National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for interconnection resource integration

  1. Interconnection Resources | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE INDUSTRIAL TECHNICAL8-02DepartmentInterconnection Resources Interconnection

  2. Carbon nanotube synthesis for integrated circuit interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nessim, Gilbert Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Based on their properties, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been identified as ideal replacements for copper interconnects in integrated circuits given their higher current density, inertness, and higher resistance to ...

  3. innovati nInterconnection Standards Guide Integration of Distributed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Engineers (IEEE). The goal: to create consensus standards with participation from industry, utilitiesinnovati nInterconnection Standards Guide Integration of Distributed Energy Resources Across for more than a decade. IEEE 1547: Consensus Standard Paves the Way NREL researchers have always believed

  4. Reliability of copper interconnects in integrated circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Zung-Sun

    2007-01-01

    As dimensions shrink and current densities increase, the reliability of metal interconnects becomes a serious concern. In copper interconnects, the dominant diffusion path is along the interface between the copper and the ...

  5. Updating Interconnection Screens for PV System Integration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Abraham Ellis, Roger Hill Sandia National Laboratories Tom Key, Kristen Nicole, Jeff Smith Electric Power Research Institute Updating Interconnection Screens for PV System...

  6. Interconnect

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation CurrentHenryInhibitingInteractive Jobs Interactive Jobs To run anInterconnect

  7. Solid-state energy storage module employing integrated interconnect board

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouillard, Jean; Comte, Christophe; Daigle, Dominik; Hagen, Ronald A.; Knudson, Orlin B.; Morin, Andre; Ranger, Michel; Ross, Guy; Rouillard, Roger; St-Germain, Philippe; Sudano, Anthony; Turgeon, Thomas A.

    2003-11-04

    The present invention is directed to an improved electrochemical energy storage device. The electrochemical energy storage device includes a number of solid-state, thin-film electrochemical cells which are selectively interconnected in series or parallel through use of an integrated interconnect board. The interconnect board is typically disposed within a sealed housing which also houses the electrochemical cells, and includes a first contact and a second contact respectively coupled to first and second power terminals of the energy storage device. The interconnect board advantageously provides for selective series or parallel connectivity with the electrochemical cells, irrespective of electrochemical cell position within the housing. Fuses and various electrical and electromechanical devices, such as bypass, equalization, and communication devices for example, may also be mounted to the interconnect board and selectively connected to the electrochemical cells.

  8. Solid-state energy storage module employing integrated interconnect board

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouillard, Jean; Comte, Christophe; Daigle, Dominik; Hagen, Ronald A.; Knudson, Orlin B.; Morin, Andre; Ranger, Michel; Ross, Guy; Rouillard, Roger; St-Germain, Philippe; Sudano, Anthony; Turgeon, Thomas A.

    2004-09-28

    An electrochemical energy storage device includes a number of solid-state thin-film electrochemical cells which are selectively interconnected in series or parallel through use of an integrated interconnect board. The interconnect board is typically disposed within a sealed housing which also houses the electrochemical cells, and includes a first contact and a second contact respectively coupled to first and second power terminals of the energy storage device. The interconnect board advantageously provides for selective series or parallel connectivity with the electrochemical cells, irrespective of electrochemical cell position within the housing. Fuses and various electrical and electro-mechanical devices, such as bypass, equalization, and communication devices for example, may also be mounted to the interconnect board and selectively connected to the electrochemical cells.

  9. Updating Interconnection Screens for PV System Integration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coddington, M.; Mather, B.; Kroposki, B.; Lynn, K.; Razon, A.; Ellis, A.; Hill, R.; Key, T.; Nicole, K.; Smith, J.

    2012-02-01

    This white paper evaluates the origins and usefulness of the capacity penetration screen, offer short-term solutions which could effectively allow fast-track interconnection to many PV system applications, and considers longer-term solutions for increasing PV deployment levels in a safe and reliable manner while reducing or eliminating the emphasis on the penetration screen. Short-term and longer-term alternatives approaches are offered as examples; however, specific modifications to screening procedures should be discussed with stakeholders and must ultimately be adopted by state and federal regulatory bodies.

  10. Solid-state energy storage module employing integrated interconnect board

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouillard, Jean (Saint-Luc, CA); Comte, Christophe (Montreal, CA); Daigle, Dominik (St-Hyacinthe, CA); Hagen, Ronald A. (Stillwater, MN); Knudson, Orlin B. (Vadnais Heights, MN); Morin, Andre (Longueuil, CA); Ranger, Michel (Lachine, CA); Ross, Guy (Beloeil, CA); Rouillard, Roger (Beloeil, CA); St-Germain, Philippe (Outremont, CA); Sudano, Anthony (Laval, CA); Turgeon, Thomas A. (Fridley, MN)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an improved electrochemical energy storage device. The electrochemical energy storage device includes a number of solid-state, thin-film electrochemical cells which are selectively interconnected in series or parallel through use of an integrated interconnect board. The interconnect board is typically disposed within a sealed housing which also houses the electrochemical cells, and includes a first contact and a second contact respectively coupled to first and second power terminals of the energy storage device. The interconnect board advantageously provides for selective series or parallel connectivity with the electrochemical cells, irrespective of electrochemical cell position within the housing. In one embodiment, a sheet of conductive material is processed by employing a known milling, stamping, or chemical etching technique to include a connection pattern which provides for flexible and selective interconnecting of individual electrochemical cells within the housing, which may be a hermetically sealed housing. Fuses and various electrical and electro-mechanical devices, such as bypass, equalization, and communication devices for example, may also be mounted to the interconnect board and selectively connected to the electrochemical cells.

  11. Data integrity for on-chip interconnects 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singhal, Rohit

    2007-09-17

    With shrinking feature size and growing integration density in the Deep Sub- Micron (DSM) technologies, the global buses are fast becoming the "weakest-links" in VLSI design. They have large delays and are error-prone. ...

  12. Updating Interconnection Screens for PV System Integration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With WIPPfinalUnexpectedofWyko NT3300 OpticalUpdate onMayMichael

  13. Integration of a waveguide self-electrooptic effect device and a vertically coupled interconnect waveguide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vawter, G. Allen (Corrales, NM)

    2008-02-26

    A self-electrooptic effect device ("SEED") is integrated with waveguide interconnects through the use of vertical directional couplers. Light initially propagating in the interconnect waveguide is vertically coupled to the active waveguide layer of the SEED and, if the SEED is in the transparent state, the light is coupled back to the interconnect waveguide.

  14. Interconnect

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation CurrentHenryInhibitingInteractive Jobs Interactive Jobs To run an

  15. IEEE 1547 and 2030 Standards for Distributed Energy Resources Interconnection and Interoperability with the Electricity Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basso, T.

    2014-12-01

    Public-private partnerships have been a mainstay of the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (DOE/NREL) approach to research and development. These partnerships also include technology development that enables grid modernization and distributed energy resources (DER) advancement, especially renewable energy systems integration with the grid. Through DOE/NREL and industry support of Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) standards development, the IEEE 1547 series of standards has helped shape the way utilities and other businesses have worked together to realize increasing amounts of DER interconnected with the distribution grid. And more recently, the IEEE 2030 series of standards is helping to further realize greater implementation of communications and information technologies that provide interoperability solutions for enhanced integration of DER and loads with the grid. For these standards development partnerships, for approximately $1 of federal funding, industry partnering has contributed $5. In this report, the status update is presented for the American National Standards IEEE 1547 and IEEE 2030 series of standards. A short synopsis of the history of the 1547 standards is first presented, then the current status and future direction of the ongoing standards development activities are discussed.

  16. Contention-aware Resource Provisioning in Interconnected Grid Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buyya, Rajkumar

    requests when there is a surge in demand. Then, a contention-aware energy management policy is proposed to resolve the con- tention, while side-effects of this mechanism are taken into account. Particularly are considered. Therefore, this dissertation investigates and categorises mechanisms for management of resource

  17. Investigating thermal dependence on monolithically-integrated photonic interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yu-Hsin, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01

    Monolithically-integrated optical link is a disruptive technology which has the promising potential to remove memory bandwidth bottleneck in the deep multicore regime. Although with the advantages of high bandwidth-density ...

  18. Long-Distance Interconnection as Solar Resource Intermittency Solution: Optimizing the Use of Energy Storage and the Geographic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Energy Storage and the Geographic Dispersion + Interconnection of Solar Generating Facilities. Marc J. R energy targets. Variability of the solar resource occurs across many different temporal scales: from energy storage and Long-distance interconnection coupled with geographic dispersion of solar generating

  19. High-speed graphene interconnects monolithically integrated with CMOS ring oscillators operating at 1.3GHz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Xiangyu

    We have successfully experimentally integrated graphene interconnects with commercial 0.25 Âżm technology CMOS ring oscillator circuit using conventional fabrication techniques, and demonstrated high speed on-chip graphene ...

  20. Integrated Resource Planning Model (IRPM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, T. B.

    2010-04-01

    The Integrated Resource Planning Model (IRPM) is a decision-support software product for resource-and-capacity planning. Users can evaluate changing constraints on schedule performance, projected cost, and resource use. IRPM is a unique software tool that can analyze complex business situations from a basic supply chain to an integrated production facility to a distributed manufacturing complex. IRPM can be efficiently configured through a user-friendly graphical interface to rapidly provide charts, graphs, tables, and/or written results to summarize postulated business scenarios. There is not a similar integrated resource planning software package presently available. Many different businesses (from government to large corporations as well as medium-to-small manufacturing concerns) could save thousands of dollars and hundreds of labor hours in resource and schedule planning costs. Those businesses also could avoid millions of dollars of revenue lost from fear of overcommitting or from penalties and lost future business for failing to meet promised delivery by using IRPM to perform what-if business-case evaluations. Tough production planning questions that previously were left unanswered can now be answered with a high degree of certainty. Businesses can anticipate production problems and have solutions in hand to deal with those problems. IRPM allows companies to make better plans, decisions, and investments.

  1. Integrated Energy-Water Planning in the Western and Texas Interconnections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vincent Tidwell; John Gasper; Robert Goldstein; Jordan Macknick; Gerald Sehlke; Michael Webber; Mark Wigmosta

    2013-07-01

    While long-term regional electricity transmission planning has traditionally focused on cost, infrastructure utilization, and reliability, issues concerning the availability of water represent an emerging issue. Thermoelectric expansion must be considered in the context of competing demands from other water use sectors balanced with fresh and non-fresh water supplies subject to climate variability. An integrated Energy-Water Decision Support System (DSS) is being developed that will enable planners in the Western and Texas Interconnections to analyze the potential implications of water availability and cost for long-range transmission planning. The project brings together electric transmission planners (Western Electricity Coordinating Council and Electric Reliability Council of Texas) with western water planners (Western Governors’ Association and the Western States Water Council). This paper lays out the basic framework for this integrated Energy-Water DSS.

  2. A 2-Slot Time-Division Multiplexing (TDM) Interconnect Network for Gigascale Integration (GSI)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joshi, Ajay

    critical-path interconnect on that tier. For a given range of interconnect lengths, this idleness can of the low average activity factor, and can be utilized by sending two binary transitions on a single wire

  3. Through-substrate interconnects for 3-D integration and RF systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Joyce H. (Joyce Hsia-Sing), 1974-

    2007-01-01

    Interconnects on silicon chips are fabricated on the top surface with an ever-increasing number of metal layers necessary to just meet performance needs. While devices have scaled according to Moore's law, interconnects ...

  4. Integration of distributed energy resources. The CERTS Microgrid Concept

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2002-01-01

    2001. Integration of Distributed Energy Resources - The C Enew Integration of Distributed Energy Resources - The C E Ron Integration of Distributed Energy Resources The CERTS

  5. Wind Integration, Transmission, and Resource Assessment andCharacteri...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Integration, Transmission, and Resource Assessment and Characterization Projects Wind Integration, Transmission, and Resource Assessment and Characterization Projects This report...

  6. Fully Integrated Graphene and Carbon Nanotube Interconnects for Gigahertz High-Speed Cmos Electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Xiangyu

    Carbon-based nanomaterials such as metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), and graphene have been considered as some of the most promising candidates for future interconnect technology ...

  7. Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS): Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodford, D.

    2011-02-01

    This report provides an independent review included an initial evaluation of the technical configuration and capital costs of establishing an undersea cable system and examining impacts to the existing electric transmission systems as a result of interconnecting the islands.

  8. Phase 2 Report: Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS); Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodford, D.

    2011-02-01

    This report provides an independent review including an initial evaluation of the technical configuration and capital costs of establishing an undersea cable system and examining impacts to the existing electric transmission systems as a result of interconnecting the islands

  9. Demonstration of monolithically integrated graphene interconnects for low-power CMOS applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Kyeong-Jae

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, interconnects have become an increasingly difficult design challenge as their relative performance has not improved at the same pace with transistor scaling. The specifications for complex features, clock ...

  10. Electromigration in metal interconnects is the most pernicious failure mechanism in semiconductor integrated circuits (ICs). Early electromigration investigations were primarily focused on aluminum interconnects for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electromigration in metal interconnects is the most pernicious failure mechanism in semiconductor interconnects for silicon-based ICs. An alternative metallization compatible with gallium arsenide (Ga at higher current densities and elevated temperatures. Gold-based metallization was implemented on Ga

  11. Interconnection Panel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation—given at at the Fall 2012 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting—discusses the interconnection panel, including an overview of the generation interconnection process (GIP), and interconnection agreements and their terms.

  12. Primer on gas integrated resource planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldman, C.; Comnes, G.A.; Busch, J.; Wiel, S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This report discusses the following topics: gas resource planning: need for IRP; gas integrated resource planning: methods and models; supply and capacity planning for gas utilities; methods for estimating gas avoided costs; economic analysis of gas utility DSM programs: benefit-cost tests; gas DSM technologies and programs; end-use fuel substitution; and financial aspects of gas demand-side management programs.

  13. Beta Test Plan for Advanced Inverters Interconnecting Distributed Resources with Electric Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoke, A.; Chakraborty, S.; Basso, T.; Coddington, M.

    2014-01-01

    This document provides a preliminary (beta) test plan for grid interconnection systems of advanced inverter-based DERs. It follows the format and methodology/approach established by IEEE Std 1547.1, while incorporating: 1. Upgraded tests for responses to abnormal voltage and frequency, and also including ride-through. 2. A newly developed test for voltage regulation, including dynamic response testing. 3. Modified tests for unintentional islanding, open phase, and harmonics to include testing with the advanced voltage and frequency response functions enabled. Two advanced inverters, one single-phase and one three-phase, were tested under the beta test plan. These tests confirmed the importance of including tests for inverter dynamic response, which varies widely from one inverter to the next.

  14. Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    State Agency Input Regarding Electric Resource and Transmission Planning in the Texas Interconnection Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, State Agency...

  15. Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Interconnection on Electric Resource Planning and Priorities Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, Cooperation Among States in the Eastern...

  16. Modeling renewable energy resources in integrated resource planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Logan, D.; Neil, C.; Taylor, A. [RCG/Hagler, Bailly, Inc., Boulder, CO (United States)

    1994-06-01

    Including renewable energy resources in integrated resource planning (IRP) requires that utility planning models properly consider the relevant attributes of the different renewable resources in addition to conventional supply-side and demand-side options. Otherwise, a utility`s resource plan is unlikely to have an appropriate balance of the various resource options. The current trend toward regulatory set-asides for renewable resources is motivated in part by the perception that the capabilities of current utility planning models are inadequate with regard to renewable resources. Adequate modeling capabilities and utility planning practices are a necessary prerequisite to the long-term penetration of renewable resources into the electric utility industry`s resource mix. This report presents a review of utility planning models conducted for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The review examines the capabilities of utility planning models to address key issues in the choice between renewable resources and other options. The purpose of this review is to provide a basis for identifying high priority areas for advancing the state of the art.

  17. Integrated Resource Planning: A Dialogue with ELCON 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Treadway, N.; Torrent, G.

    1992-01-01

    for energy is viewed. One response to the events of that period is the application of integrated resource planning (lRP). IRP is, principally, a regulatory prerogative designed to promote a balance between supply and demand resources in electricity... pressures that a competitive finn does 3 and are provided with a set of incentives under the current these issues would take us far afield but suffice it to say: The current regulatory environment may not provide the incentives for planners to follow...

  18. National conference on integrated resource planning: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    Until recently, state regulators have focused most of their attention on the development of least-cost or integrated resource planning (IRP) processes for electric utilities. A number of commissions are beginning to scrutinize the planning processes of local gas distribution companies (LDCs) because of the increased control that LDCs have over their purchased gas costs (as well as the associated risks) and because of questions surrounding the role and potential of gas end-use efficiency options. Traditionally, resource planning (LDCs) has concentrated on options for purchasing and storing gas. Integrated resource planning involves the creation of a process in which supply-side and demand-side options are integrated to create a resource mix that reliably satisfies customers` short-term and long-term energy service needs at the lowest cost. As applied to gas utilities, an integrated resource plan seeks to balance cost and reliability, and should not be interpreted simply as the search for lowest commodity costs. The National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners` (NARUC) Energy Conservation committee asked Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) to survey state PUCs to determine the extent to which they have undertaken least cost planning for gas utilities. The survey included the following topics: status of state PUC least-cost planning regulations and practices for gas utilities; type and scope of natural gas DSM programs in effect, including fuel substitution; economic tests and analysis methods used to evaluate DSM programs; relationship between prudency reviews of gas utility purchasing practices and integrated resource planning; key regulatory issued facing gas utilities during the next five years.

  19. National conference on integrated resource planning: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Until recently, state regulators have focused most of their attention on the development of least-cost or integrated resource planning (IRP) processes for electric utilities. A number of commissions are beginning to scrutinize the planning processes of local gas distribution companies (LDCs) because of the increased control that LDCs have over their purchased gas costs (as well as the associated risks) and because of questions surrounding the role and potential of gas end-use efficiency options. Traditionally, resource planning (LDCs) has concentrated on options for purchasing and storing gas. Integrated resource planning involves the creation of a process in which supply-side and demand-side options are integrated to create a resource mix that reliably satisfies customers' short-term and long-term energy service needs at the lowest cost. As applied to gas utilities, an integrated resource plan seeks to balance cost and reliability, and should not be interpreted simply as the search for lowest commodity costs. The National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners' (NARUC) Energy Conservation committee asked Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) to survey state PUCs to determine the extent to which they have undertaken least cost planning for gas utilities. The survey included the following topics: status of state PUC least-cost planning regulations and practices for gas utilities; type and scope of natural gas DSM programs in effect, including fuel substitution; economic tests and analysis methods used to evaluate DSM programs; relationship between prudency reviews of gas utility purchasing practices and integrated resource planning; key regulatory issued facing gas utilities during the next five years.

  20. Producing thin film photovoltaic modules with high integrity interconnects and dual layer contacts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jansen, Kai W. (Lawrenceville, NJ); Maley, Nagi (Exton, PA)

    2001-01-01

    High performance photovoltaic modules are produced with improved interconnects by a special process. Advantageously, the photovoltaic modules have a dual layer back (rear) contact and a front contact with at least one layer. The front contact and the inner layer of the back contact can comprise a transparent conductive oxide. The outer layer of the back contact can comprise a metal or metal oxide. The front contact can also have a dielectric layer. In one form, the dual layer back contact comprises a zinc oxide inner layer and an aluminum outer layer and the front contact comprises a tin oxide inner layer and a silicon dioxide dielectric outer layer. One or more amorphous silicon-containing thin film semiconductors can be deposited between the front and back contacts. The contacts can be positioned between a substrate and an optional superstrate. During production, the transparent conductive oxide layer of the front contact is scribed by a laser, then the amorphous silicon-containing semiconductors and inner layer of the dual layer back contact are simultaneously scribed and trenched (drilled) by the laser and the trench is subsequently filled with the same metal as the outer layer of the dual layer back contact to provide a superb mechanical and electrical interconnect between the front contact and the outer layer of the dual layer back contact. The outer layer of the dual layer back contact can then be scribed by the laser. For enhanced environmental protection, the photovoltaic modules can be encapsulated.

  1. Producing thin film photovoltaic modules with high integrity interconnects and dual layer contacts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jansen, Kai W. (Lawrenceville, NJ); Maley, Nagi (Exton, PA)

    2000-01-01

    High performance photovoltaic modules are produced with improved interconnects by a special process. Advantageously, the photovoltaic modules have a dual layer back (rear) contact and a front contact with at least one layer. The front contact and the inner layer of the back contact can comprise a transparent conductive oxide. The outer layer of the back contact can comprise a metal or metal oxide. The front contact can also have a dielectric layer. In one form, the dual layer back contact comprises a zinc oxide inner layer and an aluminum outer layer and the front contact comprises a tin oxide inner layer and a silicon dioxide dielectric outer layer. One or more amorphous silicon-containing thin film semiconductors can be deposited between the front and back contacts. The contacts can be positioned between a substrate and an optional superstrate. During production, the transparent conductive oxide layer of the front contact is scribed by a laser, then the amorphous silicon-containing semiconductors and inner layer of the dual layer back contact are simultaneously scribed and trenched (drilled) by the laser and the trench is subsequently filled with the same metal as the outer layer of the dual layer back contact to provide a superb mechanical and electrical interconnect between the front contact and the outer layer of the dual layer back contact. The outer layer of the dual layer back contact can then be scribed by the laser. For enhanced environmental protection, the photovoltaic modules can be encapsulated.

  2. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    West Virginia's interconnection standards include two levels of review. The qualifications and application fees for each level are as follows:...

  3. Energy and water in the Western and Texas interconnects.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll

    2010-08-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of Electricity has initiated a $60M program to assist the electric industry in interconnection-level analysis and planning. The objective of this effort is to facilitate the development or strengthening of capabilities in each of the three interconnections serving the lower 48 states of the United States, to prepare analyses of transmission requirements under a broad range of alternative futures and develop long-term interconnection-wide transmission expansion plans. The interconnections are the Western Interconnection, the Eastern Interconnection, and the Texas Interconnection. One element of this program address the support and development of an integrated energy-water Decision Support System (DSS) that will enable planners in the Western and Texas Interconnections to analyze the potential implications of water stress for transmission and resource planning (the Eastern Interconnection is not participating in this element). Specific objectives include: (1) Develop an integrated Energy-Water Decision Support System (DSS) that will enable planners in the Western and Texas Interconnections to analyze the potential implications of water stress for transmission and resource planning. (2) Pursue the formulation and development of the Energy-Water DSS through a strongly collaborative process between members of this proposal team and the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC), Western Governors Association (WGA), the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) and their associated stakeholder teams. (3) Exercise the Energy-Water DSS to investigate water stress implications of the transmission planning scenarios put forward by WECC, WGA, and ERCOT. The goals of this project are: (1) Develop an integrated Energy-Water Decision Support System (DSS) that will enable planners to analyze the potential implications of water stress for transmission and resource planning. (2) Pursue the formulation and development of the Energy-Water DSS through a strongly collaborative process between Western Electricity Coordinating Council, Electric Reliability Council of Texas, Western Governors Association, and Western States Water Council. (3) Exercise the Energy-Water DSS to investigate water transmission planning scenarios.

  4. Integration of Renewable Distributed Energy Resources into Microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Rui

    2015-01-01

    on Renewable Energy Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . SolarIntegration of Renewable Distributed Energy Re- sources intoIntegration of Renewable Distributed Energy Re- sources into

  5. Efficient integral equation based algorithms for parasitic extraction of interconnects with smooth or rough surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Zhenhai, 1970-

    2004-01-01

    This thesis describes a few efficient parasitic extraction algorithms based on integral equation methods. It has two parts. Part one describes the algorithms used in FastImp, a program for accurate analysis of wide-band ...

  6. Interconnection Guidelines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Rocky Mountain Power (PacifiCorp) has developed an interconnection application for net metering. All other electric utilities in Wyoming -- investor-owned utilities and rural electric associations...

  7. Interconnection Guidelines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The state's utilities independently developed interconnection agreements for distributed generation (DG) prior to the ACC's ongoing proceeding to establish statewide standards. The Salt River...

  8. Role of Smarter Grids in Variable Renewable Resource Integration (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, M.

    2012-07-01

    This presentation discusses the role of smarter grids in variable renewable resource integration and references material from a forthcoming ISGAN issue paper: Smart Grid Contributions to Variable Renewable Resource Integration, co-written by the presenter and currently in review.

  9. Quantum Photonic Interconnect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jianwei Wang; Damien Bonneau; Matteo Villa; Joshua W. Silverstone; Raffaele Santagati; Shigehito Miki; Taro Yamashita; Mikio Fujiwara; Masahide Sasaki; Hirotaka Terai; Michael G. Tanner; Chandra M. Natarajan; Robert H. Hadfield; Jeremy L. O'Brien; Mark G. Thompson

    2015-09-26

    Integrated photonics has enabled much progress towards quantum technologies. Many applications, including quantum communication, sensing, and distributed and cloud quantum computing, will require coherent photonic interconnection between separate chip-based sub-systems. Large-scale quantum computing systems and architectures may ultimately require quantum interconnects to enable scaling beyond the limits of a single wafer and towards "multi-chip" systems. However, coherently interconnecting separate chips is challenging due to the fragility of these quantum states and the demanding challenges of transmitting photons in at least two media within a single coherent system. Distribution and manipulation of qubit entanglement between multiple devices is one of the most stringent requirements of the interconnected system. Here, we report a quantum photonic interconnect demonstrating high-fidelity entanglement distribution and manipulation between two separate chips, implemented using state-of-the-art silicon photonics. Path-entangled states are generated and manipulated on-chip, and distributed between the chips by interconverting between path-encoding and polarisation-encoding. We use integrated state analysers to confirm a Bell-type violation of $S$=2.638+-0.039 between two chips. With improvements in loss, this quantum interconnect will provide new levels of flexible systems and architectures for quantum technologies.

  10. Renewable Resource Integration Project - Scoping Study of Strategic Transmission, Operations, and Reliability Issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eto, Joseph; Budhraja, Vikram; Ballance, John; Dyer, Jim; Mobasheri, Fred; Eto, Joseph

    2008-07-01

    California is on a path to increase utilization of renewable resources. California will need to integrate approximately 30,000 megawatts (MW) of new renewable generation in the next 20 years. Renewable resources are typically located in remote locations, not near the load centers. Nearly two/thirds or 20,000 MW of new renewable resources needed are likely to be delivered to Los Angeles Basin transmission gateways. Integration of renewable resources requires interconnection to the power grid, expansion of the transmission system capability between the backbone power grid and transmission gateways, and increase in delivery capacity from transmission gateways to the local load centers. To scope the transmission, operations, and reliability issues for renewables integration, this research focused on the Los Angeles Basin Area transmission gateways where most of new renewables are likely. Necessary actions for successful renewables integration include: (1) Expand Los Angeles Basin Area transmission gateway and nomogram limits by 10,000 to 20,000 MW; (2) Upgrade local transmission network for deliverability to load centers; (3) Secure additional storage, demand management, automatic load control, dynamic pricing, and other resources that meet regulation and ramping needed in real time operations; (4) Enhance local voltage support; and (5) Expand deliverability from Los Angeles to San Diego and Northern California.

  11. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Fees for interconnection requests increase with each Level. A Level 1 request must submit $50 fee; a Level 2 request must submit a fee of $50 plus $1/kW of generator capacity; a Level 3 request m...

  12. Interconnection Guidelines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Kansas adopted the Net Metering and Easy Connection Act in May 2009 (see K.S.A. 66-1263 through 66-1271), establishing interconnection guidelines and net metering for customer-owned generators.

  13. Transmission and Grid Integration: Electricity, Resources, & Building Systems Integration (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-09-01

    Factsheet developed to describe the activites of the Transmission and Grid Integration Group within NREL's Electricity, Resources, and Buildings Systems Integration center.

  14. Transmission and Grid Integration: Electricity, Resources, & Building Systems Integration (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-09-01

    Factsheet developed to describe the activities of the Transmission and Grid Integration Group within NREL's Electricity, Resources, and Buildings Systems Integration center.

  15. Integrated assessment of dispersed energy resources deployment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marnay, Chris; Blanco, Raquel; Hamachi, Kristina S.; Kawaan, Cornelia P.; Osborn, Julie G.; Rubio, F. Javier

    2000-06-01

    The goal of this work is to create an integrated framework for forecasting the adoption of distributed energy resources (DER), both by electricity customers and by the various institutions within the industry itself, and for evaluating the effect of this adoption on the power system, particularly on the overall reliability and quality of electrical service to the end user. This effort and follow on contributions are intended to anticipate and explore possible patterns of DER deployment, thereby guiding technical work on microgrids towards the key technical problems. An early example of this process addressed is the question of possible DER adopting customer disconnection. A deployment scenario in which many customers disconnect from their distribution company (disco) entirely leads to a quite different set of technical problems than a scenario in which customers self generate a significant share or all of their on-site electricity requirements and additionally buy and sell energy and ancillary services (AS) locally and/or into wider markets. The exploratory work in this study suggests that the economics under which customers disconnect entirely are unlikely.

  16. MycoCosm, an Integrated Fungal Genomics Resource (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In-Document Search Title: MycoCosm, an Integrated Fungal Genomics Resource MycoCosm is a web-based interactive fungal genomics resource, which was first released in March 2010, in...

  17. So You Have Questions AboutƒInterconnection & Net Metering: Resources & Technical Assistance (Postcard), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effect Photovoltaics -7541 *Impact NeutronSmallGridSmartphoneInterconnection &

  18. Engineering. Interconnection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aziz, Adnan

    Networks Digital System Design 9 of 19 ' & $ % Systems Analysis of a Multicomputer Node See Figure 1. Controlled by the partitioning and topology of the system Interconnection Networks Digital System Design 11' & $ % Digital System Design Adnan Aziz The University of Texas Reference: #15; Digital Systems

  19. Metal Nitride Diffusion Barriers for Copper Interconnects 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Araujo, Roy A.

    2010-01-14

    Advancements in the semiconductor industry require new materials with improved performance. With the introduction of copper as the interconnect material for integrated circuits, efficient diffusion barriers are required ...

  20. Resource conservation and optimization via process integration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gabriel, Frederico Burjack

    2006-04-12

    The process industries are characterized by the enormous use of natural resources such as raw materials, solvents, water, and utilities. Additionally, significant amounts of wastes are discharged from industrial facilities. As the world moves toward...

