utilities Board Different rules govern the interconnection of distributed generation facilities in Iowa, depending on whether or not the interconnection is with a utility whose rates are regulated by the Iowa Utilities Board (IUB). Rate regulated utilities include only the state's two investor-owned utilities -- MidAmerican Energy and Interstate Power and Light (IPL) -- and Linn

58

Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Multi-Family Residential Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Solar Water Wind Program Info State New Jersey Program Type Interconnection Provider New Jersey Board of Public Utilities New Jersey's interconnection standards apply statewide to all electric distribution utilities, but not to the small number of municipal utilities and electric cooperatives in the state. The rules, first adopted in 2001, have been revised several times since their inception, most recently in May 2012. The current standards include the following basic provisions:

59

Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Industrial Institutional Nonprofit Residential Schools Utility Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Wind Energy Sources Solar Program Info State Colorado Program Type Interconnection Provider Colorado Public Utilities Commission In December 2005, the Colorado Public Utilities Commission (PUC) adopted standards for net metering and interconnection, as required by Amendment 37, a renewable-energy ballot initiative approved by Colorado voters in November 2004. The PUC standards generally apply to utilities with 40,000 or more customers and all cooperative utilities.*

60

Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Fed. Government General Public/Consumer Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Tribal Government Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Water Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Solar Home Weatherization Wind Program Info State Florida Program Type Interconnection Provider Florida Public Service Commission In March 2008, the Florida Public Service Commission (PSC) adopted interconnection rules for renewable-energy systems up to two megawatts (MW) in capacity. The PSC rules apply only to the state's investor-owned utilities; the rules do not apply to electric cooperatives or municipal

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection tre wecc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

You are here You are here Home » Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Residential Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Wind Energy Sources Solar Program Info State Vermont Program Type Interconnection Provider Vermont Public Service Board Vermont has adopted separate interconnection standards for net-metered energy systems that are 150 kW or less, and for all other distributed-generation (DG) systems. '''Interconnection Standards for Net-Metered Systems 150 kW or less''' Vermont requires electric utilities to offer net metering to all customers with photovoltaic (PV) systems, wind-energy systems, fuel cells or

62

Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards < Back Eligibility Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Biofuels Alternative Fuel Vehicles Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Wind Energy Sources Solar Home Weatherization Program Info State Wisconsin Program Type Interconnection Provider Public Service Commission of Wisconsin In February 2004, the Wisconsin Public Service Commission adopted interconnection standards for distributed generation (DG) systems up to 15 megawatts (MW) in capacity. All investor-owned utilities (IOUs) and municipal utilities are required to abide by the standard provisions.

63

Interconnection Guidelines | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Guidelines Interconnection Guidelines Interconnection Guidelines < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Wind Energy Sources Solar Home Weatherization Water Program Info State South Carolina Program Type Interconnection Provider Public Service Commission of South Carolina The South Carolina Public Service Commission (PSC) adopted simplified interconnection guidelines for small distributed generation (DG) in December 2006. These guidelines address renewable-energy systems and other forms of DG up to 20 kilowatts (kW) in capacity for residential systems,

64

Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Residential Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Wind Energy Sources Solar Program Info State Texas Program Type Interconnection Provider Public Utility Commission of Texas The Texas Public Utility Regulatory Act (PURA) of 1999 included a provision that "a customer is entitled to have access to on-site distributed generation". As a result, the Public Utility Commission of Texas (PUCT) adopted interconnection standards in 1999. The rules apply to electrical generating facilities (consisting of one or more on-site distributed-generation units) located at a customer's point of delivery,

65

Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards < Back Eligibility Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Wind Energy Sources Solar Program Info State Minnesota Program Type Interconnection Provider Minnesota Public Utilities Commission Minnesota's net-metering law, enacted in 1983, applies to all investor-owned utilities, municipal utilities and rural electric cooperatives. Qualifying facilities of less than 1,000 kilowatts (kW) are eligible for net metering. However, uniform interconnection regulations were not implemented when net metering was established.

66

Interconnection Guidelines | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Guidelines Interconnection Guidelines Interconnection Guidelines < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Industrial Residential Savings Category Bioenergy Buying & Making Electricity Solar Home Weatherization Water Wind Program Info State Nebraska Program Type Interconnection Provider Nebraska Energy Office Nebraska enacted legislation in May 2009 [http://nebraskalegislature.gov/FloorDocs/101/PDF/Final/LB436.pdf (LB 436)], establishing general rules for interconnecting and net metering systems that generate electricity. Nebraska's policy applies to systems that use solar, wind, methane, biomass, hydropower or geothermal resources to produce electricity and have a rated capacity of 25 kilowatts (kW) or less. To be eligible, a facility must meet all applicable safety, performance,

67

Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards < Back Eligibility Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Buying & Making Electricity Water Solar Wind Program Info State Virginia Program Type Interconnection Provider Virginia State Corporation Commission Virginia has two interconnection standards: one for net-metered systems and one for systems that are not net-metered. '''Interconnection for Net-Metered Systems''' Customer-generators that net meter must comply with the interconnection rules within the regulations governing net metering (20 VAC 5-315-40). These rules apply to residential customers generating up to 10 kW* and commercial systems of up to 500 kW (or greater if the utility's net

68

Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Biofuels Alternative Fuel Vehicles Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Energy Sources Solar Home Weatherization Wind Program Info State New Hampshire Program Type Interconnection Provider New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission New Hampshire requires all utilities selling electricity in the state to offer net metering to customers who own or operate systems up to one megawatt (1 MW) in capacity that generate electricity using solar, wind, geothermal, hydro, tidal, wave, biomass, landfill gas, bio-oil or

69

Interconnection Guidelines | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Guidelines Interconnection Guidelines Interconnection Guidelines < Back Eligibility Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Buying & Making Electricity Solar Wind Program Info State Missouri Program Type Interconnection Provider Missouri Department of Natural Resources Missouri enacted legislation (S.B. 54) in June 2007 requiring all of the state's electric utilities -- including municipal utilities and electric cooperatives -- to offer net metering to customers with systems up to 100 kilowatts (kW) in capacity that generate electricity using wind energy, solar-thermal energy, hydroelectric energy, photovoltaics (PV), fuel cells

70

Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards < Back Eligibility Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Wind Energy Sources Solar Program Info State New Mexico Program Type Interconnection Provider New Mexico Public Regulation Commission Interconnection in New Mexico is governed by New Mexico Public Regulation Commission (PRC) Rule 568 and Rule 569. These rules, adopted in July 2008, revised and clarified the state's existing rules. Rule 569 applies to all qualifying facilities (QFs) under PURPA, which generally includes all renewable-energy systems and combined-heat-and-power (CHP) systems up to 80

71

Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards < Back Eligibility Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Wind Energy Sources Solar Program Info State Ohio Program Type Interconnection Provider Ohio Public Utilities Commission '''''Note: In July 2012, the Public Utilities Commission of Ohio (PUCO) opened a docket ([http://dis.puc.state.oh.us/CaseRecord.aspx?CaseNo=12-2051&x=0&y=0 Case 12-0251-EL-ORD]) to review the net metering and interconnection rules for investor-owned utilities. Details will be posted as more information is available.'''''

72

Incorporating Energy Efficiency into Western Interconnection Transmission Planning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Final Report. Prepared for Xcel Energy. Nexant. 2010. Systemin Section 2.2. PSCO Customer-Funded EE Programs (Xcel):Xcel staff indicated that the load forecast provided to WECC

Barbose, Galen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Alternative Fuel Vehicles Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Solar Home Weatherization Wind Program Info State Utah Program Type Interconnection Provider Utah Public Service Commission Utah requires the state's only investor-owned utility, Rocky Mountain Power (RMP), and most electric cooperatives* to offer net metering to customers who generate electricity using solar energy, wind energy, hydropower, hydrogen, biomass, landfill gas, geothermal energy, waste gas or waste heat capture and recovery. The bill that established net metering also established some basic rules for interconnection. In April 2010, the Utah Public Service Commission (PSC) adopted final rules for interconnection. The rules described below took effect April 30, 2010.

74

SERC | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

SERC SERC Dataset Summary Description Datasets are for the US electricity grid system interconnect regions (ASCC, FRCC, HICC, MRO, NPCC, RFC, SERC, SPP, TRE, WECC) for 2008. The data is provided in life cycle inventory (LCI) forms (both xls and xml). A module report and a detailed spreadsheet are also included. Source US Life Cycle Inventory Database Date Released May 01st, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords ASCC FRCC HICC interconnect region LCI life cycle inventory MRO NPCC RFC SERC SPP TRE unit process US utilities WECC Data application/zip icon interconnect_lci_datasets_2008.zip (zip, 6.3 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period License License Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and Licence (PDDL)

75

HICC | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

HICC HICC Dataset Summary Description Datasets are for the US electricity grid system interconnect regions (ASCC, FRCC, HICC, MRO, NPCC, RFC, SERC, SPP, TRE, WECC) for 2008. The data is provided in life cycle inventory (LCI) forms (both xls and xml). A module report and a detailed spreadsheet are also included. Source US Life Cycle Inventory Database Date Released May 01st, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords ASCC FRCC HICC interconnect region LCI life cycle inventory MRO NPCC RFC SERC SPP TRE unit process US utilities WECC Data application/zip icon interconnect_lci_datasets_2008.zip (zip, 6.3 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period License License Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and Licence (PDDL)

76

RFC | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

RFC RFC Dataset Summary Description Datasets are for the US electricity grid system interconnect regions (ASCC, FRCC, HICC, MRO, NPCC, RFC, SERC, SPP, TRE, WECC) for 2008. The data is provided in life cycle inventory (LCI) forms (both xls and xml). A module report and a detailed spreadsheet are also included. Source US Life Cycle Inventory Database Date Released May 01st, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords ASCC FRCC HICC interconnect region LCI life cycle inventory MRO NPCC RFC SERC SPP TRE unit process US utilities WECC Data application/zip icon interconnect_lci_datasets_2008.zip (zip, 6.3 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period License License Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and Licence (PDDL)

77

MRO | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

8 8 Varnish cache server Browse Upload data GDR 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load) Throttled (bot load) Guru Meditation: XID: 2142281228 Varnish cache server MRO Dataset Summary Description Datasets are for the US electricity grid system interconnect regions (ASCC, FRCC, HICC, MRO, NPCC, RFC, SERC, SPP, TRE, WECC) for 2008. The data is provided in life cycle inventory (LCI) forms (both xls and xml). A module report and a detailed spreadsheet are also included. Source US Life Cycle Inventory Database Date Released May 01st, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords ASCC FRCC HICC interconnect region LCI life cycle inventory MRO NPCC RFC SERC SPP TRE unit process US utilities WECC Data application/zip icon interconnect_lci_datasets_2008.zip (zip, 6.3 MiB)

78

FRCC | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

FRCC FRCC Dataset Summary Description Datasets are for the US electricity grid system interconnect regions (ASCC, FRCC, HICC, MRO, NPCC, RFC, SERC, SPP, TRE, WECC) for 2008. The data is provided in life cycle inventory (LCI) forms (both xls and xml). A module report and a detailed spreadsheet are also included. Source US Life Cycle Inventory Database Date Released May 01st, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords ASCC FRCC HICC interconnect region LCI life cycle inventory MRO NPCC RFC SERC SPP TRE unit process US utilities WECC Data application/zip icon interconnect_lci_datasets_2008.zip (zip, 6.3 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period License License Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and Licence (PDDL)

79

SPP | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

SPP SPP Dataset Summary Description Datasets are for the US electricity grid system interconnect regions (ASCC, FRCC, HICC, MRO, NPCC, RFC, SERC, SPP, TRE, WECC) for 2008. The data is provided in life cycle inventory (LCI) forms (both xls and xml). A module report and a detailed spreadsheet are also included. Source US Life Cycle Inventory Database Date Released May 01st, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords ASCC FRCC HICC interconnect region LCI life cycle inventory MRO NPCC RFC SERC SPP TRE unit process US utilities WECC Data application/zip icon interconnect_lci_datasets_2008.zip (zip, 6.3 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period License License Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and Licence (PDDL)

80

unit process | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

unit process unit process Dataset Summary Description Datasets are for the US electricity grid system interconnect regions (ASCC, FRCC, HICC, MRO, NPCC, RFC, SERC, SPP, TRE, WECC) for 2008. The data is provided in life cycle inventory (LCI) forms (both xls and xml). A module report and a detailed spreadsheet are also included. Source US Life Cycle Inventory Database Date Released May 01st, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords ASCC FRCC HICC interconnect region LCI life cycle inventory MRO NPCC RFC SERC SPP TRE unit process US utilities WECC Data application/zip icon interconnect_lci_datasets_2008.zip (zip, 6.3 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period License License Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and Licence (PDDL)

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection tre wecc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

NPCC | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

NPCC NPCC Dataset Summary Description Datasets are for the US electricity grid system interconnect regions (ASCC, FRCC, HICC, MRO, NPCC, RFC, SERC, SPP, TRE, WECC) for 2008. The data is provided in life cycle inventory (LCI) forms (both xls and xml). A module report and a detailed spreadsheet are also included. Source US Life Cycle Inventory Database Date Released May 01st, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords ASCC FRCC HICC interconnect region LCI life cycle inventory MRO NPCC RFC SERC SPP TRE unit process US utilities WECC Data application/zip icon interconnect_lci_datasets_2008.zip (zip, 6.3 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period License License Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and Licence (PDDL)

82

ASCC | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ASCC ASCC Dataset Summary Description Datasets are for the US electricity grid system interconnect regions (ASCC, FRCC, HICC, MRO, NPCC, RFC, SERC, SPP, TRE, WECC) for 2008. The data is provided in life cycle inventory (LCI) forms (both xls and xml). A module report and a detailed spreadsheet are also included. Source US Life Cycle Inventory Database Date Released May 01st, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords ASCC FRCC HICC interconnect region LCI life cycle inventory MRO NPCC RFC SERC SPP TRE unit process US utilities WECC Data application/zip icon interconnect_lci_datasets_2008.zip (zip, 6.3 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period License License Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and Licence (PDDL)

83

utilities | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

utilities utilities Dataset Summary Description Datasets are for the US electricity grid system interconnect regions (ASCC, FRCC, HICC, MRO, NPCC, RFC, SERC, SPP, TRE, WECC) for 2008. The data is provided in life cycle inventory (LCI) forms (both xls and xml). A module report and a detailed spreadsheet are also included. Source US Life Cycle Inventory Database Date Released May 01st, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords ASCC FRCC HICC interconnect region LCI life cycle inventory MRO NPCC RFC SERC SPP TRE unit process US utilities WECC Data application/zip icon interconnect_lci_datasets_2008.zip (zip, 6.3 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period License License Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and Licence (PDDL)

84

Interconnection Agreements for Onsite Generation  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Agreements Interconnection Agreements for Onsite Generation Office of Real Property Asset Management Office of General Counsel Real Property Division Richard R. Butterworth Senior Assistant General Counsel (202) 501-4436 richard.butterworth@gsa.gov The Problem: * Most agreements require indemnity clauses - usually either by tariff or by the submission of standard contracts to PSCs * Federal Government precluded from providing indemnity by: * Anti-deficiency Act - 31 U.S.C. 665(a) * Adequacy of Appropriations Act - 41 U.S.C. 11 GSA - Utility Interconnection Agreements GSA - Utility Interconnection Agreements * Exception: Utility Contracts * GAO decision sets the foundation for exception for utility contracts - 59 Comp. Gen. 705 * But it's a narrow exception

85

Optically Interconnected MulticomputersUsing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optically Interconnected MulticomputersUsing Inverted-GraphTopologies Tosuccessfullyexploitthebenefitsofopticaltechnologyinatightlycoupledmulticomputer, the architecturaldesignmust reflectboth the advantages and limitationsof optics. This article systems. Although optics have con- tributed dramatically to long-distance communi- cation and more

Krchnavek, Robert R.

86

Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Residential Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Wind Energy Sources Solar Program Info State California Program Type Interconnection Provider California Public Utilities Commission '''''Note: The California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) approved a [http://docs.cpuc.ca.gov/EFILE/MOTION/162852.PDF proposed settlement] in September 2012, enacting the first fundamental redesign of Rule 21 since 2000. The complete revised Rule 21 Tariff, as described at a high level below, can be found beginning on page 136 of CPUC Decision 12-09-018. The individual tariffs adopted by the utilities can be found on the CPUC web

87

CAD implications of new interconnect technologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper looks at the CAD implications of possible new interconnect technologies. We consider three technologies in particular: three dimensional ICs, carbon nanotubes as a replacement for metal interconnects, and optical interconnections for longer ... Keywords: 3D interconnect, On-chip optical, nanotubes

Louis K. Scheffer

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Topic A Awardee: Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

A Awardee: Eastern Interconnection Planning A Awardee: Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative Topic A Awardee: Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative The Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) was initiated by a coalition of regional Planning Authorities. These Planning Authorities are entities listed on the NERC compliance registry as Planning Authorities and represent the entire Eastern Interconnection. The EIPC was founded to be a broad-based, transparent collaborative process among all interested stakeholders: State and Federal policy makers Consumer and environmental interests Transmission Planning Authorities Market participants generating, transmitting or consuming electricity within the Eastern Interconnection. The EIPC will provide a grass-roots approach which builds upon the regional

89

Learn More About Interconnections | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Learn More About Learn More About Interconnections Learn More About Interconnections Learn More About Interconnections EASTERN INTERCONNECTION North America is comprised of two major and three minor alternating current (AC) power grids or "interconnections." The Eastern Interconnection reaches from Central Canada Eastward to the Atlantic coast (excluding Québec), South to Florida and West to the foot of the Rockies (excluding most of Texas). All of the electric utilities in the Eastern Interconnection are electrically tied together during normal system conditions and operate at a synchronized frequency operating at an average of 60Hz. Click here for more information. DOE is in the process of issuing awards to two entities in the Eastern Interconnection: one to the Eastern Interconnection Planning

90

Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Industrial Industrial Residential Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Solar Home Weatherization Wind Program Info State West Virginia Program Type Interconnection Provider West Virginia Public Service Commission In 2006, West Virginia stakeholders came together to consider net metering, interconnection as required by the Federal Energy Policy Act (2005) and agreed upon a "Statement of Consensus Among Parties," which was presented to and accepted by the West Virginia Public Service Commission (PSC) in December 2006. The consensus agreement did include interconnection guidelines for the state, however, the PSC did not initiate a formal rule-making or incorporate the guidelines into agency rules. Rather, the

91

Interconnection Guidelines | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

General Public/Consumer General Public/Consumer Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Wind Solar Program Info State Arkansas Program Type Interconnection Provider Arkansas Public Service Commission In April 2001, Arkansas enacted legislation directing the Arkansas Public Service Commission (PSC) to establish net-metering rules for certain renewable-energy systems. The Arkansas Public Service Commission (PSC) adopted net-metering rules in July 2002 (Order No. 02-046-R). Section 3 applies to the interconnection of net-metered facilities to existing electric power systems.* Systems that generate electricity using solar, wind, hydro, geothermal and biomass resources are eligible to interconnect

92

Interconnection Guidelines | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Bioenergy Bioenergy Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Buying & Making Electricity Solar Home Weatherization Wind Program Info State Kansas Program Type Interconnection Provider Kansas Corporation Commission Kansas adopted the Net Metering and Easy Connection Act in May 2009 (see K.S.A. 66-1263 through 66-1271), establishing interconnection guidelines and net metering for customer-owned generators. Net metering and the accompanying interconnection guidelines apply to systems that generate electricity using solar, wind, methane, biomass or hydro resources, and to fuel cells using hydrogen produced by an eligible renewable technology, with a rated capacity of 25 kilowatts (kW) or less for residential customers, 200 kW or less for non-residential customers and 1.5 megawatts

93

GSA-Utility Interconnection Agreements  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Property Property Asset Management Office of General Counsel Real Property Division Richard R. Butterworth Senior Assistant General Counsel (202) 501-4436 richard.butterworth@gsa.gov The Problem: * Most agreements require indemnity clauses - usually either by tariff or by the submission of standard contracts to PSCs * Federal Government precluded from providing indemnity by: * Anti-deficiency Act - 31 U.S.C. 665(a) * Adequacy of Appropriations Act - 41 U.S.C. 11 GSA - Utility Interconnection Agreements GSA - Utility Interconnection Agreements Exception: Utility Contracts * GAO decision sets the foundation for exception for utility contracts - 59 Comp. Gen. 705 * But it's a narrow exception - B-197583, January 19, 1981 GSA - Utility Interconnection Agreements

94

Interconnection Guidelines | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Industrial Industrial Residential Savings Category Bioenergy Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Wind Solar Program Info State Louisiana Program Type Interconnection Provider Louisiana Public Service Commission '''''Note: Ongoing proceedings related to net metering can be found in [http://lpscstar.louisiana.gov/star/portal/lpsc/page/Dockets/portal.aspx Docket R-31417.]''''' The Louisiana Public Service Commission (PSC) adopted rules for net metering and interconnection in November 2005. Louisiana's rules, based on those in place in Arkansas, require publicly-owned utilities and rural electric cooperatives to offer net metering to customers with systems that generate electricity using solar, wind, hydropower, geothermal or biomass

95

Interconnection Guidelines (Rhode Island) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Guidelines (Rhode Island) Interconnection Guidelines (Rhode Island) Interconnection Guidelines (Rhode Island) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Multi-Family Residential Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Solar Home Weatherization Wind Program Info State Rhode Island Program Type Interconnection Provider Rhode Island Public Utilities Commission Rhode Island enacted legislation (HB 6222) in June 2011 to standardize the application process for the interconnection of customer-sited renewable-energy systems to the state's distribution grid. Rhode Island's interconnection policy is not nearly as comprehensive as

96

New Report Characterizes Existing Offshore Wind Grid Interconnection...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

New Report Characterizes Existing Offshore Wind Grid Interconnection Capabilities New Report Characterizes Existing Offshore Wind Grid Interconnection Capabilities September 3,...

97

PJM Interconnection (Multiple States) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

PJM Interconnection (Multiple States) PJM Interconnection (Multiple States) PJM Interconnection (Multiple States) < Back Eligibility Developer Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Delaware Program Type Interconnection PJM (originally Pennsylvania, Jersey, Maryland) Interconnection is a Regional Transmission Organization (RTO) that coordinates the movement of wholesale electricity in all or parts of Delaware, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, New Jersey, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia and the District of Columbia. The PJM region has an area of 214,000 square miles, a population of about 60 million and a peak demand of 163,848 megawatts

98

Interconnection Guidelines | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Industrial Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Solar Buying & Making Electricity Wind Program Info State Georgia Program Type Interconnection Provider Georgia Public Service Commission The Georgia Cogeneration and Distributed Generation Act of 2001 allows residential electricity customers with photovoltaic (PV) systems, wind-energy systems or fuel cells up to 10 kilowatts (kW) in capacity, and commercial facilities up to 100 kW, to connect to the grid. The aggregate capacity of distributed generation systems is limited to 0.2% of a utility's system peak demand from the previous year. Interconnected customers must comply with all relevant national standards,

99

Analysis of interconnect microstrip lines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

System C. Dyadic Green's Functions 1. TM and TE Decomposition 2. Transmission-Line Green's Functions . NUiVIERICAL PROCEDURES . A. Basis functions and testing procedure . 1. Interconnect of Microstrip Lines 2. Slot-Coupled Microstrip Dipole . 3... data of return loss on the 20 GHz slot-coupled rect- angular patch antenna. . FIG URE Pa. ge 28 Typical transmission line section containing a 1A current source. . . 68 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Many studies on slot-coupled microstrip antennas have...

Luong, Giam-Minh

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

100

Recovery Act Interconnection Transmission Planning  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Robust and reliable transmission and distribution networks are essential to achieving the Administration's clean energy goals, including the development, integration, and delivery of new renewable and other low-carbon resources in the electricity sector, and the use of these resources to displace petroleum-based fuels in the transportation sector. OE is helping to strengthen the capabilities for long-term analysis and planning in the three interconnections serving the lower 48 United States.

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101

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

B. U.S. Transformer Sustained Automatic Outage Counts B. U.S. Transformer Sustained Automatic Outage Counts and Hours by High-Voltage Size and NERC Region, 2012 Sustained Automatic Outage Counts High-Side Voltage (kV) Eastern Interconnection TRE WECC Contiguous U.S. 100-199 -- -- -- -- 200-299 -- -- 1.00 1.00 300-399 2.00 -- 4.00 6.00 400-599 14.00 -- 11.00 25.00 600+ -- -- -- -- Grand Total 16.00 -- 16.00 32.00 Sustained Automatic Outage Hours High-Side Voltage (kV) Eastern Interconnection TRE WECC Contiguous U.S. 100-199 -- -- -- -- 200-299 -- -- 27.58 27.58 300-399 153.25 -- 15.87 169.12 400-599 3,070.88 -- 258.37 3,329.25 600+ -- -- -- -- Grand Total 3,224.13 -- 301.82 3,525.95 Outage Hours per Outage Incident Eastern Interconnection TRE WECC Contiguous U.S.

102

OpenEI - utilities  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

USLCI Interconnect USLCI Interconnect Region Electricity datasets, 2008 http://en.openei.org/datasets/node/733 Datasets are for the US  electricity grid system interconnect regions (ASCC, FRCC, HICC, MRO, NPCC, RFC, SERC, SPP, TRE, WECC) for 2008.  The data is provided in life cycle inventory (LCI) forms (both xls and xml).  A module report and a detailed spreadsheet are also included.

License
Type of License: 

103

Puerto Rico - Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Puerto Rico - Interconnection Standards Puerto Rico - Interconnection Standards Puerto Rico - Interconnection Standards < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Industrial Institutional Local Government Multi-Family Residential Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Wind Energy Sources Solar Home Weatherization Program Info Program Type Interconnection Provider Autoridad de Energía Electrica de Puerto Rico In 2007, the Autoridad de Energía Electrica de Puerto Rico (PREPA*) adopted interconnection standards based on the standard contained in the federal Energy Policy Act of 2005. PREPA promulgated interconnection rules in August 2008 that apply to all distributed generation (DG) projects that

104

Distributed PV Interconnection Screening Procedures and Online...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tools" 30 mins. Q&Adiscussion Upcoming Meeting: September 24, 2014 Highlights of SunShot Projects: Interconnection as Part of a Strategic Resource Planning Process Alison...

105

Recent Development of SOFC Metallic Interconnect  

SciTech Connect

Interest in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) stems from their higher eciencies and lower levels of emitted pollu- tants, compared to traditional power production methods. Interconnects are a critical part in SOFC stacks, which connect cells in series electrically, and also separate air or oxygen at the cathode side from fuel at the anode side. Therefore, the requirements of interconnects are the most demanding, i:e:, to maintain high elec- trical conductivity, good stability in both reducing and oxidizing atmospheres, and close coecient of thermal expansion (CTE) match and good compatibility with other SOFC ceramic components. The paper reviewed the interconnect materials, and coatings for metallic interconnect materials.

Wu JW, Liu XB

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Updating Interconnection Screens for PV System Integration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Abraham Ellis, Roger Hill Sandia National Laboratories Tom Key, Kristen Nicole, Jeff Smith Electric Power Research Institute Updating Interconnection Screens for PV System...

107

Generation Interconnection and Deliverability Allocation Procedures...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- Permit ApplicationPermit Application: Generation Interconnection and Deliverability Allocation ProceduresLegal Abstract Generation...

108

Durability of Metallic Interconnects and Protective Coatings  

SciTech Connect

To build up a useful voltage, a number of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are electrically connected into series in a stack via interconnects, which are placed between adjacent cells. In addition to functioning as a bi-polar electrical connector, the interconnect also acts as a separator plate that separates the fuel at the anode side of one cell from the air at the cathode side on an adjacent cell. During SOFC operation at the high temperatures, the interconnects are thus simultaneously exposed to the oxidizing air at one side and a reducing fuel that can be either hydrogen or hydrocarbon at the other. Besides, they are in contact with adjacent components, such as electrodes or electrical contacts, seals, etc. With steady reduction in SOFC operating temperatures into the low or intermediate range 600-850oC, oxidation resistant alloys are often used to construct interconnects. However, the metallic interconnects may degrade via interactions at their interfaces with surrounding environments or adjacent components, potentially affecting the stability and performance of interconnects and the SOFC stacks. Thus protection layers are applied to metallic interconnects that also intend to mitigate or prevent chromium migration into cells and the cell poisoning. This chapter provides a comprehensive review of materials for metallic interconnects, their degradation and coating protection.

Yang, Zhenguo; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

109

Updating Technical Screens for PV Interconnection: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Solar photovoltaics (PV) is the dominant type of distributed generation (DG) technology interconnected to electric distribution systems in the United States, and deployment of PV systems continues to increase rapidly. Considering the rapid growth and widespread deployment of PV systems in United States electric distribution grids, it is important that interconnection procedures be as streamlined as possible to avoid unnecessary interconnection studies, costs, and delays. Because many PV interconnection applications involve high penetration scenarios, the process needs to allow for a sufficiently rigorous technical evaluation to identify and address possible system impacts. Existing interconnection procedures are designed to balance the need for efficiency and technical rigor for all DG. However, there is an implicit expectation that those procedures will be updated over time in order to remain relevant with respect to evolving standards, technology, and practical experience. Modifications to interconnection screens and procedures must focus on maintaining or improving safety and reliability, as well as accurately allocating costs and improving expediency of the interconnection process. This paper evaluates the origins and usefulness of the capacity penetration screen, offers potential short-term solutions which could effectively allow fast-track interconnection to many PV system applications, and considers longer-term solutions for increasing PV deployment levels in a safe and reliable manner while reducing or eliminating the emphasis on the penetration screen.

Coddington, M.; Ellis, A.; Lynn, K.; Razon, A.; Key, T.; Kroposki, B.; Mather, B.; Hill, R.; Nicole, K.; Smith, J.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

FPGA Interconnect Delay Fault Testing Erik Chmelar  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A satisfactory FPGA testing method meets several crite- ria. First, the routing resources must be explicitlyFPGA Interconnect Delay Fault Testing Erik Chmelar Center for Reliable Computing Stanford is a scalable manufactur- ing test method for all SRAM-based FPGAs, able to detect multiple interconnect delay

Stanford University

111

Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic A,  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic A, Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic A, Interconnection-Level Analysis and Planning Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic A, Interconnection-Level Analysis and Planning A description of the requirements for Topic A for all Interconnections under the Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative, part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic A, Interconnection-Level Analysis and Planning More Documents & Publications Microsoft Word - yDE-FOA-0000068.rtf Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, Cooperation Among States in the Eastern Interconnection on Electric Resource Planning and Priorities Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, Cooperation

112

Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative - Meeting Calendars |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Technology Development » Transmission Planning » Technology Development » Transmission Planning » Recovery Act Interconnection Transmission Planning » Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative - Meeting Calendars Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative - Meeting Calendars Click on the links below to access each awardee's meeting and events calendar. Eastern Interconnection Topic A Awardee: Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative Topic B Awardee: Eastern Interconnection States' Planning Council Western Interconnection Topic A Awardee: Western Electricity Coordinating Council Topic B Awardee: Western Governors' Association Texas Interconnection Topic A and B Awardee: Electric Reliability Council of Texas Electricity Advisory Committee Technology Development Transmission Planning

113

EA-1989: Cliffrose Solar Energy Interconnection Project, Mohave...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

EA-1989: Cliffrose Solar Energy Interconnection Project, Mohave County, Arizona EA-1989: Cliffrose Solar Energy Interconnection Project, Mohave County, Arizona SUMMARY DOE's...

114

Renewable Generation and Interconnection to the Electrical Grid...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Renewable Generation and Interconnection to the Electrical Grid in Southern California Renewable Generation and Interconnection to the Electrical Grid in Southern California...

115

Power Consumption and Scalability of Optically Switched Interconnects  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We analyzed three realizations of optically switched interconnects regarding power consumption and scalability. The optically switched interconnects provide higher power efficiency...

Fehratovic, Naida; Aleksic, Slavisa

116

New_Contractor_Information_for_Interconnection_Security_Agreement...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

NewContractorInformationforInterconnectionSecurityAgreement.pdf NewContractorInformationforInterconnectionSecurityAgreement.pdf NewContractorInformationforIntercon...

117

EIS-0485: Interconnection of the Grande Prairie Wind Farm, Holt...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

Interconnection of the Grande Prairie Wind Farm, Holt County, Nebraska EIS-0485: Interconnection of the Grande Prairie Wind Farm, Holt County, Nebraska SUMMARY DOE's Western Area...

118

EA-1990: Ridgenose Solar Energy Interconnection Facility, Mohave...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

EA-1990: Ridgenose Solar Energy Interconnection Facility, Mohave County, Arizona EA-1990: Ridgenose Solar Energy Interconnection Facility, Mohave County, Arizona SUMMARY DOE's...

119

Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic A,  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

A, A, Interconnection-Level Analysis and Planning Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic A, Interconnection-Level Analysis and Planning A description of the requirements for Topic A for all Interconnections under the Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative, part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic A, Interconnection-Level Analysis and Planning More Documents & Publications Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, Cooperation Among States in the Eastern Interconnection on Electric Resource Planning and Priorities Microsoft Word - yDE-FOA-0000068.rtf Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, Cooperation Among States in the Western Interconnection on Electric Resource Planning

120

PJM Interconnection, LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

PA References: SGIC1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. PJM Interconnection, LLC Smart Grid Project was awarded 13,698,091 Recovery Act Funding...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection tre wecc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Carbon nanotube synthesis for integrated circuit interconnects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Based on their properties, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been identified as ideal replacements for copper interconnects in integrated circuits given their higher current density, inertness, and higher resistance to ...

Nessim, Gilbert Daniel

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

NREL Variability Analysis for the Western Interconnect (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation investigates the effects of several Energy Imbalance Markets implementations in the Western Interconnect.

Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; King, J.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Accelerating Fatigue Testing for Cu Ribbon Interconnects (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation describes fatigue experiments and discusses dynamic mechanical loading for Cu ribbon interconnects.

Bosco, N.; Silverman, T.; Wohlgemuth , J.; Kurtz, S.; Inoue, M.; Sakurai, K.; Shioda, T.; Zenkoh, H.; Miyashita, M.; Tadanori, T.; Suzuki, S.

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative News Release | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative News Release Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative News Release Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative News Release The Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) today announced that its diverse array of stakeholders has reached consensus on the final set of "resource expansion futures" to be studied as part of the electric system transmission planning effort funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative News Release More Documents & Publications Electricity Advisory Committee Meeting Presentations October 2011 - Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Processes 2012 National Electric Transmission Congestion Study - Philadelphia Workshop EAC Recommendations for DOE Action Regarding Interconnection-Wide Planning

125

Committed regional electrical interconnection projects in the Middle East  

SciTech Connect

Due to the well-known advantages of electrical interconnections and their consequent benefits, Jordan considers the interconnection of its electrical network with the neighboring electrical networks as one of its main corporate strategies. At present the electrical interconnection project of the networks of Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Syria, and Turkey is progressing. To achieve this interconnection project, two feasibility studies were conducted: interconnection of the Egyptian and Jordanian electrical power systems; interconnection of the electrical networks of Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Syria, and Turkey (EIJST interconnection). This presentation reviews these studies and their results.

Azzam, M.; Al-Said, A.

