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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection reliability operating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Reliability of Electrical Interconnects (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation discusses the status of NREL's research on the reliability of electrical interconnects.

Devoto, D.

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

North American Electric Reliability Corporation Interconnections...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

North American Electric Reliability Corporation Interconnections North American Electric Reliability Corporation Interconnections Map of the North American Electric Reliability...

3

Perspectives on Real-Time Grid Operating Technologies to Manage Reliability in the Western Interconnection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Real-Time Grid Operating Technologies to Manage ReliabilityEto Environmental Energy Technologies Division October 2013Real-Time Grid Operating Technologies to Manage Reliability

Whitley, Eric

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Reliability of copper interconnects in integrated circuits  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

As dimensions shrink and current densities increase, the reliability of metal interconnects becomes a serious concern. In copper interconnects, the dominant diffusion path is along the interface between the copper and the ...

Choi, Zung-Sun

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Reliability assessment of autonomous power systems incorporating HVDC interconnection links  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this paper is to present an improved computational method for the overall reliability assessment of autonomous power systems that may or may not contain HVdc interconnection links. This is a hybrid method based on a Monte-Carlo simulation sequential approach which incorporates an analytical approach for the reliability modeling of the HVdc transmission links. The developed models and techniques have been implemented into a computer program that can be used to simulate the operational practices and characteristics of the overall system under study efficiently and realistically. A set of reliability indices are calculated for each load-point of interest and the entire system while a set of additional indices is calculated for quantifying the reliability performance of the interconnection links under the specified operating requirements. The analysis of a practical system is also included for a number of studies representing its various operating and design characteristics.

Dialynas, E.N.; Koskolos, N.C. [National Technical Univ., Athens (Greece). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering] [National Technical Univ., Athens (Greece). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Agoris, D. [Public Power Corp., Athens (Greece)] [Public Power Corp., Athens (Greece)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Can Software Reliability Outperform Hardware Reliability in High-Performance Interconnects?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Can Software Reliability Outperform Hardware Reliability in High-Performance Interconnects? A Case, Myrinet, InfiniBand, and others HPC networks are generally quite reliable without additional protocols link With this in mind, how should reliability be implemented? 3 #12;Onload or Offload? Some networks

Panda, Dhabaleswar K.

7

Energy and Reliability in Future NOC Interconnected CMPS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this dissertation, I explore energy and reliability in future NoC (Network-on-Chip) interconnected CMPs (chip multiprocessors) as they have become a first-order constraint in future CMP design. In the first part, we target the root cause...

Kim, Hyungjun

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Reliability of Nano-Structured Nickel Interconnections Replacing FlipChip Solder Assembly without Underfill  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reliability of Nano-Structured Nickel Interconnections Replacing FlipChip Solder Assembly without of Technology, GA 30332-0560 Abstract This paper reports the reliability of fine pitch interconnections using lower stresses in the interconnections and enhance reliability though they add electrical parasitics

Swaminathan, Madhavan

9

Length Effects on the Reliability of Dual-Damascene Cu Interconnects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The effects of interconnect length on the reliability of dual-damascene Cu metallization have been investigated. As in Al-based interconnects, the lifetimes of Cu lines increase with decreasing length. However, unlike ...

Wei, F.

10

Reliability Assessment Incorporating Operational Considerations and Economic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PSERC Reliability Assessment Incorporating Operational Considerations and Economic Aspects Engineering Research Center Reliability Assessment Incorporating Operational Considerations and Economic Center (PSERC) research project titled "Reliability Assessment Incorporating Operational Considerations

11

Distributed Generation Operational Reliability and Availability...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Reliability and Availability Database, Final Report, January 2004 Distributed Generation Operational Reliability and Availability Database, Final Report, January 2004 This final...

12

Cut set-based risk and reliability analysis for arbitrarily interconnected networks  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method for computing all-terminal reliability for arbitrarily interconnected networks such as the United States public switched telephone network. The method includes an efficient search algorithm to generate minimal cut sets for nonhierarchical networks directly from the network connectivity diagram. Efficiency of the search algorithm stems in part from its basis on only link failures. The method also includes a novel quantification scheme that likewise reduces computational effort associated with assessing network reliability based on traditional risk importance measures. Vast reductions in computational effort are realized since combinatorial expansion and subsequent Boolean reduction steps are eliminated through analysis of network segmentations using a technique of assuming node failures to occur on only one side of a break in the network, and repeating the technique for all minimal cut sets generated with the search algorithm. The method functions equally well for planar and non-planar networks.

Wyss, Gregory D. (Albuquerque, NM)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Washington DC Reliability Requirements and the Need to Operate...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Washington DC Reliability Requirements and the Need to Operate Mirant's Potomac River Generation Station to Support Local Area Reliability (Oak Ridge National Laboratory 2005)...

14

Reliability of Multi-Terminal Copper Dual-Damascene Interconnect Trees  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electromigration tests on different Cu dual-damascene interconnect tree structures consisting of various numbers of straight via-to-via lines connected at the common middle terminal have been carried out. Like Al-based ...

Gan, C.L.

15

The Influence of Adjacent Segment on the Reliability of Cu Dual Damascene Interconnects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Three terminal ‚??dotted-Ií interconnect structures, with vias at both ends and an additional via in the middle, were tested under various test conditions. Mortalities (failures) were found in right segments with jL value ...

Chang, Choon Wai

16

Reliable low latency I/O in torus-based interconnection networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In today's high performance computing environment I/O remains the main bottleneck in achieving the optimal performance expected of the ever improving processor and memory technologies. Interconnection networks therefore combines processing units...

Azeez, Babatunde

2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

17

Use of Frequency Response Metrics to Assess the Planning and Operating Requirements for Reliable Integration of Variable Renewable Generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An interconnected electric power system is a complex system that must be operated within a safe frequency range in order to reliably maintain the instantaneous balance between generation and load. This is accomplished by ensuring that adequate resources are available to respond to expected and unexpected imbalances and restoring frequency to its scheduled value in order to ensure uninterrupted electric service to customers. Electrical systems must be flexible enough to reliably operate under a variety of"change" scenarios. System planners and operators must understand how other parts of the system change in response to the initial change, and need tools to manage such changes to ensure reliable operation within the scheduled frequency range. This report presents a systematic approach to identifying metrics that are useful for operating and planning a reliable system with increased amounts of variable renewable generation which builds on existing industry practices for frequency control after unexpected loss of a large amount of generation. The report introduces a set of metrics or tools for measuring the adequacy of frequency response within an interconnection. Based on the concept of the frequency nadir, these metrics take advantage of new information gathering and processing capabilities that system operators are developing for wide-area situational awareness. Primary frequency response is the leading metric that will be used by this report to assess the adequacy of primary frequency control reserves necessary to ensure reliable operation. It measures what is needed to arrest frequency decline (i.e., to establish frequency nadir) at a frequency higher than the highest set point for under-frequency load shedding within an interconnection. These metrics can be used to guide the reliable operation of an interconnection under changing circumstances.

Eto, Joseph H.; Undrill, John; Mackin, Peter; Daschmans, Ron; Williams, Ben; Haney, Brian; Hunt, Randall; Ellis, Jeff; Illian, Howard; Martinez, Carlos; O'Malley, Mark; Coughlin, Katie; LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi

2010-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

18

Interconnection Standards  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Maine Public Utility Commission (PUC) adopted interconnection procedures in January 2010. These rules apply to all transmission and distribution utilities operating in the state and apply to...

19

A continuous distribution method for reliability evaluation of interconnected power systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recursive algorithms and approximations using continuous distributions are the two basic techniques for reliability calculations of generation systems. Within assumptions common to both methodologies, recursive without using any round-off is exact...

Chintaluri, Gouri Mohana

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Technical information report: Plasma melter operation, reliability, and maintenance analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides a technical report of operability, reliability, and maintenance of a plasma melter for low-level waste vitrification, in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Low-Level Waste (LLW) Vitrification Program. A process description is provided that minimizes maintenance and downtime and includes material and energy balances, equipment sizes and arrangement, startup/operation/maintence/shutdown cycle descriptions, and basis for scale-up to a 200 metric ton/day production facility. Operational requirements are provided including utilities, feeds, labor, and maintenance. Equipment reliability estimates and maintenance requirements are provided which includes a list of failure modes, responses, and consequences.

Hendrickson, D.W. [ed.

1995-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection reliability operating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Reliability of Electrical Interconnects  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

22

Achieving High Reliability Operations Through Multi-Program Integration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Over the last 20 years the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has adopted a number of operations and safety-related programs which has each periodically taken its turn in the limelight. As new programs have come along there has been natural competition for resources, focus and commitment. In the last few years, the INL has made real progress in integrating all these programs and are starting to realize important synergies. Contributing to this integration are both collaborative individuals and an emerging shared vision and goal of the INL fully maturing in its high reliability operations. This goal is so powerful because the concept of high reliability operations (and the resulting organizations) is a masterful amalgam and orchestrator of the best of all the participating programs (i.e. conduct of operations, behavior based safety, human performance, voluntary protection, quality assurance, and integrated safety management). This paper is a brief recounting of the lessons learned, thus far, at the INL in bringing previously competing programs into harmony under the goal (umbrella) of seeking to perform regularly as a high reliability organization. In addition to a brief diagram-illustrated historical review, the authors will share the INLís primary successes (things already effectively stopped or started) and the gaps yet to be bridged.

Holly M. Ashley; Ronald K. Farris; Robert E. Richards

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

ADVANCED COMPRESSOR ENGINE CONTROLS TO ENHANCE OPERATION, RELIABILITY AND INTEGRITY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is the final report for the ''Advanced Compressor Engine Controls to Enhance Operation, Reliability, and Integrity'' project. SwRI conducted this project for DOE in conjunction with Cooper Compression, under DOE contract number DE-FC26-03NT41859. This report addresses an investigation of engine controls for integral compressor engines and the development of control strategies that implement closed-loop NOX emissions feedback.

Gary D. Bourn; Jess W. Gingrich; Jack A. Smith

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

USING SEQUENCING TO IMPROVE OPERATIONAL EFFICIENCY AND RELIABILITY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Operation of an accelerator requires the efficient and reproducible execution of many different types of procedures. Some procedures, like beam acceleration, magnet quench recovery, and species switching can be quite complex. To improve accelerator reliability and efficiency, automated execution of procedures is required. Creation of a single robust sequencing application permits the streamlining of this process and offers many benefits in sequence creation, editing, and control. In this paper, we present key features of a sequencer application commissioned at the Collider-Accelerator Department of Brookhaven National Laboratory during the 2007 run. Included is a categorization of the different types of sequences in use, a discussion of the features considered desirable in a good sequencer, and a description of the tools created to aid in sequence construction and diagnosis. Finally, highlights from our operational experience are presented, with emphasis on Operations control of the sequencer, and the alignment of sequence construction with existing operational paradigms.

D OTTAVIO,T.; NIEDZIELA, J.

2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

25

Analysis of the Impact of Balancing Area Cooperation on the Operation of the Western Interconnection with Wind and Solar Generation (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation describes the analysis of the impact of balancing area cooperation on the operation of the Western Interconnection with wind and solar generation, including a discussion of operating reserves, ramping, production simulation, and conclusions.

Milligan, M.; Lew, D.; Jordan, G.; Piwko, R.; Kirby, B.; King, J.; Beuning, S.

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Operating Reserve Implication of Alternative Implementations of an Energy Imbalance Service on Wind Integration in the Western Interconnection: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the past few years, there has been significant interest in alternative ways to manage power systems over a larger effective electrical footprint. Large regional transmission organizations in the Eastern Interconnection have effectively consolidated balancing areas, achieving significant economies of scale that result in a reduction in required reserves. Conversely, in the Western Interconnection there are many balancing areas, which will result in challenges if there is significant wind and solar energy development in the region. A recent proposal to the Western Electricity Coordinating Council suggests a regional energy imbalance service (EIS). To evaluate this EIS, a number of analyses are in process or are planned. This paper describes one part of an analysis of the EIS's implication on operating reserves under several alternative scenarios of the market footprint and participation. We improve on the operating reserves method utilized in the Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study and apply this modified approach to data from the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study.

Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; King, J.; Beuning, S.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Renewable Resource Integration Project - Scoping Study of Strategic Transmission, Operations, and Reliability Issues  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

California is on a path to increase utilization of renewable resources. California will need to integrate approximately 30,000 megawatts (MW) of new renewable generation in the next 20 years. Renewable resources are typically located in remote locations, not near the load centers. Nearly two/thirds or 20,000 MW of new renewable resources needed are likely to be delivered to Los Angeles Basin transmission gateways. Integration of renewable resources requires interconnection to the power grid, expansion of the transmission system capability between the backbone power grid and transmission gateways, and increase in delivery capacity from transmission gateways to the local load centers. To scope the transmission, operations, and reliability issues for renewables integration, this research focused on the Los Angeles Basin Area transmission gateways where most of new renewables are likely. Necessary actions for successful renewables integration include: (1) Expand Los Angeles Basin Area transmission gateway and nomogram limits by 10,000 to 20,000 MW; (2) Upgrade local transmission network for deliverability to load centers; (3) Secure additional storage, demand management, automatic load control, dynamic pricing, and other resources that meet regulation and ramping needed in real time operations; (4) Enhance local voltage support; and (5) Expand deliverability from Los Angeles to San Diego and Northern California.

Eto, Joseph; Budhraja, Vikram; Ballance, John; Dyer, Jim; Mobasheri, Fred; Eto, Joseph

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Interconnection Panel  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentationógiven at at the Fall 2012 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meetingódiscusses the interconnection panel, including an overview of the generation interconnection process (GIP), and interconnection agreements and their terms.

29

Interconnection Standards  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

New York first adopted uniform interconnection standards in 1999 (see history below). The Standard Interconnection Requirements (SIR) have subsequently been amended several times since, most...

30

Interconnection Standards  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In November 2005, the Indiana Utility Regulatory Commission (IURC) approved rules governing the interconnection of distributed generation (DG). Indiana's interconnection rules require the state's...

31

Operating Reserve Reductions from a Proposed Energy Imbalance Market with Wind and Solar Generation in the Western Interconnection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper considers several alternative forms of an energy imbalance market (EIM) proposed in the nonmarket areas of the Western Interconnection. The proposed EIM includes two changes in operating practices that independently reduce variability and increase access to responsive resources: balancing authority cooperation and sub-hourly dispatch. As the penetration of variable generation increases on the power system, additional interest in coordination would likely occur. Several alternative approaches could be used, but consideration of any form of coordinated unit commitment is beyond the scope of this analysis. This report examines the benefits of several possible EIM implementations--both separately and in concert.

King, J.; Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.; Beuning, S.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Optimal Planning and Operation of Smart Grids with Electric Vehicle Interconnection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optimal Planning and Operation of Smart Grids with ElectricOptimal Planning and Operation of Smart Grids with Electric

Stadler, Michael

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Optimal Planning and Operation of Smart Grids with Electric Vehicle Interconnection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Planning and Operation of Smart Grids with Electric VehiclePlanning and Operation of Smart Grids with Electric Vehicleenergy costs at the smart grid or commercial building due to

Stadler, Michael

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Interconnection Standards  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Different rules govern the interconnection of distributed generation facilities in Iowa, depending on whether or not the interconnection is with a utility whose rates are regulated by the Iowa...

35

Modular Operational Test Plans for Inferences on Software Reliability Based on a Markov Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modular Operational Test Plans for Inferences on Software Reliability Based on a Markov Model reliabilities. An operational test procedure is considered in which only the individual modules are tested and the system is considered acceptable if, and only if, no failures are observed. The minimum number of tests

Mazumdar, Mainak

36

Interconnection Standards  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In December 2007, the Connecticut Department of Public Utility Control (DPUC) now called the Public Utilities Regulatory Authority (PURA) approved new interconnection guidelines for distributed...

37

Interconnection Standards  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In February 2004, the Wisconsin Public Service Commission adopted interconnection standards for distributed generation (DG) systems up to 15 megawatts (MW) in capacity. All investor-owned...

38

Interconnection Standards  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Virginia has two interconnection standards: one for net-metered systems and one for systems that are not net-metered.

39

Interconnection Standards  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In July 2010, the Montana Public Service Commission (PSC) adopted interconnection rules, effective August 13, 2010. These rules apply to all electric utilities under the PSC's jurisdiction,...

40

Interconnection Standards  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Michigan Public Service Commission (PSC) first adopted interconnection standards for distributed generation (DG) in September 2003. The original standards provided for 5 levels of...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection reliability operating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Interconnection Standards  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In September 2007, the Washington Utilities and Transportation Commission (UTC) adopted interconnection standards for distributed generation (DG) systems up to 20 megawatts (MW) in capacity. The...

42

Interconnection Standards  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In December 2005, the Colorado Public Utilities Commission (PUC) adopted standards for net metering and interconnection, as required by Amendment 37, a renewable-energy ballot initiative approved...

43

Interconnection Standards  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In April 2008, Kentucky enacted legislation which required the Kentucky Public Service Commission (PSC) to develop interconnection and net metering guidelines for all retail electric suppliers...

44

Interconnection Standards  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In July 2006 the District of Columbia Public Service Commission (PSC) initiated a formal inquiry into the development of uniform interconnection procedures for on-site distributed generation...

45

Interconnection Standards  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

New Jersey's interconnection standards apply statewide to all electric distribution utilities, but not to the small number of municipal utilities and electric cooperatives in the state. The rules,...

46

Interconnection Guidelines  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

'''''Note: In June 2007, the Arizona Corporation Commission (ACC) initiated a rulemaking process to establish statewide interconnection standards for distributed generation (DG). This proceeding...

47

Interconnection Guidelines  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The South Carolina Public Service Commission (PSC) adopted simplified interconnection guidelines for small distributed generation (DG) in December 2006. These guidelines address renewable-energy...

48

Interconnection Standards  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Pennsylvania Public Utilities Commission was required to adopt interconnection standards and net-metering rules by the Alternative Energy Portfolio Standards Act of 2004.The PUC subsequently...

49

Interconnection Standards  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The North Carolina Utilities Commission (NCUC) adopted comprehensive interconnection standards for distributed generation in June 2008. The NCUC standards, which are similar to the Federal Energy...

50

Interconnection Standards  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Note: Legislation enacted in August 2012 required the Massachusetts Department of Public Utilities (DPU) to develop an enforceable, standard interconnection timeline for distributed generation...

51

Interconnection Resources  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Interconnection is the technical procedures and legal requirements surrounding energy customers' ability to connect their small-scale renewable energy projects with the electricity grid. The...

52

Using Information from Operating Experience to Inform Human Reliability Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports on efforts being sponsored by the U.S. NRC and performed by INEEL to develop a technical basis and perform work to extract information from sources for use in HRA. The objectives of this work are to: 1) develop a method for conducting risk-informed event analysis of human performance information that stems from operating experience at nuclear power plants and for compiling and documenting the results in a structured manner; 2) provide information from these analyses for use in risk-informed and performance-based regulatory activities; 3) create methods for information extraction and a repository for this information that, likewise, support HRA methods and their applications.