  1. Resource Information and Forecasting Group; Electricity, Resources, & Building Systems Integration (ERBSI) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-11-01

    Researchers in the Resource Information and Forecasting group at NREL provide scientific, engineering, and analytical expertise to help characterize renewable energy resources and facilitate the integration of these clean energy sources into the electricity grid.

  2. Information Infrastructure for Publishing and Integrating Water Resource Data from Pacific Rim Universities in Support of Hydrologic Modeling and Integrated Water Resource Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zaslavsky, Ilya

    2010-01-01

    Publishing and Integrating Water Resource Data from PacificModeling and Integrated Water Resource Management Finalin publishing and analyzing local water data, configuring a

  3. Natural Resource Damage Assessment Cooperation and Integration

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2012-06-19

    The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), 42 U.S.C. 9601, et seq., Executive Order 12580, and CERCLA's implementing regulations in the National Contingency Plan (NCP), 40 CFR Part 300, give the DOE three roles at DOE facilities undergoing environmental cleanup: lead response agency, natural resource trustee, and the party responsible for releases and threatened releases of hazardous substances. Does not cancel other directives.

  4. Wind Integration, Transmission, and Resource Assessment and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram: Report1538-1950DepartmentWave EnergyElectricityRateWind

  5. NREL: Transmission Grid Integration - Data and Resources

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines lightGeospatial ToolkitSMARTS -BeingFuture for SolarTechnologyNewData and

  6. Fast Automated Demand Response to Enable the Integration of Renewable Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Piette, LBNL. Integrating Renewable Resources in Californiaprocurement from eligible renewable energy resources to 33%to Enable the Integration of Renewable Resources David S.

  7. The Application of XML Languages for Integrating Molecular Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rzepa, Henry S.

    such as Chemical Abstracts, Beilstein or IUPAC, where human perception of molecular information was translated. Rzepaa and Michael Wrighta 3) Abstract: 4) Keywords: 5) Introduction 6) Early Internet-based Integration of Molecular Resources 7) Molecular Integration based on XML 8) The ChemDig Project 9) Chemical Markup Language

  8. Implications of Model Configurations on Capacity Planning Decisions: Scenario Case Studies of the Western Interconnection and Colorado Region using the Resource Planning Model

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In this report, we analyze the impacts of model configuration and detail in capacity expansion models, computational tools used by utility planners looking to find the least cost option for planning the system and by researchers or policy makers attempting to understand the effects of various policy implementations. The present analysis focuses on the importance of model configurations—particularly those related to capacity credit, dispatch modeling, and transmission modeling—to the construction of scenario futures. Our analysis is primarily directed toward advanced tools used for utility planning and is focused on those impacts that are most relevant to decisions with respect to future renewable capacity deployment. To serve this purpose, we develop and employ the NREL Resource Planning Model to conduct a case study analysis that explores 12 separate capacity expansion scenarios of the Western Interconnection through 2030.

  9. Communication Systems for Grid Integration of Renewable Energy Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, F Richard; Xiao, Weidong; Choudhury, Paul

    2011-01-01

    There is growing interest in renewable energy around the world. Since most renewable sources are intermittent in nature, it is a challenging task to integrate renewable energy resources into the power grid infrastructure. In this grid integration, communication systems are crucial technologies, which enable the accommodation of distributed renewable energy generation and play extremely important role in monitoring, operating, and protecting both renewable energy generators and power systems. In this paper, we review some communication technologies available for grid integration of renewable energy resources. Then, we present the communication systems used in a real renewable energy project, Bear Mountain Wind Farm (BMW) in British Columbia, Canada. In addition, we present the communication systems used in Photovoltaic Power Systems (PPS). Finally, we outline some research challenges and possible solutions about the communication systems for grid integration of renewable energy resources.

  10. Electrical interconnect

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frost, John S.; Brandt, Randolph J.; Hebert, Peter; Al Taher, Omar

    2015-10-06

    An interconnect includes a first set of connector pads, a second set of connector pads, and a continuous central portion. A first plurality of legs extends at a first angle from the continuous central portion. Each leg of the first plurality of legs is connected to a connector pad of a first set of connector pads. A second plurality of legs extends at a second angle from the continuous central portion. Each leg of the second plurality of legs is connected to a connector pad of the second set of connector pads. Gaps are defined between legs. The gaps enable movement of the first set of connector pads relative to the second set of connector pads.

  11. Interconnected semiconductor devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grimmer, Derrick P. (White Bear Lake, MN); Paulson, Kenneth R. (North St. Paul, MN); Gilbert, James R. (St. Paul, MN)

    1990-10-23

    Semiconductor layer and conductive layer formed on a flexible substrate, divided into individual devices and interconnected with one another in series by interconnection layers and penetrating terminals.

  12. Utility Integrated Resource Planning: An Emerging Driver of New Renewable Generation in the Western United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2005-01-01

    greater role in future utility planning efforts. Bolinger,Utility Integrated Resource Planning: An Emerging Driver ofyears: utility integrated resource planning (IRP). Common in

  13. Integrating Information Resources: A Case Study of Engineering Design Support?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Indiana University

    : how to make the CBR component provide information at the right time and in the right form, how to make the CBR component provide information at the right time and in the right form, how to exploitIntegrating Information Resources: A Case Study of Engineering Design Support? David B. Leake,1

  14. Interconnection networks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Faber, V.; Moore, J.W.

    1988-06-20

    A network of interconnected processors is formed from a vertex symmetric graph selected from graphs GAMMA/sub d/(k) with degree d, diameter k, and (d + 1)exclamation/ (d /minus/ k + 1)exclamation processors for each d greater than or equal to k and GAMMA/sub d/(k, /minus/1) with degree d /minus/ 1, diameter k + 1, and (d + 1)exclamation/(d /minus/ k + 1)exclamation processors for each d greater than or equal to k greater than or equal to 4. Each processor has an address formed by one of the permutations from a predetermined sequence of letters chosen a selected number of letters at a time, and an extended address formed by appending to the address the remaining ones of the predetermined sequence of letters. A plurality of transmission channels is provided from each of the processors, where each processor has one less channel than the selected number of letters forming the sequence. Where a network GAMMA/sub d/(k, /minus/1) is provided, no processor has a channel connected to form an edge in a direction delta/sub 1/. Each of the channels has an identification number selected from the sequence of letters and connected from a first processor having a first extended address to a second processor having a second address formed from a second extended address defined by moving to the front of the first extended address the letter found in the position within the first extended address defined by the channel identification number. The second address is then formed by selecting the first elements of the second extended address corresponding to the selected number used to form the address permutations. 9 figs.

  15. Full-wave Surface Integral Equation Method for Electromagnetic-circuit Simulation of Three-dimensional Interconnects in Layered Media 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karsilayan, Nur

    2011-08-08

    - tion of the conductor cross-sections for higher frequencies, still remain. The DCIM method has been used as a faster alternative to the direct evaluation of the Sommer- feld integrals that arise in layered media Green functions and involves...

  16. Integrated Safety Management Safety Culture Resources | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergy HeadquartersFuelBConservationEnergy5975-01 REPORTDepartment ofINTEGRATED

  17. Carbon nanotube interconnects for IC chips

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anwar Ali, Hashina Parveen

    2006-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been investigated as candidate materials to replace or augment the existing copper-based technologies as interconnects for Integrated Circuit (IC) chips. Being ballistic conductors, CNTs are ...

  18. Greater than the Sum of its Parts; Electricity, Resources, & Building Systems Integration (ERBSI) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-11-01

    NREL's Electricity, Resources, and Building Systems Integration Center brings together a diverse group of experts performing grid integration and optimization R&D activities.

  19. Review of integrated resource bidding at Niagara Mohawk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldman, C.A.; Busch, J.F.; Kahn, E.P.; Stoft, S.S.; Cohen, S.

    1992-05-01

    In June 1988, the New York Public Service Commission (PSC) ordered the state`s investor-owned utilities to develop competitive bidding programs that included both supply and demandside resource options. The New York State Energy Research & Development Authority (NYSERDA), the New York Department of Public Service, and the Department of Energy`s Integrated Resource Planning program asked Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) to review the integrated bidding processes of two New York utilities, Niagara Mohawk and Consolidated Edison. This interim report focuses on Niagara Mohawk (NMPC). In terms of overall approach, our analysis is intended as a critical review of a large-scale experiment in competitive resource acquisition implemented by New York utilities at the direction of their state regulators. The study is not a formal impact or process evaluation. Based on priorities established jointly with project sponsors, the report focuses on selected topics: analysis of the two-stage scoring system used by NMPC, ways that the scoring system can be improved, an in-depth review of the DSM bidding component of the solicitation including surveys of DSM bidders, relationship between DSM bidding and other utility-sponsored DSM programs, and major policy issues that arise in the design and implementation of competitive resource procurements. The major findings of this report are: NMPC`s solicitation elicited an impressive response from private power developers and energy service companies. In the initial ranking of bids, DSM projects were awarded significantly more points on price and environmental factors compared to supply-side bids. NMPC`s scoring system gave approximately twice as much weight nominally to price as to non-price factors (850 vs. 460 points).

  20. Review of integrated resource bidding at Niagara Mohawk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldman, C.A.; Busch, J.F.; Kahn, E.P.; Stoft, S.S.; Cohen, S.

    1992-05-01

    In June 1988, the New York Public Service Commission (PSC) ordered the state's investor-owned utilities to develop competitive bidding programs that included both supply and demandside resource options. The New York State Energy Research Development Authority (NYSERDA), the New York Department of Public Service, and the Department of Energy's Integrated Resource Planning program asked Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) to review the integrated bidding processes of two New York utilities, Niagara Mohawk and Consolidated Edison. This interim report focuses on Niagara Mohawk (NMPC). In terms of overall approach, our analysis is intended as a critical review of a large-scale experiment in competitive resource acquisition implemented by New York utilities at the direction of their state regulators. The study is not a formal impact or process evaluation. Based on priorities established jointly with project sponsors, the report focuses on selected topics: analysis of the two-stage scoring system used by NMPC, ways that the scoring system can be improved, an in-depth review of the DSM bidding component of the solicitation including surveys of DSM bidders, relationship between DSM bidding and other utility-sponsored DSM programs, and major policy issues that arise in the design and implementation of competitive resource procurements. The major findings of this report are: NMPC's solicitation elicited an impressive response from private power developers and energy service companies. In the initial ranking of bids, DSM projects were awarded significantly more points on price and environmental factors compared to supply-side bids. NMPC's scoring system gave approximately twice as much weight nominally to price as to non-price factors (850 vs. 460 points).

  1. Field Testing of Automated Demand Response for Integration of Renewable Resources in California's Ancillary Services Market for Regulation Products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiliccote, Sila

    2013-01-01

    M. A. Piette, Integrating Renewable Resources in CaliforniaEnable Integration of Renewable Resources,” February 2012.P. Worhach, ”|ntegration of Renewable Resources at 20% RPS,”

  2. Fast Automated Demand Response to Enable the Integration of Renewable Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, David S.

    2013-01-01

    DR and Traditional Energy Storage for Grid Services Energya grid resource integrated with renewable and energy storagegrid, whereas DR resources do not. Examples of these energy storage

  3. Integrated system dynamics toolbox for water resources planning.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reno, Marissa Devan; Passell, Howard David; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Peplinski, William J.; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Coursey, Don; Hanson, Jason; Grimsrud, Kristine; Thacher, Jennifer; Broadbent, Craig; Brookshire, David; Chemak, Janie; Cockerill, Kristan; Aragon, Carlos , Socorro, NM); Hallett, Heather , Socorro, NM); Vivoni, Enrique , Socorro, NM); Roach, Jesse

    2006-12-01

    Public mediated resource planning is quickly becoming the norm rather than the exception. Unfortunately, supporting tools are lacking that interactively engage the public in the decision-making process and integrate over the myriad values that influence water policy. In the pages of this report we document the first steps toward developing a specialized decision framework to meet this need; specifically, a modular and generic resource-planning ''toolbox''. The technical challenge lies in the integration of the disparate systems of hydrology, ecology, climate, demographics, economics, policy and law, each of which influence the supply and demand for water. Specifically, these systems, their associated processes, and most importantly the constitutive relations that link them must be identified, abstracted, and quantified. For this reason, the toolbox forms a collection of process modules and constitutive relations that the analyst can ''swap'' in and out to model the physical and social systems unique to their problem. This toolbox with all of its modules is developed within the common computational platform of system dynamics linked to a Geographical Information System (GIS). Development of this resource-planning toolbox represents an important foundational element of the proposed interagency center for Computer Aided Dispute Resolution (CADRe). The Center's mission is to manage water conflict through the application of computer-aided collaborative decision-making methods. The Center will promote the use of decision-support technologies within collaborative stakeholder processes to help stakeholders find common ground and create mutually beneficial water management solutions. The Center will also serve to develop new methods and technologies to help federal, state and local water managers find innovative and balanced solutions to the nation's most vexing water problems. The toolbox is an important step toward achieving the technology development goals of this center.

  4. Advanced Residential Buildings Research; Electricity, Resources, & Building Systems Integration (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-09-01

    Factsheet describing the Advanced Residential Buildings Research group within NREL's Electricity, Resources, and Buildings Systems Integration Center.

  5. Thermal Systems Group; Electricity, Resources, & Building Systems Integration (ERBSI) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-11-01

    Factsheet developed to describe the activites of the Thermal Systems Group within NREL's Electricity, Resources, and Buildings Systems Integration center.

  6. Advanced Commercial Buildings Research; Electricity, Resources, & Building Systems Integration (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-09-01

    Factsheet describing the Advanced Commercial Buildings Research group within NREL's Electricity, Resources, and Buildings Systems Integration Center.

  7. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, John P.; Liu, Shu; Ibanez, Eduardo; Pennock, Ken; Reed, Greg; Hanes, Spencer

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States. A total of 54GW of offshore wind was assumed to be the target for the analyses conducted. A variety of issues are considered including: the anticipated staging of offshore wind; the offshore wind resource availability; offshore wind energy power production profiles; offshore wind variability; present and potential technologies for collection and delivery of offshore wind energy to the onshore grid; potential impacts to existing utility systems most likely to receive large amounts of offshore wind; and regulatory influences on offshore wind development. The technologies considered the reliability of various high-voltage ac (HVAC) and high-voltage dc (HVDC) technology options and configurations. The utility system impacts of GW-scale integration of offshore wind are considered from an operational steady-state perspective and from a regional and national production cost perspective.

  8. Perforation patterned electrical interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frey, Jonathan

    2014-01-28

    This disclosure describes systems and methods for increasing the usable surface area of electrical contacts within a device, such as a thin film solid state device, through the implementation of electrically conductive interconnects. Embodiments described herein include the use of a plurality of electrically conductive interconnects that penetrate through a top contact layer, through one or more multiple layers, and into a bottom contact layer. The plurality of conductive interconnects may form horizontal and vertical cross-sectional patterns. The use of lasers to form the plurality of electrically conductive interconnects from reflowed layer material further aids in the manufacturing process of a device.

  9. Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative - Meeting...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Recovery Act Interconnection Transmission Planning Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative - Meeting Calendars Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning...

  10. Renewable Resource Integration Project - Scoping Study of Strategic Transmission, Operations, and Reliability Issues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Budhraja, Vikram

    2008-01-01

    interconnection to the power grid, expansion of the between the  backbone power grid and transmission gateways, be interconnected to the power grid for eventual delivery 

  11. Solar cell array interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, P.G.; Thompson, J.B.; Colella, N.J.; Williams, K.A.

    1995-11-14

    Electrical interconnects are disclosed for solar cells or other electronic components using a silver-silicone paste or a lead-tin (Pb-Sn) no-clean fluxless solder cream, whereby the high breakage of thin (<6 mil thick) solar cells using conventional solder interconnect is eliminated. The interconnects of this invention employs copper strips which are secured to the solar cells by a silver-silicone conductive paste which can be used at room temperature, or by a Pb-Sn solder cream which eliminates undesired residue on the active surfaces of the solar cells. Electrical testing using the interconnects of this invention has shown that no degradation of the interconnects developed under high current testing, while providing a very low contact resistance value. 4 figs.

  12. Solar cell array interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, Paul G. (Mountain View, CA); Thompson, Jesse B. (Brentwood, CA); Colella, Nicolas J. (Livermore, CA); Williams, Kenneth A. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    Electrical interconnects for solar cells or other electronic components using a silver-silicone paste or a lead-tin (Pb-Sn) no-clean fluxless solder cream, whereby the high breakage of thin (<6 mil thick) solar cells using conventional solder interconnect is eliminated. The interconnects of this invention employs copper strips which are secured to the solar cells by a silver-silicone conductive paste which can be used at room temperature, or by a Pb-Sn solder cream which eliminates undesired residue on the active surfaces of the solar cells. Electrical testing using the interconnects of this invention has shown that no degradation of the interconnects developed under high current testing, while providing a very low contact resistance value.

  13. Fort Irwin Integrated Resource Assessment. Volume 2, Baseline detail

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richman, E.E.; Keller, J.M.; Dittmer, A.L.; Hadley, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    This report documents the assessment of baseline energy use at Fort Irwin, a US Army Forces Command facility near Barstow, California. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume 3, Integrated Resource Assessment. The US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) has tasked the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), supported by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Fort Irwin. This is part of a model program that PNL has designed to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This program (1) identifies and evaluates all cost-effective energy projects; (2) develops a schedule at each installation for project acquisition considering project type, size, timing, and capital requirements, as well as energy and dollar savings; and (3) targets 100% of the financing required to implement energy efficiency projects. PNL applied this model program to Fort Irwin. This analysis examines the characteristics of electric, propane gas, and vehicle fuel use for a typical operating year. It records energy-use intensities for the facilities at Fort Irwin by building type and energy end use. It also breaks down building energy consumption by fuel type, energy end use, and building type. A complete energy consumption reconciliation is presented that accounts for all energy use among buildings, utilities, and applicable losses.

  14. Optimal Integration of Renewable Energy Resources in Data Centers with Behind-the-Meter Renewable Generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohsenian-Rad, Hamed

    1 Optimal Integration of Renewable Energy Resources in Data Centers with Behind-the-Meter Renewable-- Renewable energy resources, such as wind and solar power, are rapidly becoming generation technologies-temporal variations, the integration of renewable energy resources is usually very challenging. Some of the previously

  15. Micro-fluidic interconnect

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Okandan, Murat (Albuquerque, NM); Galambos, Paul C. (Albuquerque, NM); Benavides, Gilbert L. (Los Ranchos, NM); Hetherington, Dale L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-02-28

    An apparatus for simultaneously aligning and interconnecting microfluidic ports is presented. Such interconnections are required to utilize microfluidic devices fabricated in Micro-Electromechanical-Systems (MEMS) technologies, that have multiple fluidic access ports (e.g. 100 micron diameter) within a small footprint, (e.g. 3 mm.times.6 mm). Fanout of the small ports of a microfluidic device to a larger diameter (e.g. 500 microns) facilitates packaging and interconnection of the microfluidic device to printed wiring boards, electronics packages, fluidic manifolds etc.

  16. Passive microfluidic interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jonnalagadda, Aparna S

    2005-01-01

    Equipment and procedures were developed to test two passive microfluidic interconnect rings held together by the friction forces on the contact surfaces. The second design forms fluid seals by means of thin flared rings ...

  17. Wind Integration, Transmission, and Resource Assessment and Characterization Projects, Fiscal Years 2006–2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-04-01

    This report covers the Wind and Water Power Technologies Office's Wind Integration, Transmission, and Resource Assessment and Characterization Projects from 2006 to 2014.

  18. Reliability of Electrical Interconnects (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devoto, D.

    2014-06-01

    This presentation discusses the status of NREL's research on the reliability of electrical interconnects.

  19. MycoCosm, an Integrated Fungal Genomics Resource Shabalov, Igor...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Shabalov, Igor; Grigoriev, Igor 59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES MycoCosm is a web-based interactive fungal genomics resource, which was first released in March 2010, in...

  20. Integration of distributed energy resources. The CERTS Microgrid Concept

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2002-01-01

    of Distributed Energy Resources - The C E R T S M i c r o Gof Distributed Energy Resources - The C E R T S M i c r o Gof Distributed Energy Resources - The C E R T S M i c r o G

  1. MycoCosm, an Integrated Fungal Genomics Resource (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A paper copy of this document is also available for sale to the public from...

  2. Transmission Commercial Project Integration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Market Generator Interconnection Reform Implementation Network Integration Transmission Service (NT Service) Network Open Season (NOS) PTSA Reform North American Energy...

  3. Development of approaches to integrated water resources management 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geng, Guoting

    2010-01-01

    There is a growing need to manage water resources in a sustainable way, particularly in semi arid areas, with dramatic social and economic development as well as rapid population growth. Optimising water allocation in a ...

  4. Nanophotonic Optical Interconnection Network Architecture for On-Chip and Off-Chip Communications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergman, Keren

    for an integrated low-power, high-bandwidth optical interconnection network based on microring resonator technology for the next generation of high-performance architectures. The need for an interconnect solution providing lowNanophotonic Optical Interconnection Network Architecture for On-Chip and Off-Chip Communications

  5. Central American electrical interconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    A technical cooperation grant of $2.25 million, designed to strengthen the capacity of Central American countries to operate their regional interconnected electrical system, was announced by the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB). The grant, extended from the banks Fund for Special Operations, will help improve the capacity of the regions electric power companies to achieve economical, safe operation of the interconnected electric power systems. The funds will also be used to finance regional studies of the accords, procedures, regulations, and supervisory mechanisms for the system, as well as program development and data bases.

  6. Photovoltaic Systems Interconnected onto Secondary Network Distribution Systems – Success Stories

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report examines six case studies of photovoltaic (PV) systems integrated into secondary network systems. The six PV systems were chosen for evaluation because they are interconnected to secondary network systems located in four major Solar America Cities.

  7. Evaluation of phase change materials for reconfigurable interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khoo, Chee Ying

    2010-01-01

    The possible use of programmable integrated circuit interconnect vias using an indirectly heated phase change material is evaluated. Process development and materials investigations are examined. Devices capable of multiple ...

  8. Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    A, Interconnection-Level Analysis and Planning Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic A, Interconnection-Level Analysis and Planning A description of the...

  9. Capillary interconnect device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Renzi, Ronald F

    2013-11-19

    An interconnecting device for connecting a plurality of first fluid-bearing conduits to a corresponding plurality of second fluid-bearing conduits thereby providing fluid communication between the first fluid-bearing conduits and the second fluid-bearing conduits. The device includes a manifold and one or two ferrule plates that are held by compressive axial forces.

  10. Resource Aggregation for Fault Tolerance in Integrated Services Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dovrolis, Constantinos

    it is critical that the failure of a network component does not lead to unexpected termination or long dis of RAFT is to setup every fault tolerant flow along a secondary path that serves as a backup in case the primary path fails. The secondary path resource reservations are aggregated whenever possible to reduce

  11. Reversible concentric ring microfluidic interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn, 1980-

    2004-01-01

    A reversible, Chip-to-Chip microfluidic interconnect was designed for use in high temperature, high pressure applications such as chemical microreactor systems. The interconnect uses two sets of concentric, interlocking ...

  12. Integration of distributed energy resources. The CERTS Microgrid Concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lasseter, Robert; Akhil, Abbas; Marnay, Chris; Stephens, John; Dagle, Jeff; Guttromsom, Ross; Meliopoulous, A. Sakis; Yinger, Robert; Eto, Joe

    2002-04-01

    Evolutionary changes in the regulatory and operational climate of traditional electric utilities and the emergence of smaller generating systems such as microturbines have opened new opportunities for on-site power generation by electricity users. In this context, distributed energy resources (DER)--small power generators typically located at users' sites where the energy (both electric and thermal) they generate is used--have emerged as a promising option to meet growing customer needs for electric power with an emphasis on reliability and power quality. The portfolio of DER includes generators, energy storage, load control, and, for certain classes of systems, advanced power electronic interfaces between the generators and the bulk power provider. This white paper proposes that the significant potential of smaller DER to meet customers' and utilities' needs can be best captured by organizing these resources into MicroGrids.

  13. Detachment Faulting and Geothermal Resources - An Innovative Integrated

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTIONRobertsdale, Alabama (UtilityInstruments IncMississippi:DeltaFishDesert

  14. Integrated Geophysical Exploration of a Known Geothermal Resource: Neal Hot

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar2-0057-EA JumpDuimenMaking

  15. DOD Instruction 4715.03 - Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTIONRobertsdale, Alabama (UtilityInstruments Inc Jump to: navigation,(RECP)

  16. Electric network interconnection of Mashreq Arab Countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Amin, I.M.; Al-Shehri, A.M.; Opoku, G.; Al-Baiyat, S.A.; Zedan, F.M.

    1994-12-01

    Power system interconnection is a well established practice for a variety of technical and economical reasons. Several interconnected networks exist worldwide for a number of factors. Some of these networks cross international boundaries. This presentation discusses the future developments of the power systems of Mashreq Arab Countries (MAC). MAC consists of Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Yemen. Mac power systems are operated by government or semigovernment bodies. Many of these countries have national or regional electric grids but are generally isolated from each other. With the exception of Saudi Arabia power systems, which employ 60 Hz, all other MAC utilities use 50 Hz frequency. Each country is served by one utility, except Saudi Arabia, which is served by four major utilities and some smaller utilities serving remote towns and small load centers. The major utilities are the Saudi Consolidated electric Company in the Eastern Province (SCECO East), SCECO Center, SCECO West, and SCECO South. These are the ones considered in this study. The energy resources in MAC are varied. Countries such as Egypt, Iraq, and Syria have significant hydro resources.The gulf countries and Iraq have abundant fossil fuel, The variation in energy resources as well as the characteristics of the electric load make it essential to look into interconnections beyond the national boundaries. Most of the existing or planned interconnections involve few power systems. A study involving 12 countries and over 20 utilities with different characteristics represents a very large scale undertaking.

  17. The Integrated Environmental Strategies Handbook: A Resource Guide for Air

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al., 2013) |Information 5thInformationComparison with OtherQuality

  18. Integrated Evaluation of Cost, Emissions, and Resource Potential for Algal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journal Article)lasers(JournalatBaBartheExpansion (Journal Article) |

  19. CAREER: Climate Informed Uncertainty Analyses for Integrated Water Resources Sustainability Principal Investigator: Sankarasubramanian Arumugam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arumugam, Sankar

    CAREER: Climate Informed Uncertainty Analyses for Integrated Water Resources Sustainability the relative roles of climate variability in modulating seasonal streamflow and water quality variability over forecasts in improving water supply and water quality management and in developing adaptive water management

  20. Integrating CO? storage with geothermal resources for dispatchable renewable electricity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Buscheck, Thomas A.; Bielicki, Jeffrey M.; Chen, Mingjie; Sun, Yunwei; Hao, Yue; Edmunds, Thomas A.; Saar, Martin O.; Randolph, Jimmy B.

    2014-12-31

    We present an approach that uses the huge fluid and thermal storage capacity of the subsurface, together with geologic CO? storage, to harvest, store, and dispatch energy from subsurface (geothermal) and surface (solar, nuclear, fossil) thermal resources, as well as energy from electrical grids. Captured CO? is injected into saline aquifers to store pressure, generate artesian flow of brine, and provide an additional working fluid for efficient heat extraction and power conversion. Concentric rings of injection and production wells are used to create a hydraulic divide to store pressure, CO?, and thermal energy. Such storage can take excess power frommore ťthe grid and excess/waste thermal energy, and dispatch that energy when it is demanded, enabling increased penetration of variable renewables. Stored CO? functions as a cushion gas to provide enormous pressure-storage capacity and displaces large quantities of brine, which can be desalinated and/or treated for a variety of beneficial uses.Ť less

  1. Integrating CO? storage with geothermal resources for dispatchable renewable electricity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buscheck, Thomas A.; Bielicki, Jeffrey M.; Chen, Mingjie; Sun, Yunwei; Hao, Yue; Edmunds, Thomas A.; Saar, Martin O.; Randolph, Jimmy B.

    2014-12-31

    We present an approach that uses the huge fluid and thermal storage capacity of the subsurface, together with geologic CO? storage, to harvest, store, and dispatch energy from subsurface (geothermal) and surface (solar, nuclear, fossil) thermal resources, as well as energy from electrical grids. Captured CO? is injected into saline aquifers to store pressure, generate artesian flow of brine, and provide an additional working fluid for efficient heat extraction and power conversion. Concentric rings of injection and production wells are used to create a hydraulic divide to store pressure, CO?, and thermal energy. Such storage can take excess power from the grid and excess/waste thermal energy, and dispatch that energy when it is demanded, enabling increased penetration of variable renewables. Stored CO? functions as a cushion gas to provide enormous pressure-storage capacity and displaces large quantities of brine, which can be desalinated and/or treated for a variety of beneficial uses.

  2. Resource Planning Model: An Integrated Resource Planning and Dispatch Tool for Regional Electric Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In this report, we introduce a new transparent regional capacity expansion model with high spatio-temporal resolution and detailed representation of dispatch. The development of this model, referred to as the Resource Planning Model (RPM), is motivated by the lack of a tool in the public domain that can be used to characterize optimal regional deployment of resources with detailed dispatch modeling. In particular, RPM is designed to evaluate scenarios of renewable technology deployment to meet renewable portfolio standard (RPS) and emission-reduction goals, and to project possible deployment levels for various projections of future technology and fuel prices.

  3. Resource Planning Model: An Integrated Resource Planning and Dispatch Tool for Regional Electric Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMassR&D100Nationalquestionnaires 0serial codes on loginResonant SoftResource

  4. Fort Drum integrated resource assessment. Volume 1, Executive summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, D.R.; Armstrong, P.R.; Daellenbach, K.K.