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, Cooperation  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, Cooperation Among States in the Eastern Interconnection on Electric Resource Planning and Priorities Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, Cooperation Among States in the Eastern Interconnection on Electric Resource Planning and Priorities A description of the requirements for Topic B for the Eastern Interconnection under the Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative, part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. The fundamental purpose of the awards under Topic B is to facilitate dialogue and collaboration among the states in the respective interconnections (or among state agencies, in the Texas Interconnection). Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, Cooperation

127

Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, Cooperation  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cooperation Among States in the Western Interconnection on Electric Cooperation Among States in the Western Interconnection on Electric Resource Planning and Priorities Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, Cooperation Among States in the Western Interconnection on Electric Resource Planning and Priorities A description of the requirements for Topic B for the Western Interconnection under the Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative, part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. The fundamental purpose of the awards under Topic B is to facilitate dialogue and collaboration among the states in the respective interconnections (or among state agencies, in the Texas Interconnection). Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, Cooperation Among States in the Western Interconnection on Electric Resource Planning

128

Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, Cooperation  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, Cooperation Among States in the Eastern Interconnection on Electric Resource Planning and Priorities Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, Cooperation Among States in the Eastern Interconnection on Electric Resource Planning and Priorities A description of the requirements for Topic B for the Eastern Interconnection under the Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative, part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. The fundamental purpose of the awards under Topic B is to facilitate dialogue and collaboration among the states in the respective interconnections (or among state agencies, in the Texas Interconnection). Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, Cooperation

129

Regulation and investment under uncertainty: An application to power grid interconnection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An Application to Power Grid Interconnection. Jean-Danielto the Ontario power grid. This interconnection will allowfor our application to a power grid interconnection. Second,

Saphores, Jean-Daniel M; Gravel, E; Bernard, J T

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Original Paper Fully interconnected, linear control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Original Paper Fully interconnected, linear control for limit cycle walking Joseph H Solomon1 and simple control methodologies for these models (Collins & Ruina, 2005; Hobbelen & Wisse, 2008a, 2008b. Corresponding author: Joseph H. Solomon, Northwestern University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 2145

Hartmann, Mitra J. Z.

131

Electric network interconnection of Mashreq Arab Countries  

SciTech Connect

Power system interconnection is a well established practice for a variety of technical and economical reasons. Several interconnected networks exist worldwide for a number of factors. Some of these networks cross international boundaries. This presentation discusses the future developments of the power systems of Mashreq Arab Countries (MAC). MAC consists of Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Yemen. Mac power systems are operated by government or semigovernment bodies. Many of these countries have national or regional electric grids but are generally isolated from each other. With the exception of Saudi Arabia power systems, which employ 60 Hz, all other MAC utilities use 50 Hz frequency. Each country is served by one utility, except Saudi Arabia, which is served by four major utilities and some smaller utilities serving remote towns and small load centers. The major utilities are the Saudi Consolidated electric Company in the Eastern Province (SCECO East), SCECO Center, SCECO West, and SCECO South. These are the ones considered in this study. The energy resources in MAC are varied. Countries such as Egypt, Iraq, and Syria have significant hydro resources.The gulf countries and Iraq have abundant fossil fuel, The variation in energy resources as well as the characteristics of the electric load make it essential to look into interconnections beyond the national boundaries. Most of the existing or planned interconnections involve few power systems. A study involving 12 countries and over 20 utilities with different characteristics represents a very large scale undertaking.

El-Amin, I.M.; Al-Shehri, A.M.; Opoku, G.; Al-Baiyat, S.A.; Zedan, F.M.

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, State  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

State Agency Input Regarding Electric Resource and Transmission Planning in State Agency Input Regarding Electric Resource and Transmission Planning in the Texas Interconnection Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, State Agency Input Regarding Electric Resource and Transmission Planning in the Texas Interconnection A description of the requirements for Topic B for the Texas Interconnect under the Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative, part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. The fundamental purpose of the awards under Topic B is to facilitate dialogue and collaboration among the states in the respective interconnections (or among state agencies, in the Texas Interconnection). Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, State Agency Input Regarding Electric Resource and Transmission Planning in the

133

seca-core-tech-sofc-interconnect | netl.doe.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Developmental SOFC Interconnect Alloys PDF-1.2MB - M.P. Brady, B.A. Pint, T.R. Armstrong Products Bulk Alloy Breakout Team PDF-92KB Interconnect-Electrode Interface...

134

Fast high-order variation-aware IC interconnect analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Interconnects constitute a dominant source of circuit delay for modern chip designs. The variations of critical dimensions in modern VLSI technologies lead to variability in interconnect performance that must be fully accounted for in timing...

Ye, Xiaoji

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

135

National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States.

136

High temperature solid electrolyte fuel cell configurations and interconnections  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

High temperature fuel cell configurations and interconnections are made including annular cells having a solid electrolyte sandwiched between thin film electrodes. The cells are electrically interconnected along an elongated axial outer surface.

Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills, PA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Solar Energy to Benefit from New FERC Interconnection Procedures...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

Solar Energy to Benefit from New FERC Interconnection Procedures Solar Energy to Benefit from New FERC Interconnection Procedures October 30, 2014 - 5:15pm Addthis As a major win...

138

Voltage Collapse SimulationVoltage Collapse Simulation (Eastern Interconnection(Eastern Interconnection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of 2003 that is available on the PSERC web site, http://pserc.org. 2 #12;Symbols in the Simulation Window · Buses: heavy dark lines where the generators, loads and transmission lines interconnect · Transmission

139

Incorporating Demand Response into Western Interconnection Transmission Planning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aggregator Programs. Demand Response Measurement andIncorporating Demand Response into Western Interconnection13 Demand Response Dispatch

Satchwell, Andrew

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Electrically long vertical interconnects for microwave circuits and antennas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. . . . . 2 . . . . 3 . . . . 4 . 4 . 4 . 5 . . . . 5 . . . . 6 . . . . 7 A. Transmission Line Interconnects. . B. Electromagnetically Coupled lnterconnects . . . . . C. Conclusions . . . . . . 8 . . . 10 III FIDELITY SIMULATION 12 A. B. C. D... interconnects satisfying specifications set by Raytheon Systems Co. This research was sponsored by Raytheon Systems Co. RF/Microwave Division. A vertical interconnect couples transmission lines, antennas, and components between vertically spaced layers...

Coutant, Matthew Richard

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection tre wecc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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141

Dynamic Simulation Studies of the Frequency Response of the Three U.S. Interconnections with Increased Wind Generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sequence Load Flow Software (PSLF). http://www.gepower.com/utility_software/en/ge_pslf/index.htm. Siemens PowerLaaR LBNL MMWG MW PDCI PSLF PSS/E USE VAR WECC California-

Mackin, Peter

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Interconnection Standards for Small Generators | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Standards for Small Generators Interconnection Standards for Small Generators Interconnection Standards for Small Generators < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Tribal Government Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Water Wind Energy Sources Solar Home Weatherization Program Info Program Type Interconnection Provider Federal Energy Regulatory Commission The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) adopted "small generator" interconnection standards for distributed energy resources up to 20 megawatts (MW) in capacity in May 2005.* The FERC's standards apply only to facilities subject to the jurisdiction of the commission; these facilities

143

Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative News Release  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

1 1 NEWS RELEASE FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE May 23, 2011 Contact: David Whiteley d.a.whiteley@att.net 314-753-6200 Eastern Interconnection Grid Planning Authorities to Study Set of Stakeholder-Identified Electric System Futures The Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) today announced that its diverse array of stakeholders has reached consensus on the final set of "resource expansion futures" to be studied as part of the electric system transmission planning effort funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). "We have taken a major step forward with the stakeholder-defined specifications for the resource futures to be considered in the macroeconomic analysis in Phase I of the Project. The stakeholders are to be congratulated for their hard work in achieving a

144

Frequency Instability Problems in North American Interconnections  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Frequency Instability Problems in Frequency Instability Problems in North American Interconnections May 1, 2011 DOE/NETL-2011/1473 Frequency Instability Problems in North American Interconnections Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference therein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement,

145

Interconnection of bundled solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system and method for electrically interconnecting a plurality of fuel cells to provide dense packing of the fuel cells. Each one of the plurality of fuel cells has a plurality of discrete electrical connection points along an outer surface. Electrical connections are made directly between the discrete electrical connection points of adjacent fuel cells so that the fuel cells can be packed more densely. Fuel cells have at least one outer electrode and at least one discrete interconnection to an inner electrode, wherein the outer electrode is one of a cathode and and anode and wherein the inner electrode is the other of the cathode and the anode. In tubular solid oxide fuel cells the discrete electrical connection points are spaced along the length of the fuel cell.

Brown, Michael; Bessette, II, Norman F; Litka, Anthony F; Schmidt, Douglas S

2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

146

Definition: Interconnection Reliability Operating Limit Tv | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Limit Tv Limit Tv Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Interconnection Reliability Operating Limit Tv The maximum time that an Interconnection Reliability Operating Limit can be violated before the risk to the interconnection or other Reliability Coordinator Area(s) becomes greater than acceptable. Each Interconnection Reliability Operating Limit's Tv shall be less than or equal to 30 minutes.[1] Related Terms Interconnection Reliability Operating Limitinterconnection, interconnection References ↑ Glossary of Terms Used in Reliability Standards An i LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. nline Glossary Definition Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Definition:Interconnection_Reliability_Operating_Limit_Tv&oldid=493031

147

Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative News Release | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative News Release Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative News Release Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative News Release The Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) today announced that its diverse array of stakeholders has reached consensus on the final set of "resource expansion futures" to be studied as part of the electric system transmission planning effort funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative News Release More Documents & Publications Electricity Advisory Committee Meeting Presentations October 2011 - Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Processes EAC Recommendations for DOE Action Regarding Interconnection-Wide Planning - June 6, 2013 Application to Export Electric Energy OE Docket No. EA-352 NaturEner Tie

148

Performance testing of small interconnected wind systems  

SciTech Connect

There is a need for performance information on small windmills intended for interconnected operation with utility distribution service. The owner or prospective buyer needs the data to estimate economic viability and service reliability, while the utility needs it to determine interconnection arrangements, maintain quality of power delivered by its line, and to answer customer inquiries. No existing testing program provides all the information needed, although the Rocky Flats test site comes close. To fill this need for Michigan, Consumers Power Company and the Michigan Electric Cooperative Association helped support a two-year program at Michigan State University involving extensive performance testing of an Enertech 1500 and a 4-kW Dakota with a Gemini inverter. The performance study suggested measurements necessary to characterize SWECS for interconnected operation. They include SWECS energy output to a-c line, miles of wind passing the rotor, var-hour metering for average var consumption, and recording watt, current, and voltmeters to assess SWECS output variability. Added instruments for waveform measurement (to assess power quality) are also needed. Typical data taken at the MSU test site are used to illustrate the techniques and preliminary data from a current project is given. Finally, conclusions about SWECS performance are listed.

Park, G.L.; Krauss, O.; Miller, J.

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Updating Interconnection Screens for PV System Integration  

SciTech Connect

This white paper evaluates the origins and usefulness of the capacity penetration screen, offer short-term solutions which could effectively allow fast-track interconnection to many PV system applications, and considers longer-term solutions for increasing PV deployment levels in a safe and reliable manner while reducing or eliminating the emphasis on the penetration screen. Short-term and longer-term alternatives approaches are offered as examples; however, specific modifications to screening procedures should be discussed with stakeholders and must ultimately be adopted by state and federal regulatory bodies.

Coddington, M.; Mather, B.; Kroposki, B.; Lynn, K.; Razon, A.; Ellis, A.; Hill, R.; Key, T.; Nicole, K.; Smith, J.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Repairable chip bonding/interconnect process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A repairable, chip-to-board interconnect process which addresses cost and testability issues in the multi-chip modules. This process can be carried out using a chip-on-sacrificial-substrate technique, involving laser processing. This process avoids the curing/solvent evolution problems encountered in prior approaches, as well is resolving prior plating problems and the requirements for fillets. For repairable high speed chip-to-board connection, transmission lines can be formed on the sides of the chip from chip bond pads, ending in a gull wing at the bottom of the chip for subsequent solder.

Bernhardt, Anthony F. (Berkeley, CA); Contolini, Robert J. (Livermore, CA); Malba, Vincent (Livermore, CA); Riddle, Robert A. (Tracy, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Topic B Awardee: Eastern Interconnection States' Planning Council |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Eastern Interconnection States' Eastern Interconnection States' Planning Council Topic B Awardee: Eastern Interconnection States' Planning Council The Eastern Interconnection States' Planning Council (EISPC) is an historic endeavor initially funded by an award from the United States Department of Energy (DOE) pursuant to a provision of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). The goal is to create an unprecedented collaborative among the states in the Eastern Interconnection. Comprised of public utility commissions, Governors' offices, energy offices, and other key government representatives, this collaboration will foster and produce consistent and coordinated direction to the regional and interconnection-level analyses and planning. Significant state input and direction increases the probability that the outputs will be useful to the

152

Recovery Act Interconnection Transmission Planning | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Act Interconnection Act Interconnection Transmission Planning Recovery Act Interconnection Transmission Planning View a Map of the Interconnections View a Map of the Interconnections Robust and reliable transmission and distribution networks are essential to achieving the Administration's clean energy goals, including the development, integration, and delivery of new renewable and other low-carbon resources in the electricity sector, and the use of these resources to displace petroleum-based fuels in the transportation sector. Pursuant to Title IV of the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (2009), the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability is helping to strengthen the capabilities for long-term analysis and planning in the three interconnections serving the lower 48

153

Flip chip electrical interconnection by selective electroplating and bonding  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on a glass substrate made of 500/2000 A° of Cr/Au with 3150 lm in length and 10 lm in width. Two silicon. The interconnection chip has 102 Cr/Au interconnection lines with 3150 lm in length and 10 lm in width. The bonding pads on the ends of the interconnection lines are 40 lm by 40 lm. A 0.8 lm thick layer of aluminum

Lin, Liwei

154

Using a Collaborative Approach to Interconnection-Wide Transmission Analyses  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection-Wide Planning in Interconnection-Wide Planning in the Eastern Interconnection EIPC Update for the DOE Electricity Advisory Committee October 20, 2011 David A. Whiteley Presentation Topics * Update on process and structure * Study results so far * Value unlocked * What's next 2 Update on Process and Structure * EIPC - 26 EI Planning Authorities (Planning Coordinators) * Integrate and analyze approved regional plans * Develop interregional expansion scenarios to be studied * Develop interregional transmission expansion options * Consistent with Orders 890 and 1000 * Self-funded * Primary activity is DOE funded interconnection studies project - 2 phases 3 Who are the PAs? * Alcoa Power Generating * American Transmission Co. * Duke Energy Carolinas * Electric Energy Inc. * Entergy *

155

Community Wind Handbook/Research Interconnecting behind Your...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

your local utility. Most utilities and other electricity providers require you to enter into a formal agreement with them before you are allowed to interconnect your wind...

156

Response from PJM Interconnection LLC and Pepco to Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

PJM Interconnection LLC and Pepco to Department of Energy Request for Information Concerning the Potential Need for Potomac River Station Generation Response from PJM...

157

Pepco and PJM Interconnection Comments on District of Columbia...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Pepco and PJM Interconnection Comments on District of Columbia Public Service Commission, Docket No. EO-05-01 Comments and Answer to Requests for Rehearing Pepco and PJM...

158

CHP: Connecting the Gap between Markets and Utility Interconnection...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Markets and Utility Interconnection and Tariff Practices, 2006 The adoption of combined heat and power (CHP) systems by American industries has made substantial strides in the...

159

Physics of Failure of Electrical Interconnects | Department of...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation ape036devoto2011p.pdf More Documents & Publications Physics of Failure of Electrical Interconnects Reliability...

160

Proposed rule for Interconnection for Wind Energy and Other Alternativ...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

REGULATORY COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 35 (Docket No. RM05-4-000) Interconnection for Wind Energy and Other Alternative Technologies (January 24, 2005) AGENCY: Federal Energy...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection tre wecc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

RAPID/Geothermal/Transmission Siting & Interconnection/Montana...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

| Geothermal | Transmission Siting & Interconnection(Redirected from RAPIDGeothermalGrid ConnectionMontana) Jump to: navigation, search RAPID Regulatory and Permitting...

162

RAPID/Geothermal/Transmission Siting & Interconnection/Hawaii...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Utilities Commission to interconnect a proposed renewable energy project to the existing grid. Transmission Siting Threshold: No threshold provided Public Utility Definition for...

163

RAPID/Geothermal/Transmission Siting & Interconnection/Utah ...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

| Geothermal | Transmission Siting & Interconnection(Redirected from RAPIDGeothermalGrid ConnectionUtah) Jump to: navigation, search RAPID Regulatory and Permitting...

164

RAPID/Geothermal/Transmission Siting & Interconnection/Oregon...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

| Geothermal | Transmission Siting & Interconnection(Redirected from RAPIDGeothermalGrid ConnectionOregon) Jump to: navigation, search RAPID Regulatory and Permitting...

165

U.S. Army Fort Carson Interconnection Agreement  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Document describes a sample interconnection agreement for the U.S. Army Fort Carson photovoltaic (PV) project financed through a power purchase agreement (PPA).

166

Modelling of interconnects including coaxial cables and multiconductor lines.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In recent years, electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) problems associated with high frequency and high speed interconnects are becoming of increasing concern. Coaxial cables are a popular (more)

Teo, Yu Xian

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study  

SciTech Connect

The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States. A total of 54GW of offshore wind was assumed to be the target for the analyses conducted. A variety of issues are considered including: the anticipated staging of offshore wind; the offshore wind resource availability; offshore wind energy power production profiles; offshore wind variability; present and potential technologies for collection and delivery of offshore wind energy to the onshore grid; potential impacts to existing utility systems most likely to receive large amounts of offshore wind; and regulatory influences on offshore wind development. The technologies considered the reliability of various high-voltage ac (HVAC) and high-voltage dc (HVDC) technology options and configurations. The utility system impacts of GW-scale integration of offshore wind are considered from an operational steady-state perspective and from a regional and national production cost perspective.

Daniel, John P. [ABB Inc; Liu, Shu [ABB Inc; Ibanez, Eduardo [National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Pennock, Ken [AWS Truepower; Reed, Greg [University of Pittsburgh; Hanes, Spencer [Duke Energy

2014-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

168

The Design and Tests in a Three Interconnected Fluidized Bed  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrogen production based on chemical looping combustion can obtain clean hydrogen with near zero emission of carbon dioxide. This technique can be auto-thermal, making it very promising for hydrogen production. In this paper, the interconnected fluidized ... Keywords: chemical looping combustion, hydrogen production Interconnected fluidized beds

Junjiao Zhang; Jingzhou Jiang; Qiang Lu; Changqing Dong; Teng Zhang; Xinglei Liu; Zhiyong Liang; Yongping Yang

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

A Scalable Interconnection Network Architecture for Petaflops Computing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Extrapolating technology advances in the near future, a computer architecture capable of petaflops performance will likely be based on a collection of processing nodes interconnected by a high-performance network. One possible organization would consist ... Keywords: computer architecture, interconnection networks, performance analysis, petaflops computing

Constantine Katsinis; Bahram Nabet

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Trinity Public Utilities District Direct Interconnection Project  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

LEAD FEDERAL AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy LEAD FEDERAL AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy COOPERATING AGENCIES: U.S. Forest Service, U.S. Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation TITLE: Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Trinity Public Utilities District Direct Interconnection Project, DOE/EIS-0389 LOCATION: Trinity County, California CONTACT: For additional information on this For general information on the final environmental impact U.S. Department of Energy National statement, contact: Environmental Policy Act process, write or call: Mr. Mark J. Wieringa Ms. Carol M. Borgstrom, Director Western Area Power Administration Office of NEPA Policy and Compliance P.O. Box 281213 Health, Safety and Security (GC-20) Lakewood, CO 80228 U.S. Department of Energy

171

Pepco and PJM Interconnection Comments on District of Columbia Public  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Pepco and PJM Interconnection Comments on District of Columbia Pepco and PJM Interconnection Comments on District of Columbia Public Service Commission, Docket No. EO-05-01 Comments and Answer to Requests for Rehearing Pepco and PJM Interconnection Comments on District of Columbia Public Service Commission, Docket No. EO-05-01 Comments and Answer to Requests for Rehearing Docket No. EO-05-01: In accordance with Order No. 202-06-1, issued by the Department of Energy on February 17, 2006. Potomac Electric Power Company and PJM Interconnection, L.L.C. jointly submit these comments and answer to the requests for rehearing submitted by the City of Alexandria, Virginia and the Director of the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality in the captioned proceeding . Pepco and PJM Interconnection Comments on District of Columbia Public

172

Low Carbon Jobs in an Interconnected World | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jobs in an Interconnected World Jobs in an Interconnected World Jump to: navigation, search Name Low Carbon Jobs in an Interconnected World Agency/Company /Organization Global Climate Network Partner Institute for Public Policy Research Sector Energy Focus Area Energy Efficiency, Renewable Energy Topics Co-benefits assessment, Background analysis Website http://www.ippr.org.uk/publica Country Australia, Brazil, China, Germany, India, Nigeria, South Africa, United Kingdom, United States Australia and New Zealand, South America, Eastern Asia, Western Europe, Southern Asia, Western Africa, Southern Africa, Northern Europe, Northern America References Low Carbon Jobs in an Interconnected World[1] Low Carbon Jobs in an Interconnected World Author: Global Climate Network Price: Free Publication Date: 30 March 2010

173

A High-Performance Optoelectronic Interconnect Router: Using Increased Bandwidth to Enable Latency Reduction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

D R A FT 1 A High-Performance Optoelectronic Interconnect Router: Using Increased Bandwidth optoelectronic interconnection network router capable of supplying and efficiently utilizing higher bandwidth routing, interconnection network, latency hiding/reduction techniques, optoelectronic router. 1

Pinkston, Timothy M.

174

E-Print Network 3.0 - attach interconnection technology Sample...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Barbara; NONE Collection: Biology and Medicine ; Engineering 7 Call for Papers Optoelectronic Interconnects XII (OE113) Summary: interconnect technologies ultra-short reach...

175

Webinar: Understanding the Interconnection and Transmission Service Queues  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Webinar: Understanding the Interconnection and Transmission Service Webinar: Understanding the Interconnection and Transmission Service Queues Webinar: Understanding the Interconnection and Transmission Service Queues March 5, 2012 - 6:10pm Addthis This webinar will take place March 28, 2012, from 11 a.m.-12:30 p.m. MDT. Hosted by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs, DOE's Tribal Energy Program, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Western Area Power Administration, this Web seminar will answer the following questions: What is the large generator interconnection procedure? How is transmission service requested? What does this mean for Tribes interested in gaining access to the transmission system? This is the fifth in a series of webinars that will run through September 2012.

176

Utility Wind Integration Group Distributed Wind/Solar Interconnection  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Utility Wind Integration Group Distributed Wind/Solar Utility Wind Integration Group Distributed Wind/Solar Interconnection Workshop Utility Wind Integration Group Distributed Wind/Solar Interconnection Workshop May 21, 2013 8:00AM MDT to May 22, 2013 5:00PM MDT Golden, Colorado This two-day workshop will answer your questions about interconnecting wind and solar plants and other distributed generation applications to electric distribution systems while providing insight on integrating large-scale renewable generation into the transmission system. Held at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) state-of-the-art Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) on the first day and at the Western Area Power Administration's Electric Power Training Center (EPTC) on the second day, the workshop will provide an overview of wind and solar interconnection

177

PARS II New Contractor Information for Interconnection Security Agreement  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

New Contractor Information for Interconnection Security Agreement New Contractor Information for Interconnection Security Agreement V1.0 (November 18, 2010) The Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters Program Cyber Security Plan (PCSP), dated February 2008, requires the Project Assessment and Reporting System (PARS) II System Owner and the contractor sign an Interconnection Security Agreement (ISA). The requirement for an Interconnection Security Agreement can be found on page 182 of the PCSP. The ISA template is available for review on the PARS II portal (http://management.energy.gov/online_resources/pars2.htm) under Contractor Documents. Before the contractor begins sending data to PARS II, DOE will send the ISA to the contractor for review and signature. In order to prepare the ISA for review and signature, the PARS II Support Team needs

178

Interconnecting PV on NYC's Secondary Network Distribution System  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

To assess ways to improve the interconnection process, NREL conducted a four-part study with support from DOE. The NREL team then compiled the final reports from each study into this report.

179

Photovoltaic Systems Interconnected onto Secondary Network Distribution Systems Success Stories  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This report examines six case studies of photovoltaic (PV) systems integrated into secondary network systems. The six PV systems were chosen for evaluation because they are interconnected to secondary network systems located in four major Solar America Cities.

180

An optical data receiver for integrated photonic interconnects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The throughput bounds of traditional interconnect networks in microprocessors are being pushed to their limits. In past single-core processors, the number of long global wires constituted only a small fraction of the total. ...

Georgas, Michael S. (Michael Stephen)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection tre wecc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Evaluation of phase change materials for reconfigurable interconnects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The possible use of programmable integrated circuit interconnect vias using an indirectly heated phase change material is evaluated. Process development and materials investigations are examined. Devices capable of multiple ...

Khoo, Chee Ying

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Microsoft Word - CX-Hardeson_Interconnection_23Sept2013.doc  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

request. The proposed point of interconnection is at SnoPUD's existing Hardeson Substation. In order to integrate the proposed generation, BPA and SnoPUD would enter into...

183

Chemical looping combustion of coal in interconnected fluidized beds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Chemical looping combustion is the indirect combustion by use of oxygen carrier. It can...2...capture in power generating processes. In this paper, chemical looping combustion of coal in interconnected fluidized ...

LaiHong Shen; Min Zheng; Jun Xiao; Hui Zhang

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Perspectives on the metallic interconnects for solid oxide fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The various stages and progress in the development of interconnect materials for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) over the last two decades are reviewed. The criteria for the application of materials as intercon...

Wei-zhong Zhu; Mi Yan

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

5 F 13 Optica1 Interconnection T ransmitter Power BER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

¼ 5¸ ¤ ü ? ø Ð Ð ú ¸ ? í ® F? 13 Optica1 Interconnection? T ransmitter Power Í BER? ? û - ¡ ü ?

Choi, Woo-Young

186

New Report Characterizes Existing Offshore Wind Grid Interconnection Capabilities  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Energy Department today released the first National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study that investigated the key economic and technological factors that will influence the integration of offshore wind energy onto the national grid.

187

Interconnect modeling and optimization in deep sub-micron technologies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Interconnect will be a major bottleneck for deep sub-micron technologies in the years to come. This dissertation addresses the communication aspect from a power consumption and transmission speed perspective. A model for ...

Sotiriadis, Paul Peter P. (Paul Peter Peter-Paul), 1973-

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Accelerating Communication in On-Chip Interconnection Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. In this dissertation, several schemes are proposed to accelerate communication in on-chip interconnection networks within area and cost budgets to overcome the problems. First, an early transition scheme for fully adaptive routing algorithms is proposed to improve...

Ahn, Minseon

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

189

Design and analysis of high performance multistage interconnection networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

an analytical model to compare its performance with the existing designs reported in the literature. We validate on model with extensive simulation studies. Index Terms - Multistage interconnection networks, packet switching, static buffer allocation, dynamic...

Bhogavilli, Suresh K

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

190

Topic B Awardee: Eastern Interconnection States' Planning Council  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

TheEastern Interconnection States' Planning Council (EISPC) is an historic endeavor initially funded by an award from the United States Department of Energy (DOE) pursuant to a provision of the...

191

EA-1990: Ridgenose Solar Energy Interconnection Facility, Mohave County, Arizona  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

DOEs Western Area Power Administration (Desert Southwest Region) is preparing an EA that will assess the potential environmental impacts of a proposal to interconnect the planned Ridgenose Solar Energy Project to Westerns transmission system. Westerns actions could include constructing less than a mile of new transmission line from the solar facility to an existing substation, constructing an interconnection substation, and adding, moving, or modifying structures.

192

Developing Generic Dynamic Models for the 2030 Eastern Interconnection Grid  

SciTech Connect

The Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) has built three major power flow cases for the 2030 Eastern Interconnection (EI) based on various levels of energy/environmental policy conditions, technology advances, and load growth. Using the power flow cases, this report documents the process of developing the generic 2030 dynamic models using typical dynamic parameters. The constructed model was validated indirectly using the synchronized phasor measurements by removing the wind generation temporarily.

Kou, Gefei [ORNL; Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; Markham, Penn N [ORNL; Liu, Yilu [ORNL

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Initial Studies on Actionable Control for Improving Small Signal Stability in Interconnected Power Systems  

SciTech Connect

Power consumption and demand continues to grow around the world. As the electric power grid continues to be put under more stress, the conditions of instability are more likely to occur. One cause of such instabilities is intearea oscillations, such as the oscillation that resulted in the August 10, 1996 blackout of the WECC. This paper explores different potential operations of different devices on the power system to improve the damping of these interarea oscillations using two different simulation models

Tuffner, Francis K.; Huang, Zhenyu; Zhou, Ning; Guttromson, Ross T.; Jayantilal, Avnaesh

2010-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

194

EIS-0434: Hualapai Valley Solar Interconnection Project, Arizona |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

34: Hualapai Valley Solar Interconnection Project, Arizona 34: Hualapai Valley Solar Interconnection Project, Arizona EIS-0434: Hualapai Valley Solar Interconnection Project, Arizona Overview Hualapai Valley Solar, LLC, proposes to construct, operate and maintain a 340-megawatt, solar-powered generating facility in Mohave County, near Kingman, Ariz. The proposed project would use concentrating solar-power-trough technology to capture the sun's heat to make steam, which would power a traditional steam turbine generator. Proposed infrastructure would consist of a solar field, power block, thermal energy storage system, substation site, transmission line, temporary laydown areas and other ancillary facilities. Public Comment Opportunities No public comment opportunities available at this time. Documents Available for Download

195

Electrodeposited Mn-Co Alloy Coating For SOFC Interconnects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electrodeposited Electrodeposited Mn-Co Alloy Coating For SOFC Interconnects H. McCrabb * , T. Hall * , J. Wu # , H. Zhang # , X. Liu # , E.J. Taylor * * Faraday Technology Inc., 315 Huls Dr., Clayton, OH 45315, USA # West Virginia University, Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Eng.ESB, Morgantown, WV, 26506, USA Overall Objective Overall Objective Principal Investigator: Heather McCrabb, Company Name: Faraday Technology, Inc., Address: 315 Huls Drive, Clayton, OH 45315, Phone: 937-836-7749, E-mail: heathermccrabb@faradaytechnology.com, Company website: faradaytechnology.com Previous Work at WVU Results Develop an inexpensive manufacturing process for depositing (Mn,Co) 3 O 4 spinel coatings onto SOFC interconnects. Introduction The decrease in the SOFC operating temperatures from 1000°C to between 650 and 850°C has enabled the use of chromia-forming ferritic stainless steels as interconnects

196

Renewable Energy Interconnection and Storage - Technical Aspects | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Renewable Energy Interconnection and Storage - Technical Aspects Renewable Energy Interconnection and Storage - Technical Aspects Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Spain Installed Wind Capacity Website Focus Area: Renewable Energy Topics: Market Analysis Website: www.gwec.net/index.php?id=131 Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/spain-installed-wind-capacity-website Language: English Policies: Regulations Regulations: Feed-in Tariffs This website presents an overview of total installed wind energy capacity in Spain per year from 2000 to 2010. The page also presents the main market developments from 2010; a policy summary; a discussion of the revision in feed-in tariffs in 2010; and a future market outlook. References Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Renewable_Energy_Interconnection_and_Storage_-_Technical_Aspects&oldid=514543"

197

Graphene interconnects fully encapsulated in layered insulator hexagonal boron nitride  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We demonstrate improvements in the electrical performance of graphene interconnects with full encapsulation by lattice-matching layered insulator, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). A novel layer-based transfer method is developed to assemble the top passivating layer of h-BN on the graphene surface to construct the h-BN/graphene/h-BN heterostructures. The encapsulated graphene interconnects (EGIs) are characterized and compared with graphene interconnects on either SiO2 or h-BN substrates with no top passivating h-BN layer. We observe significant improvements in both the maximum current density and breakdown voltage in EGIs. Compared with the uncovered structures, EGIs also show an appreciable increase (~67%) in power density at breakdown. These improvements are achieved without degrading the carrier transport characteristics in graphene wires. In addition, EGIs exhibit a minimal environment impact, showing electrical behavior insensitive to ambient conditions.

Nikhil Jain; Chris A Durcan; Robin Jacobs-Gedrim; Yang Xu; Bin Yu

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

National Electric Transmission Congestion Study 2006 Eastern Interconnection Analysis  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Memorandum To: Poonum Agrawal, David Meyer, U.S. Department of Energy CRA No. D08554-00 From: Prashant Murti, Alex Rudkevich, CRA International Date: Finalized March 13, 2006 Subject: GE MAPS INPUT ASSUMPTIONS: EASTERN INTERCONNECT This memorandum summarizes salient inputs to the CRA locational price forecasting model (GE MAPS). The model geographic footprint encompasses the US portion of the Eastern Interconnect and the Canadian province of Ontario. The analyses simulate the years 2008 and 2011. Primary data sources for the CRA GE MAPS model include the NERC MMWG, the General Electric generation and transmission databases for the Eastern Interconnect, various publications by NERC regions and Independent System Operators, FERC submissions by generation and transmission owners,

199

851 S.W. Sixth Avenue, Suite 1100 Steve Crow 503-222-5161 Portland, Oregon 97204-1348 Executive Director 800-452-5161  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SUBJECT: WECC Reorganization The Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) is one of nine regional electric reliability councils. The WECC region encompasses the entire Western Interconnection, including all or parts of 13 States, two Canadian Provinces, and Baja California in Mexico. In the wake

200

RAPID/BulkTransmission/Arizona | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Entity responsible for coordinating and promoting Bulk Electric System reliability in the Western Interconnection, including Arizona. WECC also provides an environment for...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection tre wecc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

High-temperature quenching of electrical resistance in graphene interconnects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

into the chip interconnect design the materials with low electrical resistance and high thermal con- ductivity dependence of the resistance were explained by the thermal generation of the electron-hole pairs and carrier, increased total thermal boundary resistance of the chip layers, incorporation of the alternative dielectric

202

STABILITY ANALYSIS OF INTERCONNECTED POWER SYSTEMS COUPLED WITH MARKET DYNAMICS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, with energy imbalance in the physical system, with or without network congestion, driving the market responseSTABILITY ANALYSIS OF INTERCONNECTED POWER SYSTEMS COUPLED WITH MARKET DYNAMICS F.L. Alvarado1 J University of Paraiba, Brazil Abstract: The use of market mechanisms to determine gen- eration dispatch

203

Energy and Reliability in Future NOC Interconnected CMPS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this dissertation, I explore energy and reliability in future NoC (Network-on-Chip) interconnected CMPs (chip multiprocessors) as they have become a first-order constraint in future CMP design. In the first part, we target the root cause...

Kim, Hyungjun

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Solar Energy to Benefit from New FERC Interconnection Procedures  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

As a major win for solar and testament to the impact of Department of Energys SunShot Initiative funded research at the national labs, this past month Federal Energy Regulatory Commission announced the adoption of new fast track rules to make the interconnection process dramatically cheaper and faster for small wholesale energy projects, representing a major improvement with nationwide impacts.

