National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for interconnection transmission planning

  1. Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative - Meeting...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Recovery Act Interconnection Transmission Planning Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative - Meeting Calendars Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning...

  2. Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    A, Interconnection-Level Analysis and Planning Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic A, Interconnection-Level Analysis and Planning A description of the...

  3. Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    State Agency Input Regarding Electric Resource and Transmission Planning in the Texas Interconnection Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, State Agency...

  4. Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Interconnection on Electric Resource Planning and Priorities Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, Cooperation Among States in the Eastern...

  5. Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Western Interconnection under the Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative, part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. The fundamental purpose of the awards...

  6. 10 Year Transmission Plan for the Western Electricity Interconnection Released

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) announced the release of its first 10-Year Regional Transmission Plan (Plan) for the Western Interconnection. The Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability awarded WECC a $14.5 million grant under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to expand on its transmission planning activities.

  7. Recovery Act Interconnection Transmission Planning | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    - are identifying transmission requirements under a broad range of alternative electricity futures (including intensive application of demand-side technologies), and...

  8. WECC releases its first-ever transmission plan for the Western Interconnection

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) announced the release of its first 10-Year Regional Transmission Plan (Plan) for the Western Interconnection.

  9. Incorporating Demand Response into Western Interconnection Transmission Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Satchwell, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Aggregator Programs. Demand Response Measurement andIncorporating Demand Response into Western Interconnection13 Demand Response Dispatch

  10. Topic A Awardee: Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    policy makers Consumer and environmental interests Transmission Planning Authorities Market participants generating, transmitting or consuming electricity within the Eastern...

  11. Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS): Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodford, D.

    2011-02-01

    This report provides an independent review included an initial evaluation of the technical configuration and capital costs of establishing an undersea cable system and examining impacts to the existing electric transmission systems as a result of interconnecting the islands.

  12. Phase 2 Report: Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS); Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodford, D.

    2011-02-01

    This report provides an independent review including an initial evaluation of the technical configuration and capital costs of establishing an undersea cable system and examining impacts to the existing electric transmission systems as a result of interconnecting the islands

  13. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Transmission Siting & Interconnection | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsourceBulkTransmission/Environment/Nevada < RAPID‎RAPID/BulkTransmission/Site Considerations <

  14. Supplying Baseload Power and Reducing Transmission Requirements by Interconnecting Wind Farms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Supplying Baseload Power and Reducing Transmission Requirements by Interconnecting Wind Farms is not used to supply baseload electric power today. Interconnecting wind farms through the transmission grid farms are interconnected in an array, wind speed correlation among sites decreases and so does

  15. Interconnection Transmission Planning: Awards | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-inPPLforLDRDEnergy Copyrights ASite ForResearch,The documentsCoP)List of

  16. Cost-Effectivenessof PhotovoltaicGenerationIn A Transmission-Constrained Load Area of An InterconnectedSystem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gross, George

    Abstract: Electric power systems of today are experiencing a difficulty of constrained transmission lines, present electric system networks are experiencing the difficulty of constrained transmission lines: Photovoltaic Generation, Power System Economics, Dispersed Generation, Transmission-Constrained Interconnected

  17. Marketing Plan for Transmission Planning Services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tu, Linh

    2006-12-15

    in the non-consulting side of the firm, the following are services provided on the consulting side, still known as Consultation Company: ? Cogeneration services ? Energy facilities planning ? Energy supply management ? Transmission ? Utility formation... Consultation Company?s competitive advantage in the electrical industry is their experience and expertise in the energy market. The company has been working with companies and individuals to help plan, develop and build power plants for over twenty years...

  18. Integrated Energy-Water Planning in the Western and Texas Interconnections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vincent Tidwell; John Gasper; Robert Goldstein; Jordan Macknick; Gerald Sehlke; Michael Webber; Mark Wigmosta

    2013-07-01

    While long-term regional electricity transmission planning has traditionally focused on cost, infrastructure utilization, and reliability, issues concerning the availability of water represent an emerging issue. Thermoelectric expansion must be considered in the context of competing demands from other water use sectors balanced with fresh and non-fresh water supplies subject to climate variability. An integrated Energy-Water Decision Support System (DSS) is being developed that will enable planners in the Western and Texas Interconnections to analyze the potential implications of water availability and cost for long-range transmission planning. The project brings together electric transmission planners (Western Electricity Coordinating Council and Electric Reliability Council of Texas) with western water planners (Western Governors’ Association and the Western States Water Council). This paper lays out the basic framework for this integrated Energy-Water DSS.

  19. Interconnect

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation CurrentHenryInhibitingInteractive Jobs Interactive Jobs To run anInterconnect

  20. Transmission Planning | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    visualization, control, operations, and market structure will ultimately modernize the electricity transmission infrastructure to ease congestion, allow for increases in demand,...

  1. Power Transmission Lines: A New Interconnect Design to Eliminate Simultaneous Switching Noise A. Ege Engin and Madhavan Swaminathan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swaminathan, Madhavan

    Power Transmission Lines: A New Interconnect Design to Eliminate Simultaneous Switching Noise A of the coupling between the signal lines and the power delivery network (PDN) in off-chip signaling. This coupling presents a new PDN design, called as the power transmission line, which overcomes these problems

  2. The Cost of Transmission for Wind Energy: A Review of Transmission Planning Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew D.

    2009-01-01

    DOE). 2006. National Electric Transmission Congestion Study.Division. 2003. Electric Transmission Plan for RenewableIdentifying Minnesota’s Electric Transmission Infrastructure

  3. The Cost of Transmission for Wind Energy: A Review of Transmission Planning Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew D.

    2009-01-01

    Certificates of Need for Transmission Lines to Support theand Preference in Transmission Service. ” Washington, D.C. :Integrating Wind into Transmission Planning: The Rocky

  4. Plan to Conduct Electric Transmission Congestion Study: Federal...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Plan to Conduct Electric Transmission Congestion Study: Federal Register Volume 76, No. 218 - Nov. 10, 2011 Plan to Conduct Electric Transmission Congestion Study: Federal Register...

  5. Linear relaxations for transmission system planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Joshua A.

    We apply a linear relaxation procedure for polynomial optimization problems to transmission system planning. The approach recovers and improves upon existing linear models based on the DC approximation. We then consider ...

  6. Sixth Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan Chapter 7: Transmission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sixth Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan Chapter 7: Transmission Summary of Key..................................................................................................................................... 1 Northwest Transmission Planning), there was concern that there had been little progress on addressing the developing transmission issues in the region

  7. A CRITICAL REVIEW OF WIND TRANSMISSION COST ESTIMATES FROM MAJOR TRANSMISSION PLANNING EFFORTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew; Wiser, Ryan; Porter, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    it to traditional utility planning. We then summarize theCoordination of utility transmission planning efforts helpedof planning for reliability across multiple utilities.

  8. Incorporating Energy Efficiency into Western Interconnection Transmission Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbose, Galen

    2014-01-01

    Association. 2010. Improving Energy Efficiency for Alberta’sStudy. Nexant. 2010. NorthWestern Energy Assessmentof Energy Efficiency Potentials (2010-2029). Quantec. 2007.

  9. Incorporating Energy Efficiency into Western Interconnection Transmission Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbose, Galen

    2014-01-01

    2010. Improving Energy Efficiency for Alberta’s IndustrialEnergy Assessment of Energy Efficiency Potentials (2010-2010. Improving Energy Efficiency for Alberta’s Industrial

  10. Incorporating Energy Efficiency into Western Interconnection Transmission Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbose, Galen

    2014-01-01

    types of DSM resources: energy efficiency, demand response (with New Mexico’s energy efficiency resource standard. Theand Texas' energy efficiency resource standards. From 2022

  11. Incorporating Energy Efficiency into Western Interconnection Transmission Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbose, Galen

    2014-01-01

    Incorporating Demand Response into Western Interconnectiongeneration DR – demand response DSM – demand-side managementenergy efficiency, demand response (DR), and distributed

  12. Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative - Meeting Calendars |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-inPPLforLDRDEnergy Copyrights ASite ForResearch,The documentsCoP)List

  13. Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic A,

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergy HeadquartersFuelBConservationEnergy5975-01TransactionsDepartmentServices

  14. Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, Cooperation

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergy HeadquartersFuelBConservationEnergy5975-01TransactionsDepartmentServicesAmong States

  15. Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, Cooperation

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergy HeadquartersFuelBConservationEnergy5975-01TransactionsDepartmentServicesAmong

  16. Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, State

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergy HeadquartersFuelBConservationEnergy5975-01TransactionsDepartmentServicesAmongAgency

  17. Recovery Act Interconnection Transmission Planning | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram: Report Appendices |ProjectKnow Your

  18. Implications of Model Configurations on Capacity Planning Decisions: Scenario Case Studies of the Western Interconnection and Colorado Region using the Resource Planning Model

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In this report, we analyze the impacts of model configuration and detail in capacity expansion models, computational tools used by utility planners looking to find the least cost option for planning the system and by researchers or policy makers attempting to understand the effects of various policy implementations. The present analysis focuses on the importance of model configurations—particularly those related to capacity credit, dispatch modeling, and transmission modeling—to the construction of scenario futures. Our analysis is primarily directed toward advanced tools used for utility planning and is focused on those impacts that are most relevant to decisions with respect to future renewable capacity deployment. To serve this purpose, we develop and employ the NREL Resource Planning Model to conduct a case study analysis that explores 12 separate capacity expansion scenarios of the Western Interconnection through 2030.

  19. Value-based reliability transmission planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dalton, J.G. III; Garrison, D.L.; Fallon, C.M.

    1996-08-01

    This paper presents a new value-based reliability planning (VBRP) process proposed for planning Duke Power Company`s (DPC) regional transmission system. All transmission served customers are fed from DPC`s regional transmission system which consists of a 44-kV predominantly radial system and a 100-kV predominantly non-radial system. In the past, any single contingency that could occur during system peak conditions and cause a thermal overload required the overloaded facility to be upgraded, regardless of the costs or the likelihood of the overload occurring. The new VBRP process is based on transmission system reliability evaluation and includes the following important elements: (1) a ten-year historical data base describing the probabilities of forced outages for lines and transformers; (2) a five-year average load duration curve describing the probability of an overload should a contingency occur; (3) a customer outage cost data base; (4) and probabilistic techniques. The new process attempts to balance the costs of improving service reliability with the benefits or value that these improvements bring to these customers. The objective is to provide the customers their required level of reliability while minimizing the Total Cost of their electric service.

  20. Energy-water analysis of the 10-year WECC transmission planning study cases.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Passell, Howard David; Castillo, Cesar; Moreland, Barbara

    2011-11-01

    In 2011 the Department of Energy's Office of Electricity embarked on a comprehensive program to assist our Nation's three primary electric interconnections with long term transmission planning. Given the growing concern over water resources in the western U.S. the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) requested assistance with integrating water resource considerations into their broader electric transmission planning. The result is a project with three overarching objectives: (1) Develop an integrated Energy-Water Decision Support System (DSS) that will enable planners in the Western Interconnection to analyze the potential implications of water stress for transmission and resource planning. (2) Pursue the formulation and development of the Energy-Water DSS through a strongly collaborative process between the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC), Western Governors Association (WGA), the Western States Water Council (WSWC) and their associated stakeholder teams. (3) Exercise the Energy-Water DSS to investigate water stress implications of the transmission planning scenarios put forward by WECC, WGA, and WSWC. The foundation for the Energy-Water DSS is Sandia National Laboratories Energy-Power-Water Simulation (EPWSim) model (Tidwell et al. 2009). The modeling framework targets the shared needs of energy and water producers, resource managers, regulators, and decision makers at the federal, state and local levels. This framework provides an interactive environment to explore trade-offs, and 'best' alternatives among a broad list of energy/water options and objectives. The decision support framework is formulated in a modular architecture, facilitating tailored analyses over different geographical regions and scales (e.g., state, county, watershed, interconnection). An interactive interface allows direct control of the model and access to real-time results displayed as charts, graphs and maps. The framework currently supports modules for calculating water withdrawal and consumption for current and planned electric power generation; projected water demand from competing use sectors; and, surface and groundwater availability. WECC's long range planning is organized according to two target planning horizons, a 10-year and a 20-year. This study supports WECC in the 10-year planning endeavor. In this case the water implications associated with four of WECC's alternative future study cases (described below) are calculated and reported. In future phases of planning we will work with WECC to craft study cases that aim to reduce the thermoelectric footprint of the interconnection and/or limit production in the most water stressed regions of the West.

  1. Biennial Assessment of the Fifth Power Plan Transmission Issues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unscheduled electricity flows over transmission lines leading to increased risks to electric system-construction alternatives to transmission; · Inability to effectively monitor the wholesale electricity market, identifyBiennial Assessment of the Fifth Power Plan Transmission Issues INTRODUCTION The Fifth Power Plan

  2. Scheduling Planned Maintenance of Electrical Power Transmission Networks Using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Thomas

    Scheduling Planned Maintenance of Electrical Power Transmission Networks Using Genetic Algorithms Technical Report: CSRP­97­26 10 November 1997 Abstract The maintenance of the electrical power transmission Plan­ ning, Electricity Transmission Networks. 1 To appear in In Gennady K. Voronovsky and Serguey A

  3. Energy and water in the Western and Texas interconnects.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll

    2010-08-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of Electricity has initiated a $60M program to assist the electric industry in interconnection-level analysis and planning. The objective of this effort is to facilitate the development or strengthening of capabilities in each of the three interconnections serving the lower 48 states of the United States, to prepare analyses of transmission requirements under a broad range of alternative futures and develop long-term interconnection-wide transmission expansion plans. The interconnections are the Western Interconnection, the Eastern Interconnection, and the Texas Interconnection. One element of this program address the support and development of an integrated energy-water Decision Support System (DSS) that will enable planners in the Western and Texas Interconnections to analyze the potential implications of water stress for transmission and resource planning (the Eastern Interconnection is not participating in this element). Specific objectives include: (1) Develop an integrated Energy-Water Decision Support System (DSS) that will enable planners in the Western and Texas Interconnections to analyze the potential implications of water stress for transmission and resource planning. (2) Pursue the formulation and development of the Energy-Water DSS through a strongly collaborative process between members of this proposal team and the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC), Western Governors Association (WGA), the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) and their associated stakeholder teams. (3) Exercise the Energy-Water DSS to investigate water stress implications of the transmission planning scenarios put forward by WECC, WGA, and ERCOT. The goals of this project are: (1) Develop an integrated Energy-Water Decision Support System (DSS) that will enable planners to analyze the potential implications of water stress for transmission and resource planning. (2) Pursue the formulation and development of the Energy-Water DSS through a strongly collaborative process between Western Electricity Coordinating Council, Electric Reliability Council of Texas, Western Governors Association, and Western States Water Council. (3) Exercise the Energy-Water DSS to investigate water transmission planning scenarios.

  4. The Cost of Transmission for Wind Energy: A Review of Transmission Planning Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew D.

    2009-01-01

    Transmission Cost Incremental Generation as Only BeneficiaryUnit of Incremental Generation Equipment Cost Assumptions2003 Least Cost Resource Plan Wind Generation. Xcel Energy

  5. Transmission investment and expansion planning in a restructured electricity market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Cheong

    Transmission investment and expansion planning in a restructured electricity market F.F Wua,b , F.L. Zhengb,c , F.S. Wena,b, * a Center for Electrical Energy Systems, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Guangzhou, 510640, China Abstract Transmission planning in a restructured electricity market becomes

  6. Transmission Expansion Planning with Re-design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-05-17

    Expanding an electrical transmission network requires heavy investments that ... would be too complex to handle, electrical transmission and energy genera- ... Our new modelling introduces more flexibility and is general, in the sense that it ...

  7. Beta Test Plan for Advanced Inverters Interconnecting Distributed Resources with Electric Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoke, A.; Chakraborty, S.; Basso, T.; Coddington, M.

    2014-01-01

    This document provides a preliminary (beta) test plan for grid interconnection systems of advanced inverter-based DERs. It follows the format and methodology/approach established by IEEE Std 1547.1, while incorporating: 1. Upgraded tests for responses to abnormal voltage and frequency, and also including ride-through. 2. A newly developed test for voltage regulation, including dynamic response testing. 3. Modified tests for unintentional islanding, open phase, and harmonics to include testing with the advanced voltage and frequency response functions enabled. Two advanced inverters, one single-phase and one three-phase, were tested under the beta test plan. These tests confirmed the importance of including tests for inverter dynamic response, which varies widely from one inverter to the next.

  8. NREL: Transmission Grid Integration - Transmission Planning and Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines lightGeospatial ToolkitSMARTS -BeingFutureResearch StaffTransmission

  9. Improving Electricity Resource-Planning Processes by Considering the Strategic Benefits of Transmission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Budhraja, Vikram

    2010-01-01

    Upgrading California’s Electric Transmission System: Issuesshould be adapted to transmission electric system planning,Mobasheri, (Electric Power Group, LLC). 2008. Transmission

  10. Generation and transmission expansion planning for renewable energy integration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bent, Russell W; Berscheid, Alan; Toole, G. Loren

    2010-11-30

    In recent years the expansion planning problem has become increasingly complex. As expansion planning (sometimes called composite or integrated resource planning) is a non-linear and non-convex optimization problem, researchers have traditionally focused on approximate models of power flows to solve the problem. The problem has also been split into generation expansion planning (GEP) and transmission network expansion planning (TNEP) to improve computational tractability. Until recently these approximations have produced results that are straight-forward to combine and adapt to the more complex and complete problem. However, the power grid is evolving towards a state where the adaptations are no longer easy (e.g. large amounts of limited control, renewable generation, comparable generation and transmission construction costs) and necessitates new approaches. Recent work on deterministic Discrepancy Bounded Local Search (DBLS) has shown it to be quite effective in addressing the TNEP. In this paper, we propose a generalization of DBLS to handle simultaneous generation and transmission planning.

  11. AC transmission system planning choosing lines from a discrete set

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbertson, Eric W.

    2013-04-24

    Transmission system planning (TSP) is a difficult nonlinear optimization problem involving non-convex quadratic terms, as well as discrete variables. We extend prior results for linear relaxations, drawing on a preliminary ...

  12. A CRITICAL REVIEW OF WIND TRANSMISSION COST ESTIMATES FROM MAJOR TRANSMISSION PLANNING EFFORTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew; Wiser, Ryan; Porter, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    179c/179c9e0086c0.pdf National Wind CoordinatingTransmission Planning and Wind Energy. Issue Brief. August.and Renewable Energy, Wind & Hydropower Technologies Program

  13. EIS-0129: New England/Hydro-Quebec 450 kV Transmission Line Interconnection- Phase II

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Economic Regulatory Administration issued this EIS to explore the impacts of amending Presidential Permit PP-76 to allow the Vermont Electrical Company to operate at power levels above those stipulated in the permit and to build additional transmission facilities to distribute the increased power. Phase I of this project is detailed in EIS-0103.

  14. EIS-0141: Washington Water Power/B.C. Hydro Transmission Interconnection Project

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The U.S. Department of Energy developed this statement to evaluate the environmental impacts of constructing and operating a double-circuit 230-kilovolt electrical transmission line that would link the electrical systems of the Washington Water Power Company and the British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority.

  15. EIS-0103: New England/Hydro-Quebec 450-kV Direct Current Transmission Line Interconnection

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Economic Regulatory Administration prepared this statement to evaluate the environmental impacts of the construction, maintenance, and operation of a 57-mile transmission line from Monroe, New Hampshire, to the U.S./Canadian border for the purpose of economic exchange of power and increased reliability. Phase 2 of this project is detailed in EIS-0129.

  16. RAPID/Geothermal/Transmission Siting & Interconnection/Utah | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onRAPID/Geothermal/Exploration/Colorado < RAPID‎RAPID/Geothermal/LandInformation Transmission Siting &

  17. Transmission planning in the era of integrated resource planning: A survey of recent cases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baldick, R.; Kahn, E.P.

    1992-09-01

    State action is critical to the expansion of the high-voltage transmission network, because regulated utilities must seek approval from utility commissions for proposals to site new lines. It is the purpose of this report to survey the regulatory treatment of issues that are unique to or ubiquitous in transmission planning and use. The authors review recent transmission siting cases to examine how the issues are presented to and resolved by state regulatory commissions and to provide a perspective for more general discussion of transmission policy. Their primary focus is on planning issues. Transmission capacity expansion is not typically treated in integrated resource planning. It is usually assumed that there is adequate transmission to achieve any particular plan. The authors believe that one important reason for this omission is the inherent complexity of transmission system expansion. Regulators and competitors may be at a serious disadvantage in negotiating or adjudicating specific transmission proposals with utilities, who generally have greater knowledge of both general technological considerations and case specifics. This problem of asymmetric information must be addressed at some level in planning or dispute resolution. However, they observe that explicit consideration of the information problem is absent from most regulatory and technical analysis of transmission. The goal of this survey is to share knowledge about the problems facing state regulators over the siting of new transmission facilities, and help to define constructive approaches to them.

  18. Transmission network expansion planning with simulation optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bent, Russell W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Berscheid, Alan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Toole, G. Loren [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Within the electric power literatW''e the transmi ssion expansion planning problem (TNEP) refers to the problem of how to upgrade an electric power network to meet future demands. As this problem is a complex, non-linear, and non-convex optimization problem, researchers have traditionally focused on approximate models. Often, their approaches are tightly coupled to the approximation choice. Until recently, these approximations have produced results that are straight-forward to adapt to the more complex (real) problem. However, the power grid is evolving towards a state where the adaptations are no longer easy (i.e. large amounts of limited control, renewable generation) that necessitates new optimization techniques. In this paper, we propose a generalization of the powerful Limited Discrepancy Search (LDS) that encapsulates the complexity in a black box that may be queJied for information about the quality of a proposed expansion. This allows the development of a new optimization algOlitlun that is independent of the underlying power model.

  19. The Cost of Transmission for Wind Energy: A Review of Transmission Planning Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, Andrew D.; Wiser, Ryan; Porter, Kevin

    2009-02-02

    The rapid development of wind power that the United States has experienced over the last several years has been coupled with a growing concern that wind development will require substantial additions to the nation's transmission infrastructure. Transmission is particularly important for wind power due to the locational dependence of wind resources, the relatively low capacity factor of wind plants, and the mismatch between the short lead time to build a new wind project and the longer lead time often needed to plan, permit, and construct transmission. It is clear that institutional issues related to transmission planning, siting, and cost allocation will pose major obstacles to accelerated wind power deployment, but also of concern is the potential cost of this infrastructure build out. Simply put, how much extra cost will society bear to deliver wind power to load centers? Without an answer to this question, there can be no consensus on whether or not the cost of developing transmission for wind will be a major barrier to further wind deployment, or whether the institutional barriers to transmission expansion are likely to be of more immediate concern. In this report, we review a sample of 40 detailed transmission studies that have included wind power. These studies cover a broad geographic area, and were completed from 2001-2008. Our primary goal in reviewing these studies is to develop a better understanding of the transmission costs needed to access growing quantities of wind generation. A secondary goal is to gain a better appreciation of the differences in transmission planning approaches in order to identify those methodologies that seem most able to estimate the incremental transmission costs associated with wind development. Finally, we hope that the resulting dataset and discussion might be used to inform the assumptions, methods, and results of higher-level assessment models that are sometimes used to estimate the cost of wind deployment (e.g. NEMS and WinDS). The authors and general location of the 40 detailed transmission studies included in our review are illustrated in Figure ES-1. As discussed in the body of the report, these studies vary considerably in scope, authorship, objectives, methodology, and tools. Though we recognize this diversity and are cognizant that comparisons among these studies are therefore somewhat inappropriate, we nonetheless emphasize such simple comparisons in this report. We do so in order to improve our understanding of the range of transmission costs needed to access greater quantities of wind, and to highlight some of the drivers of those costs. In so doing, we gloss over many important details and differences among the studies in our sample. In emphasizing simple comparisons, our analysis focuses primarily on the unit cost of transmission implied by each of the studies. The unit cost of transmission for wind in $/kW terms on a capacity-weighted basis is estimated by simply dividing the total transmission cost in a study by the total amount of incremental generation capacity (wind and non-wind) modeled in that study. In so doing, this metric assumes that within any individual study all incremental generation capacity imposes transmission costs in proportion to its nameplate capacity rating. The limitations to this approach are described in some detail in the body of the report.

  20. California's electricity system of the future scenario analysis in support of public-interest transmission system R&D planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eto, Joseph; Stovall, John P.

    2003-01-01

    The Future of Electric Transmission in the United States.Environmental Impacts of Electric Transmission In order toTransmission R&D Planning Underwater application of electric

  1. Interconnection Panel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation—given at at the Fall 2012 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting—discusses the interconnection panel, including an overview of the generation interconnection process (GIP), and interconnection agreements and their terms.

  2. Survey of Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Mudd, C.; Rogers, J.

    2011-02-01

    The report presents transmission cost allocation methodologies for reliability transmission projects, generation interconnection, and economic transmission projects for all Regional Transmission Organizations.

  3. Transmission Planning Process and Opportunities for Utility-Scale Solar Engagement within the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hein, J.; Hurlbut, D.; Milligan, M.; Coles, L.; Green, B.

    2011-11-01

    This report is a primer for solar developers who wish to engage directly in expediting the regulatory process and removing market barriers related to policy and planning. Market barriers unrelated to technology often limit the expansion of utility-scale solar power, even in areas with exceptional resource potential. Many of these non-technical barriers have to do with policy, regulation, and planning, and hardly ever do they resolve themselves in a timely fashion. In most cases, pre-emptive intervention by interested stakeholders is the easiest way to remove/address such barriers, but it requires knowing how to navigate the institutional waters of the relevant agencies and boards. This report is a primer for solar developers who wish to engage directly in expediting the regulatory process and removing market barriers related to policy and planning. It focuses on the Western Interconnection (WI), primarily because the quality of solar resources in the Southwest makes utility-scale concentrating solar power (CSP) and photovoltaics (PV) economically feasible, and because the relevant institutions have evolved in a way that has opened up opportunities for removing non-technical market barriers. Developers will find in this report a high-level field manual to identify the venues for mitigating and possibly eliminating systemic market obstacles and ensuring that the economic playing field is reasonably level. Project-specific issues such as siting for transmission and generation resources are beyond the scope of this report. Instead, the aim is to examine issues that pervasively affect all utility-scale PV and CSP in the region regardless of where the project may be. While the focus is on the WI, many of the institutions described here also have their counterparts in the Eastern and the Texas interconnections. Specifically, this report suggests a number of critical engagement points relating to generation and transmission planning.

  4. A CRITICAL REVIEW OF WIND TRANSMISSION COST ESTIMATES FROM MAJOR TRANSMISSION PLANNING EFFORTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew; Wiser, Ryan; Porter, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    Generation Outlet Electric Transmission Study. May.Identifying Minnesota’s Electric Transmission InfrastructureGeneration Outlet Electric Transmission Study Xcel-31A

  5. The Cost of Transmission for Wind Energy: A Review of Transmission Planning Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew D.

    2009-01-01

    additional transmission costs to new electricity generators,additional transmission costs to new electricity generators,Electricity Coordinating Council / California - 13 transmission

  6. The Cost of Transmission for Wind Energy: A Review of Transmission Planning Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew D.

    2009-01-01

    building transmission to meet peak wind conditions during peak transmission usage periods, and the magnitude of curtailment may be small

  7. Record of Decision for the Electrical Interconnection of the Windy Point Wind Energy Project.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-11-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has decided to offer contract terms for interconnection of 250 megawatts (MW) of power to be generated by the proposed Windy Point Wind Energy Project (Wind Project) into the Federal Columbia River Transmission System (FCRTS). Windy Point Partners, LLC (WPP) propose to construct and operate the proposed Wind Project and has requested interconnection to the FCRTS. The Wind Project will be interconnected at BPA's Rock Creek Substation, which is under construction in Klickitat County, Washington. The Rock Creek Substation will provide transmission access for the Wind Project to BPA's Wautoma-John Day No.1 500-kilovolt (kV) transmission line. BPA's decision to offer terms to interconnect the Wind Project is consistent with BPA's Business Plan Final Environmental Impact Statement (BP EIS) (DOE/EIS-0183, June 1995), and the Business Plan Record of Decision (BP ROD, August 15, 1995). This decision thus is tiered to the BP ROD.

  8. Optimal Planning and Operation of Smart Grids with Electric Vehicle Interconnection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Planning and Operation of Smart Grids with Electric VehiclePlanning and Operation of Smart Grids with Electric Vehicleenergy costs at the smart grid or commercial building due to

  9. The Cost of Transmission for Wind Energy: A Review of Transmission Planning Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew D.