    1993-09-01

    Some of the most difficult problems that a federal site has in reducing its energy consumption in a cost-effective manner revolve around understanding where the energy is being used, and what technologies could be employed to decrease the energy use. Many large federal sites have one or two meters to track electric energy use for several thousand buildings and numerous industrial processes. Even where meters are available on individual buildings or family housing units, the meters are not consistently read. When the federal energy manager has been able to identify high energy users, he or she may not have the background, training, or resources to determine the most cost-effective options for reducing this energy use. This can lead to selection of suboptimal projects that prevent the site from achieving the full life-cycle cost savings. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), supported by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), has developed a model program that provides a systematic approach to evaluating energy opportunities that (1) identifies the building groups and end uses that use the most energy (not just have the greatest energy-use intensity), and (2) evaluates the numerous options for retrofit or installation of new technology that will result in the selection of the most cost-effective technologies. In essence, this model program provides the federal energy manager with a roadmap to significantly reduce energy use in a planned, rational, cost-effective fashion that is not biased by the constraints of the typical funding sources available to federal sites. The results from this assessment process can easily be turned into a five- to ten-year energy management plan that identifies where to start and how to proceed in order to reach the mandated energy consumption targets.

  5. Resource Planning Model: An Integrated Resource Planning and Dispatch Tool for Regional Electric Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mai, T.; Drury, E.; Eurek, K.; Bodington, N.; Lopez, A.; Perry, A.

    2013-01-01

    This report introduces a new capacity expansion model, the Resource Planning Model (RPM), with high spatial and temporal resolution that can be used for mid- and long-term scenario planning of regional power systems. Although RPM can be adapted to any geographic region, the report describes an initial version of the model adapted for the power system in Colorado. It presents examples of scenario results from the first version of the model, including an example of a 30%-by-2020 renewable electricity penetration scenario.

  6. Fuel cell system with interconnect

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goettler, Richard; Liu, Zhien

    2015-08-11

    The present invention includes a fuel cell system having a plurality of adjacent electrochemical cells formed of an anode layer, a cathode layer spaced apart from the anode layer, and an electrolyte layer disposed between the anode layer and the cathode layer. The fuel cell system also includes at least one interconnect, the interconnect being structured to conduct free electrons between adjacent electrochemical cells. Each interconnect includes a primary conductor embedded within the electrolyte layer and structured to conduct the free electrons.

  7. Fuel cell system with interconnect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Zhien; Goettler, Richard

    2015-09-29

    The present invention includes a fuel cell system having a plurality of adjacent electrochemical cells formed of an anode layer, a cathode layer spaced apart from the anode layer, and an electrolyte layer disposed between the anode layer and the cathode layer. The fuel cell system also includes at least one interconnect, the interconnect being structured to conduct free electrons between adjacent electrochemical cells. Each interconnect includes a primary conductor embedded within the electrolyte layer and structured to conduct the free electrons.

  8. Fuel cell system with interconnect

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goettler, Richard; Liu, Zhien

    2015-03-10

    The present invention includes a fuel cell system having a plurality of adjacent electrochemical cells formed of an anode layer, a cathode layer spaced apart from the anode layer, and an electrolyte layer disposed between the anode layer and the cathode layer. The fuel cell system also includes at least one interconnect, the interconnect being structured to conduct free electrons between adjacent electrochemical cells. Each interconnect includes a primary conductor embedded within the electrolyte layer and structured to conduct the free electrons.

  9. Robins Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 3, Resource assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, G.P.; Keller, J.M.; Stucky, D.J.; Wahlstrom, R.R.; Larson, L.L.

    1993-10-01

    The US Air Force Materiel Command (AFMC) has tasked the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), supported by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Robins Air Force Base (AFB). This is part of a model program that PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at the AFMC Robins AFB facility located approximately 15 miles south of Macon, Georgia. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume 2, Baseline Detail. The results of the analyses of EROs are presented in 13 common energy end-use categories (e.g., boilers and furnaces, service hot water, and building lighting). A narrative-description of each ERO is provided, including information on the installed cost, energy and dollar savings; impacts on operation and maintenance (O&M); and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. A description of the evaluation methodologies and technical and cost assumptions is also provided for each ERO. Summary tables present the cost-effectiveness of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO and present the results of the life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis indicating the net present value (NPV) and savings to investment ratio (SIR) of each ERO.

  10. Cape Canaveral Air Force Station integrated resource assessment. Volume 3, Resource assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandusky, W.F.; Eichman, C.J.; King, D.A.; McMordie, K.L.; Parker, S.A.; Shankle, S.A.; Wahlstrom, R.R.

    1994-03-01

    The U.S. Air Force (USAF) has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (AFS). Projects considered can be either in the form of energy management or energy conservation. The overall efforts of this task are based on a model program PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at Cape Canaveral AFS, which is located approximately 10 miles north of Cocoa Beach, Florida. It is a companion report to Volume 1: Executive Summary and Volume 2: Baseline Detail. The results of the analyses of EROs are presented in 11 common energy end-use categories (e.g., boilers and furnaces, service hot water, and building lighting). A narrative description of each ERO is provided, including information on the installed cost, energy and dollar savings, impacts on operations and maintenance (O&M), and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. Descriptions of the evaluation methodologies and technical and cost assumptions are also provided for each ERO. Summary tables present the cost- effectiveness of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO and present the results of the life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis, indicating the net present value (NPV) and savings-to-investment ratio (SIR) of each ERO.

  11. Assessing system reliability and allocating resources: a bayesian approach that integrates multi-level data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graves, Todd L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hamada, Michael S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Good estimates of the reliability of a system make use of test data and expert knowledge at all available levels. Furthermore, by integrating all these information sources, one can determine how best to allocate scarce testing resources to reduce uncertainty. Both of these goals are facilitated by modern Bayesian computational methods. We apply these tools to examples that were previously solvable only through the use of ingenious approximations, and use genetic algorithms to guide resource allocation.

  12. Carbon Nanomaterials: The Ideal Interconnect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon Nanomaterials: The Ideal Interconnect Technology for Next- Generation ICs Hong Li, Chuan Xu-generation ICs. In this research, carbon nanomaterials, with their many attractive properties, are emerging-a`-vis optical and RF interconnects, and we illustrate why carbon nanomaterials constitute the ideal intercon

  13. Process for electrically interconnecting electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, Paul G. (Mountain View, CA); Thompson, Jesse B. (Brentwood, CA); Colella, Nicolas J. (Livermore, CA); Williams, Kenneth A. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    Electrical interconnects for solar cells or other electronic components using a silver-silicone paste or a lead-tin (Pb--Sn) no-clean fluxless solder cream, whereby the high breakage of thin (<6 mil thick) solar cells using conventional solder interconnect is eliminated. The interconnects of this invention employs copper strips which are secured to the solar cells by a silver-silicone conductive paste which can be used at room temperature, or by a Pb--Sn solder cream which eliminates undesired residue on the active surfaces of the solar cells. Electrical testing using the interconnects of this invention has shown that no degradation of the interconnects developed under high current testing, while providing a very low contact resistance value.

  14. A PRODUCTION SIMULATION TOOL FOR SYSTEMS WITH INTEGRATED WIND ENERGY RESOURCES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gross, George

    A PRODUCTION SIMULATION TOOL FOR SYSTEMS WITH INTEGRATED WIND ENERGY RESOURCES BY NICOLAS BENOIT of renewable energy sources in order to reduce CO2 emissions. In fact, several jurisdictions around the world production simulation tool with the capability to quantify the variable effects of systems with varying wind

  15. IEEE Smart Grid Series of Standards IEEE 2030 (Interoperability) and IEEE 1547 (Interconnection) Status: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basso, T.; DeBlasio, R.

    2012-04-01

    The IEEE American National Standards smart grid publications and standards development projects IEEE 2030, which addresses smart grid interoperability, and IEEE 1547TM, which addresses distributed resources interconnection with the grid, have made substantial progress since 2009. The IEEE 2030TM and 1547 standards series focus on systems-level aspects and cover many of the technical integration issues involved in a mature smart grid. The status and highlights of these two IEEE series of standards, which are sponsored by IEEE Standards Coordinating Committee 21 (SCC21), are provided in this paper.

  16. Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Western Interconnection under the Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative, part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. The fundamental purpose of the awards...

  17. InfiniBand Interconnects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    has on production programs Increased Scale of Testing Use of multiple switches (Larger Clusters) Integrate with external network systems Continue to Analyze...

  18. Sustainable water resources development in Kuwait : an integrated approach with comparative analysis of the case of Singapore

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nazerali, Nasruddin A

    2007-01-01

    This thesis assesses the water resource status of Kuwait and Singapore, both countries considered as water scarce. The institutional aspect of Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) efforts in both countries is closely ...

  19. US Department of Energy Integrated Resource Planning Program: Accomplishments and opportunities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, D.L.; Mihlmester, P.E.

    1993-12-17

    The US Department of Energy Integrated Resource Planning Program supports many activities and projects that enhance the process by which utilities assess demand and supply options and, subsequently, evaluate and select resources. The US Department of Energy program coordinates integrated resource planning in risk and regulatory analysis; utility and regional planning; evaluation and verification; information transfer/technological assistance; and demand-side management. Professional staff from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest Laboratories collaborate with peers and stakeholders, in particular, the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners, and conduct research and activities for the US Department of Energy. Twelve integrated resource planning activities and projects are summarized in this report. The summaries reflect the diversity of planning and research activities supported by the Department. The summaries also reflect the high levels of collaboration and teaming that are required by the Program and practiced by the researchers. It is concluded that the Program is achieving its objectives by encouraging innovation and improving planning and decision making. Furthermore, as the Department continues to implement planned improvements in the Program, the Department is effectively positioned to attain its ambitious goals.

  20. Renewable Systems Interconnection: Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kroposki, B.; Margolis, R.; Kuswa, G.; Torres, J.; Bower, W.; Key, T.; Ton, D.

    2008-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy launched the Renewable Systems Interconnection (RSI) study in 2007 to address the challenges to high penetrations of distributed renewable energy technologies. The RSI study consists of 14 additional reports.

  1. An Integrated Water Treatment Technology Solution for Sustainable Water Resource Management in the Marcellus Shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthew Bruff; Ned Godshall; Karen Evans

    2011-04-30

    This Final Scientific/ Technical Report submitted with respect to Project DE-FE0000833 titled 'An Integrated Water Treatment Technology Solution for Sustainable Water Resource Management in the Marcellus Shale' in support of final reporting requirements. This final report contains a compilation of previous reports with the most current data in order to produce one final complete document. The goal of this research was to provide an integrated approach aimed at addressing the increasing water resource challenges between natural gas production and other water stakeholders in shale gas basins. The objective was to demonstrate that the AltelaRain{reg_sign} technology could be successfully deployed in the Marcellus Shale Basin to treat frac flow-back water. That objective has been successfully met.

  2. The Integrated Microbial Genomes (IMG) System: An Expanding Comparative Analysis Resource

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markowitz, Victor M.; Chen, I-Min A.; Palaniappan, Krishna; Chu, Ken; Szeto, Ernest; Grechkin, Yuri; Ratner, Anna; Anderson, Iain; Lykidis, Athanasios; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Kyrpides, Nikos C.

    2009-09-13

    The integrated microbial genomes (IMG) system serves as a community resource for comparative analysis of publicly available genomes in a comprehensive integrated context. IMG contains both draft and complete microbial genomes integrated with other publicly available genomes from all three domains of life, together with a large number of plasmids and viruses. IMG provides tools and viewers for analyzing and reviewing the annotations of genes and genomes in a comparative context. Since its first release in 2005, IMG's data content and analytical capabilities have been constantly expanded through regular releases. Several companion IMG systems have been set up in order to serve domain specific needs, such as expert review of genome annotations. IMG is available at .

  3. PV Interconnection Risk Analysis through Distribution System Impact Signatures and Feeder Zones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PV Interconnection Risk Analysis through Distribution System Impact Signatures and Feeder Zones Grid Integration Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, NM, USA Abstract-- High penetrations of PV reliability problems. In order to improve the interconnection study process, the use of feeder zones and PV

  4. Polyhedral integrated and free space optical interconnection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erteza, I.A.

    1998-01-06

    An optical communication system uses holographic optical elements to provide guided wave and non-guided communication, resulting in high bandwidth, high connectivity optical communications. Holograms within holographic optical elements route optical signals between elements and between nodes connected to elements. Angular and wavelength multiplexing allow the elements to provide high connectivity. The combination of guided and non-guided communication allows compact polyhedral system geometries. Guided wave communications provided by multiplexed substrate-mode holographic optical elements eases system alignment. 7 figs.

  5. SHIELDING AREA OPTIMIZATION UNDER THE SOLUTION OF INTERCONNECT CROSSTALK1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Lei

    SHIELDING AREA OPTIMIZATION UNDER THE SOLUTION OF INTERCONNECT CROSSTALK1 1 This paper is supported integrity. Simultaneous shield insertion and net ordering (SINO) has been shown to be effective to reduce both capacitive and inductive coupling. Although shield insertion could reduce crosstalk efficiently

  6. Interconnection Standards (Utah

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas: Energy ResourcesOrder at 8, 13 (Vt.InfinifuelInovaEnergyCorporationFlowcharts |

  7. Environmental implications associated with integrated resource planning by public utilities in the western United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baechler, M.C.; Haber, G.S.; Cothran, J.N.; Hand, M.M.

    1994-08-01

    The Western Area Power Administration is about to impose integrated resource planning requirements on its 612 public-power customers as part of its Energy Planning and Management Program (EPAM) and consistent with the Energy Policy Act of 1992. EPAM will affect public utilities over a 15-state region stretching from Minnesota to California, Montana to Texas. In this study, an assessment is made of the environmental impacts of the IRP requirements. Environmental impacts are calculated based on modeled changes in electric power generation and capacity additions.

  8. Integrating science and policy in natural resource management: Lessons and opportunities from North America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, R.N.; Meidinger, E.E.; Miller, G.; Rayner, J.; Layseca, M.

    1998-09-01

    Relations between science and policy concerning many issues (e.g., health, energy, natural resources) have been changing worldwide. Public pressure to resolve such complex and often controversial issues has resulted in policymakers and policy implementers seeking better knowledge on which to base their decisions. As a result, scientists have become more activity engaged in the creation and evaluation of policy. In this paper, the authors summarize the literature and experience in how Canada, Mexico, and the United States approach the integration of science and policy; the authors describe some apparent barriers and lessons; and they suggest some issues that may prove fruitful for discussion and future collaboration.

  9. Sandia Energy - Energy and Water in the Western and Texas Interconnect...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy and Water in the Western and Texas Interconnects Home Climate & Earth Systems WaterEnergy Nexus Decision Models for Integrating EnergyWater Energy and Water in the Western...

  10. Renewable Systems Interconnection

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing Tool FitsProject Developsfor UCNIEnvironmentalAHRIRemote DuctRenewableJuan J. Torres

  11. The LEAD Roadmap: an Integrative Framework for Utilizing and Sharing Community Resources to Enhance Understanding and Impact of Weather1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plale, Beth

    1 The LEAD Roadmap: an Integrative Framework for Utilizing and Sharing Community Resources ................................................................................................ 10 Introduction Linked Environments for Atmospheric Discovery (LEAD; Plale et al. 2004, 2006, assimilation, modeling, mining, and cyberinfrastructure systems. LEAD empowers researchers and students

  12. Solar Resource Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renne, D.; George, R.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.; Myers, D.; Heimiller, D.

    2008-02-01

    This report covers the solar resource assessment aspects of the Renewable Systems Interconnection study. The status of solar resource assessment in the United States is described, and summaries of the availability of modeled data sets are provided.

  13. Interconnection | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar2-0057-EA JumpDuimenMakingBiofuels Jump to:Energy/InfiniteInteracta

  14. Western Interconnection Synchrophasor Project

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking WithTelecentricNCubic Feet) UndergroundWestern Hemisphere OilWISP

  15. InfiniBand Interconnects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACT EVALUATION PLAN FOR THE SITE-218inperHygieneXSD-IXN

  16. Abstract--The issue of controlled and reliable integration of distributed energy resources into microgrids and large power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cańizares, Claudio A.

    , multi-stage optimization. I. INTRODUCTION elped by deregulation processes in the energy sector to be addressed in the process of integration is the control and management of the non-dispatchable renewable1 Abstract-- The issue of controlled and reliable integration of distributed energy resources

  17. Advanced Communication and Control for Distributed Energy Resource Integration: Phase 2 Scientific Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BPL Global

    2008-09-30

    The objective of this research project is to demonstrate sensing, communication, information and control technologies to achieve a seamless integration of multivendor distributed energy resource (DER) units at aggregation levels that meet individual user requirements for facility operations (residential, commercial, industrial, manufacturing, etc.) and further serve as resource options for electric and natural gas utilities. The fully demonstrated DER aggregation system with embodiment of communication and control technologies will lead to real-time, interactive, customer-managed service networks to achieve greater customer value. Work on this Advanced Communication and Control Project (ACCP) consists of a two-phase approach for an integrated demonstration of communication and control technologies to achieve a seamless integration of DER units to reach progressive levels of aggregated power output. Phase I involved design and proof-of-design, and Phase II involves real-world demonstration of the Phase I design architecture. The scope of work for Phase II of this ACCP involves demonstrating the Phase I design architecture in large scale real-world settings while integrating with the operations of one or more electricity supplier feeder lines. The communication and control architectures for integrated demonstration shall encompass combinations of software and hardware components, including: sensors, data acquisition and communication systems, remote monitoring systems, metering (interval revenue, real-time), local and wide area networks, Web-based systems, smart controls, energy management/information systems with control and automation of building energy loads, and demand-response management with integration of real-time market pricing. For Phase II, BPL Global shall demonstrate the Phase I design for integrating and controlling the operation of more than 10 DER units, dispersed at various locations in one or more Independent System Operator (ISO) Control Areas, at an aggregated scale of more than 1 MW, to provide grid support. Actual performance data with respect to each specified function above is to be collected during the Phase II field demonstration. At a minimum, the Phase II demonstration shall span one year of field operations. The demonstration performance will need to be validated by the target customer(s) for acceptance and subsequent implementation. An ISO must be involved in demonstration planning and execution. As part of the Phase II work, BPL Global shall develop a roadmap to commercialization that identifies and quantifies the potential markets for the integrated, aggregated DER systems and for the communication and control technologies demonstrated in Phase I. In addition, the roadmap must identify strategies and actions, as well as the regional and national markets where the aggregated DER systems with communication and control solutions will be introduced, along with a timeline projected for introduction into each identified market. In Phase I of this project, we developed a proof-of-concept ACCP system and architecture and began to test its functionality at real-world sites. These sites had just over 10 MW of DERs and allowed us to identify what needed to be done to commercialize this concept. As a result, we started Phase II by looking at our existing platform and identified its strengths and weaknesses as well as how it would need to evolve for commercialization. During this process, we worked with different stakeholders in the market including: Independent System Operators, DER owners and operators, and electric utility companies to fully understand the issues from all of the different perspectives. Once we had an understanding of the commercialized ACCP system, we began to document and prepare detailed designs of the different system components. The components of the system with the most significant design improvements were: the on-site remote terminal unit, the communication technology between the remote site and the data center, and the scalability and reliability of the data center application.

  18. CIM-EARTH: Community integrated model of economic and resource trajectories for humankind.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, J.; Foster, I.; Judd, K.; Moyer, E.; Munson, T.; Univ. of Chicago; Hoover Inst.

    2010-01-01

    Climate change is a global problem with local climatic and economic impacts. Mitigation policies can be applied on large geographic scales, such as a carbon cap-and-trade program for the entire U.S., on medium geographic scales, such as the NOx program for the northeastern U.S., or on smaller scales, such as statewide renewable portfolio standards and local gasoline taxes. To enable study of the environmental benefits, transition costs, capitalization effects, and other consequences of mitigation policies, we are developing dynamic general equilibrium models capable of incorporating important climate impacts. This report describes the economic framework we have developed and the current Community Integrated Model of Economic and Resource Trajectories for Humankind (CIM-EARTH) instance.

  19. Flexible interconnects for fuel cell stacks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lenz, David J.; Chung, Brandon W.; Pham, Ai Quoc

    2004-11-09

    An interconnect that facilitates electrical connection and mechanical support with minimal mechanical stress for fuel cell stacks. The interconnects are flexible and provide mechanically robust fuel cell stacks with higher stack performance at lower cost. The flexible interconnects replace the prior rigid rib interconnects with flexible "fingers" or contact pads which will accommodate the imperfect flatness of the ceramic fuel cells. Also, the mechanical stress of stacked fuel cells will be smaller due to the flexibility of the fingers. The interconnects can be one-sided or double-sided.

  20. Information Infrastructure for Publishing and Integrating Water Resource Data from Pacific Rim Universities in Support of Hydrologic Modeling and Integrated Water Resource Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zaslavsky, Ilya

    2010-01-01

    Water Resource Data from Pacific Rim Universities in Supportbeen building capacity of Pacific Rim University partners inof the Association of Pacific Rim Universities (APRU). The

  1. Integrated Evaluation of Cost, Emissions, and Resource Potential for Algal Biofuels at the National Scale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, Ryan; Fishman, Daniel; Frank, Edward D.; Johnson, Michael C.; Jones, Susanne B.; Kinchin, Christopher; Skaggs, Richard; Venteris, Erik R.; Wigmosta, Mark S.

    2014-04-21

    Costs, emissions, and resource availability were modeled for the production of 5 billion gallons yr-1 (5 BGY) of renewable diesel in the United States from Chlorella biomass by hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). The HTL model utilized data from a continuous 1-L reactor including catalytic hydrothermal gasification of the aqueous phase, and catalytic hydrotreatment of the HTL oil. A biophysical algae growth model coupled with weather and pond simulations predicted biomass productivity from experimental growth parameters, allowing site-by-site and temporal prediction of biomass production. The 5 BGY scale required geographically and climatically distributed sites. Even though screening down to 5 BGY significantly reduced spatial and temporal variability, site-to-site, season-to-season, and inter-annual variations in productivity affected economic and environmental performance. Performance metrics based on annual average or peak productivity were inadequate; temporally and spatially explicit computations allowed more rigorous analysis of these dynamic systems. For example, 3-season operation with a winter shutdown was favored to avoid high greenhouse gas emissions, and economic performance was harmed by underutilized equipment during slow-growth periods. Thus, analysis of algal biofuel pathways must combine spatiotemporal resource assessment, economic analysis, and environmental analysis integrated over many sites when assessing national scale performance.

  2. Renewable Resource Integration Project - Scoping Study of Strategic Transmission, Operations, and Reliability Issues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Budhraja, Vikram

    2008-01-01

    Options on Renewables Integration ..28Issues and Action Items for Renewables Integration.additional energy from renewables will be  needed to meet 

  3. A Hydro-Economic Approach to Representing Water Resources Impacts in Integrated Assessment Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirshen, Paul H.; Strzepek, Kenneth, M.

    2004-01-14

    Grant Number DE-FG02-98ER62665 Office of Energy Research of the U.S. Department of Energy Abstract Many Integrated Assessment Models (IAM) divide the world into a small number of highly aggregated regions. Non-OECD countries are aggregated geographically into continental and multiple-continental regions or economically by development level. Current research suggests that these large scale aggregations cannot accurately represent potential water resources-related climate change impacts. In addition, IAMs do not explicitly model the flow regulation impacts of reservoir and ground water systems, the economics of water supply, or the demand for water in economic activities. Using the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade (IMPACT) model of the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) as a case study, this research implemented a set of methodologies to provide accurate representation of water resource climate change impacts in Integrated Assessment Models. There were also detailed examinations of key issues related to aggregated modeling including: modeling water consumption versus water withdrawals; ground and surface water interactions; development of reservoir cost curves; modeling of surface areas of aggregated reservoirs for estimating evaporation losses; and evaluating the importance of spatial scale in river basin modeling. The major findings include: - Continental or national or even large scale river basin aggregation of water supplies and demands do not accurately capture the impacts of climate change in the water and agricultural sector in IAMs. - Fortunately, there now exist gridden approaches (0.5 X 0.5 degrees) to model streamflows in a global analysis. The gridded approach to hydrologic modeling allows flexibility in aligning basin boundaries with national boundaries. This combined with GIS tools, high speed computers, and the growing availability of socio-economic gridded data bases allows assignment of demands to river basins to create hydro-economic zones that respect as much as possible both political and hydrologic integrity in different models. - To minimize pre-processing of data and add increased flexibility to modeling water resources and uses, it is recommended that water withdrawal demands be modeled, not consumptive requirements even though this makes the IAM more complex. - IAMs must consider changes in water availability for irrigation under climate change; ignoring them is more inaccurate than ignoring yield changes in crops under climate change. - Determining water availability and cost in river basins must include modeling streamflows, reservoirs and their operations, and ground water and its interaction with surface water. - Scale issues are important. The results from condensing demands and supplies in a large complex river basin to one node can be misleading for all uses under low flow conditions and instream flow uses under all conditions. Monthly is generally the most accurate scale for modeling river flows and demands. Challenges remain in integrating hydrologic units with political boundaries but the gridded approach to hydrologic modeling allows flexibility in aligning basin boundaries with political boundaries. - Using minimal reservoir cost data, it is possible to use basin topography to estimate reservoir storage costs. - Reservoir evaporation must be considered when assessing the usable water in a watershed. Several methods are available to estimate the relationship between aggregated storage surface area and storage volume. - For existing or future IAMs that can not use the appropriate aggregation for water, a water preprocessor may be required due the finer scale of hydrologic impacts.

  4. The Salmon Resource and Sensitive Area mapping Project: Integrating a Natural Resource GIS with Field Operations Via Handheld Computer Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carson, Robert; Wente, Wendy H.; Hill, Milton

    2007-01-01

    ap- plication delivery of GIS biological resource data.ntegrating a N atural R esource GIS W ith F ield O perationsa Geographic Information System (GIS) of sensitive natural

  5. Integrating Renewable Energy into the Transmission and Distribution System of the U.S. Virgin Islands

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report describes one area in which islands may lead: integrating a high percentage of renewable energy resources into an isolated grid. In addition, it explores the challenges, feasibility, and potential benefits of interconnecting the USVI grids with the much larger Puerto Rican grid.

  6. Issues and methods in incorporating environmental externalities into the integrated resource planning process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, J.M.; Galen, P.S.

    1994-11-01

    This report is a review of current practices and policies in considering environmental externalities in the integrated resource planning and performance based regulation (IRP/PBR) process. The following issues are presented and examined: What are the pros and cons of treating environmental externalities in the IRP process? How are potential future environmental regulations being treated? Are externalities being qualitatively or quantitatively considered, or monetized? Are offsets being allowed? How are externality policies being coordinated among different levels and branches of governments? Should environmental externalities be considered in dispatching a utility`s existing resources? What are the procedures for addressing uncertainty in incorporating environmental externalities into IRP? How are externalities valued? What are other approaches to addressing environmental externalities. This report describes seven major approaches for addressing environmental externalities in the IRP process: qualitative treatment, weighting and ranking, cost of control, damage function, percentage adders, monetization by emission, and multiattribute trade-off analysis. The discussion includes a taxonomy of the full range of alternative methods for addressing environmental externalities, a summary of state PUC actions, the role of state laws, the debate on environmental adders, and the choice of methodologies. In addition, this report characterizes the interests of stakeholders such as the electric industry, fuel suppliers, energy consumers, governmental agencies, public interest groups, consultants, and others. It appears that the views, positions, and interests of these stakeholders are affected by their perceptions of the potential impacts on their economic interests or the viability of their position on environmental policy, by the societal perspective they take, and by the orientation of the analysts toward market competition and their respective accumulated expertise.

  7. Double interconnection fuel cell array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draper, R.; Zymboly, G.E.

    1993-12-28

    A fuel cell array is made, containing number of tubular, elongated fuel cells which are placed next to each other in rows (A, B, C, D), where each cell contains inner electrodes and outer electrodes, with solid electrolyte between the electrodes, where the electrolyte and outer electrode are discontinuous, having two portions, and providing at least two opposed discontinuities which contain at least two oppositely opposed interconnections contacting the inner electrode, each cell having only three metallic felt electrical connectors which contact surrounding cells, where each row is electrically connected to the other. 5 figures.

  8. Double interconnection fuel cell array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draper, Robert (Churchill Boro, PA); Zymboly, Gregory E. (Murrysville, PA)

    1993-01-01

    A fuel cell array (10) is made, containing number of tubular, elongated fuel cells (12) which are placed next to each other in rows (A, B, C, D), where each cell contains inner electrodes (14) and outer electrodes (18 and 18'), with solid electrolyte (16 and 16') between the electrodes, where the electrolyte and outer electrode are discontinuous, having two portions, and providing at least two opposed discontinuities which contain at least two oppositely opposed interconnections (20 and 20') contacting the inner electrode (14), each cell (12) having only three metallic felt electrical connectors (22) which contact surrounding cells, where each row is electrically connected to the other.

  9. Transmission planning in the era of integrated resource planning: A survey of recent cases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baldick, R.; Kahn, E.P.

    1992-09-01

    State action is critical to the expansion of the high-voltage transmission network, because regulated utilities must seek approval from utility commissions for proposals to site new lines. It is the purpose of this report to survey the regulatory treatment of issues that are unique to or ubiquitous in transmission planning and use. The authors review recent transmission siting cases to examine how the issues are presented to and resolved by state regulatory commissions and to provide a perspective for more general discussion of transmission policy. Their primary focus is on planning issues. Transmission capacity expansion is not typically treated in integrated resource planning. It is usually assumed that there is adequate transmission to achieve any particular plan. The authors believe that one important reason for this omission is the inherent complexity of transmission system expansion. Regulators and competitors may be at a serious disadvantage in negotiating or adjudicating specific transmission proposals with utilities, who generally have greater knowledge of both general technological considerations and case specifics. This problem of asymmetric information must be addressed at some level in planning or dispute resolution. However, they observe that explicit consideration of the information problem is absent from most regulatory and technical analysis of transmission. The goal of this survey is to share knowledge about the problems facing state regulators over the siting of new transmission facilities, and help to define constructive approaches to them.

  10. Cascade solar cell having conductive interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borden, Peter G. (Menlo Park, CA); Saxena, Ram R. (Saratoga, CA)

    1982-10-26

    Direct ohmic contact between the cells in an epitaxially grown cascade solar cell is obtained by means of conductive interconnects formed through grooves etched intermittently in the upper cell. The base of the upper cell is directly connected by the conductive interconnects to the emitter of the bottom cell. The conductive interconnects preferably terminate on a ledge formed in the base of the upper cell.

  11. Resources

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid youOxygen Generation |Publications| BlandineResearchResources

  12. Electromigration of Electroplated Gold Interconnects Steve Kilgore, *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schroder, Dieter K.