205

Hermetic aluminum radio frequency interconnection and method for making  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides a light-weight, hermetic coaxial radio-frequency (RF) interconnection having an electrically conductive outer housing made of aluminum or an aluminum alloy, a central electrical conductor made of ferrous or non-ferrous material, and a cylinder of dielectric material comprising a low-melting-temperature, high-thermal-expansion aluminophosphate glass composition for hermetically sealing between the aluminum-alloy outer housing and the ferrous or non-ferrous center conductor. The entire RF interconnection assembly is made permanently hermetic by thermally fusing the center conductor, glass, and housing concurrently by bringing the glass to the melt point by way of exposure to an atmospheric temperature sufficient to melt the glass, less than 540.degree. C., but that does not melt the center conductor or the outer aluminum or aluminum alloy housing. The composition of the glass used is controlled to provide a suitable low dielectric constant so that an appropriate electrical characteristic impedance, for example 50 ohms, can be achieved for an electrical interconnection that performs well at high radio frequencies and also provides an interconnection maintaining a relatively small physical size.

Kilgo, Riley D. (Albuquerque, NM); Kovacic, Larry (Albuquerque, NM); Brow, Richard K. (Rolla, MO)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Optimum Wire Tapering for Minimum Power Dissipation in RLC Interconnects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

tapering is shown to reduce the (a CMOS inverter) with the driver (a CMOS inverter). The power dissipatedOptimum Wire Tapering for Minimum Power Dissipation in RLC Interconnects Magdy A. El-Moursy and Eby G. Friedman Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Rochester Rochester, New

Friedman, Eby G.

207

Lumped Electro-Thermal Model of On-chip Interconnects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, among other effects, an increase of electrical resistivity of metal inter- connect and thus of operating frequency has dramatically magnified the electrical power density leading to a signifi- cant tools in fact model interconnections by discretizing them in a set of elementary subsections and thus

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

208

Preliminary Response of PJM Interconnection, L.L.C. to the Operating...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Response of PJM Interconnection, L.L.C. to the Operating Plan of Mirant Potomac River, LLC Preliminary Response of PJM Interconnection, L.L.C. to the Operating Plan of Mirant...

209

EAC Recommendations for DOE Action Regarding Interconnection-Wide Planning- June 6, 2013  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

EAC Recommendations for DOE Action Regarding Interconnection-Wide Planning, approved at the June 5-6, 2013 EAC Meeting.

210

H C26 Performance Analysis of Optica1 Interconnection Systems Inch-ing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Analysis of Optica1 Interconnection Systems Inch- ing T ransmitter T emperature Dependence .è ¯ ? , ? ? ì

Choi, Woo-Young

211

SWITCH-WECC Data, Assumptions, and Model Formulation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.......................................................................................... 22 2.9.2 Existing Hydroelectric and Pumped Hydroelectric Plants

Kammen, Daniel M.

212

Analysis of free-space optical interconnects for the three-dimensional optoelectronic stacked processor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Analysis of free-space optical interconnects for the three-dimensional optoelectronic stacked of free-space optical interconnect for the three-dimensional optoelectronic stacked processor (3DOESP) has VLSI; Optoelectronics; VCSELs 1. Introduction Current electronic interconnection technology cannot keep

Esener, Sadik C.

213

A novel framework for exploring 3-D FPGAs with heterogeneous interconnect fabric  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A heterogeneous interconnect architecture can be a useful approach for the design of 3-D FPGAs. A methodology to investigate heterogeneous interconnection schemes for 3-D FPGAs under different 3-D fabrication technologies is proposed. Application of ... Keywords: 3-D integration, 3-D reconfigurable architectures, FPGAs, design framework, interconnection fabric

Kostas Siozios; Vasilis F. Pavlidis; Dimitrios Soudris

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Integration of a waveguide self-electrooptic effect device and a vertically coupled interconnect waveguide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A self-electrooptic effect device ("SEED") is integrated with waveguide interconnects through the use of vertical directional couplers. Light initially propagating in the interconnect waveguide is vertically coupled to the active waveguide layer of the SEED and, if the SEED is in the transparent state, the light is coupled back to the interconnect waveguide.

Vawter, G. Allen (Corrales, NM)

2008-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

215

Enzymatic synthesis of dimaltosyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin via a transglycosylation reaction using TreX, a Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 debranching enzyme  

SciTech Connect

Di-O-{alpha}-maltosyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin ((G2){sub 2}-{beta}-CD) was synthesized from 6-O-{alpha}-maltosyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin (G2-{beta}-CD) via a transglycosylation reaction catalyzed by TreX, a debranching enzyme from Sulfolobus solfataricus P2. TreX showed no activity toward glucosyl-{beta}-CD, but a transfer product (1) was detected when the enzyme was incubated with maltosyl-{beta}-CD, indicating specificity for a branched glucosyl chain bigger than DP2. Analysis of the structure of the transfer product (1) using MALDI-TOF/MS and isoamylase or glucoamylase treatment revealed it to be dimaltosyl-{beta}-CD, suggesting that TreX transferred the maltosyl residue of a G2-{beta}-CD to another molecule of G2-{beta}-CD by forming an {alpha}-1,6-glucosidic linkage. When [{sup 14}C]-maltose and maltosyl-{beta}-CD were reacted with the enzyme, the radiogram showed no labeled dimaltosyl-{beta}-CD; no condensation product between the two substrates was detected, indicating that the synthesis of dimaltosyl-{beta}-CD occurred exclusively via transglycosylation of an {alpha}-1,6-glucosidic linkage. Based on the HPLC elution profile, the transfer product (1) was identified to be isomers of 6{sup 1},6{sup 3}- and 6{sup 1},6{sup 4}-dimaltosyl-{beta}-CD. Inhibition studies with {beta}-CD on the transglycosylation activity revealed that {beta}-CD was a mixed-type inhibitor, with a K{sub i} value of 55.6 {mu}mol/mL. Thus, dimaltosyl-{beta}-CD can be more efficiently synthesized by a transglycosylation reaction with TreX in the absence of {beta}-CD. Our findings suggest that the high yield of (G2){sub 2}-{beta}-CD from G2-{beta}-CD was based on both the transglycosylation action mode and elimination of the inhibitory effect of {beta}-CD.

Kang, Hee-Kwon; Cha, Hyunju; Yang, Tae-Joo; Park, Jong-Tae; Lee, Seungjae [Center for Agricultural Biomaterials, Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Shillim-dong, Kwanak-gu, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young-Wan [Department of Food and Biotechnology, Korea University, Jochiwon, Chungnam 339-700 (Korea, Republic of); Auh, Joong-Hyuck [Department of Food Science and Technology, Chungang University, Anseong 456-756 (Korea, Republic of); Okada, Yasuyo [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mukogawa Women's University, Nishinomiya 663-8179 (Japan); Kim, Jung-Wan [Department of Biology, University of Incheon, Incheon 402-749 (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Jaeho [Department of Biological Science, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chung Ho [Department of Food and Nutrition, Seowon University, Cheongju 361-742 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Kwan-Hwa [Center for Agricultural Biomaterials, Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Shillim-dong, Kwanak-gu, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: parkkh@plaza.snu.ac.kr

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Electricity Advisory Committee Meeting Presentations October 2011 -  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Processes Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Processes Electricity Advisory Committee Meeting Presentations October 2011 - Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Processes Panel Discussion on Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Processes Interconnection-Wide Planning in the Eastern Interconnection - David Whiteley, Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative WECC Regional Transmission Expansion Planning (RTEP)10 year plan - Brad Nickell, Western Electricity Coordinating Council Transmission Planning in the ERCOT Interconnection 2011 - Warren Lasher, Electric Reliability Council of Texas EAC Presentation - Interconnection-Wide Planning in the Eastern Interconnection 2011 - Whiteley.pdf EAC Presentation - WECC Regional Transmission Expansion Planning (RTEP)10

217

PJM Interconnection, LLC Smart Grid Project | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

LLC Smart Grid Project LLC Smart Grid Project Jump to: navigation, search Project Lead PJM Interconnection, LLC Country United States Headquarters Location Norristown, Pennsylvania Additional Benefit Places Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, North Carolina, New Jersey, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Virgin Islands, West Virginia Recovery Act Funding $13,698,091.00 Total Project Value $228203511 Coverage Area Coverage Map: PJM Interconnection, LLC Smart Grid Project Coordinates 40.121497°, -75.3399048° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[]}

218

Geothermal Power and Interconnection: The Economics of Getting to Market  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Power and Power and Interconnection: The Economics of Getting to Market David Hurlbut Technical Report NREL/TP-6A20-54192 April 2012 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Geothermal Power and Interconnection: The Economics of Getting to Market David Hurlbut Prepared under Task No. WE11.0815 Technical Report NREL/TP-6A20-54192 April 2012 NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government.

219

Impact of High Solar Penetration in the Western Interconnection  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Impact of High Solar Penetration Impact of High Solar Penetration in the Western Interconnection Debra Lew National Renewable Energy Laboratory Nicholas Miller, Kara Clark, Gary Jordan, and Zhi Gao GE Energy Technical Report NREL/TP-5500-49667 December 2010 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Impact of High Solar Penetration in the Western Interconnection Debra Lew National Renewable Energy Laboratory Nicholas Miller, Kara Clark, Gary Jordan, and Zhi Gao GE Energy Prepared under Task No. SM101610

220

EIS-0435: Modification of the Groton Generation Station Interconnection  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

5: Modification of the Groton Generation Station 5: Modification of the Groton Generation Station Interconnection Agreement, Brown County, South Dakota EIS-0435: Modification of the Groton Generation Station Interconnection Agreement, Brown County, South Dakota Summary This EIS evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal for DOE's Western Area Power Administration to modify its Large Generator Connection Agreement for the Groton Generation Station in Brown County, South Dakota. The modification would allow Basin Electric Power Cooperative, which operates the generation station, to produce power above the current operating limit of 50 average megawatts. Public Comment Opportunities No public comment opportunities available at this time. Documents Available for Download June 3, 2011 EIS-0435: Final Environmental Impact Statement

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection tre wecc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Interconnecting PV on New York City's Secondary Network Distribution System  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has teamed with cities across the country through the Solar America Cities (SAC) partnership program to help reduce barriers and accelerate implementation of solar energy. The New York City SAC team is a partnership between the City University of New York (CUNY), the New York City Mayor s Office of Long-term Planning and Sustainability, and the New York City Economic Development Corporation (NYCEDC).The New York City SAC team is working with DOE s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Con Edison, the local utility, to develop a roadmap for photovoltaic (PV) installations in the five boroughs. The city set a goal to increase its installed PV capacity from1.1 MW in 2005 to 8.1 MW by 2015 (the maximum allowed in 2005). A key barrier to reaching this goal, however, is the complexity of the interconnection process with the local utility. Unique challenges are associated with connecting distributed PV systems to secondary network distribution systems (simplified to ???¢????????networks???¢??????? in this report). Although most areas of the country use simpler radial distribution systems to distribute electricity, larger metropolitan areas like New York City typically use networks to increase reliability in large load centers. Unlike the radial distribution system, where each customer receives power through a single line, a network uses a grid of interconnected lines to deliver power to each customer through several parallel circuits and sources. This redundancy improves reliability, but it also requires more complicated coordination and protection schemes that can be disrupted by energy exported from distributed PV systems. Currently, Con Edison studies each potential PV system in New York City to evaluate the system s impact on the network, but this is time consuming for utility engineers and may delay the customer s project or add cost for larger installations. City leaders would like to streamline this process to facilitate faster, simpler, and less expensive distributed PV system interconnections. To assess ways to improve the interconnection process, NREL conducted a four-part study with support from DOE. The NREL team then compiled the final reports from each study into this report. In Section 1???¢????????PV Deployment Analysis for New York City???¢????????we analyze the technical potential for rooftop PV systems in the city. This analysis evaluates potential PV power production in ten Con Edison networks of various locations and building densities (ranging from high density apartments to lower density single family homes). Next, we compare the potential power production to network loads to determine where and when PV generation is most likely to exceed network load and disrupt network protection schemes. The results of this analysis may assist Con Edison in evaluating future PV interconnection applications and in planning future network protection system upgrades. This analysis may also assist other utilities interconnecting PV systems to networks by defining a method for assessing the technical potential of PV in the network and its impact on network loads. Section 2???¢????????A Briefing for Policy Makers on Connecting PV to a Network Grid???¢????????presents an overview intended for nontechnical stakeholders. This section describes the issues associated with interconnecting PV systems to networks, along with possible solutions. Section 3???¢????????Technical Review of Concerns and Solutions to PV Interconnection in New Y

K. Anderson; M. Coddington; K. Burman; S. Hayter; B. Kroposki; and A. Watson

2009-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

222

Reliability assessment of autonomous power systems incorporating HVDC interconnection links  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this paper is to present an improved computational method for the overall reliability assessment of autonomous power systems that may or may not contain HVdc interconnection links. This is a hybrid method based on a Monte-Carlo simulation sequential approach which incorporates an analytical approach for the reliability modeling of the HVdc transmission links. The developed models and techniques have been implemented into a computer program that can be used to simulate the operational practices and characteristics of the overall system under study efficiently and realistically. A set of reliability indices are calculated for each load-point of interest and the entire system while a set of additional indices is calculated for quantifying the reliability performance of the interconnection links under the specified operating requirements. The analysis of a practical system is also included for a number of studies representing its various operating and design characteristics.

Dialynas, E.N.; Koskolos, N.C. [National Technical Univ., Athens (Greece). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering] [National Technical Univ., Athens (Greece). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Agoris, D. [Public Power Corp., Athens (Greece)] [Public Power Corp., Athens (Greece)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Motion to Intervene and Initial Comments of PJM Interconnection, L.L.C. |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

and Initial Comments of PJM Interconnection, and Initial Comments of PJM Interconnection, L.L.C. Motion to Intervene and Initial Comments of PJM Interconnection, L.L.C. Motion to Intervene and Initial Comments of PJM Interconnection, L.L.C. On January 5, 2009, ITC Transmission filed with the Department of Energy a request to amend Presidential Permit PP-230-3, which authorizes ITC to own and operate specified electric transmission facilities at the Bunce Creek station that interconnect ITC with Hydro One Networks Inc electric transmission facilities at the Michigan-Ontario border. Motion to Intervene and Initial Comments of PJM Interconnection, L.L.C. More Documents & Publications Application for presidential permit OE Docket No. PP-230-4 International Transmission Company: Response of PJM Interconnection, L.L.C. to Answer of

224

GRR/Section 8-TX-b - ERCOT Interconnection | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

8-TX-b - ERCOT Interconnection 8-TX-b - ERCOT Interconnection < GRR Jump to: navigation, search GRR-logo.png GEOTHERMAL REGULATORY ROADMAP Roadmap Home Roadmap Help List of Sections Section 8-TX-b - ERCOT Interconnection 8-TX-b - ERCOT Interconnection Process.pdf Click to View Fullscreen Regulations & Policies PUCT Substantive Rule 25.198 Triggers None specified Click "Edit With Form" above to add content 8-TX-b - ERCOT Interconnection Process.pdf 8-TX-b - ERCOT Interconnection Process.pdf Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Flowchart Narrative This flowchart illustrates the procedures for interconnection with Electricity Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) in Texas. According to PUCT Substantive Rule 25.198, the responsibility for

225

Power System Study for Renewable Energy Interconnection in Malaysia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The renewable energy (RE) sector has grown exponentially in Malaysia with the introduction of the Feed-In-Tariff (FIT) by the Ministry of Energy, Green Technology and Water. Photovoltaic, biogas, biomass and mini hydro are among the renewable energy sources which offer a lucrative tariff to incite developers in taking the green technology route. In order to receive the FIT, a developer is required by the utility company to perform a power system analysis which will determine the technical feasibility of an RE interconnection to the utility company's existing grid system. There are a number of aspects which the analysis looks at, the most important being the load flow and fault levels in the network after the introduction of an RE source. The analysis is done by modelling the utility company's existing network and simulating the network with the interconnection of an RE source. The results are then compared to the values before an interconnection is made as well as ensuring the voltage rise or the increase in fault levels do not violate any pre-existing regulations set by the utility company. This paper will delve into the mechanics of performing a load flow analysis and examining the results obtained.

O F Askar; V K Ramachandaramurthy

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Corrosion of Metallic SOFC Interconnects in Coal Syngas  

SciTech Connect

With recent reductions in the operating temperature of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC), the potential of using metallic interconnect has gone up. There is also an interest in using Coal syngas as the fuel gas and thus there is a need to analyze the behavior and performance of metallic interconnects when exposed to Coal syngas. Three high temperature material alloys, Crofer 22 APU, Ebrite and Haynes 230, having the potential to be used as SOFC interconnects were studied in simulated wet coal syngas. These alloys were exposed to syngas at 800 degrees C and for 100 hours. The exposure to coal syngas led to the formation of oxides and spinels, which evidently led to an increase in electrical resistance. Oxidation in a reducing and carburizing environment leads to unique phase and morphology formations. A comparative analysis was carried out for all the three alloys, wherein the samples were characterized by using SEM, EDS, Raman and X-Ray diffraction to obtain the morphology, thickness, composition and crystal structure of the oxides and spinels

Dastane, R.R. (University of West Virginia); Liu, X. (University of West Virginia); Johnson, C., Mao, Scott (University of Pittsburgh)

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Monolithically interconnected GaAs solar cells: A new interconnection technology for high voltage solar cell output  

SciTech Connect

Photovoltaic linear concentrator arrays can benefit from high performance solar cell technologies being developed at AstroPower. Specifically, these are the integration of thin GaAs solar cell and epitaxial lateral overgrowth technologies with the application of monolithically interconnected solar cell (MISC) techniques. This MISC array has several advantages which make it ideal for space concentrator systems. These are high system voltage, reliable low cost monolithically formed interconnections, design flexibility, costs that are independent of array voltage, and low power loss from shorts, opens, and impact damage. This concentrator solar cell will incorporate the benefits of light trapping by growing the device active layers over a low-cost, simple, PECVD deposited silicon/silicon dioxide Bragg reflector. The high voltage-low current output results in minimal 12R losses while properly designing the device allows for minimal shading and resistance losses. It is possible to obtain open circuit voltages as high as 67 volts/cm of solar cell length with existing technology. The projected power density for the high performance device is 5 kW/m for an AMO efficiency of 26% at 1 5X. Concentrator solar cell arrays are necessary to meet the power requirements of specific mission platforms and can supply high voltage power for electric propulsion systems. It is anticipated that the high efficiency, GaAs monolithically interconnected linear concentrator solar cell array will enjoy widespread application for space based solar power needs. Additional applications include remote man-portable or ultra-light unmanned air vehicle (UAV) power supplies where high power per area, high radiation hardness and a high bus voltage or low bus current are important. The monolithic approach has a number of inherent advantages, including reduced cost per interconnect and increased reliability of array connections. There is also a high potential for a large number of consumer products.

Dinetta, L.C.; Hannon, M.H.

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Production process for advanced space satellite system cables/interconnects.  

SciTech Connect

This production process was generated for the satellite system program cables/interconnects group, which in essences had no well defined production process. The driver for the development of a formalized process was based on the set backs, problem areas, challenges, and need improvements faced from within the program at Sandia National Laboratories. In addition, the formal production process was developed from the Master's program of Engineering Management for New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology in Socorro New Mexico and submitted as a thesis to meet the institute's graduating requirements.

Mendoza, Luis A.

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Novel Composite Materials for SOFC Cathode-Interconnect Contact  

SciTech Connect

This report summarized the research efforts and major conclusions of our University Coal Research Project, which focused on developing a new class of electrically-conductive, Cr-blocking, damage-tolerant Ag-perovksite composite materials for the cathode-interconnect contact of intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks. The Ag evaporation rate increased linearly with air flow rate initially and became constant for the air flow rate {ge} {approx} 1.0 cm {center_dot} s{sup -1}. An activation energy of 280 KJ.mol{sup -1} was obtained for Ag evaporation in both air and Ar+5%H{sub 2}+3%H{sub 2}O. The exposure environment had no measurable influence on the Ag evaporation rate as well as its dependence on the gas flow rate, while different surface morphological features were developed after thermal exposure in the oxidizing and reducing environments. Pure Ag is too volatile at the SOFC operating temperature and its evaporation rate needs to be reduced to facilitate its application as the cathode-interconnect contact. Based on extensive evaporation testing, it was found that none of the alloying additions reduced the evaporation rate of Ag over the long-term exposure, except the noble metals Au, Pt, and Pd; however, these noble elements are too expensive to justify their practical use in contact materials. Furthermore, the addition of La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}MnO{sub 3} (LSM) into Ag to form a composite material also did not significantly modify the Ag evaporation rate. The Ag-perovskite composites with the perovskite being either (La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4})(Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2})O{sub 3} (LSCF) or LSM were systematically evaluated as the contact material between the ferritic interconnect alloy Crofer 22 APU and the LSM cathode. The area specific resistances (ASRs) of the test specimens were shown to be highly dependent on the volume percentage and the type of the perovskite present in the composite contact material as well as the amount of thermal cycling that the specimens were subjected to during testing. The Ag-LSCF composite contact materials proved more effective in trapping Cr within the contact material and preventing Cr migration into the cathode than the Ag-LSM composites. Ag-perovskite composite contact materials are promising candidates for use in intermediate-temperature SOFC stacks with ferritic stainless steel interconnects due to their ability to maintain acceptably low ASRs while reducing Cr migration into the cathode material.

J. H. Zhu

2009-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

230

Western Interconnection Energy Imbalance Market Status and Prospects (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation describes how a new wholesale electricity market for energy imbalance ancillary services could be implemented and operated. Some conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Method for calculating additional reserve requirements due to wind and solar production; (2) EIM results in substantial reduction in reserves requirements and ramping demand; (3) Reduced participation reduces benefits for all but reduces the benefits to non-participants the most; (4) Full participation leads to maximum benefit across the Western Interconnection, up to 42% of total reserve requirement; and (5) Regional EIM implementations have smaller but substantial benefits.

Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; King, J.; Beuning, S.

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

EA-1884: Invenergy Interconnection for the Wray Wind Energy Project, Town  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

84: Invenergy Interconnection for the Wray Wind Energy 84: Invenergy Interconnection for the Wray Wind Energy Project, Town of Wray, Yuma County, CO EA-1884: Invenergy Interconnection for the Wray Wind Energy Project, Town of Wray, Yuma County, CO Summary DOE's Western Area Power Administration prepared this EA to evaluate the environmental impacts of interconnecting the proposed Wray Wind Energy Project, for approximately 90 megawatts of wind generation, to Western's existing Wray Substation in Yuma County, Colorado. Public Comment Opportunities None available at this time. Documents Available for Download December 27, 2012 EA-1884: Finding of No Significant Impact Invenergy Interconnection for the Wray Wind Energy Project, Town of Wray, Yuma County, CO December 27, 2012 EA-1884: Final Environmental Assessment Invenergy Interconnection for the Wray Wind Energy Project, Town of Wray,

232

GRR/Section 8-TX-c - Distributed Generation Interconnection | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GRR/Section 8-TX-c - Distributed Generation Interconnection GRR/Section 8-TX-c - Distributed Generation Interconnection < GRR Jump to: navigation, search GRR-logo.png GEOTHERMAL REGULATORY ROADMAP Roadmap Home Roadmap Help List of Sections Section 8-TX-c - Distributed Generation Interconnection 8-TX-c - Distributed Generation Interconnection.pdf Click to View Fullscreen Contact Agencies Public Utility Commission of Texas Regulations & Policies PUCT Substantive Rule 25.211 PUCT Substantive Rule 25.212 Triggers None specified Click "Edit With Form" above to add content 8-TX-c - Distributed Generation Interconnection.pdf 8-TX-c - Distributed Generation Interconnection.pdf Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Flowchart Narrative This flowchart illustrates the process for distributed generation (DG)

233

Generation Interconnection Policies and Wind Power: A Discussion of Issues, Problems, and Potential Solutions  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the adoption and implementation of FERC Order 2003 and the reasons for the sharp rise in generation interconnection filings in recent years.

Porter, K.; Fink, S.; Mudd, C.; DeCesaro, J.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Comparing Germany's and California's Interconnection Processes for PV Systems (White Paper)  

SciTech Connect

Establishing interconnection to the grid is a recognized barrier to the deployment of distributed energy generation. This report compares interconnection processes for photovoltaic projects in California and Germany. This report summarizes the steps of the interconnection process for developers and utilities, the average length of time utilities take to process applications, and paperwork required of project developers. Based on a review of the available literature, this report finds that while the interconnection procedures and timelines are similar in California and Germany, differences in the legal and regulatory frameworks are substantial.

Tweedie, A.; Doris, E.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Energy Requirement and Speed Analysis of Electrical and Free-Space Optical Digital Interconnections  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Scaling of VLSI technology has been dramatically increasing microelectronic device densities and speeds. However, the interconnection technology between devices does not advance proportionally. Limited available ...

Gke I. Yayla; Philippe J. Marchand

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Synchrotron X-Ray Microdiffraction Studies of Electromigration in Interconnect lines at the Advanced Light Source  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in Confined Metal Lines, Journal of Applied Physics, 73 (in passivated metal lines, Applied Physics Letters, 81 (aluminum interconnect lines with X-ray micro- diffraction,

Tamura, Nobumichi

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Synchrotron X-Ray Microdiffraction Studies of Electromigration in Interconnect lines at the Advanced Light Source  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in Confined Metal Lines, Journal of Applied Physics, 73 (in passivated metal lines, Applied Physics Letters, 81 (aluminum interconnect lines with X-ray micro- diffraction,

Tamura, Nobumichi

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Optical Digital Audio Interconnect Based on Organic Light Emitting Diodes and Organic Photodiodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An optical interconnect using solely organic optoelectronic components is presented. Careful optimization of the organic light emitting diodes and photodiodes allows us to successfully...

Valouch, Sebastian; Punke, Martin; Kettlitz, Siegfried W; Lemmer, Uli; Gerken, Martina

239

Electrical isolation of component cells in monolithically interconnected modules  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A monolithically interconnected photovoltaic module having cells which are electrically connected which comprises a substrate, a plurality of cells formed over the substrate, each cell including a primary absorber layer having a light receiving surface and a p-region, formed with a p-type dopant, and an n-region formed with an n-type dopant adjacent the p-region to form a single pn-junction, and a cell isolation diode layer having a p-region, formed with a p-type dopant, and an n-region formed with an n-type dopant adjacent the p-region to form a single pn-junction, the diode layer intervening the substrate and the absorber layer wherein the absorber and diode interfacial regions of a same conductivity type orientation, the diode layer having a reverse-breakdown voltage sufficient to prevent inter-cell shunting, and each cell electrically isolated from adjacent cells with a vertical trench trough the pn-junction of the diode layer, interconnects disposed in the trenches contacting the absorber regions of adjacent cells which are doped an opposite conductivity type, and electrical contacts.

Wanlass, Mark W. (Golden, CO)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

PowerHerd: Dynamic Satisfaction of Peak Power Constraints in Interconnection Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Cooling costs can be pro- hibitive (consider the high power budgets of industry-standard six- foot serverPowerHerd: Dynamic Satisfaction of Peak Power Constraints in Interconnection Networks Li Shang Li,peh,jha}@ee.princeton.edu Niraj K. Jha ABSTRACT Power consumption is a critical issue in interconnection network design, driven

Shang, Li

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection tre wecc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

A Design Space Exploration of Transmission-Line Links for On-Chip Interconnect  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Design Space Exploration of Transmission-Line Links for On-Chip Interconnect Aaron Carpenter-performance interconnect fabric that is energy-efficient. Well-engineered transmission line- based communication systems-based analysis, we show that a shared-medium fabric based on transmission line can offer better performance

Wu, Hui

242

Predictions, Challenges, and Opportunities in CMOS Compatible On-Chip Optical Interconnect  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to a few picoseconds. IV. ELECTRICAL VS. OPTICAL INTERCONNECTS Different criteria used in the design of the . Friedman Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Rochester, Rochester, New York for electrical interconnect. Predictions of the performance of CMOS compatible optical devices are made based

Friedman, Eby G.

243

Testing for Interconnect Crosstalk Defects Using On-Chip Embedded Processor Cores  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Testing for Interconnect Crosstalk Defects Using On-Chip Embedded Processor Cores Li Chen on long interconnects and must be addressed during manufacturing testing. External testing for crosstalk is expensive due to the need for high-speed testers. Built-in self-test, while eliminating the need for a high

California at San Diego, University of

244

Extraction and Modeling of the Optoelectronic Characteristics of an Optical Interconnect Link  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Extraction and Modeling of the Optoelectronic Characteristics of an Optical Interconnect Link a technique that enables the extraction and modeling of some of the channel's optoelectronic characteristics and optoelectronic com- ponents utilized in the link. 1. Introduction In the last decade optical interconnects have

Esener, Sadik C.

245

The Impact of Dynamic Directories on Multicore Interconnects MATT SCHUCHHARDT, Northwestern University  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

consumption by up to 37.3% (22.9% on average for scientific workloads, and 8.0% for Map-Reduce). 1 Directories on the performance, power, and energy consumption of a multicore processor. We show its. This eliminates a large fraction of on-chip interconnect traversals, thus reducing interconnect power and energy

Kuzmanovic, Aleksandar

246

A Design Space Exploration of Transmission-Line Links for On-Chip Interconnect  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Design Space Exploration of Transmission-Line Links for On-Chip Interconnect Aaron Carpenter-performance interconnect fabric that is energy-efficient. Well-engineered transmission line-based commu- nication systems-based analysis, we show that a shared-medium fabric based on transmission line can offer better performance

Huang, Michael C.

247

Federal Utility Partnership Working Group - Utility Interconnection Panel  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

WORKING GROUP - Utility Interconnection Panel M. Renee Jewell, Program/Energy Manager, & Contracting Officer, Forest Service (reneejewell@fs.fed.us) SCENARIO: Fed Agencies had Solar PV Projects To Connect with Utility in California * United States (US) Forest Service (FS) - 1 small Solar Photovoltaic (PV) project; and - 1 small Renewable project (Solar PV) exporting energy to grid. * U.S. National Park Service (NPS) - 24 Small Solar Photovoltaic projects. * U.S. Dept. of Veterans Affairs (VA) - 6 Renewable generation projects of different sizes. FS Region 5 (California) - Solar Photovoltaic Installations Solar PV Project @ Mono Lake Visitor Center (Inyo NF) Solar PV Project (net exporter) @ San Dimas Technology and Development Center SITUATION - Utility Wanted Feds to Sign Its

248

Geothermal Power and Interconnection: The Economics of Getting to Market  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a baseline description of the transmission issues affecting geothermal technologies. The report begins with a comprehensive overview of the grid, how it is planned, how it is used, and how it is paid for. The report then overlays onto this 'big picture' three types of geothermal technologies: conventional hydrothermal systems; emerging technologies such as enhanced engineered geothermal systems (EGS) and geopressured geothermal; and geothermal co-production with existing oil and gas wells. Each category of geothermal technology has its own set of interconnection issues, and these are examined separately for each. The report draws conclusions about each technology's market affinities as defined by factors related to transmission and distribution infrastructure. It finishes with an assessment of selected markets with known geothermal potential, identifying those that offer the best prospects for near-term commercial development and for demonstration projects.

Hurlbut, D.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Catalytic bipolar interconnection plate for use in a fuel cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A bipolar interconnection plate for use between adjacent fuel cell units in a stacked fuel cell assembly. Each plate is manufactured from an intermetallic composition, examples of which include NiAl or Ni.sub.3 Al which can catalyze steam reforming of hydrocarbons. Distributed within the intermetallic structure of the plate is a ceramic filler composition. The plate includes a first side with gas flow channels therein and a second side with fuel flow channels therein. A protective coating is applied to the first side, with exemplary coatings including strontium-doped or calcium-doped lanthanum chromite. To produce the plate, Ni and Al powders are combined with the filler composition, compressed at a pressure of about 10,000-30,000 psi, and heated to about 600.degree.-1000.degree. C. The coating is then applied to the first side of the completed plate using liquid injection plasma deposition or other deposition techniques.

Lessing, Paul A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Gold-based electrical interconnections for microelectronic devices  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of making an electrical interconnection from a microelectronic device to a package, comprising ball or wedge compression bonding a gold-based conductor directly to a silicon surface, such as a polysilicon bonding pad in a MEMS or IMEMS device, without using layers of aluminum or titanium disposed in-between the conductor and the silicon surface. After compression bonding, optional heating of the bond above 363 C. allows formation of a liquid gold-silicon eutectic phase containing approximately 3% (by weight) silicon, which significantly improves the bond strength by reforming and enhancing the initial compression bond. The same process can be used for improving the bond strength of Au--Ge bonds by forming a liquid Au-12Ge eutectic phase.

Peterson, Kenneth A. (Albuquerque, NM); Garrett, Stephen E. (Albuquerque, NM); Reber, Cathleen A. (Corrales, NM); Watson, Robert D. (Tijeras, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

EIS-0437: Interconnection of the Buffalo Ridge III Wind Project, Brookings  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

37: Interconnection of the Buffalo Ridge III Wind Project, 37: Interconnection of the Buffalo Ridge III Wind Project, Brookings and Deuel Counties, South Dakota EIS-0437: Interconnection of the Buffalo Ridge III Wind Project, Brookings and Deuel Counties, South Dakota Summary This EIS evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to interconnect the Heartland Wind, LLC, proposed Buffalo Ridge III Wind Project in Brookings and Deuel Counties, South Dakota, to DOE's Western Area Power Administration transmission system. Public Comment Opportunities No public comment opportunities available at this time. Documents Available for Download August 29, 2012 EIS-0437: Notice of Cancellation of an Environmental Impact Statement Proposed Interconnection of the Buffalo Ridge III Wind Project, Brookings and Deuel Counties, SD

252

EIS-0438: Interconnection of the Proposed Hermosa West Wind Farm Project,  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

8: Interconnection of the Proposed Hermosa West Wind Farm 8: Interconnection of the Proposed Hermosa West Wind Farm Project, Albany County, WY EIS-0438: Interconnection of the Proposed Hermosa West Wind Farm Project, Albany County, WY SUMMARY This EIS will evaluate the environmental impacts of interconnecting the proposed 300-megawatt Hermosa West Wind Farm Project, in Albany County, Wyoming, with DOE's Western Area Power Administration's existing Craig-Ault 345-kilovolt transmission line. PUBLIC COMMENT OPPORTUNITIES None available at this time. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD October 5, 2012 EIS-0438: Draft Environmental Impact Statement Interconnection of the Proposed Hermosa West Wind Farm Project, Albany County, WY January 14, 2010 EIS-0438: Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement and Conduct Scoping Meetings

253

p r o g r e s s r e p o r t s Interconnect: A Fundamental Constraint  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the greatest amounts of area, delay, and energy. With interconnection require- ments scaling faster than. Since typical, logical communication structures have interconnection demands that are greater than two-dimensional VLSI substrates naturally sup- port, interconnection requirements grow faster than logic and become

Haile, Sossina M.

254

Study of metallic materials for solid oxide fuel cell interconnect applications.  