    2009-01-01

    in Transmission Service. ” Washington, D.C. : Federal EnergyNational Transmission Grid Study. Washington, D.C. : U.S.California Transmission Options Study NTAC - 2A Submarine DC

  10. A CRITICAL REVIEW OF WIND TRANSMISSION COST ESTIMATES FROM MAJOR TRANSMISSION PLANNING EFFORTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew; Wiser, Ryan; Porter, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    A CRITICAL REVIEW OF WIND TRANSMISSION COST ESTIMATES FROMof establishing a wind transmission cost adder with respectthat involve wind and divide the cost by the relative share

  11. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    West Virginia's interconnection standards include two levels of review. The qualifications and application fees for each level are as follows:...

  12. The Cost of Transmission for Wind Energy: A Review of Transmission Planning Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew D.

    2009-01-01

    Generation and Transmission and Western Area Power Administration Clean and Diversified Energy Advisory Committee (CDEAC) Transmission Task Force NorthWestern Energy ElectricGeneration and Transmission and Western Area Power Administration Clean and Diversified Energy Advisory Committee (CDEAC) Transmission Task Force NorthWestern Energy Electric

  13. The transmission dynamics of syphilis and the CDC's elimination plan Romulus Breban1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blower, Sally

    1 The transmission dynamics of syphilis and the CDC's elimination plan Romulus Breban1 , Virginie that their control strategies will be effective it is important to understand the transmission dynamics of syphilis), and the analysis of a syphilis transmission model. We use spectral analysis to reanalyze the CDC's data set

  14. Transmission Commercial Project Integration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Market Generator Interconnection Reform Implementation Network Integration Transmission Service (NT Service) Network Open Season (NOS) PTSA Reform North American Energy...

  15. The Cost of Transmission for Wind Energy: A Review of Transmission Planning Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew D.

    2009-01-01

    on U.S. Wind Power Installation, Cost, and PerformanceTransmission ($/kW-wind) Unit Cost (Capacity-weighted) Windof Transmission ($/MWh- wind) Unit Cost (Capacity-weighted)

  16. The Cost of Transmission for Wind Energy: A Review of Transmission Planning Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew D.

    2009-01-01

    Annual Report on U.S. Wind Power Installation, Cost, andcost of transmission implied by this study is $207/kW-wind (U.S.lead us to overstate the unit cost of transmission for wind.

  17. The Cost of Transmission for Wind Energy: A Review of Transmission Planning Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew D.

    2009-01-01

    NREL/CP-500-35969. Global WindPower Conference. Chicago,Transmission Projects. ” Windpower 2007 Conference. Los

  18. The Cost of Transmission for Wind Energy: A Review of Transmission Planning Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew D.

    2009-01-01

    Mexico to Arizona January 2008 SWAT Transmission to access renewable resource zones in Arizona NorthWestern Energy

  19. The Cost of Transmission for Wind Energy: A Review of Transmission Planning Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew D.

    2009-01-01

    2006. Transmission and Wind Energy: Capturing the Prevailingand Renewable Energy (Wind & Hydropower Technologiesand Renewable Energy Wind & Hydropower Technologies Program

  20. A CRITICAL REVIEW OF WIND TRANSMISSION COST ESTIMATES FROM MAJOR TRANSMISSION PLANNING EFFORTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew; Wiser, Ryan; Porter, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    transmission upgrades do not involve building new lines, such as DCD.C. , June. Available at: http://www.eei.org/industry_issues/energy_infrastructure/transmission/DC converters between links. Traditionally, utilities have been responsible for ensuring that the local transmission

  1. Capricious Cables: Understanding the Key Concepts in Transmission Expansion Planning and Its Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donohoo, P.; Milligan, M.

    2014-06-01

    The extra-high-voltage transmission network is the bulk transport network of the electric power system. To understand how the future power system may react to planning decisions today, wide-area transmission models are increasingly used to aid decision makers and stakeholders. The goal of this work is to illuminate these models for a broader audience that may include policy makers or relative newcomers to the field of transmission planning. This paper explains the basic transmission expansion planning model formulation. It highlights six of the major simplifications made in transmission expansion planning models and the resulting need to contextualize model results using knowledge from other models and knowledge not captured in the modeling process.

  2. Interconnection Guidelines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Rocky Mountain Power (PacifiCorp) has developed an interconnection application for net metering. All other electric utilities in Wyoming -- investor-owned utilities and rural electric associations...

  3. Interconnection Guidelines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The state's utilities independently developed interconnection agreements for distributed generation (DG) prior to the ACC's ongoing proceeding to establish statewide standards. The Salt River...

  4. Microsoft Word - DOE RFI on Transmission Planning - PGE Comments...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    California. PG&E engages in the businesses of electricity and natural gas distribution, electricity generation, procurement and transmission, and natural gas procurement,...

  5. The Cost of Transmission for Wind Energy: A Review of Transmission Planning Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew D.

    2009-01-01

    Estimates of Congestion Costs. The Electricity Journal 17,Incremental Transmission Costs Due to Wind Power. Rockville,and Intermittency Really Cost? Supply Curves for Electricity

  6. The Role of Demand Resources In Regional Transmission Expansion Planning and Reliable Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, Brendan J

    2006-07-01

    Investigating the role of demand resources in regional transmission planning has provided mixed results. On one hand there are only a few projects where demand response has been used as an explicit alternative to transmission enhancement. On the other hand there is a fair amount of demand response in the form of energy efficiency, peak reduction, emergency load shedding, and (recently) demand providing ancillary services. All of this demand response reduces the need for transmission enhancements. Demand response capability is typically (but not always) factored into transmission planning as a reduction in the load which must be served. In that sense demand response is utilized as an alternative to transmission expansion. Much more demand response is used (involuntarily) as load shedding under extreme conditions to prevent cascading blackouts. The amount of additional transmission and generation that would be required to provide the current level of reliability if load shedding were not available is difficult to imagine and would be impractical to build. In a very real sense demand response solutions are equitably treated in every region - when proposed, demand response projects are evaluated against existing reliability and economic criteria. The regional councils, RTOs, and ISOs identify needs. Others propose transmission, generation, or responsive load based solutions. Few demand response projects get included in transmission enhancement plans because few are proposed. But this is only part of the story. Several factors are responsible for the current very low use of demand response as a transmission enhancement alternative. First, while the generation, transmission, and load business sectors each deal with essentially the same amount of electric power, generation and transmission companies are explicitly in the electric power business but electricity is not the primary business focus of most loads. This changes the institutional focus of each sector. Second, market and reliability rules have, understandably, been written around the capabilities and limitations of generators, the historic reliability resources. Responsive load limitations and capabilities are often not accommodated in markets or reliability criteria. Third, because of the institutional structure, demand response alternatives are treated as temporary solutions that can delay but not replace transmission enhancement. Financing has to be based on a three to five year project life as opposed to the twenty to fifty year life of transmission facilities. More can be done to integrate demand response options into transmission expansion planning. Given the societal benefits it may be appropriate for independent transmission planning organizations to take a more proactive role in drawing demand response alternatives into the resource mix. Existing demand response programs provide a technical basis to build from. Regulatory and market obstacles will have to be overcome if demand response alternatives are to be routinely considered in transmission expansion planning.

  7. Interconnection networks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Faber, V.; Moore, J.W.

    1988-06-20

    A network of interconnected processors is formed from a vertex symmetric graph selected from graphs GAMMA/sub d/(k) with degree d, diameter k, and (d + 1)exclamation/ (d /minus/ k + 1)exclamation processors for each d greater than or equal to k and GAMMA/sub d/(k, /minus/1) with degree d /minus/ 1, diameter k + 1, and (d + 1)exclamation/(d /minus/ k + 1)exclamation processors for each d greater than or equal to k greater than or equal to 4. Each processor has an address formed by one of the permutations from a predetermined sequence of letters chosen a selected number of letters at a time, and an extended address formed by appending to the address the remaining ones of the predetermined sequence of letters. A plurality of transmission channels is provided from each of the processors, where each processor has one less channel than the selected number of letters forming the sequence. Where a network GAMMA/sub d/(k, /minus/1) is provided, no processor has a channel connected to form an edge in a direction delta/sub 1/. Each of the channels has an identification number selected from the sequence of letters and connected from a first processor having a first extended address to a second processor having a second address formed from a second extended address defined by moving to the front of the first extended address the letter found in the position within the first extended address defined by the channel identification number. The second address is then formed by selecting the first elements of the second extended address corresponding to the selected number used to form the address permutations. 9 figs.

  8. Transmission System Expansion Plans in View Point of Deterministic, Probabilistic and Security Reliability Criteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Transmission System Expansion Plans in View Point of Deterministic, Probabilistic and Security reliability criterion, probabilistic reliability criterion and security criterion based on N- contingency control system as well as reasonable strength of grid originally. Because investment for power system

  9. Department of Industrial Engineering Fall 2011 Transmission Component Reverse Engineering and Process Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    PENNSTATE Department of Industrial Engineering Fall 2011 Transmission Component Reverse Engineering to fabricate the parts in the Industrial Engineering Department Factory for Advanced Manufacturing Education of the transmission to reverse engineer and develop process plans for efficient fabrication in a low volume setting

  10. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Fees for interconnection requests increase with each Level. A Level 1 request must submit $50 fee; a Level 2 request must submit a fee of $50 plus $1/kW of generator capacity; a Level 3 request m...

  11. Interconnection Guidelines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Kansas adopted the Net Metering and Easy Connection Act in May 2009 (see K.S.A. 66-1263 through 66-1271), establishing interconnection guidelines and net metering for customer-owned generators.

  12. 1394 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 22, NO. 4, NOVEMBER 2007 Economic Criteria for Planning Transmission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oren, Shmuel S.

    for Planning Transmission Investment in Restructured Electricity Markets Enzo E. Sauma, Member, IEEE. In reality, however, since the impacts of an electricity transmission project on different players may vary that should be considered when planning electricity transmission investments. We propose an electricity

  13. Boardman to Hemingway Transmission Project

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Market Generator Interconnection Reform Implementation Network Integration Transmission Service (NT Service) Network Open Season (NOS) PTSA Reform North American Energy...

  14. Abstract--This paper proposes an optimization based method of planning reactive power control for electric transmission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Ratnesh

    for electric transmission systems to endow them with the capability of being reconfigured to a secure of the electric transmission system. There are three basic options for strengthening transmission systems: (1-term planning to strengthen transmission capability is necessary to increase future reliability levels

  15. Transmission/Resource Library/Planning | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al., 2013)OpenEnergyTrail Canyon GeothermalTransmissionLibrary/MOUPlanning

  16. Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan : Appendix E, Transmission Reinforcement Analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-04-01

    The purpose of this appendix to the draft environmental impact statement (EIS) report is to provide an update of the latest study work done on transmission system options for the Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan. Also included in the attachments to the EIS are 2 reports analyzing the voltage stability of the Puget Sound transmission system and a review by Power Technologies, Inc. of the BPA voltage stability analysis and reactive options. Five transmission line options and several reactive options are presently being considered as possible solutions to the PSAFRP by the Transmission Team. The first two line options would be built on new rights-of way adjacent (as much as possible) to existing corridors. The reactive options would optimize the existing transmission system capability by adding new stations for series capacitors and/or switchgear. The other three line options are rebuilds or upgrades of existing cross mountain transmission lines. These options are listed below and include a preliminary assessment of the additional transmission system reinforcement required to integrate the new facilities into the existing transmission system. Plans were designed to provide at least 500 MVAR reactive margin.

  17. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, John P.; Liu, Shu; Ibanez, Eduardo; Pennock, Ken; Reed, Gregory; Hanes, Spencer

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States.

  18. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study Full Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, John P.; Liu, Shu; Ibanez, Eduardo; Pennock, Ken; Reed, Gregory; Hanes, Spencer

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States.

  19. The Cost of Transmission for Wind Energy in the United States: A Review of Transmission Planning Studies.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    on U. S . Wind Power Installation, Cost, and Performance30% wind penetration. Wind transmission costs in the severalof Transmission ($/kW-wind) Unit Cost of Transmission ($/

  20. Engineering. Interconnection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aziz, Adnan

    Networks Digital System Design 9 of 19 ' & $ % Systems Analysis of a Multicomputer Node See Figure 1. Controlled by the partitioning and topology of the system Interconnection Networks Digital System Design 11' & $ % Digital System Design Adnan Aziz The University of Texas Reference: #15; Digital Systems

  1. 40 Gb/s Data Transmission Over a 1 m Long Multimode Polymer Spiral Waveguide for Board-Level Optical Interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bamiedakis, Nikolaos; Chen, Jian; Westbergh, Petter; Gustavsson, Johan S.; Larsson, Anders; Penty, Richard V.; White, Ian H.

    2014-11-20

    and input offsets: (a) ?x = 0 ?m and (b) ?x = +8 ?m. responses. This observation illustrates an important trade-off in waveguide layout design as the use of relatively lossy waveguide bends might offer improved bandwidth performance at the cost of some... ,” Appl. Phys. A, Mater. Sci. Process., vol. 89, pp. 221–223, 2007. [22] J. A. Conway, S. Sahni, and T. Szkopek, “Plasmonic interconnects versus conventional interconnects: A comparison of latency, crosstalk and energy costs,” Opt. Exp., vol. 15, pp. 4474...

  2. 1620 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 27, NO. 3, JULY 2012 Hybrid AC/DC Transmission Expansion Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fu, Yong

    1620 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 27, NO. 3, JULY 2012 Hybrid AC/DC Transmission--This paper proposes a hybrid algorithm for the ac/dc transmission expansion planning (TEP). The stochastic simulation method would consider random outages of generating units and ac/dc transmission lines as well

  3. Title 16 USC 824a Interconnection and Coordination of Facilities...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Title 16 USC 824a Interconnection and Coordination of Facilities, Emergencies, Transmission to Foreign Countries Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  4. National Electric Transmission Congestion Study Webinars | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Services Electricity Policy Coordination and Implementation Transmission Planning National Electric Transmission Congestion Study National Electric Transmission...

  5. Audit Report - Department of Energy's Interconnection Transmission Planning Program Funded through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram:Y-12Power, Inc | DepartmentPeer ReviewEfficiencyOct 1, 20116 Audit

  6. Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fink, S.; Rogers, J.; Porter, K.

    2010-07-01

    This report describes transmission cost allocation methodologies for transmission projects developed to maintain or enhance reliability, to interconnect new generators, or to access new resources and enhance competitive bulk power markets, otherwise known as economic transmission projects.

  7. Improving Electricity Resource-Planning Processes by Considering the Strategic Benefits of Transmission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Budhraja, Vikram

    2010-01-01

    impacts of new electricity transmission projects generallyof high- voltage electricity transmission projects, such asby others. Electricity transmission facilities fit these

  8. Transmission Constraints and Congestion in the Western and Eastern...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Congestion in the Western and Eastern Interconnections, 2009-2012 (January 2014) Transmission Constraints and Congestion in the Western and Eastern Interconnections, 2009-2012...

  9. Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS): Hawaiian...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS): Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS): Hawaiian Islands...

  10. Electrical interconnect

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frost, John S.; Brandt, Randolph J.; Hebert, Peter; Al Taher, Omar

    2015-10-06

    An interconnect includes a first set of connector pads, a second set of connector pads, and a continuous central portion. A first plurality of legs extends at a first angle from the continuous central portion. Each leg of the first plurality of legs is connected to a connector pad of a first set of connector pads. A second plurality of legs extends at a second angle from the continuous central portion. Each leg of the second plurality of legs is connected to a connector pad of the second set of connector pads. Gaps are defined between legs. The gaps enable movement of the first set of connector pads relative to the second set of connector pads.

  11. Transmission

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired SolarAbout / Transforming Y-12 Transforming Y-12ComplexTransmission

  12. Transmission Reassignment Reporting Requirement - April 2, 2014

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Interconnection Notices Rates Standards of Conduct Tariff TF Web Based Training Transmission Reassignment Reporting Requirement This notice serves as a reminder to transmission...

  13. Interconnected semiconductor devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grimmer, Derrick P. (White Bear Lake, MN); Paulson, Kenneth R. (North St. Paul, MN); Gilbert, James R. (St. Paul, MN)

    1990-10-23

    Semiconductor layer and conductive layer formed on a flexible substrate, divided into individual devices and interconnected with one another in series by interconnection layers and penetrating terminals.

  14. California Energy Commission Public Interest EnergyResearch/Energy System Integration -- Transmission-Planning Research&Development Scoping Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Lesieutre, Bernard; Widergren, Steven

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this Public Interest Energy Research (PIER)scoping project is to identify options for public-interest research and development (R&D) to improve transmission-planning tools, techniques, and methods. The information presented was gathered through a review of current California utility, California Independent System Operator (ISO), and related western states electricity transmission-planning activities and emerging needs. This report presents the project teams findings organized under six topic areas and identifies 17 distinct R&D activities to improve transmission-planning in California and the West. The findings in this report are intended for use, along with other materials, by PIER staff, to facilitate discussions with stakeholders that will ultimately lead to development of a portfolio of transmission-planning R&D activities for the PIER program.

  15. Renewable Electricity Futures Study Volume 4: Bulk Electric Power Systems: Operations and Transmission Planning

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This volume focuses on the role of variable renewable generation in creating challenges to the planning and operations of power systems and the expansion of transmission to deliver electricity from remote resources to load centers. The technical and institutional changes to power systems that respond to these challenges are, in many cases, underway, driven by the economic benefits of adopting more modern communication, information, and computation technologies that offer significant operational cost savings and improved asset utilization. While this volume provides background information and numerous references, the reader is referred to the literature for more complete tutorials.

  16. Geothermal Power and Interconnection: The Economics of Getting to Market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hurlbut, D.

    2012-04-01

    This report provides a baseline description of the transmission issues affecting geothermal technologies. The report begins with a comprehensive overview of the grid, how it is planned, how it is used, and how it is paid for. The report then overlays onto this 'big picture' three types of geothermal technologies: conventional hydrothermal systems; emerging technologies such as enhanced engineered geothermal systems (EGS) and geopressured geothermal; and geothermal co-production with existing oil and gas wells. Each category of geothermal technology has its own set of interconnection issues, and these are examined separately for each. The report draws conclusions about each technology's market affinities as defined by factors related to transmission and distribution infrastructure. It finishes with an assessment of selected markets with known geothermal potential, identifying those that offer the best prospects for near-term commercial development and for demonstration projects.

  17. Feasibility studies of a power interconnection system for Central American countries: SIEPAC project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomez, T.; Enamorado, J.C. (Univ. Pontificia Comillas, Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Investigacion Tecnologica); Vela, A. (Empresa Nacional de Electricidad, Madrid (Spain))

    1994-06-01

    The electrical systems of the Central American countries are linked by 230 kV ac weak border interconnections forming two separated subsystems. The first one includes Guatemala and El Salvador, and the other one comprises the systems of Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. As a consequence, unrestricted energy exchanges among all countries are not possible. This article describes the SIEPAC project which consists of a 1,678 km long 500 kV ac power transmission line that would link the six electrical systems of the region through seven power substations (one for each country and two in Panama), installed close to the highest demand national centers and six control centers of energy (one for each country) to allow coordinated operation of the interconnection.This project also considers a set of complementary assets (230 ac power transmission lines into some countries and the border transmission line between El Salvador and Honduras, and various other equipment). The power transmission line will greatly reinforce the actual border interconnections, which have a reduced capacity of exchange and technical problems associated with the stability of a weak longitudinal system. On the other hand, economic savings for the region would be achieved, coming from a higher coordination level in the operation and planning of their systems.

  18. Renewable Resource Integration Project - Scoping Study of Strategic Transmission, Operations, and Reliability Issues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Budhraja, Vikram

    2008-01-01

    interconnection to the power grid, expansion of the between the  backbone power grid and transmission gateways, be interconnected to the power grid for eventual delivery 

  19. Steps to Establish a Real-Time Transmission Monitoring System...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Steps to Establish a Real-Time Transmission Monitoring System for Transmission Owners and Operators within the Eastern and Western Interconnections Steps to Establish a Real-Time...

  20. Systems Using Hardware-in-the-Loop: Part III -- Grid Interconnection...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    B.; Shirazi, M.; Coddington, M.; Kroposki, B. 24 POWER TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION; 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION ELECTRICITY; GRID; ICS; INTERCONNECTION;...

  1. Utility-Interconnected Photovoltaic Systems STEVENS III,JOHN...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    STEVENS III,JOHN W.; BONN,RUSSELL H.; GINN,JERRY W.; GONZALEZ,SIGIFREDO; KERN,GREG 14 SOLAR ENERGY; 24 POWER TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION; INTERCONNECTED POWER SYSTEMS;...

  2. Transmission Line Theory 51 MOTOROLAECLinPS and ECLinPS Lite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNeill, John A.

    Transmission Line Theory 5­1 MOTOROLAECLinPS and ECLinPS Lite DL140 -- Rev 3 SECTION 2 Transmission interconnects to determine if transmission line phenomena will occur. A handy rule of thumb to determine if an interconnect trace should be considered a transmission line is if the interconnect delay is greater than 1/8th

  3. Perforation patterned electrical interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frey, Jonathan

    2014-01-28

    This disclosure describes systems and methods for increasing the usable surface area of electrical contacts within a device, such as a thin film solid state device, through the implementation of electrically conductive interconnects. Embodiments described herein include the use of a plurality of electrically conductive interconnects that penetrate through a top contact layer, through one or more multiple layers, and into a bottom contact layer. The plurality of conductive interconnects may form horizontal and vertical cross-sectional patterns. The use of lasers to form the plurality of electrically conductive interconnects from reflowed layer material further aids in the manufacturing process of a device.

  4. National Electric Transmission Congestion Study

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    DOE U.S. Department of Energy DSIRE Database of State Incentives for Renewables & Efficiency EIA Energy Information Administration EISPC Eastern Interconnection States Planning...

  5. Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    The Keystone Center

    2005-06-15

    The Keystone Center convened and facilitated a year-long Dialogue on "Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions" to develop recommendations that will help address the difficult and contentious issues related to expansions of regional electric transmission systems that are needed for reliable and economic transmission of power within and across regions. This effort brought together a cross-section of affected stakeholders and thought leaders to address the problem with the collective wisdom of their experience and interests. Transmission owners sat at the table with consumer advocates and environmental organizations. Representatives from regional transmission organizations exchanged ideas with state and federal regulators. Generation developers explored common interests with public power suppliers. Together, the Dialogue participants developed consensus solutions about how to begin unraveling some of the more intractable issues surrounding identification of need, allocation of costs, and reaching consensus on siting issues that can frustrate the development of regional transmission infrastructure. The recommendations fall into three broad categories: 1. Recommendations on appropriate institutional arrangements and processes for achieving regional consensus on the need for new or expanded transmission infrastructure 2. Recommendations on the process for siting of transmission lines 3. Recommendations on the tools needed to support regional planning, cost allocation, and siting efforts. List of Dialogue participants: List of Dialogue Participants: American Electric Power American Transmission Company American Wind Energy Association California ISO Calpine Corporation Cinergy Edison Electric Institute Environmental Defense Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Great River Energy International Transmission Company ISO-New England Iowa Public Utility Board Kanner & Associates Midwest ISO National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners National Association of State Utility Consumer Advocates National Grid Northeast Utilities PA Office of Consumer Advocates Pacific Gas & Electric Corporation Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission PJM Interconnection The Electricity Consumers Resource Council U.S. Department of Energy US Department of the Interior Van Ness Feldman Western Interstate Energy Board Wind on the Wires Wisconsin Public Service Commission Xcel Energy

  6. Solar cell array interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, P.G.; Thompson, J.B.; Colella, N.J.; Williams, K.A.

    1995-11-14

    Electrical interconnects are disclosed for solar cells or other electronic components using a silver-silicone paste or a lead-tin (Pb-Sn) no-clean fluxless solder cream, whereby the high breakage of thin (<6 mil thick) solar cells using conventional solder interconnect is eliminated. The interconnects of this invention employs copper strips which are secured to the solar cells by a silver-silicone conductive paste which can be used at room temperature, or by a Pb-Sn solder cream which eliminates undesired residue on the active surfaces of the solar cells. Electrical testing using the interconnects of this invention has shown that no degradation of the interconnects developed under high current testing, while providing a very low contact resistance value. 4 figs.

  7. Solar cell array interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, Paul G. (Mountain View, CA); Thompson, Jesse B. (Brentwood, CA); Colella, Nicolas J. (Livermore, CA); Williams, Kenneth A. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    Electrical interconnects for solar cells or other electronic components using a silver-silicone paste or a lead-tin (Pb-Sn) no-clean fluxless solder cream, whereby the high breakage of thin (<6 mil thick) solar cells using conventional solder interconnect is eliminated. The interconnects of this invention employs copper strips which are secured to the solar cells by a silver-silicone conductive paste which can be used at room temperature, or by a Pb-Sn solder cream which eliminates undesired residue on the active surfaces of the solar cells. Electrical testing using the interconnects of this invention has shown that no degradation of the interconnects developed under high current testing, while providing a very low contact resistance value.

  8. Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan. Appendix E: Transmission Reinforcement Analysis : Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1991-09-01

    Five transmission line options and several reactive (voltage support) options are presently being considered as possible solutions to the PSAERP by the Transmission Team. The first two line options would be built on new rights-of way adjacent (as much as possible) to existing corridors. The reactive options would optimize the existing transmission system capability by adding new stations for series capacitors and/or switchgear. The other three line options are rebuilds or upgrades of existing cross mountain transmission lines. These options are listed below and include a preliminary assessment of the additional transmission system reinforcement required to integrate the new facilities into the existing transmission system. These options were derived from earlier study work that was summarized in Puget Sound Reinforcement Transmission Options'' and New Cross Mountain Transmission Line Alternative: The Crosstie'', which are attached. The initial Transmission Options study report recognized the value to system performance of adding an entirely new circuit rather than rebuilding an existing one. However, siting realities require that rebuild options be considered. Typically, the most attractive rebuild options would be the lowest capacity (lowest voltage) circuits. But because of corridor location, length and terminal proximity, the rebuild options listed below appear to be the most promising. Schematic diagrams and QV Curves of each option are also attached. It should be noted that Snoqualmie and Echo Lake refer to the same station east of Puget Sound and Naneum and Kittitas refer to the same station in the Ellensburg area. 100 figs., 20 tabs.

  9. Micro-fluidic interconnect

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Okandan, Murat (Albuquerque, NM); Galambos, Paul C. (Albuquerque, NM); Benavides, Gilbert L. (Los Ranchos, NM); Hetherington, Dale L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-02-28

    An apparatus for simultaneously aligning and interconnecting microfluidic ports is presented. Such interconnections are required to utilize microfluidic devices fabricated in Micro-Electromechanical-Systems (MEMS) technologies, that have multiple fluidic access ports (e.g. 100 micron diameter) within a small footprint, (e.g. 3 mm.times.6 mm). Fanout of the small ports of a microfluidic device to a larger diameter (e.g. 500 microns) facilitates packaging and interconnection of the microfluidic device to printed wiring boards, electronics packages, fluidic manifolds etc.

  10. Passive microfluidic interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jonnalagadda, Aparna S

    2005-01-01

    Equipment and procedures were developed to test two passive microfluidic interconnect rings held together by the friction forces on the contact surfaces. The second design forms fluid seals by means of thin flared rings ...

  11. Quantum Photonic Interconnect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jianwei Wang; Damien Bonneau; Matteo Villa; Joshua W. Silverstone; Raffaele Santagati; Shigehito Miki; Taro Yamashita; Mikio Fujiwara; Masahide Sasaki; Hirotaka Terai; Michael G. Tanner; Chandra M. Natarajan; Robert H. Hadfield; Jeremy L. O'Brien; Mark G. Thompson

    2015-09-26

    Integrated photonics has enabled much progress towards quantum technologies. Many applications, including quantum communication, sensing, and distributed and cloud quantum computing, will require coherent photonic interconnection between separate chip-based sub-systems. Large-scale quantum computing systems and architectures may ultimately require quantum interconnects to enable scaling beyond the limits of a single wafer and towards "multi-chip" systems. However, coherently interconnecting separate chips is challenging due to the fragility of these quantum states and the demanding challenges of transmitting photons in at least two media within a single coherent system. Distribution and manipulation of qubit entanglement between multiple devices is one of the most stringent requirements of the interconnected system. Here, we report a quantum photonic interconnect demonstrating high-fidelity entanglement distribution and manipulation between two separate chips, implemented using state-of-the-art silicon photonics. Path-entangled states are generated and manipulated on-chip, and distributed between the chips by interconverting between path-encoding and polarisation-encoding. We use integrated state analysers to confirm a Bell-type violation of $S$=2.638+-0.039 between two chips. With improvements in loss, this quantum interconnect will provide new levels of flexible systems and architectures for quantum technologies.

  12. Reliability of Electrical Interconnects (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devoto, D.

    2014-06-01

    This presentation discusses the status of NREL's research on the reliability of electrical interconnects.