    Electromigration of Electroplated Gold Interconnects Steve Kilgore, * Craig Gaw, * Haldane Henry Tempe, AZ 85287, U.S.A. ABSTRACT Electromigration tests were performed on passivated electroplated Au

  13. Learn More About Interconnections | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and West to the foot of the Rockies (excluding most of Texas). All of the electric utilities in the Eastern Interconnection are electrically tied together during normal...

  14. Recent Development of SOFC Metallic Interconnect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu JW, Liu XB

    2010-04-01

    Interest in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) stems from their higher eąciencies and lower levels of emitted pollu- tants, compared to traditional power production methods. Interconnects are a critical part in SOFC stacks, which connect cells in series electrically, and also separate air or oxygen at the cathode side from fuel at the anode side. Therefore, the requirements of interconnects are the most demanding, i:e:, to maintain high elec- trical conductivity, good stability in both reducing and oxidizing atmospheres, and close coeącient of thermal expansion (CTE) match and good compatibility with other SOFC ceramic components. The paper reviewed the interconnect materials, and coatings for metallic interconnect materials.

  15. Using Integrated Resource Planning to Encourage Investment in Cost-Effective Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shenot, John

    2011-09-01

    Describes how utility planning processes that allow demand-side resources to compete with supply-side resources can promote cost-effective energy efficiency.

  16. Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS): Hawaiian...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS): Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS): Hawaiian Islands...

  17. Tevatron low-beta quadrupole triplet interconnects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oleck, A.R.; Carson, J.A.; Koepke, K.; Sorenson, D.

    1992-04-01

    Installation of cold iron quadrupole magnets in the Low Beta (Superconducting High-Luminosity) upgrade at Fermilab required a newly designed magnet interconnect. The interconnect design and construction experience is presented. Considered are the connections carrying cryogenic fluids, beam vacuum, insulating vacuum, superconducting bus leads, their insulation and mechanical support. Details of the assembly and assembly experience are presented. 2 refs.

  18. Updating Technical Screens for PV Interconnection: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coddington, M.; Ellis, A.; Lynn, K.; Razon, A.; Key, T.; Kroposki, B.; Mather, B.; Hill, R.; Nicole, K.; Smith, J.

    2012-08-01

    Solar photovoltaics (PV) is the dominant type of distributed generation (DG) technology interconnected to electric distribution systems in the United States, and deployment of PV systems continues to increase rapidly. Considering the rapid growth and widespread deployment of PV systems in United States electric distribution grids, it is important that interconnection procedures be as streamlined as possible to avoid unnecessary interconnection studies, costs, and delays. Because many PV interconnection applications involve high penetration scenarios, the process needs to allow for a sufficiently rigorous technical evaluation to identify and address possible system impacts. Existing interconnection procedures are designed to balance the need for efficiency and technical rigor for all DG. However, there is an implicit expectation that those procedures will be updated over time in order to remain relevant with respect to evolving standards, technology, and practical experience. Modifications to interconnection screens and procedures must focus on maintaining or improving safety and reliability, as well as accurately allocating costs and improving expediency of the interconnection process. This paper evaluates the origins and usefulness of the capacity penetration screen, offers potential short-term solutions which could effectively allow fast-track interconnection to many PV system applications, and considers longer-term solutions for increasing PV deployment levels in a safe and reliable manner while reducing or eliminating the emphasis on the penetration screen.

  19. Durability of Metallic Interconnects and Protective Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Zhenguo; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2009-12-15

    To build up a useful voltage, a number of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are electrically connected into series in a stack via interconnects, which are placed between adjacent cells. In addition to functioning as a bi-polar electrical connector, the interconnect also acts as a separator plate that separates the fuel at the anode side of one cell from the air at the cathode side on an adjacent cell. During SOFC operation at the high temperatures, the interconnects are thus simultaneously exposed to the oxidizing air at one side and a reducing fuel that can be either hydrogen or hydrocarbon at the other. Besides, they are in contact with adjacent components, such as electrodes or electrical contacts, seals, etc. With steady reduction in SOFC operating temperatures into the low or intermediate range 600-850oC, oxidation resistant alloys are often used to construct interconnects. However, the metallic interconnects may degrade via interactions at their interfaces with surrounding environments or adjacent components, potentially affecting the stability and performance of interconnects and the SOFC stacks. Thus protection layers are applied to metallic interconnects that also intend to mitigate or prevent chromium migration into cells and the cell poisoning. This chapter provides a comprehensive review of materials for metallic interconnects, their degradation and coating protection.

  20. Migratory shearwaters integrate oceanic resources across the Pacific Ocean in an endless summer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    signal in primary production with the shearwaters’ migrationonset of migration coincides with the period when primarythe postbreeding migration. Vertically-integrated primary

  1. Resources

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid youOxygen Generation |Publications| BlandineResearch

  2. Resources

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMassR&D100Nationalquestionnaires 0serial codes on loginResonant

  3. Determination of Interfacial Adhesion Strength between Oxide Scale and Substrate for Metallic SOFC Interconnects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xin; Liu, Wenning N.; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2008-01-21

    The interfacial adhesion strength between the oxide scale and the substrate is crucial to the reliability and durability of metallic interconnects in SOFC operating environments. It is necessary, therefore, to establish a methodology to quantify the interfacial adhesion strength between the oxide scale and the metallic interconnect substrate, and furthermore to design and optimize the interconnect material as well as the coating materials to meet the design life of an SOFC system. In this paper, we present an integrated experimental/analytical methodology for quantifying the interfacial adhesion strength between oxide scale and a ferritic stainless steel interconnect. Stair-stepping indentation tests are used in conjunction with subsequent finite element analyses to predict the interfacial strength between the oxide scale and Crofer 22 APU substrate.

  4. EIS-0485: Interconnection of the Grande Prairie Wind Farm, Holt...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    5: Interconnection of the Grande Prairie Wind Farm, Holt County, Nebraska EIS-0485: Interconnection of the Grande Prairie Wind Farm, Holt County, Nebraska SUMMARY DOE's Western...

  5. Method for fabricating an interconnected array of semiconductor devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grimmer, Derrick P. (White Bear Lake, MN); Paulson, Kenneth R. (North St. Paul, MN); Gilbert, James R. (St. Paul, MN)

    1989-10-10

    Semiconductor layer and conductive layer formed on a flexible substrate, divided into individual devices and interconnected with one another in series by interconnection layers and penetrating terminals.

  6. EA-1990: Ridgenose Solar Energy Interconnection Facility, Mohave...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    EA-1990: Ridgenose Solar Energy Interconnection Facility, Mohave County, Arizona EA-1990: Ridgenose Solar Energy Interconnection Facility, Mohave County, Arizona The EA was...

  7. The regulation of internet interconnection : assessing network market power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maida, Elisabeth M. (Elisabeth Marigo)

    2013-01-01

    Interconnection agreements in the telecommunications industry have always been constrained by regulation. Internet interconnection has not received the same level of scrutiny. Recent debates regarding proposed mergers, ...

  8. ELECTR-5939; No of Pages 6 Please cite this article in press as: A. Sopinka, Variable Energy Resources: VERy Interesting Implications for the Western Interconnect, Electr. J. (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tej.2013.04.015

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedersen, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The North American bulk power system is comprised of four interconnected regions: the Western Interconnect region comprises 37 balancing authorities located across Alberta and British Columbia, known hereafter.D. at the University of Victoria. Her dissertation work focused on the economic and environmental effects of wind

  9. Integration of Electric Energy Storage into Power Systems with Renewable Energy Resources 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Yixing 1985-

    2012-10-26

    This dissertation investigates the distribution and transmission systems reliability and economic impact of energy storage and renewable energy integration. The reliability and economy evaluation framework is presented. Novel operation strategies...

  10. Low threshold vertical cavity surface emitting lasers integrated onto Si-CMOS ICs using novel hybrid assembly techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perkins, James Michael, 1978-

    2007-01-01

    A new heterogeneous integration technique has been developed and demonstrated to integrate vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) on silicon CMOS integrated circuits for optical interconnect applications. Individual ...

  11. Renewable Resource Integration Project - Scoping Study of Strategic Transmission, Operations, and Reliability Issues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Budhraja, Vikram

    2008-01-01

    13 Table 5. 2006 Renewable Capacity and EstimatedMW)13 Table 6. 2006 Renewable Energy & Estimatedcapacity of renewable resources. ..16

  12. Integrating Trust into Grid Resource Management Systems Farag Azzedin and Muthucumaru Maheswaran

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manitoba, University of

    for providing security in Grid systems including sandboxing, encryption, and other access control for Grid systems and show how the model can be used to incorporate the security implications computing, resource management system, security, trust. 1. Introduction Resource management in Grid systems

  13. Promises and problems with metallic interconnects for reduced temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hou, Peggy Y.; Huang, Keqin; Bakker, Wate T.

    1999-01-01

    METALLIC INTERCONNECTS FOR REDUCED TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUELto fuel cell stacks with multiple metallic interconnects.

  14. Performance of Utility Interconnected Photovoltaic Inverters Operating Beyond Typical Modes of Operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    distributed energy resource (DER) systems now represents a significant part of the renewable generation mix to grow this may not be the case. In California, the largest US PV renewable market, the FY12 installed year, the interconnection standards are allowing distributed energy resource equipment to provide

  15. Distributed Solar Interconnection Challenges and Best Practices

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The continued growth of the distributed solar market in the United States has spurred electric utilities, regulators, and stakeholders to consider improvements to distributed generation (DG) interconnection processes. More than 475,000 solar energy systems were interconnected in the U.S. by the end of 2013, but 1 million are expected by the end of 2017. Based on the SunShot Initiative's current trajectory, permitting, inspection, and interconnection (PII) soft costs are expected to drop from a current cost of $0.17/watt to $0.14/watt by 2020. While the actual cost metrics for utility PII are undetermined, they are real. A survey and interviews conducted by Solar Electric Power Association (SEPA) in 2014 have uncovered utility initiatives to lower the administrative costs of DG interconnection, making the process of connecting to the grid simpler and more transparent for customers.

  16. Design space exploration of photonic interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Chen, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    As processors scale deep into the multi-core and many-core regimes, bandwidth and energy-efficiency of the on-die interconnect network have become paramount design issues. Recognizing potential limits of electrical ...

  17. Asynchronous intrusion recovery for interconnected web services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chandra, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Recovering from attacks in an interconnected system is difficult, because an adversary that gains access to one part of the system may propagate to many others, and tracking down and recovering from such an attack requires ...

  18. Monolithically interconnected GaAs solar cells: A new interconnection technology for high voltage solar cell output

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dinetta, L.C.; Hannon, M.H.

    1995-10-01

    Photovoltaic linear concentrator arrays can benefit from high performance solar cell technologies being developed at AstroPower. Specifically, these are the integration of thin GaAs solar cell and epitaxial lateral overgrowth technologies with the application of monolithically interconnected solar cell (MISC) techniques. This MISC array has several advantages which make it ideal for space concentrator systems. These are high system voltage, reliable low cost monolithically formed interconnections, design flexibility, costs that are independent of array voltage, and low power loss from shorts, opens, and impact damage. This concentrator solar cell will incorporate the benefits of light trapping by growing the device active layers over a low-cost, simple, PECVD deposited silicon/silicon dioxide Bragg reflector. The high voltage-low current output results in minimal 12R losses while properly designing the device allows for minimal shading and resistance losses. It is possible to obtain open circuit voltages as high as 67 volts/cm of solar cell length with existing technology. The projected power density for the high performance device is 5 kW/m for an AMO efficiency of 26% at 1 5X. Concentrator solar cell arrays are necessary to meet the power requirements of specific mission platforms and can supply high voltage power for electric propulsion systems. It is anticipated that the high efficiency, GaAs monolithically interconnected linear concentrator solar cell array will enjoy widespread application for space based solar power needs. Additional applications include remote man-portable or ultra-light unmanned air vehicle (UAV) power supplies where high power per area, high radiation hardness and a high bus voltage or low bus current are important. The monolithic approach has a number of inherent advantages, including reduced cost per interconnect and increased reliability of array connections. There is also a high potential for a large number of consumer products.

  19. Modeling the Global Water Resource System in an Integrated Assessment Modeling Framework: IGSM-WRS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strzepek, Kenneth M.

    The availability of water resources affects energy, agricultural and environmental systems, which are linked together as well as to climate via the water cycle. As such, watersheds and river basins are directly impacted ...

  20. Committed regional electrical interconnection projects in the Middle East

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azzam, M.; Al-Said, A.

    1994-12-01

    Due to the well-known advantages of electrical interconnections and their consequent benefits, Jordan considers the interconnection of its electrical network with the neighboring electrical networks as one of its main corporate strategies. At present the electrical interconnection project of the networks of Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Syria, and Turkey is progressing. To achieve this interconnection project, two feasibility studies were conducted: interconnection of the Egyptian and Jordanian electrical power systems; interconnection of the electrical networks of Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Syria, and Turkey (EIJST interconnection). This presentation reviews these studies and their results.

  1. Integration of Water Resource Models with Fayetteville Shale Decision Support and Information System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cothren, Jackson; Thoma, Greg; DiLuzio, Mauro; Limp, Fred

    2013-06-30

    Significant issues can arise with the timing, location, and volume of surface water withdrawals associated with hydraulic fracturing of gas shale reservoirs as impacted watersheds may be sensitive, especially in drought years, during low flow periods, or during periods of the year when activities such as irrigation place additional demands on the surface supply of water. Significant energy production and associated water withdrawals may have a cumulative impact to watersheds over the short-term. Hence, hydraulic fracturing based on water withdrawal could potentially create shifts in the timing and magnitude of low or high flow events or change the magnitude of river flow at daily, monthly, seasonal, or yearly time scales. These changes in flow regimes can result in dramatically altered river systems. Currently little is known about the impact of fracturing on stream flow behavior. Within this context the objective of this study is to assess the impact of the hydraulic fracturing on the water balance of the Fayetteville Shale play area and examine the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on river flow regime at subbasin scale. This project addressed that need with four unique but integrated research and development efforts: 1) Evaluate the predictive reliability of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model based at a variety of scales (Task/Section 3.5). The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used to simulate the across-scale water balance and the respective impact of hydraulic fracturing. A second hypothetical scenario was designed to assess the current and future impacts of water withdrawals for hydraulic fracturing on the flow regime and on the environmental flow components (EFCs) of the river. The shifting of these components, which present critical elements to water supply and water quality, could influence the ecological dynamics of river systems. For this purpose, we combined the use of SWAT model and Richter et al.’s (1996) methodology to assess the shifting and alteration of the flow regime within the river and streams of the study area. 2) Evaluate the effect of measurable land use changes related to gas development (well-pad placement, access road completion, etc.) on surface water flow in the region (Task/Section 3.7). Results showed that since the upsurge in shale-gas related activities in the Fayetteville Shale Play (between 2006 and 2010), shale-gas related infrastructure in the region have increase by 78%. This change in land-cover in comparison with other land-cover classes such as forest, urban, pasture, agricultural and water indicates the highest rate of change in any land-cover category for the study period. A Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) flow model of the Little Red River watershed simulated from 2000 to 2009 showed a 10% increase in storm water runoff. A forecast scenario based on the assumption that 2010 land-cover does not see any significant change over the forecast period (2010 to 2020) also showed a 10% increase in storm water runoff. Further analyses showed that this change in the stream-flow regime for the forecast period is attributable to the increase in land-cover as introduced by the shale-gas infrastructure. 3) Upgrade the Fayetteville Shale Information System to include information on watershed status. (Tasks/Sections 2.1 and 2.2). This development occurred early in the project period, and technological improvements in web-map API’s have made it possible to further improve the map. The current sites (http://lingo.cast.uark.edu) is available but is currently being upgraded to a more modern interface and robust mapping engine using funds outside this project. 4) Incorporate the methodologies developed in Tasks/Sections 3.5 and 3.7 into a Spatial Decision Support System for use by regulatory agencies and producers in the play. The resulting system is available at http://fayshale.cast.uark.edu and is under review the Arkansas Natural Resources Commission.

  2. InterconnectFabric InterconnectFabric SingleBuilding Multi-Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cortes, Corinna

    Interconnects in Datacenter Networks Opportunities and Challenges for WDM Hong Liu, Cedric F. Lam, and Chris We review the growing need for optical interconnect bandwidth in datacenter networks growth inside datacenter networks. INTRODUCTION The rapid growth of Internet and cloud computing

  3. Grid Interconnection and Performance Testing Procedures for Vehicle-To-Grid (V2G) Power Electronics: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer, W.; Chakraborty, S.; Kroposki, B.; Hoke, A.; Martin, G.; Markel, T.

    2012-03-01

    Bidirectional power electronics can add vehicle-to-grid (V2G) capability in a plug-in vehicle, which then allows the vehicle to operate as a distributed resource (DR). The uniqueness of the battery-based V2G power electronics requires a test procedure that will not only maintain IEEE interconnection standards, but can also evaluate the electrical performance of the vehicle working as a DR. The objective of this paper is to discuss a recently published NREL technical report that provides interim test procedures for V2G vehicles for their integration into the electrical distribution systems and for their performance in terms of continuous output power, efficiency, and losses. Additionally, some other test procedures are discussed that are applicable to a V2G vehicle that desires to provide power reserve functions. A few sample test results are provided based on testing of prototype V2G vehicles at NREL.

  4. Exploration and Resource Assessment at Mountain Home Air Force Base, Idaho Using an Integrated Team Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph C. Armstrong; Robert P. Breckenridge; Dennis L. Nielson; John W. Shervais; Thomas R. Wood

    2012-10-01

    The U.S. Air Force is facing a number of challenges as it moves into the future, one of the biggest being how to provide safe and secure energy to support base operations. A team of scientists and engineers met at Mountain Home Air Force Base near Boise, Idaho, to discuss the possibility of exploring for geothermal resources under the base. The team identified that there was a reasonable potential for geothermal resources based on data from an existing well. In addition, a regional gravity map helped identify several possible locations for drilling a new well. The team identified several possible sources of funding for this well—the most logical being to use U.S. Department of Energy funds to drill the upper half of the well and U.S. Air Force funds to drill the bottom half of the well. The well was designed as a slimhole well in accordance with State of Idaho Department of Water Resources rules and regulations. Drilling operations commenced at the Mountain Home site in July of 2011 and were completed in January of 2012. Temperatures increased gradually, especially below a depth of 2000 ft. Temperatures increased more rapidly below a depth of 5500 ft. The bottom of the well is at 5976 ft, where a temperature of about 140°C was recorded. The well flowed artesian from a depth below 5600 ft, until it was plugged off with drilling mud. Core samples were collected from the well and are being analyzed to help understand permeability at depth. Additional tests using a televiewer system will be run to evaluate orientation and directions at fractures, especially in the production zone. A final report on the well exploitation will be forthcoming later this year. The Air Force will use it to evaluate the geothermal resource potential for future private development options at Mountain Home AFB.

  5. Vandenberg Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 2, Baseline detail

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halverson, M.A.; Richman, E.E.; Dagle, J.E.; Hickman, B.J.; Daellenbach, K.K.; Sullivan, G.P.

    1993-06-01

    The US Air Force Space Command has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, as the lead laboratory supporting the US Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program, to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB). This is a model program PNL is designing for federal customers served by the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E). The primary goal of the VAFB project is to identify all electric energy efficiency opportunities, and to negotiate with PG and E to acquire those resources through a customized demand-side management program for its federal clients. That customized program should have three major characteristics: (1) 100% up-front financing; (2) substantial utility cost-sharing; and (3) utility implementation through energy service companies under contract to the utility. A similar arrangement will be pursued with Southern California Gas for non-electric resource opportunities if that is deemed desirable by the site and if the gas utility seems open to such an approach. This report documents the assessment of baseline energy use at VAFB located near Lompoc, California. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume 3, Resource Assessment. This analysis examines the characteristics of electric, natural gas, fuel oil, and propane use for fiscal year 1991. It records energy-use intensities for the facilities at VAFB by building type and energy end use. It also breaks down building energy consumption by fuel type, energy end use, and building type. A more complete energy consumption reconciliation is presented that includes the accounting of all energy use among buildings, utilities, and applicable losses.

  6. Concentrating Solar Power (Fact Sheet), Electricity, Resources, & Building Systems Integration (ERBSI)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit the followingConcentrating Solar Deployment System (CSDS) - A New Model

  7. The Water-Energy Nexus: Capturing the Benefits of Integrated Resource

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment ofOffice|inWestMayBuildingTheEasements &AInnovative

  8. Cape Canaveral Air Force Station integrated resource assessment. Volume 2, Baseline detail

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wahlstrom, R.R.; McMordie, K.L.; Parker, S.A.; King, D.A.; Sandusky, W.F.

    1993-12-01

    The US Air Force (USAF) has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), to assess energy use at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (AFS). The information obtained from this assessment will be used in identifying energy resource opportunities to reduce overall energy consumption by the station. The primary focus of this report is to assess the current baseline energy consumption at Cape Canaveral AFS. It is A companion report to Volume 1, the Executive Summary, and Volume 3, the Resource Assessment. This assessment requires that information be obtained and characterized for buildings, utilities, energy sources, energy uses, and load profiles to be used to improve the current energy system on the station. The characteristics of electricity, diesel fuel, No. 2 fuel oil, and motor vehicle gasoline (MOGAS) are analyzed for on-base facilities. The assessment examines basic regional information used to determine energy-use intensity (EUI) values for Cape Canaveral AFS facilities by building, fuel type, and energy end use. It also provides a summary of electricity consumption from Florida Power and Light Company (FPL) metered data for 1985--1991. Load profile information obtained from FPL data is presented for the North, South, and Titan Substations for the four seasons of the year, including weekdays and weekends.

  9. Automotion of domain walls for spintronic interconnects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nikonov, Dmitri E.; Manipatruni, Sasikanth; Young, Ian A.

    2014-06-07

    We simulate “automotion,” the transport of a magnetic domain wall under the influence of demagnetization and magnetic anisotropy, in nanoscale spintronic interconnects. In contrast to spin transfer driven magnetic domain wall motion, the proposed interconnects operate without longitudinal charge current transfer, with only a transient current pulse at domain wall creation and have favorable scaling down to the 20?nm dimension. Cases of both in-plane and out-of-plane magnetization are considered. Analytical dependence of the velocity of domain walls on the angle of magnetization are compared with full micromagnetic simulations. Deceleration, attenuation and disappearance, and reflection of domain walls are demonstrated through simulation. Dependences of the magnetization angle on the current pulse parameters are studied. The energy and delay analysis suggests that automotion is an attractive option for spintronic logic interconnects.

  10. Contributions of Renewable Energy Resources to Re-source Diversity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gross, George

    1 Contributions of Renewable Energy Resources to Re- source Diversity George Gross, Fellow, IEEE Abstract This is a summary of the presentation on the panel entitled "Energy Resource Flexibility and Di, Resource Diversity, Resource Economics, Energy security, Inte- gration and Interconnection of Distributed

  11. GeSi photodetectors and electro-absorption modulators for Si electronic-photonic integrated circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Jifeng, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2007-01-01

    The silicon electronic-photonic integrated circuit (EPIC) has emerged as a promising technology to break through the interconnect bottlenecks in telecommunications and on-chip interconnects. High performance photonic ...

  12. AC 2011-376: WIRELESS-INTEGRATED EMBEDDED REAL-TIME CON-TROL: A CASE STUDY IN ADOPTING RESOURCES FOR DEVELOP-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AC 2011-376: WIRELESS-INTEGRATED EMBEDDED REAL-TIME CON- TROL: A CASE STUDY IN ADOPTING RESOURCES of Engineering. cAmerican Society for Engineering Education, 2011 #12;Wireless-Integrated Embedded Real parts (e.g., shoeboxes and muffin fans), and that uses wireless communication between the real

  13. Multi-resolution integrated modeling for basin-scale water resources management and policy analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Hoshin V. (Hoshin Vijai),; Brookshire, David S.; Springer, E. P.; Wagener, Thorsten

    2004-01-01

    Approximately one-third of the land surface of the Earth is considered to be arid or semi-arid with an annual average of less than 12-14 inches of rainfall. The availability of water in such regions is of course, particularly sensitive to climate variability while the demand for water is experiencing explosive population growth. The competition for available water is exerting considerable pressure on the water resources management. Policy and decision makers in the southwestern U.S. increasingly have to cope with over-stressed rivers and aquifers as population and water demands grow. Other factors such as endangered species and Native American water rights further complicate the management problems. Further, as groundwater tables are drawn down due to pumping in excess of natural recharge, considerable (potentially irreversible) environmental impacts begin to be felt as, for example, rivers run dry for significant portions of the year, riparian habitats disappear (with consequent effects on the bio-diversity of the region), aquifers compact resulting in large scale subsidence, and water quality begins to suffer. The current drought (1999-2002) in the southwestern U.S. is raising new concerns about how to sustain the combination of agricultural, urban and in-stream uses of water that underlie the socio-economic and ecological structure in the region. The water stressed nature of arid and semi-arid environments means that competing water uses of various kinds vie for access to a highly limited resource. If basin-scale water sustainability is to be achieved, managers must somehow achieve a balance between supply and demand throughout the basin, not just for the surface water or stream. The need to move water around a basin such as the Rio Grande or Colorado River to achieve this balance has created the stimulus for water transfers and water markets, and for accurate hydrologic information to sustain such institutions [Matthews et al. 2002; Brookshire et al 2003; Krause, Chermak Brookshire, 2003].

  14. Thin-film chip-to-substrate interconnect and methods for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuckerman, David B. (Livermore, CA)

    1991-01-01

    Integrated circuit chips are electrically connected to a silica wafer interconnection substrate. Thin film wiring is fabricated down bevelled edges of the chips. A subtractive wire fabrication method uses a series of masks and etching steps to form wires in a metal layer. An additive method direct laser writes or deposits very thin metal lines which can then be plated up to form wires. A quasi-additive or subtractive/additive method forms a pattern of trenches to expose a metal surface which can nucleate subsequent electrolytic deposition of wires. Low inductance interconnections on a 25 micron pitch (1600 wires on a 1 cm square chip) can be produced. The thin film hybrid interconnect eliminates solder joints or welds, and minimizes the levels of metallization. Advantages include good electrical properties, very high wiring density, excellent backside contact, compactness, and high thermal and mechanical reliability.

  15. Regulation and investment under uncertainty: An application to power grid interconnection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saphores, Jean-Daniel M; Gravel, E; Bernard, J T

    2004-01-01

    An Application to Power Grid Interconnection. Jean-Danielto the Ontario power grid. This interconnection will allowfor our application to a power grid interconnection. Second,

  16. On an improved sub-regional water resources management representation for integration into earth system models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voisin, Nathalie; Li, Hongyi; Ward, Duane L.; Huang, Maoyi; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2013-09-30

    Human influence on the hydrologic cycle includes regulation and storage, consumptive use and overall redistribution of water resources in space and time. Representing these processes is essential for applications of earth system models in hydrologic and climate predictions, as well as impact studies at regional to global scales. Emerging large-scale research reservoir models use generic operating rules that are flexible for coupling with earth system models. Those generic operating rules have been successful in reproducing the overall regulated flow at large basin scales. This study investigates the uncertainties of the reservoir models from different implementations of the generic operating rules using the complex multi-objective Columbia River Regulation System in northwestern United States as an example to understand their effects on not only regulated flow but also reservoir storage and fraction of the demand that is met. Numerical experiments are designed to test new generic operating rules that combine storage and releases targets for multi-purpose reservoirs and to compare the use of reservoir usage priorities, withdrawals vs. consumptive demand, as well as natural vs. regulated mean flow for calibrating operating rules. Overall the best performing implementation is the use of the combined priorities (flood control storage targets and irrigation release targets) operating rules calibrated with mean annual natural flow and mean monthly withdrawals. The challenge of not accounting for groundwater withdrawals, or on the contrary, assuming that all remaining demand is met through groundwater extractions, is discussed.

  17. Energy consumption in optical modulators for interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, David A. B.

    Energy consumption in optical modulators for interconnects David A. B. Miller* Ginzton Laboratory@ee.stanford.edu Abstract: We analyze energy consumption in optical modulators operated in depletion and intended for low, even conceivably being more energy-efficient than an ideal loss-less modulator. Š2012 Optical Society

  18. Asynchronous intrusion recovery for interconnected web services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sabatini, David M.

    Asynchronous intrusion recovery for interconnected web services Ramesh Chandra, Taesoo Kim, and tracking down and recovering from such an attack re- quires significant manual effort. Web services for such web services. Aire addresses several challenges, such as propagating repair across services when some

  19. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, John P.; Liu, Shu; Ibanez, Eduardo; Pennock, Ken; Reed, Gregory; Hanes, Spencer

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States.

  20. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study Full Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, John P.; Liu, Shu; Ibanez, Eduardo; Pennock, Ken; Reed, Gregory; Hanes, Spencer

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States.

  1. Solar Energy to Benefit from New FERC Interconnection Procedures...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Energy to Benefit from New FERC Interconnection Procedures Solar Energy to Benefit from New FERC Interconnection Procedures October 30, 2014 - 5:15pm Addthis As a major win...

  2. Equalized on-chip interconnect : modeling, analysis, and design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Byungsub, 1978-

    2010-01-01

    This thesis work explores the use of equalization techniques to improve throughput and reduce power consumption of on-chip interconnect. A theoretical model for an equalized on-chip interconnect is first suggested to provide ...