Bruce P. Hallbert; David I. Gertman; Julie Marble; Erasmia Lois; Nathan Siu

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

High-speed graphene interconnects monolithically integrated with CMOS ring oscillators operating at 1.3GHz  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have successfully experimentally integrated graphene interconnects with commercial 0.25 ¬Ņm technology CMOS ring oscillator circuit using conventional fabrication techniques, and demonstrated high speed on-chip graphene ...

Chen, Xiangyu

54

Interconnection Guidelines  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Nebraska enacted legislation in May 2009 [http://nebraskalegislature.gov/FloorDocs/101/PDF/Final/LB436.pdf (LB 436)], establishing general rules for interconnecting and net metering systems that...

55

Interconnection Standards  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In March 2008, the Florida Public Service Commission (PSC) adopted interconnection rules for renewable-energy systems up to two megawatts (MW) in capacity. The PSC rules apply only to the state's...

56

Interconnection Guidelines  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Kansas adopted the Net Metering and Easy Connection Act in May 2009 (see K.S.A. 66-1263 through 66-1271), establishing interconnection guidelines and net metering for customer-owned generators. Net...

57

Interconnection Standards  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Oregon has three separate interconnection standards: one for net-metered systems, one for small generator facilities (non-net metered systems) and one for large generator facilities (non-net...

58

Interconnection Guidelines  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Wyoming's net-metering law includes basic interconnection requirements for systems up to 25 kilowatts (kW) in capacity that generate electricity using solar, wind, hydropower or biomass resources....

59

Interconnection Standards  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In 2006, West Virginia stakeholders came together to consider net metering, interconnection as required by the Federal Energy Policy Act (2005) and agreed upon a "Statement of Consensus Among...

60

Interconnection Standards  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

South Dakotaís interconnection standards for distributed generation, adopted by the state Public Utilities Commission (PUC) in May 2009, apply to customers of investor-owned utilities.* The rules...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection reliability operating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Interconnection Standards  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Vermont has adopted separate interconnection standards for net-metered energy systems that are 150 kW or less, and for all other distributed-generation (DG) systems.

62

Interconnection Standards  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Interconnection in New Mexico is governed by New Mexico Public Regulation Commission (PRC) Rule 568 and Rule 569. These rules, adopted in July 2008, revised and clarified the state's existing rules...

63

Interconnection Standards  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Hawaii has established simplified interconnection rules for small renewables and separate rules for all other distributed generation (DG). For inverter-based systems up to 10 kilowatts (kW) in...

64

Interconnection Standards  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In December 2003, the Nevada Public Utilities Commission (PUC) adopted interconnection standards for customers of NV Energy (formerly Nevada Power and Sierra Pacific Power) with on-site generation...

65

Quantifying the Operational Benefits of Conventional and Advanced Pumped Storage Hydro on Reliability and Efficiency: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pumped storage hydro (PSH) plants have significant potential to provide reliability and efficiency benefits in future electric power systems with high penetrations of variable generation. New PSH technologies, such as adjustable-speed PSH, have been introduced that can also present further benefits. This paper demonstrates and quantifies some of the reliability and efficiency benefits afforded by PSH plants by utilizing the Flexible Energy Scheduling Tool for the Integration of Variable generation (FESTIV), an integrated power system operations tool that evaluates both reliability and production costs.

Krad, I.; Ela, E.; Koritarov, V.

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Wind turbine reliability : understanding and minimizing wind turbine operation and maintenance costs.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Wind turbine system reliability is a critical factor in the success of a wind energy project. Poor reliability directly affects both the project's revenue stream through increased operation and maintenance (O&M) costs and reduced availability to generate power due to turbine downtime. Indirectly, the acceptance of wind-generated power by the financial and developer communities as a viable enterprise is influenced by the risk associated with the capital equipment reliability; increased risk, or at least the perception of increased risk, is generally accompanied by increased financing fees or interest rates. Cost of energy (COE) is a key project evaluation metric, both in commercial applications and in the U.S. federal wind energy program. To reflect this commercial reality, the wind energy research community has adopted COE as a decision-making and technology evaluation metric. The COE metric accounts for the effects of reliability through levelized replacement cost and unscheduled maintenance cost parameters. However, unlike the other cost contributors, such as initial capital investment and scheduled maintenance and operating expenses, costs associated with component failures are necessarily speculative. They are based on assumptions about the reliability of components that in many cases have not been operated for a complete life cycle. Due to the logistical and practical difficulty of replacing major components in a wind turbine, unanticipated failures (especially serial failures) can have a large impact on the economics of a project. The uncertainty associated with long-term component reliability has direct bearing on the confidence level associated with COE projections. In addition, wind turbine technology is evolving. New materials and designs are being incorporated in contemporary wind turbines with the ultimate goal of reducing weight, controlling loads, and improving energy capture. While the goal of these innovations is reduction in the COE, there is a potential impact on reliability whenever new technologies are introduced. While some of these innovations may ultimately improve reliability, in the short term, the technology risks and the perception of risk will increase. The COE metric used by researchers to evaluate technologies does not address this issue. This paper outlines the issues relevant to wind turbine reliability for wind turbine power generation projects. The first sections describe the current state of the industry, identify the cost elements associated with wind farm O&M and availability and discuss the causes of uncertainty in estimating wind turbine component reliability. The latter sections discuss the means for reducing O&M costs and propose O&M related research and development efforts that could be pursued by the wind energy research community to reduce COE.

Not Available

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Wind turbine reliability :understanding and minimizing wind turbine operation and maintenance costs.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Wind turbine system reliability is a critical factor in the success of a wind energy project. Poor reliability directly affects both the project's revenue stream through increased operation and maintenance (O&M) costs and reduced availability to generate power due to turbine downtime. Indirectly, the acceptance of wind-generated power by the financial and developer communities as a viable enterprise is influenced by the risk associated with the capital equipment reliability; increased risk, or at least the perception of increased risk, is generally accompanied by increased financing fees or interest rates. This paper outlines the issues relevant to wind turbine reliability for wind turbine power generation projects. The first sections describe the current state of the industry, identify the cost elements associated with wind farm O&M and availability and discuss the causes of uncertainty in estimating wind turbine component reliability. The latter sections discuss the means for reducing O&M costs and propose O&M related research and development efforts that could be pursued by the wind energy research community to reduce cost of energy.

Walford, Christopher A. (Global Energy Concepts. Kirkland, WA)

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

A survey of HVDC operating and maintenance practices and their impact on reliability and performance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A questionnaire about operating, maintenance, and spare parts practices and station performance was sent to all HVDC converter stations worldwide. This survey is sponsored by IEEE Working Groups 15.05.08, Economics and Operating Strategies, and I7, Reliability of HVDC Converter Stations. Responses from 38 stations are analyzed, and information bout the most popular practices is reported. One important conclusion is that energy contracts, ac system constraints, and dedicated generation frequency have strong influences on the operation and maintenance practices of HVDC stations. A search is made for correlations between the operating, maintenance, and spare parts practices, including spending, and the stations` performance and availability. No conclusions about the most cost-effective practices can be made. The results are compared with those of a study published in 1992 which covered a few of the same topics.

Cochrane, J.J.; Emerson, M.P. [New England Power Co., Ayer, MA (United States)] [New England Power Co., Ayer, MA (United States); Donahue, J.A. [New England Power Service Co., Westborough, MA (United States)] [New England Power Service Co., Westborough, MA (United States); Wolf, G. [Public Service of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [Public Service of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

FPGA Interconnect Delay Fault Testing Erik Chmelar  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A satisfactory FPGA testing method meets several crite- ria. First, the routing resources must be explicitlyFPGA Interconnect Delay Fault Testing Erik Chmelar Center for Reliable Computing Stanford is a scalable manufactur- ing test method for all SRAM-based FPGAs, able to detect multiple interconnect delay

Stanford University

70

Renovation and remaining life management techniques for the reliable operation of steam turbine valve casings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Much attention has been focused on the renovation and remaining life management of steam turbine casings. Properly engineered casing repairs, design upgrades, and strategies such as thermal stress monitoring/control, have been successfully employed to keep older steam turbine casings operating reliably until projected plant decommissioning dates. These proven solutions have resulted in a much lower cost alternative to turbine casing replacement. Valve casings are also subject to the rigors of high pressure/temperature operating environments and have a significant replacement cost as well. The same techniques employed to renovate turbine casings can also be successfully applied to valve casings to ensure their reliable operation for the projected plant life. Of particular interest are design upgrades which can be introduced during the renovation. Advances in computer modeling and techniques such as Finite Element analysis have provided engineers with tools not available during the original casing design. This provides an opportunity to not only restore the casings to their original design, but to re-engineer the casings to exceed original design parameters. This paper will cover the engineering analysis of valve casing defects, restoration techniques, and design upgrades. Thermal stress monitoring will be introduced as a technique to manage remaining life. Typical failure modes in various valve casing designs as well as design improvements will be stressed. It will also use case studies to demonstrate the economic and technical advantages of valve and turbine casing renovation.

Rasmussen, D.M.; Otterlee, T.J. [Turbine Consultants, Inc., Milwaukee, WI (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

71

Determination of Interfacial Adhesion Strength between Oxide Scale and Substrate for Metallic SOFC Interconnects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The interfacial adhesion strength between the oxide scale and the substrate is crucial to the reliability and durability of metallic interconnects in SOFC operating environments. It is necessary, therefore, to establish a methodology to quantify the interfacial adhesion strength between the oxide scale and the metallic interconnect substrate, and furthermore to design and optimize the interconnect material as well as the coating materials to meet the design life of an SOFC system. In this paper, we present an integrated experimental/analytical methodology for quantifying the interfacial adhesion strength between oxide scale and a ferritic stainless steel interconnect. Stair-stepping indentation tests are used in conjunction with subsequent finite element analyses to predict the interfacial strength between the oxide scale and Crofer 22 APU substrate.

Sun, Xin; Liu, Wenning N.; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2008-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

72

Advanced Interconnect Development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objectives of this project are to develop cost-effective, optimized materials for intermediate temperature SOFC interconnect and interconnect/electrode interface applications and identify and understand degradation processes in interconnects and at their interfaces with electrodes.

Yang, Z.G.; Maupin, G.; Simner, S.; Singh, P.; Stevenson, J.; Xia, G.

2005-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

73

Turbine Reliability and Operability Optimization through the use of Direct Detection Lidar Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this Department of Energy (DOE) project is to increase wind turbine efficiency and reliability with the use of a Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) system. The LIDAR provides wind speed and direction data that can be used to help mitigate the fatigue stress on the turbine blades and internal components caused by wind gusts, sub-optimal pointing and reactionary speed or RPM changes. This effort will have a significant impact on the operation and maintenance costs of turbines across the industry. During the course of the project, Michigan Aerospace Corporation (MAC) modified and tested a prototype direct detection wind LIDAR instrument; the resulting LIDAR design considered all aspects of wind turbine LIDAR operation from mounting, assembly, and environmental operating conditions to laser safety. Additionally, in co-operation with our partners, the National Renewable Energy Lab and the Colorado School of Mines, progress was made in LIDAR performance modeling as well as LIDAR feed forward control system modeling and simulation. The results of this investigation showed that using LIDAR measurements to change between baseline and extreme event controllers in a switching architecture can reduce damage equivalent loads on blades and tower, and produce higher mean power output due to fewer overspeed events. This DOE project has led to continued venture capital investment and engagement with leading turbine OEMs, wind farm developers, and wind farm owner/operators.

Johnson, David K; Lewis, Matthew J; Pavlich, Jane C; Wright, Alan D; Johnson, Kathryn E; Pace, Andrew M

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Updating Technical Screens for PV Interconnection: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solar photovoltaics (PV) is the dominant type of distributed generation (DG) technology interconnected to electric distribution systems in the United States, and deployment of PV systems continues to increase rapidly. Considering the rapid growth and widespread deployment of PV systems in United States electric distribution grids, it is important that interconnection procedures be as streamlined as possible to avoid unnecessary interconnection studies, costs, and delays. Because many PV interconnection applications involve high penetration scenarios, the process needs to allow for a sufficiently rigorous technical evaluation to identify and address possible system impacts. Existing interconnection procedures are designed to balance the need for efficiency and technical rigor for all DG. However, there is an implicit expectation that those procedures will be updated over time in order to remain relevant with respect to evolving standards, technology, and practical experience. Modifications to interconnection screens and procedures must focus on maintaining or improving safety and reliability, as well as accurately allocating costs and improving expediency of the interconnection process. This paper evaluates the origins and usefulness of the capacity penetration screen, offers potential short-term solutions which could effectively allow fast-track interconnection to many PV system applications, and considers longer-term solutions for increasing PV deployment levels in a safe and reliable manner while reducing or eliminating the emphasis on the penetration screen.

Coddington, M.; Ellis, A.; Lynn, K.; Razon, A.; Key, T.; Kroposki, B.; Mather, B.; Hill, R.; Nicole, K.; Smith, J.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Interconnection networks  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A network of interconnected processors is formed from a vertex symmetric graph selected from graphs GAMMA/sub d/(k) with degree d, diameter k, and (d + 1)exclamation/ (d /minus/ k + 1)exclamation processors for each d greater than or equal to k and GAMMA/sub d/(k, /minus/1) with degree d /minus/ 1, diameter k + 1, and (d + 1)exclamation/(d /minus/ k + 1)exclamation processors for each d greater than or equal to k greater than or equal to 4. Each processor has an address formed by one of the permutations from a predetermined sequence of letters chosen a selected number of letters at a time, and an extended address formed by appending to the address the remaining ones of the predetermined sequence of letters. A plurality of transmission channels is provided from each of the processors, where each processor has one less channel than the selected number of letters forming the sequence. Where a network GAMMA/sub d/(k, /minus/1) is provided, no processor has a channel connected to form an edge in a direction delta/sub 1/. Each of the channels has an identification number selected from the sequence of letters and connected from a first processor having a first extended address to a second processor having a second address formed from a second extended address defined by moving to the front of the first extended address the letter found in the position within the first extended address defined by the channel identification number. The second address is then formed by selecting the first elements of the second extended address corresponding to the selected number used to form the address permutations. 9 figs.

Faber, V.; Moore, J.W.

1988-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

76

Interconnection Standards  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

New Hampshire requires all utilities selling electricity in the state to offer net metering to customers who own or operate systems up to one megawatt (1 MW) in capacity that generate electricity...

77

Field Operations Program Chevrolet S-10 (Lead-Acid) Accelerated Reliability Testing - Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the Accelerated Reliability testing of five lead-acid battery-equipped Chevrolet S-10 electric vehicles by the US Department of Energy's Field Operations Program and the Program's testing partners, Electric Transportation Applications (ETA) and Southern California Edison (SCE). ETA and SCE operated the S-10s with the goal of placing 25,000 miles on each vehicle within 1 year, providing an accelerated life-cycle analysis. The testing was performed according to established and published test procedures. The S-10s' average ranges were highest during summer months; changes in ambient temperature from night to day and from season-to-season impacted range by as much as 10 miles. Drivers also noted that excessive use of power during acceleration also had a dramatic effect on vehicle range. The spirited performance of the S-10s created a great temptation to inexperienced electric vehicle drivers to ''have a good time'' and to fully utilize the S-10's acceleration capability. The price of injudicious use of power is greatly reduced range and a long-term reduction in battery life. The range using full-power accelerations followed by rapid deceleration in city driving has been 20 miles or less.

J. Francfort (INEEL); J. Argueta; M. Wehrey (Southern California Edison); D. Karner; L. Tyree (Electric Transportation Applications)

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States. A total of 54GW of offshore wind was assumed to be the target for the analyses conducted. A variety of issues are considered including: the anticipated staging of offshore wind; the offshore wind resource availability; offshore wind energy power production profiles; offshore wind variability; present and potential technologies for collection and delivery of offshore wind energy to the onshore grid; potential impacts to existing utility systems most likely to receive large amounts of offshore wind; and regulatory influences on offshore wind development. The technologies considered the reliability of various high-voltage ac (HVAC) and high-voltage dc (HVDC) technology options and configurations. The utility system impacts of GW-scale integration of offshore wind are considered from an operational steady-state perspective and from a regional and national production cost perspective.

Daniel, John P. [ABB Inc; Liu, Shu [ABB Inc; Ibanez, Eduardo [National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Pennock, Ken [AWS Truepower; Reed, Greg [University of Pittsburgh; Hanes, Spencer [Duke Energy

2014-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

79

Selection and Evaluation of Heat-Resistant Alloys for Planar SOFC Interconnect Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Over the past several years, the steady reduction in SOFC operating temperatures to the intermediate range of 700~850oC [1] has made it feasible for lanthanum chromite to be supplanted by metals or alloys as the interconnect materials. Compared to doped lanthanum chromite, metals or alloys offer significantly lower raw material and fabrication costs. However, to be a durable and reliable, a metal or alloy has to satisfy several functional requirements specific to the interconnect under SOFC operating conditions. Specifically, the interconnect metal or alloy should possess the following properties: (i) Good surface stability (resistance to oxidation, hot corrosion, and carburization) in both cathodic (air) and anodic (fuel) atmospheres; (ii) Thermal expansion matching to the ceramic PEN (positive cathode-electrolyte-negative anode) and seal materials (as least for a rigid seal design); (iii) High electrical conductivity through both the bulk material and in-situ formed oxide scales; (iv) Bulk and interfacial thermal mechanical reliability and durability at the operating temperature; (v) Compatibility with other materials in contact with interconnects such as seals and electrical contact materials.

Yang, Z Gary; Weil, K. Scott; Paxton, Dean M.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

2002-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

80

North American Electric Reliability Corporation Interconnections |  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in3.pdfEnergyDepartment of Energy Advanced Framing -Nissan: ISO 50001Department of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection reliability operating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Dynamic Simulation Studies of the Frequency Response of the Three U.S. Interconnections with Increased Wind Generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Utility Systems Efficiencies, Inc. was tasked by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to conduct dynamic simulation studies of the three U.S. interconnections (Eastern, Western, and Texas). The simulations were prepared in support of LBNL's project for the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to study frequency-response-related issues that must be addressed to operate the power system reliably with large amounts of variable renewable generation. The objective of the simulation studies of each interconnection was to assess the effects of different amounts of wind generation on frequency behavior of each interconnection following a sudden loss of generation. The scenarios created to study these effects considered an operating circumstance in which system load is at or close to its minimum. The event studied was the sudden loss of the largest amount of generation recorded within each interconnection. The simulations calculated the impact of this event on interconnection frequency for three levels of wind generation. In addition to varying the amount of wind generation, the simulations varied the amount of operating reserves between a high level representative of current operating practices and a low level representative of the minimum required by present operating rules.

Mackin, Peter; Daschmans, R.; Williams, B.; Haney, B.; Hung, R.; Ellis, J.

2010-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

82

Integration of renewable energy sources: reliability-constrained power system planning and operations using computational intelligence  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of cost, power dispatchability, and environmental impact. For instance, the intermittency of some renewable energy sources may compromise the system reliability when they are integrated into the traditional power grids. Thus, multiple issues should...

Wang, Lingfeng

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

83

Updating Small Generator Interconnection Procedures for New Market Conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Federal and state regulators are faced with the challenge of keeping interconnection procedures updated against a backdrop of evolving technology, new codes and standards, and considerably transformed market conditions. This report is intended to educate policymakers and stakeholders on beneficial reforms that will keep interconnection processes efficient and cost-effective while maintaining a safe and reliable power system.