  13. California's electricity system of the future scenario analysis in support of public-interest transmission system R&D planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eto, Joseph; Stovall, John P.

    2003-04-01

    The California Energy Commission directed the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions to analyze possible future scenarios for the California electricity system and assess transmission research and development (R&D) needs, with special emphasis on prioritizing public-interest R&D needs, using criteria developed by the Energy Commission. The scenarios analyzed in this report are not predictions, nor do they express policy preferences of the project participants or the Energy Commission. The public-interest R&D needs that are identified as a result of the analysis are one input that will be considered by the Energy Commission's Public Interest Energy Research staff in preparing a transmission R&D plan.

  14. California's electricity system of the future scenario analysis in support of public-interest transmission system R&D planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eto, Joseph; Stovall, John P.

    2003-01-01

    Impacts of Electricity Transmission Scenario Analysis forImpacts of Electricity Transmission Scenario Analysis forhas also commissioned Electricity Transmission Research and

  15. Electricity Advisory Committee Meeting Presentations October...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Processes Electricity Advisory Committee Meeting Presentations October 2011 - Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Processes Panel...

  16. Improving Electricity Resource-Planning Processes by Considering the Strategic Benefits of Transmission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Budhraja, Vikram

    2010-01-01

    renewable and fuel based), new transmission, and energy conservation. Extreme- Event Benefits (Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Consensus – Delphi Approach Assemble stakeholders Define societal benefitrenewable energy resources and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Incorporating more formal evaluations of these important benefits

  17. Improving Electricity Resource-Planning Processes by Consideringthe Strategic Benefits of Transmission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Budhraja, Vikram; Mobasheri, Fred; Ballance, John; Dyer, Jim; Silverstein, Alison; Eto, Joseph

    2009-03-02

    Current methods of evaluating the economic impacts of new electricity transmission projects fail to capture the many strategic benefits of these projects, such as those resulting from their long life, dynamic changes to the system, access to diverse fuels, and advancement of public policy goals to integrate renewable-energy resources and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

  18. Central American electrical interconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    A technical cooperation grant of $2.25 million, designed to strengthen the capacity of Central American countries to operate their regional interconnected electrical system, was announced by the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB). The grant, extended from the banks Fund for Special Operations, will help improve the capacity of the regions electric power companies to achieve economical, safe operation of the interconnected electric power systems. The funds will also be used to finance regional studies of the accords, procedures, regulations, and supervisory mechanisms for the system, as well as program development and data bases.

  19. Planning and processing of new or upgraded electric transmission systems in New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toole, Gasper Loren [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    RETA has been requested to identify and prioritize renewable energy resource zones in New Mexico that have a potential to support industry development among renewable energy developers for renewable resource generation projects. Moreover, Senate Memorial 44 requests that RETA identify and prioritize the best viable options for potential transmission corridors to accommodate renewable energy export from New Mexico in accordance with a defined time-line and to convene a working group to submit recommendations to the legislature for establishing a process to streamline procedures for establishing renewable energy transmission projects in New Mexico. RETA's July 9, 2009 request for comments outlined seven topical areas of specific value to Senate Memorial 44. This document addresses Topics 1, 3 and 4.

  20. Capillary interconnect device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Renzi, Ronald F

    2013-11-19

    An interconnecting device for connecting a plurality of first fluid-bearing conduits to a corresponding plurality of second fluid-bearing conduits thereby providing fluid communication between the first fluid-bearing conduits and the second fluid-bearing conduits. The device includes a manifold and one or two ferrule plates that are held by compressive axial forces.

  1. Reversible concentric ring microfluidic interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn, 1980-

    2004-01-01

    A reversible, Chip-to-Chip microfluidic interconnect was designed for use in high temperature, high pressure applications such as chemical microreactor systems. The interconnect uses two sets of concentric, interlocking ...

  2. Update Invalid Reservation Points for Transmission Service Requests...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Teams Customer Training Interconnection Notices Rates Standards of Conduct Tariff TF Web Based Training Update: Invalid Reservation Points for Transmission Service Requests on...

  3. OE Releases "Transmission Constraints and Congestion in the Western...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    "Transmission Constraints and Congestion in the Western and Eastern Interconnections, 2009-2012" document, which is now available for downloading, is a compilation of...

  4. Geothermal Power and Interconnection: The Economics of Getting to Market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hurlbut, David

    2012-04-23

    This report provides a baseline description of the transmission issues affecting geothermal technologies. It is intended for geothermal experts in either the private or public sector who are less familiar with how the electricity system operates beyond the geothermal plant. The report begins with a comprehensive overview of the grid, how it is planned, how it is used, and how it is paid for. The report then overlays onto this "big picture" three types of geothermal technologies: conventional hydrothermal systems; emerging technologies such as enhanced engineered geothermal systems (EGS) and geopressured geothermal; and geothermal co-production with existing oil and gas wells. Each category of geothermal technology has its own set of interconnection issues, and these are examined separately for each. The report draws conclusions about each technology’s market affinities as defined by factors related to transmission and distribution infrastructure. It finishes with an assessment of selected markets with known geothermal potential, identifying those that offer the best prospects for near-term commercial development and for demonstration projects.

  5. Reactive power interconnection requirements for PV and wind plants : recommendations to NERC.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDowell, Jason; Walling, Reigh; Peter, William; Von Engeln, Edi; Seymour, Eric; Nelson, Robert; Casey, Leo; Ellis, Abraham; Barker, Chris.

    2012-02-01

    Voltage on the North American bulk system is normally regulated by synchronous generators, which typically are provided with voltage schedules by transmission system operators. In the past, variable generation plants were considered very small relative to conventional generating units, and were characteristically either induction generator (wind) or line-commutated inverters (photovoltaic) that have no inherent voltage regulation capability. However, the growing level of penetration of non-traditional renewable generation - especially wind and solar - has led to the need for renewable generation to contribute more significantly to power system voltage control and reactive power capacity. Modern wind-turbine generators, and increasingly PV inverters as well, have considerable dynamic reactive power capability, which can be further enhanced with other reactive support equipment at the plant level to meet interconnection requirements. This report contains a set of recommendations to the North-America Electricity Reliability Corporation (NERC) as part of Task 1-3 (interconnection requirements) of the Integration of Variable Generation Task Force (IVGTF) work plan. The report discusses reactive capability of different generator technologies, reviews existing reactive power standards, and provides specific recommendations to improve existing interconnection standards.

  6. Transmission Grid Integration | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    utility operations, engage in transmission planning forums, and model generator output. More information on transmission grid integration is available in the Transmission...

  7. California's electricity system of the future scenario analysis in support of public-interest transmission system R&D planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eto, Joseph; Stovall, John P.

    2003-01-01

    asset monitoring and analysis tools for reliability management B. Transmission power-asset monitoring and analysis tools for reliability management. B. Transmission power-asset monitoring and analysis tools for reliability management. B. Transmission power-

  8. Impact of Wind Turbine Penetration on the Dynamic Performance of Interconnected Power Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    to their limits using flexible AC transmission system devices (FACTS), and also due to the increased penetration, Australia and India, a large number of wind farms are currently interconnected into transmission networks far away from load centres and connected into relatively weak transmission networks [3]. The presence

  9. Electric network interconnection of Mashreq Arab Countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Amin, I.M.; Al-Shehri, A.M.; Opoku, G.; Al-Baiyat, S.A.; Zedan, F.M.

    1994-12-01

    Power system interconnection is a well established practice for a variety of technical and economical reasons. Several interconnected networks exist worldwide for a number of factors. Some of these networks cross international boundaries. This presentation discusses the future developments of the power systems of Mashreq Arab Countries (MAC). MAC consists of Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Yemen. Mac power systems are operated by government or semigovernment bodies. Many of these countries have national or regional electric grids but are generally isolated from each other. With the exception of Saudi Arabia power systems, which employ 60 Hz, all other MAC utilities use 50 Hz frequency. Each country is served by one utility, except Saudi Arabia, which is served by four major utilities and some smaller utilities serving remote towns and small load centers. The major utilities are the Saudi Consolidated electric Company in the Eastern Province (SCECO East), SCECO Center, SCECO West, and SCECO South. These are the ones considered in this study. The energy resources in MAC are varied. Countries such as Egypt, Iraq, and Syria have significant hydro resources.The gulf countries and Iraq have abundant fossil fuel, The variation in energy resources as well as the characteristics of the electric load make it essential to look into interconnections beyond the national boundaries. Most of the existing or planned interconnections involve few power systems. A study involving 12 countries and over 20 utilities with different characteristics represents a very large scale undertaking.

  10. Developing Generic Dynamic Models for the 2030 Eastern Interconnection Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kou, Gefei; Hadley, Stanton W; Markham, Penn N; Liu, Yilu

    2013-12-01

    The Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) has built three major power flow cases for the 2030 Eastern Interconnection (EI) based on various levels of energy/environmental policy conditions, technology advances, and load growth. Using the power flow cases, this report documents the process of developing the generic 2030 dynamic models using typical dynamic parameters. The constructed model was validated indirectly using the synchronized phasor measurements by removing the wind generation temporarily.

  11. EIS-0437: Interconnection of the Buffalo Ridge III Wind Project, Brookings and Deuel Counties, South Dakota

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to interconnect the Heartland Wind, LLC, proposed Buffalo Ridge III Wind Project in Brookings and Deuel Counties, South Dakota, to DOE’s Western Area Power Administration transmission system.

  12. EIS-0485: Interconnection of the Grande Prairie Wind Farm, Holt County, Nebraska

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE’s Western Area Power Administration prepared an EIS to evaluate the environmental impacts of interconnecting the proposed Grande Prairie Wind Farm, in Holt County, near O’Neill, Nebraska, to Western’s power transmission system.

  13. EIS-0438: Interconnection of the Proposed Hermosa West Wind Farm Project, Albany County, Wyoming

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    After the applicant withdrew its request to interconnect the proposed Hermosa West Wind Farm Project with Western Area Power Administration’s transmission system, Western cancelled preparation of an EIS to evaluate the potential environmental impacts of the proposal.

  14. A Model for Interlevel Coupling Noise in Multilevel Interconnect ' Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swaminathan, Madhavan

    A Model for Interlevel Coupling Noise in Multilevel Interconnect ' Structures Martin Saint- case noise is simulated using an RC transmission line model that includes the timing of the attackers noise model is sometimes very desirable, in particular for the design of clock distribution networks

  15. EA-1989: Cliffrose Solar Energy Interconnection Project, Mohave County, Arizona

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE’s Western Area Power Administration (Western) is preparing an EA that will assess the potential environmental impacts of interconnecting the proposed Cliffrose Solar Energy Project in Mohave County, Arizona, to Western’s transmission system at the existing Griffith Substation. Additional information is available at http://www.wapa.gov/dsw/environment/CliffroseSolarEnergyProject.html.

  16. Repairable chip bonding/interconnect process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernhardt, Anthony F. (Berkeley, CA); Contolini, Robert J. (Livermore, CA); Malba, Vincent (Livermore, CA); Riddle, Robert A. (Tracy, CA)

    1997-01-01

    A repairable, chip-to-board interconnect process which addresses cost and testability issues in the multi-chip modules. This process can be carried out using a chip-on-sacrificial-substrate technique, involving laser processing. This process avoids the curing/solvent evolution problems encountered in prior approaches, as well is resolving prior plating problems and the requirements for fillets. For repairable high speed chip-to-board connection, transmission lines can be formed on the sides of the chip from chip bond pads, ending in a gull wing at the bottom of the chip for subsequent solder.

  17. Repairable chip bonding/interconnect process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernhardt, A.F.; Contolini, R.J.; Malba, V.; Riddle, R.A.

    1997-08-05

    A repairable, chip-to-board interconnect process which addresses cost and testability issues in the multi-chip modules is disclosed. This process can be carried out using a chip-on-sacrificial-substrate technique, involving laser processing. This process avoids the curing/solvent evolution problems encountered in prior approaches, as well is resolving prior plating problems and the requirements for fillets. For repairable high speed chip-to-board connection, transmission lines can be formed on the sides of the chip from chip bond pads, ending in a gull wing at the bottom of the chip for subsequent solder. 10 figs.

  18. Environmental Regulation Impacts on Eastern Interconnection Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markham, Penn N; Liu, Yilu; Young II, Marcus Aaron

    2013-07-01

    In the United States, recent environmental regulations will likely result in the removal of nearly 30 GW of oil and coal-fired generation from the power grid, mostly in the Eastern Interconnection (EI). The effects of this transition on voltage stability and transmission line flows have previously not been studied from a system-wide perspective. This report discusses the results of power flow studies designed to simulate the evolution of the EI over the next few years as traditional generation sources are replaced with environmentally friendlier ones such as natural gas and wind.

  19. Investigation of Multi-Frequency Power Transmission and System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barazarte Conte, Ronald

    2012-10-19

    This dissertation presents a new power system transmission concept based on frequency selectivity named Multi-Frequency Power System (MFPS). This system allows for selective power transmission among terminals in an interconnected system...

  20. Fuel cell system with interconnect

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goettler, Richard; Liu, Zhien

    2015-08-11

    The present invention includes a fuel cell system having a plurality of adjacent electrochemical cells formed of an anode layer, a cathode layer spaced apart from the anode layer, and an electrolyte layer disposed between the anode layer and the cathode layer. The fuel cell system also includes at least one interconnect, the interconnect being structured to conduct free electrons between adjacent electrochemical cells. Each interconnect includes a primary conductor embedded within the electrolyte layer and structured to conduct the free electrons.

  1. Fuel cell system with interconnect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Zhien; Goettler, Richard

    2015-09-29

    The present invention includes a fuel cell system having a plurality of adjacent electrochemical cells formed of an anode layer, a cathode layer spaced apart from the anode layer, and an electrolyte layer disposed between the anode layer and the cathode layer. The fuel cell system also includes at least one interconnect, the interconnect being structured to conduct free electrons between adjacent electrochemical cells. Each interconnect includes a primary conductor embedded within the electrolyte layer and structured to conduct the free electrons.

  2. Fuel cell system with interconnect

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goettler, Richard; Liu, Zhien

    2015-03-10

    The present invention includes a fuel cell system having a plurality of adjacent electrochemical cells formed of an anode layer, a cathode layer spaced apart from the anode layer, and an electrolyte layer disposed between the anode layer and the cathode layer. The fuel cell system also includes at least one interconnect, the interconnect being structured to conduct free electrons between adjacent electrochemical cells. Each interconnect includes a primary conductor embedded within the electrolyte layer and structured to conduct the free electrons.

  3. Abstract--The transmission system plays an essential role in the new deregulated scenario. Aspects such as planning are

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    . · Energy prices determined by the congestion of the transmission system's lines are impacted. II1 Abstract-- The transmission system plays an essential role in the new deregulated scenario this methodology are the expanded transmission system and the agents involved in the expansion, together

  4. Carbon Nanomaterials: The Ideal Interconnect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon Nanomaterials: The Ideal Interconnect Technology for Next- Generation ICs Hong Li, Chuan Xu-generation ICs. In this research, carbon nanomaterials, with their many attractive properties, are emerging-a`-vis optical and RF interconnects, and we illustrate why carbon nanomaterials constitute the ideal intercon

  5. Process for electrically interconnecting electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, Paul G. (Mountain View, CA); Thompson, Jesse B. (Brentwood, CA); Colella, Nicolas J. (Livermore, CA); Williams, Kenneth A. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    Electrical interconnects for solar cells or other electronic components using a silver-silicone paste or a lead-tin (Pb--Sn) no-clean fluxless solder cream, whereby the high breakage of thin (<6 mil thick) solar cells using conventional solder interconnect is eliminated. The interconnects of this invention employs copper strips which are secured to the solar cells by a silver-silicone conductive paste which can be used at room temperature, or by a Pb--Sn solder cream which eliminates undesired residue on the active surfaces of the solar cells. Electrical testing using the interconnects of this invention has shown that no degradation of the interconnects developed under high current testing, while providing a very low contact resistance value.

  6. Evaluation of Production Cost Savings from Consolidation of Balancing Authorities in the US Western Interconnection under High Wind and Solar Penetration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Tony B.; Samaan, Nader A.; Jin, Chunlian

    2014-12-24

    This paper introduces a comprehensive analysis to quantify the potential savings in production cost due to consolidation of 32 US western interconnection Balancing Authorities (BAs). Three simulation scenarios are developed: current Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) BAs structure, full copper-sheet consolidation, and full consolidation with transmission congestion considered. The study uses WECC Transmission Expansion Planning Policy Committee (TEPPC) model that was developed for the year 2020. The model assumes 8% wind and 3% solar energy penetration as percentage of total WECC demand in 2020. Sensitivity analyses are carried out to assess the impact of transmission hurdle rates between WECC BAs on potential benefits. The study shows savings that ranges from $400 Million (2.4% of total one year production cost) to $600 Million (3.2%) per year in thermal units production cost due to consolidation can be achieved. The copper sheet consolidation scenario shows an extra savings of $240 Million (1.4%) per year.

  7. Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative News Release

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    future assumes overall energy demand is drastically reduced 2 through energy efficiency, demand response, distributed generation, and universal deployment of smart grid advanced...

  8. Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative News Release

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based|DepartmentStatementofApril 25,EV Everywhere| DepartmentZones 1 and 21 NEWS

  9. Topic A Awardee: Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCEDInstallers/ContractorsPhotovoltaicsState ofSavings forTitle XVIIof Energy 3DepartmentTopic

  10. Renewable Systems Interconnection: Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kroposki, B.; Margolis, R.; Kuswa, G.; Torres, J.; Bower, W.; Key, T.; Ton, D.

    2008-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy launched the Renewable Systems Interconnection (RSI) study in 2007 to address the challenges to high penetrations of distributed renewable energy technologies. The RSI study consists of 14 additional reports.

  11. Techniques in the Control of Interconnected Plants Morten Hovd \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    . The production planning level typically operates on the timescale of days. Although the higher levelsTechniques in the Control of Interconnected Plants Morten Hovd \\Lambda Fantoft Prosess Teknostallen; 1 INTRODUCTION For many real­life multivariable control problems, traditional single­loop control

  12. Techniques in the Control of Interconnected Plants Morten Hovd

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    . The production planning level typically operates on the timescale of days. Although the higher levelsTechniques in the Control of Interconnected Plants Morten Hovd Fantoft Prosess Teknostallen N-7030-life multivariable control problems, traditional single-loop control theory is clearly incomplete. This occurs when

  13. Interconnection Resources | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE INDUSTRIAL TECHNICAL8-02DepartmentInterconnection Resources Interconnection

  14. Modular cryogenic interconnects for multi-qubit devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colless, J. I.; Reilly, D. J.

    2014-11-15

    We have developed a modular interconnect platform for the control and readout of multiple solid-state qubits at cryogenic temperatures. The setup provides 74 filtered dc-bias connections, 32 control and readout connections with ?3 dB frequency above 5 GHz, and 4 microwave feed lines that allow low loss (less than 3 dB) transmission 10 GHz. The incorporation of a radio-frequency interposer enables the platform to be separated into two printed circuit boards, decoupling the simple board that is bonded to the qubit chip from the multilayer board that incorporates expensive connectors and components. This modular approach lifts the burden of duplicating complex interconnect circuits for every prototype device. We report the performance of this platform at milli-Kelvin temperatures, including signal transmission and crosstalk measurements.

  15. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, John P.; Liu, Shu; Ibanez, Eduardo; Pennock, Ken; Reed, Greg; Hanes, Spencer

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States. A total of 54GW of offshore wind was assumed to be the target for the analyses conducted. A variety of issues are considered including: the anticipated staging of offshore wind; the offshore wind resource availability; offshore wind energy power production profiles; offshore wind variability; present and potential technologies for collection and delivery of offshore wind energy to the onshore grid; potential impacts to existing utility systems most likely to receive large amounts of offshore wind; and regulatory influences on offshore wind development. The technologies considered the reliability of various high-voltage ac (HVAC) and high-voltage dc (HVDC) technology options and configurations. The utility system impacts of GW-scale integration of offshore wind are considered from an operational steady-state perspective and from a regional and national production cost perspective.

  16. InfiniBand Interconnects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACT EVALUATION PLAN FOR THE SITE-218inperHygieneXSD-IXN

  17. EA-1896: Williston to Stateline Transmission Line Project, Mountrail Williams Electric Cooperative, Williston, North Dakota

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE’s Western Area Power Administration is preparing this EA to evaluate the environmental impacts of interconnecting the proposed Stateline I transmission line, in Williston, North Dakota, to Western’s transmission system.

  18. Regulating Electricity Transmission in the European Union -How Many

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Regulating Electricity Transmission in the European Union - How Many Agencies? chapter 4 in A-77 Claude Crampes (TSE) Lucile Rives (CRE) National electric grids in Europe have been interconnected since, the more national electric systems need to be interconnected to provide one another mutual assistance

  19. DRAFT WORKING PAPER JULY 2006 DO NOT QUOTE OR CITE Topological Elements of Transmission Pricing and Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blumsack, Seth

    -management or systems problem and not one of identifying specific beneficiaries. 1. The Transmission Puzzle The blackout the official blackout report issued by the joint U.S.-Canadian task force (Blackout Task Force 2003) avoided built in the U.S. using market-based compensation (Joskow 2005b). Largely in response to the blackout

  20. Reliability of copper interconnects in integrated circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Zung-Sun

    2007-01-01

    As dimensions shrink and current densities increase, the reliability of metal interconnects becomes a serious concern. In copper interconnects, the dominant diffusion path is along the interface between the copper and the ...

  1. EIS-0377: Big Stone II Power Plant and Transmission Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A systems study was carried out to identify the most appropriate locations to interconnect the proposed Big Stone II power plant to the regional utility grid. The study also identified transmission...

  2. Designing electricity transmission auctions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greve, Thomas; Pollitt, Michael G.

    2012-10-26

    The UK has ambitious plans for exploiting offshore wind for electricity production in order to meet its challenging target under the EU Renewable Energy Directive. This could involve investing up to 20bn in transmission assets to bring electricity...

  3. Planning electricity transmission to accommodate renewables: Using two-stage programming to evaluate flexibility and the cost of disregarding uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van der Weijde, Adriaan Hendrik; Hobbs, Benjamin F.

    2011-01-31

     Niall Duncan (Univ. Edinburgh) for generating the hydro output data and to  lex Haffner  (National  Grid)  for  supplying  the  demand  data.  However,  any  errors  or  views  expressed  are  ntirely our own responsibility.  A e   2  A at...   system. The resulting model is then used to determine the optimally expansion plan under  uncertainty. We compare  these  results  to  those  that would occur under more  traditional  planning methods...

  4. Webinar: Understanding the Interconnection and Transmission Service Queues

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-Sessions | DepartmentResidentialJeannieEnergyof Energyin The IES|

  5. RAPID/Geothermal/Transmission Siting & Interconnection | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onRAPID/Geothermal/Exploration/Colorado < RAPID‎RAPID/Geothermal/Land Use/Federal < RAPID‎Information form

  6. RAPID/Geothermal/Transmission Siting & Interconnection/California | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onRAPID/Geothermal/Exploration/Colorado < RAPID‎RAPID/Geothermal/Land Use/Federal < RAPID‎InformationEnergy

  7. RAPID/Geothermal/Transmission Siting & Interconnection/Colorado | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onRAPID/Geothermal/Exploration/Colorado < RAPID‎RAPID/Geothermal/Land Use/Federal <

  8. RAPID/Geothermal/Transmission Siting & Interconnection/Montana | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onRAPID/Geothermal/Exploration/Colorado < RAPID‎RAPID/Geothermal/Land Use/Federal

  9. National Electric Transmission Congestion Study 2006 Eastern Interconnection Analysis

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested Parties -Department ofDepartment of Energy San Diego

  10. National Electric Transmission Study 2006 Western Interconnection Analysis

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested Parties -Department ofDepartment of Energy San DiegoEXECUTIVEWestern

  11. Using Synchrophasors for Frequency Response Analysis in the Western Interconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosterev, Dmitry; Davies, Donald; Etingov, Pavel V.; Silverstein, Alison; Eto, Joseph H.

    2014-10-19

    Frequency response has received a lot of attention in recent years at the national level, which culminated in the development and approval of NERC BAL-003-1 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting Reliability Standard. WECC JSIS, NASPI, BPA, CERTS and PNNL collaborate on the common goals to deliver to the industry applications for frequency response analysis at interconnection, Balancing Authority and individual power plant levels. This paper describes a Frequency Response Analysis Tool that has been used for establishing a frequency response baseline for the Western Interconnection. This paper describes how synchrophasor data is used in for determination of generator characteristics – frequency responsive, under load control or baseloaded. This paper also discusses and provides an example of how the frequency response distribution can impact power pick-up on major transmission paths.

  12. Flexible interconnects for fuel cell stacks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lenz, David J.; Chung, Brandon W.; Pham, Ai Quoc

    2004-11-09

    An interconnect that facilitates electrical connection and mechanical support with minimal mechanical stress for fuel cell stacks. The interconnects are flexible and provide mechanically robust fuel cell stacks with higher stack performance at lower cost. The flexible interconnects replace the prior rigid rib interconnects with flexible "fingers" or contact pads which will accommodate the imperfect flatness of the ceramic fuel cells. Also, the mechanical stress of stacked fuel cells will be smaller due to the flexibility of the fingers. The interconnects can be one-sided or double-sided.

  13. Analysis of drought impacts on electricity production in the Western and Texas interconnections of the United States.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harto, C. B.; Yan, Y. E.; Demissie, Y. K.; Elcock, D.; Tidwell, V. C.; Hallett, K.; Macknick, J.; Wigmosta, M. S.; Tesfa, T. K.

    2012-02-09

    Electricity generation relies heavily on water resources and their availability. To examine the interdependence of energy and water in the electricity context, the impacts of a severe drought to assess the risk posed by drought to electricity generation within the western and Texas interconnections has been examined. The historical drought patterns in the western United States were analyzed, and the risk posed by drought to electricity generation within the region was evaluated. The results of this effort will be used to develop scenarios for medium- and long-term transmission modeling and planning efforts by the Western Electricity Coordination Council (WECC) and the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT). The study was performed in response to a request developed by the Western Governors Association in conjunction with the transmission modeling teams at the participating interconnections. It is part of a U.S. Department of Energy-sponsored, national laboratory-led research effort to develop tools related to the interdependency of energy and water as part of a larger interconnection-wide transmission planning project funded under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. This study accomplished three main objectives. It provided a thorough literature review of recent studies of drought and the potential implications for electricity generation. It analyzed historical drought patterns in the western United States and used the results to develop three design drought scenarios. Finally, it quantified the risk to electricity generation for each of eight basins for each of the three drought scenarios and considered the implications for transmission planning. Literature on drought impacts on electricity generation describes a number of examples where hydroelectric generation capacity has been limited because of drought but only a few examples of impact on thermoelectric generation. In all documented cases, shortfalls of generation were met by purchasing power from the market, albeit at higher prices. However, sufficient excess generation and transmission must be available for this strategy to work. Although power purchase was the most commonly discussed drought mitigation strategy, a total of 12 response strategies were identified in the literature, falling into four main categories: electricity supply, electricity demand response, alternative water supplies, and water demand response. Three hydrological drought scenarios were developed based on a literature review and historical data analysis. The literature review helped to identify key drought parameters and data on drought frequency and severity. Historical hydrological drought data were analyzed for the western United States to identify potential drought correlations and estimate drought parameters. The first scenario was a West-wide drought occurring in 1977; it represented a severe drought in five of the eight basins in the study area. A second drought scenario was artificially defined by selecting the conditions from the 10th-percentile drought year for each individual basin; this drought was defined in this way to allow more consistent analysis of risk to electricity generation in each basin. The final scenario was based upon the current low-flow hydro modeling scenario defined by WECC, which uses conditions from the year 2001. These scenarios were then used to quantify the risk to electricity generation in each basin. The risk calculations represent a first-order estimate of the maximum amount of electricity generation that might be lost from both hydroelectric and thermoelectric sources under a worst-case scenario. Even with the conservative methodology used, the majority of basins showed a limited amount of risk under most scenarios. The level of risk in these basins is likely to be amenable to mitigation by known strategies, combined with existing reserve generation and transmission capacity. However, the risks to the Pacific Northwest and Texas Basins require further study. The Pacific Northwest is vulnerable because of its heavy reliance on hydroelectri

  14. Interconnect

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation CurrentHenryInhibitingInteractive Jobs Interactive Jobs To run an

  15. Double interconnection fuel cell array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draper, R.; Zymboly, G.E.

    1993-12-28

    A fuel cell array is made, containing number of tubular, elongated fuel cells which are placed next to each other in rows (A, B, C, D), where each cell contains inner electrodes and outer electrodes, with solid electrolyte between the electrodes, where the electrolyte and outer electrode are discontinuous, having two portions, and providing at least two opposed discontinuities which contain at least two oppositely opposed interconnections contacting the inner electrode, each cell having only three metallic felt electrical connectors which contact surrounding cells, where each row is electrically connected to the other. 5 figures.