  3. Interconnection Guidelines | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nA Guide toIMPROVEMENTGDLB-115) Grant - SpecialLocal Government Nonprofit

  4. Interconnection Guidelines | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nA Guide toIMPROVEMENTGDLB-115) Grant - SpecialLocal Government

  5. Interconnection Guidelines | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nA Guide toIMPROVEMENTGDLB-115) Grant - SpecialLocal GovernmentIndustrial

  6. Interconnection Guidelines | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nA Guide toIMPROVEMENTGDLB-115) Grant - SpecialLocal

  7. Interconnection Guidelines | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nA Guide toIMPROVEMENTGDLB-115) Grant - SpecialLocal< Back Eligibility

  8. Interconnection Guidelines | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nA Guide toIMPROVEMENTGDLB-115) Grant - SpecialLocal< Back Eligibility<

  9. Interconnection Guidelines | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nA Guide toIMPROVEMENTGDLB-115) Grant - SpecialLocal< Back

  10. Interconnection Guidelines | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nA Guide toIMPROVEMENTGDLB-115) Grant - SpecialLocal< BackThermal Electric

  11. Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nA Guide toIMPROVEMENTGDLB-115) Grant - SpecialLocal< BackThermalLocal<

  12. Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nA Guide toIMPROVEMENTGDLB-115) Grant - SpecialLocal<

  13. Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nA Guide toIMPROVEMENTGDLB-115) Grant - SpecialLocal<Residential Savings

  14. Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nA Guide toIMPROVEMENTGDLB-115) Grant - SpecialLocal<Residential

  15. Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nA Guide toIMPROVEMENTGDLB-115) Grant -

  16. Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nA Guide toIMPROVEMENTGDLB-115) Grant -Local Government Nonprofit Residential

  17. Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nA Guide toIMPROVEMENTGDLB-115) Grant -Local Government Nonprofit

  18. Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nA Guide toIMPROVEMENTGDLB-115) Grant -Local Government NonprofitMunicipal

  19. Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nA Guide toIMPROVEMENTGDLB-115) Grant -Local Government

  20. Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nA Guide toIMPROVEMENTGDLB-115) Grant -Local GovernmentSavings Category

  1. Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nA Guide toIMPROVEMENTGDLB-115) Grant -Local GovernmentSavings

  2. Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nA Guide toIMPROVEMENTGDLB-115) Grant -Local GovernmentSavingsIndustrial Local

  3. Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nA Guide toIMPROVEMENTGDLB-115) Grant -Local GovernmentSavingsIndustrial

  4. Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nA Guide toIMPROVEMENTGDLB-115) Grant -Local

  5. Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nA Guide toIMPROVEMENTGDLB-115) Grant -LocalAgricultural Institutional Savings

  6. Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nA Guide toIMPROVEMENTGDLB-115) Grant -LocalAgricultural Institutional

  7. Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nA Guide toIMPROVEMENTGDLB-115) Grant -LocalAgricultural

  8. Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nA Guide toIMPROVEMENTGDLB-115) Grant -LocalAgriculturalTribal Government

  9. Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nA Guide toIMPROVEMENTGDLB-115) Grant -LocalAgriculturalTribal

  10. Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nA Guide toIMPROVEMENTGDLB-115) Grant -LocalAgriculturalTribalCombined Heat

  11. Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nA Guide toIMPROVEMENTGDLB-115) Grant -LocalAgriculturalTribalCombined

  12. Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nA Guide toIMPROVEMENTGDLB-115) Grant

  13. Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nA Guide toIMPROVEMENTGDLB-115) GrantSavings Category Geothermal Electric

  14. Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nA Guide toIMPROVEMENTGDLB-115) GrantSavings Category Geothermal

  15. Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nA Guide toIMPROVEMENTGDLB-115) GrantSavings Category GeothermalResidential

  16. Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nA Guide toIMPROVEMENTGDLB-115) GrantSavings Category

  17. Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nA Guide toIMPROVEMENTGDLB-115) GrantSavings CategoryAgricultural

  18. Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nA Guide toIMPROVEMENTGDLB-115) GrantSavings CategoryAgriculturalSolar

  19. Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nA Guide toIMPROVEMENTGDLB-115) GrantSavings

  20. Interconnection Standards | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History View NewGuam:on OpeneiAlbanian CentreHoldings Jump to:Overview

  1. Renewable Diesel from Algal Lipids: An Integrated Baseline for Cost, Emissions, and Resource Potential from a Harmonized Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, R.; Fishman, D.; Frank, E. D.; Wigmosta, M. S.; Aden, A.; Coleman, A. M.; Pienkos, P. T.; Skaggs, R. J.; Venteris, E. R.; Wang, M. Q.

    2012-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Biomass Program has begun an initiative to obtain consistent quantitative metrics for algal biofuel production to establish an 'integrated baseline' by harmonizing and combining the Program's national resource assessment (RA), techno-economic analysis (TEA), and life-cycle analysis (LCA) models. The baseline attempts to represent a plausible near-term production scenario with freshwater microalgae growth, extraction of lipids, and conversion via hydroprocessing to produce a renewable diesel (RD) blendstock. Differences in the prior TEA and LCA models were reconciled (harmonized) and the RA model was used to prioritize and select the most favorable consortium of sites that supports production of 5 billion gallons per year of RD. Aligning the TEA and LCA models produced slightly higher costs and emissions compared to the pre-harmonized results. However, after then applying the productivities predicted by the RA model (13 g/m2/d on annual average vs. 25 g/m2/d in the original models), the integrated baseline resulted in markedly higher costs and emissions. The relationship between performance (cost and emissions) and either productivity or lipid fraction was found to be non-linear, and important implications on the TEA and LCA results were observed after introducing seasonal variability from the RA model. Increasing productivity and lipid fraction alone was insufficient to achieve cost and emission targets; however, combined with lower energy, less expensive alternative technology scenarios, emissions and costs were substantially reduced.

  2. Interconnect Delay and Area Estimation for Multiple-Pin Nets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, David Z.

    ,000,000 second = 3 years ! #12;Needs for Efficient Interconnect Estimation Models nn EfficiencyEfficiency nn

  3. Incorporating Demand Response into Western Interconnection Transmission Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Satchwell, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Aggregator Programs. Demand Response Measurement andIncorporating Demand Response into Western Interconnection13 Demand Response Dispatch

  4. Comparing Resource Adequacy Metrics and Their Influence on Capacity Value: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibanez, E.; Milligan, M.

    2014-04-01

    Traditional probabilistic methods have been used to evaluate resource adequacy. The increasing presence of variable renewable generation in power systems presents a challenge to these methods because, unlike thermal units, variable renewable generation levels change over time because they are driven by meteorological events. Thus, capacity value calculations for these resources are often performed to simple rules of thumb. This paper follows the recommendations of the North American Electric Reliability Corporation?s Integration of Variable Generation Task Force to include variable generation in the calculation of resource adequacy and compares different reliability metrics. Examples are provided using the Western Interconnection footprint under different variable generation penetrations.

  5. Interconnected hydro-thermal systems Models, methods, and applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Interconnected hydro-thermal systems Models, methods, and applications Magnus Hindsberger Kgs. Lyngby 2003 IMM-PHD-2003-112 Interconnected hydro-thermalsystems #12;Technical University of Denmark 45882673 reception@imm.dtu.dk www.imm.dtu.dk IMM-PHD-2003-112 ISSN 0909-3192 #12;Interconnected hydro

  6. On-chip interconnection architecture optimization using a multicommodity flow approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Yuanfang

    2007-01-01

    Routing Architecture Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . .Timing Analysis in On-Chip Interconnection ArchitectureLarge Scale On-Chip Interconnection Architecture Opti-

  7. Release Resistant Electrical Interconnections For Mems Devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peterson, Kenneth A. (Albuquerque, NM); Garrett, Stephen E. (Albuquerque, NM); Reber, Cathleen A. (Corrales, NM)

    2005-02-22

    A release resistant electrical interconnection comprising a gold-based electrical conductor compression bonded directly to a highly-doped polysilicon bonding pad in a MEMS, IMEMS, or MOEMS device, without using any intermediate layers of aluminum, titanium, solder, or conductive adhesive disposed in-between the conductor and polysilicon pad. After the initial compression bond has been formed, subsequent heat treatment of the joint above 363 C creates a liquid eutectic phase at the bondline comprising gold plus approximately 3 wt % silicon, which, upon re-solidification, significantly improves the bond strength by reforming and enhancing the initial bond. This type of electrical interconnection is resistant to chemical attack from acids used for releasing MEMS elements (HF, HCL), thereby enabling the use of a "package-first, release-second" sequence for fabricating MEMS devices. Likewise, the bond strength of an Au--Ge compression bond may be increased by forming a transient liquid eutectic phase comprising Au-12 wt % Ge.

  8. Interconnection of bundled solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Michael; Bessette, II, Norman F; Litka, Anthony F; Schmidt, Douglas S

    2014-01-14

    A system and method for electrically interconnecting a plurality of fuel cells to provide dense packing of the fuel cells. Each one of the plurality of fuel cells has a plurality of discrete electrical connection points along an outer surface. Electrical connections are made directly between the discrete electrical connection points of adjacent fuel cells so that the fuel cells can be packed more densely. Fuel cells have at least one outer electrode and at least one discrete interconnection to an inner electrode, wherein the outer electrode is one of a cathode and and anode and wherein the inner electrode is the other of the cathode and the anode. In tubular solid oxide fuel cells the discrete electrical connection points are spaced along the length of the fuel cell.

  9. Communication Requirements and Interconnect Optimization forHigh-End Scientific Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamil, Shoaib; Oliker, Leonid; Pinar, Ali; Shalf, John

    2007-11-12

    The path towards realizing peta-scale computing isincreasingly dependent on building supercomputers with unprecedentednumbers of processors. To prevent the interconnect from dominating theoverall cost of these ultra-scale systems, there is a critical need forhigh-performance network solutions whose costs scale linearly with systemsize. This work makes several unique contributions towards attaining thatgoal. First, we conduct one of the broadest studies to date of high-endapplication communication requirements, whose computational methodsinclude: finite-difference, lattice-bolzmann, particle in cell, sparselinear algebra, particle mesh ewald, and FFT-based solvers. Toefficiently collect this data, we use the IPM (Integrated PerformanceMonitoring) profiling layer to gather detailed messaging statistics withminimal impact to code performance. Using the derived communicationcharacterizations, we next present fit-trees interconnects, a novelapproach for designing network infrastructure at a fraction of thecomponent cost of traditional fat-tree solutions. Finally, we propose theHybrid Flexibly Assignable Switch Topology (HFAST) infrastructure, whichuses both passive (circuit) and active (packet) commodity switchcomponents to dynamically reconfigure interconnects to suit thetopological requirements of scientific applications. Overall ourexploration leads to a promising directions for practically addressingthe interconnect requirements of future peta-scale systems.

  10. Development of Ceramic Interconnect Materials for SOFC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, Kyung J.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Marina, Olga A.

    2010-08-05

    Currently, acceptor-doped lanthanum chromite is the state-of-the-art ceramic interconnect material for high temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) due to its fairly good electronic conductivity and chemical stability in both oxidizing and reducing atmospheres, and thermal compatibility with other cell components. The major challenge for acceptor-doped lanthanum chromite for SOFC interconnect applications is its inferior sintering behavior in air, which has been attributed to the development of a thin layer of Cr2O3 at the interparticle necks during the initial stages of sintering. In addition, lanthanum chromite is reactive with YSZ electrolyte at high temperatures, forming a highly resistive lanthanum zirconate phase (La2Zr2O7), which further complicates co-firing processes. Acceptor-doped yttrium chromite is considered to be one of the promising alternatives to acceptor-doped lanthanum chromite because it is more stable with respect to the formation of hydroxides in SOFC operating conditions, and the formation of impurity phases can be effectively avoided at co-firing temperatures. In addition, calcium-doped yttrium chromite exhibits higher mechanical strength than lanthanum chromite-based materials. The major drawback of yttrium chromite is considered to be its lower electrical conductivity than lanthanum chromite. The properties of yttrium chromites could possibly be improved and optimized by partial substitution of chromium with various transition metals. During FY10, PNNL investigated the effect of various transition metal doping on chemical stability, sintering and thermal expansion behavior, microstructure, electronic and ionic conductivity, and chemical compatibility with other cell components to develop the optimized ceramic interconnect material.

  11. Repairable chip bonding/interconnect process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernhardt, Anthony F. (Berkeley, CA); Contolini, Robert J. (Livermore, CA); Malba, Vincent (Livermore, CA); Riddle, Robert A. (Tracy, CA)

    1997-01-01

    A repairable, chip-to-board interconnect process which addresses cost and testability issues in the multi-chip modules. This process can be carried out using a chip-on-sacrificial-substrate technique, involving laser processing. This process avoids the curing/solvent evolution problems encountered in prior approaches, as well is resolving prior plating problems and the requirements for fillets. For repairable high speed chip-to-board connection, transmission lines can be formed on the sides of the chip from chip bond pads, ending in a gull wing at the bottom of the chip for subsequent solder.

  12. Repairable chip bonding/interconnect process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernhardt, A.F.; Contolini, R.J.; Malba, V.; Riddle, R.A.

    1997-08-05

    A repairable, chip-to-board interconnect process which addresses cost and testability issues in the multi-chip modules is disclosed. This process can be carried out using a chip-on-sacrificial-substrate technique, involving laser processing. This process avoids the curing/solvent evolution problems encountered in prior approaches, as well is resolving prior plating problems and the requirements for fillets. For repairable high speed chip-to-board connection, transmission lines can be formed on the sides of the chip from chip bond pads, ending in a gull wing at the bottom of the chip for subsequent solder. 10 figs.

  13. Environmental Regulation Impacts on Eastern Interconnection Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markham, Penn N; Liu, Yilu; Young II, Marcus Aaron

    2013-07-01

    In the United States, recent environmental regulations will likely result in the removal of nearly 30 GW of oil and coal-fired generation from the power grid, mostly in the Eastern Interconnection (EI). The effects of this transition on voltage stability and transmission line flows have previously not been studied from a system-wide perspective. This report discusses the results of power flow studies designed to simulate the evolution of the EI over the next few years as traditional generation sources are replaced with environmentally friendlier ones such as natural gas and wind.

  14. Copper wafer bonding in three-dimensional integration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Kuan-Neng, 1974-

    2005-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) integration, in which multiple layers of devices are stacked with high density of interconnects between the layers, offers solutions for problems when the critical dimensions in integrated circuits ...

  15. Title 16 USC 824a Interconnection and Coordination of Facilities...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Title 16 USC 824a Interconnection and Coordination of Facilities, Emergencies, Transmission to Foreign Countries Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  16. New Report Characterizes Existing Offshore Wind Grid Interconnection...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    the first National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS). The NOWEGIS investigated the key economic and technological factors that will influence the...

  17. CHP: Connecting the Gap between Markets and Utility Interconnection...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Markets and Utility Interconnection and Tariff Practices, 2006 The adoption of combined heat and power (CHP) systems by American industries has made substantial strides in the last...

  18. Microgrid V2G Charging Station Interconnection Testing (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, M.

    2013-07-01

    This presentation by Mike Simpson of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) describes NREL's microgrid vehicle-to-grid charging station interconnection testing.

  19. Review of Direct Metal Bonding for Microelectronic Interconnections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, G.G.

    Microelectronic interconnections require advanced joining techniques. Direct metal bonding methods, which include thercomsonic and thermocompression bonding, offer remarkable advantages over soldering and adhesives joining. ...

  20. Interconnection arrangement of routers of processor boards in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    physical interconnect structure includes routers in service or compute processor boards distributed in an array of cabinets connected in series on each board and to respective...

  1. Strategies and Decision Support Systems for Integrating Variable Energy Resources in Control Centers for Reliable Grid Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Lawrence E.

    2012-01-05

    A variety of studies have recently evaluated the opportunities for the large-scale integration of wind energy into the US power system. These studies have included, but are not limited to, "20 Percent Wind Energy by 2030: Increasing Wind Energy's Contribution to US Electricity Supply", the "Western Wind and Solar Integration Study", and the "Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study." Each of these US based studies have evaluated a variety of activities that can be undertaken by utilities to help integrate wind energy.

  2. A Political Ecology of the Citarum River Basin: Exploring "Integrated Water Resources Management" in West Java, Indonesia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cavelle, Jenna

    2013-01-01

    5. Goeltom, Diana. Debtwatch Indonesia coordinator. PersonalGrant. Republic of Indonesia: Integrated Citarum WaterDevelopment in Jakarta, Indonesia”, Human Development Report

  3. Place Based STEM: Leveraging Local Resources to Engage K-12 Teachers in Teaching Integrated STEM and for Addressing the Local STEM Pipeline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Louis Nadelson; Anne Louise Seifert; Meagan McKinney

    2014-06-01

    Business, industry, parks, nature settings, government infrastructure, and people, can be invaluable resources for connecting STEM curriculum within context which results in conditions ideal for promoting purposeful learning of authentic STEM content. Thus, community-based STEM resources offer ideal context for teaching STEM content. A benefit of focusing teacher attention on these contextual, content aligned resources is that they are in every community; making place-based STEM education a possibility, regardless of the location of STEM teaching and learning. Further, associating STEM teaching and learning with local resources addresses workforce development and the STEM pipeline by exposing students to STEM careers and applications in their local communities. The desire to align STEM teaching and learning with local STEM related resources guided the design of our week-long integrated STEM K-12 teacher professional development (PD) program, i-STEM. We have completed four years of our i-STEM PD program and have made place-based STEM a major emphasis of our curriculum. This report focuses on the data collected in the fourth year of our program. Our week-long i-STEM PD served over 425 educators last summer (2013), providing them with in depth theme-based integrated STEM short courses which were limited to an average of 15 participants and whole group plenary sessions focused around placed based integrated STEM, inquiry, engineering design, standards and practices of Common Core and 21st Century skills. This state wide PD was distributed in five Idaho community colleges and took place over two weeks. The STEM short courses included topics on engineering for sustainability, using engineering to spark interest in STEM, municipal water systems, health, agriculture, food safety, mining, forestry, energy, and others. Integral to these short courses were field trips designed to connect the K-12 educators to the resources in their local communities that could be leveraged for teaching integrated STEM and provide a relevant context for teaching STEM content. Workplace presentations made by place-based STEM experts and provided teachers field trips to place-base STEM industries and business such as manufacturing plants, waste water treatment systems, mines, nature parks, food processing plants, research, hospitals, and laboratory facilities. We researched the 425 participants’ conceptions of place-based STEM prior to and after their taking part in the summer institutes, which included fieldtrips. Our findings revealed substantial increase in our participants’ knowledge, interest, and plans to use place-based resources for teaching integrated STEM. We detail the data analysis and provide a theoretical foundation and justification for the importance of place-based STEM to address the STEM pipeline for the future workforce.

  4. U.S. Army Fort Carson Interconnection Agreement | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCEDInstallers/ContractorsPhotovoltaicsStateof Energy| Department ofAttacks ||Interconnection

  5. Heterogeneously integrated microsystem-on-a-chip

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chanchani, Rajen (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-02-26

    A microsystem-on-a-chip comprises a bottom wafer of normal thickness and a series of thinned wafers can be stacked on the bottom wafer, glued and electrically interconnected. The interconnection layer comprises a compliant dielectric material, an interconnect structure, and can include embedded passives. The stacked wafer technology provides a heterogeneously integrated, ultra-miniaturized, higher performing, robust and cost-effective microsystem package. The highly integrated microsystem package, comprising electronics, sensors, optics, and MEMS, can be miniaturized both in volume and footprint to the size of a bottle-cap or less.

  6. Molecular Electronics: From Devices and Interconnect to Circuits and Architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Seth Copen

    of these emerging nanotechnologies is the assumption that some form of self-assembly will be required to fabricateMolecular Electronics: From Devices and Interconnect to Circuits and Architecture MIRCEA R. STAN and architecture. Based on proposed nanoscale interconnect and device structures, we explore the design space

  7. Motivating Future Interconnects: A Differential Measurement Analysis of PCI Latency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hand, Steven

    Motivating Future Interconnects: A Differential Measurement Analysis of PCI Latency David J. Miller illustrate how an evolution in the common PCI interconnect architecture has worsened latency by a factor, mi- crobenchmark, measurement, PCI Express 1. INTRODUCTION Demand for performance is constantly

  8. Improved Crosstalk Modeling with Applications to Noise Constrained Interconnect Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, David Z.

    Improved Crosstalk Modeling with Applications to Noise Constrained Interconnect Optimization This paper presents a highly accurate yet efficient crosstalk noise model, the 2-˘ model, and applies to be noise immune, ac- curate yet efficient noise models are needed to guide interconnect optimizations

  9. Generalized Lyapunov Function for Stability Analysis of Interconnected Power Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    Generalized Lyapunov Function for Stability Analysis of Interconnected Power Systems M. A. Mahmud of Lyapunov function is necessary to analyze the stability of a system. This paper presents an idea for formulating generalized Lyapunov function for the stability analysis of interconnected power systems. Lyapunov

  10. Updating Small Generator Interconnection Procedures for New Market Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coddington, M.; Fox, K.; Stanfield, S.; Varnado, L.; Culley, T.; Sheehan, M.

    2012-12-01

    Federal and state regulators are faced with the challenge of keeping interconnection procedures updated against a backdrop of evolving technology, new codes and standards, and considerably transformed market conditions. This report is intended to educate policymakers and stakeholders on beneficial reforms that will keep interconnection processes efficient and cost-effective while maintaining a safe and reliable power system.

  11. Strategies and Decision Support Systems for Integrating Variable Energy Resources in Control Centers for Reliable Grid Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Lawrence E.

    2011-11-01

    This report provides findings from the field regarding the best ways in which to guide operational strategies, business processes and control room tools to support the integration of renewable energy into electrical grids.

  12. Strategies and Decision Support Systems for Integrating Variable Energy Resources in Control Centers for Reliable Grid Operations. Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Lawrence E.

    2011-11-01

    This is the executive summary for a report that provides findings from the field regarding the best ways in which to guide operational strategies, business processes and control room tools to support the integration of renewable energy into electrical grids.

  13. Field Testing of Automated Demand Response for Integration of Renewable Resources in California's Ancillary Services Market for Regulation Products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiliccote, Sila

    2013-01-01

    and Techniques for Demand Response”, May 2007. LBNL-59975 38the Role of Automated Demand Response, 2010. Watson, D. , N.Fast Automated Demand Response to Enable Integration of

  14. Assessment of Industrial Load for Demand Response across Western Interconnect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alkadi, Nasr E; Starke, Michael R; Ma, Ookie

    2013-11-01

    Demand response (DR) has the ability to both increase power grid reliability and potentially reduce operating system costs. Understanding the role of demand response in grid modeling has been difficult due to complex nature of the load characteristics compared to the modeled generation and the variation in load types. This is particularly true of industrial loads, where hundreds of different industries exist with varying availability for demand response. We present a framework considering industrial loads for the development of availability profiles that can provide more regional understanding and can be inserted into analysis software for further study. The developed framework utilizes a number of different informational resources, algorithms, and real-world measurements to perform a bottom-up approach in the development of a new database with representation of the potential demand response resource in the industrial sector across the U.S. This tool houses statistical values of energy and demand response (DR) potential by industrial plant and geospatially locates the information for aggregation for different territories without proprietary information. This report will discuss this framework and the analyzed quantities of demand response for Western Interconnect (WI) in support of evaluation of the cost production modeling with power grid modeling efforts of demand response.

  15. Optimization of the BEOL Interconnect Stack for Advanced Semiconductor Technology Nodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shah, Pooja Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    2.2 Wire Optimization at System Level . . . . . . . . .3 Experiments for Interconnect Dimension Optimization3.1.1 Optimization of Interconnect Dimensions 3.1.2

  16. Jefferson Lab Human Resources

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Human Resources The Human Resources team is fully integrated with Jefferson Lab's mission, committed to providing quality customer service based on expertise, innovation and...

  17. Reactive power interconnection requirements for PV and wind plants : recommendations to NERC.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDowell, Jason; Walling, Reigh; Peter, William; Von Engeln, Edi; Seymour, Eric; Nelson, Robert; Casey, Leo; Ellis, Abraham; Barker, Chris.

    2012-02-01

    Voltage on the North American bulk system is normally regulated by synchronous generators, which typically are provided with voltage schedules by transmission system operators. In the past, variable generation plants were considered very small relative to conventional generating units, and were characteristically either induction generator (wind) or line-commutated inverters (photovoltaic) that have no inherent voltage regulation capability. However, the growing level of penetration of non-traditional renewable generation - especially wind and solar - has led to the need for renewable generation to contribute more significantly to power system voltage control and reactive power capacity. Modern wind-turbine generators, and increasingly PV inverters as well, have considerable dynamic reactive power capability, which can be further enhanced with other reactive support equipment at the plant level to meet interconnection requirements. This report contains a set of recommendations to the North-America Electricity Reliability Corporation (NERC) as part of Task 1-3 (interconnection requirements) of the Integration of Variable Generation Task Force (IVGTF) work plan. The report discusses reactive capability of different generator technologies, reviews existing reactive power standards, and provides specific recommendations to improve existing interconnection standards.

  18. Interconnecting PV on New York City's Secondary Network Distribution System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, K.; Coddington, M.; Burman, K.; Hayter, S.; Kroposki, B.; Watson, A.

    2009-12-01

    This study describes technical assistance provided by NREL to help New York City and Con Edison improve the interconnection of distributed PV systems on a secondary network distribution system.

  19. Nanoantenna couplers for metal-insulator-metal waveguide interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Onbasli, Mehmet Cengiz

    State-of-the-art copper interconnects suffer from increasing spatial power dissipation due to chip downscaling and RC delays reducing operation bandwidth. Wide bandwidth, minimized Ohmic loss, deep sub-wavelength confinement ...

  20. Energy and Reliability in Future NOC Interconnected CMPS 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Hyungjun

    2013-08-01

    In this dissertation, I explore energy and reliability in future NoC (Network-on-Chip) interconnected CMPs (chip multiprocessors) as they have become a first-order constraint in future CMP design. In the first part, we ...

  1. Passive Reduced Order Modeling of Multiport Interconnects via Semidefinite Programming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahmood, Zohaib

    In this paper we present a passive reduced order modeling algorithm for linear multiport interconnect structures. The proposed technique uses rational fitting via semidefinite programming to identify a passive transfer ...

  2. Interconnecting PV on NYC's Secondary Network Distribution System

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    To assess ways to improve the interconnection process, NREL conducted a four-part study with support from DOE. The NREL team then compiled the final reports from each study into this report.

  3. Intrachip clock signal distribution via si-based optical interconnect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahn, Donghwan

    2007-01-01

    The Optical clocking has emerged as an innovative alternative approach to the electrical clocking, in order to overcome the difficulties associated with electrical interconnects in the synchronization of high-performance ...

  4. Utility-Interconnected Photovoltaic Systems STEVENS III,JOHN...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    STEVENS III,JOHN W.; BONN,RUSSELL H.; GINN,JERRY W.; GONZALEZ,SIGIFREDO; KERN,GREG 14 SOLAR ENERGY; 24 POWER TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION; INTERCONNECTED POWER SYSTEMS;...

  5. Fast high-order variation-aware IC interconnect analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ye, Xiaoji

    2009-05-15

    verification. However, handling a multitude of inter-die/intra-die variations and assessing their impacts on circuit performance can dramatically complicate the timing analysis. In this thesis, three practical interconnect delay and slew analysis methods...

  6. Advanced Unit Commitment Strategies in the United States Eastern Interconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meibom, P.; Larsen, H. V.; Barth, R.; Brand, H.; Tuohy, A.; Ela, E.

    2011-08-01

    This project sought to evaluate the impacts of high wind penetrations on the U.S. Eastern Interconnection and analyze how different unit commitment strategies may affect these impacts.

  7. Load frequency control of interconnected power systems with system constraints 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choudhury, Md Ershadul H

    1993-01-01

    So far, researches in load frequency controls ( LFC) are involved in analysis of dynamic responses under normal conditions of the - interconnected power systems. In This research considers some system constraints (for example, one area fails...

  8. Solar Energy to Benefit from New FERC Interconnection Procedures...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    from New FERC Interconnection Procedures October 30, 2014 - 5:15pm Addthis As a major win for solar and testament to the impact of DOE SunShot funded research at the national...

  9. Fabrication and Characterization of Through-Substrate Interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    del Alamo, Jesus A.

    We developed a through-substrate copper-damascene interconnect technology in silicon with minimal impedance. Via impedance was extracted using parameter measurements at 50 GHz that were matched to simple circuit models. ...

  10. Developing Generic Dynamic Models for the 2030 Eastern Interconnection Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kou, Gefei; Hadley, Stanton W; Markham, Penn N; Liu, Yilu

    2013-12-01

    The Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) has built three major power flow cases for the 2030 Eastern Interconnection (EI) based on various levels of energy/environmental policy conditions, technology advances, and load growth. Using the power flow cases, this report documents the process of developing the generic 2030 dynamic models using typical dynamic parameters. The constructed model was validated indirectly using the synchronized phasor measurements by removing the wind generation temporarily.

  11. Exploration of Pipelined FPGA Interconnect Structures Akshay Sharma Katherine Compton Carl Ebeling Scott Hauck

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hochberg, Michael

    1 Exploration of Pipelined FPGA Interconnect Structures Akshay Sharma Katherine Compton Carl the interconnect structure of pipelined FPGAs. Specifically, we explore the effects of interconnect register, and the flexibility of the interconnect structure on the performance of a pipelined FPGA. Our experiments with the Ra

  12. Stability of chromite interconnections in dual environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, T.R.; Stevenson, J.W.; Raney, P.; Pederson, L.R.

    1994-11-01

    One of the most critical technical concerns in high-temperature SOFCs is the physical, chemical, and electrical stability of the interconnect (typically a doped lanthanum chromite) in the dual (oxidizing and reducing atmosphere) SOFC environment. The reducing or fuel side may experience oxygen partial pressures (P(O{sub 2})) from 10{sup {minus}18} to 10{sup {minus}6} atmospheres, while the oxidizing side may have P(O{sub 2}) from 10{sup {minus}6} to greater than 1 atm. These conditions limit the possible candidate materials to lanthanum or yttrium chromites. In the past decade, much work has centered on development of air-sinterable chromites and understanding their physical properties; little work, however, has focused on the stability of these chromites in dual environments. Chromite powders were synthesized using the glycine-nitrate process. The powders were calcined at 1,000 C for 1 hour and then uniaxially pressed into bars (46mm x 16mm x 3mm) at 55 MPa and isostatically pressed at 138 MPa. Samples were sintered in air. The dependence of the physical properties of sintered lanthanum chromites upon ambient P(O{sub 2}) and temperature (using dilatometry, thermogravimetric analysis, and oxygen permeation measurements) were studied. La{sub 1{minus}x}A{sub x}CrO{sub 3} and Y{sub 1{minus}x}Ca{sub x}CrO{sub 3}, where A is Ca or Sr and x was varied from 0.1 to 0.4 were evaluated in this study. The P(O{sub 2}) was varied using a buffered CO{sub 2}/Ar-4%H{sub 2} gas system, enabling expansion measurements to be made over a partial pressure range from 10{sup {minus}5} to 10{sup {minus}18} atmosphere at 800, 900, and 1,000 C.