SciTech Connect

Metallic interconnect acts as a gas separator and a gas distributor and therefore, it needs to function adequately in two widely different environments. The interconnect material will be exposed to air on one side and natural gas or coal-derived synthesis gas on the other side. The viable material for the interconnect application must be resistant not only to oxidation but also carburization in hydrocarbon containing low-oxygen environments. In addition, the scales that develop on the exposed surfaces must possess adequate electrical conductivity for them to function as current leads over long service life of the fuel cell. This report addresses five topics of interest for the development of metallic interconnects with adequate performance in fuel cells for long service life. The research conducted over the years and the conclusions reached were used to identify additional areas of research on materials for improved performance of components, especially metallic interconnects, in the complex fuel cell environments. This report details research conducted in the following areas: measurement of area specific electrical resistivity, corrosion performance in dual gas environments by experiments using alloy 446, long term corrosion performance of ferritic and austenitic alloys in hydrogen and methane-reformed synthesis fuel-gas environments, approaches to reduce the area resistance of metallic interconnect, and reduction of electrical resistivity of alumina scales on metallic interconnect. Based on the key requirements for metallic interconnects and the data developed on the corrosion behavior of candidate materials in meeting those requirements, several areas are recommended for further research to develop metallic interconnects with acceptable and reliable long-term performance in solid oxide fuel cells.

Natesan, K.; Zeng, Z.; Nuclear Engineering Division

2009-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

255

Nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems: Opportunities, interconnections, and needs  

SciTech Connect

As the U.S. energy system evolves, the amount of electricity from variable-generation sources is likely to increase, which could result in additional times when electricity demand is lower than available production. Thus, purveyors of technologies that traditionally have provided base-load electricitysuch as nuclear power plantscan explore new operating procedures to deal with the associated market signals. Concurrently, innovations in nuclear reactor design coupled with sophisticated control systems now allow for more complex apportionment of heat within an integrated system such as one linked to energy-intensive chemical processes. This paper explores one opportunity nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems. These are defined as integrated facilities comprised of nuclear reactors, renewable energy generation, and industrial processes that can simultaneously address the need for grid flexibility, greenhouse gas emission reductions, and optimal use of investment capital. Six aspects of interaction (interconnections) between elements of nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems are identified: Thermal, electrical, chemical, hydrogen, mechanical, and information. Additionally, system-level aspects affect selection, design, and operation of this hybrid system type. Throughout the paper, gaps and research needs are identified to promote further exploration of the topic.

Mark F. Ruth; Owen R. Zinaman; Mark Antkowiak; Richard D. Boardman; Robert S. Cherry; Morgan D. Bazilian

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Pulsed laser planarization of metal films for multilevel interconnects  

SciTech Connect

Multilevel interconnect schemes for integrated circuits generally require one or more planarization steps, in order to maintain an acceptably flat topography for lithography and thin-film step coverage on the higher levels. Traditional approaches have involved planarization of the interlevel insulation (dielectric) layers, either by spin-on application (e.g., polyimide), or by reflow (e.g., phosphosilicate glass). We have pursued an alternative approach, in which each metal level is melted (hence planarized) using a pulsed laser prior to patterning. Short (approx.1 ..mu..s) pulses are used to preclude undesirable metallurgical reactions between the film, adhesion or barrier layer, and dielectric layer. Laser planarization of metals is particularly well suited to multilevel systems which include ground or power planes. Results are presented for planarization of gold films on SiO/sub 2/ dielectric layers using a flashlamp-pumped dye laser. The pulse duration is approx.1 ..mu..s, which allows the heat pulse to uniformly penetrate the gold while not penetrating substantially through the underlying SiO/sub 2/ (hence not perturbing the lower levels of metal). Excellent planarization of the gold films is achieved (less than 0.1 ..mu..m surface roughness, even starting with extreme topographic variations), as well as improved conductivity. To demonstrate the process, numerous planarized two-layer structures (transmission lines under a ground plane) were fabricated and characterized. 9 refs., 2 figs.

Tuckerman, D.B.; Schmitt, R.L.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Response from PJM Interconnection LLC and Pepco to Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

PJM Interconnection LLC and Pepco to Department of PJM Interconnection LLC and Pepco to Department of Energy Request for Information Concerning the Potential Need for Potomac River Station Generation Response from PJM Interconnection LLC and Pepco to Department of Energy Request for Information Concerning the Potential Need for Potomac River Station Generation Docket No. EO-05-01: This letter will respond to your request for information concerning the potential need for Potomac River Station generation under the three reliability "scenarios" outlined by PJM and PEPCO. Response from PJM Interconnection LLC and Pepco to Department of Energy Request for Information Concerning the Potential Need for Potomac River Station Generation More Documents & Publications Information Concerning Reliability Impacts under Various System

258

Reliable low latency I/O in torus-based interconnection networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In today's high performance computing environment I/O remains the main bottleneck in achieving the optimal performance expected of the ever improving processor and memory technologies. Interconnection networks therefore combines processing units...

Azeez, Babatunde

2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

259

An energy vision: the transformation towards sustainability --interconnected challenges and solutions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

consumption levels, lack of energy access, environmental concerns like climate change and air pollution (RCPs) [2 ], the International Energy Agency's World Energy Outlook [3,4 ], and several modeAn energy vision: the transformation towards sustainability -- interconnected challenges

Silver, Whendee

260

Design of Computer Generated Binary Holograms for Free Space Optical Interconnections  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The purpose of this Chapter is to give an introduction to the use of computer generated holograms (CGHs) as free space optical interconnection elements. We will focus mainly on the techniques for designing bin...

I. Montrosset; D. Cojoc; F. Sartori

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection tre wecc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

A polarizer chip based on CMOS Cu-interconnect for optical telecommunications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The construction by CMOS Cu-interconnect fabrication technology of an optical chip that performs the function of linear polarization is described. The chip consists of three rows of...

Ko, Cheng-Hao; Lee, Kuei-Jen

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Interconnection of on-site photovoltaic generation to the electric utility. [Conference paper  

SciTech Connect

Electrical interconnection with the local electric utility of small, privately owned, on-site photovoltaic generating systems will be necessary. Legal guidelines exist through PURPA, administered by FERC, to establish interconnection, but economic viability will be the deciding factor in constructing photovoltaic generating systems. Although nationally recognized technical standards do not yet exist for interconnecting photovoltaic generation with an electric utility, most utilities have considered the need for developing cogeneration standards, and a few have developed such standards independently. Additional costs incurred by utilities in providing service interconnections to customers with cogeneration will be passed along to those customers, either as a direct assessment or as part of the applicable rate schedule. An economic-analysis methodology has been developed to allow comparing various possible photovoltaic-generating-system configurations under different utility rate structures and varying economic climates on a consistent basis.

Eichler, C.H.; Kilar, L.A.; Stiller, P.H.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

EIS-0438: Interconnection of the Proposed Hermosa West Wind Farm Project, Albany County, Wyoming  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

After the applicant withdrew its request to interconnect the proposed Hermosa West Wind Farm Project with Western Area Power Administrations transmission system, Western cancelled preparation of an EIS to evaluate the potential environmental impacts of the proposal.

264

Record of Decision for the Electrical Interconnection of the Windy Point Wind Energy Project.  

SciTech Connect

The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has decided to offer contract terms for interconnection of 250 megawatts (MW) of power to be generated by the proposed Windy Point Wind Energy Project (Wind Project) into the Federal Columbia River Transmission System (FCRTS). Windy Point Partners, LLC (WPP) propose to construct and operate the proposed Wind Project and has requested interconnection to the FCRTS. The Wind Project will be interconnected at BPA's Rock Creek Substation, which is under construction in Klickitat County, Washington. The Rock Creek Substation will provide transmission access for the Wind Project to BPA's Wautoma-John Day No.1 500-kilovolt (kV) transmission line. BPA's decision to offer terms to interconnect the Wind Project is consistent with BPA's Business Plan Final Environmental Impact Statement (BP EIS) (DOE/EIS-0183, June 1995), and the Business Plan Record of Decision (BP ROD, August 15, 1995). This decision thus is tiered to the BP ROD.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Fast Algorithms for High Frequency Interconnect Modeling in VLSI Circuits and Packages  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

used in MEMS, RFID and MRAM. We present the first BEM algorithm to extract interconnect inductance with magnetic materials. The algorithm models magnetic characteristics by the Landau Lifshitz Gilbert equation and fictitious magnetic charges...

Yi, Yang

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

266

Modeling and Analysis of Large-Scale On-Chip Interconnects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in computer aided design areas. This dissertation presents new methodologies for addressing the above two important challenging issues for large scale on-chip interconnect modeling and analysis: In the past, the standard statistical circuit modeling techniques...

Feng, Zhuo

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

267

Renewable Generation and Interconnection to the Electrical Grid in Southern California  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presentation covers the topic of "Renewable Generation and Interconnection to the Electrical Grid in Southern California," given at the Spring 2010 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting in Providence, Rhode Island.

268

Determination of Interfacial Adhesion Strength between Oxide Scale and Substrate for Metallic SOFC Interconnects  

SciTech Connect

The interfacial adhesion strength between the oxide scale and the substrate is crucial to the reliability and durability of metallic interconnects in SOFC operating environments. It is necessary, therefore, to establish a methodology to quantify the interfacial adhesion strength between the oxide scale and the metallic interconnect substrate, and furthermore to design and optimize the interconnect material as well as the coating materials to meet the design life of an SOFC system. In this paper, we present an integrated experimental/analytical methodology for quantifying the interfacial adhesion strength between oxide scale and a ferritic stainless steel interconnect. Stair-stepping indentation tests are used in conjunction with subsequent finite element analyses to predict the interfacial strength between the oxide scale and Crofer 22 APU substrate.

Sun, Xin; Liu, Wenning N.; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2008-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

269

Solid oxide fuel cell with single material for electrodes and interconnect  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid oxide fuel cell having a plurality of individual cells. A solid oxide fuel cell has an anode and a cathode with electrolyte disposed therebetween, and the anode, cathode and interconnect elements are comprised of substantially one material.

McPheeters, Charles C. (Naperville, IL); Nelson, Paul A. (Wheaton, IL); Dees, Dennis W. (Downers Grove, IL)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Phase 2 Report: Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS); Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an independent review including an initial evaluation of the technical configuration and capital costs of establishing an undersea cable system and examining impacts to the existing electric transmission systems as a result of interconnecting the islands

Woodford, D.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

ACTIVE SUBSTRATES FOR OPTOELECTRONIC INTERCONNECT Donald Chiarulli, Steven Levitan, Jason Bakos  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ACTIVE SUBSTRATES FOR OPTOELECTRONIC INTERCONNECT Donald Chiarulli, Steven Levitan, Jason Bakos Semiconductor ABSTRACT We present the design of an intelligent optoelectronic chip carrier (IOCC the sapphire. The result is an optoelectronic package that supports full CMOS performance, is mechanically

Bakos, Jason D.

272

Process based cost modeling of emerging optoelectronic interconnects : implications for material platform choice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Continuously increasing demand for processing power, storage capacity, and I/O capacity in personal computing, data network, and display interface suggests that optical interconnects may soon supplant copper not only for ...

Liu, Shan, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

High-performance parallel processors based on star-coupled wavelength division multiplexing optical interconnects  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

As the performance of individual elements within parallel processing systems increases, increased communication capability between distributed processor and memory elements is required. There is great interest in using fiber optics to improve interconnect communication beyond that attainable using electronic technology. Several groups have considered WDM, star-coupled optical interconnects. The invention uses a fiber optic transceiver to provide low latency, high bandwidth channels for such interconnects using a robust multimode fiber technology. Instruction-level simulation is used to quantify the bandwidth, latency, and concurrency required for such interconnects to scale to 256 nodes, each operating at 1 GFLOPS performance. Performance scales have been shown to .apprxeq.100 GFLOPS for scientific application kernels using a small number of wavelengths (8 to 32), only one wavelength received per node, and achievable optoelectronic bandwidth and latency.

Deri, Robert J. (Pleasanton, CA); DeGroot, Anthony J. (Castro Valley, CA); Haigh, Ronald E. (Arvada, CO)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

File:08-CA-b - CAISO Interconnection Request Process.pdf | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Process.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Metadata File:08-CA-b - CAISO Interconnection Request Process.pdf Size of this preview: 463 599 pixels....

275

Design of a decentralized detection filter for a class of interconnected LTI systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, we consider the problem of designing a decentralized detection filter for a class of homogeneous interconnected systems. In this class of systems, all subsystems have an identical structure. A fault in a subsystem propagates via...

Shankar, Shamanth

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Simulation of Bio-syngas Production from Biomass Gasification via Pressurized Interconnected Fluidized Beds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Bio-syngas production from biomass gasification via pressurized interconnected fluidized...T g), gasification pressure (p g) and steam to biomass ratio (S/B) on bio-syngas production

Fei Feng; Guohui Song; Laihong Shen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

OE Releases "Transmission Constraints and Congestion in the Western and Eastern Interconnections, 2009-2012"  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The "Transmission Constraints and Congestion in the Western and Eastern Interconnections, 2009-2012" document, which is now available for downloading, is a compilation of publicly-available data on transmission constraints and congestion for the period 2009 through 2012.

278

E-Print Network 3.0 - at-speed interconnect bist Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: at-speed interconnect bist Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC TESTING: Theory and Applications 19,...

279

Manufacturing Analysis of SOFC Interconnect Coating Processes - NexTech Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Manufacturing Analysis of SOFC Manufacturing Analysis of SOFC Interconnect Coating Processes- NexTech Materials Background The adoption of high-temperature metal alloys as alternatives to traditional ceramic interconnect materials provides a cost effective path for the production of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Low-cost and effective protective coatings must be developed for the metallic system and stack components for SOFCs to be economical. Since current

280

Revised Record of Decision for the Electrical Interconnection of the Summit/Westward Project  

SciTech Connect

The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has decided to amend its July 25, 2003, Record of Decision (ROD) regarding the proposed Summit/Westward Project (Project) to offer contract terms for an optional interconnection of this Project into the Federal Columbia River Transmission System (FCRTS). Under this optional interconnection plan, BPA would integrate electric power from the Project into the FCRTS at a point adjacent to Clatskanie People's Utility District (CPUD) existing Wauna Substation. In order to deliver power to this location, CPUD would develop a new substation (Bradbury Substation) at a site near the Project and a new 230-kV transmission line from there to CPUD's Wauna Substation, which is already connected to the FCRTS. As part of this revised decision, BPA will facilitate CPUD development of the Bradbury-Wauna transmission line by allowing joint use of BPA right-of-way. This will involve reconstructing a section of BPA's 115-kV Allston-Astoria No. 1 transmission line from single-circuit H-frame wood-pole design to double-circuit single metal pole design. Terms of BPA participation in CPUD's development of the Bradbury-Wauna transmission line will be documented in a Construction Agreement. This optional interconnection plan is in addition to BPA's previous offer for interconnection of the Project at BPA's Allston Substation, as documented in the July 25, 2003, ROD. As with the initial interconnection plan, the decision to offer terms to interconnect the Project through the optional interconnection plan is consistent with BPA's Business Plan Final Environmental Impact Statement (BP EIS) (DOE/EIS-0183, June 1995), and the Business Plan Record of Decision (BP ROD, August 1995). This decision thus is similarly tiered to the Business Plan ROD.

N /A

2004-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection tre wecc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Media Release Media Contact FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE Heather Rasmussen  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Release Media Contact Release Media Contact FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE Heather Rasmussen September 22, 2011 Communication Specialist (801) 819-7623 hrasmussen@wecc.biz WECC releases its first-ever transmission plan for the Western Interconnection The Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) announced the release of its first 10-Year Regional Transmission Plan (Plan) for the Western Interconnection. Looking ahead to 2020, the Plan focuses on how to meet the Western Interconnection's transmission requirements; including transmission expansion, new generation development, adapting to local, state/provincial, and federal policy changes, and their associated financial and environmental costs.

282

Plastic deformation in Al (Cu) interconnects stressed by electromigration and studied by synchrotron polychromatic X-ray microdiffraction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Plastic deformation in Al (Cu) interconnects stressed bygrain orientation [7], study plastic deformation [12-15] andThis aspect of EM-induced plastic deformation in grains

Chen, Kai; Advanced Light Source; UCLA

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Power System Generation and Inter-Connection Planning Model (SUPER) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Power System Generation and Inter-Connection Planning Model (SUPER) Power System Generation and Inter-Connection Planning Model (SUPER) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Power System Generation and Inter-Connection Planning Model (SUPER) Agency/Company /Organization: Latin American Energy Organization Sector: Energy Focus Area: Renewable Energy, Hydro Topics: Resource assessment Resource Type: Software/modeling tools Website: www.olade.org/superEn.html References: SUPER website [1] "This model is useful for multi-year electricity system planning studies, making it possible to analyze, optimize, simulate and develop hydrothermal power system expansion plans." References ↑ "SUPER website" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Power_System_Generation_and_Inter-Connection_Planning_Model_(SUPER)&oldid=329

284

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

B. Winter Net Internal Demand, Capacity Resources, and Capacity Margins B. Winter Net Internal Demand, Capacity Resources, and Capacity Margins by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Assessment Area, 2012 Actual, 2013-2017 Projected Net Internal Demand (Megawatts) -- Winter Eastern Interconnection ERCOT Western Interconnection All Interconnections Period FRCC NPCC Balance of Eastern Region MAPP MISO PJM SERC SPP TRE WECC Contiguous U.S. Actual 2012 / 2013 36,409 45,545 386,359 4,925 74,430 122,566 149,359 35,079 46,909 101,706 616,927 Projected 2013 / 2014 43,384 46,008 399,149 5,385 75,320 132,229 145,657 40,558 51,435 107,341 647,317 Projected 2014 / 2015 44,060 46,090 403,883 5,500 76,252 134,742 146,130 41,259 53,742 109,418 657,192 Projected 2015 / 2016 44,596 46,184 408,927 5,563 77,058 137,338 147,201 41,767 55,346 110,814 665,866

285

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

B. Noncoincident Peak Load by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Assessment Area, B. Noncoincident Peak Load by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Assessment Area, 2012 Actual, 2013-2017 Projected Summer Peak Load (Megawatts) Eastern Interconnection ERCOT Western Interconnection All Interconnections Period FRCC NPCC Balance of Eastern Region MAPP MISO PJM SERC SPP TRE WECC Contiguous U.S. Actual 2012 44,338 58,319 468,092 5,051 96,769 154,339 161,687 50,246 66,548 130,465 767,762 Projected 2013 45,668 59,969 469,857 5,109 96,192 155,553 159,032 53,971 67,998 133,523 777,015 Projected 2014 46,338 60,654 475,005 5,249 96,879 158,717 159,457 54,703 69,289 132,731 784,017 Projected 2015 47,053 61,428 484,637 5,360 97,565 162,216 164,150 55,346 71,423 134,183 798,724

286

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

A. Summer Net Internal Demand, Capacity Resources, and Capacity Margins by North American Electric Reliability Assessment Area, A. Summer Net Internal Demand, Capacity Resources, and Capacity Margins by North American Electric Reliability Assessment Area, 2002 - 2012, Actual Net Internal Demand (Megawatts) -- Summer Eastern Interconnection ERCOT Western Interconnection All Interconnections Period FRCC NPCC Balance of Eastern Region ECAR MAAC MAIN MAPP MISO MRO PJM RFC SERC SPP TRE WECC Contiguous U.S. 2002 37,951 55,164 430,396 101,251 54,296 53,267 -- -- 28,825 -- -- 154,459 38,298 55,833 117,032 696,376 2003 40,387 53,936 422,253 98,487 53,566 53,617 -- -- 28,775 -- -- 148,380 39,428 59,282 120,894 696,752 2004 42,243 51,580 419,349 95,300 52,049 50,499 -- -- 29,094 -- -- 153,024 39,383 58,531 121,205 692,908

287

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

B. Summer Net Internal Demand, Capacity Resources, and Capacity Margins B. Summer Net Internal Demand, Capacity Resources, and Capacity Margins by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Assessment Area, 2012 Actual, 2013-2017 Projected Net Internal Demand (Megawatts) -- Summer Eastern Interconnection ERCOT Western Interconnection All Interconnections Period FRCC NPCC Balance of Eastern Region MAPP MISO PJM SERC SPP TRE WECC Contiguous U.S. Actual 2012 44,338 58,319 469,273 4,967 96,769 156,319 158,041 53,177 66,548 130,465 768,943 Projected 2013 42,532 59,969 447,171 5,022 91,644 144,378 152,949 53,177 65,901 129,278 744,851 Projected 2014 43,142 60,654 448,912 5,161 92,331 144,497 152,843 54,080 67,592 128,200 748,499 Projected 2015 43,812 61,428 457,865 5,270 93,017 147,568 157,287 54,722 69,679 129,553 762,336

288

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

A. Net Energy for Load by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Assessment Area, A. Net Energy for Load by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Assessment Area, 2002 - 2012, Actual Net Energy (Thousands of Megawatthours) Eastern Interconnection ERCOT Western Interconnection All Interconnections Period FRCC NPCC Balance of Eastern Region ECAR MAAC MAIN MAPP MISO MRO PJM RFC SERC SPP TRE WECC Contiguous U.S. 2002 211,116 286,199 2,301,321 567,897 273,907 279,264 -- -- 150,058 -- -- 835,319 194,876 280,269 666,696 3,745,601 2003 219,021 288,791 2,255,233 545,109 276,600 267,068 -- -- 153,918 -- -- 826,964 185,574 283,868 664,754 3,711,667 2004 220,335 292,725 2,313,180 553,236 283,646 274,760 -- -- 152,975 -- -- 856,734 191,829 289,146 682,053 3,797,439 2005 226,544 303,607 2,385,461 -- -- -- -- -- 216,633 -- 1,005,226 962,054 201,548 299,225 685,624 3,900,461

289

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

A. Winter Net Internal Demand, Capacity Resources, and Capacity Margins by North American Electric Reliability Assessment Area, A. Winter Net Internal Demand, Capacity Resources, and Capacity Margins by North American Electric Reliability Assessment Area, 2002 - 2012, Actual Net Internal Demand (Megawatts) -- Winter Eastern Interconnection ERCOT Western Interconnection All Interconnections Period FRCC NPCC Balance of Eastern Region ECAR MAAC MAIN MAPP MISO MRO PJM RFC SERC SPP TRE WECC Contiguous U.S. 2002 / 2003 42,001 45,980 360,748 84,844 46,159 39,974 -- -- 23,090 -- -- 137,541 29,140 44,719 94,554 588,002 2003 / 2004 36,229 47,850 357,026 86,332 45,625 39,955 -- -- 24,042 -- -- 133,244 27,828 41,988 100,337 583,430 2004 / 2005 41,449 47,859 371,011 91,800 45,565 40,618 -- -- 24,446 -- -- 139,486 29,096 44,010 101,002 605,331

290

Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS): Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Oahu Wind Integration and Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS) Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project Dennis Woodford Electranix Corporation Winnipeg, Manitoba Canada Subcontract Report NREL/SR-5500-50411 February 2011 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS) Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project Dennis Woodford Electranix Corporation Winnipeg, Manitoba Canada NREL Technical Monitor: David Corbus

291

Method of bonding an interconnection layer on an electrode of an electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical cell containing an air electrode, contacting electrolyte and electronically conductive interconnection layer, and a fuel electrode, has the interconnection layer attached by: (A) applying a thin, closely packed, discrete layer of LaCrO[sub 3] particles, doped with an element selected from the group consisting of Ca, Sr, Co, Ba, Mg and their mixtures on a portion of the air electrode, and then (B) electrochemical vapor depositing a dense skeletal structure between and around the doped LaCrO[sub 3] particles. 2 figs.

Pal, U.B.; Isenberg, A.O.; Folser, G.R.

1992-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

292

Renewable Generation and Interconnection to the Electrical Grid in Southern California  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA EDISON® SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA EDISON® SM 1 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group Providence, Rhode Island April 15, 2010 Renewable Generation and Interconnection to the Electrical Grid in Southern California Daniel Tunnicliff, P.E. Manager, Government & Institutions SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA EDISON® SM 2 Overview * SCE Overview * SCE Procurement Objectives * Renewable Procurement * Challenges to Meeting Renewable Goals in California * Interconnection Processes * Lessons Learned SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA EDISON® SM 3 SCE Overview * Large system  13 million residents  4.8 million customer accounts  50,000-square-mile service area * Nation's leader in environmental solutions  Energy efficiency  Renewable energy procurement  Electric transportation  Advanced meters  Smart grid

293

Long-Distance Interconnection as Solar Resource Intermittency Solution: Optimizing the Use of Energy Storage and the Geographic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Energy Storage and the Geographic Dispersion + Interconnection of Solar Generating Facilities. Marc J. R energy targets. Variability of the solar resource occurs across many different temporal scales: from energy storage and Long-distance interconnection coupled with geographic dispersion of solar generating

294

Three-Dimensional Analysis of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Ni-YSZ Anode Interconnectivity James R. Wilson,a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Three-Dimensional Analysis of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Ni-YSZ Anode Interconnectivity James R of interconnectivity of solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrode phases. The method was applied to the three, and hence was not electrochemically active. #12;2 1. Introduction Attempts to understand solid oxide fuel

Kalies, William D.

295

A Guidebook on Grid Interconnection and Islanded Operation of Mini-Grid Power Systems Up to 200 kW  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nehru National Solar Mission: Phase II Policy Document. Solar Friendly Communities Permitting, Interconnection, and Net Metering: An Overview of Model Standards and PolicySolar ABCs) funded by the USA Department of Energy, pushes for reform and national standardization on interconnection policy.

Greacen, Chris

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

OIL: a nano-photonics optical interconnect library for a new photonic networks-on-chip architecture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, we present OIL, a parameterized Optical Interconnect Library of silicon nano-photonic devices for system level interconnect planning/analysis and low power high performance design exploration under a new holistic photonic Networks-on-Chip ... Keywords: computer aided design, high performance, low power, photonic networks-on-chip

Duo Ding; David Z. Pan

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Effect of Via Separationand Low-k Dielectric Materials on the Thermal Characteristics of Cu Interconnects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effect of Via Separationand Low-k Dielectric Materials on the Thermal Characteristics of Cu in low-k based interconnect structures by providing lower thermal resistance paths. In this paper that the temperature is highly dependent on the via separation. A 3-D electro-thermal simulation methodology using

298

Compact quasi-analytic equations for estimating the temperature distribution of ULSI interconnections  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

With the wide application of low dielectric constant materials in ULSI circuits, the problem of heat dissipation becomes more critical due to the small thermal conductivity of such materials. Compact quasi-analytic equations for estimating the temperature ... Keywords: ULSI circuits, interconnection, thermal behavior simulation

X. Xiao; X. You; G. Ruan

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Modeling and Simulation Environment for Photonic Interconnection Networks in High Performance Computing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

at the scale of high performance computer clusters and warehouse scale data centers, system level simulations and results for rack scale photonic interconnection networks for high performance computing. Keywords: optical to the newsworthy power consumption [3], latency [4] and bandwidth challenges [5] of high performance computing (HPC

Bergman, Keren

300

THE ANALYSYS OF INFORMATION IMPACTS IN COORDINATING DEFENCE AGAINST MALICIOUS ATTACKS FOR INTERCONNECTED  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and the physical behaviors of power systems. Secondly, system operators are assumed able to perform certain-ordination of Transmission of Electricity) operation handbook [6]. Meanwhile, multi-agent systems (MAS) have been widely FOR INTERCONNECTED POWER SYSTEMS Ettore Bompard George Gross Roberto Napoli Fei Xue Politecnico di Torino University

Gross, George

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection tre wecc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Optimization of Interconnects Between Accelerators and Shared Memories in Dark Silicon Jason Cong and Bingjun Xiao  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimization of Interconnects Between Accelerators and Shared Memories in Dark Silicon Jason Cong, 90095 {cong, xiao}@cs.ucla.edu Abstract--Application-specific accelerators provide orders-of- magnitude improvement in energy-efficiency over CPUs, and accelerator-rich computing platforms are showing promise

Cong, Jason "Jingsheng"

302

Optimization and Visualization of the North American Eastern Interconnect Power Market  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Hale DHALE@eia.doe.gov U.S. Energy Information Agency Washington, DC 20585 USA Thomas J. OverbyeOptimization and Visualization of the North American Eastern Interconnect Power Market Douglas R Overbye@ece.uiuc.edu University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Urbana, IL 61801 USA Abstract This paper

303

WHAT IS A NETWORK? (Gas and Electricity) A complex, interconnected group or  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

WHAT IS A NETWORK? (Gas and Electricity) A complex, interconnected group or system Electricity and Gas: A system used to distribute electricity and gas around the world/certain area, by compromising to minimise costs and generate the most electricity and gas as possible, which maximises profits

Wright, Francis

304

Graphene based nanomaterials for VLSI interconnect and energy-storage applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

As IC feature sizes continue to be scaled below 45 nanometer, copper wires exhibit significant "size effects" resulting in a sharp rise in their resistivity, which, in turn, has adverse impact both on their performance as well as reliability--in the ... Keywords: carbon nanomaterials, carbon nanotubes, graphene nano-ribbons, interconnects, passives.

Kaustav Banerjee

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Selection and Evaluation of Heat-Resistant Alloys for Planar SOFC Interconnect Applications  

SciTech Connect

Over the past several years, the steady reduction in SOFC operating temperatures to the intermediate range of 700~850oC [1] has made it feasible for lanthanum chromite to be supplanted by metals or alloys as the interconnect materials. Compared to doped lanthanum chromite, metals or alloys offer significantly lower raw material and fabrication costs. However, to be a durable and reliable, a metal or alloy has to satisfy several functional requirements specific to the interconnect under SOFC operating conditions. Specifically, the interconnect metal or alloy should possess the following properties: (i) Good surface stability (resistance to oxidation, hot corrosion, and carburization) in both cathodic (air) and anodic (fuel) atmospheres; (ii) Thermal expansion matching to the ceramic PEN (positive cathode-electrolyte-negative anode) and seal materials (as least for a rigid seal design); (iii) High electrical conductivity through both the bulk material and in-situ formed oxide scales; (iv) Bulk and interfacial thermal mechanical reliability and durability at the operating temperature; (v) Compatibility with other materials in contact with interconnects such as seals and electrical contact materials.

Yang, Z Gary; Weil, K. Scott; Paxton, Dean M.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

2002-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

306

EIS-0485: Interconnection of the Grande Prairie Wind Farm, Holt County, Nebraska  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

DOEs Western Area Power Administration is preparing an EIS to evaluate the environmental impacts of interconnecting the proposed Grande Prairie Wind Farm, in Holt County, near ONeill, Nebraska, to Westerns power transmission system. The project website is http://www.wapa.gov/ugp/Environment/GrandePrairie.htm.

307

Ionized physical vapor deposition of integrated circuit interconnects* J. Hopwood,a)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

alloy silicide gate level and several metal-SiO2 interlayer dielectric ILD levels joined together metal layers. By the year 2007 it is predicted that logic circuits will use 6 to 7 interconnected metal physical vapor deposition I-PVD . The technique economically creates a unidirectional flux of metal which

308

Synthesis of electrical networks interconnecting PZT actuators to damp mechanical vibrations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper proves that it is possible to damp mechanical vibrations of some beam frames by means of piezoelectric actuators interconnected via passive networks. We create a kind of electromechanical wave guide where the electrical velocity group equals the mechanical one thus enabling an electromechanical energy transfer. Numerical simulations are presented which prove the technical feasibility of proposed device

F. dell'Isola; E. G. Henneke; M. Porfiri

2010-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

309

Optically Interconnected Data Center Architecture for Bandwidth Intensive Energy Efficient Networking  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optically Interconnected Data Center Architecture for Bandwidth Intensive Energy Efficient) 854 2900, e-mail: howard@ee.columbia.edu ABSTRACT The relentless rise of data-intensive cloud will either be prohibitively costly, overly complex, or result in unsustainable energy requirements. Network

Bergman, Keren

310

ELECTRIFICATION OF ISOLATED AREAS BY INTERCONNECTING DIFFERENT RENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY: A SUSTANAIBLE APPROACH  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of a methodology for rural electrification by micro-grids based upon different renewable resources. > ApplicationELECTRIFICATION OF ISOLATED AREAS BY INTERCONNECTING DIFFERENT RENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY to absorb innovations such as rural electrification by isolated micro grid Sustainable approach The success

311

Transient Analysis of a CMOS Inverter Driving Resistive Interconnect Kevin T. Tang and Eby G. Friedman  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are characterized by the th power law model. In order to emphasize the nonlinear behavior of a CMOS inverterTransient Analysis of a CMOS Inverter Driving Resistive Interconnect Kevin T. Tang and Eby G. Friedman Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Rochester Rochester, New York

Friedman, Eby G.

312

A Self-Reconfigurable Lightweight Interconnect for Scalable Processor Fabrics Heiner Giefers and Marco Platzner  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, energy, and execution time. Therefore it is of high interest to also study alternative interconnects compile-time informa- tion and reconfigures the global network due to program demands. We consider data of the switch's ports. Communication within a sub-bus is established by broadcasting to the bus segment

Hellebrand, Sybille

313

Application Of Ti-Based Self-Formation Barrier Layers To Cu Dual-Damascene Interconnects  

SciTech Connect

Cu interconnects have been used extensively in ULSI devices. However, large resistance-capacitance delay and poor device reliability have been critical issues as the device feature size has reduced to nanometer scale. In order to achieve low resistance and high reliability of Cu interconnects, we have applied a thin Ti-based self-formed barrier (SFB) using Cu(Ti) alloy seed to 45nm-node dual damascene interconnects and evaluated its performance. The line resistance and via resistance decreased significantly, compared with those of conventional Ta/TaN barriers. The stress migration performance was also drastically improved using the SFB process. A performance of time dependent dielectric breakdown revealed superior endurance. These results suggest that the Ti-based SFB process is one of the most promising candidates for advanced Cu interconnects. TEM and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy observations for characterization of the Ti-based SFB structure were also performed. The Ti-based SFB consisted of mainly amorphous Ti oxides. Amorphous or crystalline Ti compounds such as TiC, TiN, and TiSi formed beneath Cu alloy films, and the formation varied with dielectric.

Ito, Kazuhiro; Kohama, Kazuyuki [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Ohmori, Kazuyuki; Mori, Kenichi; Maekawa, Kazuyoshi; Asai, Koyu [Process Technology Div., Renesas Electronics Corporation, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki 312-8504 (Japan); Murakami, Masanori [The Ritsumeikan Trust, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto 604-8520 (Japan)

2010-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

314

HVDC Control Strategies to Improve Transient Stability in Interconnected Power Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HVDC Control Strategies to Improve Transient Stability in Interconnected Power Systems J. Hazra Dpt of Li`ege, Belgium, dernst@ulg.ac.be Abstract--This paper presents three HVDC modulation strate- gies flow settings through the HVDC-links. The proposed techniques are tested on the IEEE 24-Bus reliability

Boyer, Edmond

315

Phase 1 - Evaluation of a Functional Interconnect System for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

This project is focused on evaluating the suitability of materials and complex multi-materials systems for use as solid oxide fuel cell interconnects. ATI Allegheny Ludlum has generated promising results for interconnect materials which incorporate modified surfaces. Methods for producing these surfaces include cladding, which permits the use of novel materials, and modifications via unique thermomechanical processing, which allows for the modification of materials chemistry. The University of Pittsburgh is assisting in this effort by providing use of their in-place facilities for dual atmosphere testing and ASR measurements, along with substantial work to characterize post-exposure specimens. Carnegie Mellon is testing interconnects for chromia scale spallation resistance using macro-scale and nano-scale indentation tests. Chromia spallation can increase electrical resistance to unacceptable levels and interconnect systems must be developed that will not experience spallation within 40,000 hours at operating temperatures. Spallation is one of three interconnect failure mechanisms, the others being excessive growth of the chromia scale (increasing electrical resistance) and scale evaporation (which can poison the cathode). The goal of indentation fracture testing at Carnegie Mellon is to accelerate the evaluation of new interconnect systems (by inducing spalls at after short exposure times) and to use fracture mechanics to understand mechanisms leading to premature interconnect failure by spallation. Tests include bare alloys from ATI and coated systems from DOE Laboratories and industrial partners, using ATI alloy substrates. West Virginia University is working towards developing a cost-effective material for use as a contact material in the cathode chamber of the SOFC. Currently materials such as platinum are well suited for this purpose, but are cost-prohibitive. For the solid-oxide fuel cell to become a commercial reality it is imperative that lower cost components be developed. Based on the results obtained to date, it appears that sterling silver could be an inexpensive, dependable candidate for use as a contacting material in the cathode chamber of the solid-oxide fuel cell. Although data regarding pure silver samples show a lower rate of thickness reduction, the much lower cost of sterling silver makes it an attractive alternative for use in SOFC operation.