  16. Double interconnection fuel cell array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draper, Robert (Churchill Boro, PA); Zymboly, Gregory E. (Murrysville, PA)

    1993-01-01

    A fuel cell array (10) is made, containing number of tubular, elongated fuel cells (12) which are placed next to each other in rows (A, B, C, D), where each cell contains inner electrodes (14) and outer electrodes (18 and 18'), with solid electrolyte (16 and 16') between the electrodes, where the electrolyte and outer electrode are discontinuous, having two portions, and providing at least two opposed discontinuities which contain at least two oppositely opposed interconnections (20 and 20') contacting the inner electrode (14), each cell (12) having only three metallic felt electrical connectors (22) which contact surrounding cells, where each row is electrically connected to the other.

  17. Cascade solar cell having conductive interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borden, Peter G. (Menlo Park, CA); Saxena, Ram R. (Saratoga, CA)

    1982-10-26

    Direct ohmic contact between the cells in an epitaxially grown cascade solar cell is obtained by means of conductive interconnects formed through grooves etched intermittently in the upper cell. The base of the upper cell is directly connected by the conductive interconnects to the emitter of the bottom cell. The conductive interconnects preferably terminate on a ledge formed in the base of the upper cell.

  18. Electromigration of Electroplated Gold Interconnects Steve Kilgore, *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schroder, Dieter K.

    Electromigration of Electroplated Gold Interconnects Steve Kilgore, * Craig Gaw, * Haldane Henry Tempe, AZ 85287, U.S.A. ABSTRACT Electromigration tests were performed on passivated electroplated Au

  19. Metal Nitride Diffusion Barriers for Copper Interconnects 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Araujo, Roy A.

    2010-01-14

    Advancements in the semiconductor industry require new materials with improved performance. With the introduction of copper as the interconnect material for integrated circuits, efficient diffusion barriers are required ...

  20. Learn More About Interconnections | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and West to the foot of the Rockies (excluding most of Texas). All of the electric utilities in the Eastern Interconnection are electrically tied together during normal...

  1. Updating Interconnection Screens for PV System Integration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Abraham Ellis, Roger Hill Sandia National Laboratories Tom Key, Kristen Nicole, Jeff Smith Electric Power Research Institute Updating Interconnection Screens for PV System...

  2. Recent Development of SOFC Metallic Interconnect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu JW, Liu XB

    2010-04-01

    Interest in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) stems from their higher e±ciencies and lower levels of emitted pollu- tants, compared to traditional power production methods. Interconnects are a critical part in SOFC stacks, which connect cells in series electrically, and also separate air or oxygen at the cathode side from fuel at the anode side. Therefore, the requirements of interconnects are the most demanding, i:e:, to maintain high elec- trical conductivity, good stability in both reducing and oxidizing atmospheres, and close coe±cient of thermal expansion (CTE) match and good compatibility with other SOFC ceramic components. The paper reviewed the interconnect materials, and coatings for metallic interconnect materials.

  3. HVDC power transmission technology assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauth, R.L.; Tatro, P.J.; Railing, B.D.; Johnson, B.K.; Stewart, J.R.; Fink, J.L.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an assessment of the national utility system`s needs for electric transmission during the period 1995-2020 that could be met by future reduced-cost HVDC systems. The assessment was to include an economic evaluation of HVDC as a means for meeting those needs as well as a comparison with competing technologies such as ac transmission with and without Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) controllers. The role of force commutated dc converters was to be assumed where appropriate. The assessment begins by identifying the general needs for transmission in the U.S. in the context of a future deregulated power industry. The possible roles for direct current transmission are then postulated in terms of representative scenarios. A few of the scenarios are illustrated with the help of actual U.S. system examples. non-traditional applications as well as traditional applications such as long lines and asynchronous interconnections are discussed. The classical ``break-even distance`` concept for comparing HVDC and ac lines is used to assess the selected scenarios. The impact of reduced-cost converters is reflected in terms of the break-even distance. This report presents a comprehensive review of the functional benefits of HVDC transmission and updated cost data for both ac and dc system components. It also provides some provocative thoughts on how direct current transmission might be applied to better utilize and expand our nation`s increasingly stressed transmission assets.

  4. Tevatron low-beta quadrupole triplet interconnects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oleck, A.R.; Carson, J.A.; Koepke, K.; Sorenson, D.

    1992-04-01

    Installation of cold iron quadrupole magnets in the Low Beta (Superconducting High-Luminosity) upgrade at Fermilab required a newly designed magnet interconnect. The interconnect design and construction experience is presented. Considered are the connections carrying cryogenic fluids, beam vacuum, insulating vacuum, superconducting bus leads, their insulation and mechanical support. Details of the assembly and assembly experience are presented. 2 refs.

  5. Updating Technical Screens for PV Interconnection: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coddington, M.; Ellis, A.; Lynn, K.; Razon, A.; Key, T.; Kroposki, B.; Mather, B.; Hill, R.; Nicole, K.; Smith, J.

    2012-08-01

    Solar photovoltaics (PV) is the dominant type of distributed generation (DG) technology interconnected to electric distribution systems in the United States, and deployment of PV systems continues to increase rapidly. Considering the rapid growth and widespread deployment of PV systems in United States electric distribution grids, it is important that interconnection procedures be as streamlined as possible to avoid unnecessary interconnection studies, costs, and delays. Because many PV interconnection applications involve high penetration scenarios, the process needs to allow for a sufficiently rigorous technical evaluation to identify and address possible system impacts. Existing interconnection procedures are designed to balance the need for efficiency and technical rigor for all DG. However, there is an implicit expectation that those procedures will be updated over time in order to remain relevant with respect to evolving standards, technology, and practical experience. Modifications to interconnection screens and procedures must focus on maintaining or improving safety and reliability, as well as accurately allocating costs and improving expediency of the interconnection process. This paper evaluates the origins and usefulness of the capacity penetration screen, offers potential short-term solutions which could effectively allow fast-track interconnection to many PV system applications, and considers longer-term solutions for increasing PV deployment levels in a safe and reliable manner while reducing or eliminating the emphasis on the penetration screen.

  6. Durability of Metallic Interconnects and Protective Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Zhenguo; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2009-12-15

    To build up a useful voltage, a number of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are electrically connected into series in a stack via interconnects, which are placed between adjacent cells. In addition to functioning as a bi-polar electrical connector, the interconnect also acts as a separator plate that separates the fuel at the anode side of one cell from the air at the cathode side on an adjacent cell. During SOFC operation at the high temperatures, the interconnects are thus simultaneously exposed to the oxidizing air at one side and a reducing fuel that can be either hydrogen or hydrocarbon at the other. Besides, they are in contact with adjacent components, such as electrodes or electrical contacts, seals, etc. With steady reduction in SOFC operating temperatures into the low or intermediate range 600-850oC, oxidation resistant alloys are often used to construct interconnects. However, the metallic interconnects may degrade via interactions at their interfaces with surrounding environments or adjacent components, potentially affecting the stability and performance of interconnects and the SOFC stacks. Thus protection layers are applied to metallic interconnects that also intend to mitigate or prevent chromium migration into cells and the cell poisoning. This chapter provides a comprehensive review of materials for metallic interconnects, their degradation and coating protection.

  7. Interconnecting PV on New York City's Secondary Network Distribution System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Anderson; M. Coddington; K. Burman; S. Hayter; B. Kroposki; and A. Watson

    2009-11-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has teamed with cities across the country through the Solar America Cities (SAC) partnership program to help reduce barriers and accelerate implementation of solar energy. The New York City SAC team is a partnership between the City University of New York (CUNY), the New York City Mayor s Office of Long-term Planning and Sustainability, and the New York City Economic Development Corporation (NYCEDC).The New York City SAC team is working with DOE s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Con Edison, the local utility, to develop a roadmap for photovoltaic (PV) installations in the five boroughs. The city set a goal to increase its installed PV capacity from1.1 MW in 2005 to 8.1 MW by 2015 (the maximum allowed in 2005). A key barrier to reaching this goal, however, is the complexity of the interconnection process with the local utility. Unique challenges are associated with connecting distributed PV systems to secondary network distribution systems (simplified to ���¢��������networks���¢������� in this report). Although most areas of the country use simpler radial distribution systems to distribute electricity, larger metropolitan areas like New York City typically use networks to increase reliability in large load centers. Unlike the radial distribution system, where each customer receives power through a single line, a network uses a grid of interconnected lines to deliver power to each customer through several parallel circuits and sources. This redundancy improves reliability, but it also requires more complicated coordination and protection schemes that can be disrupted by energy exported from distributed PV systems. Currently, Con Edison studies each potential PV system in New York City to evaluate the system s impact on the network, but this is time consuming for utility engineers and may delay the customer s project or add cost for larger installations. City leaders would like to streamline this process to facilitate faster, simpler, and less expensive distributed PV system interconnections. To assess ways to improve the interconnection process, NREL conducted a four-part study with support from DOE. The NREL team then compiled the final reports from each study into this report. In Section 1���¢��������PV Deployment Analysis for New York City���¢��������we analyze the technical potential for rooftop PV systems in the city. This analysis evaluates potential PV power production in ten Con Edison networks of various locations and building densities (ranging from high density apartments to lower density single family homes). Next, we compare the potential power production to network loads to determine where and when PV generation is most likely to exceed network load and disrupt network protection schemes. The results of this analysis may assist Con Edison in evaluating future PV interconnection applications and in planning future network protection system upgrades. This analysis may also assist other utilities interconnecting PV systems to networks by defining a method for assessing the technical potential of PV in the network and its impact on network loads. Section 2���¢��������A Briefing for Policy Makers on Connecting PV to a Network Grid���¢��������presents an overview intended for nontechnical stakeholders. This section describes the issues associated with interconnecting PV systems to networks, along with possible solutions. Section 3���¢��������Technical Review of Concerns and Solutions to PV Interconnection in New Y

  8. EIS-0485: Interconnection of the Grande Prairie Wind Farm, Holt...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    5: Interconnection of the Grande Prairie Wind Farm, Holt County, Nebraska EIS-0485: Interconnection of the Grande Prairie Wind Farm, Holt County, Nebraska SUMMARY DOE's Western...

  9. Method for fabricating an interconnected array of semiconductor devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grimmer, Derrick P. (White Bear Lake, MN); Paulson, Kenneth R. (North St. Paul, MN); Gilbert, James R. (St. Paul, MN)

    1989-10-10

    Semiconductor layer and conductive layer formed on a flexible substrate, divided into individual devices and interconnected with one another in series by interconnection layers and penetrating terminals.

  10. EA-1990: Ridgenose Solar Energy Interconnection Facility, Mohave...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    EA-1990: Ridgenose Solar Energy Interconnection Facility, Mohave County, Arizona EA-1990: Ridgenose Solar Energy Interconnection Facility, Mohave County, Arizona The EA was...

  11. The regulation of internet interconnection : assessing network market power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maida, Elisabeth M. (Elisabeth Marigo)

    2013-01-01

    Interconnection agreements in the telecommunications industry have always been constrained by regulation. Internet interconnection has not received the same level of scrutiny. Recent debates regarding proposed mergers, ...

  12. Achieving Near Zero SSN Power Delivery Networks by Eliminating Power Planes and Using Constant Current Power Transmission Lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swaminathan, Madhavan

    on power supply network caused by DC resistance, 2) Mismatch effect caused by the power transmission line resistor of the power transmission line, the current through the power transmission line induces DC drop Current Power Transmission Lines Suzanne Huh, Daehyun Chung, and Madhavan Swaminathan Interconnect

  13. Plan

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Information P.O. Box 62 Oak Ridge, TN 37831-0062 (423) 576-8401 DOENV-11432-244 Nevada Test Site Routine Radiological Environmental Monitoring Plan December 1998 Work Performed...

  14. Promises and problems with metallic interconnects for reduced temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hou, Peggy Y.; Huang, Keqin; Bakker, Wate T.

    1999-01-01

    METALLIC INTERCONNECTS FOR REDUCED TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUELto fuel cell stacks with multiple metallic interconnects.

  15. Extending CAN over the air: an interconnection study with IEEE802.11 Tony Flores Pulgar Jean-Luc Scharbarg Katia Jaffr`es-Runser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaffrčs-Runser, Katia

    the features of CAN and IEEE802.11g in the interconnection policies employed, the missed dead- lines can. A large set of protocols offer deterministic and timely bounded transmissions using taylored medium access communications consider introducing wireless transmissions into the global network architecture [3][11]. First

  16. Distributed Solar Interconnection Challenges and Best Practices

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The continued growth of the distributed solar market in the United States has spurred electric utilities, regulators, and stakeholders to consider improvements to distributed generation (DG) interconnection processes. More than 475,000 solar energy systems were interconnected in the U.S. by the end of 2013, but 1 million are expected by the end of 2017. Based on the SunShot Initiative's current trajectory, permitting, inspection, and interconnection (PII) soft costs are expected to drop from a current cost of $0.17/watt to $0.14/watt by 2020. While the actual cost metrics for utility PII are undetermined, they are real. A survey and interviews conducted by Solar Electric Power Association (SEPA) in 2014 have uncovered utility initiatives to lower the administrative costs of DG interconnection, making the process of connecting to the grid simpler and more transparent for customers.

  17. Design space exploration of photonic interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Chen, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    As processors scale deep into the multi-core and many-core regimes, bandwidth and energy-efficiency of the on-die interconnect network have become paramount design issues. Recognizing potential limits of electrical ...

  18. Asynchronous intrusion recovery for interconnected web services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chandra, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Recovering from attacks in an interconnected system is difficult, because an adversary that gains access to one part of the system may propagate to many others, and tracking down and recovering from such an attack requires ...

  19. Carbon nanotube synthesis for integrated circuit interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nessim, Gilbert Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Based on their properties, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been identified as ideal replacements for copper interconnects in integrated circuits given their higher current density, inertness, and higher resistance to ...

  20. Carbon nanotube interconnects for IC chips

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anwar Ali, Hashina Parveen

    2006-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been investigated as candidate materials to replace or augment the existing copper-based technologies as interconnects for Integrated Circuit (IC) chips. Being ballistic conductors, CNTs are ...

  1. Design of wide-area electric transmission networks under uncertainty : methods for dimensionality reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donohoo-Vallett, Pearl Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The growth of location-constrained renewable generators and the integration of electricity markets in the United States and Europe are forcing transmission planners to consider the design of interconnection-wide systems. ...

  2. Transmission Planning | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram: Report1538-1950 Timeline of Events:Smart

  3. Committed regional electrical interconnection projects in the Middle East

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azzam, M.; Al-Said, A.

    1994-12-01

    Due to the well-known advantages of electrical interconnections and their consequent benefits, Jordan considers the interconnection of its electrical network with the neighboring electrical networks as one of its main corporate strategies. At present the electrical interconnection project of the networks of Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Syria, and Turkey is progressing. To achieve this interconnection project, two feasibility studies were conducted: interconnection of the Egyptian and Jordanian electrical power systems; interconnection of the electrical networks of Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Syria, and Turkey (EIJST interconnection). This presentation reviews these studies and their results.

  4. InterconnectFabric InterconnectFabric SingleBuilding Multi-Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cortes, Corinna

    Interconnects in Datacenter Networks Opportunities and Challenges for WDM Hong Liu, Cedric F. Lam, and Chris We review the growing need for optical interconnect bandwidth in datacenter networks growth inside datacenter networks. INTRODUCTION The rapid growth of Internet and cloud computing

  5. National transmission grid study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abraham, Spencer

    2003-05-31

    The National Energy Policy Plan directed the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct a study to examine the benefits of establishing a national electricity transmission grid and to identify transmission bottlenecks and measures to address them. DOE began by conducting an independent analysis of U.S. electricity markets and identifying transmission system bottlenecks using DOE’s Policy Office Electricity Modeling System (POEMS). DOE’s analysis, presented in Section 2, confirms the central role of the nation’s transmission system in lowering costs to consumers through increased trade. More importantly, DOE’s analysis also confirms the results of previous studies, which show that transmission bottlenecks and related transmission system market practices are adding hundreds of millions of dollars to consumers’ electricity bills each year. A more detailed technical overview of the use of POEMS is provided in Appendix A. DOE led an extensive, open, public input process and heard a wide range of comments and recommendations that have all been considered.1 More than 150 participants registered for three public workshops held in Detroit, MI (September 24, 2001); Atlanta, GA (September 26, 2001); and Phoenix, AZ (September 28, 2001).

  6. Automotion of domain walls for spintronic interconnects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nikonov, Dmitri E.; Manipatruni, Sasikanth; Young, Ian A.

    2014-06-07

    We simulate “automotion,” the transport of a magnetic domain wall under the influence of demagnetization and magnetic anisotropy, in nanoscale spintronic interconnects. In contrast to spin transfer driven magnetic domain wall motion, the proposed interconnects operate without longitudinal charge current transfer, with only a transient current pulse at domain wall creation and have favorable scaling down to the 20?nm dimension. Cases of both in-plane and out-of-plane magnetization are considered. Analytical dependence of the velocity of domain walls on the angle of magnetization are compared with full micromagnetic simulations. Deceleration, attenuation and disappearance, and reflection of domain walls are demonstrated through simulation. Dependences of the magnetization angle on the current pulse parameters are studied. The energy and delay analysis suggests that automotion is an attractive option for spintronic logic interconnects.

  7. Regulation and investment under uncertainty: An application to power grid interconnection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saphores, Jean-Daniel M; Gravel, E; Bernard, J T

    2004-01-01

    An Application to Power Grid Interconnection. Jean-Danielto the Ontario power grid. This interconnection will allowfor our application to a power grid interconnection. Second,

  8. Energy consumption in optical modulators for interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, David A. B.

    Energy consumption in optical modulators for interconnects David A. B. Miller* Ginzton Laboratory@ee.stanford.edu Abstract: We analyze energy consumption in optical modulators operated in depletion and intended for low, even conceivably being more energy-efficient than an ideal loss-less modulator. ©2012 Optical Society

  9. Asynchronous intrusion recovery for interconnected web services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sabatini, David M.

    Asynchronous intrusion recovery for interconnected web services Ramesh Chandra, Taesoo Kim, and tracking down and recovering from such an attack re- quires significant manual effort. Web services for such web services. Aire addresses several challenges, such as propagating repair across services when some

  10. Solar Energy to Benefit from New FERC Interconnection Procedures...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Energy to Benefit from New FERC Interconnection Procedures Solar Energy to Benefit from New FERC Interconnection Procedures October 30, 2014 - 5:15pm Addthis As a major win...

  11. Equalized on-chip interconnect : modeling, analysis, and design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Byungsub, 1978-

    2010-01-01

    This thesis work explores the use of equalization techniques to improve throughput and reduce power consumption of on-chip interconnect. A theoretical model for an equalized on-chip interconnect is first suggested to provide ...

  12. Interconnect Delay and Area Estimation for Multiple-Pin Nets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, David Z.

    ,000,000 second = 3 years ! #12;Needs for Efficient Interconnect Estimation Models nn EfficiencyEfficiency nn

  13. EIS-0090: Fort Peck-Havre Transmission Line Project, Montana

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Western Area Power Administration prepared this statement to assess the potential environmental and socioeconomic implications of its proposed action to construct and operate a 230kV transmission line from Fort Peck to Havre, Montana, with three intermediate interconnecting substations.

  14. High Voltage DC Transmission 2 1.0 Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCalley, James D.

    1 High Voltage DC Transmission 2 1.0 Introduction Interconnecting HVDC within an AC system requires conversion from AC to DC and inversion from DC to AC. We refer to the circuits which provide conversion from AC to DC as rectifiers and the circuits which provide conversion from DC to AC as inverters. The term

  15. Interconnected hydro-thermal systems Models, methods, and applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Interconnected hydro-thermal systems Models, methods, and applications Magnus Hindsberger Kgs. Lyngby 2003 IMM-PHD-2003-112 Interconnected hydro-thermalsystems #12;Technical University of Denmark 45882673 reception@imm.dtu.dk www.imm.dtu.dk IMM-PHD-2003-112 ISSN 0909-3192 #12;Interconnected hydro

  16. Topic B Awardee: Eastern Interconnection States' Planning Council...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    LEARN MORE Upcoming Meetings and Events Documents and Presentations EISPC main page EISPC web links CONTACT INFORMATION Chairman Douglas R. M. Nazarian Maryland Public Service...

  17. Physical planning to embrace interconnect dominance in power and performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Renshen

    2010-01-01

    years, computer chips hit a “power wall”, i.e. , the powerto push forward through the “power wall”. One is on the

  18. EAC Recommendations for DOE Action Regarding Interconnection-Wide Planning

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-inPPL EnergyPlus, LLC to exportEndureAuthorizing WesternThisEnterprise- June

  19. Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative News Release | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-inPPL EnergyPlus,Department of EnergySessionEnergyEnergy Eastern

  20. Topic B Awardee: Eastern Interconnection States' Planning Council |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCEDInstallers/ContractorsPhotovoltaicsState ofSavings forTitle XVIIof Energyof Energy and

  1. Transient Simulation of On-Chip Transmission Lines via Exact Pole Extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friedman, Eby G.

    Transient Simulation of On-Chip Transmission Lines via Exact Pole Extraction Guoqing Chen and Eby G response at the far end of a transmission line is proposed in this paper. Unlike approximating the poles by truncating the transfer function or matching moments, the exact poles of an interconnect system

  2. On-chip interconnection architecture optimization using a multicommodity flow approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Yuanfang

    2007-01-01

    Routing Architecture Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . .Timing Analysis in On-Chip Interconnection ArchitectureLarge Scale On-Chip Interconnection Architecture Opti-

  3. In situ study on low-k interconnect time-dependent-dielectric-breakdown mechanisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boon Yeap, Kong, E-mail: KongBoon.Yeap@globalfoundries.com [GLOBALFOUNDRIES, Fab8, 400 Stonebreak Rd. Extension, Malta, New York 12020 (United States); Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems, Maria-Reiche-Str. 2, D-01109 Dresden (Germany); Gall, Martin; Liao, Zhongquan; Sander, Christoph; Muehle, Uwe; Zschech, Ehrenfried [Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems, Maria-Reiche-Str. 2, D-01109 Dresden (Germany); Justison, Patrick [GLOBALFOUNDRIES, Fab8, 400 Stonebreak Rd. Extension, Malta, New York 12020 (United States); Aubel, Oliver; Hauschildt, Meike; Beyer, Armand; Vogel, Norman [GLOBALFOUNDRIES Dresden Module One LLC and Co. KG, Wilschdorfer Landstr. 101, D-01109 Dresden (Germany)

    2014-03-28

    An in situ transmission-electron-microscopy methodology is developed to observe time-dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB) in an advanced Cu/ultra-low-k interconnect stack. A test structure, namely a “tip-to-tip” structure, was designed to localize the TDDB degradation in small dielectrics regions. A constant voltage is applied at 25?°C to the “tip-to-tip” structure, while structural changes are observed at nanoscale. Cu nanoparticle formation, agglomeration, and migration processes are observed after dielectric breakdown. The Cu nanoparticles are positively charged, since they move in opposite direction to the electron flow. Measurements of ionic current, using the Triangular-Voltage-Stress method, suggest that Cu migration is not possible before dielectric breakdown, unless the Cu/ultra-low-k interconnect stacks are heated to 200?°C and above.

  4. Release Resistant Electrical Interconnections For Mems Devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peterson, Kenneth A. (Albuquerque, NM); Garrett, Stephen E. (Albuquerque, NM); Reber, Cathleen A. (Corrales, NM)

    2005-02-22

    A release resistant electrical interconnection comprising a gold-based electrical conductor compression bonded directly to a highly-doped polysilicon bonding pad in a MEMS, IMEMS, or MOEMS device, without using any intermediate layers of aluminum, titanium, solder, or conductive adhesive disposed in-between the conductor and polysilicon pad. After the initial compression bond has been formed, subsequent heat treatment of the joint above 363 C creates a liquid eutectic phase at the bondline comprising gold plus approximately 3 wt % silicon, which, upon re-solidification, significantly improves the bond strength by reforming and enhancing the initial bond. This type of electrical interconnection is resistant to chemical attack from acids used for releasing MEMS elements (HF, HCL), thereby enabling the use of a "package-first, release-second" sequence for fabricating MEMS devices. Likewise, the bond strength of an Au--Ge compression bond may be increased by forming a transient liquid eutectic phase comprising Au-12 wt % Ge.

  5. Interconnection of bundled solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Michael; Bessette, II, Norman F; Litka, Anthony F; Schmidt, Douglas S

    2014-01-14

    A system and method for electrically interconnecting a plurality of fuel cells to provide dense packing of the fuel cells. Each one of the plurality of fuel cells has a plurality of discrete electrical connection points along an outer surface. Electrical connections are made directly between the discrete electrical connection points of adjacent fuel cells so that the fuel cells can be packed more densely. Fuel cells have at least one outer electrode and at least one discrete interconnection to an inner electrode, wherein the outer electrode is one of a cathode and and anode and wherein the inner electrode is the other of the cathode and the anode. In tubular solid oxide fuel cells the discrete electrical connection points are spaced along the length of the fuel cell.

  6. Transmission Services

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transmission Services BPA Clarifications on the DSO216 1 Document updated on 2242015 at 3:29:25 PM B O N N E V I L L E P O W E R A D M I N I S T R A T I O N BPA Clarifications on...

  7. Probabilistic Approach to Quantifying the Contribution of Variable Generation and Transmission to System Reliability: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibanez, E.; Milligan, M.

    2012-09-01

    The increasing electrical load served by variable generation (VG), such as wind and solar energy, in the United States and many other countries has stimulated an interesting line of research to better quantify the capacity value of these resources. Methods applied traditionally to thermal units based on their average outage rates do not apply to VG because of their uncertain and non-dispatchable nature. The North American Electric Reliability Corporation's Integration of Variable Generation Task Force recently released a report that highlighted the need to develop and benchmark underlying loss-of-load expectation and related metrics that reasonably and fairly calculate the contribution to planning reserves, or capacity value, of solar and wind power. As the fraction of generation coming from VG becomes more significant, their estimated capacity value will have a larger impact on system planning. In this paper, we provide a method to include VG in traditional probabilistic-based adequacy methods. This method has been implemented in the Renewable Energy Probabilistic Resource Assessment tool developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Through an example based on the U.S. Western Interconnection, this method is applied to assess the effect that transmission can have on resource adequacy. We also analyze the interactions between available transmission and capacity value for VG.

  8. Development of Ceramic Interconnect Materials for SOFC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, Kyung J.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Marina, Olga A.

    2010-08-05

    Currently, acceptor-doped lanthanum chromite is the state-of-the-art ceramic interconnect material for high temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) due to its fairly good electronic conductivity and chemical stability in both oxidizing and reducing atmospheres, and thermal compatibility with other cell components. The major challenge for acceptor-doped lanthanum chromite for SOFC interconnect applications is its inferior sintering behavior in air, which has been attributed to the development of a thin layer of Cr2O3 at the interparticle necks during the initial stages of sintering. In addition, lanthanum chromite is reactive with YSZ electrolyte at high temperatures, forming a highly resistive lanthanum zirconate phase (La2Zr2O7), which further complicates co-firing processes. Acceptor-doped yttrium chromite is considered to be one of the promising alternatives to acceptor-doped lanthanum chromite because it is more stable with respect to the formation of hydroxides in SOFC operating conditions, and the formation of impurity phases can be effectively avoided at co-firing temperatures. In addition, calcium-doped yttrium chromite exhibits higher mechanical strength than lanthanum chromite-based materials. The major drawback of yttrium chromite is considered to be its lower electrical conductivity than lanthanum chromite. The properties of yttrium chromites could possibly be improved and optimized by partial substitution of chromium with various transition metals. During FY10, PNNL investigated the effect of various transition metal doping on chemical stability, sintering and thermal expansion behavior, microstructure, electronic and ionic conductivity, and chemical compatibility with other cell components to develop the optimized ceramic interconnect material.

  9. Moving Beyond Paralysis: How States and Regions Are Creating Innovative Transmission Projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schumacher, A.; Fink, S.; Porter, K.

    2009-10-01

    This report profiles certain state and regional transmission policy initiatives aimed at promoting transmission development, mainly to access renewable resources – including renewable energy zones, location-constrained tariffs, open seasons, and balanced portfolio plans. In particular, this article focuses on transmission initiatives intended to plan and build transmission in advance of new generation, instead of waiting for enough planned new generation to justify the development of a new transmission line of sufficient capability.

  10. Updating Interconnection Screens for PV System Integration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coddington, M.; Mather, B.; Kroposki, B.; Lynn, K.; Razon, A.; Ellis, A.; Hill, R.; Key, T.; Nicole, K.; Smith, J.