Coddington, M.; Fox, K.; Stanfield, S.; Varnado, L.; Culley, T.; Sheehan, M.

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

PJM Interconnection (Multiple States)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

PJM (originally Pennsylvania, Jersey, Maryland) Interconnection is a Regional Transmission Organization (RTO) that coordinates the movement of wholesale electricity in all or parts of Delaware,...

85

Interconnect Issues in NE  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation covers interconnect issues in the Northeast and is given at the Spring 2010 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting in Providence, Rhode Island.

86

Perforation patterned electrical interconnects  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This disclosure describes systems and methods for increasing the usable surface area of electrical contacts within a device, such as a thin film solid state device, through the implementation of electrically conductive interconnects. Embodiments described herein include the use of a plurality of electrically conductive interconnects that penetrate through a top contact layer, through one or more multiple layers, and into a bottom contact layer. The plurality of conductive interconnects may form horizontal and vertical cross-sectional patterns. The use of lasers to form the plurality of electrically conductive interconnects from reflowed layer material further aids in the manufacturing process of a device.

Frey, Jonathan

2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

87

The Role of Demand Resources In Regional Transmission Expansion Planning and Reliable Operations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Investigating the role of demand resources in regional transmission planning has provided mixed results. On one hand there are only a few projects where demand response has been used as an explicit alternative to transmission enhancement. On the other hand there is a fair amount of demand response in the form of energy efficiency, peak reduction, emergency load shedding, and (recently) demand providing ancillary services. All of this demand response reduces the need for transmission enhancements. Demand response capability is typically (but not always) factored into transmission planning as a reduction in the load which must be served. In that sense demand response is utilized as an alternative to transmission expansion. Much more demand response is used (involuntarily) as load shedding under extreme conditions to prevent cascading blackouts. The amount of additional transmission and generation that would be required to provide the current level of reliability if load shedding were not available is difficult to imagine and would be impractical to build. In a very real sense demand response solutions are equitably treated in every region - when proposed, demand response projects are evaluated against existing reliability and economic criteria. The regional councils, RTOs, and ISOs identify needs. Others propose transmission, generation, or responsive load based solutions. Few demand response projects get included in transmission enhancement plans because few are proposed. But this is only part of the story. Several factors are responsible for the current very low use of demand response as a transmission enhancement alternative. First, while the generation, transmission, and load business sectors each deal with essentially the same amount of electric power, generation and transmission companies are explicitly in the electric power business but electricity is not the primary business focus of most loads. This changes the institutional focus of each sector. Second, market and reliability rules have, understandably, been written around the capabilities and limitations of generators, the historic reliability resources. Responsive load limitations and capabilities are often not accommodated in markets or reliability criteria. Third, because of the institutional structure, demand response alternatives are treated as temporary solutions that can delay but not replace transmission enhancement. Financing has to be based on a three to five year project life as opposed to the twenty to fifty year life of transmission facilities. More can be done to integrate demand response options into transmission expansion planning. Given the societal benefits it may be appropriate for independent transmission planning organizations to take a more proactive role in drawing demand response alternatives into the resource mix. Existing demand response programs provide a technical basis to build from. Regulatory and market obstacles will have to be overcome if demand response alternatives are to be routinely considered in transmission expansion planning.

Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Renewable Resource Integration Project - Scoping Study of Strategic Transmission, Operations, and Reliability Issues  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

operating†attributes:† Load†following. † Spinning†and†non?dispatchable,†then†load†following,†regulation,†ramping†regulation,†ramping,†load†following,†voltage†support†and†

Budhraja, Vikram

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Solar cell array interconnects  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Electrical interconnects are disclosed for solar cells or other electronic components using a silver-silicone paste or a lead-tin (Pb-Sn) no-clean fluxless solder cream, whereby the high breakage of thin (<6 mil thick) solar cells using conventional solder interconnect is eliminated. The interconnects of this invention employs copper strips which are secured to the solar cells by a silver-silicone conductive paste which can be used at room temperature, or by a Pb-Sn solder cream which eliminates undesired residue on the active surfaces of the solar cells. Electrical testing using the interconnects of this invention has shown that no degradation of the interconnects developed under high current testing, while providing a very low contact resistance value. 4 figs.

Carey, P.G.; Thompson, J.B.; Colella, N.J.; Williams, K.A.

1995-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

90

Solar cell array interconnects  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Electrical interconnects for solar cells or other electronic components using a silver-silicone paste or a lead-tin (Pb-Sn) no-clean fluxless solder cream, whereby the high breakage of thin (<6 mil thick) solar cells using conventional solder interconnect is eliminated. The interconnects of this invention employs copper strips which are secured to the solar cells by a silver-silicone conductive paste which can be used at room temperature, or by a Pb-Sn solder cream which eliminates undesired residue on the active surfaces of the solar cells. Electrical testing using the interconnects of this invention has shown that no degradation of the interconnects developed under high current testing, while providing a very low contact resistance value.

Carey, Paul G. (Mountain View, CA); Thompson, Jesse B. (Brentwood, CA); Colella, Nicolas J. (Livermore, CA); Williams, Kenneth A. (Livermore, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Micro-fluidic interconnect  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus for simultaneously aligning and interconnecting microfluidic ports is presented. Such interconnections are required to utilize microfluidic devices fabricated in Micro-Electromechanical-Systems (MEMS) technologies, that have multiple fluidic access ports (e.g. 100 micron diameter) within a small footprint, (e.g. 3 mm.times.6 mm). Fanout of the small ports of a microfluidic device to a larger diameter (e.g. 500 microns) facilitates packaging and interconnection of the microfluidic device to printed wiring boards, electronics packages, fluidic manifolds etc.

Okandan, Murat (Albuquerque, NM); Galambos, Paul C. (Albuquerque, NM); Benavides, Gilbert L. (Los Ranchos, NM); Hetherington, Dale L. (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

92

Reliability Results of NERSC Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reliability Results of NERSC Systems Akbar Mokhtarani,analysis of systems reliability and component failure rates,reported to operation. Reliability Data HPSS and the IBM SP

Mokhtarani, Akbar; Petascale Data Storage Institute (PDSI)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Passive microfluidic interconnects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Equipment and procedures were developed to test two passive microfluidic interconnect rings held together by the friction forces on the contact surfaces. The second design forms fluid seals by means of thin flared rings ...

Jonnalagadda, Aparna S

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Interconnection Guidelines (Rhode Island)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Rhode Island enacted legislation (HB 6222) in June 2011 to standardize the application process for the interconnection of customer-sited renewable-energy systems to the stateís distribution grid....

95

Puerto Rico- Interconnection Standards  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In 2007, the Autoridad de EnergŪa Electrica de Puerto Rico (PREPA*) adopted interconnection standards based on the standard contained in the federal Energy Policy Act of 2005. PREPA promulgated...

96

Hanford high level waste (HLW) tank mixer pump safe operating envelope reliability assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy and its contractor, Westinghouse Corp., are responsible for the management and safe storage of waste accumulated from processing defense reactor irradiated fuels for plutonium recovery at the Hanford Site. These wastes, which consist of liquids and precipitated solids, are stored in underground storage tanks pending final disposition. Currently, 23 waste tanks have been placed on a safety watch list because of their potential for generating, storing, and periodically releasing various quantities of hydrogen and other gases. Tank 101-SY in the Hanford SY Tank Farm has been found to release hydrogen concentrations greater than the lower flammable limit (LFL) during periodic gas release events. In the unlikely event that an ignition source is present during a hydrogen release, a hydrogen burn could occur with a potential to release nuclear waste materials. To mitigate the periodic gas releases occurring from Tank 101-SY, a large mixer pump currently is being installed in the tank to promote a sustained release of hydrogen gas to the tank dome space. An extensive safety analysis (SA) effort was undertaken and documented to ensure the safe operation of the mixer pump after it is installed in Tank 101-SY.1 The SA identified a need for detailed operating, alarm, and abort limits to ensure that analyzed safety limits were not exceeded during pump operations.

Fischer, S.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Clark, J. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Summary of the Optics, IR, Injection, Operations, Reliability and Instrumentation Working Group  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The facilities reported on are all in a fairly mature state of operation, as evidenced by the very detailed studies and correction schemes that all groups are working on. First- and higher-order aberrations are diagnosed and planned to be corrected. Very detailed beam measurements are done to get a global picture of the beam dynamics. More than other facilities the high-luminosity colliders are struggling with experimental background issues, mitigation of which is a permanent challenge. The working group dealt with a very wide rage of practical issues which limit performance of the machines and compared their techniques of operations and their performance. We anticipate this to be a first attempt. In a future workshop in this series, we propose to attempt more fundamental comparisons of each machine, including design parameters. For example, DAPHNE and KEKB employ a finite crossing angle. The minimum value of {beta}*{sub y} attainable at KEKB seems to relate to this scheme. Effectiveness of compensation solenoids and turn-by-turn BPMs etc. should be examined in more detail. In the near future, CESR-C and VEPP-2000 will start their operation. We expect to hear important new experiences from these machines; in particular VEPP-2000 will be the first machine to have adopted round beams. At SLAC and KEK, next generation B Factories are being considered. It will be worthwhile to discuss the design issues of these machines based on the experiences of the existing factory machines.

Wienands, U.; /SLAC; Funakoshi, Y.; /KEK, Tsukuba

2012-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

98

Thermal Stress and Reliability for Advanced Power Electronics...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

D.C. ape017okeefe2010o.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermal Performance and Reliability of Bonded Interfaces Physics of Failure of Electrical Interconnects Thermal Stress...

99

Energy and water in the Western and Texas interconnects.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Department of Energy's Office of Electricity has initiated a $60M program to assist the electric industry in interconnection-level analysis and planning. The objective of this effort is to facilitate the development or strengthening of capabilities in each of the three interconnections serving the lower 48 states of the United States, to prepare analyses of transmission requirements under a broad range of alternative futures and develop long-term interconnection-wide transmission expansion plans. The interconnections are the Western Interconnection, the Eastern Interconnection, and the Texas Interconnection. One element of this program address the support and development of an integrated energy-water Decision Support System (DSS) that will enable planners in the Western and Texas Interconnections to analyze the potential implications of water stress for transmission and resource planning (the Eastern Interconnection is not participating in this element). Specific objectives include: (1) Develop an integrated Energy-Water Decision Support System (DSS) that will enable planners in the Western and Texas Interconnections to analyze the potential implications of water stress for transmission and resource planning. (2) Pursue the formulation and development of the Energy-Water DSS through a strongly collaborative process between members of this proposal team and the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC), Western Governors Association (WGA), the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) and their associated stakeholder teams. (3) Exercise the Energy-Water DSS to investigate water stress implications of the transmission planning scenarios put forward by WECC, WGA, and ERCOT. The goals of this project are: (1) Develop an integrated Energy-Water Decision Support System (DSS) that will enable planners to analyze the potential implications of water stress for transmission and resource planning. (2) Pursue the formulation and development of the Energy-Water DSS through a strongly collaborative process between Western Electricity Coordinating Council, Electric Reliability Council of Texas, Western Governors Association, and Western States Water Council. (3) Exercise the Energy-Water DSS to investigate water transmission planning scenarios.

Tidwell, Vincent Carroll

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Learn More About Interconnections | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

About Interconnections Learn More About Interconnections EASTERN INTERCONNECTION North America is comprised of two major and three minor alternating current (AC) power grids or...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection reliability operating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Capillary interconnect device  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An interconnecting device for connecting a plurality of first fluid-bearing conduits to a corresponding plurality of second fluid-bearing conduits thereby providing fluid communication between the first fluid-bearing conduits and the second fluid-bearing conduits. The device includes a manifold and one or two ferrule plates that are held by compressive axial forces.

Renzi, Ronald F

2013-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

102

QCD Interconnection Effects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heavy objects like the W, Z and t are short-lived compared with typical hadronization times. When pairs of such particles are produced, the subsequent hadronic decay systems may therefore become interconnected. We study such potential effects at Linear Collider energies.

TorbjŲrn SjŲstrand

1999-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

103

QCD Interconnection Effects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heavy objects like the W, Z and t are short-lived compared with typical hadronization times. When pairs of such particles are produced, the subsequent hadronic decay systems may therefore become interconnected. We study such potential effects at Linear Collider energies.

TorbjŲrn SjŲstrand; Valery A. Khoze

1999-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

104

VLSI interconnect Avinoam Kolodny  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1000 10000 100000 Length [um] Power Local total Global total TOTAL globallocal Power Distribution by Wirelength · Total Dynamic Power · Global clock ­ not included · Local signals nets = 66% · Global signals global signals Total dynamic power (Gate, Diffusion and Interconnect) local clock global signals global

Kolodny, Avinoam

105

THE ANALYSYS OF INFORMATION IMPACTS IN COORDINATING DEFENCE AGAINST MALICIOUS ATTACKS FOR INTERCONNECTED  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FOR INTERCONNECTED POWER SYSTEMS Ettore Bompard George Gross Roberto Napoli Fei Xue Politecnico di Torino University) in an interconnected power system to counteract such attacks has become an important problem. This paper presents to the interconnected system operators on the outcomes of the decision making process under attack. A 34-buses test

Gross, George

106

Use of Frequency Response Metrics to Assess the Planning and Operating Requirements for Reliable Integration of Variable Renewable Generation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2007. Integration of Renewable Resources. Transmissionfor integrating renewable resources on the California ISO-assess the level of renewable resources that can be reliably

Eto, Joseph H.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Updating Interconnection Screens for PV System Integration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This white paper evaluates the origins and usefulness of the capacity penetration screen, offer short-term solutions which could effectively allow fast-track interconnection to many PV system applications, and considers longer-term solutions for increasing PV deployment levels in a safe and reliable manner while reducing or eliminating the emphasis on the penetration screen. Short-term and longer-term alternatives approaches are offered as examples; however, specific modifications to screening procedures should be discussed with stakeholders and must ultimately be adopted by state and federal regulatory bodies.

Coddington, M.; Mather, B.; Kroposki, B.; Lynn, K.; Razon, A.; Ellis, A.; Hill, R.; Key, T.; Nicole, K.; Smith, J.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Low-power approaches for parallel, free-space photonic interconnects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Future advances in the application of photonic interconnects will involve the insertion of parallel-channel links into Multi-Chip Modules (MCMS) and board-level parallel connections. Such applications will drive photonic link components into more compact forms that consume far less power than traditional telecommunication data links. These will make use of new device-level technologies such as vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers and special low-power parallel photoreceiver circuits. Depending on the application, these device technologies will often be monolithically integrated to reduce the amount of board or module real estate required by the photonics. Highly parallel MCM and board-level applications will also require simplified drive circuitry, lower cost, and higher reliability than has been demonstrated in photonic and optoelectronic technologies. An example is found in two-dimensional point-to-point array interconnects for MCM stacking. These interconnects are based on high-efficiency Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VCSELs), Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor (HBT) photoreceivers, integrated micro-optics, and MCM-compatible packaging techniques. Individual channels have been demonstrated at 100 Mb/s, operating with a direct 3.3V CMOS electronic interface while using 45 mW of electrical power. These results demonstrate how optoelectronic device technologies can be optimized for low-power parallel link applications.

Carson, R.F.; Lovejoy, M.L.; Lear, K.L.; WSarren, M.E.; Seigal, P.K.; Craft, D.C.; Kilcoyne, S.P.; Patrizi, G.A.; Blum, O.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

109

Reactive power interconnection requirements for PV and wind plants : recommendations to NERC.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Voltage on the North American bulk system is normally regulated by synchronous generators, which typically are provided with voltage schedules by transmission system operators. In the past, variable generation plants were considered very small relative to conventional generating units, and were characteristically either induction generator (wind) or line-commutated inverters (photovoltaic) that have no inherent voltage regulation capability. However, the growing level of penetration of non-traditional renewable generation - especially wind and solar - has led to the need for renewable generation to contribute more significantly to power system voltage control and reactive power capacity. Modern wind-turbine generators, and increasingly PV inverters as well, have considerable dynamic reactive power capability, which can be further enhanced with other reactive support equipment at the plant level to meet interconnection requirements. This report contains a set of recommendations to the North-America Electricity Reliability Corporation (NERC) as part of Task 1-3 (interconnection requirements) of the Integration of Variable Generation Task Force (IVGTF) work plan. The report discusses reactive capability of different generator technologies, reviews existing reactive power standards, and provides specific recommendations to improve existing interconnection standards.

McDowell, Jason (General Electric, Schenectady, NY); Walling, Reigh (General Electric, Schenectady, NY); Peter, William (SunPower, Richmond, CA); Von Engeln, Edi (NV Energy, Reno, NV); Seymour, Eric (AEI, Fort Collins, CO); Nelson, Robert (Siemens Wind Turbines, Orlando, FL); Casey, Leo (Satcon, Boston, MA); Ellis, Abraham; Barker, Chris. (SunPower, Richmond, CA)

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

GSA-Utility Interconnection Agreements  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentationógiven at at the Fall 2012 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meetingócovers the General Service Administration's (GSA's) utility interconnection agreements.

111

Interconnection Agreements for Onsite Generation  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation covers Interconnection Agreements for Onsite Generation and is given at the Spring 2011 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting.

112

Interconnection Standards for Small Generators  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) adopted "small generator" interconnection standards for distributed energy resources up to 20 megawatts (MW) in capacity in May 2005.* The FERC's...

113

Process for electrically interconnecting electrodes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Electrical interconnects for solar cells or other electronic components using a silver-silicone paste or a lead-tin (Pb--Sn) no-clean fluxless solder cream, whereby the high breakage of thin (<6 mil thick) solar cells using conventional solder interconnect is eliminated. The interconnects of this invention employs copper strips which are secured to the solar cells by a silver-silicone conductive paste which can be used at room temperature, or by a Pb--Sn solder cream which eliminates undesired residue on the active surfaces of the solar cells. Electrical testing using the interconnects of this invention has shown that no degradation of the interconnects developed under high current testing, while providing a very low contact resistance value.

Carey, Paul G. (Mountain View, CA); Thompson, Jesse B. (Brentwood, CA); Colella, Nicolas J. (Livermore, CA); Williams, Kenneth A. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Pipeline Operations Program (Louisiana)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Pipeline Operations Program regulates the construction, acquisition, abandonment and interconnection of natural gas pipelines, as well as, the transportation and use of natural gas supplies.

115

Optically Interconnected MulticomputersUsing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optically Interconnected MulticomputersUsing Inverted-GraphTopologies Tosuccessfullyexploitthebenefitsofopticaltechnologyinatightlycoupledmulticomputer, the architecturaldesignmust reflectboth the advantages and limitationsof optics. This article systems. Although optics have con- tributed dramatically to long-distance communi- cation and more

Krchnavek, Robert R.

116

Renewable Systems Interconnection: Executive Summary  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy launched the Renewable Systems Interconnection (RSI) study in 2007 to address the challenges to high penetrations of distributed renewable energy technologies. The RSI study consists of 14 additional reports.

Kroposki, B.; Margolis, R.; Kuswa, G.; Torres, J.; Bower, W.; Key, T.; Ton, D.