James M. Rakowski

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

316

DOE/EIS-0372; Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Bangor Hydro-Electric Company Northeast Reliability Interconnect (August 2005)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Sheet Northeast Reliability Interconnect DEIS Sheet Northeast Reliability Interconnect DEIS iii COVER SHEET Responsible Federal Agency: U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability Cooperating Agencies: U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service (NOAA Fisheries) Title: Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Bangor Hydro-Electric Company Northeast Reliability Interconnect Location: Hancock, Penobscot, and Washington Counties, Maine. Contacts: For additional information on this Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), contact: Dr. Jerry Pell, Project Manager Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy

317

Phase 2 Report: Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS); Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Phase 2 Report: Oahu Wind Phase 2 Report: Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS) Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project Dennis Woodford Electranix Corporation Winnipeg, Manitoba Canada Subcontract Report NREL/SR-5500-50414 February 2011 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Phase 2 Report: Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS) Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project Dennis Woodford Electranix Corporation Winnipeg, Manitoba Canada

318

The Relevance of Generation Interconnection Procedures to Feed-in Tariffs in the United States  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Relevance of Generation The Relevance of Generation Interconnection Procedures to Feed-in Tariffs in the United States Sari Fink, Kevin Porter, and Jennifer Rogers Exeter Associates, Inc. Columbia, Maryland Subcontract Report NREL/SR-6A20-48987 October 2010 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 The Relevance of Generation Interconnection Procedures to Feed-in Tariffs in the United States Sari Fink, Kevin Porter, and Jennifer Rogers Exeter Associates, Inc. Columbia, Maryland

319

DOE/EA-1602: Alternative Intake Project Transmission Line and Interconnection Final Environmental Assessment (November 2008)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Alternative Intake Project Alternative Intake Project Transmission Line and Interconnection Final Environmental Assessment November 2008 DOE/EA-1602 DOE/EA-1602 Final Environmental Assessment for the Western Area Power Administration Alternative Intake Project Transmission Line and Interconnection As part of its comprehensive water quality strategy to protect and improve water quality for its customers, the Contra Costa Water District (CCWD) is implementing the Alternative Intake Project (AIP). The AIP will enable CCWD to relocate some of its existing diversions to Victoria Canal, a Delta location with higher-quality source water than is currently available at its Old River and Rock Slough intakes. The AIP project purpose is to protect and improve the quality of water delivered to CCWD's untreated-

320

Making Connections: Case Studies of Interconnection Barriers and their Impact on Distributed Power Projects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Interconnection of Interconnection Barriers and their Impact on Distributed Power Projects M a k i n g M a k i n g Connections Connections NREL/SR-200-28053 Revised July 2000 United States Department Of Energy Distributed Power Program Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Power Technologies Joseph Galdo DOE Distributed Power Program Manager Office of Power Technologies, EE-15 U.S. Department of Energy Forrestal Building, 5H-021 1000 Independence Avenue SW Washington, DC 20585 Phone: (202) 586-0518 Fax: (202) 586-1640 Richard DeBlasio NREL Distributed Power Program Manager National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Blvd. (MS 3214) Golden, CO 80601 Phone: (303) 384-6452 Fax: (303) 384-6490 Gary Nakarado* National Renewable Energy Laboratory NREL Distributed Power Program Technical Monitor

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection tre wecc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

The Development of Interconnection Standards in Six States In 2007-2008  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the process of developing standards for the interconnection of photovoltaic systems and other generators under ten megawatts to the electric grid. State utility commission rulemakings in 2007-2008 in Florida, New Mexico, North Carolina, Maryland, Illinois and Utah provide the basis for analysis of what is and should be considered in the development of standards, and how the process can be improved. State interconnection standards vary substantially, and many utilities have discretion to establish additional or different requirements, creating literally hundreds of sets of rules. This lack of uniformity imposes a significant cost on project developers and installers to track and comply with applicable rules. As well, burdensome provisions and uncertain costs and timelines present formidable barriers to entry, which advocates have limited resources to challenge. For a better process, the author proposes: establishing federal standards as a baseline, involving solar advocates, and developing a utility cost-recovery mechanism.

Keyes, Jason B.

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

A novel design for monolithic interconnected modules (MIMs) for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power conversion  

SciTech Connect

The design for the fabrication of Monolithic Interconnected Modules (MIMs) for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power conversion described in this paper utilizes a novel, interdigitated contacting scheme that increases the flexibility in the size of the component cells and hence the output current and voltage of the module. This flexibility is gained at the expense of only minimally increased grid obscuration. Because the design uses the grid fingers of the component cells as the interconnect structure, the area of the device used for this purpose becomes negligible. In this paper the authors report on the specifics of the design as well as issues related to the fabrication of the modules. Preliminary performance data for representative modules also are offered.

Ward, J.S.; Duda, A.; Wanlass, M.W. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Bipolar plating of metal contacts onto oxide interconnection for solid oxide electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a method of forming an adherent metal deposit on a conducting layer of a tube sealed at one end. The tube is immersed with the sealed end down into an aqueous solution containing ions of the metal to be deposited. An ionically conducting aqueous fluid is placed inside the tube and a direct current is passed from a cathode inside the tube to an anode outside the tube. Also disclosed is a multi-layered solid oxide fuel cell tube which consists of an inner porous ceramic support tube, a porous air electrode covering the support tube, a non-porous electrolyte covering a portion of the air electrode, a non-porous conducting interconnection covering the remaining portion of the electrode, and a metal deposit on the interconnection.

Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills Boro, PA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Viscosity Solutions of Systems of PDEs with Interconnected Obstacles and Switching Problem  

SciTech Connect

This paper deals with existence and uniqueness of a solution in viscosity sense, for a system of m variational partial differential inequalities with inter-connected obstacles. A particular case is the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellmann system of the Markovian stochastic optimal m-states switching problem. The switching cost functions depend on (t,x). The main tool is the notion of systems of reflected backward stochastic differential equations with oblique reflection.

Hamadene, S., E-mail: hamadene@univ-lemans.fr; Morlais, M. A., E-mail: Marie_Amelie.Morlais@univ-lemans.fr [Universite du Maine, LMM (France)

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

325

Optimal control locations for a class of large interconnected dynamic systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

system, a stability crisis usually arises when a fault occurs at one or more major transmission lines. After such a fault, the system suddenly possesses an excess of unevenly distributed kinetic energy. If no action is taken, this energy excess could... cause the phase angles of the generators to swing wildly and thus overload and eventually trip breakers on some interconnecting transmission lines. An open breaker essentially deletes a line from the system, which in turn triggers the possible...

Antonio, John Kirby

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

326

Performance optimization of interconnections for ultra-high-speed digital circuits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as distributed transmission line systems. Criteria for the design are outlined and studied. The findings of these studies are then applied to requirements for optimal design of interconnection schemes at various levels of high-speed digital system packaging... . V 40 A. Conductor Bends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 B. Impedance Step/Mismatched Transmission Line Element 46 C. Fan-out/Fan-in Signal Distribution Networks D. Conclusions for Discontinuity Behaviors 55 71 V COUPLED LINE BEHAVIORS...

Carey, David Harrison

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

327

Examination of Potential Benefits of an Energy Imbalance Market in the Western Interconnection  

SciTech Connect

In the Western Interconnection, there is significant interest in improving approaches to wide-area coordinated operations of the bulk electric power system, in part because of the increasing penetration of variable generation. One proposed solution is an energy imbalance market. This study focused on that approach alone, with the goal of identifying the potential benefits of an energy imbalance market in the year 2020.

Milligan, M.; Clark, K.; King, J.; Kirby, B.; Guo, T.; Liu, G.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Corrosion and Protection of Metallic Interconnects in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

Energy security and increased concern over environmental protection have spurred a dramatic world-wide growth in research and development of fuel cells, which electrochemically convert incoming fuel into electricity with no or low pollution. Fuel cell technology has become increasingly attractive to a number of sectors, including utility, automotive, and defense industries. Among the various types of fuel cells, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) operate at high temperature (typically 650-1,000 C) and have advantages in terms of high conversion efficiency and the flexibility of using hydrocarbon fuels, in addition to hydrogen. The high temperature operation, however, can lead to increased mass transport and interactions between the surrounding environment and components that are required to be stable during a lifetime of thousands of hours and up to hundreds of thermal cycles. For stacks with relatively low operating temperatures (<800 C), the interconnects that are used to electrically connect a number of cells in series are typically made from cost-effective metals or alloys. The metallic interconnects must demonstrate excellent stability in a very challenging environment during SOFC operation, as they are simultaneously exposed to both an oxidizing (air) environment on the cathode side and a reducing environment (hydrogen or a reformed hydrocarbon fuel) on the anode side. Other challenges include the fact that water vapor is likely to be present in both of these environments, and the fuel is likely to contain impurities, such as sulfides. Since the fuel is usually a reformed hydrocarbon fuel, such as natural gas, coal gas, biogas, gasoline, etc., the interconnect is exposed to a wet carbonaceous environment at the anode side. Finally, the interconnect must be stable towards any adjacent components, such as electrodes, seals and electrical contact materials, with which it is in physical contact.

Yang, Z Gary; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Singh, Prabhakar

2007-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

329

Oxidation Resistant, Cr Retaining, Electrically Conductive Coatings on Metallic Alloys for SOFC Interconnects  

SciTech Connect

This report describes significant results from an on-going, collaborative effort to enable the use of inexpensive metallic alloys as interconnects in planar solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) through the use of advanced coating technologies. Arcomac Surface Engineering, LLC, under the leadership of Dr. Vladimir Gorokhovsky, is investigating filtered-arc and filtered-arc plasma-assisted hybrid coating deposition technologies to promote oxidation resistance, eliminate Cr volatility, and stabilize the electrical conductivity of both standard and specialty steel alloys of interest for SOFC metallic interconnect (IC) applications. Arcomac has successfully developed technologies and processes to deposit coatings with excellent adhesion, which have demonstrated a substantial increase in high temperature oxidation resistance, stabilization of low Area Specific Resistance values and significantly decrease Cr volatility. An extensive matrix of deposition processes, coating compositions and architectures was evaluated. Technical performance of coated and uncoated sample coupons during exposures to SOFC interconnect-relevant conditions is discussed, and promising future directions are considered. Cost analyses have been prepared based on assessment of plasma processing parameters, which demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed surface engineering process for SOFC metallic IC applications.

Vladimir Gorokhovsky

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

330

Reactive power interconnection requirements for PV and wind plants : recommendations to NERC.  

SciTech Connect

Voltage on the North American bulk system is normally regulated by synchronous generators, which typically are provided with voltage schedules by transmission system operators. In the past, variable generation plants were considered very small relative to conventional generating units, and were characteristically either induction generator (wind) or line-commutated inverters (photovoltaic) that have no inherent voltage regulation capability. However, the growing level of penetration of non-traditional renewable generation - especially wind and solar - has led to the need for renewable generation to contribute more significantly to power system voltage control and reactive power capacity. Modern wind-turbine generators, and increasingly PV inverters as well, have considerable dynamic reactive power capability, which can be further enhanced with other reactive support equipment at the plant level to meet interconnection requirements. This report contains a set of recommendations to the North-America Electricity Reliability Corporation (NERC) as part of Task 1-3 (interconnection requirements) of the Integration of Variable Generation Task Force (IVGTF) work plan. The report discusses reactive capability of different generator technologies, reviews existing reactive power standards, and provides specific recommendations to improve existing interconnection standards.

McDowell, Jason (General Electric, Schenectady, NY); Walling, Reigh (General Electric, Schenectady, NY); Peter, William (SunPower, Richmond, CA); Von Engeln, Edi (NV Energy, Reno, NV); Seymour, Eric (AEI, Fort Collins, CO); Nelson, Robert (Siemens Wind Turbines, Orlando, FL); Casey, Leo (Satcon, Boston, MA); Ellis, Abraham; Barker, Chris. (SunPower, Richmond, CA)

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Effect of interconnect creep on long-term performance of SOFC of one cell stacks  

SciTech Connect

Creep deformation becomes relevant for a material when the operating temperature is near or exceeds half of its melting temperature (in degrees of Kelvin). The operating temperatures for most of the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) under development in the SECA program are around 1073oK. High temperature ferritic alloys are potential candidates as interconnect (IC) materials and spacers due to their low cost and CTE compatibility with other SOFC components. Since the melting temperature of most stainless steel is around 1800oK, possible creep deformation of IC under the typical cell operating temperature should not be neglected. In this paper, the effects of interconnect creep behavior on stack geometry change and stress redistribution of different cell components are predicted and summarized. The goal of the study is to investigate the performance of the fuel cell stack by obtaining the fuel and air channel geometry changes due to creep of the ferritic stainless steel interconnect, therefore indicating possible SOFC performance change under long term operations. IC creep models were incorporated into SOFC-MP and Mentat FC, and finite element analyses were performed to quantify the deformed configuration of the SOFC stack under the long term steady state operating temperature. It is found that creep behavior of the ferritic stainless steel IC contributes to narrowing of both the fuel and the air flow channels. In addition, stress re-distribution of the cell components suggests the need for a compliant sealing material that also relaxes at operating temperature.

Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Life Prediction of Coated and Uncoated Metallic Interconnect for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications  

SciTech Connect

Oxidation reaction of the ferritic stainless interconnects in a typical SOFC working environment is unavoidable and the thickness of the oxide scale will continue to grow with operating time, even with protective coatings. The interfacial strength of the various interfaces for the uncoated and coated ferritic interconnects is crucial to long term performance of SOFCs. In this paper, we employ an integrated experimental/modeling approach to quantify the interfacial strength and to further predict the life of Crofer 22 APU as SOFC interconnect under isothermal cooling condition. The life of Crofer 22 APU was predicted by comparing the predicted interfacial strength, interfacial stresses induced by the cooling process from the operating temperature to room temperature, together with the growth kinetics of oxide scale with and without spinel coating. It was found that the interfacial strength between the oxide scale and Crofer 22 APU substrate decreases with the growth of the oxide scale. The interfacial strength of the oxide scale and spinel coating is much higher than that of the oxide scale and Crofer 22 APU substrate. With the spinel coating, the predicted life of the Crofer 22 APU is significantly longer than that of the uncoated Crofer 22 APU.

Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

333

Evaluation of a Surface Treatment on the Performance of Stainless Steels for SOFC Interconnect Applications  

SciTech Connect

Pack cementation-like Cerium based surface treatments have been found to be effective in enhancing the oxidation resistance of ferritic steels (Crofer 22APU) for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. The application of either a CeN- or CeO2 based surface treatment results in a decrease in weight gain by a factor of three after 4000 hours exposure to air+3%H2O at 800oC. Similar oxide scales formed on treated and untreated surfaces, with a continuous Cr-Mn outer oxide layer and a continuous inner Cr2O3 layer formed on the surface. However, the thickness of the scales, and the amount of internal oxidation were significantly reduced with the treatment, leading to the decrease in oxidation rate. This presentation will detail the influence of the treatment on the electrical properties of the interconnect. Half-cell experiments (LSM cathode sandwiched between two steel interconnects) and full SOFC button cell experiments were run with treated and untreated interconnects. Preliminary results indicate the Ce treatment can improve SOFC performance.

Alman, D.E.; Holcomb, Adler, T.A.; G.R.; Wilson, R.D.; Jablonski, P.D.

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Feasibility studies of a power interconnection system for Central American countries: SIEPAC project  

SciTech Connect

The electrical systems of the Central American countries are linked by 230 kV ac weak border interconnections forming two separated subsystems. The first one includes Guatemala and El Salvador, and the other one comprises the systems of Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. As a consequence, unrestricted energy exchanges among all countries are not possible. This article describes the SIEPAC project which consists of a 1,678 km long 500 kV ac power transmission line that would link the six electrical systems of the region through seven power substations (one for each country and two in Panama), installed close to the highest demand national centers and six control centers of energy (one for each country) to allow coordinated operation of the interconnection.This project also considers a set of complementary assets (230 ac power transmission lines into some countries and the border transmission line between El Salvador and Honduras, and various other equipment). The power transmission line will greatly reinforce the actual border interconnections, which have a reduced capacity of exchange and technical problems associated with the stability of a weak longitudinal system. On the other hand, economic savings for the region would be achieved, coming from a higher coordination level in the operation and planning of their systems.

Gomez, T.; Enamorado, J.C. (Univ. Pontificia Comillas, Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Investigacion Tecnologica); Vela, A. (Empresa Nacional de Electricidad, Madrid (Spain))

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Low-power approaches for parallel, free-space photonic interconnects  

SciTech Connect

Future advances in the application of photonic interconnects will involve the insertion of parallel-channel links into Multi-Chip Modules (MCMS) and board-level parallel connections. Such applications will drive photonic link components into more compact forms that consume far less power than traditional telecommunication data links. These will make use of new device-level technologies such as vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers and special low-power parallel photoreceiver circuits. Depending on the application, these device technologies will often be monolithically integrated to reduce the amount of board or module real estate required by the photonics. Highly parallel MCM and board-level applications will also require simplified drive circuitry, lower cost, and higher reliability than has been demonstrated in photonic and optoelectronic technologies. An example is found in two-dimensional point-to-point array interconnects for MCM stacking. These interconnects are based on high-efficiency Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VCSELs), Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor (HBT) photoreceivers, integrated micro-optics, and MCM-compatible packaging techniques. Individual channels have been demonstrated at 100 Mb/s, operating with a direct 3.3V CMOS electronic interface while using 45 mW of electrical power. These results demonstrate how optoelectronic device technologies can be optimized for low-power parallel link applications.

Carson, R.F.; Lovejoy, M.L.; Lear, K.L.; WSarren, M.E.; Seigal, P.K.; Craft, D.C.; Kilcoyne, S.P.; Patrizi, G.A.; Blum, O.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

336

File:PUCT DG Interconnection Manual.pdf | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

PUCT DG Interconnection Manual.pdf PUCT DG Interconnection Manual.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Metadata File:PUCT DG Interconnection Manual.pdf Size of this preview: 463 × 599 pixels. Other resolution: 464 × 600 pixels. Go to page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 Go! next page → next page → Full resolution ‎(1,275 × 1,650 pixels, file size: 2.02 MB, MIME type: application/pdf, 114 pages) File history Click on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time.

337

High-speed graphene interconnects monolithically integrated with CMOS ring oscillators operating at 1.3GHz  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have successfully experimentally integrated graphene interconnects with commercial 0.25 ¿m technology CMOS ring oscillator circuit using conventional fabrication techniques, and demonstrated high speed on-chip graphene ...

Chen, Xiangyu

338

Metallic Interconnects for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell: Performance of Reactive Element Oxide Coating During 10, 20 and 30Months Exposure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

One of challenges in improving the performance and cost-effectiveness of SOFCs (Solid Oxide Fuel Cells) is the development of suitable interconnect materials. Chromia-forming alloys and especially ferritic sta...

S. Fontana; S. Chevalier; G. Caboche

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Development of Ni1-xCoxO as the cathode/interconnect contact for solid oxide fuel cells  

SciTech Connect

A new type of material, Ni1-xCoxO, was developed for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathode/interconnect contact applications. The phase structure, coefficient of thermal expansion, sintering behavior, electrical property, and mechanical bonding strength of these materials were evaluated against the requirements of the SOFC cathode/interconnect contact. A dense cathode/interconnect contact layer was developed through reaction sintering from Ni and Co metal powders. An area specific resistance (ASR) as low as 5.5 mohm.cm2 was observed after 1000 h exposure in air at 800 C for the LSM/Ni0.33Co0.67O/AISI441 assembly. Average mechanical strengths of 6.8 and 5.0 MPa were obtained for the cathode/contact/cathode and interconnect/contact/interconnect structures, respectively. The significantly low ASR was probably due to the dense structure and therefore improved electrical conductivity of the Ni0.33Co0.67O contact and the good bonding of the interfaces between the contact and the cathode, and between the contact and the interconnect.

Lu, Zigui; Xia, Guanguang; Templeton, Joshua D.; Li, Xiaohong S.; Nie, Zimin; Yang, Zhenguo; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Renewable portfolio standards, Greenhouse gas reduction, and Long-Line transmission investments in the WECC  

SciTech Connect

New, long-distance transmission lines to remote areas with concentrations of high-quality renewable resources can help western states meet the challenges of increasing renewable energy procurement and reducing greenhouse gas emissions more cost-effectively than reliance on local resources alone. The approach applied here to the Western Electricity Coordinating Council is useful for an initial determination of the net benefits of long-line transmission between regions with heterogeneous resource quality. (author)

Olson, Arne; Orans, Ren; Allen, Doug; Moore, Jack; Woo, C.K.

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection tre wecc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Simplified WECC modeling for frequency response, wind integration, and energy storage.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The primary objective of a grid is to maintain a balance between generation and load. If these quantities are not in balance with each other, (more)

Bhattacharji, Pranathi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Mixed-mode singularity and temperature effects on dislocation nucleation in strained interconnects  

SciTech Connect

Dislocations can be nucleated from sharp geometric features in strained interconnects due to thermal expansion coefficient mismatch, lattice mismatch, or stresses that arise during material processing. The asymptotic stress fields near the edge root can be described by mixed-mode singularities, which depend on the dihedral angle and material properties, and a transverse T-stress, which depends on how residual stress is realized in the interconnects. The critical condition for stress nucleation can be determined when an appropriate measure of the stress intensity factors (SIFs) reaches a critical value. Such a method, however, does not offer an explicit picture of the dislocation nucleation process so that it has difficulties in studying complicated structures, mode mixity effects, and more importantly the temperature effects. Based on the Peierls concept, a dislocation can be described by a continuous slip field, and the dislocation nucleation condition corresponds when the total potential energy reaches a stationary state. Through implementing this ad hoc interface model into a finite element framework, it is found that dislocation nucleation becomes more difficult with the increase of mode mixity and T-stress, or the decrease of the width-to-height ratio of the surface pad, while the shape of the surface pad, being a square or a long line, plays a less important role. The Peierls dislocation model also allows us to determine the activation energy, which is the energy needed for the thermal activation of a dislocation when the applied load is lower than the athermal critical value. The calculated saddle point configuration compares favorably the molecular simulations in literature. Suggestions on making immortal strained interconnects are provided.

Lee, Jinhaeng [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Gao, Yanfei [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Microsoft Word - Load Availability Profiles and Constraints for the Western Interconnect_102513_clean.docx  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

7E 7E Grid Integration of Aggregated Demand Response, Part I: Load Availability Profiles and Constraints for the Western Interconnection Daniel J. Olsen, Nance Matson, Michael D. Sohn, Cody Rose, Junqiao Dudley, Sasank Goli, and Sila Kiliccote Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Marissa Hummon, David Palchak, Paul Denholm, and Jennie Jorgenson National Renewable Energy Laboratory Ookie Ma U.S. Department of Energy September 2013 Disclaimer Acknowledgements Abstract Foreword Table of Contents List of Figures List of Tables Executive Summary Introduction ≤ ≤ ≤

344

Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Interconnection Queue Practices Technical Conference December 11, 2007  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

National Electric Transmission Congestion Study National Electric Transmission Congestion Study Workshop December 8, 2011 Hilton St. Louis Airport, 10330 Natural Bridge Road, St. Louis, Missouri 63134 Presented by: Jerry Lein Public Utility Analyst North Dakota Public Service Commission Phone: 701 328-1035 Fax: 701 328-2410 jlein@nd.gov Overview * ND Electric Energy Resources * Need for New Transmission - Interconnection Difficulties - Transmission Constraints * Regional Transmission Projects Update * Capacity Deliverability between RTOs ND Electric Energy Resources * ND Ranked #1 in U.S. for Wind Energy Potential - 1991 Pacific Northwest Labs study found ND Wind could potentially supply 36% of U.S. electric energy consumption. -

345

A new relay for interconnected distribution in the UK -- Design and field experience  

SciTech Connect

The design of a new microprocessor based multifunctional relay for use on interconnected 33 kV circuits is described. The relay uses sequence component principles and rented low grade VF communication. It was needed urgently because rented metallic communication circuits, which are in widespread use, are being withdrawn in the UK. The relay development is unusual because of its measurement methods and because it can derive polarizing voltage from existing 11 kV VTs. The time scales required were such that development, field trials and installation phases overlapped. The field experience is described.

Sanderson, J.V.H.; Kyriakides, M.K. (Power Engineering Consultants Ltd., Cheshire (United Kingdom)); An, W. (UMIST, Manchester (United Kingdom)); Mackrell, A.J.; Postlethwaite, H.R.; Rogers, W.J.S.; Swinnerton, B.W. (Manweb plc, Chester (United Kingdom))

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Laser-welded Interconnection of Screen-printed Si Solar Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract We demonstrate the laser welding of Al interconnects to the BSF rear-side of screen-printed two-side-contacted solar cells. The Al paste on the rear side of solar cell is laser-welded to an Al foil. This reduces the silver consumption of the solar cells by making silver pads on the rear side obsolete. Our proof-of-concept modules are free of laser damage. A 3-cell-module from 6 solar cells shows no change in fill factor within the statistical measurement uncertainty after artificial aging in 500 humidity-freeze cycles.

Henning Schulte-Huxel; Susanne Blankemeyer; Verena Steckenreiter; Sarah Kajari-Schroeder; Rolf Brendel

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Performance-aware Energy Saving Mechanism in Interconnection Networks for Parallel Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The growing processing power of parallel computing systems require interconnection networks a higher level of complexity and higher performance, thus consuming more energy. Link components contributes a substantial proportion of the total energy consumption of the networks. Many researchers have proposed approaches to judiciously change the link speed as a function of traffic to save energy when the traffic is light. However, the link speed reduction incurs an increase in average packet latency, thus degrades network performance. This paper addresses that issue with a performance-aware energy saving mechanism. The simulation results show that the proposed mechanism outperforms the energy saving mechanisms in literature.

Hai Nguyen; Daniel Franco; Emilio Luque

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Viscosity solutions of systems of PDEs with interconnected obstacles and Multi modes switching problems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper deals with existence and uniqueness, in viscosity sense, of a solution for a system of m variational partial differential inequalities with inter-connected obstacles. A particular case of this system is the deterministic version of the Verification Theorem of the Markovian optimal m-states switching problem. The switching cost functions are arbitrary. This problem is connected with the valuation of a power plant in the energy market. The main tool is the notion of systems of reflected BSDEs with oblique reflection.

Hamadne, Said

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Value of Improved Wind Power Forecasting in the Western Interconnection (Poster)  

SciTech Connect

Wind power forecasting is a necessary and important technology for incorporating wind power into the unit commitment and dispatch process. It is expected to become increasingly important with higher renewable energy penetration rates and progress toward the smart grid. There is consensus that wind power forecasting can help utility operations with increasing wind power penetration; however, there is far from a consensus about the economic value of improved forecasts. This work explores the value of improved wind power forecasting in the Western Interconnection of the United States.

Hodge, B.

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Monolithic interconnected module with a tunnel junction for enhanced electrical and optical performance  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved thermophotovoltaic (TPV) n/p/n device is provided. Monolithic Interconnected Modules (MIMS), semiconductor devices converting infrared radiation to electricity, have been developed with improved electrical and optical performance. The structure is an n-type emitter on a p-type base with an n-type lateral conduction layer. The incorporation of a tunnel junction and the reduction in the amount of p-type material used results in negligible parasitic absorption, decreased series resistance, increased voltage and increased active area. The novel use of a tunnel junction results in the potential for a TPV device with efficiency greater than 24%.

Murray, Christopher S. (Bethel Park, PA); Wilt, David M. (Bay Village, OH)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Microsoft Word - texas.doc  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Texas Texas NERC Region(s) ....................................................................................................... SERC/SPP/TRE/WECC Primary Energy Source........................................................................................... Gas Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) ....................................................................... 108,258 1 Electric Utilities ...................................................................................................... 26,533 4 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power ................................ 81,724 1 Net Generation (megawatthours) ........................................................................... 411,695,046 1

352

Three-dimensional CFD simulation of hydrodynamics in an interconnected fluidized bed for chemical looping combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A hydrodynamic model of an interconnected fluidized bed for chemical looping combustion was established based on the EulerianEulerian two-fluid model with the kinetic theory of granular flow. The effect of the drag model on the computational results was investigated and detailed hydrodynamics were predicted in the three-dimensional circulating fluidized bed (composed of a riser, bubbling bed, pot-seal and cyclone). Both qualitative and quantitative results indicated that the drag model had a significant effect on the flow behavior. The Gidaspow and the Syamlal & O'Brien drag models both produced accurate predictions in this study. The pressure balance of an interconnected fluidized bed revealed that the pressure in the bubbling bed was lower than that in the pot-seal and the riser, whilst still being higher than the pressure in the cyclone. The riser and bubbling bed were individually operated in fast and bubbling fluidization regions. The three distinct regions identified from the bottom to the top of the riser were: entrance region, bulk region and exit region. The solids volume fraction was higher in the near-wall region but lower in the center region for both the riser and bubbling bed. The coupled characteristics of the fluidized bed were predominantly identified by the strong effect of operational gas velocity in the riser on the hydrodynamics in the bubbling bed.

Yanjun Guan; Jian Chang; Kai Zhang; Baodong Wang; Qi Sun

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Developing TiAIN Coatings for Intermediate Temperature-Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Interconnect Applications  

SciTech Connect

TiN-type coatings have potential to be used as SOFC interconnect coatings SOFC because of their low resistance and high temperature stability. In this research, various (Ti,Al)N coatings were deposited on stainless steels by filtered-arc method. ASR and XRD tests were conducted on these coatings, and SEM/EDAX analysis were conducted after ASR and XRD tests. SEM/EDAX analyses show that (Ti,Al)N remains stable at temperature up to 700C. It is also indicated that Al has beneficial effect on the stability of TiN type coatings. At 900C, (Ti-30Al)N is fully oxidized and some of (Ti-50Al)N coating still remains as nitride. The analyses on cross-sectional samples show that these coatings are effective barrier to the Cr migration. In summary, (Ti.Al)N coatings are good candidates for the SOFC interconnect applications at 700C. The future directions of this research are to improve the stability of these coatings by alloy-doping and to develop multi-layer coatings.

Liu, X. (West Virginia University); Johnson, C.D.; Li, C. (West Virginia University); Xu, J. (West Virginia University); Cross, C.

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Electrodeposition of Mn-Co Alloys on Stainless Steels for SOFC Interconnect Application  

SciTech Connect

Chromium-containing ferritic stainless steels are the most popular materials for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) interconnect applications because of its oxidation resistance and easy fabrication process. However, excessive scale growth and chromium evaporation will degrade the cell performance. Highly conductive coatings that resist oxide scale growth and chromium evaporation may prevent both of these problems. Mn1.5Co1.5O4 spinel is one of the most promising coatings for interconnect application because of its high conducitivy, good chromium retention capability, as well as good CTE match. Electroplating of alloys or thin film multilayers followed by controlled oxidation to the desired spinel phase offers an additional deposition option. In the present study binary Mn/Co alloys was fabricated by electrodeposition, and polarization curves were used to characterize the cathodic reactions on substrate surface. By controlling the current density precisely, coatings with Mn/Co around 1:1 has been successfully deposited in Mn/Co =10 solutions, SEM and EDX was used to characterize the surface morphology and composition.

Wu, J. (West Virginia University); Jiang, Y. (West Virginia University); Johnson, C.; Gong, M. (West Virginia University); Liu, X. (West Virginia University)

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Fostering interconnectivity dimension of low-carbon cities: The triple bottom line re-interpretation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In facilitating the progress towards low-carbon cities, there is no lack of available green technologies, planning techniques, economic tools, social development strategies, etc. These technologies, strategies and techniques have, in fact, long been deployed in many cities and communities around the world. However, the outcomes have been somewhat slow and less than expected. This is also manifested in the lower-than-expectation outcomes of the formation of a meaningful global climate change treaty so far. The barriers have clearly been unveiled as disconnection among the triple bottom lines (TBL) in the approach. By linking the concept of low-carbon cities to sustainable development (informed by the TBL), the paper highlights the implication of misinterpretation of a popular TBL diagram, leading to fragmented, compromised approach to LCC. Cases in point are isolating and excluding social and economic activities that are not environmental friendly, and trading-off environmentally-friendly activities that are notprofitable in economic sense. Re-interpretation the popular TBL diagram literally from a three-dimensional lens offers an alternative approach, presented in an integrated framework towards low-carbon cities. The vital factors in the framework are safeguarding the positive dynamic interconnectivities of the three bottom lines, aligning their core values (in contrast to the isolating and excluding exercise), amplifying their common interest (instead of trading-off activities), and deploying strategies from planning, renewable technologies, education and policy making to address multiple and interconnected issues reciprocally.

Wynn Chi Nguyen Cam

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Record of Decision for the Electrical Interconnection of the COB Energy Facility (DOE/EIS-0343) (08/20/04)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

COB Energy Facility COB Energy Facility DECISION The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has decided to offer contract terms for interconnection of the COB Energy Facility with the Federal Columbia River Transmission System (FCRTS), as proposed in the COB Energy Facility Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) (DOE/EIS-0343, June 2004). Proposed by Peoples Energy Resources Company (PERC), the COB Energy Facility involves constructing and operating a new 1,160- megawatt (MW) natural gas-fired, combined-cycle power generation facility at a 50.6-acre site near Bonanza in Klamath County, Oregon, and a 7.2-mile-long 500-kilovolt (kV) transmission line south to BPA's Captain Jack Substation. A Generation Interconnection Agreement with PERC would provide for interconnection of the COB Energy Facility with the FCRTS and

357

Audit Report - Department of Energy's Interconnection Transmission Planning Program Funded through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Audit Report Department of Energy's Interconnection Transmission Planning Program Funded through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 OAS-RA-13-26 June 2013 Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 June 19, 2013 MEMORANDUM FOR THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR ELECTRICITY DELIVERY AND ENERGY RELIABILITY FROM: Rickey R. Hass Deputy Inspector General for Audit and Inspections Office of Inspector General SUBJECT: INFORMATION: Audit Report on "The Department of Energy's Interconnection Transmission Planning Program Funded through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009" BACKGROUND Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act), the Department of

358

Interaction between (La, Sr)MnO3 cathode and NiMoCr metallic interconnect with suppressed chromium vaporization for solid oxide fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Interaction between (La0.8Sr0.2)0.90MnO3 (LSM) cathode and newly developed NiMoCr metallic interconnect is investigated at 900C under operation conditions of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The results show that chromium deposition on the LSM cathodes in the presence of NiMoCr interconnect is remarkably reduced as compared to that in the presence of a conventional FeCr metallic interconnect (RA446). In contact with the NiMo-Cr interconnect the overpotential, ?, for the O2 reduction reaction on LSM cathode decreased from 529 to 111mV during the 1200min current passage at 200mA/cm2. In contrast, ? increased from 464 to 561mV for the reaction in the presence of a RA446 interconnect. The decrease in ? clearly indicates that chromium poisoning effect of the NiMoCr interconnect is also significantly suppressed as compared to that with conventional FeCr interconnect materials. The suppressed Cr deposition and poisoning effects observed on the LSM cathodes demonstrate promising potential of the NiMoCr alloy as new interconnect materials with significant suppressed chromium vaporization and deposition for SOFCs.