    2012-02-01

    This white paper evaluates the origins and usefulness of the capacity penetration screen, offer short-term solutions which could effectively allow fast-track interconnection to many PV system applications, and considers longer-term solutions for increasing PV deployment levels in a safe and reliable manner while reducing or eliminating the emphasis on the penetration screen. Short-term and longer-term alternatives approaches are offered as examples; however, specific modifications to screening procedures should be discussed with stakeholders and must ultimately be adopted by state and federal regulatory bodies.

  11. Bulk Power Transmission Study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John, T.

    1988-01-01

    are relatively small and cannot afford the cost of a high voltage interconnect, and yet their characteristics match a baseload need. The ability to wheel power to a utility that needs base load power from a distribution level interconnection is essential...

  12. Interstate Transmission Challenges for Renewable Energy: A Federalism...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    structures and cost allocation opportunities to better plan for and site the transmission build out necessary to meet renewable energy goals. Authors Alexandra Klass and Elizabeth...

  13. Proposed Southline Transmission Line Project - Volume 4 of 4...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    2 Appendix J J-1 Southline Transmission Line Project Draft Environmental Impact Statement and Draft Resource Management Plan Amendment BLM LAND USE AUTHORIZATIONS 1...

  14. New Report Characterizes Existing Offshore Wind Grid Interconnection...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    the first National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS). The NOWEGIS investigated the key economic and technological factors that will influence the...

  15. CHP: Connecting the Gap between Markets and Utility Interconnection...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Markets and Utility Interconnection and Tariff Practices, 2006 The adoption of combined heat and power (CHP) systems by American industries has made substantial strides in the last...

  16. Microgrid V2G Charging Station Interconnection Testing (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, M.

    2013-07-01

    This presentation by Mike Simpson of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) describes NREL's microgrid vehicle-to-grid charging station interconnection testing.

  17. Review of Direct Metal Bonding for Microelectronic Interconnections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, G.G.

    Microelectronic interconnections require advanced joining techniques. Direct metal bonding methods, which include thercomsonic and thermocompression bonding, offer remarkable advantages over soldering and adhesives joining. ...

  18. Interconnection arrangement of routers of processor boards in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    physical interconnect structure includes routers in service or compute processor boards distributed in an array of cabinets connected in series on each board and to respective...

  19. EIS-0505: Vantage to Pomona Heights 230 kV Transmission Line Project; Yakima, Grant, Benton, and Kittitas Counties, Washington

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Bureau of Land Management is preparing, with DOE’s Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as a cooperating agency, an EIS that evaluates the potential environmental impacts of a proposal to construct a 230-kV transmission line in Washington State. BPA’s proposed action is to interconnect the proposed transmission line to an existing BPA substation.

  20. Molecular Electronics: From Devices and Interconnect to Circuits and Architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Seth Copen

    of these emerging nanotechnologies is the assumption that some form of self-assembly will be required to fabricateMolecular Electronics: From Devices and Interconnect to Circuits and Architecture MIRCEA R. STAN and architecture. Based on proposed nanoscale interconnect and device structures, we explore the design space

  1. Motivating Future Interconnects: A Differential Measurement Analysis of PCI Latency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hand, Steven

    Motivating Future Interconnects: A Differential Measurement Analysis of PCI Latency David J. Miller illustrate how an evolution in the common PCI interconnect architecture has worsened latency by a factor, mi- crobenchmark, measurement, PCI Express 1. INTRODUCTION Demand for performance is constantly

  2. Improved Crosstalk Modeling with Applications to Noise Constrained Interconnect Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, David Z.

    Improved Crosstalk Modeling with Applications to Noise Constrained Interconnect Optimization This paper presents a highly accurate yet efficient crosstalk noise model, the 2-˘ model, and applies to be noise immune, ac- curate yet efficient noise models are needed to guide interconnect optimizations

  3. Generalized Lyapunov Function for Stability Analysis of Interconnected Power Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    Generalized Lyapunov Function for Stability Analysis of Interconnected Power Systems M. A. Mahmud of Lyapunov function is necessary to analyze the stability of a system. This paper presents an idea for formulating generalized Lyapunov function for the stability analysis of interconnected power systems. Lyapunov

  4. Updating Small Generator Interconnection Procedures for New Market Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coddington, M.; Fox, K.; Stanfield, S.; Varnado, L.; Culley, T.; Sheehan, M.

    2012-12-01

    Federal and state regulators are faced with the challenge of keeping interconnection procedures updated against a backdrop of evolving technology, new codes and standards, and considerably transformed market conditions. This report is intended to educate policymakers and stakeholders on beneficial reforms that will keep interconnection processes efficient and cost-effective while maintaining a safe and reliable power system.

  5. Solid-state energy storage module employing integrated interconnect board

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouillard, Jean; Comte, Christophe; Daigle, Dominik; Hagen, Ronald A.; Knudson, Orlin B.; Morin, Andre; Ranger, Michel; Ross, Guy; Rouillard, Roger; St-Germain, Philippe; Sudano, Anthony; Turgeon, Thomas A.

    2003-11-04

    The present invention is directed to an improved electrochemical energy storage device. The electrochemical energy storage device includes a number of solid-state, thin-film electrochemical cells which are selectively interconnected in series or parallel through use of an integrated interconnect board. The interconnect board is typically disposed within a sealed housing which also houses the electrochemical cells, and includes a first contact and a second contact respectively coupled to first and second power terminals of the energy storage device. The interconnect board advantageously provides for selective series or parallel connectivity with the electrochemical cells, irrespective of electrochemical cell position within the housing. Fuses and various electrical and electromechanical devices, such as bypass, equalization, and communication devices for example, may also be mounted to the interconnect board and selectively connected to the electrochemical cells.

  6. Solid-state energy storage module employing integrated interconnect board

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouillard, Jean; Comte, Christophe; Daigle, Dominik; Hagen, Ronald A.; Knudson, Orlin B.; Morin, Andre; Ranger, Michel; Ross, Guy; Rouillard, Roger; St-Germain, Philippe; Sudano, Anthony; Turgeon, Thomas A.

    2004-09-28

    An electrochemical energy storage device includes a number of solid-state thin-film electrochemical cells which are selectively interconnected in series or parallel through use of an integrated interconnect board. The interconnect board is typically disposed within a sealed housing which also houses the electrochemical cells, and includes a first contact and a second contact respectively coupled to first and second power terminals of the energy storage device. The interconnect board advantageously provides for selective series or parallel connectivity with the electrochemical cells, irrespective of electrochemical cell position within the housing. Fuses and various electrical and electro-mechanical devices, such as bypass, equalization, and communication devices for example, may also be mounted to the interconnect board and selectively connected to the electrochemical cells.

  7. Optimization of the BEOL Interconnect Stack for Advanced Semiconductor Technology Nodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shah, Pooja Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    2.2 Wire Optimization at System Level . . . . . . . . .3 Experiments for Interconnect Dimension Optimization3.1.1 Optimization of Interconnect Dimensions 3.1.2

  8. Introduction Synaptic transmission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoltz, Brian M.

    Introduction ·Synaptic transmission throughout the nervous system is predominantly chemical ·At Channels #12;Neuroreceptors & Synaptic Transmission Synapse Neurotransmitter Receptor/Ion Channel Ion Flow

  9. Merchant transmission investment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joskow, Paul L.

    2003-01-01

    We examine the performance attributes of a merchant transmission investment framework that relies on "market driven" transmission investment to provide the infrastructure to support competitive wholesale markets for ...

  10. 1406 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 22, NO. 4, NOVEMBER 2007 Market-Based Coordination of Transmission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fu, Yong

    with competitive generation capacity planning in electricity markets. The purpose of the model is a holistic, competitive electricity markets, generation capacity planning, Lagrangian relaxation, merchant transmission simulation of generation and transmission capacity expansion in the market environment. The solution

  11. Interconnecting PV on New York City's Secondary Network Distribution System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, K.; Coddington, M.; Burman, K.; Hayter, S.; Kroposki, B.; Watson, A.

    2009-12-01

    This study describes technical assistance provided by NREL to help New York City and Con Edison improve the interconnection of distributed PV systems on a secondary network distribution system.

  12. Nanoantenna couplers for metal-insulator-metal waveguide interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Onbasli, Mehmet Cengiz

    State-of-the-art copper interconnects suffer from increasing spatial power dissipation due to chip downscaling and RC delays reducing operation bandwidth. Wide bandwidth, minimized Ohmic loss, deep sub-wavelength confinement ...

  13. Energy and Reliability in Future NOC Interconnected CMPS 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Hyungjun

    2013-08-01

    In this dissertation, I explore energy and reliability in future NoC (Network-on-Chip) interconnected CMPs (chip multiprocessors) as they have become a first-order constraint in future CMP design. In the first part, we ...

  14. Passive Reduced Order Modeling of Multiport Interconnects via Semidefinite Programming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahmood, Zohaib

    In this paper we present a passive reduced order modeling algorithm for linear multiport interconnect structures. The proposed technique uses rational fitting via semidefinite programming to identify a passive transfer ...

  15. Interconnecting PV on NYC's Secondary Network Distribution System

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    To assess ways to improve the interconnection process, NREL conducted a four-part study with support from DOE. The NREL team then compiled the final reports from each study into this report.

  16. Photovoltaic Systems Interconnected onto Secondary Network Distribution Systems – Success Stories

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report examines six case studies of photovoltaic (PV) systems integrated into secondary network systems. The six PV systems were chosen for evaluation because they are interconnected to secondary network systems located in four major Solar America Cities.

  17. Intrachip clock signal distribution via si-based optical interconnect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahn, Donghwan

    2007-01-01

    The Optical clocking has emerged as an innovative alternative approach to the electrical clocking, in order to overcome the difficulties associated with electrical interconnects in the synchronization of high-performance ...

  18. Fast high-order variation-aware IC interconnect analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ye, Xiaoji

    2009-05-15

    verification. However, handling a multitude of inter-die/intra-die variations and assessing their impacts on circuit performance can dramatically complicate the timing analysis. In this thesis, three practical interconnect delay and slew analysis methods...

  19. Advanced Unit Commitment Strategies in the United States Eastern Interconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meibom, P.; Larsen, H. V.; Barth, R.; Brand, H.; Tuohy, A.; Ela, E.

    2011-08-01

    This project sought to evaluate the impacts of high wind penetrations on the U.S. Eastern Interconnection and analyze how different unit commitment strategies may affect these impacts.

  20. Load frequency control of interconnected power systems with system constraints 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choudhury, Md Ershadul H

    1993-01-01

    So far, researches in load frequency controls ( LFC) are involved in analysis of dynamic responses under normal conditions of the - interconnected power systems. In This research considers some system constraints (for example, one area fails...

  1. Solar Energy to Benefit from New FERC Interconnection Procedures...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    from New FERC Interconnection Procedures October 30, 2014 - 5:15pm Addthis As a major win for solar and testament to the impact of DOE SunShot funded research at the national...

  2. Fabrication and Characterization of Through-Substrate Interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    del Alamo, Jesus A.

    We developed a through-substrate copper-damascene interconnect technology in silicon with minimal impedance. Via impedance was extracted using parameter measurements at 50 GHz that were matched to simple circuit models. ...

  3. Evaluation of phase change materials for reconfigurable interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khoo, Chee Ying

    2010-01-01

    The possible use of programmable integrated circuit interconnect vias using an indirectly heated phase change material is evaluated. Process development and materials investigations are examined. Devices capable of multiple ...

  4. Solid-state energy storage module employing integrated interconnect board

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouillard, Jean (Saint-Luc, CA); Comte, Christophe (Montreal, CA); Daigle, Dominik (St-Hyacinthe, CA); Hagen, Ronald A. (Stillwater, MN); Knudson, Orlin B. (Vadnais Heights, MN); Morin, Andre (Longueuil, CA); Ranger, Michel (Lachine, CA); Ross, Guy (Beloeil, CA); Rouillard, Roger (Beloeil, CA); St-Germain, Philippe (Outremont, CA); Sudano, Anthony (Laval, CA); Turgeon, Thomas A. (Fridley, MN)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an improved electrochemical energy storage device. The electrochemical energy storage device includes a number of solid-state, thin-film electrochemical cells which are selectively interconnected in series or parallel through use of an integrated interconnect board. The interconnect board is typically disposed within a sealed housing which also houses the electrochemical cells, and includes a first contact and a second contact respectively coupled to first and second power terminals of the energy storage device. The interconnect board advantageously provides for selective series or parallel connectivity with the electrochemical cells, irrespective of electrochemical cell position within the housing. In one embodiment, a sheet of conductive material is processed by employing a known milling, stamping, or chemical etching technique to include a connection pattern which provides for flexible and selective interconnecting of individual electrochemical cells within the housing, which may be a hermetically sealed housing. Fuses and various electrical and electro-mechanical devices, such as bypass, equalization, and communication devices for example, may also be mounted to the interconnect board and selectively connected to the electrochemical cells.

  5. Exploration of Pipelined FPGA Interconnect Structures Akshay Sharma Katherine Compton Carl Ebeling Scott Hauck

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hochberg, Michael

    1 Exploration of Pipelined FPGA Interconnect Structures Akshay Sharma Katherine Compton Carl the interconnect structure of pipelined FPGAs. Specifically, we explore the effects of interconnect register, and the flexibility of the interconnect structure on the performance of a pipelined FPGA. Our experiments with the Ra

  6. Department of Energy Announces Plans for Additional Comment Period...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Announces Plans for Additional Comment Period on National Interest Electric Transmission Corridors Department of Energy Announces Plans for Additional Comment...

  7. RAPID/Geothermal/Transmission Siting & Interconnection/Alaska | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onRAPID/Geothermal/Exploration/Colorado < RAPID‎RAPID/Geothermal/Land Use/Federal < RAPID‎Information

  8. RAPID/Geothermal/Transmission Siting & Interconnection/Hawaii | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onRAPID/Geothermal/Exploration/Colorado < RAPID‎RAPID/Geothermal/Land Use/Federal <Information

  9. RAPID/Geothermal/Transmission Siting & Interconnection/Idaho | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onRAPID/Geothermal/Exploration/Colorado < RAPID‎RAPID/Geothermal/Land Use/Federal <InformationInformation

  10. RAPID/Geothermal/Transmission Siting & Interconnection/Nevada | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onRAPID/Geothermal/Exploration/Colorado < RAPID‎RAPID/Geothermal/Land Use/FederalInformation

  11. RAPID/Geothermal/Transmission Siting & Interconnection/Oregon | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onRAPID/Geothermal/Exploration/Colorado < RAPID‎RAPID/Geothermal/Land Use/FederalInformationInformation

  12. RAPID/Geothermal/Transmission Siting & Interconnection/Texas | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onRAPID/Geothermal/Exploration/Colorado < RAPID‎RAPID/Geothermal/Land

  13. Stability of chromite interconnections in dual environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, T.R.; Stevenson, J.W.; Raney, P.; Pederson, L.R.

    1994-11-01

    One of the most critical technical concerns in high-temperature SOFCs is the physical, chemical, and electrical stability of the interconnect (typically a doped lanthanum chromite) in the dual (oxidizing and reducing atmosphere) SOFC environment. The reducing or fuel side may experience oxygen partial pressures (P(O{sub 2})) from 10{sup {minus}18} to 10{sup {minus}6} atmospheres, while the oxidizing side may have P(O{sub 2}) from 10{sup {minus}6} to greater than 1 atm. These conditions limit the possible candidate materials to lanthanum or yttrium chromites. In the past decade, much work has centered on development of air-sinterable chromites and understanding their physical properties; little work, however, has focused on the stability of these chromites in dual environments. Chromite powders were synthesized using the glycine-nitrate process. The powders were calcined at 1,000 C for 1 hour and then uniaxially pressed into bars (46mm x 16mm x 3mm) at 55 MPa and isostatically pressed at 138 MPa. Samples were sintered in air. The dependence of the physical properties of sintered lanthanum chromites upon ambient P(O{sub 2}) and temperature (using dilatometry, thermogravimetric analysis, and oxygen permeation measurements) were studied. La{sub 1{minus}x}A{sub x}CrO{sub 3} and Y{sub 1{minus}x}Ca{sub x}CrO{sub 3}, where A is Ca or Sr and x was varied from 0.1 to 0.4 were evaluated in this study. The P(O{sub 2}) was varied using a buffered CO{sub 2}/Ar-4%H{sub 2} gas system, enabling expansion measurements to be made over a partial pressure range from 10{sup {minus}5} to 10{sup {minus}18} atmosphere at 800, 900, and 1,000 C.

  14. Concurrent Wind Cooling in Power Transmission Lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jake P Gentle

    2012-08-01

    Idaho National Laboratory and the Idaho Power Company, with collaboration from Idaho State University, have been working on a project to monitor wind and other environmental data parameters along certain electrical transmission corridors. The combination of both real-time historical weather and environmental data is being used to model, validate, and recommend possibilities for dynamic operations of the transmission lines for power and energy carrying capacity. The planned results can also be used to influence decisions about proposed design criteria for or upgrades to certain sections of the transmission lines.

  15. Uncertain Power Flows and Transmission Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ). PSERC is a multi-university Center conducting research on challenges facing a restructuring electric For information about this project contact: Gerald T. Heydt Arizona State University Department of Electrical University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering 1406 W. Green St

  16. Transmission Expansion Planning Using an AC Model ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Periodicals

    2013-01-02

    Two nonlinear programming (NLP) relaxation models are then proposed by ... H. D. Mittelmann is with the School of Mathematical and Statistical Sci- ences ...... Oct. 1970. [12] R. Fourer, D. M. Gay and B. W. Kernighan, AMPL: A Modeling Lan

  17. Environmental Recommendations for Transmission Planning | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTIONRobertsdale, AlabamaETEC GmbH JumpEllenville,Power Corp Jump to: navigation, search Name:Restore

  18. Impact of Transmission on Resource Adequacy in Systems with Wind and Solar Power: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibanez, E.; Milligan, M.

    2012-02-01

    Variable generation is on track to become a significant contributor to electric power systems worldwide. Thus, it is important to analyze the effect that renewables will have on the reliability of systems. In this paper we present a new tool being implemented at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, which allows the inclusion of variable generation in the power system resource adequacy. The tool is used to quantify the potential contribution of transmission to reliability in highly interconnected systems and an example is provided using the Western Interconnection footprint.

  19. Transmission through the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yanikomeroglu, Halim

    Optimum Transmission through the GMAC D. Calabuig, R. Gohary, H. Yanikomero. 1/22 Introduction System model Optimization Algorithm Conclusions Optimum Transmission through the Gaussian Multiple Access Engineering Carleton University Ottawa, Canada July 8, 2013 #12;Optimum Transmission through the GMAC D

  20. Performance Incentives for Transmission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oren, Shmuel S.

    Performance Incentives for Transmission FERC's Standard Market Design should accommodate a performance-based regulation mechanism that is designed to align the interests of transmission operators to investment, transmission investors would be entitled to the CRRs or CRR auc- tion revenues engendered

  1. Transmission Enhancement Technology Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    a recommendation of the most cost-effective methods and technologies to enhance electricity transmission from a review of methods and technologies with potential to enhance electricity transmission capability-traditional methods and technologies to increase the capacity of the high voltage electric power transmission system

  2. Vice President, Planning and Asset Management

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    THIS VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT HAS BEEN MODIFIED TO EXTEND THE CLOSING DATE TO 7/10/2015. Planning and Asset Management is responsible for overseeing Bonneville Power Administration's transmission...

  3. Spintronic switches for ultra low energy global interconnects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharad, Mrigank Roy, Kaushik

    2014-05-07

    We present ultra-low energy interconnect design using nano-scale spin-torque (ST) switches for global data-links. Emerging spin-torque phenomena can lead to ultra-low-voltage, high-speed current-mode magnetic-switches. ST-switches can simultaneously provide large trans-impedance gain by employing magnetic tunnel junctions, to convert current-mode signals into large-swing voltage levels. Such device-characteristics can be used in the design of energy-efficient current-mode global interconnects.

  4. Automated manual transmission controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lawrie, Robert E. (Whitmore Lake, MI); Reed, Jr., Richard G. (Royal Oak, MI); Bernier, David R. (Rochester Hills, MI)

    1999-12-28

    A powertrain system for a hybrid vehicle. The hybrid vehicle includes a heat engine, such as a diesel engine, and an electric machine, which operates as both an electric motor and an alternator, to power the vehicle. The hybrid vehicle also includes a manual-style transmission configured to operate as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver. The engine and the electric machine drive an input shaft which in turn drives an output shaft of the transmission. In addition to driving the transmission, the electric machine regulates the speed of the input shaft in order to synchronize the input shaft during either an upshift or downshift of the transmission by either decreasing or increasing the speed of the input shaft. When decreasing the speed of the input shaft, the electric motor functions as an alternator to produce electrical energy which may be stored by a storage device. Operation of the transmission is controlled by a transmission controller which receives input signals and generates output signals to control shift and clutch motors to effect smooth launch, upshift shifts, and downshifts of the transmission, so that the transmission functions substantially as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver, while internally substantially functioning as a manual transmission.

  5. Using Natural Gas Transmission Pipeline Costs to Estimate Hydrogen Pipeline Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, Nathan

    2004-01-01

    higher demand push US natural gas construction plans. ”Using Natural Gas Transmission Pipeline Costs to Estimatethe construction costs of natural gas, oil, and petroleum

  6. Flip chip electrical interconnection by selective electroplating and bonding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Liwei

    Flip chip electrical interconnection by selective electroplating and bonding L.-W. Pan, P. Yuen, L resistance of the electroplating bond is 12 W. This process has potential applications in replacing-step approach for high-density electrical in- terconnection by using flip chip selective electroplating

  7. Electric power from offshore wind via synoptic-scale interconnection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    Electric power from offshore wind via synoptic-scale interconnection Willett Kemptona,1 , Felipe M regional estimate, Kempton et al. (2) calculated that two-thirds of the offshore wind power off the U in the U.S. Atlantic region is already underway. Fig. 1 shows as black squares offshore wind developments

  8. Bargaining-based Energy Trading Market for Interconnected Microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianwei

    Bargaining-based Energy Trading Market for Interconnected Microgrids Hao Wang, Jianwei Huang trading among mul- tiple connected microgrids, and analyzes the impacts of such trading on the microgrids' costs. In our model, microgrids with excessive power generations can trade with other microgrids

  9. GRAIL : Graphical Representation of Activity, Interconnection and Loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stepney, Susan

    GRAIL : Graphical Representation of Activity, Interconnection and Loading Susan Stepney GEC One of the tools being developed as part of ParSiFal is GRAIL. It represents an occam program flow of control, not communication channels): Susan Stepney. "GRAIL: Graphical Representation

  10. Hermetic aluminum radio frequency interconnection and method for making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kilgo, Riley D. (Albuquerque, NM); Kovacic, Larry (Albuquerque, NM); Brow, Richard K. (Rolla, MO)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a light-weight, hermetic coaxial radio-frequency (RF) interconnection having an electrically conductive outer housing made of aluminum or an aluminum alloy, a central electrical conductor made of ferrous or non-ferrous material, and a cylinder of dielectric material comprising a low-melting-temperature, high-thermal-expansion aluminophosphate glass composition for hermetically sealing between the aluminum-alloy outer housing and the ferrous or non-ferrous center conductor. The entire RF interconnection assembly is made permanently hermetic by thermally fusing the center conductor, glass, and housing concurrently by bringing the glass to the melt point by way of exposure to an atmospheric temperature sufficient to melt the glass, less than 540.degree. C., but that does not melt the center conductor or the outer aluminum or aluminum alloy housing. The composition of the glass used is controlled to provide a suitable low dielectric constant so that an appropriate electrical characteristic impedance, for example 50 ohms, can be achieved for an electrical interconnection that performs well at high radio frequencies and also provides an interconnection maintaining a relatively small physical size.

  11. On-chip Interconnection Network for Accelerator-Rich Architectures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cong, Jason "Jingsheng"

    -purpose cores. Driven by the need for energy efficiency, the in- dustry has proposed incorporating accelerators to interact with the memory system. For this reason, an open question is: How should the accelerators, coresOn-chip Interconnection Network for Accelerator-Rich Architectures Jason Cong Michael Gill Yuchen

  12. Silicon Micro-Needles with Flexible Interconnections , Y. Hanein1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Department of Zoology, University of Washington, Seattle WA 98195 Abstract - A flexible polyimide to carry elements such as amplifiers, battery or memory. The interconnecting scheme uses two polyimide base and the micro-electrodes, while the polyimide layers provide flexible insulation. The current

  13. Hi-LION: Hierarchical Large-Scale Interconnection Optical Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoo, S. J. Ben

    Hi-LION: Hierarchical Large-Scale Interconnection Optical Network With AWGRs [Invited] Zheng Cao, Roberto Proietti, and S. J. B. Yoo Abstract--This paper proposes Hi-LION, a hierarchical large wavelength routing property of AWGRs together with electrical switching inside the processors, Hi-LION can

  14. Interconnection economics of small power systems -- A case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bloethe, W.G.; Thakar, H.C. [Sargent and Lundy, Chicago, IL (United States); Kim, L.C. [Sarawak Electricity Supply Corp., Kuching (Malaysia); Samin, S. [PT PLN Persero, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    1996-11-01

    The advantages of interconnecting large electric power systems has been almost universally accepted in those parts of North America that are not geographically isolated. However, interconnecting power systems can result in significant economic advantages, even in those parts of the world where power systems are small and widely separated. This paper examines two small, isolated power systems on the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia. The Malaysian State of Srawak lies on the north coast of Borneo. With an area of 123,156 square km (47,555 square mi.) and population of 1.7 million, it is the largest, but most sparsely populated, state in the Federation of Malaysia. Its neighbor to the south is the Indonesian Province of West Kalimantan. A study examining the feasibility of interconnecting these two power systems was undertaken in 1994 as a part of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) initiative to interconnect the power systems in the region. The ASEAN region is characterized by rapidly growing economies and rapid load growth.

  15. SHIELDING AREA OPTIMIZATION UNDER THE SOLUTION OF INTERCONNECT CROSSTALK1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Lei

    SHIELDING AREA OPTIMIZATION UNDER THE SOLUTION OF INTERCONNECT CROSSTALK1 1 This paper is supported integrity. Simultaneous shield insertion and net ordering (SINO) has been shown to be effective to reduce both capacitive and inductive coupling. Although shield insertion could reduce crosstalk efficiently

  16. An Optical Interconnection Architecture for Large Packet Switches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Italy ABSTRACT The design of switching architectures for today's telecommunication networks needsICTON 2007 An Optical Interconnection Architecture for Large Packet Switches A. Bianco, E. Carta, D to consider the limits imposed by electronic technology; in particular, it must take into account power

  17. S-700A MOSSBAUER DRIVE INTERCONNECTION DIAGRAM FOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Browder, Tom

    S-700A MOSSBAUER DRIVE INTERCONNECTION DIAGRAM FOR C.A.OPERATION WITH COMPUTER CUMPUEK WITH K A OK OPERATION D V -LIY I SCALER RESET DATA The S-700A drive and K-4 motor can also be used in Constant Velocity the constant velocity motion. The duty cycle is about 85%, and there is provision for the gating of data so

  18. Record of Decision for the Electrical Interconnection of the...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Administration Record of Decision for the Electrical Interconnection of the Windy Point Wind Energy Project November 2006 B o n n e v i l l e P o w e r A d m i n i s t r a t i o...

  19. innovati nInterconnection Standards Guide Integration of Distributed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Engineers (IEEE). The goal: to create consensus standards with participation from industry, utilitiesinnovati nInterconnection Standards Guide Integration of Distributed Energy Resources Across for more than a decade. IEEE 1547: Consensus Standard Paves the Way NREL researchers have always believed

  20. A 2-Slot Time-Division Multiplexing (TDM) Interconnect Network for Gigascale Integration (GSI)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joshi, Ajay

    critical-path interconnect on that tier. For a given range of interconnect lengths, this idleness can of the low average activity factor, and can be utilized by sending two binary transitions on a single wire

  1. Through-substrate interconnects for 3-D integration and RF systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Joyce H. (Joyce Hsia-Sing), 1974-

    2007-01-01

    Interconnects on silicon chips are fabricated on the top surface with an ever-increasing number of metal layers necessary to just meet performance needs. While devices have scaled according to Moore's law, interconnects ...

  2. Performance evaluation of configurable arrays with mesh interconnections and wormhole routing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krishnamoorthy, Deviusha

    1997-01-01

    Large scale multiprocessors are built on a particular interconnection network with a fixed number of processors. The interconnections are based on topologies like mesh, hypercube, etc. If the logical domain of a problem does not map to the physical...