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Analysis of interconnect microstrip lines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the return loss of the slot-coupled microstrip dipole. Section C presents two simulations of the return loss on the slot- coupled rectangular patch antenna. A. Interconnect of Microstrip Lines Several circuits with the geometry of Figure 1 were fabricated.... Experimental and Theoretical Results of the Interconnect Two circuits were designed and fabricated. Each circuit consists of two substrates as shown in Figure 9. One substrate has an open microstrip line etched in one side and an aperture etched...

Luong, Giam-Minh

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Assessment of Industrial Load for Demand Response across Western Interconnect  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Demand response (DR) has the ability to both increase power grid reliability and potentially reduce operating system costs. Understanding the role of demand response in grid modeling has been difficult due to complex nature of the load characteristics compared to the modeled generation and the variation in load types. This is particularly true of industrial loads, where hundreds of different industries exist with varying availability for demand response. We present a framework considering industrial loads for the development of availability profiles that can provide more regional understanding and can be inserted into analysis software for further study. The developed framework utilizes a number of different informational resources, algorithms, and real-world measurements to perform a bottom-up approach in the development of a new database with representation of the potential demand response resource in the industrial sector across the U.S. This tool houses statistical values of energy and demand response (DR) potential by industrial plant and geospatially locates the information for aggregation for different territories without proprietary information. This report will discuss this framework and the analyzed quantities of demand response for Western Interconnect (WI) in support of evaluation of the cost production modeling with power grid modeling efforts of demand response.

Alkadi, Nasr E [ORNL; Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Ma, Ookie [United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Reliability of the generation supply in an interconnected power system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IV Chapter V Bibliography Appendix A Appendix B DATA. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION. 27 48 50 52 LIST OF TABLES Table I Comparison of the Nethod of the Thesis to Calabrese's Nethod. Table II Calculation of Probability of Loss of Load. 55 LIST... OF FIGURES Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Ideal Failure Rate vs Time Curve. Unit Forced Outage Duration Annual Load Cycle for Test Case Q-Curves Interval fl Winter Load Total Sample Method. 32 Figure 5 Q-Curves Interval //2 Early Spring Load...

Holditch, Damon Will

1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Reliability of Electrical Interconnects  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation given by National Renewable Energy Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection reliability operating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Operating experience feedback report: Reliability of safety-related steam turbine-driven standby pumps. Commercial power reactors, Volume 10  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents a detailed analysis of failure initiators, causes and design features for steam turbine assemblies (turbines with their related components, such as governors and valves) which are used as drivers for standby pumps in the auxiliary feedwater systems of US commercial pressurized water reactor plants, and in the high pressure coolant injection and reactor core isolation cooling systems of US commercial boiling water reactor plants. These standby pumps provide a redundant source of water to remove reactor core heat as specified in individual plant safety analysis reports. The period of review for this report was from January 1974 through December 1990 for licensee event reports (LERS) and January 1985 through December 1990 for Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System (NPRDS) failure data. This study confirmed the continuing validity of conclusions of earlier studies by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and by the US nuclear industry that the most significant factors in failures of turbine-driven standby pumps have been the failures of the turbine-drivers and their controls. Inadequate maintenance and the use of inappropriate vendor technical information were identified as significant factors which caused recurring failures.

Boardman, J.R.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

NREL's Gearbox Reliability Collaborative leads to wind turbine gearbox reliability, lowering the cost of energy.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NREL's Gearbox Reliability Collaborative leads to wind turbine gearbox reliability, lowering operations. In 2007, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) initi- ated the Gearbox Reliability that contribute to reduced gearbox reliability. In contrast to private investigations of these problems, GRC

123

Reliability Standards Owner  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This position is located in the Internal Operations and Asset Management group of Planning and Asset Management (TP). A successful candidate in this position will serve as the Reliability Standards...

124

Sandia National Laboratories: Permitting, Inspection, and Interconnect...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Tagged with: Energy * Inspecting * Interconnection * Permitting * photovoltaic * Photovoltaics * PV * Renewable Energy * solar * Solar Energy * Solar Market Transformation *...

125

New Report Characterizes Existing Offshore Wind Grid Interconnection...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

New Report Characterizes Existing Offshore Wind Grid Interconnection Capabilities New Report Characterizes Existing Offshore Wind Grid Interconnection Capabilities September 3,...

126

Flexible interconnects for fuel cell stacks  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An interconnect that facilitates electrical connection and mechanical support with minimal mechanical stress for fuel cell stacks. The interconnects are flexible and provide mechanically robust fuel cell stacks with higher stack performance at lower cost. The flexible interconnects replace the prior rigid rib interconnects with flexible "fingers" or contact pads which will accommodate the imperfect flatness of the ceramic fuel cells. Also, the mechanical stress of stacked fuel cells will be smaller due to the flexibility of the fingers. The interconnects can be one-sided or double-sided.

Lenz, David J.; Chung, Brandon W.; Pham, Ai Quoc

2004-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

127

Monolithically interconnected GaAs solar cells: A new interconnection technology for high voltage solar cell output  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Photovoltaic linear concentrator arrays can benefit from high performance solar cell technologies being developed at AstroPower. Specifically, these are the integration of thin GaAs solar cell and epitaxial lateral overgrowth technologies with the application of monolithically interconnected solar cell (MISC) techniques. This MISC array has several advantages which make it ideal for space concentrator systems. These are high system voltage, reliable low cost monolithically formed interconnections, design flexibility, costs that are independent of array voltage, and low power loss from shorts, opens, and impact damage. This concentrator solar cell will incorporate the benefits of light trapping by growing the device active layers over a low-cost, simple, PECVD deposited silicon/silicon dioxide Bragg reflector. The high voltage-low current output results in minimal 12R losses while properly designing the device allows for minimal shading and resistance losses. It is possible to obtain open circuit voltages as high as 67 volts/cm of solar cell length with existing technology. The projected power density for the high performance device is 5 kW/m for an AMO efficiency of 26% at 1 5X. Concentrator solar cell arrays are necessary to meet the power requirements of specific mission platforms and can supply high voltage power for electric propulsion systems. It is anticipated that the high efficiency, GaAs monolithically interconnected linear concentrator solar cell array will enjoy widespread application for space based solar power needs. Additional applications include remote man-portable or ultra-light unmanned air vehicle (UAV) power supplies where high power per area, high radiation hardness and a high bus voltage or low bus current are important. The monolithic approach has a number of inherent advantages, including reduced cost per interconnect and increased reliability of array connections. There is also a high potential for a large number of consumer products.

Dinetta, L.C.; Hannon, M.H.

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Data Center Efficiency and IT Equipment Reliability at Wider...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Center Efficiency and IT Equipment Reliability at Wider Operating Temperature and Humidity Ranges Data Center Efficiency and IT Equipment Reliability at Wider Operating Temperature...

129

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Dynamic-Tracking Directional Wireless Antennas for Low Powered Applications that Require Reliable Extended Range Operations in Time Critical Scenarios  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The proven value of DOD Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) will ultimately transition to National and Homeland Security missions that require real-time aerial surveillance, situation awareness, force protection, and sensor placement. Public services first responders who routinely risk personal safety to assess and report a situation for emergency actions will likely be the first to benefit from these new unmanned technologies. ĎPackableí or ĎPortableí small class UAVs will be particularly useful to the first responder. They require the least amount of training, no fixed infrastructure, and are capable of being launched and recovered from the point of emergency. All UAVs require wireless communication technologies for real- time applications. Typically on a small UAV, a low bandwidth telemetry link is required for command and control (C2), and systems health monitoring. If the UAV is equipped with a real-time Electro-Optical or Infrared (EO/Ir) video camera payload, a dedicated high bandwidth analog/digital link is usually required for reliable high-resolution imagery. In most cases, both the wireless telemetry and real-time video links will be integrated into the UAV with unity gain omni-directional antennas. With limited on-board power and payload capacity, a small UAV will be limited with the amount of radio-frequency (RF) energy it transmits to the users. Therefore, Ďpackableí and Ďportableí UAVs will have limited useful operational ranges for first responders. This paper will discuss the limitations of small UAV wireless communications. The discussion will present an approach of utilizing a dynamic ground based real-time tracking high gain directional antenna to provide extend range stand-off operation, potential RF channel reuse, and assured telemetry and data communications from low-powered UAV deployed wireless assets.

Scott G. Bauer; Matthew O. Anderson; James R. Hanneman

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Interconnect  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-SeriesFlickrinformation for and NovelFEG-SEM with0,

131

Double interconnection fuel cell array  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel cell array is made, containing number of tubular, elongated fuel cells which are placed next to each other in rows (A, B, C, D), where each cell contains inner electrodes and outer electrodes, with solid electrolyte between the electrodes, where the electrolyte and outer electrode are discontinuous, having two portions, and providing at least two opposed discontinuities which contain at least two oppositely opposed interconnections contacting the inner electrode, each cell having only three metallic felt electrical connectors which contact surrounding cells, where each row is electrically connected to the other. 5 figures.

Draper, R.; Zymboly, G.E.

1993-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

132

HVDC Control Strategies to Improve Transient Stability in Interconnected Power Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HVDC Control Strategies to Improve Transient Stability in Interconnected Power Systems J. Hazra Dpt of Li`ege, Belgium, dernst@ulg.ac.be Abstract--This paper presents three HVDC modulation strate- gies flow settings through the HVDC-links. The proposed techniques are tested on the IEEE 24-Bus reliability

Boyer, Edmond

133

Recent Development of SOFC Metallic Interconnect  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Interest in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) stems from their higher eĪciencies and lower levels of emitted pollu- tants, compared to traditional power production methods. Interconnects are a critical part in SOFC stacks, which connect cells in series electrically, and also separate air or oxygen at the cathode side from fuel at the anode side. Therefore, the requirements of interconnects are the most demanding, i:e:, to maintain high elec- trical conductivity, good stability in both reducing and oxidizing atmospheres, and close coeĪcient of thermal expansion (CTE) match and good compatibility with other SOFC ceramic components. The paper reviewed the interconnect materials, and coatings for metallic interconnect materials.

Wu JW, Liu XB

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

NREL: Technology Deployment - Distributed Generation Interconnection...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Distributed Generation Interconnection Collaborative Become a Member DGIC members are included in quarterly informational meetings and discussions related to distributed PV...

135

Updating Interconnection Screens for PV System Integration  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Abraham Ellis, Roger Hill Sandia National Laboratories Tom Key, Kristen Nicole, Jeff Smith Electric Power Research Institute Updating Interconnection Screens for PV System...

136

Solid oxide fuel cell with internal reforming, catalyzed interconnect for use therewith, and methods  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A catalyzed interconnect for an SOFC electrically connects an anode and an anodic current collector and comprises a metallic substrate, which provides space between the anode and anodic current collector for fuel gas flow over at least a portion of the anode, and a catalytic coating on the metallic substrate comprising a catalyst for catalyzing hydrocarbon fuel in the fuel gas to hydrogen rich reformate. An SOFC including the catalyzed anodic inter-connect, a method for operating an SOFC, and a method for making a catalyzed anodic interconnect are also disclosed.

Liu, Di-Jia; Guan, Jie; Minh, Nguyen

2010-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

137

Voltage Collapse SimulationVoltage Collapse Simulation (Eastern Interconnection(Eastern Interconnection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PSERC Voltage Collapse SimulationVoltage Collapse Simulation (Eastern Interconnection(Eastern Interconnection Scenario)Scenario) Simulation Prepared by Dennis J. RaySimulation Prepared by Dennis J. Ray Interconnection based on a series of generator and line outages. An actual voltage collapse may not occur due

138

Interconnecting PV on New York City's Secondary Network Distribution System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has teamed with cities across the country through the Solar America Cities (SAC) partnership program to help reduce barriers and accelerate implementation of solar energy. The New York City SAC team is a partnership between the City University of New York (CUNY), the New York City Mayor s Office of Long-term Planning and Sustainability, and the New York City Economic Development Corporation (NYCEDC).The New York City SAC team is working with DOE s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Con Edison, the local utility, to develop a roadmap for photovoltaic (PV) installations in the five boroughs. The city set a goal to increase its installed PV capacity from1.1 MW in 2005 to 8.1 MW by 2015 (the maximum allowed in 2005). A key barrier to reaching this goal, however, is the complexity of the interconnection process with the local utility. Unique challenges are associated with connecting distributed PV systems to secondary network distribution systems (simplified to √?¬?√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?networks√?¬?√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Ě in this report). Although most areas of the country use simpler radial distribution systems to distribute electricity, larger metropolitan areas like New York City typically use networks to increase reliability in large load centers. Unlike the radial distribution system, where each customer receives power through a single line, a network uses a grid of interconnected lines to deliver power to each customer through several parallel circuits and sources. This redundancy improves reliability, but it also requires more complicated coordination and protection schemes that can be disrupted by energy exported from distributed PV systems. Currently, Con Edison studies each potential PV system in New York City to evaluate the system s impact on the network, but this is time consuming for utility engineers and may delay the customer s project or add cost for larger installations. City leaders would like to streamline this process to facilitate faster, simpler, and less expensive distributed PV system interconnections. To assess ways to improve the interconnection process, NREL conducted a four-part study with support from DOE. The NREL team then compiled the final reports from each study into this report. In Section 1√?¬?√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?PV Deployment Analysis for New York City√?¬?√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?we analyze the technical potential for rooftop PV systems in the city. This analysis evaluates potential PV power production in ten Con Edison networks of various locations and building densities (ranging from high density apartments to lower density single family homes). Next, we compare the potential power production to network loads to determine where and when PV generation is most likely to exceed network load and disrupt network protection schemes. The results of this analysis may assist Con Edison in evaluating future PV interconnection applications and in planning future network protection system upgrades. This analysis may also assist other utilities interconnecting PV systems to networks by defining a method for assessing the technical potential of PV in the network and its impact on network loads. Section 2√?¬?√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?A Briefing for Policy Makers on Connecting PV to a Network Grid√?¬?√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?presents an overview intended for nontechnical stakeholders. This section describes the issues associated with interconnecting PV systems to networks, along with possible solutions. Section 3√?¬?√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?Technical Review of Concerns and Solutions to PV Interconnection in New Y

K. Anderson; M. Coddington; K. Burman; S. Hayter; B. Kroposki; and A. Watson

2009-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

139

Electricity Reliability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability High Temperature Superconductivity (HTS) Visualization in the future because they have virtually no resistance to electric current, offering the possibility of new electric power equipment with more energy efficiency and higher capacity than today's systems

140

Pricing in Information-Centric Network Interconnection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

--ICN interconnection, economic incentives, col- laborative caching, non-cooperative games, network pricing. I economic incentives for caching and sharing content in ICN interconnection. For example, an ISP provider Engineering Department, ETH Zurich, Switzerland Abstract--We propose a pricing model to study the economic

Paris-Sud XI, Universitť de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection reliability operating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

EPRI PEAC Corp.: Certification Model Program and Interconnection Agreement Tools  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Summarizes the work of EPRI PEAC Corp., under contract to DOE's Distribution and Interconnection R&D, to develop a certification model program and interconnection agreement tools to support the interconnection of distributed energy resources.

Not Available

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Operating experience feedback report-reliability of safety-related steam turbine-driven standby pumps used in US commerical nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pump failure experience is collected by two primary means: (1) Licensee Event Reports, and (2) Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System failure reports. Certain safety-related turbine-driven standby pumps were identified by these data systems as experiencing significant ongoing repetitive failures of their turbine drivers, resulting in low reliability of the pump units. The root causes of identified failures were determined, and actions to preclude these repetitive failures were identified. 5 refs., 1 tab.

Boardman, J.R. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Electrically long vertical interconnects for microwave circuits and antennas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Interconnect. . Microstrip Orientation for the Coaxial Interconnect. . . The Microstrip to Coax Transition in Fidelity Original Transition Model New Transition Model 450 mil Stub Transition Response, Transition Capacitance Using the Stub Method. 10... Transition Response (1, =20 mils, w, =60 mila) . . . . 1000 mil Coaxial Line Response . . . The Full Coaxial Interconnect in Fidelity. . Coaxial Interconnect Items in Fidelity Final Simulated Coaxial Interconnect Response The Coaxial Interconnect Test...

Coutant, Matthew Richard

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Investigation of the Fundamental Reliability Unit for Cu Dual-Damascene Metallization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An investigation has been carried out to determine the fundamental reliability unit of copper dual-damascene metallization. Electromigration experiments have been carried out on straight via-to-via interconnects in the ...

Gan, C.L.

145

The regulation of internet interconnection : assessing network market power  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Interconnection agreements in the telecommunications industry have always been constrained by regulation. Internet interconnection has not received the same level of scrutiny. Recent debates regarding proposed mergers, ...

Maida, Elisabeth M. (Elisabeth Marigo)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Renewable Generation and Interconnection to the Electrical Grid...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Generation and Interconnection to the Electrical Grid in Southern California Renewable Generation and Interconnection to the Electrical Grid in Southern California Presentation...

147

High-performance parallel processors based on star-coupled wavelength division multiplexing optical interconnects  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

As the performance of individual elements within parallel processing systems increases, increased communication capability between distributed processor and memory elements is required. There is great interest in using fiber optics to improve interconnect communication beyond that attainable using electronic technology. Several groups have considered WDM, star-coupled optical interconnects. The invention uses a fiber optic transceiver to provide low latency, high bandwidth channels for such interconnects using a robust multimode fiber technology. Instruction-level simulation is used to quantify the bandwidth, latency, and concurrency required for such interconnects to scale to 256 nodes, each operating at 1 GFLOPS performance. Performance scales have been shown to .apprxeq.100 GFLOPS for scientific application kernels using a small number of wavelengths (8 to 32), only one wavelength received per node, and achievable optoelectronic bandwidth and latency.

Deri, Robert J. (Pleasanton, CA); DeGroot, Anthony J. (Castro Valley, CA); Haigh, Ronald E. (Arvada, CO)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Record of Decision for the Electrical Interconnection of the Windy Point Wind Energy Project.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has decided to offer contract terms for interconnection of 250 megawatts (MW) of power to be generated by the proposed Windy Point Wind Energy Project (Wind Project) into the Federal Columbia River Transmission System (FCRTS). Windy Point Partners, LLC (WPP) propose to construct and operate the proposed Wind Project and has requested interconnection to the FCRTS. The Wind Project will be interconnected at BPA's Rock Creek Substation, which is under construction in Klickitat County, Washington. The Rock Creek Substation will provide transmission access for the Wind Project to BPA's Wautoma-John Day No.1 500-kilovolt (kV) transmission line. BPA's decision to offer terms to interconnect the Wind Project is consistent with BPA's Business Plan Final Environmental Impact Statement (BP EIS) (DOE/EIS-0183, June 1995), and the Business Plan Record of Decision (BP ROD, August 15, 1995). This decision thus is tiered to the BP ROD.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Reliability Assessment The Reliability of the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2006 Long-Term Reliability Assessment The Reliability of the Bulk Power Systems In North America North American Electric Reliability Council October 2006 #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS Page 2 NERC 2006 Long-Term Reliability Assessment TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION

150

Thin-film chip-to-substrate interconnect and methods for making same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Integrated circuit chips are electrically connected to a silica wafer interconnection substrate. Thin film wiring is fabricated down bevelled edges of the chips. A subtractive wire fabrication method uses a series of masks and etching steps to form wires in a metal layer. An additive method direct laser writes or deposits very thin metal lines which can then be plated up to form wires. A quasi-additive or subtractive/additive method forms a pattern of trenches to expose a metal surface which can nucleate subsequent electrolytic deposition of wires. Low inductance interconnections on a 25 micron pitch (1600 wires on a 1 cm square chip) can be produced. The thin film hybrid interconnect eliminates solder joints or welds, and minimizes the levels of metallization. Advantages include good electrical properties, very high wiring density, excellent backside contact, compactness, and high thermal and mechanical reliability.