  13. Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study: Initial Results (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bloom, A.; Townsend, A.; Hummon, M.; Weekley, A.; Clark, K.; King, J.

    2013-10-01

    This poster presents an overview of the Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study, which aims to answer critical questions about the future of the Eastern Interconnection under high levels of solar and wind generation penetration.

  14. EIS-0374: Klondike III/ Bigelow Canyon Wind Integration Project, OR

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS analyzes BPA's decision to approve an interconnection requested by PPM Energy, Inc. (PPM) to integrate electrical power from their proposed Klondike III Wind roject (Wind Project) into the Federal Columbia River Transmission System (FCRTS).

  15. Tunable, self-powered integrated arc plasma-melter vitrification system for waste treatment and resource recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Titus, Charles H. (Newtown Square, PA); Cohn, Daniel R. (Chestnuthill, MA); Surma, Jeffrey E. (Kennewick, WA)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a relatively compact self-powered, tunable waste conversion system and apparatus which has the advantage of highly robust operation which provides complete or substantially complete conversion of a wide range of waste streams into useful gas and a stable, nonleachable solid product at a single location with greatly reduced air pollution to meet air quality standards. The system provides the capability for highly efficient conversion of waste into high quality combustible gas and for high efficiency conversion of the gas into electricity by utilizing a high efficiency gas turbine or by an internal combustion engine. The solid product can be suitable for various commercial applications. Alternatively, the solid product stream, which is a safe, stable material, may be disposed of without special considerations as hazardous material. In the preferred embodiment of the invention, the arc plasma furnace and joule heated melter are formed as a fully integrated unit with a common melt pool having circuit arrangements for the simultaneous independently controllable operation of both the arc plasma and the joule heated portions of the unit without interference with one another. The preferred configuration of this embodiment of the invention utilizes two arc plasma electrodes with an elongated chamber for the molten pool such that the molten pool is capable of providing conducting paths between electrodes. The apparatus may additionally be employed with reduced or without further use of the gases generated by the conversion process. The apparatus may be employed as a self-powered or net electricity producing unit where use of an auxiliary fuel provides the required level of electricity production.

  16. WINS. Market Simulation Tool for Facilitating Wind Energy Integration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shahidehpour, Mohammad

    2012-10-30

    Integrating 20% or more wind energy into the system and transmitting large sums of wind energy over long distances will require a decision making capability that can handle very large scale power systems with tens of thousands of buses and lines. There is a need to explore innovative analytical and implementation solutions for continuing reliable operations with the most economical integration of additional wind energy in power systems. A number of wind integration solution paths involve the adoption of new operating policies, dynamic scheduling of wind power across interties, pooling integration services, and adopting new transmission scheduling practices. Such practices can be examined by the decision tool developed by this project. This project developed a very efficient decision tool called Wind INtegration Simulator (WINS) and applied WINS to facilitate wind energy integration studies. WINS focused on augmenting the existing power utility capabilities to support collaborative planning, analysis, and wind integration project implementations. WINS also had the capability of simulating energy storage facilities so that feasibility studies of integrated wind energy system applications can be performed for systems with high wind energy penetrations. The development of WINS represents a major expansion of a very efficient decision tool called POwer Market Simulator (POMS), which was developed by IIT and has been used extensively for power system studies for decades. Specifically, WINS provides the following superiorities; (1) An integrated framework is included in WINS for the comprehensive modeling of DC transmission configurations, including mono-pole, bi-pole, tri-pole, back-to-back, and multi-terminal connection, as well as AC/DC converter models including current source converters (CSC) and voltage source converters (VSC); (2) An existing shortcoming of traditional decision tools for wind integration is the limited availability of user interface, i.e., decision results are often text-based demonstrations. WINS includes a powerful visualization tool and user interface capability for transmission analyses, planning, and assessment, which will be of great interest to power market participants, power system planners and operators, and state and federal regulatory entities; and (3) WINS can handle extended transmission models for wind integration studies. WINS models include limitations on transmission flow as well as bus voltage for analyzing power system states. The existing decision tools often consider transmission flow constraints (dc power flow) alone which could result in the over-utilization of existing resources when analyzing wind integration. WINS can be used to assist power market participants including transmission companies, independent system operators, power system operators in vertically integrated utilities, wind energy developers, and regulatory agencies to analyze economics, security, and reliability of various options for wind integration including transmission upgrades and the planning of new transmission facilities. WINS can also be used by industry for the offline training of reliability and operation personnel when analyzing wind integration uncertainties, identifying critical spots in power system operation, analyzing power system vulnerabilities, and providing credible decisions for examining operation and planning options for wind integration. Researches in this project on wind integration included (1) Development of WINS; (2) Transmission Congestion Analysis in the Eastern Interconnection; (3) Analysis of 2030 Large-Scale Wind Energy Integration in the Eastern Interconnection; (4) Large-scale Analysis of 2018 Wind Energy Integration in the Eastern U.S. Interconnection. The research resulted in 33 papers, 9 presentations, 9 PhD degrees, 4 MS degrees, and 7 awards. The education activities in this project on wind energy included (1) Wind Energy Training Facility Development; (2) Wind Energy Course Development.

  17. Integrated device architectures for electrochromic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frey, Jonathan Mack; Berland, Brian Spencer

    2015-04-21

    This disclosure describes systems and methods for creating monolithically integrated electrochromic devices which may be a flexible electrochromic device. Monolithic integration of thin film electrochromic devices may involve the electrical interconnection of multiple individual electrochromic devices through the creation of specific structures such as conductive pathway or insulating isolation trenches.

  18. Kinsus Interconnect Technology Corp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas: Energy ResourcesOrderInformation KilaueaKinnelon, New Jersey:Carolina:

  19. PJM Interconnection, LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsourceII JumpQuarterly Smart GridNorth Carolina: Energy ResourcesLLC Jump to: navigation,

  20. PUCT DG Interconnection Manual | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsourceII JumpQuarterly Smart GridNorth Carolina: Energy ResourcesLLCPPLPSInSAR Jump

  1. Spintronic switches for ultra low energy global interconnects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharad, Mrigank Roy, Kaushik

    2014-05-07

    We present ultra-low energy interconnect design using nano-scale spin-torque (ST) switches for global data-links. Emerging spin-torque phenomena can lead to ultra-low-voltage, high-speed current-mode magnetic-switches. ST-switches can simultaneously provide large trans-impedance gain by employing magnetic tunnel junctions, to convert current-mode signals into large-swing voltage levels. Such device-characteristics can be used in the design of energy-efficient current-mode global interconnects.

  2. Hawaii Energy Strategy: Program guide. [Contains special sections on analytical energy forecasting, renewable energy resource assessment, demand-side energy management, energy vulnerability assessment, and energy strategy integration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    The Hawaii Energy Strategy program, or HES, is a set of seven projects which will produce an integrated energy strategy for the State of Hawaii. It will include a comprehensive energy vulnerability assessment with recommended courses of action to decrease Hawaii's energy vulnerability and to better prepare for an effective response to any energy emergency or supply disruption. The seven projects are designed to increase understanding of Hawaii's energy situation and to produce recommendations to achieve the State energy objectives of: Dependable, efficient, and economical state-wide energy systems capable of supporting the needs of the people, and increased energy self-sufficiency. The seven projects under the Hawaii Energy Strategy program include: Project 1: Develop Analytical Energy Forecasting Model for the State of Hawaii. Project 2: Fossil Energy Review and Analysis. Project 3: Renewable Energy Resource Assessment and Development Program. Project 4: Demand-Side Management Program. Project 5: Transportation Energy Strategy. Project 6: Energy Vulnerability Assessment Report and Contingency Planning. Project 7: Energy Strategy Integration and Evaluation System.

  3. One-way coupling of an integrated assessment model and a water resources model: evaluation and implications of future changes over the US Midwest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voisin, Nathalie; Liu, Lu; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Tesfa, Teklu K.; Li, Hongyi; Huang, Maoyi; Liu, Ying; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2013-11-18

    An integrated model is being developed to advance our understanding of the interactions between human activities, terrestrial system and water cycle, and how system interactions will be affected by a changing climate at the regional scale. As a first step towards that goal, a global integrated assessment model including a waterdemand model is coupled offline with a land surface hydrology – routing – water resources management model. A spatial and temporal disaggregation approach is developed to project the annual regional water demand simulations into a daily time step and subbasin representation. The model demonstrated reasonable ability to represent the historical flow regulation and water supply over the Midwest (Missouri, Upper Mississippi and Ohio). Implications for the future flow regulation, water supply and supply deficit are investigated using a climate change projection with the B1 emission scenario which affects both natural flow and water demand. Over the Midwest, changes in flow regulation are mostly driven by the change in natural flow due to the limited storage capacity over the Ohio and Upper Mississippi river basins. The changes in flow and demand have a combined effect on the Missouri Summer regulated flow. The supply deficit tends to be driven by the change in flow over the region. Spatial analysis demonstrates the relationship between the supply deficit and the change in demand over urban areas not along a main river or with limited storage, and over areas upstream of groundwater dependent fields with therefore overestimated demand.

  4. New Mexico Interconnection Manual | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland:NPI Ventures LtdNeville, Ohio:Archaeological Permits Webpagefor ground

  5. North American Electric Reliability Corporation Interconnections |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematics AndBeryllium Disease | Department of0DOEDepartment ofNon-ProliferationConsiderations from

  6. Permitting, Interconnection, and Inspection | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy Bills andOrder 422.1, CONDUCT PDepartmentOrderEnergy

  7. Flip chip electrical interconnection by selective electroplating and bonding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Liwei

    Flip chip electrical interconnection by selective electroplating and bonding L.-W. Pan, P. Yuen, L resistance of the electroplating bond is 12 W. This process has potential applications in replacing-step approach for high-density electrical in- terconnection by using flip chip selective electroplating

  8. Electric power from offshore wind via synoptic-scale interconnection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    Electric power from offshore wind via synoptic-scale interconnection Willett Kemptona,1 , Felipe M regional estimate, Kempton et al. (2) calculated that two-thirds of the offshore wind power off the U in the U.S. Atlantic region is already underway. Fig. 1 shows as black squares offshore wind developments

  9. Bargaining-based Energy Trading Market for Interconnected Microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianwei

    Bargaining-based Energy Trading Market for Interconnected Microgrids Hao Wang, Jianwei Huang trading among mul- tiple connected microgrids, and analyzes the impacts of such trading on the microgrids' costs. In our model, microgrids with excessive power generations can trade with other microgrids

  10. GRAIL : Graphical Representation of Activity, Interconnection and Loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stepney, Susan

    GRAIL : Graphical Representation of Activity, Interconnection and Loading Susan Stepney GEC One of the tools being developed as part of ParSiFal is GRAIL. It represents an occam program flow of control, not communication channels): Susan Stepney. "GRAIL: Graphical Representation

  11. Hermetic aluminum radio frequency interconnection and method for making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kilgo, Riley D. (Albuquerque, NM); Kovacic, Larry (Albuquerque, NM); Brow, Richard K. (Rolla, MO)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a light-weight, hermetic coaxial radio-frequency (RF) interconnection having an electrically conductive outer housing made of aluminum or an aluminum alloy, a central electrical conductor made of ferrous or non-ferrous material, and a cylinder of dielectric material comprising a low-melting-temperature, high-thermal-expansion aluminophosphate glass composition for hermetically sealing between the aluminum-alloy outer housing and the ferrous or non-ferrous center conductor. The entire RF interconnection assembly is made permanently hermetic by thermally fusing the center conductor, glass, and housing concurrently by bringing the glass to the melt point by way of exposure to an atmospheric temperature sufficient to melt the glass, less than 540.degree. C., but that does not melt the center conductor or the outer aluminum or aluminum alloy housing. The composition of the glass used is controlled to provide a suitable low dielectric constant so that an appropriate electrical characteristic impedance, for example 50 ohms, can be achieved for an electrical interconnection that performs well at high radio frequencies and also provides an interconnection maintaining a relatively small physical size.

  12. On-chip Interconnection Network for Accelerator-Rich Architectures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cong, Jason "Jingsheng"

    -purpose cores. Driven by the need for energy efficiency, the in- dustry has proposed incorporating accelerators to interact with the memory system. For this reason, an open question is: How should the accelerators, coresOn-chip Interconnection Network for Accelerator-Rich Architectures Jason Cong Michael Gill Yuchen

  13. Silicon Micro-Needles with Flexible Interconnections , Y. Hanein1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Department of Zoology, University of Washington, Seattle WA 98195 Abstract - A flexible polyimide to carry elements such as amplifiers, battery or memory. The interconnecting scheme uses two polyimide base and the micro-electrodes, while the polyimide layers provide flexible insulation. The current

  14. Techniques in the Control of Interconnected Plants Morten Hovd \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    . The production planning level typically operates on the timescale of days. Although the higher levelsTechniques in the Control of Interconnected Plants Morten Hovd \\Lambda Fantoft Prosess Teknostallen; 1 INTRODUCTION For many real­life multivariable control problems, traditional single­loop control

  15. Techniques in the Control of Interconnected Plants Morten Hovd

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    . The production planning level typically operates on the timescale of days. Although the higher levelsTechniques in the Control of Interconnected Plants Morten Hovd Fantoft Prosess Teknostallen N-7030-life multivariable control problems, traditional single-loop control theory is clearly incomplete. This occurs when

  16. A Model for Interlevel Coupling Noise in Multilevel Interconnect ' Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swaminathan, Madhavan

    A Model for Interlevel Coupling Noise in Multilevel Interconnect ' Structures Martin Saint- case noise is simulated using an RC transmission line model that includes the timing of the attackers noise model is sometimes very desirable, in particular for the design of clock distribution networks

  17. Hi-LION: Hierarchical Large-Scale Interconnection Optical Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoo, S. J. Ben

    Hi-LION: Hierarchical Large-Scale Interconnection Optical Network With AWGRs [Invited] Zheng Cao, Roberto Proietti, and S. J. B. Yoo Abstract--This paper proposes Hi-LION, a hierarchical large wavelength routing property of AWGRs together with electrical switching inside the processors, Hi-LION can

  18. EA-1989: Cliffrose Solar Energy Interconnection Project, Mohave County, Arizona

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE’s Western Area Power Administration (Western) is preparing an EA that will assess the potential environmental impacts of interconnecting the proposed Cliffrose Solar Energy Project in Mohave County, Arizona, to Western’s transmission system at the existing Griffith Substation. Additional information is available at http://www.wapa.gov/dsw/environment/CliffroseSolarEnergyProject.html.

  19. Interconnection economics of small power systems -- A case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bloethe, W.G.; Thakar, H.C. [Sargent and Lundy, Chicago, IL (United States); Kim, L.C. [Sarawak Electricity Supply Corp., Kuching (Malaysia); Samin, S. [PT PLN Persero, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    1996-11-01

    The advantages of interconnecting large electric power systems has been almost universally accepted in those parts of North America that are not geographically isolated. However, interconnecting power systems can result in significant economic advantages, even in those parts of the world where power systems are small and widely separated. This paper examines two small, isolated power systems on the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia. The Malaysian State of Srawak lies on the north coast of Borneo. With an area of 123,156 square km (47,555 square mi.) and population of 1.7 million, it is the largest, but most sparsely populated, state in the Federation of Malaysia. Its neighbor to the south is the Indonesian Province of West Kalimantan. A study examining the feasibility of interconnecting these two power systems was undertaken in 1994 as a part of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) initiative to interconnect the power systems in the region. The ASEAN region is characterized by rapidly growing economies and rapid load growth.

  20. An Optical Interconnection Architecture for Large Packet Switches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Italy ABSTRACT The design of switching architectures for today's telecommunication networks needsICTON 2007 An Optical Interconnection Architecture for Large Packet Switches A. Bianco, E. Carta, D to consider the limits imposed by electronic technology; in particular, it must take into account power

  1. S-700A MOSSBAUER DRIVE INTERCONNECTION DIAGRAM FOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Browder, Tom

    S-700A MOSSBAUER DRIVE INTERCONNECTION DIAGRAM FOR C.A.OPERATION WITH COMPUTER CUMPUEK WITH K A OK OPERATION D V -LIY I SCALER RESET DATA The S-700A drive and K-4 motor can also be used in Constant Velocity the constant velocity motion. The duty cycle is about 85%, and there is provision for the gating of data so

  2. Record of Decision for the Electrical Interconnection of the...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Administration Record of Decision for the Electrical Interconnection of the Windy Point Wind Energy Project November 2006 B o n n e v i l l e P o w e r A d m i n i s t r a t i o...

  3. 10 Year Transmission Plan for the Western Electricity Interconnection Released

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) announced the release of its first 10-Year Regional Transmission Plan (Plan) for the Western Interconnection. The Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability awarded WECC a $14.5 million grant under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to expand on its transmission planning activities.

  4. A wet chemistry approach to sub-micron, removable flip chip interconnects.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rowen, Adam M.; Barker, Joy M.; Gillen, J. Rusty; Orendorff, Christopher J.; Arrington, Christian L.; Yelton, William Graham

    2008-08-01

    Higher performance is the main driver in the integrated circuit (IC) market, but along with added function comes the cost of increased input/output connections and larger die sizes. Space saving approaches aimed at solving these challenges includes two technologies; 3D stacking (3D-ICs) and flip chip assemblies. Emerging ICs require sub-micron scale interconnects which include vias for 3D-ICs and bump bonds for flip chips. Photolithographic techniques are commonly used to prepare templates followed by metal vapor deposition to create flip chip bump bonds. Both the lithography step and the metal properties required for bump bonding contribute to limiting this approach to a minimum bump size of -10 ?m. Here, we present a wet chemistry approach to fabricating uniform bump bonds of tunable size and height down to the nanoscale. Nanosphere lithography (NSL), a soft lithographic technique, is used to create a bump bond template or mask for nanoscale bumps. Electrochemical deposition is also used through photoresist templates to create uniform bump bonds across large area wafers or dies. This template approach affords bumps with tunable diameters from 100s of nanometers to microns (allowing for tunable interconnect pitch and via diameters) while the use of constant current electroplating gives uniform bump height over large areas (>1 cm{sup 2}).

  5. Performance evaluation of configurable arrays with mesh interconnections and wormhole routing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krishnamoorthy, Deviusha

    1997-01-01

    Large scale multiprocessors are built on a particular interconnection network with a fixed number of processors. The interconnections are based on topologies like mesh, hypercube, etc. If the logical domain of a problem does not map to the physical...

  6. D R A F T Evaluating Interconnect

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit theCovalent Bonding inCustomer-Comments Sign InTAMUiv e in to L if e .

  7. Puerto Rico - Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nAandSummary AreasDepartmentImreInvolvement Plantable that

  8. Generation Interconnection and Deliverability Allocation Procedures | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainable UrbanKentucky: EnergyGateway EditOpen Energy InformationGeneral

  9. Interconnection Transmission Planning: Awards | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-inPPLforLDRDEnergy Copyrights ASite ForResearch,The documentsCoP)List of

  10. Learn More About Interconnections | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-inPPLforLDRDEnergyTurbine bladesJune 22, 2015BoydLearn More About

  11. Performance of Utility Interconnected Photovoltaic Inverters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access| DepartmentPeer ReviewRadiationAward atOptimization andAcceptanceof

  12. North American Electric Reliability Corporation Interconnections |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nAand DOEDepartmentNew Jersey isDepartmentGasFacilityEnergy

  13. Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative News Release

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based|DepartmentStatementofApril 25,EV Everywhere| DepartmentZones 1 and 21 NEWS

  14. Topic A Awardee: Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCEDInstallers/ContractorsPhotovoltaicsState ofSavings forTitle XVIIof Energy 3DepartmentTopic

  15. Interconnecting gold islands with DNA origami

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation CurrentHenryInhibitingInteractive Jobs Interactive Jobs To run

  16. Frequency Instability Problems in North American Interconnections

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (Journal Article)Forthcoming Upgrades toFreezing a Droplet to Stop

  17. Sandia Energy - Permitting, Inspection, and Interconnection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II)Geothermal Energy &WaterNew CREWOnlineParticulatePatent Awarded

  18. Sandia Energy - Sandia, Endicott Interconnect Technologies, EMCORE,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II)Geothermal EnergyRenewableCompaniesMODE, and8thInternational Micro

  19. A Guidebook on Grid Interconnection and Islanded Operation of Mini-Grid Power Systems Up to 200 kW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greacen, Chris

    2014-01-01

    wp-content/uploads/2010/01/IREC-Interconnection-Procedures-investor-owned utility IREC: Interstate Renewable EnergyRenewable Energy Council (IREC) Model Interconnection

  20. Low Power Multilevel Interconnect Networks Using Wave-Pipelined Multiplexed (WPM) Routing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joshi, Ajay

    Low Power Multilevel Interconnect Networks Using Wave-Pipelined Multiplexed (WPM) Routing Ajay 30332, USA {joshi, vinita, jeff}@ece.gatech.edu Abstract A low power multilevel interconnect architecture that uses wave-pipelined multiplexed (WPM) interconnect routing is proposed in this paper. WPM

  1. Supplying Baseload Power and Reducing Transmission Requirements by Interconnecting Wind Farms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Supplying Baseload Power and Reducing Transmission Requirements by Interconnecting Wind Farms is not used to supply baseload electric power today. Interconnecting wind farms through the transmission grid farms are interconnected in an array, wind speed correlation among sites decreases and so does

  2. E cient Layout of a Passive, Single-Hop, Fiber-Optic Interconnection (among N stations)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E cient Layout of a Passive, Single-Hop, Fiber-Optic Interconnection (among N stations-hop, ber-optic interconnection among n stations, each with two trans- mitters and one receiver, and a round, but the layout of this interconnection poses a challenge both in terms of wiring complex- ity and power budget

  3. Advanced Unit Commitment Strategies for the US Eastern Interconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ela, E.; Meibom, P.; Barth, R.; Tuohy, A.; Milligan, M.

    2010-01-01

    With increasing penetrations of wind power on the eastern interconnection of the United States, much research has been discussed on how the increased uncertainty may change how the system is operated. In particular, unit commitment programs which decide what units need to be started up in order to meet the changing demand at least cost may need to have modifications in order to reduce costs and improve reliability on a power system with increasing uncertain variables. This paper outlines a study undertaken for the U.S. Eastern Interconnection in which different advanced unit commitment strategies were simulated for three different years to evaluate the benefits that may occur from using these strategies as an operational tool.

  4. Modular cryogenic interconnects for multi-qubit devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colless, J. I.; Reilly, D. J.

    2014-11-15

    We have developed a modular interconnect platform for the control and readout of multiple solid-state qubits at cryogenic temperatures. The setup provides 74 filtered dc-bias connections, 32 control and readout connections with ?3 dB frequency above 5 GHz, and 4 microwave feed lines that allow low loss (less than 3 dB) transmission 10 GHz. The incorporation of a radio-frequency interposer enables the platform to be separated into two printed circuit boards, decoupling the simple board that is bonded to the qubit chip from the multilayer board that incorporates expensive connectors and components. This modular approach lifts the burden of duplicating complex interconnect circuits for every prototype device. We report the performance of this platform at milli-Kelvin temperatures, including signal transmission and crosstalk measurements.

  5. Interconnecting PV on New York City's Secondary Network Distribution System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Anderson; M. Coddington; K. Burman; S. Hayter; B. Kroposki; and A. Watson

    2009-11-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has teamed with cities across the country through the Solar America Cities (SAC) partnership program to help reduce barriers and accelerate implementation of solar energy. The New York City SAC team is a partnership between the City University of New York (CUNY), the New York City Mayor s Office of Long-term Planning and Sustainability, and the New York City Economic Development Corporation (NYCEDC).The New York City SAC team is working with DOE s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Con Edison, the local utility, to develop a roadmap for photovoltaic (PV) installations in the five boroughs. The city set a goal to increase its installed PV capacity from1.1 MW in 2005 to 8.1 MW by 2015 (the maximum allowed in 2005). A key barrier to reaching this goal, however, is the complexity of the interconnection process with the local utility. Unique challenges are associated with connecting distributed PV systems to secondary network distribution systems (simplified to Ă?Â?Ă?¢Ă?Â?Ă?Â?Ă?Â?Ă?Â?networksĂ?Â?Ă?¢Ă?Â?Ă?Â?Ă?Â?Ă? in this report). Although most areas of the country use simpler radial distribution systems to distribute electricity, larger metropolitan areas like New York City typically use networks to increase reliability in large load centers. Unlike the radial distribution system, where each customer receives power through a single line, a network uses a grid of interconnected lines to deliver power to each customer through several parallel circuits and sources. This redundancy improves reliability, but it also requires more complicated coordination and protection schemes that can be disrupted by energy exported from distributed PV systems. Currently, Con Edison studies each potential PV system in New York City to evaluate the system s impact on the network, but this is time consuming for utility engineers and may delay the customer s project or add cost for larger installations. City leaders would like to streamline this process to facilitate faster, simpler, and less expensive distributed PV system interconnections. To assess ways to improve the interconnection process, NREL conducted a four-part study with support from DOE. The NREL team then compiled the final reports from each study into this report. In Section 1Ă?Â?Ă?¢Ă?Â?Ă?Â?Ă?Â?Ă?Â?PV Deployment Analysis for New York CityĂ?Â?Ă?¢Ă?Â?Ă?Â?Ă?Â?Ă?Â?we analyze the technical potential for rooftop PV systems in the city. This analysis evaluates potential PV power production in ten Con Edison networks of various locations and building densities (ranging from high density apartments to lower density single family homes). Next, we compare the potential power production to network loads to determine where and when PV generation is most likely to exceed network load and disrupt network protection schemes. The results of this analysis may assist Con Edison in evaluating future PV interconnection applications and in planning future network protection system upgrades. This analysis may also assist other utilities interconnecting PV systems to networks by defining a method for assessing the technical potential of PV in the network and its impact on network loads. Section 2Ă?Â?Ă?¢Ă?Â?Ă?Â?Ă?Â?Ă?Â?A Briefing for Policy Makers on Connecting PV to a Network GridĂ?Â?Ă?¢Ă?Â?Ă?Â?Ă?Â?Ă?Â?presents an overview intended for nontechnical stakeholders. This section describes the issues associated with interconnecting PV systems to networks, along with possible solutions. Section 3Ă?Â?Ă?¢Ă?Â?Ă?Â?Ă?Â?Ă?Â?Technical Review of Concerns and Solutions to PV Interconnection in New Y

  6. Using Synchrophasors for Frequency Response Analysis in the Western Interconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosterev, Dmitry; Davies, Donald; Etingov, Pavel V.; Silverstein, Alison; Eto, Joseph H.

    2014-10-19

    Frequency response has received a lot of attention in recent years at the national level, which culminated in the development and approval of NERC BAL-003-1 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting Reliability Standard. WECC JSIS, NASPI, BPA, CERTS and PNNL collaborate on the common goals to deliver to the industry applications for frequency response analysis at interconnection, Balancing Authority and individual power plant levels. This paper describes a Frequency Response Analysis Tool that has been used for establishing a frequency response baseline for the Western Interconnection. This paper describes how synchrophasor data is used in for determination of generator characteristics – frequency responsive, under load control or baseloaded. This paper also discusses and provides an example of how the frequency response distribution can impact power pick-up on major transmission paths.

  7. Spontaneous synchronization driven by energy transport in interconnected networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vincenzo Nicosia; Per Sebastian Skardal; Vito Latora; Alex Arenas

    2015-02-26

    Understanding dynamical processes on networks is an important area of research in complex systems, with far reaching implications and applications in many real-world cases. Here we introduce and study a model of intertwined dynamics on interconnected networks, inspired by the human brain, which consists of bidirectionally coupled synchronization and energy transport processes. Remarkably, the proposed model allows the emergence of spontaneous switch-like synchronization transitions driven by the energy transport dynamics, which qualitatively mirror the transitions observed in human brain dynamics between resting-state and cognitive activity. We provide a steady-state analytical explanation for the observed behavior and show that the switch-like transition is robust over a wide range of model parameters and network topologies. Finally, we suggest that the complexity inherent in other interconnected dynamical processes might be responsible for various other emergent behaviors observed in natural systems.

  8. Characteristics of Interconnected Delta-Hydride Precipitates in Zr

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L.J. Carroll; M.R. Tonks; T.M. Lillo; B.S. Fromm; DC Haggard; T.C. Morris; W.D. Swank; T.L. Trowbridge; M.C. Carroll

    2014-09-01

    Characterization of extended delta-ZrH1.66 structures in unalloyed zirconium by electron backscatter diffraction analysis confirms that they consist of many interconnected precipitates of multiple, but distinctly related, orientations. The expected orientation relationship of (0001)a-Zr//(111)delta-ZrH1.66 is confirmed between the hydride and one of the surrounding a-Zr matrix grains. The delta-ZrH1.66 precipitates do not extend in a discrete crystalline orientation, but are regularly divided by 60° type {111} twins in which adjacent delta-ZrH1.66 grains share a {111} plane. The observed matching of the close-packed FCC planes of impinging or twinned hydrides within an interconnected structure enables the minimization of the overall interfacial energy through successive nucleation and growth events and twinning.

  9. Series interconnected photovoltaic cells and method for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albright, S.P.; Chamberlin, R.R.; Thompson, R.A.

    1995-01-31

    A novel photovoltaic module and method for constructing the same are disclosed. The module includes a plurality of photovoltaic cells formed on a substrate and laterally separated by interconnection regions. Each cell includes a bottom electrode, a photoactive layer and a top electrode layer. Adjacent cells are connected in electrical series by way of a conductive-buffer line. The buffer line is also useful in protecting the bottom electrode against severing during downstream layer cutting processes. 11 figs.

  10. Design and analysis of high performance multistage interconnection networks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhogavilli, Suresh K

    1993-01-01

    Major Subject: Electrical Engineering ABSTRACT Design and Analysis of High Performance Multistage Interconnection Networks. (December 1993) Suresh K. Bhogavilli, B. Tech. , J. N. T. University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Hosame Abu-Amara Small... the next stage buffers are not full. Thus r, = A and this value doesn't change with network size. But this model results in cycle loss, When a packet from the full buffer moves forward, a cycle is lost since it will not allow the packets...