Xinbing Chen; Bin Hua; Jian Pu; Jian Li; Lan Zhang; San Ping Jiang

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

A G LO BA L P OW E R TECHNOLO GIES CO M PA N Y SolarTieTM Grid Interconnection Solution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

G f· Shipments to date sufficient to power 10 GW of wind power SWind Plant Interconnection Solutions's Wind-Generated Electricity "Powered by AMSC®" Wind Turbine Designs, Controls & Converters · Relied upon utilized at more than 70 wind plants worldwide · Shipments to date sufficient to allow interconnection 4 p

Homes, Christopher C.

360

Electrical and Optical On-Chip Interconnects in Scaled Microprocessors Guoqing Chen, Hui Chen, Mikhail Haurylau, Nicholas Nelson, David Albonesi, Philippe M. Fauchet, and Eby G. Friedman  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electrical and Optical On-Chip Interconnects in Scaled Microprocessors Guoqing Chen, Hui Chen of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, 14627 Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, 14853 Abstract-- Interconnect has

Albonesi, David H.

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361

1068 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VERY LARGE SCALE INTEGRATION (VLSI) SYSTEMS, VOL. 11, NO. 6, DECEMBER 2003 Equivalent-Circuit Interconnect Modeling Based on  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-chip long interconnects that are represented as distributed RLC transmission lines. The proposed delay model transmission line model, equivalent circuit, interconnect modeling, passivity, transient simulation. I as distributed RLC transmission lines. Manuscript received December 3, 2002. This work was supported in part

Mazumder, Pinaki

362

Integrated Energy-Water Planning in the Western and Texas Interconnections  

SciTech Connect

While long-term regional electricity transmission planning has traditionally focused on cost, infrastructure utilization, and reliability, issues concerning the availability of water represent an emerging issue. Thermoelectric expansion must be considered in the context of competing demands from other water use sectors balanced with fresh and non-fresh water supplies subject to climate variability. An integrated Energy-Water Decision Support System (DSS) is being developed that will enable planners in the Western and Texas Interconnections to analyze the potential implications of water availability and cost for long-range transmission planning. The project brings together electric transmission planners (Western Electricity Coordinating Council and Electric Reliability Council of Texas) with western water planners (Western Governors Association and the Western States Water Council). This paper lays out the basic framework for this integrated Energy-Water DSS.

Vincent Tidwell; John Gasper; Robert Goldstein; Jordan Macknick; Gerald Sehlke; Michael Webber; Mark Wigmosta

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Electrode and method of interconnection sintering on an electrode of an electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrode structure is made by applying a base layer of doped LaCrO[sub 3] particles on a portion of an electrode and then coating the particles with a top layer composition such as CaO+Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], SrO+Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], or BaO+Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], and then heating the composition for a time effective to melt the composition and allow it to fill any open porosity in the base layer of doped LaCrO[sub 3] to form an interconnection, after which solid oxide electrolyte can be applied to the remaining portion of the electrode and the electrolyte can be covered with a cermet exterior electrode. 2 figures.

Ruka, R.J.; Kuo, L.J.H.

1994-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

364

BI-LAYER p-n JUNCTION INTERCONNECTIONS FOR COAL BASED SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS  

SciTech Connect

In this report, a new approach for lower operating temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) interconnections (IC) consisting of a bi-layer structure is proposed and analyzed. The bi-layer structure consists of a p-type layer exposed to cathodic gas (air/oxygen) and an n-type layer exposed to anodic gas (fuel). It is theoretically shown that the interfacial oxygen partial pressure which is an important design variable, is dependent primarily on the oxygen partial pressure gradient across the IC, the low level oxygen conductivities of the two layers and is largely independent of their electronic conductivities and the total current density through the IC material. Experimental difficulties in fabricating bi-layer structures are presently being addressed.

Srikanth Gopalan

2005-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

365

Vibration control in plates by uniformly distributed PZT actuators interconnected via electric networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper a novel device aimed at controlling the mechanical vibrations of plates by means of a set of electrically-interconnected piezoelectric actuators is described. The actuators are embedded uniformly in the plate wherein they connect every node of an electric network to ground, thus playing the two-fold role of capacitive element in the electric network and of couple suppliers. A mathematical model is introduced to describe the propagation of electro-mechanical waves in the device; its validity is restricted to the case of wave-forms with wave-length greater than the dimension of the piezoelectric actuators used. A self-resonance criterion is established which assures the possibility of electro-mechanical energy exchange. Finally the problem of vibration control in simply supported and clamped plates is addressed; the optimal net-impedance is determined. The results indicate that the proposed device can improve the performances of piezoelectric actuation

Stefano Vidoli; Francesco dell'Isola

2010-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

366

DC electrodeposition of MnCo alloys on stainless steels for SOFC interconnect application  

SciTech Connect

High conductivity coatings that resist oxide scale growth and reduce chromium evaporation are needed to make stainless steel interconnect materials viable for long-term stable operation of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). Mn1.5Co1.5O4 spinel is one of the most promising coatings for interconnect application because of its high conductivity, good chromium retention capability, as well as good CTE match to ferritic stainless steels. MnCo electrodeposition followed by oxidization is potentially a low cost method for fabrication of (Mn,Co)3O4 spinel coatings. This work looks at the co-deposition of MnCo alloys for this application. As a guide to optimize the deposition process, characterizations of the cathodic reactions and reaction potentials are done using polarization curves. It was found that as cobalt concentration was varied that the alloy composition became richer in cobalt, indicating that the deposition is regular co-deposition process. It was also found that at 0.05M Co concentration in excess gluconate the MnCo alloys composition could be tuned by varying the current density. Coatings with MnCo around 1:1 could be obtained at a current density of 250 mA/cm2. However, the higher potential increased hydrogen production making the films more porous. Oxidation of the alloy coatings showed that much of the porosities could be eliminated during oxidation. It was found in a number of samples that fully dense coatings where obtained. The composition of the oxidized coating was found to become enriched in Mn, possibly due to the Mn fast diffusion from the substrate.

Wu, Junwei; Jiang, Yinglu; Johnson, Christopher; Liu, Xingbo

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Power Transmission Lines: A New Interconnect Design to Eliminate Simultaneous Switching Noise A. Ege Engin and Madhavan Swaminathan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Power Transmission Lines: A New Interconnect Design to Eliminate Simultaneous Switching Noise A occurs at discontinuities of the transmission line, wherever there is an interruption of the current that is connected to a transmission line. To reduce this discontinuity, current designs try to maintain a low

Swaminathan, Madhavan

368

Discrete Event Simulation of QoS of a SCADA System Interconnecting a Power Grid and a Telco Network  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Discrete Event Simulation of QoS of a SCADA System Interconnecting a Power Grid and a Telco Network, Telco network and Power grid act as a whole heterogeneous network. While SCADA system and Telco network can be well represented by means of discrete event simulators. To represent a Power grid a continuous

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

369

On-Chip Copper-Based vs. Optical Interconnects: Delay Uncertainty, Latency, Power, and Bandwidth Density Comparative Predictions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

On-Chip Copper-Based vs. Optical Interconnects: Delay Uncertainty, Latency, Power, and Bandwidth. Albonesi, Philippe M. Fauchet, and Eby G. Friedman Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of Rochester, Rochester, New York, 14627 Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering,Cornell University

Friedman, Eby G.

370

Hierarchical interconnections in the nano-composite material Bone: Fibrillar Cross-Links resist fracture on several length scales  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hierarchical interconnections in the nano-composite material Bone: Fibrillar Cross-Links resist bone samples, possibly resisting the propagation of these cracks. Bone is one of the most important collagen and hydroxyapatite. Such materials are based on the crystal-polymer interactions on the molecular

Fygenson, Deborah Kuchnir

371

Cost-Effectivenessof PhotovoltaicGenerationIn A Transmission-Constrained Load Area of An InterconnectedSystem  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

stations and then deliver that energy through the interconnected transmission and distribution systems are important factors for electricity enterprises to consider in their planning activities. One new important Abstract: Electric power systems of today are experiencing a difficulty of constrained transmission lines

Gross, George

372

624 IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, VOL. 9, NO. 2, MARCH/APRIL 2003 Optoelectronic Interconnection Technology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optoelectronic Interconnection Technology in the HOLMS System Paul Lukowicz, Member, IEEE, Jürgen Jahns, Member. Süllau, J. F. Snowdon, M. Wirz, and G. Tröster Invited Paper Abstract--The High-Speed Optoelectronic and economical by developing optoelectronic packaging tech- nology compatible with standard electronic assembly

Jahns, Jürgen

373

Optoelectronic Interconnects XIII (OE112) Conference Chairs: Alexei L. Glebov, OptiGrate Corp. (USA); Ray T. Chen, The Univ.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optoelectronic Interconnects XIII (OE112) Conference Chairs: Alexei L. Glebov, OptiGrate Corp. (USA); Ray T. Chen, The Univ. of Texas at Austin (USA) Program Committee: Bill Blubaugh, US Conec Ltd. (USA); Swapnajit Chakravarty, Omega Optics, Inc. (USA); John E. Cunningham, Oracle (USA); Allen M. Earman, Intersil

Jahns, Jürgen

374

Case Study - Western Electricity Coordinating Council  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

A Smart Grid Strategy for Assuring Reliability of the Western Grid A Smart Grid Strategy for Assuring Reliability of the Western Grid The Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) is the Regional Entity responsible for coordinating and promoting bulk electric system reliability in the Western Interconnection. WECC and its members manage the operation and planning of the vast interconnected transmission system connecting generators and loads across almost 1.8 million square miles of territory. The Western Interconnection Synchrophasor Program (WISP), led by WECC and involving 18 partners, is an initiative to modernize operation of the transmission system in the Western Interconnection, increasing reliability and system performance, and enabling greater use of renewable resources such as solar, hydro, and wind.

375

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4 4 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 Table 8.12a Electric Noncoincident Peak Load and Capacity Margin: Summer Peak Period, 1986-2011 (Megawatts, Except as Noted) Year Noncoincident Peak Load 1 by North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) 2 Regional Assessment Area Capacity Margin 21 (percent) Eastern Interconnection ERCOT 4 Western Inter- connection All Inter- connections FRCC 5 NPCC 6 Balance of Eastern Region 3 ECAR 7,8 MAAC 8,9 MAIN 8,10 MAPP 11 MISO 12 MRO 13 PJM 14 RFC 8,15 SERC 16 SPP 17 Subtotal TRE 18 WECC 19 Total 20 1986 - - 39,026 69,606 37,564 35,943 - - - - 21,029 - - - - 105,570 47,123 316,835 39,335 81,787 476,983 NA 1987 - - 42,651 72,561 40,526 37,446 - - - - 23,162 - - - - 109,798 47,723 331,216 39,339 82,967

376

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 5 Table 8.12b Electric Noncoincident Peak Load and Capacity Margin: Winter Peak Period, 1986-2011 (Megawatts, Except as Noted) Year Noncoincident Peak Load 1 by North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) 2 Regional Assessment Area Capacity Margin 21 (percent) Eastern Interconnection ERCOT 4 Western Inter- connection All Inter- connections FRCC 5 NPCC 6 Balance of Eastern Region 3 ECAR 7,8 MAAC 8,9 MAIN 8,10 MAPP 11 MISO 12 MRO 13 PJM 14 RFC 8,15 SERC 16 SPP 17 Subtotal TRE 18 WECC 19 Total 20 1986 - - 37,976 64,561 32,807 28,036 - - - - 18,850 - - - - 101,849 33,877 279,980 28,730 76,171 422,857 NA 1987 - - 41,902 68,118 35,775 30,606 - - - - 19,335 - - - - 105,476 34,472 293,782 31,399 81,182 448,265 NA 1988 - - 42,951 67,771 36,363 30,631 - - - - 20,162 - - - -

377

High-performance, lattice-mismatched InGaAs/InP monolithic interconnected modules (MIMs)  

SciTech Connect

High performance, lattice-mismatched p/n InGaAs/lnP monolithic interconnected module (MIM) structures were developed for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) applications. A MIM device consists of several individual InGaAs photovoltaic (PV) cells series-connected on a single semi-insulating (S.I.) InP substrate. Both interdigitated and conventional (i.e., non-interdigitated) MIMs were fabricated. The energy bandgap (Eg) for these devices was 0.60 eV. A compositionally step-graded InPAs buffer was used to accommodate a lattice mismatch of 1.1% between the active InGaAs cell structure and the InP substrate. 1x1-cm, 15-cell, 0.60-eV MIMs demonstrated an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 5.2 V (347 mV per cell) and a fill factor of 68.6% at a short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 2.0 A/cm{sup 2}, under flashlamp testing. The reverse saturation current density (Jo) was 1.6x10{sup {minus}6} A/cm{sup 2}. Jo values as low as 4.1x10{sup {minus}7} A/cm{sup 2} were also observed with a conventional planar cell geometry.

Fatemi, Navid S.; Wilt, David M.; Hoffman, Richard W., Jr.; Stan, Mark S.; Weizer, Victor G.; Jenkins, Phillip P.; Khan, Osman S.; Murray, Christopher S.; Scheiman, David; Brinker, David

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Monte Carlo analysis of a monolithic interconnected module with a back surface reflector  

SciTech Connect

Recently, the photon Monte Carlo code, RACER-X, was modified to include wave-length dependent absorption coefficients and indices of refraction. This work was done in an effort to increase the code`s capabilities to be more applicable to a wider range of problems. These new features make RACER-X useful for analyzing devices like monolithic interconnected modules (MIMs) which have etched surface features and incorporates a back surface reflector (BSR) for spectral control. A series of calculations were performed on various MIM structures to determine the impact that surface features and component reflectivities have on spectral utilization. The traditional concern of cavity photonics is replaced with intra-cell photonics in the MIM design. Like the cavity photonic problems previously discussed, small changes in optical properties and/or geometry can lead to large changes in spectral utilization. The calculations show that seemingly innocuous surface features (e.g., trenches and grid lines) can significantly reduce the spectral utilization due to the non-normal incident photon flux. Photons that enter the device through a trench edge are refracted onto a trajectory where they will not escape. This leads to a reduction in the number of reflected below bandgap photons that return to the radiator and reduce the spectral utilization. In addition, trenches expose a lateral conduction layer in this particular series of calculations which increase the absorption of above bandgap photons in inactive material.

Ballinger, C.T.; Charache, G.W. [Lockheed Martin Corp., Schenectady, NY (United States); Murray, C.S. [Bettis Atomic Power Lab., West Mifflin, PA (United States)

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

High-performance, lattice-mismatched InGaAs/InP monolithic interconnected modules (MIMs)  

SciTech Connect

High performance, lattice-mismatched p/n InGaAs/InP monolithic interconnected module (MIM) structures were developed for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) applications. A MIM device consists of several individual InGaAs photovoltaic (PV) cells series-connected on a single semi-insulating (S.I.) InP substrate. Both interdigitated and conventional (i.e., non-interdigitated) MIMs were fabricated. The energy bandgap (Eg) for these devices was 0.60 eV. A compositionally step-graded InPAs buffer was used to accommodate a lattice mismatch of 1.1{percent} between the active InGaAs cell structure and the InP substrate. 1{times}1-cm, 15-cell, 0.60-eV MIMs demonstrated an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 5.2 V (347 mV per cell) and a fill factor of 68.6{percent} at a short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 2.0 A/cm{sup 2}, under flashlamp testing. The reverse saturation current density (Jo) was 1.6{times}10{sup {minus}6}&hthinsp;A/cm{sup 2}. Jo values as low as 4.1{times}10{sup {minus}7}&hthinsp;A/cm{sup 2} were also observed with a conventional planar cell geometry. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

Fatemi, Navid S.; Wilt, David M.; Hoffman, Richard W.; Stan, Mark A.; Weizer, Victor G.; Jenkins, Phillip P.; Khan, Osman S. [Essential Research, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Brinker, David [NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio (United States)] Murray, Christopher S. [Bettis Atomic Power laboratory, West Mifflin, Pennsylvania (United States)

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Degradation of solid oxide fuel cell metallic interconnects in fuels containing sulfur  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen is the main fuel for all types of fuel cells except direct methanol fuel cells. Hydrogen can be generated from all manner of fossil fuels, including coal, natural gas, diesel, gasoline, other hydrocarbons, and oxygenates (e.g., methanol, ethanol, butanol, etc.). Impurities in the fuel can cause significant performance problems and sulfur, in particular, can decrease the cell performance of fuel cells, including solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). In the SOFC, the high (800-1000C) operating temperature yields advantages (e.g., internal fuel reforming) and disadvantages (e.g., material selection and degradation problems). Significant progress in reducing the operating temperature of the SOFC from ~1000 C to ~750 C may allow less expensive metallic materials to be used for interconnects and as balance of plant (BOP) materials. This paper provides insight on the material performance of nickel, ferritic steels, and nickel-based alloys in fuels containing sulfur, primarily in the form of H2S, and seeks to quantify the extent of possible degradation due to sulfur in the gas stream.

Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection tre wecc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Free-Space optical interconnects for cable-less readout in particle physics detectors  

SciTech Connect

Particle physics detectors utilize readout data links requiring a complicated network of copper wires or optical fibers. These links are both massive and costly. Upgrades to such detectors may require additional bandwidth to be provisioned with limited space available to route new cables or fibers. In contrast, free-space optical interconnects will offer cable-less readout, thereby resulting in significant reductions of material and labor. A collaborative effort between Fermilab and Vega Wave Systems is pursuing the development of a unique free-space optical link design that utilizes the transparency of silicon at wavelengths including 1310 nm and multiple wavelengths used in standard telecommunications applications such as coarse wavelength division multiplexing (CWDM). The first step in the pursuit of that design is a proof that the concept may be viable. To that end, experiments have been performed to characterize the bit error rate performance of a prototype link over a free-space optical path and through doped silicon at multi-gigabit rates. These experiments have demonstrated that operation within acceptable bit error rates is possible using single and multiple wavelength transmission arrangements.

Chramowicz, John; Kwan, Simon; /Fermilab; Moretti, Tony; Sugg, Alan; Prosser, Alan; /Fermilab

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Record of Decision for the Electrical Interconnection of the Plymouth Generating Facility (DOE/EIS-0345)(10/14/03)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

for the Electrical Interconnection of the Plymouth Generating Facility October 2003 THE DECISION The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has decided to implement the proposed action identified in the Plymouth Generating Facility (PGF) Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) (DOE/EIS-0345, June 2003). The PGF, which has been proposed by Plymouth Energy, LLC (Plymouth Energy), involves construction and operation of a 307-megawatt (MW) natural gas-fired, combined-cycle power generation facility on a 44.5-acre site 2 miles west of Plymouth in Benton County, Washington. Under the proposed action, BPA will offer contract terms for interconnection of the PGF into the Federal Columbia River Transmission System (FCRTS) at BPA's proposed McNary-John Day 500-kilovolt (kV) transmission line at a point approximately

383

DOE/EIS-0372; Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Bangor Hydro-Electric Company Northeast Reliability Interconnect (August 2005)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Northeast Reliability Interconnect DEIS Northeast Reliability Interconnect DEIS S-1 August 2005 SUMMARY S.1 BACKGROUND S.1.1 Purpose and Need for National Environmental Policy Act Review Executive Order (E.O.) 10485 (September 9, 1953), as amended by E.O. 12038 (February 7, 1978), requires that a Presidential permit be issued by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) before electric transmission facilities may be constructed, operated, maintained, or connected at the U.S. international border. Bangor Hydro-Electric Company (BHE) has applied to DOE to amend Presidential Permit PP-89, which authorizes BHE to construct a single-circuit, 345,000-volt (345-kV) alternating-current (AC) electric transmission line across the U.S. international border in the vicinity of Baileyville, Maine.

384

Operating Reserve Implication of Alternative Implementations of an Energy Imbalance Service on Wind Integration in the Western Interconnection: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

During the past few years, there has been significant interest in alternative ways to manage power systems over a larger effective electrical footprint. Large regional transmission organizations in the Eastern Interconnection have effectively consolidated balancing areas, achieving significant economies of scale that result in a reduction in required reserves. Conversely, in the Western Interconnection there are many balancing areas, which will result in challenges if there is significant wind and solar energy development in the region. A recent proposal to the Western Electricity Coordinating Council suggests a regional energy imbalance service (EIS). To evaluate this EIS, a number of analyses are in process or are planned. This paper describes one part of an analysis of the EIS's implication on operating reserves under several alternative scenarios of the market footprint and participation. We improve on the operating reserves method utilized in the Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study and apply this modified approach to data from the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study.

Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; King, J.; Beuning, S.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Evaluation of SmCo and SmCoN magnetron sputtering coatings for SOFC interconnect applications  

SciTech Connect

Cobalt or cobalt containing coatings are promising for SOFC interconnect applications because of their high conductivity. We have investigated SmCo and SmCoN coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering from a SmCo (5% Sm) target on to Crofer 22 APU substrates. The composition, structure, surface morphology, and electrical conductivity of the coated substrates were characterized by SEM/EDX, XRD and ASR measurements. Addition of Sm enhances the oxidation resistance and the Cr retention capability of the coatings. The use of nitride as a precursor stabilizes Sm during oxidation of the films, thus inhibiting diffusion of Fe, resulting in a more compact coating and lowering ASR. The combined advantages of Sm addition to cobalt and the use of a nitride as a precursor, makes SmCoN coatings a promising new interconnect coating material.

Wu, Junwei (West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV); Jiang, Yinglu (Univ. of Science and Technology, Beijing, China); Johnson, C.D.; Liu, Xingbo (West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV)

2008-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

386

Functional assessment of interconnected aquatic ecosystems in the Baiyangdian BasinAn ecological-network-analysis based approach  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Many individual aquatic ecosystems are hydraulically interconnected and form specific network structures that display integral characteristics. The functional assessment of individual aquatic ecosystems is important, yet inadequate, for developing effective protection and restoration policies in basins, in which multiple interconnected aquatic ecosystems are involved. Here, we developed a framework to use ecological network analysis for functional assessment of a large system composed of various aquatic ecosystems in the context of network-based management. Five storage factor-included network indices were used to characterize the system functioning that was defined here as a performance with a certain of system activities and organization. A deviation index (D), combining normalized input, internal and output ascendency, was used to analyze the degree and causes of system functional variation. China's Baiyangdian Lake, a typical aquatic ecosystem, was taken as a case study. The results demonstrated that these storage factor-included network indices could well depict the system attributes and provide integral functional assessment of the aquatic ecosystems network in the Baiyangdian Basin. The functions of the aquatic ecosystems network presented distinct seasonal fluctuations, and there was a continuous decline in system functioning over the period of 19591978. Both natural and human causes contributed to the functional degradation, while the latter one dominated the degradation. Current study provided an example of how the network analysis might improve the understanding of the integral functioning of interconnected aquatic ecosystems.

Xufeng Mao; Zhifeng Yang

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

DOE/EIS-0183: Record of Decision for the Electrical Interconnection of the Shepherds Flat Wind Energy Project (07/18/08)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Shepherds Flat Wind Energy Project Shepherds Flat Wind Energy Project July 2008 B o n n e v i l l e P o w e r A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 1 INTRODUCTION The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has decided to offer contract terms for interconnection of up to 846 megawatts (MW) of power to be generated by the proposed Shepherds Flat Wind Energy Project (Wind Project) into the Federal Columbia River Transmission System (FCRTS). Caithness Shepherds Flat, LLC (CSF) proposes to construct and operate the proposed Wind Project and has requested interconnection to the FCRTS. The Wind Project will be interconnected at BPA's existing Slatt Substation in Gilliam County, Oregon. To provide the interconnection, BPA will expand BPA's existing Slatt Substation to accommodate a 230-kilovolt (kV) yard and will provide transmission access for up to 846 MW from the Wind

388

Mechanisms of Oxide Scale Formation on Ferritic Interconnect Steel in Simulated Low and High pO2 Service Environments of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Laves phase strengthened ferritic steel Crofer 22 H has recently been proposed as construction material for interconnects in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). In the present study, the oxidation kinetics of ...

L. Niewolak; D. J. Young; H. Hattendorf; L. Singheiser

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Analysis of the Impact of Balancing Area Cooperation on the Operation of the Western Interconnection with Wind and Solar Generation (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation describes the analysis of the impact of balancing area cooperation on the operation of the Western Interconnection with wind and solar generation, including a discussion of operating reserves, ramping, production simulation, and conclusions.

Milligan, M.; Lew, D.; Jordan, G.; Piwko, R.; Kirby, B.; King, J.; Beuning, S.

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

40 Gb/s Data Transmission Over a 1 m Long Multimode Polymer Spiral Waveguide for Board-Level Optical Interconnects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-based interconnects when operating at high data rates, such as electromagnetic interference (EMI), limited bandwidth and large power consumption, have led to the consideration of the use of optical technologies in high-speed board-level communication links [4...

Bamiedakis, Nikolaos; Chen, Jian; Westbergh, Petter; Gustavsson, Johan S.; Larsson, Anders; Penty, Richard V.; White, Ian H.

2014-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

391

INVESTIGATION OF NOVEL ALLOY TiC-Ni-Ni3Al FOR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL INTERCONNECT APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect

Solid oxide fuel cell interconnect materials must meet stringent requirements. Such interconnects must operate at temperatures approaching 800 C while resisting oxidation and reduction, which can occur from the anode and cathode materials and the operating environment. They also must retain their electrical conductivity under these conditions and possess compatible coefficients of thermal expansion as the anode and cathode. Results are presented in this report for fuel cell interconnect candidate materials currently under investigation based upon nano-size titanium carbide (TiC) powders. The TiC is liquid phase sintered with either nickel (Ni) or nickel-aluminide (Ni{sub 3}Al) in varying concentrations. The oxidation resistance of the submicron grain TiC-metal materials is presented as a function weight change versus time at 700 C and 800 C for varying content of metal/intermetallic in the system. Electrical conductivity at 800 C as a function of time is also presented for TiC-Ni to demonstrate the vitality of these materials for interconnect applications. TGA studies showed that the weight gain was 0.8 mg/cm{sup 2} for TiC(30)-Ni(30wt.%) after 100 hours in wet air at 800 C and the weight gain was calculated to be 0.5205 mg/cm{sup 2} for TiC(30)- Ni(10 wt.%) after 100 hours at 700 C and 100 hours at 800 C. At room temperature the electrical conductivity was measured to be 2444 1/[ohm.cm] for TiC-Ni compositions. The electrical conductivities at 800 C in air was recorded to be 19 1/[ohm.cm] after 125 hours. Two identical samples were supplied to PNNL (Dr. Jeff Stevenson) for ASR testing during the pre-decision period and currently they are being tested there. Fabrication, oxidation resistance and electrical conductivity studies indicate that TiC-Ni-Ni{sub 3}Al ternary appears to be a very important system for the development of interconnect composition for solid oxide fuel cells.

Rasit Koc; Geoffrey Swift; Hua Xie

2005-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

392

Effect of SOFC Interconnect-Coating Interactions on Coating Properties and Performance  

SciTech Connect

The high operating temperature of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) provides good fuel flexibility which expands potential applications, but also creates materials challenges. One such challenge is the interconnect material, which was the focus of this project. In particular, the objective of the project was to understand the interaction between the interconnect alloy and ceramic coatings which are needed to minimize chromium volatilization and the associated chromium poisoning of the SOFC cathode. This project focused on coatings based on manganese cobalt oxide spinel phases (Mn,Co)3O4, which have been shown to be effective as coatings for ferritic stainless steel alloys. Analysis of diffusion couples was used to develop a model to describe the interaction between (Mn,Co)3O4 and Cr2O3 in which a two-layer reaction zone is formed. Both layers form the spinel structure, but the concentration gradients at the interface appear like a two-phase boundary suggesting that a miscibility gap is present in the spinel solid solution. A high-chromium spinel layer forms in contact with Cr2O3 and grows by diffusion of manganese and cobalt from the coating material to the Cr2O3. The effect of coating composition, including the addition of dopants, was evaluated and indicated that the reaction rate could be decreased with additions of iron, titanium, nickel and copper. Diffusion couples using stainless steel alloys (which form a chromia scale) had some similarities and some differences as compared to those with Cr2O3. The most notable difference was that the high-chromium spinel layer did not form in the diffusion couples with stainless steel alloys. This difference can be explained using the reaction model developed in this project. In particular, the chromia scale grows at the expense of the alloy, the high-chromia layer grows at the expense of chromia scale and the high-chromia layer is consumed by diffusion of chromium into the coating material. If the last process (dissolution of high-chromium spinel phase) is faster than the second process (formation of high-chromium spinel phase), the high-chromium layer may be consumed. The other important result of this mechanism is that it could result in a constant scale thickness if the scale forms at the same rate as it is consumed. This helps to explain the unexpected observation that the area specific resistance (ASR) of a SOFC with a (Mn,Co)3O4-coated ferritic stainless steel cathode becomes constant after long exposures. The project also evaluated the possibility of reducing the chromium content in a stainless steel alloy using experimental alloys. The conclusion of this evaluation is that at least 17-18% chromium is needed for good oxidation resistance is needed even if the alloy is coated with a spinel coating. Additional details on these findings are provided in a later section of this report and in the publications listed below.

Jeffrey W. Fergus

2012-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

393

Microsoft PowerPoint - Cauchois.ppt  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Expansion Planning Expansion Planning Policy Committee Spring 2009 Technical Workshop U.S. DOE 2009 Congestion Study Scott Cauchois, TEPPC Chair March 25, 2009 2 TEPPC ● Committee of the WECC Board (2006) ● WECC footprint - Western Interconnection ● 2 board incl. chair/16 stakeholder members ● Dedicated WECC staff ● Regular quarterly meetings ● Western coordination call 2 nd Tuesday each month 3 TEPPC Charter ● Oversee production cost & other data management ● Develop & implement interconnection- wide expansion planning policies and processes in coordination with the Planning Coordination Committee and subregional planning groups (SPGs) ● Guiding/improving economic analysis & modeling of interconnection 4 Organizational Structure Notes Notes : : 1. TEPPC has a balanced governance whose members represent: the

394

Record of Decision for the Electrical Interconnection of the COB Energy Facility (DOE/EIS-0343)  

SciTech Connect

The COB Energy Facility would be constructed on a site near the rural community of Bonanza, in Klamath County, Oregon. Generating components of the project would be constructed in either one or two phases, including four air-cooled combustion turbine generators fueled with natural gas, four heat recovery steam generators, and two steam turbines. Additional facilities include a new 7.2-mile-long 500-kV transmission line, a new 4.1-mile-long natural gas pipeline, a 2.8-mile-long water pipeline, a 20-acre wastewater evaporation pond or a 3,770-foot-long irrigation pipeline to deliver wastewater to a 31-acre pasture, a 4.7-acre stormwater infiltration basin, a 1.5-acre stormwater retention pond, and various tanks, buildings, exhaust stacks, parking, and storage areas. Natural gas to fuel the combustion turbines would be supplied by way of a new 4.1-mile-long, 20-inch-diameter pipeline from a Gas Transmission Northwest's Bonanza Compressor Station. The new pipeline would be constructed within private easements adjacent to or near Klamath County road rights-of-way. Although COB Energy Facility generators would use air-cooled condensers, the project would use an average of 72 gallons per minute for steam production and station service, up to a maximum of 210 gallons per minute. The source of this water would be one existing and two new wells near the project site, drawing from a deep aquifer consistent with a State of Oregon water right permit expected to be incorporated into the State energy facility site certificate. Process wastewater would either be used to irrigate pasture or held in a lined pond to evaporate. Sanitary water would be routed to an onsite septic tank then discharged to a leach field. No wastewater would be discharged to surface waters. The COB Energy Facility would interconnect to the FCRTS at Captain Jack Substation, 7.2 miles south of the project site. PERC would construct a new 500-kV transmission line from the project site to Captain Jack Substation. Part of the transmission line would cross public land managed by the Bureau of Land Management. BPA would install additional electrical equipment at Captain Jack Substation. At this time, PERC has not requested specific points of delivery.

N /A

2004-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

395

Effects of microstructural control on the failure kinetics and the reliability improvement of Al and Al-alloy interconnects  

SciTech Connect

The reliability of microelectronic systems is often limited by electromigration failure in Al-based thin-film conducting lines which interconnect devices to form an integrated circuit. Under an applied electric field Al atoms migrate with the electron flow, causing a counterflow of vacancies that accumulate into voids, eventually leading to an open circuit failure. The work reported here is concerned with clarifying the microstructural mechanism of electromigration failure, and with developing a metallurgical method to improve the electromigration resistance of Al-based interconnects. Pure Al, Al-2Cu, and Al-2Cu-1Si lines with quasi-bamboo microstructures are explored as a function of heat treatment conditions and current density. The {open_quotes}weakest{close_quotes} microstructural unit that causes failure is identified by electron microscopy; with rare exceptions, failure occurs at the upstream end of the longest polygranular segment in a given line. This microstructural characteristic of electromigration failure is even observed in lines whose maximum segment lengths are less than a few microns. The time to failure appears to increase exponentially with decreasing longest polygranular segment length. A simple constitutive equation is reported to describe the failure kinetics as a function of the polygranular segment length that leads to failure. Given correct values of the kinetic constants included in the equation, this microstructure-based constitutive relation will provide a way to assess interconnect reliability. An effective metallurgical method that can eliminate relatively long polygranular segments is post-pattern annealing. This heat treatment particularly narrows the distribution of the longest polygranular segment lengths over a large set of lines. As a consequence, the time-to-failure distribution narrows as well, so that the time to first failure increases more substantially than the median time to failure.

Seung Hyuk Kang

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Assessment of Solder Interconnect Integrity in Dismantled Electronic Components from N57 and B61 Tube-Type Radars  

SciTech Connect

Aging analyses were performed on solder joints from two radar units: (1) a laboratory, N57 tube-type radar unit and (2) a field-returned, B61-0, tube-type radar unit. The cumulative temperature environments experienced by the units during aging were calculated from the intermetallic compound layer thickness and the mean Pb-rich phase particle size metrics for solder joints in the units, assuming an aging time of 35 years for both radars. Baseline aging metrics were obtained from a laboratory test vehicle assembled at AS/FM and T; the aging kinetics of both metrics were calculated from isothermal aging experiments. The N57 radar unit interconnect board solder joints exhibited very little aging. The eyelet solder joints did show cracking that most likely occurred at the time of assembly. The eyelet, SA1126 connector solder joints, showed some delamination between the Cu pad and underlying laminate. The B61 field-returned radar solder joints showed a nominal degree of aging. Cracking of the eyelet solder joints was observed. The Pb-rich phase particle measurements indicated additional aging of the interconnects as a result of residual stresses. Cracking of the terminal pole connector, pin-to-pin solder joint was observed; but it was not believed to jeopardize the electrical functionality of the interconnect. Extending the stockpile lifetime of the B61 tube-type radar by an additional 20 years would not be impacted by the reliability of the solder joints with respect to further growth of the intermetallic compound layer. Additional coarsening of the Pb-rich phase will increase the joints' sensitivity to thermomechanical fatigue.