Tuckerman, David B. (Livermore, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Thin-film chip-to-substrate interconnect and methods for making same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Integrated circuit chips are electrically connected to a silicon wafer interconnection substrate. Thin film wiring is fabricated down bevelled edges of the chips. A subtractive wire fabrication method uses a series of masks and etching steps to form wires in a metal layer. An additive method direct laser writes or deposits very thin lines which can then be plated up to form wires. A quasi-additive or subtractive/additive method forms a pattern of trenches to expose a metal surface which can nucleate subsequent electrolytic deposition of wires. Low inductance interconnections on a 25 micron pitch (1600 wires on a 1 cm square chip) can be produced. The thin film hybrid interconnect eliminates solder joints or welds, and minimizes the levels of metallization. Advantages include good electrical properties, very high wiring density, excellent backside contact, compactness, and high thermal and mechanical reliability. 6 figs.

Tuckerman, D.B.

1988-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

152

Corrosion of Metallic SOFC Interconnects in Coal Syngas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With recent reductions in the operating temperature of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC), the potential of using metallic interconnect has gone up. There is also an interest in using Coal syngas as the fuel gas and thus there is a need to analyze the behavior and performance of metallic interconnects when exposed to Coal syngas. Three high temperature material alloys, Crofer 22 APU, Ebrite and Haynes 230, having the potential to be used as SOFC interconnects were studied in simulated wet coal syngas. These alloys were exposed to syngas at 800 degrees C and for 100 hours. The exposure to coal syngas led to the formation of oxides and spinels, which evidently led to an increase in electrical resistance. Oxidation in a reducing and carburizing environment leads to unique phase and morphology formations. A comparative analysis was carried out for all the three alloys, wherein the samples were characterized by using SEM, EDS, Raman and X-Ray diffraction to obtain the morphology, thickness, composition and crystal structure of the oxides and spinels

Dastane, R.R. (University of West Virginia); Liu, X. (University of West Virginia); Johnson, C., Mao, Scott (University of Pittsburgh)

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Carbon nanotube interconnects for IC chips  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been investigated as candidate materials to replace or augment the existing copper-based technologies as interconnects for Integrated Circuit (IC) chips. Being ballistic conductors, CNTs are ...

Anwar Ali, Hashina Parveen

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Carbon nanotube synthesis for integrated circuit interconnects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Based on their properties, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been identified as ideal replacements for copper interconnects in integrated circuits given their higher current density, inertness, and higher resistance to ...

Nessim, Gilbert Daniel

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

NREL Variability Analysis for the Western Interconnect (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation investigates the effects of several Energy Imbalance Markets implementations in the Western Interconnect.

Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; King, J.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Accelerating Fatigue Testing for Cu Ribbon Interconnects (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation describes fatigue experiments and discusses dynamic mechanical loading for Cu ribbon interconnects.

Bosco, N.; Silverman, T.; Wohlgemuth , J.; Kurtz, S.; Inoue, M.; Sakurai, K.; Shioda, T.; Zenkoh, H.; Miyashita, M.; Tadanori, T.; Suzuki, S.

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions Grid of the Future White Paper on Review of Recent Reliability Issues and Systems Events  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is one of six reports developed under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) program in Power System Integration and Reliability (PSIR). The objective of this report is to review, analyze, and evaluate critical reliability issues demonstrated by recent disturbance events in the North America power system. Eleven major disturbances are examined, most occurring in this decade. The strategic challenge is that the pattern of technical need has persisted for a long period of time. For more than a decade, anticipation of market deregulation has been a major disincentive to new investments in system capacity. It has also inspired reduced maintenance of existing assets. A massive infusion of better technology is emerging as the final option to continue reliable electrical services. If an investment in better technology will not be made in a timely manner, then North America should plan its adjustments to a very different level of electrical service. It is apparent that technical operations staff among the utilities can be very effective at marshaling their forces in the immediate aftermath of a system emergency, and that serious disturbances often lead to improved mechanisms for coordinated operation. It is not at all apparent that such efforts can be sustained through voluntary reliability organizations in which utility personnel external to those organizations do most of the technical work. The eastern interconnection shows several situations in which much of the technical support has migrated from the utilities to the Independent System Operator (ISO), and the ISO staffs or shares staff with the regional reliability council. This process may be a natural and very positive consequence of utility restructuring. If so, the process should be expedited in regions where it is less advanced.

Hauer, John F.; Dagle, Jeffery E.

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Application Of Ti-Based Self-Formation Barrier Layers To Cu Dual-Damascene Interconnects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cu interconnects have been used extensively in ULSI devices. However, large resistance-capacitance delay and poor device reliability have been critical issues as the device feature size has reduced to nanometer scale. In order to achieve low resistance and high reliability of Cu interconnects, we have applied a thin Ti-based self-formed barrier (SFB) using Cu(Ti) alloy seed to 45nm-node dual damascene interconnects and evaluated its performance. The line resistance and via resistance decreased significantly, compared with those of conventional Ta/TaN barriers. The stress migration performance was also drastically improved using the SFB process. A performance of time dependent dielectric breakdown revealed superior endurance. These results suggest that the Ti-based SFB process is one of the most promising candidates for advanced Cu interconnects. TEM and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy observations for characterization of the Ti-based SFB structure were also performed. The Ti-based SFB consisted of mainly amorphous Ti oxides. Amorphous or crystalline Ti compounds such as TiC, TiN, and TiSi formed beneath Cu alloy films, and the formation varied with dielectric.

Ito, Kazuhiro; Kohama, Kazuyuki [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Ohmori, Kazuyuki; Mori, Kenichi; Maekawa, Kazuyoshi; Asai, Koyu [Process Technology Div., Renesas Electronics Corporation, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki 312-8504 (Japan); Murakami, Masanori [The Ritsumeikan Trust, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto 604-8520 (Japan)

2010-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

159

Human-reliability data bank for nuclear-power-plant operations. Volume 2. A data-bank concept and system description  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is conducting a research program to determine the need for a human-reliability data bank unique to the nuclear industry. This report, in describing a proposed data bank, focuses primarily on four requirements: human-performance data collection, treatment, structuring (storage), and retrieval. Four data-collection methods are proposed: three are extensions to existing systems (i.e., Licensee Event Reports (LER), Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System (NPRDS), and Plant Incident Reports (PIR)); the fourth is a new system called the Nuclear Safety Reporting System (NSRS). Data treatment involves evaluating raw field data and data from other sources (e.g., training simulator, expert judgment, and performance modeling), and preparing them for entry into the data bank. Data structuring involves storage of data by equipment characteristics and human actions at the system, component, and individual control/display levels. Data retrieval uses a set of matrices based on the data-structuring taxonomy.

Comer, M.K.; Kozinsky, E.J.; Eckel, J.S.; Miller, D.P.

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Western Interconnection Energy Imbalance Market Status and Prospects (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation describes how a new wholesale electricity market for energy imbalance ancillary services could be implemented and operated. Some conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Method for calculating additional reserve requirements due to wind and solar production; (2) EIM results in substantial reduction in reserves requirements and ramping demand; (3) Reduced participation reduces benefits for all but reduces the benefits to non-participants the most; (4) Full participation leads to maximum benefit across the Western Interconnection, up to 42% of total reserve requirement; and (5) Regional EIM implementations have smaller but substantial benefits.

Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; King, J.; Beuning, S.

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection reliability operating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

InterconnectFabric InterconnectFabric SingleBuilding Multi-Building  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Interconnects in Datacenter Networks Opportunities and Challenges for WDM Hong Liu, Cedric F. Lam, and Chris We review the growing need for optical interconnect bandwidth in datacenter networks growth inside datacenter networks. INTRODUCTION The rapid growth of Internet and cloud computing

Tomkins, Andrew

162

Initial Performance Evaluation of the Cray SeaStar Interconnect Ron Brightwell Kevin Pedretti Keith D. Underwood  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Initial Performance Evaluation of the Cray SeaStar Interconnect Ron Brightwell Kevin Pedretti Keith supercomputer. The SeaStar was designed specifically to meet the performance and reliability needs of a large-scale, distributed-memory scientific computing platform. In this paper, we present an initial performance evaluation

Brightwell, Ron

163

Accelerating Fatigue Testing for Cu Ribbon Interconnects  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presented at the 2013 Photovoltaic Module Reliability Workshop; 26-27 February 2013; Denver, Colorado

164

Dispatcher Reliability Analysis : SPICA-RAIL Experiments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dispatcher Reliability Analysis : SPICA-RAIL Experiments Fabien Belmonte, Jean-Louis Boulanger of scenarios and evaluate the behaviour of human operators. A state of the art in human reliability is pre coupled to a traffic simulator. It allows to gather data for human reliability evaluation and man

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

165

The Whereabouts of Reliability Education: Challenges & Opportunities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. There is a gap between reliability theory and practice, between school and industry, book knowledge and real The probability that the system is still operating at time t. where f(t) probability density function h(t) failure changing and getting higher. #12;Some Reliability books in ... 1960s Igor Bazovsky (1961), Reliability

Bernstein, Joseph B.

166

Using Interconnected Texts to Highlight Culture in the Foreign Language Classroom  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in analyzing this interconnectivity, teachers should deviseon the nature of interconnectivity in their everydaywill look for the interconnectivity of texts in other

Smith, Maya

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Advanced Unit Commitment Strategies for the U.S. Eastern Interconnection: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper outlines a study undertaken for the U.S. Eastern Interconnection in which different advanced unit commitment strategies were simulated for three different years to evaluate the benefits that may occur from using these strategies as an operational tool.

Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; Meibom, P.; Barth, R.; Tuohy, A.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Virtually simulating the next generation of clean energy technologies: NETL's AVESTAR Center is dedicated to the safe, reliable and efficient operation of advanced energy plants with carbon capture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Imagine using a real-time virtual simulator to learn to fly a space shuttle or rebuild your car's transmission without touching a piece of equipment or getting your hands dirty. Now, apply this concept to learning how to operate and control a state-of-the-art, electricity-producing power plant capable of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture. That's what the National Energy Technology Laboratory's (NETL) Advanced Virtual Energy Simulation Training and Research (AVESTAR) Center (www.netl.doe.gov/avestar) is designed to do. Established as part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) initiative to advance new clean energy technology for power generation, the AVESTAR Center focuses primarily on providing simulation-based training for process engineers and energy plant operators, starting with the deployment of a first-of-a-kind operator training simulator for an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant with CO{sub 2} capture. The IGCC dynamic simulator builds on, and reaches beyond, conventional power plant simulators to merge, for the first time, a 'gasification with CO{sub 2} capture' process simulator with a 'combined-cycle' power simulator. Based on Invensys Operations Management's SimSci-Esscor DYNSIM software, the high-fidelity dynamic simulator provides realistic training on IGCC plant operations, including normal and faulted operations, as well as plant start-up, shutdown and power demand load changes. The highly flexible simulator also allows for testing of different types of fuel sources, such as petcoke and biomass, as well as co-firing fuel mixtures. The IGCC dynamic simulator is available at AVESTAR's two locations, NETL (Figure 1) and West Virginia University's National Research Center for Coal and Energy (www.nrcce.wvu.edu), both in Morgantown, W.Va. By offering a comprehensive IGCC training program, AVESTAR aims to develop a workforce well prepared to operate, control and manage commercial-scale gasification-based power plants with CO{sub 2} capture. The facility and simulator at West Virginia University promotes NETL's outreach mission by offering hands-on simulator training and education to researchers and university students.

Zitney, S.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Original Paper Fully interconnected, linear control  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Original Paper Fully interconnected, linear control for limit cycle walking Joseph H Solomon1 and simple control methodologies for these models (Collins & Ruina, 2005; Hobbelen & Wisse, 2008a, 2008b. Corresponding author: Joseph H. Solomon, Northwestern University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 2145

Hartmann, Mitra J. Z.

170

Asynchronous intrusion recovery for interconnected web services  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Asynchronous intrusion recovery for interconnected web services Ramesh Chandra, Taesoo Kim, and tracking down and recovering from such an attack re- quires significant manual effort. Web services for such web services. Aire addresses several challenges, such as propagating repair across services when some

Sabatini, David M.

171

QCD Interconnection Studies at Linear Colliders  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heavy objects like the W, Z and t are short-lived compared with typical hadronization times. When pairs of such particles are produced, the subsequent hadronic decay systems may therefore become interconnected. We study such potential effects at Linear Collider energies.

Valery A. Khoze; TorbjŲrn SjŲstrand

1999-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

172

subcollector Schottky collector contact & interconnect metals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

base collector depletion layer subcollector ohmic metal (a) base collector depletion layer Schottky metal base emitter collector collector We emitter base emitter emitter We Wc Wc (b) Schottky collector contact & interconnect metals Emitter & collector Ohmics undoped collector depletion layer base N

Rodwell, Mark J. W.

173

Fast high-order variation-aware IC interconnect analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Interconnects constitute a dominant source of circuit delay for modern chip designs. The variations of critical dimensions in modern VLSI technologies lead to variability in interconnect performance that must be fully accounted for in timing...

Ye, Xiaoji

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

174

High temperature solid electrolyte fuel cell configurations and interconnections  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

High temperature fuel cell configurations and interconnections are made including annular cells having a solid electrolyte sandwiched between thin film electrodes. The cells are electrically interconnected along an elongated axial outer surface.

Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills, PA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Probing Porosity and Pore Interconnectivity in Crystalline Mesoporous...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Porosity and Pore Interconnectivity in Crystalline Mesoporous TiO2 Using Hyperpolarized Xe-129 NMR. Probing Porosity and Pore Interconnectivity in Crystalline Mesoporous TiO2 Using...

176

VLSI Interconnect Optimization Considering Non-uniform Metal Stacks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

With the advances in process technology, comes the domination of interconnect in the overall propagation delay in modern VLSI designs. Hence, interconnect synthesis techniques, such as buffer insertion, wire sizing and layer assignment play critical...

Tsai, Jung-Tai

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

InterConnections A Report on Interdisciplinary Computing at the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

InterConnections A Report on Interdisciplinary Computing at the University of Maryland Institute be found on pages 6 and 7 of this issue of InterConnections. ; continued on Page 2 Science/UMIACS); (2) use

Gruner, Daniel S.

178

InterConnections A Report on Interdisciplinary Computing at the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

InterConnections A Report on Interdisciplinary Computing at the University of Maryland Institute BY BEN SHNEIDERMANPHOTO BY BEN SHNEIDERMAN #12;2 InterConnections During the past six months, a number

Gruner, Daniel S.

179

STABILITY ANALYSIS OF INTERCONNECTED POWER SYSTEMS COUPLED WITH MARKET DYNAMICS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

STABILITY ANALYSIS OF INTERCONNECTED POWER SYSTEMS COUPLED WITH MARKET DYNAMICS F.L. Alvarado1 J of generators and network interconnections. This paper examines questions of stability in such coupled systems

180

Solar Energy to Benefit from New FERC Interconnection Procedures...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Solar Energy to Benefit from New FERC Interconnection Procedures Solar Energy to Benefit from New FERC Interconnection Procedures October 30, 2014 - 5:15pm Addthis As a major win...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection reliability operating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Assessment of microelectronics packaging for high temperature, high reliability applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report details characterization and development activities in electronic packaging for high temperature applications. This project was conducted through a Department of Energy sponsored Cooperative Research and Development Agreement between Sandia National Laboratories and General Motors. Even though the target application of this collaborative effort is an automotive electronic throttle control system which would be located in the engine compartment, results of this work are directly applicable to Sandia`s national security mission. The component count associated with the throttle control dictates the use of high density packaging not offered by conventional surface mount. An enabling packaging technology was selected and thermal models defined which characterized the thermal and mechanical response of the throttle control module. These models were used to optimize thick film multichip module design, characterize the thermal signatures of the electronic components inside the module, and to determine the temperature field and resulting thermal stresses under conditions that may be encountered during the operational life of the throttle control module. Because the need to use unpackaged devices limits the level of testing that can be performed either at the wafer level or as individual dice, an approach to assure a high level of reliability of the unpackaged components was formulated. Component assembly and interconnect technologies were also evaluated and characterized for high temperature applications. Electrical, mechanical and chemical characterizations of enabling die and component attach technologies were performed. Additionally, studies were conducted to assess the performance and reliability of gold and aluminum wire bonding to thick film conductor inks. Kinetic models were developed and validated to estimate wire bond reliability.

Uribe, F.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Load Response Fundamentally Matches Power System Reliability Requirements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Responsive load is the most underutilized reliability resource available to the power system. Loads are frequently barred from providing the highest value and most critical reliability services; regulation and spinning reserve. Advances in communications and control technology now make it possible for some loads to provide both of these services. The limited storage incorporated in some loads better matches their response capabilities to the fast reliability-service markets than to the hourly energy markets. Responsive loads are frequently significantly faster and more accurate than generators, increasing power system reliability. Incorporating fast load response into microgrids further extends the reliability response capabilities that can be offered to the interconnected power system. The paper discusses the desired reliability responses, why this matches some loads' capabilities, what the advantages are for the power system, implications for communications and monitoring requirements, and how this resource can be exploited.

Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL] [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Interconnected hydro-thermal systems Models, methods, and applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Interconnected hydro-thermal systems Models, methods, and applications Magnus Hindsberger Kgs. Lyngby 2003 IMM-PHD-2003-112 Interconnected hydro-thermalsystems #12;Technical University of Denmark 45882673 reception@imm.dtu.dk www.imm.dtu.dk IMM-PHD-2003-112 ISSN 0909-3192 #12;Interconnected hydro

184

COLLEGE OF COMPUTER, MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES InterConnections  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COLLEGE OF COMPUTER, MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES InterConnections Contents 2 Director for large amounts of data FALL/WINTER 2007 continued on page 4... InterConnections is published. For her work on entity Lise Getoor: From Data to Information Lise Getoor #12;INTERCONNECTIONS Fall

Gruner, Daniel S.

185

Interconnecting PV on New York City's Secondary Network  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Interconnecting PV on New York City's Secondary Network Distribution System K. Anderson, M #12;Technical Report Interconnecting PV on New York NREL/ TP-7A2-46902 City's Secondary Network of Concerns and Solutions to PV Interconnection in New York City 4.0 Utility Application Process Review 5

186

COLLEGE OF COMPUTER, MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES InterConnections  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COLLEGE OF COMPUTER, MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES InterConnections Contents 2 Director Neil Spring: Mapping the Internet 12 Ramani Duriaswami: Processing Sound AUGUST 2008 InterConnections research- ers to gauge similarities and differences continued on page 2. #12;INTERCONNECTIONS AUGUST 2008

Gruner, Daniel S.