  11. SOFC Interconnect and Compressive Seal Development at PNNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, Y S.; Yang, Z Gary; Singh, Prabhakar; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Xia, Gordon

    2005-11-01

    The development of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology represents an opportunity to achieve significant improvements in energy conversion efficiency and reduction of undesirable emissions. However, many technical challenges still need to be overcome before the utilization of the advantages of SOFC can take place. These challenges include the need for improved interconnects and seals for planar SOFC stacks. In this paper, we briefly summarize recent progress at PNNL in these two research areas.

  12. Chromium Vaporization Reduction by Nickel Coatings For SOEC Interconnect Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael V. Glazoff; Sergey N. Rashkeev; J. Stephen Herring

    2014-09-01

    The vaporization of Cr-rich volatile species from interconnect materials is a major source of degradation that limits the lifetime of planar solid oxide devices systems with metallic interconnects, including Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells, or SOECs. Some metallic coatings (Ni, Co, and Cu) significantly reduce the Cr release from interconnects and slow down the oxide scale growth on the steel substrate. To shed additional light upon the mechanisms of such protection and find a suitable coating material for ferritic stainless steel materials, we used a combination of first-principles calculations, thermodynamics, and diffusion modeling to investigate which factors determine the quality of the Ni metallic coating at stainless steel interconnector. We found that the Cr migration in Ni coating is determined by a delicate combination of the nickel oxidation, Cr diffusion, and phase transformation processes. Although the formation of Cr2O3 oxide is more exothermic than that of NiO, the kinetic rate of the chromia formation in the coating layer and its surface is significantly reduced by the low mobility of Cr in nickel oxide and in NiCr2O4 spinel. These results are in a good agreement with diffusion modeling for Cr diffusion through Ni coating layer on the ferritic 441 steel substrate.

  13. At EMSL, nanoscience and nanotechnology play a critical, crosscutting role in our mission to integrate experimental and computational resources for innovations that support the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the nation. As a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to integrate experimental and computational resources for innovations that support the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the nation. As a national scientific user facility located at Pacific Northwest National, especially those related to the environmental and energy challenges of our time. Below are a few examples

  14. Computer resources Computer resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Zong-Liang

    Computer resources 1 Computer resources available to the LEAD group Cédric David 30 September 2009 #12;Ouline ˇ UT computer resources and services ˇ JSG computer resources and services ˇ LEAD computersˇ LEAD computers 2 #12;UT Austin services UT EID and Password 3 https://utdirect.utexas.edu #12;UT Austin

  15. Contents ISS and Lyapunov functions Input-to-state stability and interconnections Lyapunov functions Simplicial fixed point algor Lyapunov Functions for Interconnected Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hafstein, Sigurđur Freyr

    Contents ISS and Lyapunov functions Input-to-state stability and interconnections Lyapunov functions Simplicial fixed point algor Lyapunov Functions for Interconnected Systems Fabian Wirth Institute of Mathematics, University of W¨urzburg Workshop on Algorithms for Dynamical Systems and Lyapunov Functions

  16. Partitioned Conduction Modes in Surface Integral Equation-Based Impedance Extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Xin

    As integrated circuits operate at increasingly higher speed, methods are needed to handle wideband quasi-static and full wave EM analysis of distributed RLC impedances for package and on-chip interconnects. One particular ...

  17. Commercialization of low temperature copper thermocompression bonding for 3D integrated circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagarajan, Raghavan

    2008-01-01

    Wafer bonding is a key process and enabling technology for realization of three-dimensional integrated circuits (3DIC) with reduced interconnect delay and correspondingly increased circuit speed and decreased power ...

  18. Single level microelectronic device package with an integral window

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Watson, Robert D.

    2003-12-09

    A package with an integral window for housing a microelectronic device. The integral window is bonded directly to the package without having a separate layer of adhesive material disposed in-between the window and the package. The device can be a semiconductor chip, CCD chip, CMOS chip, VCSEL chip, laser diode, MEMS device, or IMEMS device. The package can be formed of a multilayered LTCC or HTCC cofired ceramic material, with the integral window being simultaneously joined to the package during cofiring. The microelectronic device can be flip-chip interconnected so that the light-sensitive side is optically accessible through the window. A glob-top encapsulant or protective cover can be used to protect the microelectronic device and electrical interconnections. The result is a compact, low profile package having an integral window that is hermetically sealed to the package prior to mounting and interconnecting the microelectronic device.

  19. Operating Reserve Reductions from a Proposed Energy Imbalance Market with Wind and Solar Generation in the Western Interconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, J.; Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.; Beuning, S.

    2012-05-01

    This paper considers several alternative forms of an energy imbalance market (EIM) proposed in the nonmarket areas of the Western Interconnection. The proposed EIM includes two changes in operating practices that independently reduce variability and increase access to responsive resources: balancing authority cooperation and sub-hourly dispatch. As the penetration of variable generation increases on the power system, additional interest in coordination would likely occur. Several alternative approaches could be used, but consideration of any form of coordinated unit commitment is beyond the scope of this analysis. This report examines the benefits of several possible EIM implementations--both separately and in concert.

  20. U.S. Virgin Islands Establishes Interconnection Standards to Clear the Way for Grid Interconnection

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCEDInstallers/ContractorsPhotovoltaicsStateofEnergy Fuel Cell Council: The VoiceMoniz4:U.S.

  1. Series interconnected photovoltaic cells and method for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albright, Scot P. (El Paso, TX); Chamberlin, Rhodes R. (El Paso, TX); Thompson, Roger A. (Littleton, CO)

    1995-01-01

    A novel photovoltaic module (10) and method for constructing the same are disclosed. The module (10) includes a plurality of photovoltaic cells (12) formed on a substrate (14) and laterally separated by interconnection regions (15). Each cell (12) includes a bottom electrode (16), a photoactive layer (18) and a top electrode layer (20). Adjacent cells (12) are connected in electrical series by way of a conductive-buffer line (22). The buffer line (22) is also useful in protecting the bottom electrode (16) against severing during downstream layer cutting processes.

  2. Production process for advanced space satellite system cables/interconnects.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendoza, Luis A.

    2007-12-01

    This production process was generated for the satellite system program cables/interconnects group, which in essences had no well defined production process. The driver for the development of a formalized process was based on the set backs, problem areas, challenges, and need improvements faced from within the program at Sandia National Laboratories. In addition, the formal production process was developed from the Master's program of Engineering Management for New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology in Socorro New Mexico and submitted as a thesis to meet the institute's graduating requirements.

  3. Western Interconnection Energy Imbalance Market Status and Prospects (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; King, J.; Beuning, S.

    2011-10-01

    This presentation describes how a new wholesale electricity market for energy imbalance ancillary services could be implemented and operated. Some conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Method for calculating additional reserve requirements due to wind and solar production; (2) EIM results in substantial reduction in reserves requirements and ramping demand; (3) Reduced participation reduces benefits for all but reduces the benefits to non-participants the most; (4) Full participation leads to maximum benefit across the Western Interconnection, up to 42% of total reserve requirement; and (5) Regional EIM implementations have smaller but substantial benefits.

  4. Incorporating Energy Efficiency into Western Interconnection Transmission Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbose, Galen

    2014-01-01

    types of DSM resources: energy efficiency, demand response (with New Mexico’s energy efficiency resource standard. Theand Texas' energy efficiency resource standards. From 2022

  5. Systems Using Hardware-in-the-Loop: Part III -- Grid Interconnection...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    B.; Shirazi, M.; Coddington, M.; Kroposki, B. 24 POWER TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION; 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION ELECTRICITY; GRID; ICS; INTERCONNECTION;...

  6. Generation Interconnection Policies and Wind Power: A Discussion of Issues, Problems, and Potential Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porter, K.; Fink, S.; Mudd, C.; DeCesaro, J.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the adoption and implementation of FERC Order 2003 and the reasons for the sharp rise in generation interconnection filings in recent years.

  7. WECC releases its first-ever transmission plan for the Western Interconnection

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) announced the release of its first 10-Year Regional Transmission Plan (Plan) for the Western Interconnection.

  8. Comparing Germany's and California's Interconnection Processes for PV Systems (White Paper)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tweedie, A.; Doris, E.

    2011-07-01

    Establishing interconnection to the grid is a recognized barrier to the deployment of distributed energy generation. This report compares interconnection processes for photovoltaic projects in California and Germany. This report summarizes the steps of the interconnection process for developers and utilities, the average length of time utilities take to process applications, and paperwork required of project developers. Based on a review of the available literature, this report finds that while the interconnection procedures and timelines are similar in California and Germany, differences in the legal and regulatory frameworks are substantial.

  9. Protective coating on stainless steel interconnect for SOFCs: Oxidation kinetics and electrical properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Xuan; Hou, Peggy Y.; Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2004-01-01

    PROTECTIVE COATING ON STAINLESS STEEL INTERCONNECT FORcoatings on commercial stainless steel alloys that allow forTABLES Table 1. Stainless steel composition in Weight%

  10. Electrical isolation of component cells in monolithically interconnected modules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wanlass, Mark W. (Golden, CO)

    2001-01-01

    A monolithically interconnected photovoltaic module having cells which are electrically connected which comprises a substrate, a plurality of cells formed over the substrate, each cell including a primary absorber layer having a light receiving surface and a p-region, formed with a p-type dopant, and an n-region formed with an n-type dopant adjacent the p-region to form a single pn-junction, and a cell isolation diode layer having a p-region, formed with a p-type dopant, and an n-region formed with an n-type dopant adjacent the p-region to form a single pn-junction, the diode layer intervening the substrate and the absorber layer wherein the absorber and diode interfacial regions of a same conductivity type orientation, the diode layer having a reverse-breakdown voltage sufficient to prevent inter-cell shunting, and each cell electrically isolated from adjacent cells with a vertical trench trough the pn-junction of the diode layer, interconnects disposed in the trenches contacting the absorber regions of adjacent cells which are doped an opposite conductivity type, and electrical contacts.

  11. Research Misconduct (Research Integrity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wapstra, Erik

    Research Misconduct (Research Integrity Coordinator report) Glossary ADR Associate Dean Research ANDS Australian National Data Sharing ITS Information Technology Services NeCTAR National eResearch Collaboration Tools and Resources RSDI Research Storage Data Infrastructure input Research Integrity Advisors

  12. A Distributed Resource Management Architecture for Interconnecting Web-of-Things using uBox

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beigl, Michael

    . INTRODUCTION With the IPv4 Internet age at an end and IPv6 at the doorstep, the Internet of Things vision the Web of Things (WoT), the application layer of an Internet of Things. In this paper we show how Wo and contextual relations between things explicit is a challenge for a purely technical Internet of Things

  13. 1140 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN OF INTEGRATED CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS, VOL. 25, NO. 6, JUNE 2006 D. J. Frank, D. V. Singh, G. M. Cohen, S. V. Nitta, D. C. Boyd,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Jiang

    , H. B. Pogpe, S. Purushotharnan, and W. E. Haensch, "Electrical integrity of state-of-the-art 0.13 ľm. P. Maly, "Interconnect characteristics of 2.5-D system integration scheme," in Proc. ACM/IEEE Int

  14. Integrated Synthesis of the Permian Basin: Data and Models for Recovering Existing and Undiscovered Oil Resources from the Largest Oil-Bearing Basin in the U.S.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Jackson; Katherine Jackson

    2008-09-30

    Large volumes of oil and gas remain in the mature basins of North America. This is nowhere more true than in the Permian Basin of Texas and New Mexico. A critical barrier to recovery of this vast remaining resource, however, is information. Access to accurate geological data and analyses of the controls of hydrocarbon distribution is the key to the knowledge base as well as the incentives needed by oil and gas companies. The goals of this project were to collect, analyze, synthesize, and deliver to industry and the public fundamental information and data on the geology of oil and gas systems in the Permian Basin. This was accomplished in two ways. First we gathered all available data, organized it, and placed it on the web for ready access. Data include core analysis data, lists of pertinent published reports, lists of available cores, type logs, and selected PowerPoint presentations. We also created interpretive data such as type logs, geological cross sections, and geological maps and placed them in a geospatially-registered framework in ARC/GIS. Second, we created new written syntheses of selected reservoir plays in the Permian basin. Although only 8 plays were targeted for detailed analysis in the project proposal to DOE, 14 were completed. These include Ellenburger, Simpson, Montoya, Fusselman, Wristen, Thirtyone, Mississippian, Morrow, Atoka, Strawn, Canyon/Cisco, Wolfcamp, Artesia Group, and Delaware Mountain Group. These fully illustrated reports include critical summaries of published literature integrated with new unpublished research conducted during the project. As such these reports provide the most up-to-date analysis of the geological controls on reservoir development available. All reports are available for download on the project website and are also included in this final report. As stated in our proposal, technology transfer is perhaps the most important component of the project. In addition to providing direct access to data and reports through the web, we published 29 papers dealing with aspects of Permian Basin and Fort Worth Basin Paleozoic geology, and gave 35 oral and poster presentations at professional society meetings, and 116 oral and poster presentations at 10 project workshops, field trips, and short courses. These events were attended by hundreds of scientists and engineers representing dozens of oil and gas companies. This project and the data and interpretations that have resulted from it will serve industry, academic, and public needs for decades to come. It will be especially valuable to oil and gas companies in helping to better identify opportunities for development and exploration and reducing risk. The website will be continually added to and updated as additional data and information become available making it a long term source of key information for all interested in better understanding the Permian Basin.

  15. Commercial and Industrial Base Intermittent Resource Management Pilot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiliccote, Sila

    2011-01-01

    Stakeholder Meeting on Renewable Integration Requirements.has been the dominant renewable resource in California’sHawkins. Integration of Renewable Resources: Transmission

  16. Large grain Ge growth on amorphous substrates for CMOS back-end-of-line integration of active optoelectronic devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pearson, Brian (Brian Sung-Il)

    2012-01-01

    The electronic-photonic integrated circuit (EPIC) has emerged as a leading technology to surpass the interconnect bottlenecks that threaten to limit the progress of Moore's Law in microprocessors. Compared to conventional ...

  17. Power Reduction of CMP Communication Networks via RF-Interconnects M-C. Frank Chang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cong, Jason "Jingsheng"

    Power Reduction of CMP Communication Networks via RF-Interconnects M-C. Frank Chang , Jason Cong multiprocessors scale to a greater number of processing cores, on-chip interconnection networks will ex- perience dramatic increases in both bandwidth demand and power dissipation. Fortunately, promising gains can be re

  18. Plasticity contributions to interface adhesion in thin-film interconnect structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vainchtein, Anna

    Plasticity contributions to interface adhesion in thin-film interconnect structures Michael Lanea of plasticity in thin copper layers on the interface fracture resistance in thin-film interconnect structures yield properties together with a plastic flow model for the metal layers were used to predict

  19. FIBER-OPTIC BUS-ORIENTED SINGLE-HOP INTERCONNECTIONS AMONG MULTI-TRANSCEIVER STATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,ooffer substantial advantages in power budget and the maximum number of stations that can be interconnected withoutFIBER-OPTIC BUS-ORIENTED SINGLE-HOP INTERCONNECTIONS AMONG MULTI-TRANSCEIVER STATIONS Yitzhak Birk among a set of stations, each equipped with multiple, say c, transmitters and receivers. It employs cz

  20. Electrically interconnected assemblies of microscale device components by printing and molding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    Electrically interconnected assemblies of microscale device components by printing and molding Mo process that occurs prior to or simultaneously with a soft lithographic molding step that defines relief of the process, in which transfer printing for device placement and molding for electrical interconnect occur

  1. Interconnect-aware High-level Synthesis for Low Power Lin Zhong and Niraj K. Jha

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhong, Lin

    optimizes interconnects for power. We take physical design information into account for this pur- pose], the switching activity on CDFG edges is profiled. It is used with the floorplanner to optimize the powerInterconnect-aware High-level Synthesis for Low Power Lin Zhong and Niraj K. Jha Dept

  2. Geothermal Power and Interconnection: The Economics of Getting to Market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hurlbut, D.

    2012-04-01

    This report provides a baseline description of the transmission issues affecting geothermal technologies. The report begins with a comprehensive overview of the grid, how it is planned, how it is used, and how it is paid for. The report then overlays onto this 'big picture' three types of geothermal technologies: conventional hydrothermal systems; emerging technologies such as enhanced engineered geothermal systems (EGS) and geopressured geothermal; and geothermal co-production with existing oil and gas wells. Each category of geothermal technology has its own set of interconnection issues, and these are examined separately for each. The report draws conclusions about each technology's market affinities as defined by factors related to transmission and distribution infrastructure. It finishes with an assessment of selected markets with known geothermal potential, identifying those that offer the best prospects for near-term commercial development and for demonstration projects.

  3. Gold-based electrical interconnections for microelectronic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peterson, Kenneth A. (Albuquerque, NM); Garrett, Stephen E. (Albuquerque, NM); Reber, Cathleen A. (Corrales, NM); Watson, Robert D. (Tijeras, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A method of making an electrical interconnection from a microelectronic device to a package, comprising ball or wedge compression bonding a gold-based conductor directly to a silicon surface, such as a polysilicon bonding pad in a MEMS or IMEMS device, without using layers of aluminum or titanium disposed in-between the conductor and the silicon surface. After compression bonding, optional heating of the bond above 363 C. allows formation of a liquid gold-silicon eutectic phase containing approximately 3% (by weight) silicon, which significantly improves the bond strength by reforming and enhancing the initial compression bond. The same process can be used for improving the bond strength of Au--Ge bonds by forming a liquid Au-12Ge eutectic phase.

  4. Catalytic bipolar interconnection plate for use in a fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lessing, P.A.

    1996-03-05

    A bipolar interconnection plate is described for use between adjacent fuel cell units in a stacked fuel cell assembly. Each plate is manufactured from an intermetallic composition, examples of which include NiAl or Ni{sub 3}Al which can catalyze steam reforming of hydrocarbons. Distributed within the intermetallic structure of the plate is a ceramic filler composition. The plate includes a first side with gas flow channels therein and a second side with fuel flow channels therein. A protective coating is applied to the first side, with exemplary coatings including strontium-doped or calcium-doped lanthanum chromite. To produce the plate, Ni and Al powders are combined with the filler composition, compressed at a pressure of about 10,000--30,000 psi, and heated to about 600--1000 C. The coating is then applied to the first side of the completed plate using liquid injection plasma deposition or other deposition techniques. 6 figs.

  5. On the Configuration of the US Western Interconnection Voltage...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Number: AC05-76RL01830 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: IEEE PES Transmission and Distribution Conference and Exposition, April 14-17, 2014,...

  6. A State-Level Comparison of Processes and Timelines for Distributed Photovoltaic Interconnection in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ardani, K.; Davidson, C.; Margolis, R.; Nobler, E.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents results from an analysis of distributed photovoltaic (PV) interconnection and deployment processes in the United States.

  7. Guide to Resource Planning with Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2007-11-01

    Describes the key issues, best practices, and main process steps for integrating energy efficiency into resource planning on an equal basis with other resources.

  8. Integrating High Penetrations of PV into Southern California: Year 2 Project Update; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mather, B.; Neal, R.

    2012-08-01

    Southern California Edison (SCE) is well into a five-year project to install a total of 500 MW of distributed photovoltaic (PV) energy within its utility service territory. Typical installations to date are 1-3 MW peak rooftop PV systems that interconnect to medium-voltage urban distribution circuits or larger (5 MW peak) ground-mounted systems that connect to medium-voltage rural distribution circuits. Some of the PV system interconnections have resulted in distribution circuits that have a significant amount of PV generation compared to customer load, resulting in high-penetration PV integration scenarios. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and SCE have assembled a team of distribution modeling, resource assessment, and PV inverter technology experts in order to investigate a few of the high-penetration PV distribution circuits. Currently, the distribution circuits being studied include an urban circuit with a PV penetration of approximately 46% and a rural circuit with a PV penetration of approximately 60%. In both cases, power flow on the circuit reverses direction, compared to traditional circuit operation, during periods of high PV power production and low circuit loading. Research efforts during year two of the five-year project were focused on modeling the distribution system level impacts of high-penetration PV integrations, the development and installation of distribution circuit data acquisition equipment appropriate for quantifying the impacts of high-penetration PV integrations, and investigating high-penetration PV impact mitigation strategies. This paper outlines these research efforts and discusses the following activities in more detail: the development of a quasi-static time-series test feeder for evaluating high-penetration PV integration modeling tools; the advanced inverter functions being investigated for deployment in the project's field demonstration and a power hardware-in-loop test of a 500-kW PV inverter implementing a limited set of advanced inverter functions.

  9. Probabilistic evaluation of shallow groundwater resources at...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: Groundwater resources; risk assessment; integrated MC simulation; heterogeneity; unconfined aquifer; plume volume...

  10. Distributed energy resources customer adoption modeling with combined heat and power applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Firestone, Ryan M.; Ghosh, Srijay; Stadler, Michael; Edwards, Jennifer L.; Marnay, Chris

    2003-01-01

    of Microgrid Distributed Energy Resource Potential Usingon Integration of Distributed Energy Resources: The CERTSof Customer Adoption of Distributed Energy Resources. ”

  11. Variability-Driven Considerations in the Design of Integrated-Circuit Global Interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Lei

    fill patterns that are nominally "equivalent" with respect to foundry rules, and (ii) dishing to meet foundry requirements [1], [2] typically results in a number of tiles (i.e., square regions are to be inserted. In each tile T, a total fill area A must be inserted subject to at least two foundry

  12. Market Characteristics for Efficient Integration of Variable Generation in the Western Interconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.

    2010-08-01

    The overriding purpose of this report is to establish the physical requirements of a power system that can accommodate high levels of variable generation.

  13. Solid oxide fuel cell with internal reforming, catalyzed interconnect for use therewith, and methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Di-Jia; Guan, Jie; Minh, Nguyen

    2010-06-08

    A catalyzed interconnect for an SOFC electrically connects an anode and an anodic current collector and comprises a metallic substrate, which provides space between the anode and anodic current collector for fuel gas flow over at least a portion of the anode, and a catalytic coating on the metallic substrate comprising a catalyst for catalyzing hydrocarbon fuel in the fuel gas to hydrogen rich reformate. An SOFC including the catalyzed anodic inter-connect, a method for operating an SOFC, and a method for making a catalyzed anodic interconnect are also disclosed.

  14. Final report for %22High performance computing for advanced national electric power grid modeling and integration of solar generation resources%22, LDRD Project No. 149016.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reno, Matthew J.; Riehm, Andrew Charles; Hoekstra, Robert John; Munoz-Ramirez, Karina; Stamp, Jason Edwin; Phillips, Laurence R.; Adams, Brian M.; Russo, Thomas V.; Oldfield, Ron A.; McLendon, William Clarence, III; Nelson, Jeffrey Scott; Hansen, Clifford W.; Richardson, Bryan T.; Stein, Joshua S.; Schoenwald, David Alan; Wolfenbarger, Paul R.

    2011-02-01

    Design and operation of the electric power grid (EPG) relies heavily on computational models. High-fidelity, full-order models are used to study transient phenomena on only a small part of the network. Reduced-order dynamic and power flow models are used when analysis involving thousands of nodes are required due to the computational demands when simulating large numbers of nodes. The level of complexity of the future EPG will dramatically increase due to large-scale deployment of variable renewable generation, active load and distributed generation resources, adaptive protection and control systems, and price-responsive demand. High-fidelity modeling of this future grid will require significant advances in coupled, multi-scale tools and their use on high performance computing (HPC) platforms. This LDRD report demonstrates SNL's capability to apply HPC resources to these 3 tasks: (1) High-fidelity, large-scale modeling of power system dynamics; (2) Statistical assessment of grid security via Monte-Carlo simulations of cyber attacks; and (3) Development of models to predict variability of solar resources at locations where little or no ground-based measurements are available.

  15. Geothermal Power and Interconnection: The Economics of Getting to Market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hurlbut, David

    2012-04-23

    This report provides a baseline description of the transmission issues affecting geothermal technologies. It is intended for geothermal experts in either the private or public sector who are less familiar with how the electricity system operates beyond the geothermal plant. The report begins with a comprehensive overview of the grid, how it is planned, how it is used, and how it is paid for. The report then overlays onto this "big picture" three types of geothermal technologies: conventional hydrothermal systems; emerging technologies such as enhanced engineered geothermal systems (EGS) and geopressured geothermal; and geothermal co-production with existing oil and gas wells. Each category of geothermal technology has its own set of interconnection issues, and these are examined separately for each. The report draws conclusions about each technology’s market affinities as defined by factors related to transmission and distribution infrastructure. It finishes with an assessment of selected markets with known geothermal potential, identifying those that offer the best prospects for near-term commercial development and for demonstration projects.

  16. The Relevance of Generation Interconnection Procedures to Feed-in Tariffs in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fink, Sari; Porter, Kevin; Rogers, Jennifer

    2010-10-01

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) have been used to promote renewable electricity development in over 40 countries throughout the past two decades. These policies generally provide guaranteed prices for the full system output from eligible generators for a fixed time period (typically 15–20 years). Due in part to the success of FIT policies in Europe, some jurisdictions in the United States are considering implementing similar policies, and a few have already put such policies in place. This report is intended to offer some guidance to policymakers and regulators on how generator interconnection procedures may affect the implementation of FITs and how state generator interconnection procedures can be formulated to support state renewable energy objectives. This report is based on a literature review of model interconnection procedures formulated by several organizations, as well as other documents that have reviewed, commented on, and in some cases, ranked state interconnection procedures.

  17. Relevance of Generation Interconnection Procedures to Feed-in Tariffs in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Rogers, J.

    2010-10-01

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) have been used to promote renewable electricity development in over 40 countries throughout the past two decades. These policies generally provide guaranteed prices for the full system output from eligible generators for a fixed time period (typically 15-20 years). Due in part to the success of FIT policies in Europe, some jurisdictions in the United States are considering implementing similar policies, and a few have already put such policies in place. This report is intended to offer some guidance to policymakers and regulators on how generator interconnection procedures may affect the implementation of FITs and how state generator interconnection procedures can be formulated to support state renewable energy objectives. This report is based on a literature review of model interconnection procedures formulated by several organizations, as well as other documents that have reviewed, commented on, and in some cases, ranked state interconnection procedures.

  18. EIS-0437: Interconnection of the Buffalo Ridge III Wind Project, Brookings and Deuel Counties, South Dakota

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to interconnect the Heartland Wind, LLC, proposed Buffalo Ridge III Wind Project in Brookings and Deuel Counties, South Dakota, to DOE’s Western Area Power Administration transmission system.

  19. Reuse Distance Based Circuit Replacement in Silicon Photonic Interconnection Networks for HPC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergman, Keren

    -scale distance, can help to further scale data-movement capabilities in high performance computing (HPC demands within high performance computing (HPC) systems. Silicon photonic (SiP) interconnects [1-3], which

  20. Modeling and Analysis of Large-Scale On-Chip Interconnects 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Zhuo

    2010-07-14

    dimensional process-voltage-temperature (PVT) variations demand much more modeling and analysis efforts than ever before, while the analysis of large scale on-chip interconnects that requires solving tens of millions of unknowns imposes great challenges...

  1. High-performance parallel processors based on star-coupled wavelength division multiplexing optical interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deri, Robert J. (Pleasanton, CA); DeGroot, Anthony J. (Castro Valley, CA); Haigh, Ronald E. (Arvada, CO)

    2002-01-01

    As the performance of individual elements within parallel processing systems increases, increased communication capability between distributed processor and memory elements is required. There is great interest in using fiber optics to improve interconnect communication beyond that attainable using electronic technology. Several groups have considered WDM, star-coupled optical interconnects. The invention uses a fiber optic transceiver to provide low latency, high bandwidth channels for such interconnects using a robust multimode fiber technology. Instruction-level simulation is used to quantify the bandwidth, latency, and concurrency required for such interconnects to scale to 256 nodes, each operating at 1 GFLOPS performance. Performance scales have been shown to .apprxeq.100 GFLOPS for scientific application kernels using a small number of wavelengths (8 to 32), only one wavelength received per node, and achievable optoelectronic bandwidth and latency.

  2. EIS-0485: Interconnection of the Grande Prairie Wind Farm, Holt County, Nebraska

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE’s Western Area Power Administration prepared an EIS to evaluate the environmental impacts of interconnecting the proposed Grande Prairie Wind Farm, in Holt County, near O’Neill, Nebraska, to Western’s power transmission system.

  3. EIS-0438: Interconnection of the Proposed Hermosa West Wind Farm Project, Albany County, Wyoming

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    After the applicant withdrew its request to interconnect the proposed Hermosa West Wind Farm Project with Western Area Power Administration’s transmission system, Western cancelled preparation of an EIS to evaluate the potential environmental impacts of the proposal.

  4. NMAC 17.9.569 Interconnection of Generating Facilities with a...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    NMAC 17.9.569 Interconnection of Generating Facilities with a Rated Capacity Greater than 10 MW Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document-...

  5. NMAC 17.9.568 Interconnection of Generating Facilities with a...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    NMAC 17.9.568 Interconnection of Generating Facilities with a Rated Capacity up to and including 10 MW Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal...

  6. Reliable low latency I/O in torus-based interconnection networks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azeez, Babatunde

    2007-04-25

    In today's high performance computing environment I/O remains the main bottleneck in achieving the optimal performance expected of the ever improving processor and memory technologies. Interconnection networks therefore ...

  7. Optically Interconnected Data Center Architecture for Bandwidth Intensive Energy Efficient Networking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergman, Keren

    Optically Interconnected Data Center Architecture for Bandwidth Intensive Energy Efficient will either be prohibitively costly, overly complex, or result in unsustainable energy requirements. Network of communication-intensive applications. Recent network architectures based on optical circuit switching leverage

  8. Innovative Distributed Power Grid Interconnection and Control Systems: Final Report, December 11, 2000 - August 30, 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DePodesta, K.; Birlingmair, D.; West, R.

    2006-03-01

    The contract goal was to further advance distributed generation in the marketplace by making installations more cost-effective and compatible with existing systems. This was achieved by developing innovative grid interconnection and control systems.

  9. Solid oxide fuel cell with single material for electrodes and interconnect

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McPheeters, Charles C. (Naperville, IL); Nelson, Paul A. (Wheaton, IL); Dees, Dennis W. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1994-01-01

    A solid oxide fuel cell having a plurality of individual cells. A solid oxide fuel cell has an anode and a cathode with electrolyte disposed therebetween, and the anode, cathode and interconnect elements are comprised of substantially one material.