  3. A Guidebook on Grid Interconnection and Islanded Operation of Mini-Grid Power Systems Up to 200 kW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greacen, Chris

    2014-01-01

    wp-content/uploads/2010/01/IREC-Interconnection-Procedures-investor-owned utility IREC: Interstate Renewable EnergyRenewable Energy Council (IREC) Model Interconnection

  4. Nanophotonic Optical Interconnection Network Architecture for On-Chip and Off-Chip Communications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergman, Keren

    for an integrated low-power, high-bandwidth optical interconnection network based on microring resonator technology for the next generation of high-performance architectures. The need for an interconnect solution providing lowNanophotonic Optical Interconnection Network Architecture for On-Chip and Off-Chip Communications

  5. Integration of a waveguide self-electrooptic effect device and a vertically coupled interconnect waveguide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vawter, G. Allen (Corrales, NM)

    2008-02-26

    A self-electrooptic effect device ("SEED") is integrated with waveguide interconnects through the use of vertical directional couplers. Light initially propagating in the interconnect waveguide is vertically coupled to the active waveguide layer of the SEED and, if the SEED is in the transparent state, the light is coupled back to the interconnect waveguide.

  6. Low Power Multilevel Interconnect Networks Using Wave-Pipelined Multiplexed (WPM) Routing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joshi, Ajay

    Low Power Multilevel Interconnect Networks Using Wave-Pipelined Multiplexed (WPM) Routing Ajay 30332, USA {joshi, vinita, jeff}@ece.gatech.edu Abstract A low power multilevel interconnect architecture that uses wave-pipelined multiplexed (WPM) interconnect routing is proposed in this paper. WPM

  7. E cient Layout of a Passive, Single-Hop, Fiber-Optic Interconnection (among N stations)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E cient Layout of a Passive, Single-Hop, Fiber-Optic Interconnection (among N stations-hop, ber-optic interconnection among n stations, each with two trans- mitters and one receiver, and a round, but the layout of this interconnection poses a challenge both in terms of wiring complex- ity and power budget

  8. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buckles, Robert A. (Livermore, CA); Booth, Rex (Livermore, CA); Yen, Boris T. (El Cerrito, CA)

    2004-06-29

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  9. Transmission and Storage Operations

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Transmission and Storage Operations Natural Gas Infrastructure R&D and Methane Mitigation Workshop Mary Savalle, PMP, LSSGB Compression Reliability Engineer November 12, 2014...

  10. Collaborative Transmission Technology Roadmap

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Addendum to the Collaborative Transmission Technology Roadmap March 2014 Bonneville Power Administration Enhanced PDF Functionality Functionality of the PDF version of this...

  11. Patterns of transmission investment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joskow, Paul L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines a number of issues associated with alternative analytical approaches for evaluating investments in electricity transmission infrastructure and alternative institutional arrangements to govern network ...

  12. EC Transmission Line Risk Identification and Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bigelow, Tim S

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this document is to assist in evaluating and planning for the cost, schedule, and technical project risks associated with the delivery and operation of the EC (Electron cyclotron) transmission line system. In general, the major risks that are anticipated to be encountered during the project delivery phase associated with the implementation of the Procurement Arrangement for the EC transmission line system are associated with: (1) Undefined or changing requirements (e.g., functional or regulatory requirements) (2) Underperformance of prototype, first unit, or production components during testing (3) Unavailability of qualified vendors for critical components Technical risks associated with the design and operation of the system are also identified.

  13. Transmission Line Security Monitor

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-28

    The Transmission Line Security Monitor is a multi-sensor monitor that mounts directly on high-voltage transmission lines to detect, characterize and communicate terrorist activity, human tampering and threatening conditions around support towers. For more information about INL's critical infrastructure protection research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  14. Transmission Line Security Monitor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-01-01

    The Transmission Line Security Monitor is a multi-sensor monitor that mounts directly on high-voltage transmission lines to detect, characterize and communicate terrorist activity, human tampering and threatening conditions around support towers. For more information about INL's critical infrastructure protection research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  15. Advanced Unit Commitment Strategies for the US Eastern Interconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ela, E.; Meibom, P.; Barth, R.; Tuohy, A.; Milligan, M.

    2010-01-01

    With increasing penetrations of wind power on the eastern interconnection of the United States, much research has been discussed on how the increased uncertainty may change how the system is operated. In particular, unit commitment programs which decide what units need to be started up in order to meet the changing demand at least cost may need to have modifications in order to reduce costs and improve reliability on a power system with increasing uncertain variables. This paper outlines a study undertaken for the U.S. Eastern Interconnection in which different advanced unit commitment strategies were simulated for three different years to evaluate the benefits that may occur from using these strategies as an operational tool.

  16. Spontaneous synchronization driven by energy transport in interconnected networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vincenzo Nicosia; Per Sebastian Skardal; Vito Latora; Alex Arenas

    2015-02-26

    Understanding dynamical processes on networks is an important area of research in complex systems, with far reaching implications and applications in many real-world cases. Here we introduce and study a model of intertwined dynamics on interconnected networks, inspired by the human brain, which consists of bidirectionally coupled synchronization and energy transport processes. Remarkably, the proposed model allows the emergence of spontaneous switch-like synchronization transitions driven by the energy transport dynamics, which qualitatively mirror the transitions observed in human brain dynamics between resting-state and cognitive activity. We provide a steady-state analytical explanation for the observed behavior and show that the switch-like transition is robust over a wide range of model parameters and network topologies. Finally, we suggest that the complexity inherent in other interconnected dynamical processes might be responsible for various other emergent behaviors observed in natural systems.

  17. Characteristics of Interconnected Delta-Hydride Precipitates in Zr

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L.J. Carroll; M.R. Tonks; T.M. Lillo; B.S. Fromm; DC Haggard; T.C. Morris; W.D. Swank; T.L. Trowbridge; M.C. Carroll

    2014-09-01

    Characterization of extended delta-ZrH1.66 structures in unalloyed zirconium by electron backscatter diffraction analysis confirms that they consist of many interconnected precipitates of multiple, but distinctly related, orientations. The expected orientation relationship of (0001)a-Zr//(111)delta-ZrH1.66 is confirmed between the hydride and one of the surrounding a-Zr matrix grains. The delta-ZrH1.66 precipitates do not extend in a discrete crystalline orientation, but are regularly divided by 60° type {111} twins in which adjacent delta-ZrH1.66 grains share a {111} plane. The observed matching of the close-packed FCC planes of impinging or twinned hydrides within an interconnected structure enables the minimization of the overall interfacial energy through successive nucleation and growth events and twinning.

  18. Series interconnected photovoltaic cells and method for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albright, S.P.; Chamberlin, R.R.; Thompson, R.A.

    1995-01-31

    A novel photovoltaic module and method for constructing the same are disclosed. The module includes a plurality of photovoltaic cells formed on a substrate and laterally separated by interconnection regions. Each cell includes a bottom electrode, a photoactive layer and a top electrode layer. Adjacent cells are connected in electrical series by way of a conductive-buffer line. The buffer line is also useful in protecting the bottom electrode against severing during downstream layer cutting processes. 11 figs.

  19. Design and analysis of high performance multistage interconnection networks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhogavilli, Suresh K

    1993-01-01

    Major Subject: Electrical Engineering ABSTRACT Design and Analysis of High Performance Multistage Interconnection Networks. (December 1993) Suresh K. Bhogavilli, B. Tech. , J. N. T. University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Hosame Abu-Amara Small... the next stage buffers are not full. Thus r, = A and this value doesn't change with network size. But this model results in cycle loss, When a packet from the full buffer moves forward, a cycle is lost since it will not allow the packets...

  20. SOFC Interconnect and Compressive Seal Development at PNNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, Y S.; Yang, Z Gary; Singh, Prabhakar; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Xia, Gordon

    2005-11-01

    The development of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology represents an opportunity to achieve significant improvements in energy conversion efficiency and reduction of undesirable emissions. However, many technical challenges still need to be overcome before the utilization of the advantages of SOFC can take place. These challenges include the need for improved interconnects and seals for planar SOFC stacks. In this paper, we briefly summarize recent progress at PNNL in these two research areas.

  1. Chromium Vaporization Reduction by Nickel Coatings For SOEC Interconnect Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael V. Glazoff; Sergey N. Rashkeev; J. Stephen Herring

    2014-09-01

    The vaporization of Cr-rich volatile species from interconnect materials is a major source of degradation that limits the lifetime of planar solid oxide devices systems with metallic interconnects, including Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells, or SOECs. Some metallic coatings (Ni, Co, and Cu) significantly reduce the Cr release from interconnects and slow down the oxide scale growth on the steel substrate. To shed additional light upon the mechanisms of such protection and find a suitable coating material for ferritic stainless steel materials, we used a combination of first-principles calculations, thermodynamics, and diffusion modeling to investigate which factors determine the quality of the Ni metallic coating at stainless steel interconnector. We found that the Cr migration in Ni coating is determined by a delicate combination of the nickel oxidation, Cr diffusion, and phase transformation processes. Although the formation of Cr2O3 oxide is more exothermic than that of NiO, the kinetic rate of the chromia formation in the coating layer and its surface is significantly reduced by the low mobility of Cr in nickel oxide and in NiCr2O4 spinel. These results are in a good agreement with diffusion modeling for Cr diffusion through Ni coating layer on the ferritic 441 steel substrate.

  2. Transmission Design at the National Level: Benefits, Risks and Possible Paths Forward

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electric Energy System #12;Transmission Design at the National Level: Benefits, Risks and Possible Paths Planning, Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) · Dale Osborn, Consulting Advisor, Transmission to move electric energy interregionally is limited to the capacity of the existing transmission system

  3. On the Configuration of the US Western Interconnection Voltage...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Number: AC05-76RL01830 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: IEEE PES Transmission and Distribution Conference and Exposition, April 14-17, 2014,...

  4. Monolithically interconnected GaAs solar cells: A new interconnection technology for high voltage solar cell output

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dinetta, L.C.; Hannon, M.H.

    1995-10-01

    Photovoltaic linear concentrator arrays can benefit from high performance solar cell technologies being developed at AstroPower. Specifically, these are the integration of thin GaAs solar cell and epitaxial lateral overgrowth technologies with the application of monolithically interconnected solar cell (MISC) techniques. This MISC array has several advantages which make it ideal for space concentrator systems. These are high system voltage, reliable low cost monolithically formed interconnections, design flexibility, costs that are independent of array voltage, and low power loss from shorts, opens, and impact damage. This concentrator solar cell will incorporate the benefits of light trapping by growing the device active layers over a low-cost, simple, PECVD deposited silicon/silicon dioxide Bragg reflector. The high voltage-low current output results in minimal 12R losses while properly designing the device allows for minimal shading and resistance losses. It is possible to obtain open circuit voltages as high as 67 volts/cm of solar cell length with existing technology. The projected power density for the high performance device is 5 kW/m for an AMO efficiency of 26% at 1 5X. Concentrator solar cell arrays are necessary to meet the power requirements of specific mission platforms and can supply high voltage power for electric propulsion systems. It is anticipated that the high efficiency, GaAs monolithically interconnected linear concentrator solar cell array will enjoy widespread application for space based solar power needs. Additional applications include remote man-portable or ultra-light unmanned air vehicle (UAV) power supplies where high power per area, high radiation hardness and a high bus voltage or low bus current are important. The monolithic approach has a number of inherent advantages, including reduced cost per interconnect and increased reliability of array connections. There is also a high potential for a large number of consumer products.

  5. EIS-0411: Transmission Agency of Northern California Transmission Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS is for the Western Area Power Administration construction, operation, and maintenance of the proposed transmission agency of Northern California Transmission Project, California.

  6. Contents ISS and Lyapunov functions Input-to-state stability and interconnections Lyapunov functions Simplicial fixed point algor Lyapunov Functions for Interconnected Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hafstein, Sigurđur Freyr

    Contents ISS and Lyapunov functions Input-to-state stability and interconnections Lyapunov functions Simplicial fixed point algor Lyapunov Functions for Interconnected Systems Fabian Wirth Institute of Mathematics, University of W¨urzburg Workshop on Algorithms for Dynamical Systems and Lyapunov Functions

  7. Electromigration in metal interconnects is the most pernicious failure mechanism in semiconductor integrated circuits (ICs). Early electromigration investigations were primarily focused on aluminum interconnects for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electromigration in metal interconnects is the most pernicious failure mechanism in semiconductor interconnects for silicon-based ICs. An alternative metallization compatible with gallium arsenide (Ga at higher current densities and elevated temperatures. Gold-based metallization was implemented on Ga

  8. Record of Decision for the Electrical Interconnection of the COB Energy Facility (DOE/EIS-0343)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    2004-08-20

    The COB Energy Facility would be constructed on a site near the rural community of Bonanza, in Klamath County, Oregon. Generating components of the project would be constructed in either one or two phases, including four air-cooled combustion turbine generators fueled with natural gas, four heat recovery steam generators, and two steam turbines. Additional facilities include a new 7.2-mile-long 500-kV transmission line, a new 4.1-mile-long natural gas pipeline, a 2.8-mile-long water pipeline, a 20-acre wastewater evaporation pond or a 3,770-foot-long irrigation pipeline to deliver wastewater to a 31-acre pasture, a 4.7-acre stormwater infiltration basin, a 1.5-acre stormwater retention pond, and various tanks, buildings, exhaust stacks, parking, and storage areas. Natural gas to fuel the combustion turbines would be supplied by way of a new 4.1-mile-long, 20-inch-diameter pipeline from a Gas Transmission Northwest's Bonanza Compressor Station. The new pipeline would be constructed within private easements adjacent to or near Klamath County road rights-of-way. Although COB Energy Facility generators would use air-cooled condensers, the project would use an average of 72 gallons per minute for steam production and station service, up to a maximum of 210 gallons per minute. The source of this water would be one existing and two new wells near the project site, drawing from a deep aquifer consistent with a State of Oregon water right permit expected to be incorporated into the State energy facility site certificate. Process wastewater would either be used to irrigate pasture or held in a lined pond to evaporate. Sanitary water would be routed to an onsite septic tank then discharged to a leach field. No wastewater would be discharged to surface waters. The COB Energy Facility would interconnect to the FCRTS at Captain Jack Substation, 7.2 miles south of the project site. PERC would construct a new 500-kV transmission line from the project site to Captain Jack Substation. Part of the transmission line would cross public land managed by the Bureau of Land Management. BPA would install additional electrical equipment at Captain Jack Substation. At this time, PERC has not requested specific points of delivery.

  9. Risk Assessment and Management for Interconnected and Interactive Critical Flood Defense Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamedifar, Hamed

    2012-01-01

    from failure of electric transmission assets in the Shermancases. Three major electric transmission lines greater then

  10. Down hole transmission system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT)

    2007-07-24

    A transmission system in a downhole component comprises a data transmission element in both ends of the downhole component. Each data transmission element houses an electrically conducting coil in a MCEI circular trough. The electrically conducting coil comprises at least two generally fractional loops. In the preferred embodiment, the transmission elements are connected by an electrical conductor. Preferably, the electrical conductor is a coaxial cable. Preferably, the MCEI trough comprises ferrite. In the preferred embodiment, the fractional loops are connected by a connecting cable. In one aspect of the present invention, the connecting cable is a pair of twisted wires. In one embodiment the connecting cable is a shielded pair of twisted wires. In another aspect of the present invention, the connecting cable is a coaxial cable. The connecting cable may be disposed outside of the MCEI circular trough.

  11. Downhole transmission system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

    2008-01-15

    A transmission system in a downhole component comprises a data transmission element in both ends of the downhole component. Each data transmission element houses an electrically conducting coil in a MCEI circular trough. An electrical conductor connects both the transmission elements. The electrical conductor comprises at least three electrically conductive elements insulated from each other. In the preferred embodiment the electrical conductor comprises an electrically conducting outer shield, an electrically conducting inner shield and an electrical conducting core. In some embodiments of the present invention, the electrical conductor comprises an electrically insulating jacket. In other embodiments, the electrical conductor comprises a pair of twisted wires. In some embodiments, the electrical conductor comprises semi-conductive material.

  12. Patterns of Transmission Investment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joskow, Paul

    2006-03-14

    influenced by uncertainty, contingency criteria and associated engineering reliability rules. I illustrate how the wholesale market and transmission investment frameworks have addressed these issues in England and Wales (E&W) since 1990 and in the PJM...

  13. Transmission and Storage Operations

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCEDInstallers/ContractorsPhotovoltaicsState ofSavingsTransmission SEAB PresentationTransmission and

  14. Integrated Transmission and Distribution Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalsi, Karanjit; Fuller, Jason C.; Tuffner, Francis K.; Lian, Jianming; Zhang, Wei; Marinovici, Laurentiu D.; Fisher, Andrew R.; Chassin, Forrest S.; Hauer, Matthew L.

    2013-01-16

    Distributed, generation, demand response, distributed storage, smart appliances, electric vehicles and renewable energy resources are expected to play a key part in the transformation of the American power system. Control, coordination and compensation of these smart grid assets are inherently interlinked. Advanced control strategies to warrant large-scale penetration of distributed smart grid assets do not currently exist. While many of the smart grid technologies proposed involve assets being deployed at the distribution level, most of the significant benefits accrue at the transmission level. The development of advanced smart grid simulation tools, such as GridLAB-D, has led to a dramatic improvement in the models of smart grid assets available for design and evaluation of smart grid technology. However, one of the main challenges to quantifying the benefits of smart grid assets at the transmission level is the lack of tools and framework for integrating transmission and distribution technologies into a single simulation environment. Furthermore, given the size and complexity of the distribution system, it is crucial to be able to represent the behavior of distributed smart grid assets using reduced-order controllable models and to analyze their impacts on the bulk power system in terms of stability and reliability. The objectives of the project were to: • Develop a simulation environment for integrating transmission and distribution control, • Construct reduced-order controllable models for smart grid assets at the distribution level, • Design and validate closed-loop control strategies for distributed smart grid assets, and • Demonstrate impact of integrating thousands of smart grid assets under closed-loop control demand response strategies on the transmission system. More specifically, GridLAB-D, a distribution system tool, and PowerWorld, a transmission planning tool, are integrated into a single simulation environment. The integrated environment allows the load flow interactions between the bulk power system and end-use loads to be explicitly modeled. Power system interactions are modeled down to time intervals as short as 1-second. Another practical issue is that the size and complexity of typical distribution systems makes direct integration with transmission models computationally intractable. Hence, the focus of the next main task is to develop reduced-order controllable models for some of the smart grid assets. In particular, HVAC units, which are a type of Thermostatically Controlled Loads (TCLs), are considered. The reduced-order modeling approach can be extended to other smart grid assets, like water heaters, PVs and PHEVs. Closed-loop control strategies are designed for a population of HVAC units under realistic conditions. The proposed load controller is fully responsive and achieves the control objective without sacrificing the end-use performance. Finally, using the T&D simulation platform, the benefits to the bulk power system are demonstrated by controlling smart grid assets under different demand response closed-loop control strategies.

  15. TRANSMISSION MEDIA 4.1 Guided Transmission Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scarano, Vittorio

    CHAPTER 4 TRANSMISSION MEDIA 4.1 Guided Transmission Media Twisted Pair Coaxial Cable Optical Fiber 4.2 Wireless Transmission Antennas Terrestrial Microwave Satellite Microwave Broadcast Radio.4 Line-of-Sight Transmission Free Space Loss Atmospheric Absorption Multipath Refraction 4.5 Recommended

  16. Series interconnected photovoltaic cells and method for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albright, Scot P. (El Paso, TX); Chamberlin, Rhodes R. (El Paso, TX); Thompson, Roger A. (Littleton, CO)

    1995-01-01

    A novel photovoltaic module (10) and method for constructing the same are disclosed. The module (10) includes a plurality of photovoltaic cells (12) formed on a substrate (14) and laterally separated by interconnection regions (15). Each cell (12) includes a bottom electrode (16), a photoactive layer (18) and a top electrode layer (20). Adjacent cells (12) are connected in electrical series by way of a conductive-buffer line (22). The buffer line (22) is also useful in protecting the bottom electrode (16) against severing during downstream layer cutting processes.

  17. Production process for advanced space satellite system cables/interconnects.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendoza, Luis A.

    2007-12-01

    This production process was generated for the satellite system program cables/interconnects group, which in essences had no well defined production process. The driver for the development of a formalized process was based on the set backs, problem areas, challenges, and need improvements faced from within the program at Sandia National Laboratories. In addition, the formal production process was developed from the Master's program of Engineering Management for New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology in Socorro New Mexico and submitted as a thesis to meet the institute's graduating requirements.

  18. Western Interconnection Energy Imbalance Market Status and Prospects (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; King, J.; Beuning, S.

    2011-10-01

    This presentation describes how a new wholesale electricity market for energy imbalance ancillary services could be implemented and operated. Some conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Method for calculating additional reserve requirements due to wind and solar production; (2) EIM results in substantial reduction in reserves requirements and ramping demand; (3) Reduced participation reduces benefits for all but reduces the benefits to non-participants the most; (4) Full participation leads to maximum benefit across the Western Interconnection, up to 42% of total reserve requirement; and (5) Regional EIM implementations have smaller but substantial benefits.

  19. Generation Interconnection Policies and Wind Power: A Discussion of Issues, Problems, and Potential Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porter, K.; Fink, S.; Mudd, C.; DeCesaro, J.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the adoption and implementation of FERC Order 2003 and the reasons for the sharp rise in generation interconnection filings in recent years.

  20. Comparing Germany's and California's Interconnection Processes for PV Systems (White Paper)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tweedie, A.; Doris, E.

    2011-07-01

    Establishing interconnection to the grid is a recognized barrier to the deployment of distributed energy generation. This report compares interconnection processes for photovoltaic projects in California and Germany. This report summarizes the steps of the interconnection process for developers and utilities, the average length of time utilities take to process applications, and paperwork required of project developers. Based on a review of the available literature, this report finds that while the interconnection procedures and timelines are similar in California and Germany, differences in the legal and regulatory frameworks are substantial.

  1. Protective coating on stainless steel interconnect for SOFCs: Oxidation kinetics and electrical properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Xuan; Hou, Peggy Y.; Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2004-01-01

    PROTECTIVE COATING ON STAINLESS STEEL INTERCONNECT FORcoatings on commercial stainless steel alloys that allow forTABLES Table 1. Stainless steel composition in Weight%

  2. Printed circuit dispersive transmission line

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ikezi, H.; Lin-Liu, Y.R.; DeGrassie, J.S.

    1991-08-27

    A printed circuit dispersive transmission line structure is disclosed comprising an insulator, a ground plane formed on one surface of the insulator, a first transmission line formed on a second surface of the insulator, and a second transmission line also formed on the second surface of the insulator and of longer length than the first transmission line and periodically intersecting the first transmission line. In a preferred embodiment, the transmission line structure exhibits highly dispersive characteristics by designing the length of one of the transmission line between two adjacent periodic intersections to be longer than the other. 5 figures.

  3. Printed circuit dispersive transmission line

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ikezi, Hiroyuki (Rancho Santa Fe, CA); Lin-Liu, Yuh-Ren (San Diego, CA); DeGrassie, John S. (Encinitas, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A printed circuit dispersive transmission line structure is disclosed comprising an insulator, a ground plane formed on one surface of the insulator, a first transmission line formed on a second surface of the insulator, and a second transmission line also formed on the second surface of the insulator and of longer length than the first transmission line and periodically intersecting the first transmission line. In a preferred embodiment, the transmission line structure exhibits highly dispersive characteristics by designing the length of one of the transmission line between two adjacent periodic intersections to be longer than the other.

  4. Electrical isolation of component cells in monolithically interconnected modules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wanlass, Mark W. (Golden, CO)

    2001-01-01

    A monolithically interconnected photovoltaic module having cells which are electrically connected which comprises a substrate, a plurality of cells formed over the substrate, each cell including a primary absorber layer having a light receiving surface and a p-region, formed with a p-type dopant, and an n-region formed with an n-type dopant adjacent the p-region to form a single pn-junction, and a cell isolation diode layer having a p-region, formed with a p-type dopant, and an n-region formed with an n-type dopant adjacent the p-region to form a single pn-junction, the diode layer intervening the substrate and the absorber layer wherein the absorber and diode interfacial regions of a same conductivity type orientation, the diode layer having a reverse-breakdown voltage sufficient to prevent inter-cell shunting, and each cell electrically isolated from adjacent cells with a vertical trench trough the pn-junction of the diode layer, interconnects disposed in the trenches contacting the absorber regions of adjacent cells which are doped an opposite conductivity type, and electrical contacts.

  5. The evolution and adoption of optical interconnect cables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiao, Louisa

    2011-01-01

    Optical technologies are now ubiquitous in data communication, telecommunication, and computing networks for transmission distances beyond a few meters. The use of optical to transmit voice communication has changed the ...

  6. Renewable Resource Integration Project - Scoping Study of Strategic Transmission, Operations, and Reliability Issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eto, Joseph; Budhraja, Vikram; Ballance, John; Dyer, Jim; Mobasheri, Fred; Eto, Joseph

    2008-07-01

    California is on a path to increase utilization of renewable resources. California will need to integrate approximately 30,000 megawatts (MW) of new renewable generation in the next 20 years. Renewable resources are typically located in remote locations, not near the load centers. Nearly two/thirds or 20,000 MW of new renewable resources needed are likely to be delivered to Los Angeles Basin transmission gateways. Integration of renewable resources requires interconnection to the power grid, expansion of the transmission system capability between the backbone power grid and transmission gateways, and increase in delivery capacity from transmission gateways to the local load centers. To scope the transmission, operations, and reliability issues for renewables integration, this research focused on the Los Angeles Basin Area transmission gateways where most of new renewables are likely. Necessary actions for successful renewables integration include: (1) Expand Los Angeles Basin Area transmission gateway and nomogram limits by 10,000 to 20,000 MW; (2) Upgrade local transmission network for deliverability to load centers; (3) Secure additional storage, demand management, automatic load control, dynamic pricing, and other resources that meet regulation and ramping needed in real time operations; (4) Enhance local voltage support; and (5) Expand deliverability from Los Angeles to San Diego and Northern California.

  7. Transmission line capital costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, K.R.; Brown, D.R.

    1995-05-01

    The displacement or deferral of conventional AC transmission line installation is a key benefit associated with several technologies being developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management (OEM). Previous benefits assessments conducted within OEM have been based on significantly different assumptions for the average cost per mile of AC transmission line. In response to this uncertainty, an investigation of transmission line capital cost data was initiated. The objective of this study was to develop a database for preparing preliminary estimates of transmission line costs. An extensive search of potential data sources identified databases maintained by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) as superior sources of transmission line cost data. The BPA and WAPA data were adjusted to a common basis and combined together. The composite database covers voltage levels from 13.8 to 765 W, with cost estimates for a given voltage level varying depending on conductor size, tower material type, tower frame type, and number of circuits. Reported transmission line costs vary significantly, even for a given voltage level. This can usually be explained by variation in the design factors noted above and variation in environmental and land (right-of-way) costs, which are extremely site-specific. Cost estimates prepared from the composite database were compared to cost data collected by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for investor-owned utilities from across the United States. The comparison was hampered because the only design specifications included with the FERC data were voltage level and line length. Working within this limitation, the FERC data were not found to differ significantly from the composite database. Therefore, the composite database was judged to be a reasonable proxy for estimating national average costs.

  8. Risk Assessment and Management for Interconnected and Interactive Critical Flood Defense Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamedifar, Hamed

    2012-01-01

    to be at great risk; an electricity transmission grid key tointer-regional electricity transmission lines; two deepwaterto be at great risk; an electricity transmission grid key to

  9. Budget & Planning Strategic Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harms, Kyle E.

    Budget & Planning Strategic Plan Strategic Goal 1: Maintain a suitably staffed, effective the budget and planning needs of the institution. Strategic Goal 5: Identify ways in which B&P information and training opportunities to remain at the forefront of national trends Strategic Goal 2: Continue to meet

  10. Management Plan Management Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Management Plan Management Plan "Management and restoration programs for native salmonids have communities" J. Lichatowich et al. 1998. A Conceptual Foundation for the Management of Native Salmonids in the Deschutes River. The Management Plan consists of five elements described in the Council's program: 1

  11. Hydromechanical transmission with compound planetary assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Orshansky, Jr., deceased, Elias (late of San Francisco, CA); Weseloh, William E. (San Diego, CA)

    1980-01-01

    A power transmission having three distinct ranges: (1) hydrostatic, (2) simple power-split hydromechanical, and (3) compound power-split hydromechanical. A single compound planetary assembly has two sun gears, two ring gears, and a single carrier with two sets of elongated planet gears. The two sun gears may be identical in size, and the two ring gears may be identical in size. A speed-varying module in driving relationship to the first sun gear is clutchable, in turn, to (1) the input shaft and (2) the second sun gear. The speed-varying means may comprise a pair of hydraulic units hydraulically interconnected so that one serves as a pump while the other serves as a motor and vice versa, one of the units having a variable stroke and being the one clutchable to either the input shaft or to the second sun gear. The other unit, which may have a fixed stroke, is connected in driving relation to the first sun gear. A brake grounds the carrier in the first range and in reverse and causes drive to be delivered to the output shaft through the first ring gear in a hydrostatic mode, the first ring gear being rigidly connected to the output shaft. The input shaft is also clutchable to the second ring gear of the compound planetary assembly.