187

InterConnections A Report on Interdisciplinary Computing at the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

InterConnections A Report on Interdisciplinary Computing at the University of Maryland Institute of InterConnections. The Center was funded two years ago through the campus enhancement initiative #12;2 InterConnections Three events took place during the past five months, each of which will have

Gruner, Daniel S.

188

Novel Composite Materials for SOFC Cathode-Interconnect Contact  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarized the research efforts and major conclusions of our University Coal Research Project, which focused on developing a new class of electrically-conductive, Cr-blocking, damage-tolerant Ag-perovksite composite materials for the cathode-interconnect contact of intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks. The Ag evaporation rate increased linearly with air flow rate initially and became constant for the air flow rate {ge} {approx} 1.0 cm {center_dot} s{sup -1}. An activation energy of 280 KJ.mol{sup -1} was obtained for Ag evaporation in both air and Ar+5%H{sub 2}+3%H{sub 2}O. The exposure environment had no measurable influence on the Ag evaporation rate as well as its dependence on the gas flow rate, while different surface morphological features were developed after thermal exposure in the oxidizing and reducing environments. Pure Ag is too volatile at the SOFC operating temperature and its evaporation rate needs to be reduced to facilitate its application as the cathode-interconnect contact. Based on extensive evaporation testing, it was found that none of the alloying additions reduced the evaporation rate of Ag over the long-term exposure, except the noble metals Au, Pt, and Pd; however, these noble elements are too expensive to justify their practical use in contact materials. Furthermore, the addition of La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}MnO{sub 3} (LSM) into Ag to form a composite material also did not significantly modify the Ag evaporation rate. The Ag-perovskite composites with the perovskite being either (La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4})(Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2})O{sub 3} (LSCF) or LSM were systematically evaluated as the contact material between the ferritic interconnect alloy Crofer 22 APU and the LSM cathode. The area specific resistances (ASRs) of the test specimens were shown to be highly dependent on the volume percentage and the type of the perovskite present in the composite contact material as well as the amount of thermal cycling that the specimens were subjected to during testing. The Ag-LSCF composite contact materials proved more effective in trapping Cr within the contact material and preventing Cr migration into the cathode than the Ag-LSM composites. Ag-perovskite composite contact materials are promising candidates for use in intermediate-temperature SOFC stacks with ferritic stainless steel interconnects due to their ability to maintain acceptably low ASRs while reducing Cr migration into the cathode material.

J. H. Zhu

2009-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

189

40 Gb/s Data Transmission Over a 1 m Long Multimode Polymer Spiral Waveguide for Board-Level Optical Interconnects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-based interconnects when operating at high data rates, such as electromagnetic interference (EMI), limited bandwidth and large power consumption, have led to the consideration of the use of optical technologies in high-speed board-level communication links [4...

Bamiedakis, Nikolaos; Chen, Jian; Westbergh, Petter; Gustavsson, Johan S.; Larsson, Anders; Penty, Richard V.; White, Ian H.

2014-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

190

Effect of interconnect creep on long-term performance of SOFC of one cell stacks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Creep deformation becomes relevant for a material when the operating temperature is near or exceeds half of its melting temperature (in degrees of Kelvin). The operating temperatures for most of the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) under development in the SECA program are around 1073oK. High temperature ferritic alloys are potential candidates as interconnect (IC) materials and spacers due to their low cost and CTE compatibility with other SOFC components. Since the melting temperature of most stainless steel is around 1800oK, possible creep deformation of IC under the typical cell operating temperature should not be neglected. In this paper, the effects of interconnect creep behavior on stack geometry change and stress redistribution of different cell components are predicted and summarized. The goal of the study is to investigate the performance of the fuel cell stack by obtaining the fuel and air channel geometry changes due to creep of the ferritic stainless steel interconnect, therefore indicating possible SOFC performance change under long term operations. IC creep models were incorporated into SOFC-MP and Mentat FC, and finite element analyses were performed to quantify the deformed configuration of the SOFC stack under the long term steady state operating temperature. It is found that creep behavior of the ferritic stainless steel IC contributes to narrowing of both the fuel and the air flow channels. In addition, stress re-distribution of the cell components suggests the need for a compliant sealing material that also relaxes at operating temperature.

Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Software Reliability Xiangyu Zhang  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Software Reliability Xiangyu Zhang Pronounced as Shang You Zang CS590F Software Reliability Software Reliability Why Reliable Software is Important? Software bugs cost the U.S. economy about $59 in Spacecraft Accidents (http://sunnyday.mit.edu/papers/jsr.pdf) CS590F Software Reliability Why ? ­ FSE'06

Zhang, Xiangyu

192

Design, analysis and simulation study of a Scalable all-Optical Interconnection Network (SCOPIN) for multiprocessing systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and flexible all-optical single-hop interconnection network, called Scalable Optical Interconnection Network (SCOPIN)....

Okorafor, Ekpe Apia

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Release Resistant Electrical Interconnections For Mems Devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A release resistant electrical interconnection comprising a gold-based electrical conductor compression bonded directly to a highly-doped polysilicon bonding pad in a MEMS, IMEMS, or MOEMS device, without using any intermediate layers of aluminum, titanium, solder, or conductive adhesive disposed in-between the conductor and polysilicon pad. After the initial compression bond has been formed, subsequent heat treatment of the joint above 363 C creates a liquid eutectic phase at the bondline comprising gold plus approximately 3 wt % silicon, which, upon re-solidification, significantly improves the bond strength by reforming and enhancing the initial bond. This type of electrical interconnection is resistant to chemical attack from acids used for releasing MEMS elements (HF, HCL), thereby enabling the use of a "package-first, release-second" sequence for fabricating MEMS devices. Likewise, the bond strength of an Au--Ge compression bond may be increased by forming a transient liquid eutectic phase comprising Au-12 wt % Ge.

Peterson, Kenneth A. (Albuquerque, NM); Garrett, Stephen E. (Albuquerque, NM); Reber, Cathleen A. (Corrales, NM)

2005-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

194

Interconnection of bundled solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system and method for electrically interconnecting a plurality of fuel cells to provide dense packing of the fuel cells. Each one of the plurality of fuel cells has a plurality of discrete electrical connection points along an outer surface. Electrical connections are made directly between the discrete electrical connection points of adjacent fuel cells so that the fuel cells can be packed more densely. Fuel cells have at least one outer electrode and at least one discrete interconnection to an inner electrode, wherein the outer electrode is one of a cathode and and anode and wherein the inner electrode is the other of the cathode and the anode. In tubular solid oxide fuel cells the discrete electrical connection points are spaced along the length of the fuel cell.

Brown, Michael; Bessette, II, Norman F; Litka, Anthony F; Schmidt, Douglas S

2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

195

Logic Synthesis for FPGA Reliability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for FPGA Reliability . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hard ErrorsStochastic Resynthesis for FPGA Reliability . . . . . .In-Place Reconfiguration for FPGA Reliability . . . . . .

Feng, Zhe

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Thin Film Reliability SEMICONDUCTORS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thin Film Reliability SEMICONDUCTORS Our goal is to develop new ways to evaluate the reliability $250 billion per year. As semiconductor devices become ultra miniaturized, reliability testing becomes-world conditions as possible will enable product designers to better balance performance and reliability

197

Reliability-Centered Maintenance  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Reliability-centered maintenance leverages the same practices and technologies of predictive maintenance.

198

North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC): Reliability...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

and winter and summer forecasts; monitors the bulk power systems; and educates, trains, and certifies industry personnel. North American Electric Reliability Corporation...

199

Operations & Maintenance Best Practices Guide: Release 3.0  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

- To ensure effective implementation and control of operation activities. * Conduct of Operations - To ensure efficient, safe, and reliable process operations. *...

200

Repairable chip bonding/interconnect process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A repairable, chip-to-board interconnect process which addresses cost and testability issues in the multi-chip modules. This process can be carried out using a chip-on-sacrificial-substrate technique, involving laser processing. This process avoids the curing/solvent evolution problems encountered in prior approaches, as well is resolving prior plating problems and the requirements for fillets. For repairable high speed chip-to-board connection, transmission lines can be formed on the sides of the chip from chip bond pads, ending in a gull wing at the bottom of the chip for subsequent solder.

Bernhardt, Anthony F. (Berkeley, CA); Contolini, Robert J. (Livermore, CA); Malba, Vincent (Livermore, CA); Riddle, Robert A. (Tracy, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection reliability operating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Repairable chip bonding/interconnect process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A repairable, chip-to-board interconnect process which addresses cost and testability issues in the multi-chip modules is disclosed. This process can be carried out using a chip-on-sacrificial-substrate technique, involving laser processing. This process avoids the curing/solvent evolution problems encountered in prior approaches, as well is resolving prior plating problems and the requirements for fillets. For repairable high speed chip-to-board connection, transmission lines can be formed on the sides of the chip from chip bond pads, ending in a gull wing at the bottom of the chip for subsequent solder. 10 figs.

Bernhardt, A.F.; Contolini, R.J.; Malba, V.; Riddle, R.A.

1997-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

202

Interconnecting gold islands with DNA origami  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-SeriesFlickrinformation for and NovelFEG-SEM with0,Interconnecting gold islands

203

Environmental Regulation Impacts on Eastern Interconnection Performance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the United States, recent environmental regulations will likely result in the removal of nearly 30 GW of oil and coal-fired generation from the power grid, mostly in the Eastern Interconnection (EI). The effects of this transition on voltage stability and transmission line flows have previously not been studied from a system-wide perspective. This report discusses the results of power flow studies designed to simulate the evolution of the EI over the next few years as traditional generation sources are replaced with environmentally friendlier ones such as natural gas and wind.

Markham, Penn N [ORNL; Liu, Yilu [ORNL; Young II, Marcus Aaron [ORNL

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Phase 1 - Evaluation of a Functional Interconnect System for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project is focused on evaluating the suitability of materials and complex multi-materials systems for use as solid oxide fuel cell interconnects. ATI Allegheny Ludlum has generated promising results for interconnect materials which incorporate modified surfaces. Methods for producing these surfaces include cladding, which permits the use of novel materials, and modifications via unique thermomechanical processing, which allows for the modification of materials chemistry. The University of Pittsburgh is assisting in this effort by providing use of their in-place facilities for dual atmosphere testing and ASR measurements, along with substantial work to characterize post-exposure specimens. Carnegie Mellon is testing interconnects for chromia scale spallation resistance using macro-scale and nano-scale indentation tests. Chromia spallation can increase electrical resistance to unacceptable levels and interconnect systems must be developed that will not experience spallation within 40,000 hours at operating temperatures. Spallation is one of three interconnect failure mechanisms, the others being excessive growth of the chromia scale (increasing electrical resistance) and scale evaporation (which can poison the cathode). The goal of indentation fracture testing at Carnegie Mellon is to accelerate the evaluation of new interconnect systems (by inducing spalls at after short exposure times) and to use fracture mechanics to understand mechanisms leading to premature interconnect failure by spallation. Tests include bare alloys from ATI and coated systems from DOE Laboratories and industrial partners, using ATI alloy substrates. West Virginia University is working towards developing a cost-effective material for use as a contact material in the cathode chamber of the SOFC. Currently materials such as platinum are well suited for this purpose, but are cost-prohibitive. For the solid-oxide fuel cell to become a commercial reality it is imperative that lower cost components be developed. Based on the results obtained to date, it appears that sterling silver could be an inexpensive, dependable candidate for use as a contacting material in the cathode chamber of the solid-oxide fuel cell. Although data regarding pure silver samples show a lower rate of thickness reduction, the much lower cost of sterling silver makes it an attractive alternative for use in SOFC operation.

James M. Rakowski

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

205

Flip chip electrical interconnection by selective electroplating and bonding  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on a glass substrate made of 500/2000 A¬į of Cr/Au with 3150 lm in length and 10 lm in width. Two silicon. The interconnection chip has 102 Cr/Au interconnection lines with 3150 lm in length and 10 lm in width. The bonding pads on the ends of the interconnection lines are 40 lm by 40 lm. A 0.8 lm thick layer of aluminum

Lin, Liwei

206

Impact of High Solar Penetration in the Western Interconnection  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Impact of High Solar Penetration in the Western Interconnection Debra Lew National Renewable Energy Laboratory Nicholas Miller, Kara Clark, Gary Jordan, and Zhi Gao GE Energy...

207

Response from PJM Interconnection LLC and Pepco to Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

PJM Interconnection LLC and Pepco to Department of Energy Request for Information Concerning the Potential Need for Potomac River Station Generation Response from PJM...

208

Pepco and PJM Interconnection Comments on District of Columbia...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Pepco and PJM Interconnection Comments on District of Columbia Public Service Commission, Docket No. EO-05-01 Comments and Answer to Requests for Rehearing Pepco and PJM...

209

CHP: Connecting the Gap between Markets and Utility Interconnection...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Markets and Utility Interconnection and Tariff Practices, 2006 The adoption of combined heat and power (CHP) systems by American industries has made substantial strides in the...

210

Microgrid V2G Charging Station Interconnection Testing (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation by Mike Simpson of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) describes NREL's microgrid vehicle-to-grid charging station interconnection testing.

Simpson, M.

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Optimization of solid oxide fuel cell interconnect design.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Performance of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) is dependent of a set of complex physical and chemical processes occurring simultaneously. Interconnect for SOFC is importantÖ (more)

Pulagam, Krishna C.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Proposed rule for Interconnection for Wind Energy and Other Alternativ...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

REGULATORY COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 35 (Docket No. RM05-4-000) Interconnection for Wind Energy and Other Alternative Technologies (January 24, 2005) AGENCY: Federal Energy...

213

Utility Wind Integration Group Distributed Wind/Solar Interconnection Workshop  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This two-day workshop will answer your questions about interconnecting wind and solar plants and other distributed generation applications to electric distribution systems while providing insight...

214

Examination of Potential Benefits of an Energy Imbalance Market in the Western Interconnection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the Western Interconnection, there is significant interest in improving approaches to wide-area coordinated operations of the bulk electric power system, in part because of the increasing penetration of variable generation. One proposed solution is an energy imbalance market. This study focused on that approach alone, with the goal of identifying the potential benefits of an energy imbalance market in the year 2020.

Milligan, M.; Clark, K.; King, J.; Kirby, B.; Guo, T.; Liu, G.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Corrosion and Protection of Metallic Interconnects in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Energy security and increased concern over environmental protection have spurred a dramatic world-wide growth in research and development of fuel cells, which electrochemically convert incoming fuel into electricity with no or low pollution. Fuel cell technology has become increasingly attractive to a number of sectors, including utility, automotive, and defense industries. Among the various types of fuel cells, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) operate at high temperature (typically 650-1,000 C) and have advantages in terms of high conversion efficiency and the flexibility of using hydrocarbon fuels, in addition to hydrogen. The high temperature operation, however, can lead to increased mass transport and interactions between the surrounding environment and components that are required to be stable during a lifetime of thousands of hours and up to hundreds of thermal cycles. For stacks with relatively low operating temperatures (<800 C), the interconnects that are used to electrically connect a number of cells in series are typically made from cost-effective metals or alloys. The metallic interconnects must demonstrate excellent stability in a very challenging environment during SOFC operation, as they are simultaneously exposed to both an oxidizing (air) environment on the cathode side and a reducing environment (hydrogen or a reformed hydrocarbon fuel) on the anode side. Other challenges include the fact that water vapor is likely to be present in both of these environments, and the fuel is likely to contain impurities, such as sulfides. Since the fuel is usually a reformed hydrocarbon fuel, such as natural gas, coal gas, biogas, gasoline, etc., the interconnect is exposed to a wet carbonaceous environment at the anode side. Finally, the interconnect must be stable towards any adjacent components, such as electrodes, seals and electrical contact materials, with which it is in physical contact.

Yang, Z Gary; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Singh, Prabhakar

2007-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

216

Cloud Operations Excellence & Reliability Page 1 Excellence &  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and our sites secure from attack, while protecting the privacy of personally identifiable information

Chaudhuri, Surajit

217

Secure and reliable operation of our  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of threats: ∑ Attacks upon the power system. In this case, the electricity infrastructure itself could use power plant cooling towers, for example, to disperse chem- ical or biological agents to national and international economy, security, and quality of life. Massoud Amin, Electric Power Research

Amin, S. Massoud

218

Distributed Generation Operational Reliability and Availability Database,  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat Pump Models |Conduct, Parent(CRADA and DOW Area 5 LLRWDistributedDepartmentFinal

219

Distributed Generation Operational Reliability, Executive Summary Report,  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat Pump Models |Conduct, Parent(CRADA and DOW Area 5

220

Sandia National Laboratories: PV Reliability Operations Maintenance  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -theErik Spoerke SSLSMolten-Salt StorageNoLongAnalysisPVPublicationsdatabase

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection reliability operating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Response Operations | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability Response Operations Response Operations Overview The federal government primarily plays a coordinating and support role during...

222

Power electronics reliability analysis.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides the DOE and industry with a general process for analyzing power electronics reliability. The analysis can help with understanding the main causes of failures, downtime, and cost and how to reduce them. One approach is to collect field maintenance data and use it directly to calculate reliability metrics related to each cause. Another approach is to model the functional structure of the equipment using a fault tree to derive system reliability from component reliability. Analysis of a fictitious device demonstrates the latter process. Optimization can use the resulting baseline model to decide how to improve reliability and/or lower costs. It is recommended that both electric utilities and equipment manufacturers make provisions to collect and share data in order to lay the groundwork for improving reliability into the future. Reliability analysis helps guide reliability improvements in hardware and software technology including condition monitoring and prognostics and health management.

Smith, Mark A.; Atcitty, Stanley

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Human Reliability Program Overview  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation covers the high points of the Human Reliability Program, including certification/decertification, critical positions, due process, organizational structure, program components, personnel security, an overview of the US DOE reliability program, retirees and academia, and security program integration.

Bodin, Michael

2012-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

224

Integrated Energy-Water Planning in the Western and Texas Interconnections  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

While long-term regional electricity transmission planning has traditionally focused on cost, infrastructure utilization, and reliability, issues concerning the availability of water represent an emerging issue. Thermoelectric expansion must be considered in the context of competing demands from other water use sectors balanced with fresh and non-fresh water supplies subject to climate variability. An integrated Energy-Water Decision Support System (DSS) is being developed that will enable planners in the Western and Texas Interconnections to analyze the potential implications of water availability and cost for long-range transmission planning. The project brings together electric transmission planners (Western Electricity Coordinating Council and Electric Reliability Council of Texas) with western water planners (Western Governorsí Association and the Western States Water Council). This paper lays out the basic framework for this integrated Energy-Water DSS.