  10. Design of a decentralized detection filter for a class of interconnected LTI systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shankar, Shamanth

    2001-01-01

    In this thesis, we consider the problem of designing a decentralized detection filter for a class of homogeneous interconnected systems. In this class of systems, all subsystems have an identical structure. A fault in a subsystem propagates via...

  11. ACTIVE SUBSTRATES FOR OPTOELECTRONIC INTERCONNECT Donald Chiarulli, Steven Levitan, Jason Bakos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bakos, Jason D.

    silicon on sapphire technology and the adaptation of laser drilling techniques to create vias through different from a conventional BGA chip carrier. It is an active device, not a passive interconnect

  12. Determining Interconnections in Chemical Reaction Networks Antonis Papachristodoulou and Ben Recht

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Recht, Ben

    Determining Interconnections in Chemical Reaction Networks Antonis Papachristodoulou and Ben Recht Abstract-- We present a methodology for robust determina- tion of chemical reaction network' dynamics. We illustrate our methodology on a hypothetical chemical reaction network under various

  13. A continuous distribution method for reliability evaluation of interconnected power systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chintaluri, Gouri Mohana

    1993-01-01

    the interconnection effects. Several studies are reported using IEEE-RTS and EPRI System E. The indices of LOLE, EUE and LOLF are obtained and are compared with those of the recursive method for accuracy and efficiency....

  14. Record of Decision for the Electrical Interconnection of the Windy Point Wind Energy Project.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-11-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has decided to offer contract terms for interconnection of 250 megawatts (MW) of power to be generated by the proposed Windy Point Wind Energy Project (Wind Project) into the Federal Columbia River Transmission System (FCRTS). Windy Point Partners, LLC (WPP) propose to construct and operate the proposed Wind Project and has requested interconnection to the FCRTS. The Wind Project will be interconnected at BPA's Rock Creek Substation, which is under construction in Klickitat County, Washington. The Rock Creek Substation will provide transmission access for the Wind Project to BPA's Wautoma-John Day No.1 500-kilovolt (kV) transmission line. BPA's decision to offer terms to interconnect the Wind Project is consistent with BPA's Business Plan Final Environmental Impact Statement (BP EIS) (DOE/EIS-0183, June 1995), and the Business Plan Record of Decision (BP ROD, August 15, 1995). This decision thus is tiered to the BP ROD.

  15. Companion Gaming: Improving the Quality of Gaming Experiences through Interconnected Gameplay 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ross, Jacob

    2013-08-30

    In recent years, video game publishers and developers such as Ubisoft, Bioware, Microsoft, Capcom, Wideload Games, and NeatherRealm have all attempted to increase brand engagement by means of increased interconnectivity between games of the same...

  16. On the State of the Art of Metal Interconnects for SOFC Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jablonski@netl.doe.gov

    2011-02-27

    One of the recent developments for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) is oxide component materials capable of operating at lower temperatures such as 700-800C. This lower temperature range has provided for the consideration of metallic interconnects which have several advantages over ceramic interconnects: low cost, ease in manufacturing, and high conductivity. Most metals and alloys will oxidize under both the anode and cathode conditions within an SOFC, thus a chief requirement is that the base metal oxide scale must be electrically conductive since this constitutes the majority of the electrical resistance in a metallic interconnect. Common high temperature alloys form scales that contain chrome, silicon and aluminum oxides among others. Under SOFC operating conditions chrome oxide is a semi-conductor while silicon and aluminum oxides are insulators. In this talk we will review the evolution in candidate alloys and surface modifications which constitute an engineered solution for SOFC interconnect applications.

  17. Biology Mathematics Connection Program Integrating Mathematics and Biology Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biology Mathematics Connection Program Integrating Mathematics and Biology Program BMC pioneered a series of instructional modules for use in high school mathematics and biology classrooms to highlight the interconnections between the mathematical and biological sciences. IMB follows up by developing the BMC modules

  18. Class 1 overview of cultural resources for the Western Area Power Administration Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects electric power marketing environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moeller, K.L.; Malinowski, L.M.; Hoffecker, J.F.; Walitschek, D.A.; Shogren, L.; Mathews, J.E.; Verhaaren, B.T.

    1993-11-01

    Argonne National Laboratory conducted an inventory of known archaeological and historic sites in areas that could be affected by the hydropower operation alternatives under analysis in the power marketing environmental impact statement for the Western Area Power Administration`s Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects. The study areas included portions of the Green River (Flaming Gorge Dam to Cub Creek) in Utah and Colorado and the Gunnison River (Blue Mesa Reservoir to Crystal Dam) in Colorado. All previous archaeological surveys and previously recorded prehistoric and historic sites, structures, and features were inventoried and plotted on maps (only survey area maps are included in this report). The surveys were classified by their level of intensity, and the sites were classified according to their age, type, and contents. These data (presented here in tabular form) permit a general assessment of the character and distribution of archaeological remains in the study areas, as well as an indication of the sampling basis for such an assessment. To provide an adequate context for the descriptions of the archaeological and historic sites, this report also presents overviews of the environmental setting and the regional prehistory, history, and ethnography for each study area.

  19. Sustainable Energy Solutions Task 1.0: Networked Monitoring and Control of Small Interconnected Wind Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janet.twomey@wichita.edu

    2010-04-30

    EXECUTIVE SUMARRY This report presents accomplishments, results, and future work for one task of five in the Wichita State University Sustainable Energy Solutions Project: To develop a scale model laboratory distribution system for research into questions that arise from networked control and monitoring of low-wind energy systems connected to the AC distribution system. The lab models developed under this task are located in the Electric Power Quality Lab in the Engineering Research Building on the Wichita State University campus. The lab system consists of four parts: 1. A doubly-fed induction generator 2. A wind turbine emulator 3. A solar photovoltaic emulator, with battery energy storage 4. Distribution transformers, lines, and other components, and wireless and wired communications and control These lab elements will be interconnected and will function together to form a complete testbed for distributed resource monitoring and control strategies and smart grid applications testing. Development of the lab system will continue beyond this project.

  20. Upgrade of the LHC magnet interconnections thermal shielding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Musso, Andrea; Barlow, Graeme; Bastard, Alain; Charrondiere, Maryline; Deferne, Guy; Dib, Gaëlle; Duret, Max; Guinchard, Michael; Prin, Hervé; Craen, Arnaud Vande; Villiger, Gilles [CERN European Organization for Nuclear Research, Meyrin 1211, Geneva 23, CH (Switzerland); Chrul, Anna [The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul.Radzikowskiego 152, 31-324 Krakow (Poland); Damianoglou, Dimitrios [NTUA National Technical University of Athens, Heeron Polytechniou 9, 15780 Zografou (Greece); Strychalski, Micha? [Wroclaw University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Wyb. Wyspianskiego 27, Wroclaw, 50-370 (Poland); Wright, Loren [Lancaster University, Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4YW (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-29

    The about 1700 interconnections (ICs) between the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) superconducting magnets include thermal shielding at 50-75 K, providing continuity to the thermal shielding of the magnet cryostats to reduce the overall radiation heat loads to the 1.9 K helium bath of the magnets. The IC shield, made of aluminum, is conduction-cooled via a welded bridge to the thermal shield of the adjacent magnets which is actively cooled. TIG welding of these bridges made in the LHC tunnel at installation of the magnets induced a considerable risk of fire hazard due to the proximity of the multi-layer insulation of the magnet shields. A fire incident occurred in one of the machine sectors during machine installation, but fortunately with limited consequences thanks to prompt intervention of the operators. LHC is now undergoing a 2 years technical stop during which all magnet's ICs will have to be opened to consolidate the magnet electrical connections. The IC thermal shields will therefore have to be removed and re-installed after the work is completed. In order to eliminate the risk of fire hazard when re-welding, it has been decided to review the design of the IC shields, by replacing the welded bridges with a mechanical clamping which also preserves its thermal function. An additional advantage of this new solution is the ease in dismantling for maintenance, and eliminating weld-grinding operations at removal needing radioprotection measures because of material activation after long-term operation of the LHC. This paper describes the new design of the IC shields and in particular the theoretical and experimental validation of its thermal performance. Furthermore a status report of the on-going upgrade work in the LHC is given.

  1. Distributed Energy Systems Integration Group (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-10-01

    Factsheet developed to describe the activites of the Distributed Energy Systems Integration Group within NREL's Electricity, Resources, and Buildings Systems Integration center.

  2. REopt: A Platform for Energy System Integration and Optimization: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpkins, T.; Cutler, D.; Anderson, K.; Olis, D.; Elgqvist, E.; Callahan, M.; Walker, A.

    2014-08-01

    REopt is NREL's energy planning platform offering concurrent, multi-technology integration and optimization capabilities to help clients meet their cost savings and energy performance goals. The REopt platform provides techno-economic decision-support analysis throughout the energy planning process, from agency-level screening and macro planning to project development to energy asset operation. REopt employs an integrated approach to optimizing a site?s energy costs by considering electricity and thermal consumption, resource availability, complex tariff structures including time-of-use, demand and sell-back rates, incentives, net-metering, and interconnection limits. Formulated as a mixed integer linear program, REopt recommends an optimally-sized mix of conventional and renewable energy, and energy storage technologies; estimates the net present value associated with implementing those technologies; and provides the cost-optimal dispatch strategy for operating them at maximum economic efficiency. The REopt platform can be customized to address a variety of energy optimization scenarios including policy, microgrid, and operational energy applications. This paper presents the REopt techno-economic model along with two examples of recently completed analysis projects.

  3. Bi-level microelectronic device package with an integral window

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Watson, Robert D.

    2004-01-06

    A package with an integral window for housing a microelectronic device. The integral window is bonded directly to the package without having a separate layer of adhesive material disposed in-between the window and the package. The device can be a semiconductor chip, CCD chip, CMOS chip, VCSEL chip, laser diode, MEMS device, or IMEMS device. The multilayered package can be formed of a LTCC or HTCC cofired ceramic material, with the integral window being simultaneously joined to the package during LTCC or HTCC processing. The microelectronic device can be flip-chip bonded so that the light-sensitive side is optically accessible through the window. The package has at least two levels of circuits for making electrical interconnections to a pair of microelectronic devices. The result is a compact, low-profile package having an integral window that is hermetically sealed to the package prior to mounting and interconnecting the microelectronic device(s).

  4. Voltage control for interconnected microgrids under adversarial actions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johansson, Karl Henrik

    in renewable energy sources is growing worldwide. Most of these sources are small-scale inverter- based a local integration of renewable energy sources, which las led to the concept of microgrids (MGs) [1], [2. I. INTRODUCTION Motivated by environmental, economic and technological aspects, interests

  5. Characterization of Fe–Cr alloy metallic interconnects coated with LSMO using the aerosol deposition process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Jian-Jia [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Fu, Yen-Pei, E-mail: ypfu@mail.ndhu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Dong Hwa University, Shoufeng, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Wang, Jian-Yih [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Dong Hwa University, Shoufeng, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Yung-Neng [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Longtan, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Lee, Shyong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Jin-Cherng [Department of Physics, Fu Jen Catholic University, Xinzhuang, New Taipei City, Taiwan (China)

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Lanthanum strontium manganite (LSMO) as the protective layer for metallic interconnects was successfully prepared by aerosol deposition method (AD). • The microstructure, electrical resistance and composition for LSMO-coated Fe–Cr alloys undergoing high temperature, long-hour oxidation were investigated. • The denser protective layer prepared by AD might effectively prohibit the growth of oxidized scale after long time running at 800 °C in air. - Abstract: A Fe–Cr alloy, used for metallic interconnects, was coated with a protective layer of lanthanum strontium manganite (LSMO) using the aerosol deposition method (AD). The effects of the LSMO protective layer, which was coated on the Fe–Cr interconnects using AD, on the area specific resistance (ASR) during high temperature oxidation and the Cr evaporation behaviors were systematically investigated in this paper. The microstructures, morphologies, and compositions of the oxidized scales that appeared on the LSMO-coated Fe–Cr alloy after annealing at 800 °C for 750 h in air were examined using SEM equipped with EDS. The EPMA mapping of the LSMO-coated Fe–Cr interconnects undergoing long term, high-temperature oxidation was used to explain the formation layers of the oxidized scale, which consists of (Mn,Cr){sub 3}O{sub 4} and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers. Moreover, the experimental results revealed that the AD process is a potential method for preparing denser protective layers with highly desirable electrical properties for metallic interconnects.

  6. Integrating Module

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Mar Apr MayYearYear JanDecade Year-0per6,167,3715) Integrating

  7. Plastic deformation in Al (Cu) interconnects stressed by electromigration and studied by synchrotron polychromatic X-ray microdiffraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Kai; Advanced Light Source; UCLA

    2008-01-01

    Plastic deformation in Al (Cu) interconnects stressed bygrain orientation [7], study plastic deformation [12-15] andThis aspect of EM-induced plastic deformation in grains

  8. WORKING PAPER Resource Economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    WORKING PAPER 2008-07 REPA Resource Economics & Policy Analysis Research Group Department of Economics University of Victoria Forest-mill integration: a transaction costs perspective Kurt Niquidet, Moeltne, and Johnson) 2003-06 ­ Climate Change and Forest Ecosystem Sinks: Economic Analysis (van Kooten

  9. Power Systems Integration Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This fact sheet describes the purpose, lab specifications, applications scenarios, and information on how to partner with NREL's Power Systems Integration Laboratory at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. At NREL's Power Systems Integration Laboratory in the Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF), research focuses on developing and testing large-scale distributed energy systems for grid-connected, stand-alone, and microgrid applications. The laboratory can accommodate large power system components such as inverters for photovoltaic (PV) and wind systems, diesel and natural gas generators, battery packs, microgrid interconnection switchgear, and vehicles. Closely coupled with the research electrical distribution bus at the ESIF, the Power Systems Integration Laboratory will offer power testing capability of megawatt-scale DC and AC power systems, as well as advanced hardware-in-the-loop and model-in-the-loop simulation capabilities. Thermal heating and cooling loops and fuel also allow testing of combined heating/cooling and power systems (CHP).

  10. Use of Frequency Response Metrics to Assess the Planning and Operating Requirements for Reliable Integration of Variable Renewable Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eto, Joseph H.

    2011-01-01

    Integration of Variable Renewable Generation The report isISO (CAISO). 2007. Integration of Renewable Resources.recommendations for integrating renewable resources on the

  11. Systems Integration (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    The Systems Integration (SI) subprogram works closely with industry, universities, and the national laboratories to overcome technical barriers to the large-scale deployment of solar technologies. To support these goals, the subprogram invests primarily in four areas: grid integration, technology validation, solar resource assessment, and balance of system development.

  12. Systems Integration (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program

    2011-10-13

    The Systems Integration (SI) subprogram works closely with industry, universities, and the national laboratories to overcome technical barriers to the large-scale deployment of solar technologies. To support these goals, the subprogram invests primarily in four areas: grid integration, technology validation, solar resource assessment, and balance of system development.

  13. Development of Readout Interconnections for the Si-W Calorimeter of SiD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woods, M.; Fields, R.G.; Holbrook, B.; Lander, R.L.; Moskaleva, A.; Neher, C.; Pasner, J.; Tripathi, M.; /UC, Davis; Brau, J.E.; Frey, R.E.; Strom, D.; /Oregon U.; Breidenbach, M.; Freytag, D.; Haller, G.; Herbst, R.; Nelson, T.; /SLAC; Schier, S.; Schumm, B.; /UC, Santa Cruz

    2012-09-14

    The SiD collaboration is developing a Si-W sampling electromagnetic calorimeter, with anticipated application for the International Linear Collider. Assembling the modules for such a detector will involve special bonding technologies for the interconnections, especially for attaching a silicon detector wafer to a flex cable readout bus. We review the interconnect technologies involved, including oxidation removal processes, pad surface preparation, solder ball selection and placement, and bond quality assurance. Our results show that solder ball bonding is a promising technique for the Si-W ECAL, and unresolved issues are being addressed.

  14. Wind/PV Generation for Frequency Regulation and Oscillation Damping in the Eastern Interconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yong; Gracia, Jose R; Hadley, Stanton W; Liu, Yilu

    2013-12-01

    This report presents the control of renewable energy sources, including the variable-speed wind generators and solar photovoltaic (PV) generators, for frequency regulation and inter-area oscillation damping in the U.S. Eastern Interconnection (EI). In this report, based on the user-defined wind/PV generator electrical control model and the 16,000-bus Eastern Interconnection dynamic model, the additional controllers for frequency regulation and inter-area oscillation damping are developed and incorporated and the potential contributions of renewable energy sources to the EI system frequency regulation and inter-area oscillation damping are evaluated.

  15. Method of bonding an interconnection layer on an electrode of an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pal, U.B.; Isenberg, A.O.; Folser, G.R.

    1992-01-14

    An electrochemical cell containing an air electrode, contacting electrolyte and electronically conductive interconnection layer, and a fuel electrode, has the interconnection layer attached by: (A) applying a thin, closely packed, discrete layer of LaCrO[sub 3] particles, doped with an element selected from the group consisting of Ca, Sr, Co, Ba, Mg and their mixtures on a portion of the air electrode, and then (B) electrochemical vapor depositing a dense skeletal structure between and around the doped LaCrO[sub 3] particles. 2 figs.

  16. The Integrated Environmental Strategies Handbook: A Resource...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    countries and regions: The IES approach was used in eight countries in the program: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, China, India, Mexico, the Philippines, and South Korea. The...

  17. Integrated assessment of dispersed energy resources deployment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marnay, Chris; Blanco, Raquel; Hamachi, Kristina S.; Kawaan, Cornelia P.; Osborn, Julie G.; Rubio, F. Javier

    2000-01-01

    household water heating demand) to estimate energy demand, meteorological data to calculate regional solar

  18. Integrated assessment of dispersed energy resources deployment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marnay, Chris; Blanco, Raquel; Hamachi, Kristina S.; Kawaan, Cornelia P.; Osborn, Julie G.; Rubio, F. Javier

    2000-01-01

    power generating plants and highway vehicles (California AirPower Plant Research Program . 100 6.3.2 Environmental and Regulatory Considerations. 103 6.4 Site Suitability Analysis. 106 6.4.1 California

  19. Integrated assessment of dispersed energy resources deployment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marnay, Chris; Blanco, Raquel; Hamachi, Kristina S.; Kawaan, Cornelia P.; Osborn, Julie G.; Rubio, F. Javier

    2000-01-01

    21 2.3.2 Power Exchangeat the California Power Exchange (CalPX) price. In thistechnologies, the California Power Exchange (CalPX) price at

  20. Resource conservation and allocation via process integration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harell, Dustin Ashley

    2004-09-30

    power surplus composite line ????????????? 60 Figure 5.5: Extractable power surplus and deficit composite line ????????.. 61 Figure 5.6: Shifted extractable power versus flow diagram ??????????... 62 Figure 5.7: Infeasible cogeneration target... ...................................................................................... 70 Table 5.3: Process live steam demands and generation................................................ 71 Table 5.4: Steam header balance................................................................................. 73 Table 5.5: Surplus...

  1. Integrated assessment of dispersed energy resources deployment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marnay, Chris; Blanco, Raquel; Hamachi, Kristina S.; Kawaan, Cornelia P.; Osborn, Julie G.; Rubio, F. Javier

    2000-01-01

    California Energy Commission. 107 Figure 33: Transmission Lines and Roads used for Calculating CostsCalifornia Edison). Part of the cost is due to the energy

  2. Integrated assessment of dispersed energy resources deployment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marnay, Chris; Blanco, Raquel; Hamachi, Kristina S.; Kawaan, Cornelia P.; Osborn, Julie G.; Rubio, F. Javier

    2000-01-01

    as photovoltaic systems, small wind turbines, etc. ). Thephotovoltaic systems and small wind turbines. The goal of

  3. SPIDERS Bi-Directional Charging Station Interconnection Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, M.

    2013-09-01

    The Smart Power Infrastructure Demonstration for Energy Reliability and Security (SPIDERS) program is a multi-year Department of Defense-Department of Energy (DOE) collaborative effort that will demonstrate integration of renewables into island-able microgrids using on-site generation control, demand response, and energy storage with robust security features at multiple installations. Fort Carson, Colorado, will be the initial development and demonstration site for use of plug-in electric vehicles as energy storage (also known as vehicle-to-grid or V2G).

  4. February 2012 Towards Integrated Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    February 2012 Towards Integrated Water Resources Management A Conceptual Framework for U.S.Army Corps of Engineers Water and Related Land Resources Implementation Studies 2012-VSP-01 #12;Throughout its history, the Institute for Water Resources (IWR) has invited preeminent water resources

  5. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ADVANCED PACKAGING, VOL. 33, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2010 37 Novel 3-D Coaxial Interconnect System for Use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LaMeres, Brock J.

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ADVANCED PACKAGING, VOL. 33, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2010 37 Novel 3-D Coaxial Interconnect System for Use in System-in-Package Applications Brock J. LaMeres, Senior Member, IEEE of a novel die-to-die interconnect system for deployment in system-in-package (SiP) applications

  6. Improved Crosstalk Modeling for Noise Constrained Interconnect Optimization Jason Cong, David Zhigang Pan and Prasanna V. Srinivas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, David Z.

    Improved Crosstalk Modeling for Noise Constrained Interconnect Optimization Jason Cong, David This paper presents a much improved, highly accurate yet effi- cient crosstalk noise model, the 2-˘ model, and applies it to noise- constrained interconnect optimizations. Compared with previous crosstalk noise models

  7. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Transmission Siting & Interconnection | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsourceBulkTransmission/Environment/Nevada < RAPID‎RAPID/BulkTransmission/Site Considerations <

  8. RAPID/Geothermal/Transmission Siting & Interconnection | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onRAPID/Geothermal/Exploration/Colorado < RAPID‎RAPID/Geothermal/Land Use/Federal < RAPID‎Information form

  9. RAPID/Geothermal/Transmission Siting & Interconnection/California | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onRAPID/Geothermal/Exploration/Colorado < RAPID‎RAPID/Geothermal/Land Use/Federal < RAPID‎InformationEnergy

  10. RAPID/Geothermal/Transmission Siting & Interconnection/Colorado | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onRAPID/Geothermal/Exploration/Colorado < RAPID‎RAPID/Geothermal/Land Use/Federal <

  11. RAPID/Geothermal/Transmission Siting & Interconnection/Montana | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onRAPID/Geothermal/Exploration/Colorado < RAPID‎RAPID/Geothermal/Land Use/Federal

  12. Modeling Distribution Connected PV and Interconnection Study Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on77 PAGEMission Mission Missionof

  13. Physics of Failure of Electrical Interconnects | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy Bills andOrder 422.1, CONDUCTCriticalEnergySiliconDepartment(PARTI). |2

  14. Physics of Failure of Electrical Interconnects | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy Bills andOrder 422.1, CONDUCTCriticalEnergySiliconDepartment(PARTI). |21

  15. Advanced Platform for Development and Evaluation of Grid Interconnection

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report: Achievements of structural genomics Citation Details

  16. National Electric Transmission Congestion Study 2006 Eastern Interconnection Analysis

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested Parties -Department ofDepartment of Energy San Diego

  17. National Electric Transmission Study 2006 Western Interconnection Analysis

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested Parties -Department ofDepartment of Energy San DiegoEXECUTIVEWestern

  18. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study - Executive Summary

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested Parties -Department ofDepartment ofEnergy National

  19. New Report Characterizes Existing Offshore Wind Grid Interconnection

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested Parties -DepartmentAvailable for Public CommentofCapabilities | Department of

  20. Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic A,

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergy HeadquartersFuelBConservationEnergy5975-01TransactionsDepartmentServices

  1. Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, Cooperation

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergy HeadquartersFuelBConservationEnergy5975-01TransactionsDepartmentServicesAmong States

  2. Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, Cooperation

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergy HeadquartersFuelBConservationEnergy5975-01TransactionsDepartmentServicesAmong

  3. Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, State

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergy HeadquartersFuelBConservationEnergy5975-01TransactionsDepartmentServicesAmongAgency

  4. Solar Energy to Benefit from New FERC Interconnection Procedures |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram: Report AppendicesAVideoSolar Decathlon 2015: BuildDepartment of

  5. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuelsof EnergyApril 2014 |DepartmentMultimediaLaboratoryDepartment of Energy

  6. Recovery Act Interconnection Transmission Planning | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram: Report Appendices |ProjectKnow Your

  7. MULTI-PV INVERTER UTILITY INTERCONNECTION EVALUATIONS Sigifredo Gonzalez

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACTThousandReport) | SciTechAdministrationMTBE Production

  8. MULTI-PV INVERTER UTILITY INTERCONNECTION EVALUATIONS Sigifredo Gonzalez

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACTThousandReport) | SciTechAdministrationMTBE Production

  9. Flexibility Reserve Reductions from an Energy Imbalance Market with High Levels of Wind Energy in the Western Interconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, J.; Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.; S. Beuning

    2011-10-01

    The anticipated increase in variable generation in the Western Interconnection (WI) over the next several years has raised concerns about how to maintain system balance, especially in smaller Balancing Areas (BAs). Given renewable portfolio standards in the West, it is possible that more than 50 gigawatts (GW) of wind capacity will be installed by 2020. Significant quantities of solar generation are likely to be added as well. The consequent increase in variability and uncertainty that must be managed by the conventional generation fleet and responsive load make it attractive to consider ways in which Balancing Area Authorities (BAAs) can pool their variability and response resources, thus taking advantage of geographic and temporal diversity to increase overall operational efficiency. Our analysis considers several alternative forms of an Energy Imbalance Market (EIM) that have been proposed in the non-market areas of the WI. The proposed EIM includes two changes in operating practices that independently reduce variability and increase access to responsive resources: BAA cooperation and sub-hourly dispatch. As proposed, the EIM does not consider any form of coordinated unit commitment; however, over time it is possible that BAAs would develop formal or informal coordination plans. This report examines the benefits of several possible EIM implementations, both separately and in concert.

  10. NEASC Accreditation Resources Resource Topic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chandy, John A.

    Resources Info Source Weblink / Electronic Source Paper Academic Planning 2 E 2.1 X X Academic Plan Office.8, 4.9 REP 3 S4.17 Planning Activities Examples College of Agriculture and Natural Resources Website/ Appendix Number Weblink/ Electronic Source Paper Source Additional Resources Info Source Weblink

  11. Detachment Faulting and Geothermal Resources - An Innovative...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Resources - An Innovative Integrated Geological and Geophysical Investigation in Fish Lake Valley, Nevada Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on...

  12. An Asynchronous Interconnect Architecture for Device Security Enhancement Simon Hollis, Simon W. Moore

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Simon

    interconnect over distances as short as 1mm. 1 Introduction The International Technology Roadmap for Semicon- connect, based loosely on the asynchronous GasP architec- ture. It has a number of advantages over throughput and latency figures from simulation on a 0.18ľm technology and show that it is viable for use

  13. Flexible-Bandwidth Power-Aware Optical Interconnects with Source Synchronous Technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoo, S. J. Ben

    @ucdavis.edu, sbyoo@ucdavis.edu Abstract: This paper investigates energy savings in data centers with flexible-bandwidth power- aware source-synchronous optical interconnects. Network simulations show 5× energy savings. Link-PA source synchronous link and investigate the energy saving for a fat-tree network. Finally we report

  14. CPS-IP: Cyber Physical Systems Interconnection Protocol Department of Computer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Tian

    heterogeneity of CPS systems at three different levels: function interoperability, policy regulation of the devices used in cyber physical system have very limited memory, computing capability and energy, whichCPS-IP: Cyber Physical Systems Interconnection Protocol Shan Lin Department of Computer Science

  15. Reliability of Wireless On-Chip Interconnects Based on Carbon Nanotube Antennas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pande, Partha Pratim

    Reliability of Wireless On-Chip Interconnects Based on Carbon Nanotube Antennas A. Nojeh1 , P Engineering University of British Columbia 2332 Main Mall Vancouver, BC, Canada 2 School of Electrical of the research effort in the emerging area of nanoelectronics has revolved around creating novel devices

  16. Changing photovoltaic array interconnections to reduce mismatch losses: a case study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Changing photovoltaic array interconnections to reduce mismatch losses: a case study D. Picault*, B.grenoble-inp.fr ; seddik.bacha@ g2elab.grenoble-inp.fr Abstract- Partial shading of photovoltaic (PV) modules can affect schemes are presented. I. INTRODUCTION The global photovoltaic market has tremendously increased this past

  17. LCL Filter Design and Performance Analysis for Grid Interconnected Systems , M.Godoy Simes*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simőes, Marcelo Godoy

    ** Petroleum Institute, Electrical Engineering Department, Abu Dhabi, UAE. Abstract--The use of power--filter; harmonics; inverter; power quality; pulse width-modulated (PWM) inverters; I. INTRODUCTION Voltage sourceLCL Filter Design and Performance Analysis for Grid Interconnected Systems A. Reznik* , M

  18. Solid oxide fuel cell with single material for electrodes and interconnect

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McPheeters, C.C.; Nelson, P.A.; Dees, D.W.

    1994-07-19

    A solid oxide fuel cell is described having a plurality of individual cells. A solid oxide fuel cell has an anode and a cathode with electrolyte disposed there between, and the anode, cathode and interconnect elements are comprised of substantially one material. 9 figs.

  19. Mitigating FPGA Interconnect Soft Errors by In-Place LUT Inversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Lei

    , power and perfor- mance. Recent logic re-synthesis techniques, such as ROSE [2], IPR [3], IPD [4] and R2Mitigating FPGA Interconnect Soft Errors by In-Place LUT Inversion Naifeng Jing1 , Ju-Yueh Lee2 the Soft Error Rate (SER) at chip level, and reveal a locality and NP-Hardness of the IPV problem. We

  20. Mitigating FPGA Interconnect Soft Errors by In-Place LUT Inversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Lei

    but with high overhead in area, power and performance. Recent logic re-synthesis techniques, such as ROSE [2Mitigating FPGA Interconnect Soft Errors by In-Place LUT Inversion Naifeng Jing1 , Ju-Yueh Lee2 the Soft Error Rate (SER) at chip level, and reveal a locality and NP-Hardness of the IPV problem. We