  12. Autonomous data transmission apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotlyar, O.M.

    1997-03-25

    A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus is described for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters. 4 figs.

  13. Autonomous data transmission apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotlyar, Oleg M. (4675 W. 3825 S, Salt Lake City, UT 84120)

    1997-01-01

    A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters.

  14. Borehole data transmission apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotlyar, O.M.

    1993-03-23

    A borehole data transmission apparatus is described whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

  15. Borehole data transmission apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotlyar, Oleg M. (1739 Grandview #2, Idaho Falls, ID 83402)

    1993-01-01

    A borehole data transmission apparatus whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

  16. Power Reduction of CMP Communication Networks via RF-Interconnects M-C. Frank Chang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cong, Jason "Jingsheng"

    Power Reduction of CMP Communication Networks via RF-Interconnects M-C. Frank Chang , Jason Cong multiprocessors scale to a greater number of processing cores, on-chip interconnection networks will ex- perience dramatic increases in both bandwidth demand and power dissipation. Fortunately, promising gains can be re

  17. Plasticity contributions to interface adhesion in thin-film interconnect structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vainchtein, Anna

    Plasticity contributions to interface adhesion in thin-film interconnect structures Michael Lanea of plasticity in thin copper layers on the interface fracture resistance in thin-film interconnect structures yield properties together with a plastic flow model for the metal layers were used to predict

  18. FIBER-OPTIC BUS-ORIENTED SINGLE-HOP INTERCONNECTIONS AMONG MULTI-TRANSCEIVER STATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,ooffer substantial advantages in power budget and the maximum number of stations that can be interconnected withoutFIBER-OPTIC BUS-ORIENTED SINGLE-HOP INTERCONNECTIONS AMONG MULTI-TRANSCEIVER STATIONS Yitzhak Birk among a set of stations, each equipped with multiple, say c, transmitters and receivers. It employs cz

  19. Electrically interconnected assemblies of microscale device components by printing and molding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    Electrically interconnected assemblies of microscale device components by printing and molding Mo process that occurs prior to or simultaneously with a soft lithographic molding step that defines relief of the process, in which transfer printing for device placement and molding for electrical interconnect occur

  20. Interconnect-aware High-level Synthesis for Low Power Lin Zhong and Niraj K. Jha

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhong, Lin

    optimizes interconnects for power. We take physical design information into account for this pur- pose], the switching activity on CDFG edges is profiled. It is used with the floorplanner to optimize the powerInterconnect-aware High-level Synthesis for Low Power Lin Zhong and Niraj K. Jha Dept

  1. PV Interconnection Risk Analysis through Distribution System Impact Signatures and Feeder Zones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PV Interconnection Risk Analysis through Distribution System Impact Signatures and Feeder Zones Grid Integration Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, NM, USA Abstract-- High penetrations of PV reliability problems. In order to improve the interconnection study process, the use of feeder zones and PV

  2. Gold-based electrical interconnections for microelectronic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peterson, Kenneth A. (Albuquerque, NM); Garrett, Stephen E. (Albuquerque, NM); Reber, Cathleen A. (Corrales, NM); Watson, Robert D. (Tijeras, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A method of making an electrical interconnection from a microelectronic device to a package, comprising ball or wedge compression bonding a gold-based conductor directly to a silicon surface, such as a polysilicon bonding pad in a MEMS or IMEMS device, without using layers of aluminum or titanium disposed in-between the conductor and the silicon surface. After compression bonding, optional heating of the bond above 363 C. allows formation of a liquid gold-silicon eutectic phase containing approximately 3% (by weight) silicon, which significantly improves the bond strength by reforming and enhancing the initial compression bond. The same process can be used for improving the bond strength of Au--Ge bonds by forming a liquid Au-12Ge eutectic phase.

  3. Catalytic bipolar interconnection plate for use in a fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lessing, P.A.

    1996-03-05

    A bipolar interconnection plate is described for use between adjacent fuel cell units in a stacked fuel cell assembly. Each plate is manufactured from an intermetallic composition, examples of which include NiAl or Ni{sub 3}Al which can catalyze steam reforming of hydrocarbons. Distributed within the intermetallic structure of the plate is a ceramic filler composition. The plate includes a first side with gas flow channels therein and a second side with fuel flow channels therein. A protective coating is applied to the first side, with exemplary coatings including strontium-doped or calcium-doped lanthanum chromite. To produce the plate, Ni and Al powders are combined with the filler composition, compressed at a pressure of about 10,000--30,000 psi, and heated to about 600--1000 C. The coating is then applied to the first side of the completed plate using liquid injection plasma deposition or other deposition techniques. 6 figs.

  4. Abstract--Under the need for anticipatory efficient investment in transmission, several problems arise at the regulation and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    electricity market. Index Terms--Transmission planning, transmission investment, regulation, additional lines electric system. Without anticipatory investment, the net number of lines in the long term may1 Abstract--Under the need for anticipatory efficient investment in transmission, several problems

  5. > PAPER FOR THE SPECIAL SECTION ON TRANSMISSION INVESTMENT, PRICING AND CONSTRUCTION < 1 Abstract--From an economic perspective, the appropriate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the impacts of an electricity transmission project on different players may vary, such side payments a multi-stage game-theoretic framework for electricity transmission investment as a new planning paradigm> PAPER FOR THE SPECIAL SECTION ON TRANSMISSION INVESTMENT, PRICING AND CONSTRUCTION

  6. Texas Solar Collaboration Action Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winland, Chris

    2013-02-14

    Texas Solar Collaboration Permitting and Interconenction Process Improvement Action Plan. San Antonio-specific; Investigate feasibility of using electronic signatures; Investigate feasibility of enabling other online permitting processes (e.g., commercial); Assess need for future document management and workflow/notification IT improvements; Update Information Bulletin 153 regarding City requirements and processes for PV; Educate contractors and public on CPS Energy’s new 2013 solar program processes; Continue to discuss “downtown grid” interconnection issues and identify potential solutions; Consider renaming Distributed Energy Resources (DER); and Continue to participate in collaborative actions.

  7. Arizona/Transmission | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    NEPA Database The electrical grid in Arizona is part of the Western Interconnection power grid and the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) is the Regional Entity...

  8. Reinforcing Power Grid Transmission with FACTS Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frolov, Vladimir; Chertkov, Misha

    2013-01-01

    We explore optimization methods for planning the placement, sizing and operations of Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) devices installed into the grid to relieve congestion created by load growth or fluctuations of intermittent renewable generation. We limit our selection of FACTS devices to those that can be represented by modification of the inductance of the transmission lines. Our master optimization problem minimizes the $l_1$ norm of the FACTS-associated inductance correction subject to constraints enforcing that no line of the system exceeds its thermal limit. We develop off-line heuristics that reduce this non-convex optimization to a succession of Linear Programs (LP) where at each step the constraints are linearized analytically around the current operating point. The algorithm is accelerated further with a version of the cutting plane method greatly reducing the number of active constraints during the optimization, while checking feasibility of the non-active constraints post...

  9. Drill string transmission line

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David S. (Lehi, UT); Bradford, Kline (Orem, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

    2006-03-28

    A transmission line assembly for transmitting information along a downhole tool comprising a pin end, a box end, and a central bore traveling between the pin end and the box end, is disclosed in one embodiment of the invention as including a protective conduit. A transmission line is routed through the protective conduit. The protective conduit is routed through the central bore and the ends of the protective conduit are routed through channels formed in the pin end and box end of the downhole tool. The protective conduit is elastically forced into a spiral or other non-linear path along the interior surface of the central bore by compressing the protective conduit to a length within the downhole tool shorter than the protective conduit.

  10. Transmission | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al., 2013)OpenEnergyTrail Canyon GeothermalTransmission (Redirected from

  11. Transmission Siting_071508.indd

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCEDInstallers/ContractorsPhotovoltaicsState ofSavingsTransmission SEAB Presentation

  12. Electron scattering mechanisms in Cu-Mn films for interconnect applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Misják, F.; Nagy, K. H.; Radnóczi, G.; Lobotka, P.

    2014-08-28

    Electrical properties and corresponding structural features of Cu-Mn alloy films with potential application as barrier and interconnect layers were studied. Cu-Mn films were deposited by DC magnetron sputtering at room temperature on SiO{sub 2} substrates. Electrical resistivity measurements were made as a function of film composition and temperature. The specific resistivity varies linearly with the Mn content showing a maximum of 205???cm at 80 at. % Mn. The temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) of all alloy films is low, showing non-metallic conductivity for most compositions. Also a minimum TCR has been observed in the 40–80 at. % Mn range which was attributed to a magnetic transformation around 200–300?K. Electrical resistivity measurements are correlated with the film structure revealed by transmission electron microscopy to clarify the phase regions throughout the composition range. In the 20–40 at. % and 70–80 at. % Mn ranges, two-phase structures were identified, where Cu- or Mn-rich solid solution grains were surrounded by a thin amorphous covering layer. Based on the revealed phase regions and morphologies electron scattering mechanisms in the system were evaluated by combining the Matthiessen's rule and the Mayadas-Schatzkes theory. Grain boundary reflectivity coefficients (r?=?0.6–0.8) were calculated from fitting the model to the measurements. The proposed model indicates that, in a binary system, the special arrangement of the two phases results in new scattering mechanisms. The results are of value in optimizing the various parameters needed to produce a suitable barrier layer.

  13. Optimal Planning and Operation of Smart Grids with Electric Vehicle Interconnection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2012-01-01

    GWh] combined heat and power (CHP) and other distributenand combined heat and power (CHP) systems with and withoutrenewable energy source or CHP system at the building could

  14. Optimal Planning and Operation of Smart Grids with Electric Vehicle Interconnection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2012-01-01

    storage [GWh] combined heat and power (CHP) and otheron Microgrid Combined Heat and Power Adoption,” Journal ofcarbon emissions, combined heat and power, commercial

  15. Optimal Planning and Operation of Smart Grids with Electric Vehicle Interconnection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2012-01-01

    storage, and combined heat and power (CHP) systems with and without absorption chillers. A microgrid

  16. Optimal Planning and Operation of Smart Grids with Electric Vehicle Interconnection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2012-01-01

    types of internal combustion engines (ICE) and fuel cells (FC) available – with and without heat exchangers (

  17. Optimal Planning and Operation of Smart Grids with Electric Vehicle Interconnection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2012-01-01

    and Marnay, C. (2007). “Microgrids, An Overview of Ongoingand Operation of Microgrids in Commercial Buildings,” IEEEwith commercial smartgrids/microgrids, which may include

  18. Optimal Planning and Operation of Smart Grids with Electric Vehicle Interconnection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2012-01-01

    stationary batteries, thermal storage, and combined heat andFor both electric and thermal storage, a charging andelectrical storage, TS – thermal storage, AC - absorption

  19. Optimal Planning and Operation of Smart Grids with Electric Vehicle Interconnection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2012-01-01

    could be used to offset EV charging at home. In this paper,to very different EV charging tariffs at the residential9). The higher residential EV charging rates in San Diego,

  20. Optimal Planning and Operation of Smart Grids with Electric Vehicle Interconnection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2012-01-01

    is limited by battery size - Heat storage is limited bybattery discharging efficiency, dimensionless electricity storagefor other non-storage technologies, $ EV battery degradation

  1. Optimal Planning and Operation of Smart Grids with Electric Vehicle Interconnection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2012-01-01

    maximum possible PV and solar thermal adoption as well asradiation will impact the adoption of PV and solar thermalconstraint for PV, solar thermal, and EV adoption, and how

  2. Optimal Planning and Operation of Smart Grids with Electric Vehicle Interconnection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2012-01-01

    buildings [GW] stationary storage [GWh] combined heat and power (CHP) andenergy source or CHP system at the building could be used toon CHP, they feed electricity back to the building.

  3. Optimal Planning and Operation of Smart Grids with Electric Vehicle Interconnection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2012-01-01

    for the available PV, solar thermal, and EV parking lots atphotovoltaic (PV), solar thermal, stationary batteries,maximum possible PV and solar thermal adoption as well as

  4. Optimal Planning and Operation of Smart Grids with Electric Vehicle Interconnection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability ondimensionless electricity storage loss factor for the EVceusweb/. Electricity Storage Association, Morgan Hill, CA,

  5. Optimal Planning and Operation of Smart Grids with Electric Vehicle Interconnection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2012-01-01

    number of cars energy management system (EMS) would like toThe building energy management system (EMS) can use thisthe building energy management system, since it determines

  6. Optimal Planning and Operation of Smart Grids with Electric Vehicle Interconnection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2012-01-01

    distributed generation energy management system electricenergy resources, distributed generation, electric vehicle,

  7. Optimal Planning and Operation of Smart Grids with Electric Vehicle Interconnection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2012-01-01

    sources and EVs on the power grid and electricity prices.storage capabilities to the power grid by utilizing plug-inprices due to additional power grid loads from EVs. Since

  8. Optimal Planning and Operation of Smart Grids with Electric Vehicle Interconnection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2012-01-01

    point are PV, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillerelectricity) solar thermal collector (kW) PV (kW) stationaryelectricity) solar thermal collector (kW) PV (kW) stationary

  9. Optimal Planning and Operation of Smart Grids with Electric Vehicle Interconnection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2012-01-01

    PV), solar thermal, stationary batteries, thermal storage,thermal storage, AC - absorption cooling, ST-solar thermal,solar thermal collector (kW) PV (kW) stationary electric storage (

  10. Preliminary Response of PJM Interconnection, L.L.C. to the Operating Plan

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy AEnergyPresidential PermitDAYS -Portmouth2015 | Department of Energyof

  11. Power System Generation and Inter-Connection Planning Model (SUPER) | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc Jump to:Newberg,Energy LLC JumpPhonoSolar and Wind Jump to:Energy

  12. Transmission eigenvalues for elliptic operators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Hitrik; Katsiaryna Krupchyk; Petri Ola; Lassi Päivärinta

    2010-07-03

    A reduction of the transmission eigenvalue problem for multiplicative sign-definite perturbations of elliptic operators with constant coefficients to an eigenvalue problem for a non-selfadjoint compact operator is given. Sufficient conditions for the existence of transmission eigenvalues and completeness of generalized eigenstates for the transmission eigenvalue problem are derived. In the trace class case, the generic existence of transmission eigenvalues is established.

  13. A State-Level Comparison of Processes and Timelines for Distributed Photovoltaic Interconnection in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ardani, K.; Davidson, C.; Margolis, R.; Nobler, E.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents results from an analysis of distributed photovoltaic (PV) interconnection and deployment processes in the United States.

  14. Transmission Line Circuit Alexander Glasser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anlage, Steven

    Chaos in a Transmission Line Circuit Alexander Glasser Marshal Miller With... Prof. Edward Ott Prof times become shorter, circuit connections behave more and more like transmission lines. Theoretical(t) - Transmission Line (Zo, T) #12;5 Cf/Cr 1000 Vf Capacitance Voltage Cf Cr Model for Nonlinear Capacitor

  15. New Mexico/Transmission | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Western Area Power Administration, provide transmission in the state of New Mexico. Renewable Energy Transmission Authority The New Mexico Renewable Energy Transmission Authority...

  16. 2015 National Electric Transmission Congestion Study | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2015 National Electric Transmission Congestion Study 2015 National Electric Transmission Congestion Study 2015 National Electric Transmission Congestion Study Section 1221(a) of...

  17. Flexible Transmission in the Smart Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hedman, Kory Walter

    2010-01-01

    models of the electric transmission network flow problem.requirements in the electric transmission grid is provided.operations of the electric transmission grid. It also

  18. Cyclical-Transmission-Schedule Reservation Technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia-Luna-Aceves, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    52) (58) (56) CYCLICAL-TRANSMISSION-SCHEDULE 6,118,787 A *for Topology Dependent Transmission Scheduling, in Proc.times an associ- ated transmission waiting time; and

  19. Flexible Transmission in the Smart Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hedman, Kory Walter

    2010-01-01

    differences: models for transmission property rights,” IEEEto solve power transmission network design problems,” IEEES. A. "Network topologies and transmission investment under

  20. Transmission Power Management for Wireless Health Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amini, Navid

    2012-01-01

    Experimental Analysis of RF Transmission Characteristics foroptimal low-energy transmission strategy for ieee 802.11a/h.Distributed algorithms for transmission power control in

  1. Device-to-Device Assisted Video Transmission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Y; Zhou, W; Wu, P; Toni, L; Cosman, P C; Milstein, L B

    2013-01-01

    Equipment (UE) radio transmission and reception (3GPP TSand Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: Transmission-Capacity Tradeoff”,Device Assisted Video Transmission Yichao Shen, Wenwen Zhou,

  2. Electricity Transmission, A Primer | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electricity Transmission, A Primer Electricity Transmission, A Primer This primer on electric transmission is intended to help policymakers understand the physics of the...

  3. Journal of Interconnection Networks c World Scientific Publishing Company

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goel, Ashish

    develop lower bounds and an algorithm for minimizing energy cost for broadcasting from any source to all other nodes in the network. Most prior work has used a simpler model for energy cost for wireless communications by accounting only for the analog radiation cost for transmission and ignoring the fixed energy

  4. ESTSC - Find the latest in U.S. Department of Energy Software

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    used by power administrations for the operation, control, planning, and modeling of electric power transmission systems and the interconnected utilities. However,...

  5. DOE Announces Webinars on Solar Thermochemical Reaction Systems...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    methods. View the past webinar. December 2: Transmission Planning and Interconnection for Offshore Wind Webcast Sponsor: WINDExchange The Energy Department presented a live webcast...

  6. Record of Categorical Exclusion (CS) Determination, Office of...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    StateRegionalLocal Assistance for Interconnection Transmission Planning and Ana Record of Categorical Exclusion (CS) Determination, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy...

  7. Automated manual transmission clutch controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lawrie, Robert E. (9375 Kearney Rd., Whitmore Lake, MI 48189); Reed, Jr., Richard G. (3003 Bembridge, Royal Oak, MI 48073); Rausen, David J. (519 S. Gaylord St., Denver, CO 80209)

    1999-11-30

    A powertrain system for a hybrid vehicle. The hybrid vehicle includes a heat engine, such as a diesel engine, and an electric machine, which operates as both an electric motor and an alternator, to power the vehicle. The hybrid vehicle also includes a manual-style transmission configured to operate as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver. The engine and the electric machine drive an input shaft which in turn drives an output shaft of the transmission. In addition to driving the transmission, the electric machine regulates the speed of the input shaft in order to synchronize the input shaft during either an upshift or downshift of the transmission by either decreasing or increasing the speed of the input shaft. When decreasing the speed of the input shaft, the electric motor functions as an alternator to produce electrical energy which may be stored by a storage device. Operation of the transmission is controlled by a transmission controller which receives input signals and generates output signals to control shift and clutch motors to effect smooth launch, upshift shifts, and downshifts of the transmission, so that the transmission functions substantially as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver, while internally substantially functioning as a manual transmission.

  8. Solid oxide fuel cell with internal reforming, catalyzed interconnect for use therewith, and methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Di-Jia; Guan, Jie; Minh, Nguyen

    2010-06-08

    A catalyzed interconnect for an SOFC electrically connects an anode and an anodic current collector and comprises a metallic substrate, which provides space between the anode and anodic current collector for fuel gas flow over at least a portion of the anode, and a catalytic coating on the metallic substrate comprising a catalyst for catalyzing hydrocarbon fuel in the fuel gas to hydrogen rich reformate. An SOFC including the catalyzed anodic inter-connect, a method for operating an SOFC, and a method for making a catalyzed anodic interconnect are also disclosed.

  9. Heat transmission in Relativity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Brotas; J. C. Fernandes

    2003-07-16

    The simultaneous study of deformation and heat transmission in a bar was ignored for about 150 years. The traditional Fourier equation just allows to study the evolution of temperature in a undeformable bar. The search for its relativistic variant is a task which must fail because in Relativity there are no undeformable bars. Rigid bodies, in the sense as rigid as possible, are deformables. In this work we show how to write in Relativity the system of equations necessary to study simultaneously deformation and temperature evolution along a rigid bar.

  10. Transmission SEAB Presentation

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE- Non-ResidentialAlliantPGEDepartmentfan system' % ~ TransmissionAvailable

  11. DOE Transmission Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i pStateDOE FederalTheofHeyeck, AEP, Sr. Vice President, Transmission

  12. Transmission Business Line

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With U.S.Week DayDr.Theories81TowardsTrackingCarbon2Transmission

  13. Central Wind Forecasting Programs in North America by Regional Transmission Organizations and Electric Utilities: Revised Edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogers, J.; Porter, K.

    2011-03-01

    The report and accompanying table addresses the implementation of central wind power forecasting by electric utilities and regional transmission organizations in North America. The first part of the table focuses on electric utilities and regional transmission organizations that have central wind power forecasting in place; the second part focuses on electric utilities and regional transmission organizations that plan to adopt central wind power forecasting in 2010. This is an update of the December 2009 report, NREL/SR-550-46763.

  14. Light Transmission through Sub-Wavelength Apertures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Visser, Taco D.

    Light Transmission through Sub-Wavelength Apertures #12;#12;VRIJE UNIVERSITEIT Light Transmission Transmission through a Single Sub-wavelength Slit 59 3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 3.2 The configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 3.3 Transmission

  15. EA-1665: Davis-Kingman 69-kV Transmission Line Rebuild Project, Arizona

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Western plans to rebuild a 26.6-mile-long portion of the existing 27.3-mile-long Davis–Kingman Tap 69-kV Transmission Line within the existing ROW in order to improve the reliability of the transmission service.

  16. 2012 National Electric Transmission Congestion Study: Presentation...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    2012 National Electric Transmission Congestion Study: Presentation from Congestion Study Webinar Series 2012 National Electric Transmission Congestion Study: Presentation from...

  17. 2009 National Electric Transmission Congestion Study Workshops...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Congestion Studies 2009 Congestion Study 2009 National Electric Transmission Congestion Study Workshops 2009 National Electric Transmission Congestion Study Workshops DOE...

  18. Transmission Eigenvalues in Inverse Scattering Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-04-22

    TE and Scattering Theory. Spherically Stratified Media. Transmission Eigenvalues. Open Problem. Transmission Eigenvalues in Inverse. Scattering Theory.

  19. Transmission Reliability Program 2015 Reliability & Markets Peer...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Transmission Reliability Program 2015 Reliability & Markets Peer Review Materials Available Transmission Reliability Program 2015 Reliability & Markets Peer Review Materials...

  20. Assessment of Industrial Load for Demand Response across Western Interconnect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alkadi, Nasr E; Starke, Michael R; Ma, Ookie

    2013-11-01

    Demand response (DR) has the ability to both increase power grid reliability and potentially reduce operating system costs. Understanding the role of demand response in grid modeling has been difficult due to complex nature of the load characteristics compared to the modeled generation and the variation in load types. This is particularly true of industrial loads, where hundreds of different industries exist with varying availability for demand response. We present a framework considering industrial loads for the development of availability profiles that can provide more regional understanding and can be inserted into analysis software for further study. The developed framework utilizes a number of different informational resources, algorithms, and real-world measurements to perform a bottom-up approach in the development of a new database with representation of the potential demand response resource in the industrial sector across the U.S. This tool houses statistical values of energy and demand response (DR) potential by industrial plant and geospatially locates the information for aggregation for different territories without proprietary information. This report will discuss this framework and the analyzed quantities of demand response for Western Interconnect (WI) in support of evaluation of the cost production modeling with power grid modeling efforts of demand response.

  1. Manual transmission shift linkage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sewell, J.S.

    1991-10-01

    This patent describes a sliding gear manual transmission (10) for an automotive vehicle including a transmission housing (11), an input shaft (12) journalled in the housing, an output shaft (13) axially aligned with the input shaft and journalled in the housing, a countershaft (15) journalled in the housing and carrying a cluster gear (17) thereon, the input shaft (12) terminating in an input gear (14), a plurality of gears (26,27,28,29,31,31) on the output shaft (13) in meshing engagement with the cluster gear (17), and a plurality of synchronizing clutches (36,38,41,42) on the output shaft and countershaft for engagement of gear ratios of the meshing gears, and an axially movable and rotatable shift rail (81) located in the housing and operatively connected to a shift lever (82) actuated by the vehicle operator, the improvement comprising an auxiliary shift rail (98) located in the housing (11) generally paralleling the first mentioned shift rail (81) to provide for actuation of fifth, sixth and reverse gears the auxiliary shift rail (98) having a 5-6 shift arm (104) journalled thereon for axial movement relative thereto, and a reverse shift arm (99) rotatably mounted thereon for axial movement therewith.

  2. Colorado Electrical Transmission Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zehner, Richard E.

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Originator: Xcel Energy Publication Date: 2012 Title: Colorado XcelEnergy NonXcel Transmission Network Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains transmission network of Colorado Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4540689.017558 m Left: 160606.141934 m Right: 758715.946645 m Bottom: 4098910.893397m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shapefile

  3. The Relevance of Generation Interconnection Procedures to Feed-in Tariffs in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fink, Sari; Porter, Kevin; Rogers, Jennifer

    2010-10-01

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) have been used to promote renewable electricity development in over 40 countries throughout the past two decades. These policies generally provide guaranteed prices for the full system output from eligible generators for a fixed time period (typically 15–20 years). Due in part to the success of FIT policies in Europe, some jurisdictions in the United States are considering implementing similar policies, and a few have already put such policies in place. This report is intended to offer some guidance to policymakers and regulators on how generator interconnection procedures may affect the implementation of FITs and how state generator interconnection procedures can be formulated to support state renewable energy objectives. This report is based on a literature review of model interconnection procedures formulated by several organizations, as well as other documents that have reviewed, commented on, and in some cases, ranked state interconnection procedures.

  4. Relevance of Generation Interconnection Procedures to Feed-in Tariffs in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Rogers, J.

    2010-10-01

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) have been used to promote renewable electricity development in over 40 countries throughout the past two decades. These policies generally provide guaranteed prices for the full system output from eligible generators for a fixed time period (typically 15-20 years). Due in part to the success of FIT policies in Europe, some jurisdictions in the United States are considering implementing similar policies, and a few have already put such policies in place. This report is intended to offer some guidance to policymakers and regulators on how generator interconnection procedures may affect the implementation of FITs and how state generator interconnection procedures can be formulated to support state renewable energy objectives. This report is based on a literature review of model interconnection procedures formulated by several organizations, as well as other documents that have reviewed, commented on, and in some cases, ranked state interconnection procedures.

  5. Reuse Distance Based Circuit Replacement in Silicon Photonic Interconnection Networks for HPC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergman, Keren

    -scale distance, can help to further scale data-movement capabilities in high performance computing (HPC demands within high performance computing (HPC) systems. Silicon photonic (SiP) interconnects [1-3], which

  6. Modeling and Analysis of Large-Scale On-Chip Interconnects 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Zhuo

    2010-07-14

    dimensional process-voltage-temperature (PVT) variations demand much more modeling and analysis efforts than ever before, while the analysis of large scale on-chip interconnects that requires solving tens of millions of unknowns imposes great challenges...

  7. Sandia Energy - Energy and Water in the Western and Texas Interconnect...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy and Water in the Western and Texas Interconnects Home Climate & Earth Systems WaterEnergy Nexus Decision Models for Integrating EnergyWater Energy and Water in the Western...

  8. High-performance parallel processors based on star-coupled wavelength division multiplexing optical interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deri, Robert J. (Pleasanton, CA); DeGroot, Anthony J. (Castro Valley, CA); Haigh, Ronald E. (Arvada, CO)

    2002-01-01

    As the performance of individual elements within parallel processing systems increases, increased communication capability between distributed processor and memory elements is required. There is great interest in using fiber optics to improve interconnect communication beyond that attainable using electronic technology. Several groups have considered WDM, star-coupled optical interconnects. The invention uses a fiber optic transceiver to provide low latency, high bandwidth channels for such interconnects using a robust multimode fiber technology. Instruction-level simulation is used to quantify the bandwidth, latency, and concurrency required for such interconnects to scale to 256 nodes, each operating at 1 GFLOPS performance. Performance scales have been shown to .apprxeq.100 GFLOPS for scientific application kernels using a small number of wavelengths (8 to 32), only one wavelength received per node, and achievable optoelectronic bandwidth and latency.

  9. NMAC 17.9.569 Interconnection of Generating Facilities with a...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    NMAC 17.9.569 Interconnection of Generating Facilities with a Rated Capacity Greater than 10 MW Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document-...