Vincent Tidwell; John Gasper; Robert Goldstein; Jordan Macknick; Gerald Sehlke; Michael Webber; Mark Wigmosta

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems: Opportunities, interconnections, and needs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As the U.S. energy system evolves, the amount of electricity from variable-generation sources is likely to increase, which could result in additional times when electricity demand is lower than available production. Thus, purveyors of technologies that traditionally have provided base-load electricityósuch as nuclear power plantsócan explore new operating procedures to deal with the associated market signals. Concurrently, innovations in nuclear reactor design coupled with sophisticated control systems now allow for more complex apportionment of heat within an integrated system such as one linked to energy-intensive chemical processes. This paper explores one opportunity Ė nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems. These are defined as integrated facilities comprised of nuclear reactors, renewable energy generation, and industrial processes that can simultaneously address the need for grid flexibility, greenhouse gas emission reductions, and optimal use of investment capital. Six aspects of interaction (interconnections) between elements of nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems are identified: Thermal, electrical, chemical, hydrogen, mechanical, and information. Additionally, system-level aspects affect selection, design, and operation of this hybrid system type. Throughout the paper, gaps and research needs are identified to promote further exploration of the topic.

Mark F. Ruth; Owen R. Zinaman; Mark Antkowiak; Richard D. Boardman; Robert S. Cherry; Morgan D. Bazilian

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

COLLEGE OF COMPUTER, MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES InterConnections  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COLLEGE OF COMPUTER, MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES InterConnections Contents 2 Director- tious diseases and water issues.The network would include research from scientists in coun- InterConnections.V.Williams Bldg. University of Maryland College Park, MD 20742-3251 Phone: 301.405.6722 #12;INTERCONNECTIONS

Gruner, Daniel S.

227

Reliability and economy -- Hydro electricity for Iran  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reliability is the probability that a device or system will perform its function adequately, for the period of time intended, under the operating conditions intended. Reliability and economy are two important factors in operating any system, especially in power generation. Due to the high rate in population growth in Iran, the experts have estimated that the demand for electricity will be about 63,000 MW in the next 25 years, the installed power is now about 26,000 MW. Therefore, the energy policy decision made in Iran is to go to power generation by hydroelectric plants because of reliability, availability of water resources and the economics of hydroelectric power.

Jahromi-Shirazi, M.J.; Zarbakhsh, M.H. [Teleh Shofage Co., Ghazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

228

Investigations in the Monte-Carlo sampling for interconnected power systems reliability evaluation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The new approach keeps track of the probability of the unclassified states to keep the error under a specified fraction of the loss of load probability. There are two methods to select a sample state from a set, uniform sampling and proportional sampling...

Feng, Chun

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Estimating Reliability and Throughput of Source-synchronous Wave-pipelined Interconnect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, we develop a statistical model of dynamic timing uncertainty. We show that it is important to distinguish between static and dynamic sources of tim- ing uncertainty, because source-synchronous wave pipelin- ing is much more sensitive to the latter. We use HSPICE simulations to develop a model for a wave

Lemieux, Guy

230

Interconnect Lifetime Prediction under Dynamic Stress for Reliability-Aware Design  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Huang, John Lach, Mircea Stan, Kevin Skadron§ Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering) techniques [13, 14] are being developed to best manage this consumption. While the dynamic temper- ature. Historically, Black [2] proposed a semi-empirical temper- ature-dependent model for EM failures: Tf = A jn exp

Skadron, Kevin

231

Solid-state energy storage module employing integrated interconnect board  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrochemical energy storage device includes a number of solid-state thin-film electrochemical cells which are selectively interconnected in series or parallel through use of an integrated interconnect board. The interconnect board is typically disposed within a sealed housing which also houses the electrochemical cells, and includes a first contact and a second contact respectively coupled to first and second power terminals of the energy storage device. The interconnect board advantageously provides for selective series or parallel connectivity with the electrochemical cells, irrespective of electrochemical cell position within the housing. Fuses and various electrical and electro-mechanical devices, such as bypass, equalization, and communication devices for example, may also be mounted to the interconnect board and selectively connected to the electrochemical cells.

Rouillard, Jean; Comte, Christophe; Daigle, Dominik; Hagen, Ronald A.; Knudson, Orlin B.; Morin, Andre; Ranger, Michel; Ross, Guy; Rouillard, Roger; St-Germain, Philippe; Sudano, Anthony; Turgeon, Thomas A.

2004-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

232

Solid-state energy storage module employing integrated interconnect board  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is directed to an improved electrochemical energy storage device. The electrochemical energy storage device includes a number of solid-state, thin-film electrochemical cells which are selectively interconnected in series or parallel through use of an integrated interconnect board. The interconnect board is typically disposed within a sealed housing which also houses the electrochemical cells, and includes a first contact and a second contact respectively coupled to first and second power terminals of the energy storage device. The interconnect board advantageously provides for selective series or parallel connectivity with the electrochemical cells, irrespective of electrochemical cell position within the housing. Fuses and various electrical and electromechanical devices, such as bypass, equalization, and communication devices for example, may also be mounted to the interconnect board and selectively connected to the electrochemical cells.

Rouillard, Jean; Comte, Christophe; Daigle, Dominik; Hagen, Ronald A.; Knudson, Orlin B.; Morin, Andre; Ranger, Michel; Ross, Guy; Rouillard, Roger; St-Germain, Philippe; Sudano, Anthony; Turgeon, Thomas A.

2003-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

233

A High-Performance Optoelectronic Interconnect Router: Using Increased Bandwidth to Enable Latency Reduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

D R A FT 1 A High-Performance Optoelectronic Interconnect Router: Using Increased Bandwidth optoelectronic interconnection network router capable of supplying and efficiently utilizing higher bandwidth routing, interconnection network, latency hiding/reduction techniques, optoelectronic router. 1

Pinkston, Timothy M.

234

Near-Bulk Conductivity of Gold Nanowires as Nanoscale Interconnects and the Role of Atomically  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Near-Bulk Conductivity of Gold Nanowires as Nanoscale Interconnects and the Role of Atomically, a significant portion of the chip is composed of interconnects. Besides, the engineering problems associated loss, signal degradation, interconnection delays, and other performance limitations related

Zubarev, Eugene

235

Life Prediction of Coated and Uncoated Metallic Interconnect for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxidation reaction of the ferritic stainless interconnects in a typical SOFC working environment is unavoidable and the thickness of the oxide scale will continue to grow with operating time, even with protective coatings. The interfacial strength of the various interfaces for the uncoated and coated ferritic interconnects is crucial to long term performance of SOFCs. In this paper, we employ an integrated experimental/modeling approach to quantify the interfacial strength and to further predict the life of Crofer 22 APU as SOFC interconnect under isothermal cooling condition. The life of Crofer 22 APU was predicted by comparing the predicted interfacial strength, interfacial stresses induced by the cooling process from the operating temperature to room temperature, together with the growth kinetics of oxide scale with and without spinel coating. It was found that the interfacial strength between the oxide scale and Crofer 22 APU substrate decreases with the growth of the oxide scale. The interfacial strength of the oxide scale and spinel coating is much higher than that of the oxide scale and Crofer 22 APU substrate. With the spinel coating, the predicted life of the Crofer 22 APU is significantly longer than that of the uncoated Crofer 22 APU.

Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

236

INTEGRATING THE DESIGN AND RELIABILITY ASSESSMENT OF A HYBRID PV-THERMAL MICROCONCENTRATOR SYSTEM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, concentrator receivers and modules are composed of many different materials that encapsulate, electrically interconnect, and heat-sink the solar cells. Many of these materials come from the power electronics industry. Although they are reliable in their original field of application, they might fail when included in a solar

237

Interconnection arrangement of routers of processor boards in array of cabinets supporting secure physical partition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A multiple processor computing apparatus includes a physical interconnect structure that is flexibly configurable to support selective segregation of classified and unclassified users. The physical interconnect structure includes routers in service or compute processor boards distributed in an array of cabinets connected in series on each board and to respective routers in neighboring row cabinet boards with the routers in series connection coupled to routers in series connection in respective neighboring column cabinet boards. The array can include disconnect cabinets or respective routers in all boards in each cabinet connected in a toroid. The computing apparatus can include an emulator which permits applications from the same job to be launched on processors that use different operating systems.

Tomkins, James L. (Albuquerque, NM); Camp, William J. (Albuquerque, NM)

2007-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

238

Appears in Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN), July 2001 We propose a fault-tolerant approach to reliable micropro-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that manufactured parts work reliably in varied (and occasionally adverse) operating conditions. If successful

Austin, Todd M.

239

E-Print Network 3.0 - attach interconnection technology Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Barbara; NONE Collection: Biology and Medicine ; Engineering 7 Call for Papers Optoelectronic Interconnects XII (OE113) Summary: interconnect technologies ultra-short reach...

240

Human Reliability | ornl.gov  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Human Reliability SHARE Human Reliability The Structured Trusted Employee Program (STEP) Evaluation is an example of a method for identifying, assessing, and retaining reliable and...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection reliability operating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Upgrade of the LHC magnet interconnections thermal shielding  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The about 1700 interconnections (ICs) between the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) superconducting magnets include thermal shielding at 50-75 K, providing continuity to the thermal shielding of the magnet cryostats to reduce the overall radiation heat loads to the 1.9 K helium bath of the magnets. The IC shield, made of aluminum, is conduction-cooled via a welded bridge to the thermal shield of the adjacent magnets which is actively cooled. TIG welding of these bridges made in the LHC tunnel at installation of the magnets induced a considerable risk of fire hazard due to the proximity of the multi-layer insulation of the magnet shields. A fire incident occurred in one of the machine sectors during machine installation, but fortunately with limited consequences thanks to prompt intervention of the operators. LHC is now undergoing a 2 years technical stop during which all magnet's ICs will have to be opened to consolidate the magnet electrical connections. The IC thermal shields will therefore have to be removed and re-installed after the work is completed. In order to eliminate the risk of fire hazard when re-welding, it has been decided to review the design of the IC shields, by replacing the welded bridges with a mechanical clamping which also preserves its thermal function. An additional advantage of this new solution is the ease in dismantling for maintenance, and eliminating weld-grinding operations at removal needing radioprotection measures because of material activation after long-term operation of the LHC. This paper describes the new design of the IC shields and in particular the theoretical and experimental validation of its thermal performance. Furthermore a status report of the on-going upgrade work in the LHC is given.

Musso, Andrea; Barlow, Graeme; Bastard, Alain; Charrondiere, Maryline; Deferne, Guy; Dib, GaŽlle; Duret, Max; Guinchard, Michael; Prin, Hervť; Craen, Arnaud Vande; Villiger, Gilles [CERN European Organization for Nuclear Research, Meyrin 1211, Geneva 23, CH (Switzerland); Chrul, Anna [The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul.Radzikowskiego 152, 31-324 Krakow (Poland); Damianoglou, Dimitrios [NTUA National Technical University of Athens, Heeron Polytechniou 9, 15780 Zografou (Greece); Strychalski, Micha? [Wroclaw University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Wyb. Wyspianskiego 27, Wroclaw, 50-370 (Poland); Wright, Loren [Lancaster University, Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4YW (United Kingdom)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

242

Exact Coupling Threshold for Structural Transition in Interconnected Networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Interconnected networks are mathematical representation of systems where two or more simple networks are coupled to each other. Depending on the coupling weight between the two components, the interconnected network can function in two regimes: one where the two networks are structurally distinguishable, and one where they are not. The coupling threshold--denoting this structural transition--is one of the most crucial concepts in interconnected networks. Yet, current information about the coupling threshold is limited. This letter presents an analytical expression for the exact value of the coupling threshold and outlines network interrelation implications.

Sahneh, Faryad Darabi; Van Mieghem, Piet

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Reliable Ad Hoc Group Communication using Local Neighborhoods  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Reliable Ad Hoc Group Communication using Local Neighborhoods Lawrence Klos, Golden G. Richard Abstract - In this paper an enhanced reliability protocol added to the ODMRP multicast ad hoc protocol by operational phase. Index Terms ­ Mobile Networking, Ad Hoc Wireless, Multicast, Reliable, ODMRP. I

Richard III, Golden G.

244

Medical Aspects of Reliability  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation covers the medical evaluation as part of a human reliability program, particularly the various medical qualifications and potential disqualifiers.

Atencio, Julian J.

2014-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

245

5 F 13 Optica1 Interconnection T ransmitter Power BER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

¬ľ 5¬ł ¬§ √ľ √? √ł √ź √ź √ļ ¬ł √? √≠ ¬ģ F√? 13 Optica1 Interconnection√? T ransmitter Power √ć BER√? √? √Ľ - ¬° √ľ √?

Choi, Woo-Young

246

Interconnecting PV on New York City's Secondary Network Distribution System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study describes technical assistance provided by NREL to help New York City and Con Edison improve the interconnection of distributed PV systems on a secondary network distribution system.

Anderson, K.; Coddington, M.; Burman, K.; Hayter, S.; Kroposki, B.; Watson, A.

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Energy scalability of on-chip interconnection networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

On-chip interconnection networks (OCN) such as point-to-point networks and buses form the communication backbone in multiprocessor systems-on-a-chip, multicore processors, and tiled processors. OCNs consume significant ...

Konstantakopoulos, Theodoros K., 1977-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Evaluation of phase change materials for reconfigurable interconnects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The possible use of programmable integrated circuit interconnect vias using an indirectly heated phase change material is evaluated. Process development and materials investigations are examined. Devices capable of multiple ...

Khoo, Chee Ying

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Handshake and Circulation Flow Control in Nanaphotonic Interconnects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

leads to low bandwidth utilization. This thesis proposes two handshake schemes for nanophotonic interconnects in CMPs, Global Handshake (GHS) and Distributed Handshake (DHS), which get rid of the traditional credit-based flow control, reduce the average...

Jayabalan, Jagadish

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

250

Mortality Dependence of Cu Dual Damascene Interconnects on Adjacent Segments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electromigration experiments have been carried out on straight interconnects that have single vias at each end, and are divided into two segments by a via in the center ("dotted-I" structures). For dotted-i structures in ...

Chang, Choon Wai

251

Low-Swing Signaling on Monolithically Integrated Global Graphene Interconnects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper, we characterize the performance of monolithically integrated graphene interconnects on a prototype 0.35-?m CMOS chip. The test chip implements an array of transmitter/receivers to analyze the end-to-end data ...

Lee, Kyeong-Jae

252

The Other Face of On-Chip Interconnect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The multicore revolution has changed the way we think about computing. The same movement has also changed the way we look at on-chip interconnect because it is a key determinant of the performance and power efficiency of ...

Agarwal, Anant

253

Fabrication and Characterization of Through-Substrate Interconnects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We developed a through-substrate copper-damascene interconnect technology in silicon with minimal impedance. Via impedance was extracted using parameter measurements at 50 GHz that were matched to simple circuit models. ...

del Alamo, Jesus A.

254

Advanced Unit Commitment Strategies in the United States Eastern Interconnection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project sought to evaluate the impacts of high wind penetrations on the U.S. Eastern Interconnection and analyze how different unit commitment strategies may affect these impacts.

Meibom, P.; Larsen, H. V.; Barth, R.; Brand, H.; Tuohy, A.; Ela, E.

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Photovoltaic Systems Interconnected onto Secondary Network Distribution Systems Ė Success Stories  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This report examines six case studies of photovoltaic (PV) systems integrated into secondary network systems. The six PV systems were chosen for evaluation because they are interconnected to secondary network systems located in four major Solar America Cities.

256

Interconnecting PV on NYC's Secondary Network Distribution System  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

To assess ways to improve the interconnection process, NREL conducted a four-part study with support from DOE. The NREL team then compiled the final reports from each study into this report.

257

Short-term and long-term reliability studies in the deregulated power systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-term reliability in deregulated power systems. Short-term reliability is for operational purposes and is mainly concerned with security. Thus the way energy is dispatched and the actions the system operator takes to remedy an insecure system state...

Li, Yishan

2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

258

Medical Device Reliability BIOMATERIALS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NEMI Medical Electronics team to address short- and long-term reliability issues with medical devices. OurMedical Device Reliability BIOMATERIALS Our goal is to provide medical device manufacturers, and consistency of active implantable medical devices. These devices, including pacemakers, cardiac defibrillators

259

Hawaii electric system reliability.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report addresses Hawaii electric system reliability issues; greater emphasis is placed on short-term reliability but resource adequacy is reviewed in reference to electric consumers' views of reliability %E2%80%9Cworth%E2%80%9D and the reserve capacity required to deliver that value. The report begins with a description of the Hawaii electric system to the extent permitted by publicly available data. Electrical engineering literature in the area of electric reliability is researched and briefly reviewed. North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and measures for generation and transmission are reviewed and identified as to their appropriateness for various portions of the electric grid and for application in Hawaii. Analysis of frequency data supplied by the State of Hawaii Public Utilities Commission is presented together with comparison and contrast of performance of each of the systems for two years, 2010 and 2011. Literature tracing the development of reliability economics is reviewed and referenced. A method is explained for integrating system cost with outage cost to determine the optimal resource adequacy given customers' views of the value contributed by reliable electric supply. The report concludes with findings and recommendations for reliability in the State of Hawaii.

Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto; Loose, Verne William

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Developing Generic Dynamic Models for the 2030 Eastern Interconnection Grid  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) has built three major power flow cases for the 2030 Eastern Interconnection (EI) based on various levels of energy/environmental policy conditions, technology advances, and load growth. Using the power flow cases, this report documents the process of developing the generic 2030 dynamic models using typical dynamic parameters. The constructed model was validated indirectly using the synchronized phasor measurements by removing the wind generation temporarily.

Kou, Gefei [ORNL; Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; Markham, Penn N [ORNL; Liu, Yilu [ORNL

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection reliability operating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

EA-1990: Ridgenose Solar Energy Interconnection Facility, Mohave County, Arizona  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOEís Western Area Power Administration (Desert Southwest Region) is preparing an EA that will assess the potential environmental impacts of a proposal to interconnect the planned Ridgenose Solar Energy Project to Westernís transmission system. Westernís actions could include constructing less than a mile of new transmission line from the solar facility to an existing substation, constructing an interconnection substation, and adding, moving, or modifying structures.

262

Solid-state energy storage module employing integrated interconnect board  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is directed to an improved electrochemical energy storage device. The electrochemical energy storage device includes a number of solid-state, thin-film electrochemical cells which are selectively interconnected in series or parallel through use of an integrated interconnect board. The interconnect board is typically disposed within a sealed housing which also houses the electrochemical cells, and includes a first contact and a second contact respectively coupled to first and second power terminals of the energy storage device. The interconnect board advantageously provides for selective series or parallel connectivity with the electrochemical cells, irrespective of electrochemical cell position within the housing. In one embodiment, a sheet of conductive material is processed by employing a known milling, stamping, or chemical etching technique to include a connection pattern which provides for flexible and selective interconnecting of individual electrochemical cells within the housing, which may be a hermetically sealed housing. Fuses and various electrical and electro-mechanical devices, such as bypass, equalization, and communication devices for example, may also be mounted to the interconnect board and selectively connected to the electrochemical cells.

Rouillard, Jean (Saint-Luc, CA); Comte, Christophe (Montreal, CA); Daigle, Dominik (St-Hyacinthe, CA); Hagen, Ronald A. (Stillwater, MN); Knudson, Orlin B. (Vadnais Heights, MN); Morin, Andre (Longueuil, CA); Ranger, Michel (Lachine, CA); Ross, Guy (Beloeil, CA); Rouillard, Roger (Beloeil, CA); St-Germain, Philippe (Outremont, CA); Sudano, Anthony (Laval, CA); Turgeon, Thomas A. (Fridley, MN)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative News Release  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Transmission Company LLC; Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC; Electric Energy Incorporated; E.ON U.S. LLC , on behalf on its operating companies Louisville Gas & Electric Company and...