Rejent, J.A.; Vianco, P.T.; Woodrum, R.A.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Operating Reserve Reductions from a Proposed Energy Imbalance Market with Wind and Solar Generation in the Western Interconnection  

SciTech Connect

This paper considers several alternative forms of an energy imbalance market (EIM) proposed in the nonmarket areas of the Western Interconnection. The proposed EIM includes two changes in operating practices that independently reduce variability and increase access to responsive resources: balancing authority cooperation and sub-hourly dispatch. As the penetration of variable generation increases on the power system, additional interest in coordination would likely occur. Several alternative approaches could be used, but consideration of any form of coordinated unit commitment is beyond the scope of this analysis. This report examines the benefits of several possible EIM implementations--both separately and in concert.

King, J.; Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.; Beuning, S.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Revised Record of Decision for the Electrical Interconnection of the Summit/Westward Project (DOE/EIS-0183) (10/21/04)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Bonneville Power Administration Bonneville Power Administration Revised Record of Decision for the Electrical Interconnection of the Summit/Westward Project INTRODUCTION The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has decided to amend its July 25, 2003, Record of Decision (ROD) regarding the proposed Summit/Westward Project (Project) to offer contract terms for an optional interconnection of this Project into the Federal Columbia River Transmission System (FCRTS). Under this optional interconnection plan, BPA would integrate electric power from the Project into the FCRTS at a point adjacent to Clatskanie People's Utility District (CPUD) existing Wauna Substation. In order to deliver power to this location, CPUD would develop a new substation (Bradbury Substation) at a site near the Project and a new

399

Record of Decision for the Electrical Interconnection of the Windy Point Wind Energy Project (DOE/EIS-0183) (11/29/06)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Windy Point Wind Energy Project Windy Point Wind Energy Project November 2006 B o n n e v i l l e P o w e r A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 1 INTRODUCTION The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has decided to offer contract terms for interconnection of 250 megawatts (MW) of power to be generated by the proposed Windy Point Wind Energy Project (Wind Project) into the Federal Columbia River Transmission System (FCRTS). Windy Point Partners, LLC (WPP) propose to construct and operate the proposed Wind Project and has requested interconnection to the FCRTS. 1 The Wind Project will be interconnected at BPA's Rock Creek Substation, which is under construction in Klickitat County, Washington. The Rock Creek Substation will provide transmission access for the Wind Project to BPA's Wautoma-John Day No.1 500-kilovolt (kV) transmission line.

400

Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Arlington Wind Interconnection Project (DOE/EIS-0183) (1/14/05)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

86 86 Federal Register / Vol. 70, No. 16 / Wednesday, January 26, 2005 / Notices 8. Mr. Mohan Singh, Regional Business Director, North Atlantic Division. Brenda S. Bowen, Army Federal Register Liaison Office. [FR Doc. 05-1383 Filed 1-25-05; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 3710-08-M DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Bonneville Power Administration Arlington Wind Interconnection Project AGENCY: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Notice of availability of Record of Decision (ROD). SUMMARY: This notice announces the availability of the ROD to offer contract terms to interconnect up to 200 megawatts of wind generation from the Columbia Energy Partners' proposed Arlington Wind Project into the Federal Columbia River Transmission System. The wind project will be interconnected

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401

Mathematical models of interconnections between composition and properties of oils in the Apsheron oil-and gas-bearing region of Azerbaijan  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the example of oils in the Apsheron oil- and gas-bearing region and Apsheron archipelago located in the western part of the Southern Caspian depression, of which the authors have developed mathematical models of a group hydrocarbon composition; interconnection between oil density and content of asphalt-resin materials, benzine, and ligroin; interconnections between oil density and viscosity and temperature; and interconnections between content of asphalt-resin properties and low-temperature fractions. The models obtained enable us to extrapolate factual data on composition and properties of oils beyond the limits of fixed depths of burial of oil-saturated reservoirs both to a zone of great depths and increased temperatures where hydrocarbons were in a gaseous or oil and gaseous state, and to a zone of near-surface conditions where oils acquire the consistency of asphalts.

Buryakovsky, L.A.; Dzhevanshir, R.D. (Inst. of Deep Oil and Gas Deposits, Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences, 33 Narimanov Prospect, Baku 370143, Azerbaijan (SU))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Record of Decision for the Electrical Interconnection of the Chehalis Generation Facility (DOE/EIS-0230)(5/17/01)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Bonneville Power Administration Bonneville Power Administration Record of Decision for the Electrical Interconnection of the Chehalis Generation Facility May 2001 _______________________________________________________ SUMMARY Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has decided to offer contracts for integrating power from the Chehalis Generation Facility (CGF) into the Federal Columbia River Transmission System (FCRTS). These contracts will facilitate integration of power from CGF into the FCRTS for delivery to the wholesale power market. In reaching this decision, I have considered the potential environmental impacts addressed in BPA's Resource Contingency Program Environmental Impact Statement (RCP EIS, DOE/EIS-0230, November 1995), Supplement Analysis (SA, DOE/EIS-0230/SA-02, May 9, 2001), BPA's Business Plan Environmental Impact Statement (BP EIS, DOE/EIS-

403

Record of Decision for the Electrical Interconnection of Goldendale Energy Project (DOE/EIS-0183) (03/20/01)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Record of Decision for the Electrical Record of Decision for the Electrical Interconnection of Goldendale Energy Project SUMMARY Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has decided to offer terms for integrating power from the Goldendale Energy Project (GEP) into the Federal Columbia River Transmission System (FCRTS). BPA will offer contracts integrating power from GEP into the FCRTS for delivery to the wholesale power market. In reaching this decision, I have considered the potential environmental impacts addressed in BPA's Business Plan Environmental Impact Statement (BP EIS, DOE/EIS-0183) and a Supplement Analysis (DOE/EIS-0183/SA-03). I have also considered input from the public process for the GEP. BPA will distribute this Record of Decision (ROD) to all known interested and affected persons, Tribes, and agencies and will publish a notice of its availability in the

404

Grid Interconnection and Performance Testing Procedures for Vehicle-To-Grid (V2G) Power Electronics: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Bidirectional power electronics can add vehicle-to-grid (V2G) capability in a plug-in vehicle, which then allows the vehicle to operate as a distributed resource (DR). The uniqueness of the battery-based V2G power electronics requires a test procedure that will not only maintain IEEE interconnection standards, but can also evaluate the electrical performance of the vehicle working as a DR. The objective of this paper is to discuss a recently published NREL technical report that provides interim test procedures for V2G vehicles for their integration into the electrical distribution systems and for their performance in terms of continuous output power, efficiency, and losses. Additionally, some other test procedures are discussed that are applicable to a V2G vehicle that desires to provide power reserve functions. A few sample test results are provided based on testing of prototype V2G vehicles at NREL.

Kramer, W.; Chakraborty, S.; Kroposki, B.; Hoke, A.; Martin, G.; Markel, T.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Sustainable Energy Solutions Task 1.0: Networked Monitoring and Control of Small Interconnected Wind Energy Systems  

SciTech Connect

EXECUTIVE SUMARRY This report presents accomplishments, results, and future work for one task of five in the Wichita State University Sustainable Energy Solutions Project: To develop a scale model laboratory distribution system for research into questions that arise from networked control and monitoring of low-wind energy systems connected to the AC distribution system. The lab models developed under this task are located in the Electric Power Quality Lab in the Engineering Research Building on the Wichita State University campus. The lab system consists of four parts: 1. A doubly-fed induction generator 2. A wind turbine emulator 3. A solar photovoltaic emulator, with battery energy storage 4. Distribution transformers, lines, and other components, and wireless and wired communications and control These lab elements will be interconnected and will function together to form a complete testbed for distributed resource monitoring and control strategies and smart grid applications testing. Development of the lab system will continue beyond this project.

Janet.twomey@wichita.edu

2010-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

406

The Interconnections of the LHC Cryomagnets at CERN Strategy Applied and First Results of the Industrialization Process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The final interconnections of the LHC superconducting magnets in the underground tunnel are performed by a contractor on a result-oriented basis. A consortium of firms was awarded the contract after competitive tendering based on a technical and commercial specification. The implementation of the specific technologies and tooling developed and qualified by CERN has required an important effort to transfer the know-how and implement the follow-up of the contractor. This paper summarizes the start-up phase and the difficulties encountered. The organization and management tools put in place during the ramping-up phase are presented. In addition to contractual adaptations of the workforce, several configuration changes to the workflows were necessary to reach production rates compatible with the overall schedule and with the different constraints: availability of magnets, co-activities with magnets transport and alignment, handling of non-conformities, etc. Also the QA procedures underwent many changes to reach t...

Tock, J P; Fessia, P; Jacquemod, A; Musso, A; Poncet, A

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

High Performance Ceramic Interconnect Material for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs): Ca- and Transition Metal-doped Yttrium Chromite  

SciTech Connect

The effect of transition metal substitution on thermal and electrical properties of Ca-doped yttrium chromite was investigated in relation to use as a ceramic interconnect in high temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). 10 at% Co, 4 at% Ni, and 1 at% Cu substitution on B-site of 20 at% Ca-doped yttrium chromite led to a close match of thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) with that of 8 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), and a single phase Y0.8Ca0.2Cr0.85Co0.1Ni0.04Cu0.01O3 remained stable between 25 and 1100 degree C over a wide oxygen partial pressure range. Doping with Cu significantly facilitated densification of yttrium chromite. Ni dopant improved both electrical conductivity and dimensional stability in reducing environments, likely through diminishing the oxygen vacancy formation. Substitution with Co substantially enhanced electrical conductivity in oxidizing atmosphere, which was attributed to an increase in charge carrier density and hopping mobility. Electrical conductivity of Y0.8Ca0.2Cr0.85Co0.1Ni0.04Cu0.01O3 at 900 degree C is 57 S/cm in air and 11 S/cm in fuel (pO2=510^-17 atm) environments. Chemical compatibility of doped yttrium chromite with other cell components was verified at the processing temperatures. Based on the chemical and dimensional stability, sinterability, and thermal and electrical properties, Y0.8Ca0.2Cr0.85Co0.1Ni0.04Cu0.01O3 is suggested as a promising SOFC ceramic interconnect to potentially overcome technical limitations of conventional acceptor-doped lanthanum chromites.

Yoon, Kyung J.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Marina, Olga A.

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

408

Modeling, Optimization and Power Efficiency Comparison of High-speed Inter-chip Electrical and Optical Interconnect Architectures in Nanometer CMOS Technologies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-bandwidth inter-chip optical interconnect architectures have the potential to address this increasing I/O bandwidth. Considering future tera-scale systems, power dissipation of the high-speed I/O link becomes a significant concern. This work presents a design flow...

Palaniappan, Arun

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

409

Energy-based modelling and simulation of the interconnection of a back-to-back converter and a doubly-fed induction machine*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

] and references therein). In this approach, energy plays a fundamental role, port variables are conjugated) the structure matrix, describing how energy flows inside the system, and (c) the power ports, some of which mayEnergy-based modelling and simulation of the interconnection of a back-to-back converter

Batlle, Carles

410

Leakage-Aware Interconnect for On-Chip Network Yuh-Fang Tsai, Vijaykrishnan Narayaynan, Yuan Xie, and Mary Jane Irwin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-performance nanoscale architectures, power consumption remains a significant constraint. In the deep sub-micron era, the interconnect wires and associated driver circuits consume an increasing fraction of the energy budget driver of one output port. To manage the leakage power in standby mode, a sleep transistor N5 which

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

411

Topic A" Awardee: Western Electricity Coordinating Council | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

A" Awardee: Western Electricity Coordinating A" Awardee: Western Electricity Coordinating Council Topic A" Awardee: Western Electricity Coordinating Council Regional Transmission Expansion Planning (RTEP) The America Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) directs the Department of Energy (DOE) to provide assistance for the development of interconnection-based transmission plans for the Eastern and Western Interconnections, and for ERCOT. WECC received notification from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on December 18, 2009 that it has been awarded $14.5 million in funding from the ARRA to conduct interconnection-wide electric transmission planning studies in the Western Interconnection. The funding allows WECC to significantly expand existing regional transmission planning activities and broaden stakeholder involvement in

412

Effects of Oxide Thickness on Scale and Interface Stresses under Isothermal Cooling and Micro-Indentation for Ferritic Stainless Steel Interconnect  

SciTech Connect

Interconnects in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) provide the electrical connection between the individual cells, as well as separate the anode air from the cathode fuel for each cell. The recently developed anode-supported planar SOFCs design allows the cell working temperature to be 800oC and lower, which led to the proposed use of ferritic stainless steel as interconnects and current collectors in the SOFC systems. Many experimental studies have shown that metal based interconnects will go through surface oxidation under the typical operating temperature and environment of an SOFC system. Since the oxide scale is formed at the outer surface of interconnect, its microstructure (morphology, texture), properties (electrical, thermal and mechanical properties), and structural integrity/stability will have a significant impact on the performance of interconnect. In this paper, we study the oxide growth kinetics and stresses generated during scale growth the thermal cycling for Cr-Fe based alloy, e.g. Crofer 22 APU. The goal is to predict the interconnect life under typical operating conditions and thermal cycles. First, a mathematical model is developed based on the growth of scale and coupling relation between diffusion and stress field. The following phenomena are considered: 1) The predominant cationic diffusion and cation distribution within the oxide scale in transient state and steady state; 2) Chemical reaction within the scale as well as the growth kinetics of the oxide scale; 3) Stresses distribution during the oxidation, especially for mid- and long-term treatment; 4) Coupling relationship or interaction between oxidation induced stresses and mass diffusion within the scale. Next, thermal stresses generated due to temperature changes in thermal cycling are predicted using finite element analyses for different substrate and scale thickness. In general, very high compressive in-plane stresses are predicted for the oxide layer. Also, high shear stress is also predicted on the oxide/substrate interface. The predicted shear stress on the interface is used to compare with the experimentally determined bond strength to predict delamination. Finally, scale spallation and IC life prediction are predicted by comparing the compressive stress in the scale with the critical buckling load for the delaminated scale.

Sun, Xin; Liu, Wenning N.; Vetrano, John S.; Yang, Zhenguo; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2007-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

413

Record of Decision for the Interconnection of the Sutter Power Project With the Western Area Power Administration's Keswick-Elverta/Olinda-Elverta 230-Kilovolt Double-Circuit Transmission Line, June 15, 1999  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

41 41 Federal Register / Vol. 64, No. 114 / Tuesday, June 15, 1999 / Notices DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Western Area Power Administration Record of Decision for the Interconnection of the Sutter Power Project With the Western Area Power Administration's Keswick-Elverta/ Olinda-Elverta 230-Kilovolt Double- Circuit Transmission Line AGENCY: Western Area Power Administration, DOE. ACTION: Record of decision. SUMMARY: The Western Area Power Administration (Western) prepared this Record of Decision in response to a request submitted to Western for a direct interconnection of Calpine Corporation's (Calpine) proposed Sutter Power Project (SPP) with Western's electric transmission system. In response to this request, Western completed an Interconnection Feasibility Study that determined that

414

First draft  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Planning: Planning: Institutional Issues in the West Prepared for The CREPC Transmission Planning and Expansion Work Group By The Regulatory Assistance Project Bob Anderson Associate Draft January 15, 2004 Transmission Planning: Institutional Issues in the West Page i Table of Contents Introduction......................................................................................................................... 1 Background-The Existing Transmission Planning Landscape......................................... 3 Interconnection-wide Transmission Planning ................................................................ 3 Seams Steering Group-Western Interconnection (SSG-WI) ...................................... 3 Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC)...................................................

415

Long-term oxidation behavior of spinel-coated ferritic stainless steel for solid oxide fuel cell interconnect applications  

SciTech Connect

Long-term tests (>8,000 hours) indicate that AISI 441 ferritic stainless steel coated with a Mn-Co spinel protection layer is a promising candidate material system for IT-SOFC interconnect applications. While uncoated AISI 441 showed a substantial increase in area-specific electrical resistance (ASR), spinel-coated AISI 441 exhibited much lower ASR values (11-13 mOhm-cm2). Formation of an insulating silica sublayer beneath the native chromia-based scale was not observed, and the spinel coatings reduced the oxide scale growth rate and blocked outward diffusion of Cr from the alloy substrate. The structure of the scale formed under the spinel coatings during the long term tests differed from that typically observed on ferritic stainless steels after short term oxidation tests. While short term tests typically indicate a dual layer scale structure consisting of a chromia layer covered by a layer of Mn-Cr spinel, the scale grown during the long term tests consisted of a chromia matrix with discrete regions of Mn-Cr spinel distributed throughout the matrix. The presence of Ti in the chromia scale matrix and/or the presence of regions of Mn-Cr spinel within the scale may have increased the scale electrical conductivity, which would explain the fact that the observed ASR in the tests was lower than would be expected if the scale consisted of pure chromia.

Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Yang, Zhenguo (Gary) [Gary; Xia, Guanguang; Nie, Zimin; Templeton, Joshua D.

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Flexibility Reserve Reductions from an Energy Imbalance Market with High Levels of Wind Energy in the Western Interconnection  

SciTech Connect

The anticipated increase in variable generation in the Western Interconnection (WI) over the next several years has raised concerns about how to maintain system balance, especially in smaller Balancing Areas (BAs). Given renewable portfolio standards in the West, it is possible that more than 50 gigawatts (GW) of wind capacity will be installed by 2020. Significant quantities of solar generation are likely to be added as well. The consequent increase in variability and uncertainty that must be managed by the conventional generation fleet and responsive load make it attractive to consider ways in which Balancing Area Authorities (BAAs) can pool their variability and response resources, thus taking advantage of geographic and temporal diversity to increase overall operational efficiency. Our analysis considers several alternative forms of an Energy Imbalance Market (EIM) that have been proposed in the non-market areas of the WI. The proposed EIM includes two changes in operating practices that independently reduce variability and increase access to responsive resources: BAA cooperation and sub-hourly dispatch. As proposed, the EIM does not consider any form of coordinated unit commitment; however, over time it is possible that BAAs would develop formal or informal coordination plans. This report examines the benefits of several possible EIM implementations, both separately and in concert.

King, J.; Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.; S. Beuning

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Bonneville Power Administration Record of Decision for the Electrical Interconnection of the Summit/Westward Project (DOE/EIS-0183) (7/25/03)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Summit/Westward Project Summit/Westward Project July 2003 INTRODUCTION The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has decided to offer contract terms for interconnection of the proposed Summit/Westward Project ("Project") into the Federal Columbia River Transmission System (FCRTS) at BPA's Allston Substation. The Project, which has been proposed by Westward Energy, LLC (Westward Energy), involves construction and operation of a 520-megawatt (MW) natural-gas-fired, combined-cycle generating facility. The facility will be located in Columbia County, Oregon, about 4.5 miles north of Clatskanie, Oregon. The decision to offer terms to interconnect the Project is consistent with BPA's Business Plan Final Environmental Impact Statement (BP EIS) (DOE/EIS-0183, June 1995), and the Business Plan

418

DOE/EIS-0183 Record of Decision for the Electrical Interconnection of the Kittitas Valley Wind Project (09/04/09)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Kittitas Valley Wind Project Kittitas Valley Wind Project September 2009 B o n n e v i l l e P o w e r A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 1 INTRODUCTION The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has decided to offer contract terms for interconnection of up to 108 megawatts (MW) of power to be generated by the proposed Kittitas Valley Wind Project (Wind Project) into the Federal Columbia River Transmission System (FCRTS). Sagebrush Power Partners, LLC (Sagebrush) has received authorization from the Washington Energy Facility Site Evaluation Council (EFSEC) to construct and operate the proposed Wind Project in Kittitas County, Washington, and has requested interconnection to the FCRTS on BPA's Columbia-Covington 230-kV transmission line in the vicinity of Ellensburg, Washington. BPA will construct a new substation to accommodate this additional power into the

419

Current induced annealing and electrical characterization of single layer graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition for future interconnects in VLSI circuits  

SciTech Connect

Single layer graphene (SLG) grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been investigated for its prospective application as horizontal interconnects in very large scale integrated circuits. However, the major bottleneck for its successful application is its degraded electronic transport properties due to the resist residual trapped in the grain boundaries and on the surface of the polycrystalline CVD graphene during multi-step lithographic processes, leading to increase in its sheet resistance up to 5 M?/sq. To overcome this problem, current induced annealing has been employed, which helps to bring down the sheet resistance to 10?k?/sq (of the order of its initial value). Moreover, the maximum current density of ?1.2??10{sup 7?}A/cm{sup 2} has been obtained for SLG (1??2.5??m{sup 2}) on SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate, which is about an order higher than that of conventionally used copper interconnects.

Prasad, Neetu, E-mail: neetu.prasad@south.du.ac.in, E-mail: neetu23686@gmail.com; Kumari, Anita; Bhatnagar, P. K.; Mathur, P. C. [Department of Electronic Science, University of Delhi South Campus, Benito Juarez Road, New Delhi 110021 (India); Bhatia, C. S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

420

Interconnection Guidelines (Alaska)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

In October 2009, the Regulatory Commission of Alaska (RCA) approved net metering regulations. These rules were finalized and approved by the lieutenant governor in January 2010 and became effective...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection tre wecc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Synchronization through system interconnections  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......applications, e.g. steel rolling mills, paper plants, and hydraulic press systems (D'Azzo & Houpis 1966), a number of identical...asymptotically stable. Proof. If (cj, Ar) is observable, then cj cArt is a fundamental system of solutions of the differential equation......

S. SCHMID; D. PRTZEL-WOLTERS

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

GSA- Utility Interconnection Agreements  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presentation given at the Spring 2010 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting in Providence, Rhode Island.

423

RF Interconnection and Switching  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The components that connect, interface, transfer, and filter RF energy within a given systemor between systemsare critical elements in the operation of vacuum tube devices. Such hardware, usually passive, de...

Jerry C. Whitaker

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Reliability of Electrical Interconnects  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

425

Interconnection Standards (Utah  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

and most electric cooperatives* to offer net metering to customers who generate electricity using solar energy, wind energy, hydropower, hydrogen, biomass, landfill gas,...

426

Fast interconnect optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, then there will be a new candidate beta: Q(v,beta)=max alpha {Q(v1,alpha) -R(b) ? C(v1,alpha) -K(b)}, C(v,beta)=C(b), where max is taken over all nonredundant candidates alpha of T(v1). The new candidate beta may make other candidates redundant, or may be redundant... the best candidate alpha2 in T(v2)toformanew candidate beta for T(v): Q(v,beta)=min{Q(v1,alpha1),Q(v2,alpha2)}, C(v,beta)=C(v1,alpha1)+C(v2,alpha2). Do the same for each candidate in T(v2). Then take the union of all candidates and delete redundancy. Using...

Li, Zhuo

2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

427

Performance of a Dynamically Controlled Inverter in a Photovoltaic System Interconnected with a Secondary Network Distribution System  

SciTech Connect

In 2008, a 300 kW{sub peak} photovoltaic (PV) system was installed on the rooftop of the Colorado Convention Center (CCC). The installation was unique for the electric utility, Xcel Energy, as it had not previously permitted a PV system to be interconnected on a building served by the local secondary network distribution system (network). The PV system was installed with several provisions; one to prevent reverse power flow, another called a dynamically controlled inverter (DCI), that curtails the output of the PV inverters to maintain an amount of load supplied by Xcel Energy at the CCC. The DCI system utilizes current transformers (CTs) to sense power flow to insure that a minimum threshold is maintained from Xcel Energy through the network transformers. The inverters are set to track the load on each of the three phases and curtail power from the PV system when the generated PV system current reaches 95% of the current on any phase. This is achieved by the DCI, which gathers inputs from current transformers measuring the current from the PV array, Xcel, and the spot network load. Preventing reverse power flow is a critical technical requirement for the spot network which serve this part of the CCC. The PV system was designed with the expectation that the DCI system would not curtail the PV system, as the expected minimum load consumption was historically higher than the designed PV system size. However, the DCI system has operated many days during the course of a year, and the performance has been excellent. The DCI system at the CCC was installed as a secondary measure to insure that a minimum level of power flows to the CCC from the Xcel Energy network. While this DCI system was intended for localized control, the system could also reduce output percent if an external smart grid control signal was employed. This paper specifically focuses on the performance of the innovative design at this installation; however, the DCI system could also be used for new s- art grid-enabled distribution systems where renewables power contributions at certain conditions or times may need to be curtailed.

Coddington, M. H.; Kroposki, B. D.; Basso, T.; Berger, D.; Crowell, K.; Hayes, J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Efficient modification of the surface properties of interconnected porous hydroxyapatite by low-pressure low-frequency plasma treatment to promote its biological performance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Dielectric barrier discharge plasma treatment at low pressure is found to significantly improve the biological performance of artificial bones made of interconnected porous calcium hydroxyapatite (IP-CHA). One of the essential parameters associated with their biological performance is hydrophilicity of their exterior surfaces as well as surfaces of inner pores. It is found that plasma treatment at low pressures is highly effective in making the inner pore surfaces more hydrophilic. Preliminary in vivo experiments of plasma-treated IP-CHA artificial bones in rats have shown fast formation of blood vessels in their inner pores, implying the increase in osteoconductivity due to the plasma treatment.

Dae-Sung Lee; Yu Moriguchi; Akira Myoui; Hideki Yoshikawa; Satoshi Hamaguchi

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Joseph MORSEL COMMENT PEUT-ON TRE PARISIEN ?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

appartenance. Bref, derrière le pastiche de la question posée au Persan Rica, il faut voir une remise en cause

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

430

TRE AT I s E - Department of Mathematics, Purdue University  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mnr?m in Demmrk-?reet, 3'. link at King l Edward's ... and UfeliulJScience, wherein the Safety, Wealth and Glory .... all,I anti belt known by thol'e of the No-. \\-

431

Preparation and performances of CoMn spinel coating on a ferritic stainless steel interconnect material for solid oxide fuel cell application  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Ferritic stainless steels have become the candidate materials for interconnects of intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The present issues to be solved urgently for the application of ferritic stainless steel interconnects are their rapid increase in contact resistance and Cr poisoning. In the present study, a chloride electrolyte suspension has been developed to electro-deposit a CoMn alloy on a type 430 stainless steel, followed by heat treatment at 750C in argon and at 800C in air to obtain CoMn spinel coatings. The experimental results indicate that an adhesive and compact CoMn alloy layer can be deposited in the chloride solution. After heat treatment, a complex coating composed of an external MnCo2O4 layer and an inner Cr-rich oxide layer has been formed on 430SS. The coating improves the oxidation resistance of the steel at 800C in air, especially in wet air, and inhibits the outward diffusion of Cr from the Cr-rich scale. Moreover, a low contact resistance has been achieved with the application of the spinel coatings.

H.H. Zhang; C.L. Zeng

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Interfacial characterization of nickelyttria-stabilized zirconia cermet anode/interconnect joints with AgPdGa active filler for use in solid-oxide fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Nickelyttria-stabilized zirconia cermet anode (NiYSZ)/interconnect joints with silverpalladiumgallium (Ag9Pd9Ga) active fillers are prepared by vacuum brazing. The joint structure and microstructure are analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), and by using an electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA). SEM observations of the joint show no cracks near the interface, confirming the compatibility of the Ag9Pd9Ga filler with a different anode and interconnect. The XRD pattern of the joint specimens oxidized at 800C for 250h shows Cr2O3 and (Mn,Cr)3O4 surface layers. EPMA analysis of the cell/Ag9Pd9Ga/alloys joint at the cross section shows Cr, O, Fe, Zr, Ni, Ag, Pd, Ga, Y, and Mn. Overall, the results indicate that the bonding between metal and cermet is well established and the interface is smooth. By correlating the XRD and EPMA analysis results, we also analyzed the possible stages during joint oxidation. The joint strength was evaluated at 25 and 800C under shear and tensile loading conditions, respectively, and the brazed Ag9Pd9Ga sealant compared favorably with the commercially available glass-ceramic GC-9 counterpart.

Chih-Long Chao; Chun-Lin Chu; Yiin-Kuen Fuh; Ray-Quen Hsu; Shyong Lee; Yung-Neng Cheng

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

IRSP (integrated resource strategic planning) with interconnected smart grids in integrating renewable energy and implementing DSM (demand side management) in China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The China's electricity consumption was 4966TWh in 2012, which is the world top electricity consumer. The low carbon electricity is one of the key issues of its sustainable development. IRSP (integrated resource strategic planning) is a useful tool to implement DSM (demand side management) and power planning on the supply side. However, the role of interconnected smart grids with fast growing cross-region transmission is not considered in the IRSP. Therefore, the paper proposes the model of IRSP with interconnected smart grids to integrate more renewable power generation to the grids and implement more DSM projects, which is called as IRSP-sgs (IRSP smart grids) model. Two scenarios are projected to study the impact of cross-region transmission on low carbon electricity by using the IRSP-sgs model until 2025 in China. Results show that the scenario with enhanced cross-region transmission helps to reduce electricity generation by 784.38TWh and reduce CO2 emission by 999.57 million tons during 20132025, since the multi-regional power operation can integrate more than 488.30TWh renewable generation into the grids and implement more DSM projects to substitute generation. In addition, it also provides tremendous opportunities to improve the stable operation of the power system.

Yanan Zheng; Zhaoguang Hu; Jianhui Wang; Quan Wen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Wafer Bonding and Epitaxial Transfer of GaSb-based Epitaxy to GaAs for Monolithic Interconnection of Thermophotovoltaic Devices  

SciTech Connect

GaInAsSb/AlGaAsSb/InAsSb/GaSb epitaxial layers were bonded to semi-insulating GaAs handle wafers with SiO{sub x}/Ti/Au as the adhesion layer for monolithic interconnection of thermophotovoltaic (TPV) devices. Epitaxial transfer was completed by removal of the GaSb substrate, GaSb buffer, and InAsSb etch-stop layer by selective chemical etching. The SiO{sub x}/TiAu provides not only electrical isolation, but also high reflectivity and is used as an internal back-surface reflector. Characterization of wafer-bonded epitaxy by high-resolution x-ray diffraction and time-decay photoluminescence indicates minimal residual stress and enhancement in optical quality. 0.54-eV GaInAsSb cells were fabricated and monolithically interconnected in series. A 10-junction device exhibited linear voltage building with an open-circuit voltage of 1.8 V.

C.A. Wang; D.A. Shiau; P.G. Murphy; P.W. O'brien; R.K. Huang; M.K. Connors; A.C. Anderson; D. Donetsky; S. Anikeev; G. Belenky; D.M. Depoy; G. Nichols

2003-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

435

Record of Decision for the Electrical Interconnection of TransAlta Centralia Generation LLC Big Hanaford Project (DOE/EIS-0183)(10/19/01)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

for the for the Electrical Interconnection of TransAlta Centralia Generation LLC Big Hanaford Project INTRODUCTION The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has decided to offer contract terms for integrating power from the TransAlta Centralia Generation LLC Big Hanaford Project, a 248-megawatt (MW) gas-fired, combined-cycle combustion turbine (CCCT) power generation project (Project), into the Federal Columbia River Transmission System (FCRTS). The Project is located within an industrial area adjacent to TransAlta's existing Centralia Steam Plant in Lewis County, Washington. The West Coast is experiencing a shortfall in electric energy supply, as well as a volatile wholesale power market in which prices have reached record highs. The Project is one of

436

Record of Decision for the Electrical Interconnection of the BP Cherry Point Cogeneration Project (DOE/EIS-0349) (11/10/04)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

BP Cherry Poi BP Cherry Poi nt Cogeneration Project DECISION The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) has decided to implement the proposed action identified in the BP Cherry Point Cogeneration Project Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) (DOE/EIS-0349, August 2004). Under the proposed action, Bonneville will offer contract terms for interconnection of the BP Cherry Point Cogeneration Project (Project) with the Federal Columbia River Transmission System (FCRTS), as requested by BP West Coast Products, LLC (BP) and proposed in the FEIS. The proposed Project involves constructing and operating a new 720-megawatt (MW) natural gas-fired, combined-cycle power generation facility at a 265-acre site adjacent to BP's existing Cherry Point Refinery between Ferndale and

437

Arizona/Transmission | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Arizona/Transmission < Arizona Jump to: navigation, search ArizonaTransmissionHeader.png Roadmap Agency Links Local Regulations State Regulations Summary General Transmission Dashboard Permitting Atlas Compare States Arizona California Colorado Idaho Montana Nevada New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington Wyoming Resource Library NEPA Database The electrical grid in Arizona is part of the Western Interconnection power grid and the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) is the Regional Entity responsible for coordinating and promoting Bulk Electric System reliability in the Western Interconnection, including Arizona. WECC

438

Nevada/Transmission | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Nevada/Transmission < Nevada Jump to: navigation, search NevadaTransmissionHeader.png Roadmap Agency Links Local Regulations State Regulations Summary General Transmission Dashboard Permitting Atlas Compare States Arizona California Colorado Idaho Montana Nevada New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington Wyoming Resource Library NEPA Database The electrical grid in Nevada is part of the Western Interconnection power grid and the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC). WECC is the Regional Entity responsible for coordinating and promoting Bulk Electric System reliability in the Western Interconnection, including in Nevada.

439

Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Texas" Texas" "NERC Region(s)",,"SERC/SPP/TRE/WECC" "Primary Energy Source",,"Gas" "Net Summer Capacity (megawatts)",108258,1 " Electric Utilities",26533,4 " Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power",81724,1 "Net Generation (megawatthours)",411695046,1 " Electric Utilities",95099161,9 " Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power",316595885,1 "Emissions (thousand metric tons)" " Sulfur Dioxide",430,2 " Nitrogen Oxide",204,1 " Carbon Dioxide",251409,1 " Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh)",2.3,28 " Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh)",1.1,32 " Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh)",1346,22

440

A novel low Cr-containing FeCrCo alloy for metallic interconnects in planar intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A newly developed low-Cr containing FeCrCo alloy, named as FeCro, is evaluated as a candidate material of metallic interconnects for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs). This alloy possesses excellent oxidation resistance and adequate electrical conductivity at 750C in air, and shows slight Cr deposition in/around La0.72Sr0.18MnO3(LSM) electrode under a harsh accelerating condition of 400mAcm?2 and 850C. The thickness of the oxide scale thermally grown at 750C in air for 1000 his less than 1?m, presenting a double-layered structure with dense (Mn, Cr)3O4 on the top of Cr2O3. The oxidation kinetics at 750C obeys the parabolic law with a low rate constant of1.42נ10?15g2cm?4s?1. The Cr deposition in/around the LSM electrode in the presence of the FeCro alloy is remarkably reduced, compared to the commercial Crofer 22H alloy. The measured area specific resistance (ASR) at 750C in air after 1000h isothermal oxidation is 14m?cm2. It is the unique microstructure of the formed oxide scale that significantly enhances the resistances of the FeCro alloy to oxidation and Cr volatilization.