  10. NMAC 17.9.568 Interconnection of Generating Facilities with a...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    NMAC 17.9.568 Interconnection of Generating Facilities with a Rated Capacity up to and including 10 MW Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal...

  11. Reliable low latency I/O in torus-based interconnection networks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azeez, Babatunde

    2007-04-25

    In today's high performance computing environment I/O remains the main bottleneck in achieving the optimal performance expected of the ever improving processor and memory technologies. Interconnection networks therefore ...

  12. Optically Interconnected Data Center Architecture for Bandwidth Intensive Energy Efficient Networking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergman, Keren

    Optically Interconnected Data Center Architecture for Bandwidth Intensive Energy Efficient will either be prohibitively costly, overly complex, or result in unsustainable energy requirements. Network of communication-intensive applications. Recent network architectures based on optical circuit switching leverage

  13. Fully Integrated Graphene and Carbon Nanotube Interconnects for Gigahertz High-Speed Cmos Electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Xiangyu

    Carbon-based nanomaterials such as metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), and graphene have been considered as some of the most promising candidates for future interconnect technology ...

  14. Innovative Distributed Power Grid Interconnection and Control Systems: Final Report, December 11, 2000 - August 30, 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DePodesta, K.; Birlingmair, D.; West, R.

    2006-03-01

    The contract goal was to further advance distributed generation in the marketplace by making installations more cost-effective and compatible with existing systems. This was achieved by developing innovative grid interconnection and control systems.

  15. Solid oxide fuel cell with single material for electrodes and interconnect

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McPheeters, Charles C. (Naperville, IL); Nelson, Paul A. (Wheaton, IL); Dees, Dennis W. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1994-01-01

    A solid oxide fuel cell having a plurality of individual cells. A solid oxide fuel cell has an anode and a cathode with electrolyte disposed therebetween, and the anode, cathode and interconnect elements are comprised of substantially one material.

  16. Design of a decentralized detection filter for a class of interconnected LTI systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shankar, Shamanth

    2001-01-01

    In this thesis, we consider the problem of designing a decentralized detection filter for a class of homogeneous interconnected systems. In this class of systems, all subsystems have an identical structure. A fault in a subsystem propagates via...

  17. ACTIVE SUBSTRATES FOR OPTOELECTRONIC INTERCONNECT Donald Chiarulli, Steven Levitan, Jason Bakos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bakos, Jason D.

    silicon on sapphire technology and the adaptation of laser drilling techniques to create vias through different from a conventional BGA chip carrier. It is an active device, not a passive interconnect

  18. Determining Interconnections in Chemical Reaction Networks Antonis Papachristodoulou and Ben Recht

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Recht, Ben

    Determining Interconnections in Chemical Reaction Networks Antonis Papachristodoulou and Ben Recht Abstract-- We present a methodology for robust determina- tion of chemical reaction network' dynamics. We illustrate our methodology on a hypothetical chemical reaction network under various

  19. A continuous distribution method for reliability evaluation of interconnected power systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chintaluri, Gouri Mohana

    1993-01-01

    the interconnection effects. Several studies are reported using IEEE-RTS and EPRI System E. The indices of LOLE, EUE and LOLF are obtained and are compared with those of the recursive method for accuracy and efficiency....

  20. Demonstration of monolithically integrated graphene interconnects for low-power CMOS applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Kyeong-Jae

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, interconnects have become an increasingly difficult design challenge as their relative performance has not improved at the same pace with transistor scaling. The specifications for complex features, clock ...

  1. Companion Gaming: Improving the Quality of Gaming Experiences through Interconnected Gameplay 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ross, Jacob

    2013-08-30

    In recent years, video game publishers and developers such as Ubisoft, Bioware, Microsoft, Capcom, Wideload Games, and NeatherRealm have all attempted to increase brand engagement by means of increased interconnectivity between games of the same...

  2. On the State of the Art of Metal Interconnects for SOFC Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jablonski@netl.doe.gov

    2011-02-27

    One of the recent developments for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) is oxide component materials capable of operating at lower temperatures such as 700-800C. This lower temperature range has provided for the consideration of metallic interconnects which have several advantages over ceramic interconnects: low cost, ease in manufacturing, and high conductivity. Most metals and alloys will oxidize under both the anode and cathode conditions within an SOFC, thus a chief requirement is that the base metal oxide scale must be electrically conductive since this constitutes the majority of the electrical resistance in a metallic interconnect. Common high temperature alloys form scales that contain chrome, silicon and aluminum oxides among others. Under SOFC operating conditions chrome oxide is a semi-conductor while silicon and aluminum oxides are insulators. In this talk we will review the evolution in candidate alloys and surface modifications which constitute an engineered solution for SOFC interconnect applications.

  3. Determination of Interfacial Adhesion Strength between Oxide Scale and Substrate for Metallic SOFC Interconnects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xin; Liu, Wenning N.; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2008-01-21

    The interfacial adhesion strength between the oxide scale and the substrate is crucial to the reliability and durability of metallic interconnects in SOFC operating environments. It is necessary, therefore, to establish a methodology to quantify the interfacial adhesion strength between the oxide scale and the metallic interconnect substrate, and furthermore to design and optimize the interconnect material as well as the coating materials to meet the design life of an SOFC system. In this paper, we present an integrated experimental/analytical methodology for quantifying the interfacial adhesion strength between oxide scale and a ferritic stainless steel interconnect. Stair-stepping indentation tests are used in conjunction with subsequent finite element analyses to predict the interfacial strength between the oxide scale and Crofer 22 APU substrate.

  4. Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, James E.; Jungjohann, K. L.; Browning, Nigel D.

    2012-10-12

    Dynamic transmission electron microscopy (DTEM) combines the benefits of high spatial resolution electron microscopy with the high temporal resolution of ultrafast lasers. The incorporation of these two components into a single instrument provides a perfect platform for in situ observations of material processes. However, previous DTEM applications have focused on observing structural changes occurring in samples exposed to high vacuum. Therefore, in order to expand the pump-probe experimental regime to more natural environmental conditions, in situ gas and liquid chambers must be coupled with Dynamic TEM. This chapter describes the current and future applications of in situ liquid DTEM to permit time-resolved atomic scale observations in an aqueous environment, Although this chapter focuses mostly on in situ liquid imaging, the same research potential exists for in situ gas experiments and the successful integration of these techniques promises new insights for understanding nanoparticle, catalyst and biological protein dynamics with unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution.

  5. AGENDA: PETROLEUM PRODUCT TRANSMISSION & DISTRIBUTION

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The agenda for the Quadrennial Energy Review (QER) public stakeholder meeting in New Orleans on petroleum product transmission, distribution, and storage.

  6. Vice President, Transmission System Operations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The VP for Transmission System Operations provides strategic leadership, direction, and oversight of the people, business processes, and systems that are responsible for the safe, reliable, and...

  7. Helicopter aids transmission pole replacement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Helicopter-aids-transmission-pole-replacement Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search News & Us Expand News & Us Projects & Initiatives Expand Projects...

  8. Transmission Workshop | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    which addressed the challenges and opportunities presented by the integration of 21st century energy technologies into the electricity transmission system. Parallel sessions...

  9. Great Plains Wind Energy Transmission Development Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brad G. Stevens, P.E.; Troy K. Simonsen; Kerryanne M. Leroux

    2012-06-09

    In fiscal year 2005, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) received funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake a broad array of tasks to either directly or indirectly address the barriers that faced much of the Great Plains states and their efforts to produce and transmit wind energy at the time. This program, entitled Great Plains Wind Energy Transmission Development Project, was focused on the central goal of stimulating wind energy development through expansion of new transmission capacity or development of new wind energy capacity through alternative market development. The original task structure was as follows: Task 1 - Regional Renewable Credit Tracking System (later rescoped to Small Wind Turbine Training Center); Task 2 - Multistate Transmission Collaborative; Task 3 - Wind Energy Forecasting System; and Task 4 - Analysis of the Long-Term Role of Hydrogen in the Region. As carried out, Task 1 involved the creation of the Small Wind Turbine Training Center (SWTTC). The SWTTC, located Grand Forks, North Dakota, consists of a single wind turbine, the Endurance S-250, on a 105-foot tilt-up guyed tower. The S-250 is connected to the electrical grid on the 'load side' of the electric meter, and the power produced by the wind turbine is consumed locally on the property. Establishment of the SWTTC will allow EERC personnel to provide educational opportunities to a wide range of participants, including grade school through college-level students and the general public. In addition, the facility will allow the EERC to provide technical training workshops related to the installation, operation, and maintenance of small wind turbines. In addition, under Task 1, the EERC hosted two small wind turbine workshops on May 18, 2010, and March 8, 2011, at the EERC in Grand Forks, North Dakota. Task 2 involved the EERC cosponsoring and aiding in the planning of three transmission workshops in the midwest and western regions. Under Task 3, the EERC, in collaboration with Meridian Environmental Services, developed and demonstrated the efficacy of a wind energy forecasting system for use in scheduling energy output from wind farms for a regional electrical generation and transmission utility. With the increased interest at the time of project award in the production of hydrogen as a critical future energy source, many viewed hydrogen produced from wind-generated electricity as an attractive option. In addition, many of the hydrogen production-related concepts involve utilization of energy resources without the need for additional electrical transmission. For this reason, under Task 4, the EERC provided a summary of end uses for hydrogen in the region and focused on one end product in particular (fertilizer), including several process options and related economic analyses.

  10. Upgrade of the LHC magnet interconnections thermal shielding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Musso, Andrea; Barlow, Graeme; Bastard, Alain; Charrondiere, Maryline; Deferne, Guy; Dib, Gaëlle; Duret, Max; Guinchard, Michael; Prin, Hervé; Craen, Arnaud Vande; Villiger, Gilles [CERN European Organization for Nuclear Research, Meyrin 1211, Geneva 23, CH (Switzerland); Chrul, Anna [The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul.Radzikowskiego 152, 31-324 Krakow (Poland); Damianoglou, Dimitrios [NTUA National Technical University of Athens, Heeron Polytechniou 9, 15780 Zografou (Greece); Strychalski, Micha? [Wroclaw University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Wyb. Wyspianskiego 27, Wroclaw, 50-370 (Poland); Wright, Loren [Lancaster University, Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4YW (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-29

    The about 1700 interconnections (ICs) between the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) superconducting magnets include thermal shielding at 50-75 K, providing continuity to the thermal shielding of the magnet cryostats to reduce the overall radiation heat loads to the 1.9 K helium bath of the magnets. The IC shield, made of aluminum, is conduction-cooled via a welded bridge to the thermal shield of the adjacent magnets which is actively cooled. TIG welding of these bridges made in the LHC tunnel at installation of the magnets induced a considerable risk of fire hazard due to the proximity of the multi-layer insulation of the magnet shields. A fire incident occurred in one of the machine sectors during machine installation, but fortunately with limited consequences thanks to prompt intervention of the operators. LHC is now undergoing a 2 years technical stop during which all magnet's ICs will have to be opened to consolidate the magnet electrical connections. The IC thermal shields will therefore have to be removed and re-installed after the work is completed. In order to eliminate the risk of fire hazard when re-welding, it has been decided to review the design of the IC shields, by replacing the welded bridges with a mechanical clamping which also preserves its thermal function. An additional advantage of this new solution is the ease in dismantling for maintenance, and eliminating weld-grinding operations at removal needing radioprotection measures because of material activation after long-term operation of the LHC. This paper describes the new design of the IC shields and in particular the theoretical and experimental validation of its thermal performance. Furthermore a status report of the on-going upgrade work in the LHC is given.

  11. The interior transmission problem and bounds on transmission eigenvalues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Hitrik; Katsiaryna Krupchyk; Petri Ola; Lassi Päivärinta

    2010-09-28

    We study the interior transmission eigenvalue problem for sign-definite multiplicative perturbations of the Laplacian in a bounded domain. We show that all but finitely many complex transmission eigenvalues are confined to a parabolic neighborhood of the positive real axis.

  12. Impact of dispersed solar and wind systems on electric distribution planning and operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boardman, R.W.; Patton, R.; Curtice, D.H.

    1981-02-01

    Small-scale dispersed solar photovoltaic and wind generation (DSW) will affect the generation, transmission, and distribution systems of an electric utility. This study examines the technical and economic impacts of dispersing DSW devices within the distribution system. Dispersed intermittent generation is included. Effects of DSW devices on capital investments, reliability, operating and maintenance costs, protection requirements, and communication and control requirements are examined. A DSW operation model is developed to help determine the dependable capacity of fluctuating solar photovoltaic and wind generation as part of the distribution planning process. Specific case studies using distribution system data and renewable resource data for Southern California Edison Company and Consumers Power Company are analyzed to gain insights into the effects of interconnecting DSW devices. The DSW devices were found to offer some distribution investment savings, depending on their availability during peak loads. For a summer-peaking utility, for example, dispersing photovoltaic systems is more likely to defer distribution capital investments than dispersing wind systems. Dispersing storage devices to increase DSW's dependable capacity for distribution systems needs is not economically attractive. Substation placement of DSW and storage devices is found to be more cost effective than feeder or customer placement. Examination of the effects of DSW on distribution system operation showed that small customer-owned DSW devices are not likely to disrupt present time-current distribution protection coordination. Present maintenance work procedures, are adequate to ensure workmen's safety. Regulating voltages within appropriate limits will become more complex with intermittent generation along the distribution feeders.

  13. Task Plans

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Task Plans This page contains links to a tentative listing of active and closed TEC Task Plans. Final status of these task plans will be determined after the July 2000 TEC meeting....

  14. Fact #850: December 8, 2014 Automatic Transmissions have closed the Fuel Economy Gap with Manual Transmissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Historically, manual transmissions have delivered better fuel economy than automatic transmissions. However, improvements in the efficiency of automatic transmissions have closed that gap in recent...

  15. EC Transmission Line Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bigelow, Tim S

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify materials acceptable for use in the US ITER Project Office (USIPO)-supplied components for the ITER Electron cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (ECH&CD) transmission lines (TL), PBS-52. The source of material property information for design analysis shall be either the applicable structural code or the ITER Material Properties Handbook. In the case of conflict, the ITER Material Properties Handbook shall take precedence. Materials selection, and use, shall follow the guidelines established in the Materials Assessment Report (MAR). Materials exposed to vacuum shall conform to the ITER Vacuum Handbook. [Ref. 2] Commercial materials shall conform to the applicable standard (e.g., ASTM, JIS, DIN) for the definition of their grade, physical, chemical and electrical properties and related testing. All materials for which a suitable certification from the supplier is not available shall be tested to determine the relevant properties, as part of the procurement. A complete traceability of all the materials including welding materials shall be provided. Halogenated materials (example: insulating materials) shall be forbidden in areas served by the detritiation systems. Exceptions must be approved by the Tritium System and Safety Section Responsible Officers.

  16. Five-Year Program Plan for Fiscal Years 2008 to 2012 for Electric...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    demonstration, technology transfer, and policy development activities for the electric transmission and distribution system. OE has prepared this program plan pursuant...

  17. The design, construction, and operation of long-distance high-voltage electricity transmission technologies.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molburg, J. C.; Kavicky, J. A.; Picel, K. C.

    2008-03-03

    This report focuses on transmission lines, which operate at voltages of 115 kV and higher. Currently, the highest voltage lines comprising the North American power grid are at 765 kV. The grid is the network of transmission lines that interconnect most large power plants on the North American continent. One transmission line at this high voltage was built near Chicago as part of the interconnection for three large nuclear power plants southwest of the city. Lines at this voltage also serve markets in New York and New England, also very high demand regions. The large power transfers along the West Coast are generally at 230 or 500 kV. Just as there are practical limits to centralization of power production, there are practical limits to increasing line voltage. As voltage increases, the height of the supporting towers, the size of the insulators, the distance between conductors on a tower, and even the width of the right-of-way (ROW) required increase. These design features safely isolate the electric power, which has an increasing tendency to arc to ground as the voltage (or electrical potential) increases. In addition, very high voltages (345 kV and above) are subject to corona losses. These losses are a result of ionization of the atmosphere, and can amount to several megawatts of wasted power. Furthermore, they are a local nuisance to radio transmission and can produce a noticeable hum. Centralized power production has advantages of economies of scale and special resource availability (for instance, hydro resources), but centralized power requires long-distance transfers of power both to reach customers and to provide interconnections for reliability. Long distances are most economically served at high voltages, which require large-scale equipment and impose a substantial footprint on the corridors through which power passes. The most visible components of the transmission system are the conductors that provide paths for the power and the towers that keep these conductors at a safe distance from each other and from the ground and the natural and built environment. Common elements that are generally less visible (or at least more easily overlooked) include the maintained ROW along the path of the towers, access roads needed for maintenance, and staging areas used for initial construction that may be restored after construction is complete. Also visible but less common elements along the corridor may include switching stations or substations, where lines of similar or different voltages meet to transfer power.

  18. Energy Transmission and Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathison, Jane

    2012-12-31

    The objective of Energy Transmission and Infrastructure Northern Ohio (OH) was to lay the conceptual and analytical foundation for an energy economy in northern Ohio that will: • improve the efficiency with which energy is used in the residential, commercial, industrial, agricultural, and transportation sectors for Oberlin, Ohio as a district-wide model for Congressional District OH-09; • identify the potential to deploy wind and solar technologies and the most effective configuration for the regional energy system (i.e., the ratio of distributed or centralized power generation); • analyze the potential within the district to utilize farm wastes to produce biofuels; • enhance long-term energy security by identifying ways to deploy local resources and building Ohio-based enterprises; • identify the policy, regulatory, and financial barriers impeding development of a new energy system; and • improve energy infrastructure within Congressional District OH-09. This objective of laying the foundation for a renewable energy system in Ohio was achieved through four primary areas of activity: 1. district-wide energy infrastructure assessments and alternative-energy transmission studies; 2. energy infrastructure improvement projects undertaken by American Municipal Power (AMP) affiliates in the northern Ohio communities of Elmore, Oak Harbor, and Wellington; 3. Oberlin, OH-area energy assessment initiatives; and 4. a district-wide conference held in September 2011 to disseminate year-one findings. The grant supported 17 research studies by leading energy, policy, and financial specialists, including studies on: current energy use in the district and the Oberlin area; regional potential for energy generation from renewable sources such as solar power, wind, and farm-waste; energy and transportation strategies for transitioning the City of Oberlin entirely to renewable resources and considering pedestrians, bicyclists, and public transportation as well as drivers in developing transportation policies; energy audits and efficiency studies for Oberlin-area businesses and Oberlin College; identification of barriers to residential energy efficiency and development of programming to remove these barriers; mapping of the solar-photovoltaic and wind-energy supply chains in northwest Ohio; and opportunities for vehicle sharing and collaboration among the ten organizations in Lorain County from the private, government, non-profit, and educational sectors. With non-grant funds, organizations have begun or completed projects that drew on the findings of the studies, including: creation of a residential energy-efficiency program for the Oberlin community; installation of energy-efficient lighting in Oberlin College facilities; and development by the City of Oberlin and Oberlin College of a 2.27 megawatt solar photovoltaic facility that is expected to produce 3,000 megawatt-hours of renewable energy annually, 12% of the College’s yearly power needs. Implementation of these and other projects is evidence of the economic feasibility and technical effectiveness of grant-supported studies, and additional projects are expected to advance to implementation in the coming years. The public has benefited through improved energydelivery systems and reduced energy use for street lighting in Elmore, Oak Harbor, and Wellington; new opportunities for assistance and incentives for residential energy efficiency in the Oberlin community; new opportunities for financial and energy savings through vehicle collaboration within Lorain County; and decreased reliance on fossil fuels and expanded production of renewable energy in the region. The dissemination conference and the summary report developed for the conference also benefited the public, but making the findings and recommendations of the regional studies broadly available to elected officials, city managers, educators, representatives of the private sector, and the general public.

  19. Characterization of Fe–Cr alloy metallic interconnects coated with LSMO using the aerosol deposition process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Jian-Jia [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Fu, Yen-Pei, E-mail: ypfu@mail.ndhu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Dong Hwa University, Shoufeng, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Wang, Jian-Yih [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Dong Hwa University, Shoufeng, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Yung-Neng [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Longtan, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Lee, Shyong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Jin-Cherng [Department of Physics, Fu Jen Catholic University, Xinzhuang, New Taipei City, Taiwan (China)

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Lanthanum strontium manganite (LSMO) as the protective layer for metallic interconnects was successfully prepared by aerosol deposition method (AD). • The microstructure, electrical resistance and composition for LSMO-coated Fe–Cr alloys undergoing high temperature, long-hour oxidation were investigated. • The denser protective layer prepared by AD might effectively prohibit the growth of oxidized scale after long time running at 800 °C in air. - Abstract: A Fe–Cr alloy, used for metallic interconnects, was coated with a protective layer of lanthanum strontium manganite (LSMO) using the aerosol deposition method (AD). The effects of the LSMO protective layer, which was coated on the Fe–Cr interconnects using AD, on the area specific resistance (ASR) during high temperature oxidation and the Cr evaporation behaviors were systematically investigated in this paper. The microstructures, morphologies, and compositions of the oxidized scales that appeared on the LSMO-coated Fe–Cr alloy after annealing at 800 °C for 750 h in air were examined using SEM equipped with EDS. The EPMA mapping of the LSMO-coated Fe–Cr interconnects undergoing long term, high-temperature oxidation was used to explain the formation layers of the oxidized scale, which consists of (Mn,Cr){sub 3}O{sub 4} and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers. Moreover, the experimental results revealed that the AD process is a potential method for preparing denser protective layers with highly desirable electrical properties for metallic interconnects.

  20. Plastic deformation in Al (Cu) interconnects stressed by electromigration and studied by synchrotron polychromatic X-ray microdiffraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Kai; Advanced Light Source; UCLA

    2008-01-01

    Plastic deformation in Al (Cu) interconnects stressed bygrain orientation [7], study plastic deformation [12-15] andThis aspect of EM-induced plastic deformation in grains

  1. ESnet Program Plan 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merola, S.

    1994-11-01

    This Program Plan characterizes ESnet with respect to the current and future needs of Energy Research programs for network infrastructure, services, and development. In doing so, this document articulates the vision and recommendations of the ESnet Steering Committee regarding ESnet`s development and its support of computer networking facilities and associated user services. To afford the reader a perspective from which to evaluate the ever-increasing utility of networking to the Energy Research community, we have also provided a historical overview of Energy Research networking. Networking has become an integral part of the work of DOE principal investigators, and this document is intended to assist the Office of Scientific Computing in ESnet program planning and management, including prioritization and funding. In particular, we identify the new directions that ESnet`s development and implementation will take over the course of the next several years. Our basic goal is to ensure that the networking requirements of the respective scientific programs within Energy Research are addressed fairly. The proliferation of regional networks and additional network-related initiatives by other Federal agencies is changing the process by which we plan our own efforts to serve the DOE community. ESnet provides the Energy Research community with access to many other peer-level networks and to a multitude of other interconnected network facilities. ESnet`s connectivity and relationship to these other networks and facilities are also described in this document. Major Office of Energy Research programs are managed and coordinated by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, the Office of High Energy and Nuclear Physics, the Office of Magnetic Fusion Energy, the Office of Scientific Computing, and the Office of Health and Environmental Research. Summaries of these programs are presented, along with their functional and technical requirements for wide-area networking.

  2. Two-particle quantum transmission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ron Folman

    2012-11-25

    Two-photon interference is a fundamental phenomenon in quantum mechanics and stands at the base of numerous experimental observations. Here another manifestation of this phenomenon is described, taking place at a Y junction. Specifically it is shown how the r^2+t^2 term which is behind previous observations of two-photon interference, may give rise to different states at a beam-splitter and different two-particle transmission coefficients at a Y junction. Different from previous descriptions of quantum transmission based on one-particle physics, the enhanced transmission described here is due to two-particle physics.

  3. Electrical transmission line diametrical retainer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David (Lehi, UT); Dahlgren, Scott (Provo, UT); Sneddon, Cameron (Provo, UT); Briscoe, Michael (Lehi, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

    2004-12-14

    The invention is a mechanism for retaining an electrical transmission line. In one embodiment of the invention it is a system for retaining an electrical transmission line within down hole components. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, the system includes a plurality of downhole components, such as sections of pipe in a drill string. The system also includes a coaxial cable running between the first and second end of a drill pipe, the coaxial cable having a conductive tube and a conductive core within it. The invention allows the electrical transmission line to with stand the tension and compression of drill pipe during routine drilling cycles.

  4. Transmission eigenvalue distributions in highly conductive molecular junctions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergfield, Justin P; Barr, Joshua D; Stafford, Charles A

    2012-01-01

    Transmission eigenvalue distributions in highly conductivesingle-molecule junction; transmission eigenchannels Openuniquely characterized by its transmission eigenvalues ? n .

  5. Microsoft Word - Impact_DSR_on_Transmission_Planning_Final.docx

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    CO2R RPSN BAU EEDR CO2N CO2R RPSN BAU EEDR CO2N CO2R RPSN Southwest Southeast Midwest Central Northeast Genertion (TWh) Low Demand Base Demand High Demand 15 In the...

  6. Interstate Strategies for Transmission Planning and Expansion | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas: Energy ResourcesOrder at 8, 13Renewable Power

  7. Federal Register Notice: Plan for Conduct of 2012 Electric Transmission

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-inPPLforLDRD Report to Congress MoreHydlogo_femp.pngAddthis853Energy

  8. Plan to Conduct Electric Transmission Congestion Study: Federal Register

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy AEnergyPresidential PermitDAYS - WE NEED ADr. PeterPV),

  9. BPA selects new VP of Transmission Planning and Asset Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory of raregovAboutRecovery ActTools to someoneAstrophysicsAwardsBESResearch

  10. DOE Action Plan Addressing the Electricity Transmission System

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p aDepartmentEnergyEveryCustomerD=DISCLAIMER:1904-AC23,T A *Chapter

  11. Transmission Planning: Institutional Issues in the West | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCEDInstallers/ContractorsPhotovoltaicsState ofSavings forTitleJulyAmyDepartmentEnergy'

  12. Impacts of Demand-Side Resources on Electric Transmission Planning |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergy HeadquartersFuelBConservation Standards andEnergy Illinois StateEnergyDepartment

  13. Transmission Services Product Pricing Validation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and 09:00 PPT on the above effective date. On October 15, 2013, at 08:00 (PPT), Transmission Services will be updating the OASIS default product prices to reflect the 2014...

  14. Transmission Services Product Pricing Validation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and 12:00 PPT on the above effective date. On October 1, 2015, at 11:00 (PPT), Transmission Services will be updating the OASIS default product prices to reflect the 2016...

  15. TRANSMISSION AND GENERATION INVESTMENT IN ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-03-04

    Mar 4, 2015 ... generation capacity by private firms in liberalized electricity markets. ... Electricity Markets, Network Expansion, Transmission Management. 1 ...... renewables: Using two-stage optimisation to evaluate flexibility and the cost of.

  16. Immunology of naturally transmissible tumours

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddle, Hannah V.; Kaufman, Jim

    2014-09-04

    understanding of the vertebrate immune response to allografts. Two naturally occurring contagious cancers are currently active in the animal kingdom, Canine Transmissible Venereal Tumour (CTVT) that spreads among dogs and Devil Facial Tumour Disease (DFTD) among...

  17. Thin-film chip-to-substrate interconnect and methods for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuckerman, David B. (Livermore, CA)

    1991-01-01

    Integrated circuit chips are electrically connected to a silica wafer interconnection substrate. Thin film wiring is fabricated down bevelled edges of the chips. A subtractive wire fabrication method uses a series of masks and etching steps to form wires in a metal layer. An additive method direct laser writes or deposits very thin metal lines which can then be plated up to form wires. A quasi-additive or subtractive/additive method forms a pattern of trenches to expose a metal surface which can nucleate subsequent electrolytic deposition of wires. Low inductance interconnections on a 25 micron pitch (1600 wires on a 1 cm square chip) can be produced. The thin film hybrid interconnect eliminates solder joints or welds, and minimizes the levels of metallization. Advantages include good electrical properties, very high wiring density, excellent backside contact, compactness, and high thermal and mechanical reliability.

  18. Design and evaluation of an arbitration-free passive optical crossbar for on-chip interconnection networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    and drop port electric ?eld transmission functions, assumingto deduce the electric ?eld transmission functions for thebuilding block. The electric ?eld transmission through the

  19. 2009 National Electric Transmission Congestion Study | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Congestion Studies 2009 National Electric Transmission Congestion Study 2009 National Electric Transmission Congestion Study Section 216(a) of the Federal Power Act, as amended...

  20. 2006 National Electric Transmission Congestion Study Federal...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    6 National Electric Transmission Congestion Study Federal Register Notice & Comments 2006 National Electric Transmission Congestion Study Federal Register Notice & Comments The...