Wenying Zhang; Dong Yan; Jie Yang; Jing Chen; Bo Chi; Jian Pu; Jian Li

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection tre wecc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

A new hybrid pneumatic combustion engine to improve fuel consumption of windDiesel power system for non-interconnected areas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents an evaluation of an optimized Hybrid Pneumatic-Combustion Engine (HPCE) concept that permits reducing fuel consumption for electricity production in non-interconnected remote areas, originally equipped with hybrid WindDiesel System (WDS). Up to now, most of the studies on the pneumatic hybridization of Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) have dealt with two-stroke pure pneumatic mode. The few studies that have dealt with hybrid pneumatic-combustion four-stroke mode require adding a supplementary valve to charge compressed air in the combustion chamber. This modification means that a new cylinder head should be fabricated. Moreover, those studies focus on spark ignition engines and are not yet validated for Diesel engines. Present HPCE is capable of making a Diesel engine operate under two-stroke pneumatic motor mode, two-stroke pneumatic pump mode and four-stroke hybrid mode, without needing an additional valve in the combustion chamber. This fact constitutes this studys strength and innovation. The evaluation of the concept is based on ideal thermodynamic cycle modeling. The optimized valve actuation timings for all modes lead to generic maps that are independent of the engine size. The fuel economy is calculated for a known site during a whole year, function of the air storage volume and the wind power penetration rate.

Tammam Basbous; Rafic Younes; Adrian Ilinca; Jean Perron

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Use of SiBN and SiBON films prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition from borazine as interconnection dielectrics  

SciTech Connect

Thin films of silicon boron nitride (SiBN) of typical composition Si{sub 0.09}B{sub 0.39}N{sub 0.51} and silicon boron oxynitride (SiBON) of typical composition Si{sub 0.16}B{sub 0.29}O{sub 0.41}N{sub 0.14} were prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition and the properties of these films were evaluated with respect to their suitability as interconnection dielectrics in microelectronic fabrication. Films were deposited on 125 mm silicon substrates in a parallel-plate reactor at a substrate temperature of 400 C and a plasma power of 0.5 W/cm{sup 2}. Boron nitride, for comparison of electrical properties, was deposited from borazine (B{sub 3}N{sub 3}H{sub 6}); silicon boron nitride was deposited from borazine, disilane (Si{sub 2}H{sub 6}), and ammonia (NH{sub 3}); silicon boron oxynitride was deposited from borazine, disilane, ammonia, and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O). Metal-insulator-metal capacitors were fabricated and electrical measurements indicated that all three films had excellent dielectric properties with dielectric constants of 4.1, 4.7, and 3.9 for BN, SiBN, and SiBON, respectively. Tests of conformality indicated that deposition into trenches with an aspect ratio of 4:1 gave conformality greater than 70%. Silicon boron oxynitride was shown to be an excellent barrier to the diffusion of copper. A planar, single level metal-insulator structure was constructed using a SiBN/SiBON insulator with copper metallization.

Kane, W.F.; Cohen, S.A.; Hummel, J.P.; Luther, B. [IBM Research Div., Yorktown Heights, NY (United States). T.J. Watson Research Center; Beach, D.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical and Analytical Sciences Div.

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

PJM Interconnection Interview on Wind  

Wind Powering America (EERE)

Vol. 9, No. 5 - December 5, 2007 Vol. 9, No. 5 - December 5, 2007 PJM on wind Wind power is growing rapidly in the United States and in Pennsylvania where 8 wind farms that total 259 megawatts now operate. Those wind farms already generate enough power for about 80,000 homes. Another 4,714 megawatts are in various stages of development within Pennsylvania, which would create enough power for an additional 1.4 mil- lion homes. Just in the Keystone state, wind power is creating thousands of jobs. Across the nation, wind power provides hundreds of millions of dollars of tax payments and rental fees to land- owners, and displaces more and more electricity that would otherwise be made by burning coal, oil, or natural gas. Wind farms create zero air pollution; require no destructive

444

Interconnection networks synthesis and optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

straints when the routing area is 3000 um, 5000 um 6000 umfor the tightest area constraint 3000 um. When ? is 0.8, all3000, 7000 and 11000 as small, moderate and large grid area,

Zhu, Yi

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

RidgenoseSolarInterconnectionProject  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and maintaining a 100-megawatt (MW) photovoltaic solar power facility, consisting of solar panels, mounting structures, access roads, an electrical collection system, a...

446

Misalignment corrections in optical interconnects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the 21st century: a technology roadmap", IEEE Journal of1996 "International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS (International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors)

Song, Deqiang

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Thermal plasmonic interconnects in graphene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

As one emerging plasmonic material, graphene can support surface plasmons at infrared and terahertz frequencies with unprecedented properties due to the strong interactions between graphene and low-frequency photons. Since graphene surface plasmons exist in the infrared and terahertz regime, they can be thermally pumped (excited) by the infrared evanescent waves emitted from an object. Here we show that thermal graphene plasmons can be efficiently excited and have monochromatic and tunable spectra, thus paving a way to harness thermal energy for graphene plasmonic devices. We further demonstrate that thermal information communication via graphene surface plasmons can be potentially realized by effectively harnessing thermal energy from various heat sources, e.g., the waste heat dissipated from nanoelectronic devices. These findings open up an avenue of thermal plasmonics based on graphene for different applications ranging from infrared emission control, to information processing and communication, to energy harvesting.

Baoan Liu; Yongmin Liu; Sheng Shen

2014-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

448

Distributed Generation and Grid Interconnection  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thus far we have considered point compensation and the correction of the voltage or current at a particular location in the network. This chapter considers the voltage profile of lines with distributed loads a...

Arindam Ghosh; Gerard Ledwich

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Misalignment corrections in optical interconnects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

J. Ekman, X. Wang, P. J. Marchand, H. Spaanenburg, F. E.2001). S. Esener and P. Marchand, "Present status and futureF. Ozkan, W. L. Hendrick, P. J. Marchand and S. C. Esener, "

Song, Deqiang

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Long-term evaluation of solid oxide fuel cell candidate materials in a 3-cell generic stack test fixture, part III: Stability and microstructure of Ce-(Mn,Co)-spinel coating, AISI441 interconnect, alumina coating, cathode and anode  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A generic solid oxide fuel cell stack test fixture was developed to evaluate candidate materials and processing under realistic conditions. Part III of the work investigated the stability of Ce-(Mn,Co) spinel coating, AISI441 metallic interconnect, alumina coating, and cell's degradation. After 6000h test, the spinel coating showed densification with some diffusion of Cr. At the metal interface, segregation of Si and Ti was observed, however, no continuous layer formed. The alumina coating for perimeter sealing areas appeared more dense and thick at the air side than the fuel side. Both the spinel and alumina coatings remained bonded. EDS analysis of Cr within the metal showed small decrease in concentration near the coating interface and would expect to cause no issue of Cr depletion. Inter-diffusion of Ni, Fe, and Cr between spot-welded Ni wire and AISI441 interconnect was observed and Cr-oxide scale formed along the circumference of the weld. The microstructure of the anode and cathode was discussed relating to degradation of the top and middle cells. Overall, the Ce-(Mn,Co) spinel coating, alumina coating, and AISI441 steel showed the desired long-term stability and the developed generic stack fixture proved to be a useful tool to validate candidate materials for SOFC.

Yeong-Shyung Chou; Jeffry W. Stevenson; Jung-Pyung Choi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

CCPG Update U.S. Department Of Energy 2012 National Electric Transmission Congestion  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

CCPG Update CCPG Update U.S. Department Of Energy 2012 National Electric Transmission Congestion Study Workshop - Portland, OR December 13, 2011 Susan Henderson, P.E. Xcel Energy Path/TOT Ratings  TOT 1A - none  TOT 2A - none  TOT 3 ◦ Archer-Wayne Child Interconnection (150MW, 345kV) ◦ High Plains Express (500kV, 1600-8000MW) ◦ Zephyr (500kV DC, 3000MW) ◦ TransWest Express (600kV DC, 3000MW) ◦ Colorado-Wyoming Intertie (345kV, 800MW)  Reference: WECC Path Reports & Rating Catalog Planned Projects w/Path Impact)  TOTs 1A, 2A, and 3 are historically congested, however this is changing with new resources added along front range.  WECC 2019 & 2020 studies show no congestion issues along these paths - unless a large build out of WY

452

New Mexico/Transmission | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

New Mexico/Transmission New Mexico/Transmission < New Mexico Jump to: navigation, search NewMexicoTransmissionHeader.png Roadmap Agency Links Local Regulations State Regulations Summary General Transmission Dashboard Permitting Atlas Compare States Arizona California Colorado Idaho Montana Nevada New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington Wyoming Resource Library NEPA Database The electrical grid in New Mexico is part of the Southwest Area Transmission power grid which is part of the WestConnect Transmission Planning area, and covers the desert southwest of the United States. The Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) is the Regional Entity responsible for coordinating and promoting Bulk Electric System reliability in the Western Interconnection, including in New Mexico. In addition, WECC provides an environment for coordinating the operating and planning

453

Washington/Transmission | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Washington/Transmission < Washington Jump to: navigation, search WashingtonTransmissionHeader.png Roadmap Agency Links Local Regulations State Regulations Summary General Transmission Dashboard Permitting Atlas Compare States Arizona California Colorado Idaho Montana Nevada New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington Wyoming Resource Library NEPA Database The electrical grid in Washington is part of the Western Interconnection power grid and the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC). WECC's service territory extends from Canada to Mexico. It includes the provinces of Alberta and British Columbia, the northern portion of Baja California,

454

Oregon/Transmission | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Oregon/Transmission < Oregon Jump to: navigation, search OregonTransmissionHeader.png Roadmap Agency Links Local Regulations State Regulations Summary General Transmission Dashboard Permitting Atlas Compare States Arizona California Colorado Idaho Montana Nevada New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington Wyoming Resource Library NEPA Database The electrical grid in Idaho is part of the Western Interconnection power grid and the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC). WECC's service territory extends from Canada to Mexico. It includes the provinces of Alberta and British Columbia, the northern portion of Baja California,

455

Utah/Transmission | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Utah/Transmission < Utah Jump to: navigation, search UtahTransmissionHeader.png Roadmap Agency Links Local Regulations State Regulations Summary General Transmission Dashboard Permitting Atlas Compare States Arizona California Colorado Idaho Montana Nevada New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington Wyoming Resource Library NEPA Database The electrical grid in Utah is part of the Western Interconnection power grid and the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC). WECC includes the provinces of Alberta and British Columbia, the northern portion of Baja California, Mexico, and all or portions of the 14 Western states between.

456

ROD for the Interconnection of the Griffith Power Plant With the Western Area Power Administration's Parker-Davis and Pacific Northwest-Pacific Southwest Intertie Transmission Systems (5/28/99)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

23 23 Federal Register / Vol. 64, No. 103 / Friday, May 28, 1999 / Notices 129, Main Street, Madison, ME 04950, (207) 696-1225. l. FERC contact: Nan Allen, nan.allen@ferc.fed.us, (202) 219-2948. m. Pursuant to 18 CFR 16.9(b)(1) each application for a new license and any competing license applications must be filed with the Commission at least 24 months prior to the expiration of the existing license. All applications for license for this project must be filed by May 1, 2002. David P. Boergers, Secretary. [FR Doc. 99-13617 Filed 5-27-99; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 6717-01-M DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Western Area Power Administration [DOE/EIS-0297] Record of Decision for the Interconnection of the Griffith Power Plant With the Western Area Power Administration's Parker-Davis and Pacific Northwest-Pacific Southwest

457

Notice of Availability of the Revised Record of Decision for the Electrical Interconnection of the Summit/Westward Project -- Business Plan Final EIS (DOE/EIS-0183) (10/29/04)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

45 45 Federal Register / Vol. 69, No. 209 / Friday, October 29, 2004 / Notices Issued at Washington, DC on October 26, 2004. Rachel M. Samuel, Deputy Advisory Committee Management Officer. [FR Doc. 04-24217 Filed 10-28-04; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 6450-01-P DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Bonneville Power Administration; Summit/Westward Project AGENCY: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Notice of availability of Revised Record of Decision (ROD). SUMMARY: This notice announces the availability of the Revised ROD to offer contract terms for an optional electrical interconnection of the proposed Summit/Westward Project into the Federal Columbia River Transmission System at a point near the existing Wauna Substation of the Clatskanie

458

A Study of Contacts and Back-Surface Reflectors for 0.6eV Ga0.32In0.68As/InAs0.32P0.68 Thermophotovoltaic Monolithically Interconnected Modules  

SciTech Connect

Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems have recently rekindled a high level of interest for a number of applications. In order to meet the requirement of low-temperature ({approx}1000 C) TPV systems, 0.6-eV Ga0.32In0.68As/InAs0.32P0.68 TPV monolithically interconnected modules (MIMs) have been developed at the National Renewable energy Laboratory (NREL)[1]. The successful fabrication of Ga0.32In0.68As/InAs0.32P0.68 MIMs depends on developing and optimizing of several key processes. Some results regarding the chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-SiO2 insulating layer, selective chemical etch via sidewall profiles, double-layer antireflection coatings, and metallization via interconnects have previously been given elsewhere [2]. In this paper, we report on the study of contacts and back-surface reflectors. In the first part of this paper, Ti/Pd/Ag and Cr/Pd/Ag contact to n-InAs0.32P0.68and p-Ga0.32In0.68As are investigated. The transfer length method (TLM) was used for measuring of specific contact resistance Rc. The dependence of Rc on different doping levels and different pre-treatment of the two semiconductors will be reported. Also, the adhesion and the thermal stability of Ti/Pd/Ag and Cr/Pd/Ag contacts to n-InAs0.32P0.68and p-Ga0.32In0.68As will be presented. In the second part of this paper, we discuss an optimum back-surface reflector (BSR) that has been developed for 0.6-eV Ga0.32In0.68As/InAs0.32P0.68 TPV MIM devices. The optimum BSR consists of three layers: {approx}1300{angstrom} MgF2 (or {approx}1300{angstrom} CVD SiO2) dielectric layer, {approx}25{angstrom} Ti adhesion layer, and {approx}1500{angstrom} Au reflection layer. This optimum BSR has high reflectance, good adhesion, and excellent thermal stability.

Wu, X.; Duda, A.; Carapella, J. J.; Ward, J. S.; Webb, J. D.; Wanlass, M. W.

1998-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

459

Comunicato stampa Uno sguardo in anteprima sulla tre giorni pi attesa dal mondo ICT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

'unico nodo in tutta l'Europa meridionale, perché gli altri si trovano a Berlino, Parigi, Stoccolma, Helsinki

460

Territoire, bien-tre et inclusion sociale, Confrences cadres LE SYSTEME REGIONAL D'INNOVATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Territoire, bien-être et inclusion sociale, Conférences cadres 26 LE SYSTEME REGIONAL D'INNOVATION la période fordiste, l'innovation y est analysée comme le résultat d'un produit social et)" #12;Territoire, bien-être et inclusion sociale, Conférences cadres 27 Le système régional d'innovation

Boyer, Edmond

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection tre wecc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Formation l'tranger, fuite des cerveaux et bien-tre national  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of university systems, individuals' abilities, sunk costs of education, as well as labour market conditions gain, international migration, sunk costs, educational grants JEL classification codes: F22, F15 hal

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

462

Fact Sheet - Reliability entity registration - November 2006  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Next steps Entity registration WECC has begun to collect registrations from utilities and other responsible entities. WECC will review these registration submittals,...

463

Town of Lyons, Colorado (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Id 11376 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location WECC NERC WECC Yes Activity Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes Activity Bundled Services Yes This article is a...

464

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

A. U.S. Transmission Circuit Sustained Automatic Outage Counts and Hours A. U.S. Transmission Circuit Sustained Automatic Outage Counts and Hours by High-Voltage Size and NERC Region, 2012 Sustained Automatic Outage Counts Voltage Region Type Operating (kV) FRCC MRO NPCC RFC SERC SPP TRE WECC Contiguous U.S. AC 200-299 142 49 14 141 242 49 -- 484 1,121 AC 300-399 -- 88 107 95 46 56 80 165 637 AC 400-599 9 3 -- 22 86 -- -- 125 245 AC 600+ -- -- 6 9 -- -- -- -- 15 AC Total 151 140 127 267 374 105 80 774 2,018 DC 100-199 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- DC 200-299 -- 18 -- -- -- -- -- 5 23 DC 300-399 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- DC 400-499 -- 5 -- -- -- -- -- -- 5 DC 500-599 -- -- -- 5 -- -- -- 17 22 DC 600+ -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --

465

Rio Grande Electric Coop, Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

6057 6057 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location TRE NERC ERCOT Yes NERC WECC Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png General Service Single Phase Commercial General Service Single Phase Mountain Top Commercial General Service Three Phase Commercial Irrigation Industrial Large Power-Primary Industrial Large Power-Primary Export Industrial Large Power-Secondary Industrial Lighting-100W Existing Mount Lighting Lighting-250W Existing Mount Lighting Lighting-400W Existing Mount Lighting Oil Wells Industrial Residential Residential

466

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Texas Electricity Profile 2010 Texas profile Texas Electricity Profile 2010 Texas profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Texas) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) SERC/SPP/TRE/WECC Primary Energy Source Gas Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 108,258 1 Electric Utilities 26,533 4 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 81,724 1 Net Generation (megawatthours) 411,695,046 1 Electric Utilities 95,099,161 9 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 316,595,885 1 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 430 2 Nitrogen Oxide 204 1 Carbon Dioxide 251,409 1 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.3 28 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 1.1 32 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1,346 22 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 358,457,550 1 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 358,457,550 1

467

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

B. U.S. Transformer Sustained Automatic Outage Counts and Hours by Cause Code and by NERC Region, 2012 B. U.S. Transformer Sustained Automatic Outage Counts and Hours by Cause Code and by NERC Region, 2012 Transformer Outage Counts Sustained Outage Causes FRCC MRO NPCC RFC SERC SPP TRE WECC Contiguous U.S. Weather, excluding lightning -- -- -- -- 1.00 -- -- -- 1.00 Lightning -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Environmental -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Contamination 1.00 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 1.00 Foreign Interference -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Fire -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Vandalism, Terrorism, or Malicious Acts -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Failed AC Substation Equipment 3.00 1.00 -- 1.00 5.00 -- -- 4.00 14.00 Failed AC/DC Terminal Equipment -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Failed Protection System Equipment -- 1.00 -- -- 3.00 -- -- -- 4.00

468

Tractebel Energy Marketing Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Tractebel Energy Marketing Inc Tractebel Energy Marketing Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name Tractebel Energy Marketing Inc Place Texas Utility Id 19090 Utility Location Yes Ownership W NERC Location TRE NERC ERCOT Yes NERC MRO Yes NERC SERC Yes NERC SPP Yes NERC WECC Yes Activity Buying Transmission Yes Activity Wholesale Marketing Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png No rate schedules available. Average Rates No Rates Available References ↑ "EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Tractebel_Energy_Marketing_Inc&oldid=411854

469

EIA - State Electricity Profiles  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Texas Electricity Profile 2010 Texas profile Texas Electricity Profile 2010 Texas profile Table 1. 2010 Summary Statistics (Texas) Item Value U.S. Rank NERC Region(s) SERC/SPP/TRE/WECC Primary Energy Source Gas Net Summer Capacity (megawatts) 108,258 1 Electric Utilities 26,533 4 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 81,724 1 Net Generation (megawatthours) 411,695,046 1 Electric Utilities 95,099,161 9 Independent Power Producers & Combined Heat and Power 316,595,885 1 Emissions (thousand metric tons) Sulfur Dioxide 430 2 Nitrogen Oxide 204 1 Carbon Dioxide 251,409 1 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.3 28 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 1.1 32 Carbon Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1,346 22 Total Retail Sales (megawatthours) 358,457,550 1 Full Service Provider Sales (megawatthours) 358,457,550 1

470

High-Performance, 0.6-eV, GA0.32In0.68As/In0.32P0.68 Thermophotovoltaic Converters and Monolithically Interconnected Modules  

SciTech Connect

Recent progress in the development of high-performance, 0.6-eV Ga0.32In0.68As/InAs0.32P0.68 thermophotovoltaic (TPV) converters and monolithically interconnected modules (MIMs) is described. The converter structure design is based on using a lattice-matched InAs0.32P0.68/Ga0.32In0.68As/InAs0.32P0.68 double-heterostructure (DH) device, which is grown lattice-mismatched on an InP substrate, with an intervening compositionally step-graded region of InAsyP1-y. The Ga0.32In0.68As alloy has a room-temperature band gap of {approx}0.6 eV and contains a p/n junction. The InAs0.32P0.68 layers have a room-temperature band gap of {approx}0.96 eV and serve as passivation/confinement layers for the Ga0.32In0.68As p/n junction. InAsyP1-y step grades have yielded DH converters with superior electronic quality and performance characteristics. Details of the microstructure of the converters are presented. Converters prepared for this work were grown by atmospheric-pressure metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy (APMO VPE) and were processed using a combination of photolithography, wet-chemical etching, and conventional metal and insulator deposition techniques. Excellent performance characteristics have been demonstrated for the 0.6-eV TPV converters. Additionally, the implementation of MIM technology in these converters has been highly successful.

Wanlass, M. W.; Carapella, J. J.; Duda, A.; Emery, K.; Gedvilas, L.; Moriarty, T.; Ward, S.; Webb, J.; Wu, X. (National Renewable Energy Laboratory); Murray, C. S. (Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory)

1998-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

471

Trinity Public Utilities District Direct Interconnection Project  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Final Environmental Impact Statement DOE/EIS-0395 JULY 2007 COVER SHEET LEAD FEDERAL AGENCIES: U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Western Area Power Administration (Western), and Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE) COOPERATING AGENCIES: U.S. Department of the Navy (Navy), U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM), City of Yuma TITLE: San Luis Rio Colorado Project Final Environmental Impact Statement, DOE/EIS-0395 LOCATION: Yuma County, Arizona CONTACT: For additional information on DOE National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) activities, please contact Carol M. Borgstrom, Director, Office of NEPA Policy and Compliance, GC-20, U.S. Department of Energy, 1000 Independence Avenue S.W., Washington D.C. 20585, phone: 1-800-472-2756 or visit the

472

Eastern Interconnection Phase Angle Base Lining Study  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

bhargava@electricpowergroup.com June 27-28, 2013 Washington, DC DOE/OE Transmission Reliability Program Topics  Project objective  Major technical accomplishments that will be completed this year-stage in RD&D cycle  Deliverables and schedule for activities to be completed under FY13 funding  Risk factors affecting timely completion of planned activities as well as movement through RD&D cycle  Early thoughts on follow-on work that should be considered for funding in FY14 Project Objective  Operators monitor power flows at specific interchange points (such as Keystone-Juniata). However, power flows may not be a good measure of wide area system stress  Phasor networks provide the capability to monitor phase angle

473

EIS-0342: Wanapa Energy Center Interconnection  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This EIS analyzes DOE's decision to suppport the installation of highly efficient combustion turbines (CTs) generators at the Wanapa Energy Center. Each CT would exhaust through a heat recovery steam generator that can be fired by auxiliary duct burners. The HRSGs would produce steam to be used onsite in condensing steam turbines.

474

Sandia National Laboratories: Sandia, Endicott Interconnect Technologi...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Exhibition (EU PVSC) EC Top Publications Reference Model 5 (RM5): Oscillating Surge Wave Energy Converter Experimental Wave Tank Test for Reference Model 3 Floating- Point...

475

Interconnecting gold islands with DNA origami  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

to integrate the bottom-up self-assembly of DNA origami with the top-down lithographic methods used to generate surface patterning. In this report we demonstrate that fixed length...

476

Physics of Failure of Electrical Interconnects  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

477

Sandia National Laboratories: Endicott Interconnect Technologies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy, Partnership, Photovoltaic, Renewable Energy, Research & Capabilities, Solar, SunShot Sandia scientists have developed glitter-sized photovoltaic (PV) cells that have the...

478

Data integrity for on-chip interconnects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

based on prediction, the approaches use coding techniques to eliminate high delay cases to generate a higher transmission rate. The work also extends communication theoretic approaches to other areas of VLSI design. Parity groups are generated based...

Singhal, Rohit

2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

479

RAPID/Geothermal/Transmission Siting & Interconnection | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

in California California Energy Commission, California Energy Commission In California, transmission lines set to operate with a voltage between 50 kV and 200 kV must...

480

RAPID/BulkTransmission/Transmission Siting & Interconnection...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

all other Oregon law and "shall bind the state and all counties and cities and political subdivisions in this state as to the approval of the site and the construction and...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection tre wecc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Permitting, Interconnection, and Inspection | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

streamlining and standardizing requirements and application formats across AHJs and utilities, as well as providing improved training for code officials and utility...

482

Distributed PV Interconnection Screening Procedures and Online...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and has been involved in a variety of removable technologies including load hydro, landfill gas, floor air conditioning, and sterling systems. We also have Jeff Healion who is the...

483

Western Baldwin County, AL Grid Interconnection Project  

SciTech Connect

The Objective of this Project was to provide an additional supply of electricity to the affected portions of Baldwin County, AL through the purchase, installation, and operation of certain substation equipment.

Thomas DeBell

2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

484

Webinar: Understanding the Interconnection and Transmission Service...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Tribal Energy Sufficiency and Economic Development U.S. Department of Energy Schedules Regional Workshops to Provide Expert Input on 2009 Transmission Congestion Study U.S....

485

Recovery Act Interconnection Transmission Planning | Department...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

integration, and delivery of new renewable and other low-carbon resources in the electricity sector, and the use of these resources to displace petroleum-based fuels in the...

486

Sandia National Laboratories: Permitting, Inspection, and Interconnect...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Engine Test Facility Central Receiver Test Facility Power Towers for Utilities Solar Furnace Dish Test Facility Optics Lab Parabolic Dishes Work For Others (WFO) User...

487

Renewable source controls for grid stability.  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this study was to evaluate the small signal and transient stability of the Western Electric- ity Coordinating Council (WECC) under high penetrations of renewable energy, and to identify control technologies that would improve the system performance. The WECC is the regional entity responsible for coordinating and promoting bulk electric system reliability in the Western Interconnection. Transient stability is the ability of the power system to maintain synchronism after a large disturbance while small signal stability is the ability of the power system to maintain synchronism after a small disturbance. Tran- sient stability analysis usually focuses on the relative rotor angle between synchronous machines compared to some stability margin. For this study we employed generator speed relative to system speed as a metric for assessing transient stability. In addition, we evaluated the system transient response using the system frequency nadir, which provides an assessment of the adequacy of the primary frequency control reserves. Small signal stability analysis typically identi es the eigenvalues or modes of the system in response to a disturbance. For this study we developed mode shape maps for the di erent scenarios. Prony analysis was applied to generator speed after a 1.4 GW, 0.5 second, brake insertion at various locations. Six di erent WECC base cases were analyzed, including the 2022 light spring case which meets the renewable portfolio standards. Because of the di culty in identifying the cause and e ect relationship in large power system models with di erent scenarios, several simulations were run on a 7-bus, 5-generator system to isolate the e ects of di erent con gurations. Based on the results of the study, for a large power system like the WECC, incorporating frequency droop into wind/solar systems provides a larger bene t to system transient response than replacing the lost inertia with synthetic inertia. From a small signal stability perspective, the increase in renewable penetration results in subtle changes to the system modes. In gen- eral, mode frequencies increase slightly, and mode shapes remain similar. The system frequency nadir for the 2022 light spring case was slightly lower than the other cases, largely because of the reduced system inertia. However, the nadir is still well above the minimum load shedding frequency of 59.5 Hz. Finally, several discrepancies were identi ed between actual and reported wind penetration, and additional work on wind/solar modeling is required to increase the delity of the WECC models.

Byrne, Raymond Harry; Elliott, Ryan Thomas; Neely, Jason C.; Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto; Schoenwald, David Alan; Grant, Lisa

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Post-ROD Analysis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

with WECC Total Loads ... 46 3.5 SIMULATION OF SLCAIP HOURLY DISPATCH AND MARKET TRANSACTIONS ......

489

Comunicato stampa A Povo dal 18 al 20 aprile: anteprima sulla tre giorni pi attesa dal mondo ICT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

'Europa meridionale, perché gli altri si trovano a Berlino, Parigi, Stoccolma, Helsinki ed Eindhoven. Il secondo

490

tre calcule au voisinage d'un point critique de la densit de phonons en supposant un double gap.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

dans un supraconducteur au- dessus de Tc dans le cas de la limite sale. Les solutions sont utilisées auL + eV. Donc pour établir et résoudre les équations de Dyson pour les propagateurs renor- malisés à un

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

491

clut que ces dterminations doivent tre reprises et se d'entreprendre lui-mme ce travail. R. BLONDLOT.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

sulfo-antin10- niure d'argent ; 3° sur différentes faces naturelles de platinocya- nure de magnésium. Si

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

492

Variations of methane emissionswithin and between threehydroelectric reservoirs in Brazil; Variationen av metanemissioner inom ochmellan tre hydroelektriska vattendammar.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Hydroelectricity is an energy resource which for a long time has been consideredenvironmentally neutral regarding greenhouse gas emission. During the last years this viewhas (more)

Grandin, Karin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

A study of contacts and back-surface reflectors for 0.6-eV Ga{sub 0.32}In{sub 0.68}As/InAs{sub 0.32}P{sub 0.68} thermophotovoltaic monolithically interconnected modules  

SciTech Connect

Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems have recently rekindled a high level of interest for a number of applications. In order to meet the requirement of low-temperature ({approximately}1000&hthinsp;{degree}C) TPV systems, 0.6-eV Ga{sub 0.32}In{sub 0.68}As/InAs{sub 0.32}P{sub 0.68} TPV monolithically interconnected modules (MIMs) have been developed at the National Renewable energy Laboratory (NREL) [1]. The successful fabrication of Ga{sub 0.32}In{sub 0.68}As/InAs{sub 0.32}P{sub 0.68} MIMs depends on developing and optimizing of several key processes. Some results regarding the chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-SiO{sub 2} insulating layer, selective chemical etch via sidewall profiles, double-layer antireflection coatings, and metallization via interconnects have previously been given elsewhere [2]. In this paper, we report on the study of contacts and back-surface reflectors. In the first part of this paper, Ti/Pd/Ag and Cr/Pd/Ag contact to n-InAs{sub 0.32}P{sub 0.68} and p-Ga{sub 0.32}In{sub 0.68}As are investigated. The transfer length method (TLM) was used for measuring of specific contact resistance R{sub c}. The dependence of R{sub c} on different doping levels and different pre-treatment of the two semiconductors will be reported. Also, the adhesion and the thermal stability of Ti/Pd/Ag and Cr/Pd/Ag contacts to n-InAs{sub 0.32}P{sub 0.68} and p-Ga{sub 0.32}In{sub 0.68}As will be presented. In the second part of this paper, we discuss an optimum back-surface reflector (BSR) that has been developed for 0.6-eV Ga{sub 0.32}In{sub 0.68}As/InAs{sub 0.32}P{sub 0.68} TPV MIM devices. The optimum BSR consists of three layers: {approximately}1300 {Angstrom} MgF{sub 2} (or {approximately}1300 {Angstrom} CVD SiO{sub 2}) dielectric layer, {approximately}25 {Angstrom} Ti adhesion layer, and {approximately}1500 {Angstrom} Au reflection layer. This optimum BSR has high reflectance, good adhesion, and excellent thermal stability. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

Wu, X.; Duda, A.; Carapella, J.J.; Ward, J.S.; Webb, J.D.; Wanlass, M.W. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

Colorado/Transmission | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Colorado/Transmission < Colorado Jump to: navigation, search ColoradoTransmissionHeader.png Roadmap Agency Links Local Regulations State Regulations Summary General Transmission Dashboard Permitting Atlas Compare States Arizona California Colorado Idaho Montana Nevada New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington Wyoming Resource Library NEPA Database The electrical grid in Colorado is part of the Western Interconnection power grid, which covers most of the western United States. The Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) is the Regional Entity responsible for coordinating and promoting Bulk Electric System reliability in the

495

Demand Response  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Assessment for Eastern Interconnection Youngsun Baek, Stanton W. Hadley, Rocio Martinez, Gbadebo Oladosu, Alexander M. Smith, Fran Li, Paul Leiby and Russell Lee Prepared for FY12 DOE-CERTS Transmission Reliability R&D Internal Program Review September 20, 2012 2 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy DOE National Laboratory Studies Funded to Support FOA 63 * DOE set aside $20 million from transmission funding for national laboratory studies. * DOE identified four areas of interest: 1. Transmission Reliability 2. Demand Side Issues 3. Water and Energy 4. Other Topics * Argonne, NREL, and ORNL support for EIPC/SSC/EISPC and the EISPC Energy Zone is funded through Area 4. * Area 2 covers LBNL and NREL work in WECC and

496

Idaho/Transmission | Open Energy Information  

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source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Idaho/Transmission < Idaho Jump to: navigation, search IdahoTransmissionHeader.png Roadmap Agency Links Local Regulations State Regulations Summary General Transmission Dashboard Permitting Atlas Compare States Arizona California Colorado Idaho Montana Nevada New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington Wyoming Resource Library NEPA Database The electrical grid in Idaho is part of the Western Interconnection power grid and the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC). It includes the provinces of Alberta and British Columbia, the northern portion of Baja California, Mexico, and all or portions of the 14 Western states between.

497

Slide 1  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

"To ensure efficient, effective, coordinated use & expansion of the members' "To ensure efficient, effective, coordinated use & expansion of the members' transmission systems in the Western Interconnection to best meet the needs of customers & stakeholders." National Electric Transmission Congestion Study Workshop Panel II - Industry December 13, 2011 Portland Airport Sheraton Hotel Rich Bayless Northern Tier Transmission Group Vice Chair - WECC TEPPC 2 NTTG Transmission system A Brief history * 70's - 80's: - Coastal units fired by oil, Oil embargo, - Reliance on oil & policy to reduce consumption - Widely varying prices, - Congestion - system wasn't designed for long dist exports * Mid 80's Transfer Study - Transmission expansion to reduce oil use & congestion * Eastern coal fired generation build out during 80's - Long distant transmission to deliver energy

498

Montana/Transmission | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Montana/Transmission < Montana Jump to: navigation, search MontanaTransmissionHeader.png Roadmap Agency Links Local Regulations State Regulations Summary General Transmission Dashboard Permitting Atlas Compare States Arizona California Colorado Idaho Montana Nevada New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington Wyoming Resource Library NEPA Database The electrical grid in Montana is part of both the Eastern and Western Interconnection power grids and is part of two NERC regions - the Midwest Reliability Organization (MRO) and Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC). MRO's service territory extends from the state of Nebraska north to

499

2012 CERTS R&M Peer Review - Summary: Essence of Structure Preserving Network Reductions - Dan Tylavsky  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Essence of Structure Preserving (ESP) Network Reductions for Engineering and Essence of Structure Preserving (ESP) Network Reductions for Engineering and Economic Analysis of High Penetration of Renewables Project Lead: Dan Tylavsky, HyungSeon Oh, William Schulze, Ray Zimmerman, Di Shi 1. Project objective: The objectives of the proposed work are to refine the network equivalencing techniques developed during the previous funding cycle and to apply these techniques to develop an improved electric power network model of the entire United States (Eastern Interconnection (EI); WECC and ERCOT.) 2. Major technical accomplishments that will be completed this year: A dc network equivalent for the entire United States will be produced, its accuracy vetted using change cases and OPF solutions, and new improved equivalencing techniques will

500

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U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

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