264

Operations and Maintenance Program Measurement  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Operations and maintenance (O&M) measurement tends to focus on reliability as the sole metric. Every Federal agency wants a reliable facility, but this metric alone is not enough to build a...

265

Photovoltaic system reliability  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper discusses the reliability of several photovoltaic projects including SMUD`s PV Pioneer project, various projects monitored by Ascension Technology, and the Colorado Parks project. System times-to-failure range from 1 to 16 years, and maintenance costs range from 1 to 16 cents per kilowatt-hour. Factors contributing to the reliability of these systems are discussed, and practices are recommended that can be applied to future projects. This paper also discusses the methodology used to collect and analyze PV system reliability data.

Maish, A.B.; Atcitty, C. [Sandia National Labs., NM (United States); Greenberg, D. [Ascension Technology, Inc., Lincoln Center, MA (United States)] [and others

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Interconnection Networks for Scalable Quantum Computers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We show that the problem of communication in a quantum computer reduces to constructing reliable quantum channels by distributing high-fidelity EPR pairs. We develop analytical models of the latency, bandwidth, error rate and resource utilization of such channels, and show that 100s of qubits must be distributed to accommodate a single data communication. Next, we show that a grid of teleportation nodes forms a good substrate on which to distribute EPR pairs. We also explore the control requirements for such a network. Finally, we propose a specific routing architecture and simulate the communication patterns of the Quantum Fourier Transform to demonstrate the impact of resource contention.

Nemanja Isailovic; Yatish Patel; Mark Whitney; John Kubiatowicz

2006-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

267

Sandia National Laboratories: Permitting, Inspection, and Interconnection  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -theErik Spoerke SSLSMolten-SaltReliabilityIntroduction

268

Value of Improved Wind Power Forecasting in the Western Interconnection (Poster)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Wind power forecasting is a necessary and important technology for incorporating wind power into the unit commitment and dispatch process. It is expected to become increasingly important with higher renewable energy penetration rates and progress toward the smart grid. There is consensus that wind power forecasting can help utility operations with increasing wind power penetration; however, there is far from a consensus about the economic value of improved forecasts. This work explores the value of improved wind power forecasting in the Western Interconnection of the United States.

Hodge, B.

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Reliability and Safety  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE solar reliability and safety research and development (R&D) focuses on testing photovoltaic (PV) modules, inverters, and systems for long-term performance, and helping investors, consumers,...

270

Western Baldwin County, AL Grid Interconnection Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Objective of this Project was to provide an additional supply of electricity to the affected portions of Baldwin County, AL through the purchase, installation, and operation of certain substation equipment.

Thomas DeBell

2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

271

Response of the Potomac Electric Power Company to the Operating...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

of Mirant Potomac River, L.L.C. More Documents & Publications Preliminary Response of PJM Interconnection, L.L.C. to the Operating Plan of Mirant Potomac River, LLC Comments on...

272

Modelling Reliability of Train Arrival Times  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper deals with the scheduling of trains so as to minimise train trip times, whilst maximising reliability of arrival times. The amount of risk of delay associated with a schedule is used as the reliability component of a constrained schedule optimisation model. The paper outlines the model developed to quantify the risk of delays to individual trains, as well as to specific track segments and to the schedule as a whole. The risk model, which deals with single track operations, can be used to estimate the likely impact on reliability of arrival times of changes in train frequencies and operating practices; track and station infrastructure investment strategies; and train technology upgrading. An application of the model to the optimisation of schedules on a track corridor is described. The results obtained using the model are compared with the schedules used by train operations planning staff, in terms of overall delay and timetable reliability. The results highlight the significance of including a measure of timetable reliability, such as risk of delays, in the objective function for scheduling optimisation.

L. Ferreira; A. Higgins

273

Apply reliability centered maintenance to sealless pumps  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports on reliability centered maintenance (RCM) which is considered a crucial part of future reliability engineering. RCM determines the maintenance requirements of plants and equipment in their operating context. The RCM method has been applied to the management of critical sealless pumps in fire/toxic risk services, typical of the petrochemical industry. The method provides advantages from a detailed study of any critical engineering system. RCM is a team exercise and fosters team spirit in the plant environment. The maintenance strategy that evolves is based on team decisions and relies on maximizing the inherent reliability built into the equipment. RCM recommends design upgrades where this inherent reliability is being questioned. Sealless pumps of canned motor design are used as main reactor charge pumps in PVC plants. These pumps handle fresh vinyl chloride monomer (VCM), which is both carcinogenic and flammable.

Pradhan, S. (Exxon Chemicals Canada, Ontario (Canada))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Parametric probability distributions in reliability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Parametric probability distributions in reliability F.P.A. Coolen Department of Mathematical parametric probability distributions which are frequently used in reliability. We present some main as models for specific reliability scenarios. Keywords: Binomial distribution, Exponential distribution

Coolen, Frank

275

Gearbox Reliability Collaborative Update (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation was given at the Sandia Reliability Workshop in August 2013 and provides information on current statistics, a status update, next steps, and other reliability research and development activities related to the Gearbox Reliability Collaborative.

Sheng, S.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Net Metering and Interconnection Procedures-- Incorporating Best Practices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

State utility commissions and utilities themselves are actively developing and revising their procedures for the interconnection and net metering of distributed generation. However, the procedures most often used by regulators and utilities as models have not been updated in the past three years, in which time most of the distributed solar facilities in the United States have been installed. In that period, the Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC) has been a participant in more than thirty state utility commission rulemakings regarding interconnection and net metering of distributed generation. With the knowledge gained from this experience, IREC has updated its model procedures to incorporate current best practices. This paper presents the most significant changes made to IREC√?¬?√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?s model interconnection and net metering procedures.

Jason Keyes, Kevin Fox, Joseph Wiedman, Staff at North Carolina Solar Center

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Photovoltaic module reliability workshop  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The paper and presentations compiled in this volume form the Proceedings of the fourth in a series of Workshops sponsored by Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI/DOE) under the general theme of photovoltaic module reliability during the period 1986--1990. The reliability Photo Voltaic (PV) modules/systems is exceedingly important along with the initial cost and efficiency of modules if the PV technology has to make a major impact in the power generation market, and for it to compete with the conventional electricity producing technologies. The reliability of photovoltaic modules has progressed significantly in the last few years as evidenced by warranties available on commercial modules of as long as 12 years. However, there is still need for substantial research and testing required to improve module field reliability to levels of 30 years or more. Several small groups of researchers are involved in this research, development, and monitoring activity around the world. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in this field were brought together under SERI/DOE sponsorship to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this important field. The papers presented here reflect this effort.

Mrig, L. (ed.)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Defining control strategies for microgrids islanded operation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AbstractóThis paper describes and evaluates the feasibility of control strategies to be adopted for the operation of a microgrid when it becomes isolated. Normally, the microgrid operates in interconnected mode with the medium voltage network; however, scheduled or forced isolation can take place

J. A. PeÁas Lopes; Senior Member; C. L. Moreira; A. G. Madureira

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Increasing the Reliability of Reliability Jochen Brocker1,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Increasing the Reliability of Reliability Diagrams Jochen Br¨ocker1, and Leonard A. Smith1,2 1 University Oxford, UK Corresponding Author, cats@lse.ac.uk November 9, 2006 #12;Abstract The reliability are reliable. Further, an alternative presentation of the same information on probability paper easies

Stevenson, Paul

280

RELIABILITY PLANNING IN DISTRIBUTED ELECTRIC ENERGY SYSTEMS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RESILIENCE; OR RELIABILITY SENSITIVITy .. RiskReliability Planning: Preliminary Definitions.Dioision, Ext. 6782 Reliability Planning in Distributed

Kahn, E.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection reliability operating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Reliability of functional localization using fMRI Khena M. Swallow, Todd S. Braver, Abraham Z. Snyder, Nicole K. Speer,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reliability of functional localization using fMRI Khena M. Swallow, Todd S. Braver, Abraham Z on the reliability of the methods used to define these regions of interest. Two operations may affect the reliability for each participant). The effect of these two operations on reliability was evaluated for two functionally

Zacks, Jeffrey M.

282

Software Reliability Modeling James LEDOUX  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Software Reliability Modeling James LEDOUX Centre de Math¬īematiques INSA & IRMAR 20 Avenue des an overview of some aspects of Software Reliability (SR) engineering. Most systems are now driven by software in reliability engineering, particularly in terms of cost. But predicting software reliability is not easy

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

283

Hermetic aluminum radio frequency interconnection and method for making  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides a light-weight, hermetic coaxial radio-frequency (RF) interconnection having an electrically conductive outer housing made of aluminum or an aluminum alloy, a central electrical conductor made of ferrous or non-ferrous material, and a cylinder of dielectric material comprising a low-melting-temperature, high-thermal-expansion aluminophosphate glass composition for hermetically sealing between the aluminum-alloy outer housing and the ferrous or non-ferrous center conductor. The entire RF interconnection assembly is made permanently hermetic by thermally fusing the center conductor, glass, and housing concurrently by bringing the glass to the melt point by way of exposure to an atmospheric temperature sufficient to melt the glass, less than 540.degree. C., but that does not melt the center conductor or the outer aluminum or aluminum alloy housing. The composition of the glass used is controlled to provide a suitable low dielectric constant so that an appropriate electrical characteristic impedance, for example 50 ohms, can be achieved for an electrical interconnection that performs well at high radio frequencies and also provides an interconnection maintaining a relatively small physical size.

Kilgo, Riley D. (Albuquerque, NM); Kovacic, Larry (Albuquerque, NM); Brow, Richard K. (Rolla, MO)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

A Holistic Approach to Designing Energy-Efficient Cluster Interconnects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, new data centers in the Seattle area are forecast to increase the city's power demands by 25 percentA Holistic Approach to Designing Energy-Efficient Cluster Interconnects Eun Jung Kim, Member, IEEE--Designing energy-efficient clusters has recently become an important concern to make these systems economically

Kim, Eun Jung "EJ"

285

Optimum Wire Tapering for Minimum Power Dissipation in RLC Interconnects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

tapering is shown to reduce the (a CMOS inverter) with the driver (a CMOS inverter). The power dissipatedOptimum Wire Tapering for Minimum Power Dissipation in RLC Interconnects Magdy A. El-Moursy and Eby G. Friedman Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Rochester Rochester, New

Friedman, Eby G.

286

High-temperature quenching of electrical resistance in graphene interconnects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

into the chip interconnect design the materials with low electrical resistance and high thermal con- ductivity dependence of the resistance were explained by the thermal generation of the electron-hole pairs and carrier, increased total thermal boundary resistance of the chip layers, incorporation of the alternative dielectric

287

innovati nInterconnection Standards Guide Integration of Distributed  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Engineers (IEEE). The goal: to create consensus standards with participation from industry, utilities, government, and others to guide the integration of renewable and other small electricity generation, or used IEEE 1547 in the development of their own interconnection standards, and the Energy Policy Act

288

Dynamic management of water transfer between two interconnected river basins  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dynamic management of water transfer between two interconnected river basins Francisco Cabo Katrin cause environmental damage in the donor basin. The recipient faces a trade-off between paying the price of the irrigated soil, or demand for water for highly productive activities like tourism), then the existence

Boyer, Edmond

289

Electric power from offshore wind via synoptic-scale interconnection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electric power from offshore wind via synoptic-scale interconnection Willett Kemptona,1 , Felipe M regional estimate, Kempton et al. (2) calculated that two-thirds of the offshore wind power off the U in the U.S. Atlantic region is already underway. Fig. 1 shows as black squares offshore wind developments

Firestone, Jeremy

290

Sandia National Laboratories: Sandia, Endicott Interconnect Technologies,  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassiveSubmitted for US PatentOperational Energy at FortEMCORE, International

291

Preliminary Characterisation of Low-Temperature Bonded Copper Interconnects for 3-D Integrated Circuits  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Three dimensional (3-D) integrated circuits can be fabricated by bonding previously processed device layers using metal-metal bonds that also serve as layer-to-layer interconnects. Bonded copper interconnects test structures ...

Leong, Hoi Liong

292

Multiparameter Moment Matching Model Reduction Approach for Generating Geometrically Parameterized Interconnect Performance Models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper we describe an approach for generating geometrically-parameterized integrated-circuit interconnect models that are efficient enough for use in interconnect synthesis. The model generation approach presented ...

Daniel, Luca

293

Vibration control in plates by uniformly distributed PZT actuators interconnected via electric networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

improve the performances of piezoelectric actuation. internal resonance / equivalent circuits 1Vibration control in plates by uniformly distributed PZT actuators interconnected via electric vibrations of plates by means of a set of electrically-interconnected piezoelectric actuators is described

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

294

H C26 Performance Analysis of Optica1 Interconnection Systems Inch-ing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Analysis of Optica1 Interconnection Systems Inch- ing T ransmitter T emperature Dependence .√® ¬Į √? , √? √? √¨

Choi, Woo-Young

295

Gearbox Reliability Collaborative Update: A Brief (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation is an update on the Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) for the AWEA Wind Project Operations, Maintenance & Reliability Seminar. GRC accomplishments are: (1) Failure database software deployed - partners see business value for themselves and customers; (2) Designed, built, instrumented, and tested two gearboxes - (a) Generated unprecedented public domain test data from both field testing and dynamometer testing, (b) Different responses from 'identical' gearboxes, (c) Demonstrated importance of non-torque loading and modeling approach; and (3) Active collaborative, with wide industry support, leveraging DOE funding - Modeling round robin and Condition Monitoring round robin.

Sheng, S.; Keller, J.; McDade, M.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Supplying Baseload Power and Reducing Transmission Requirements by Interconnecting Wind Farms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Supplying Baseload Power and Reducing Transmission Requirements by Interconnecting Wind Farms is not used to supply baseload electric power today. Interconnecting wind farms through the transmission grid farms are interconnected in an array, wind speed correlation among sites decreases and so does

297

Analysis of free-space optical interconnects for the three-dimensional optoelectronic stacked processor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Analysis of free-space optical interconnects for the three-dimensional optoelectronic stacked of free-space optical interconnect for the three-dimensional optoelectronic stacked processor (3DOESP) has VLSI; Optoelectronics; VCSELs 1. Introduction Current electronic interconnection technology cannot keep

Esener, Sadik C.

298

Optimization and Visualization of the North American Eastern Interconnect Power Market  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optimization and Visualization of the North American Eastern Interconnect Power Market Douglas R uses a first generation OPF model of the Eastern Interconnect to gauge the potential benefits deriving, there is sufficient low cost capacity to keep peak demand prices in the Eastern Interconnect below $50 MWH. Under

299

Ionized physical vapor deposition of integrated circuit interconnects* J. Hopwood,a)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ionized physical vapor deposition of integrated circuit interconnects* J. Hopwood,a) Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 Received 19 November 1997; accepted 25 November 1997 Interconnects to the interconnection of semiconductor devices while the remaining 10 percent is due to transistor-related delay

300

Interconnection of nitrogen fixers and iron in the Pacific Ocean: Theory and numerical simulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Interconnection of nitrogen fixers and iron in the Pacific Ocean: Theory and numerical simulations, F. Monteiro, and M. J. Follows (2012), Interconnection of nitrogen fixers and iron in the Pacific interconnected. Microbial community structure is shaped by the variable physical, chemical and predatory

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection reliability operating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Network Interconnection with Two-Sided User Benefits Benjamin E. Hermalin & Michael L. Katz  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Network Interconnection with Two-Sided User Benefits Benjamin E. Hermalin & Michael L. Katz Walter Abstract Previous work on network interconnection has tended to overlook that both the sender and receiver interconnection charge is independent of the "direction" of the message and is used to induce optimal end

Sadoulet, Elisabeth

302

Many SIMD interconnection networks have been proposed. To put the different approaches into perspective, this analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Many SIMD interconnection networks have been proposed. To put the different approaches==Emumuuu Interconnection Netwots for SIMD Machines Howard Jay Siegel Purdue University With the advent of microprocessors our discussion to SIMD machine networks (other types are explored else- where17-19). Interconnecting N

303

Operating Efficiency Comes From Teamwork  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A group of operating and planning personnel formed the INter Plant Utilities Team [INPUT] to improve energy efficiency and reliability for Exxon's Baytown, Texas, refinery and chemical plants complex. The Team coordinates the day-to-day operations...

Relyea, D. L.; Stone, A.

304

Human Reliability Program Workshop  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Human Reliability Program (HRP) is designed to protect national security as well as worker and public safety by continuously evaluating the reliability of those who have access to sensitive materials, facilities, and programs. Some elements of a site HRP include systematic (1) supervisory reviews, (2) medical and psychological assessments, (3) management evaluations, (4) personnel security reviews, and (4) training of HRP staff and critical positions. Over the years of implementing an HRP, the Department of Energy (DOE) has faced various challenges and overcome obstacles. During this 4-day activity, participants will examine programs that mitigate threats to nuclear security and the insider threat to include HRP, Nuclear Security Culture (NSC) Enhancement, and Employee Assistance Programs. The focus will be to develop an understanding of the need for a systematic HRP and to discuss challenges and best practices associated with mitigating the insider threat.

Landers, John; Rogers, Erin; Gerke, Gretchen

2014-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

305

Global tree network for computing structures enabling global processing operations  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system and method for enabling high-speed, low-latency global tree network communications among processing nodes interconnected according to a tree network structure. The global tree network enables collective reduction operations to be performed during parallel algorithm operations executing in a computer structure having a plurality of the interconnected processing nodes. Router devices are included that interconnect the nodes of the tree via links to facilitate performance of low-latency global processing operations at nodes of the virtual tree and sub-tree structures. The global operations performed include one or more of: broadcast operations downstream from a root node to leaf nodes of a virtual tree, reduction operations upstream from leaf nodes to the root node in the virtual tree, and point-to-point message passing from any node to the root node. The global tree network is configurable to provide global barrier and interrupt functionality in asynchronous or synchronized manner, and, is physically and logically partitionable.

Blumrich; Matthias A. (Ridgefield, CT); Chen, Dong (Croton-On-Hudson, NY); Coteus, Paul W. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Gara, Alan G. (Mount Kisco, NY); Giampapa, Mark E. (Irvington, NY); Heidelberger, Philip (Cortlandt Manor, NY); Hoenicke, Dirk (Ossining, NY); Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D. (Mount Kisco, NY); Takken, Todd E. (Mount Kisco, NY); Vranas, Pavlos M. (Bedford Hills, NY)

2010-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

306

A reliability assessment methodology for distribution systems with distributed generation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reliability assessment is of primary importance in designing and planning distribution systems that operate in an economic manner with minimal interruption of customer loads. With the advances in renewable energy sources, Distributed Generation (DG...

Duttagupta, Suchismita Sujaya

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

307

Experiences with Two Reliability Data Collection Efforts (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation, given by NREL at the Wind Reliability Experts Meeting in Albuquerque, New Mexico, outlines the causes of wind plant operational expenditures and gearbox failures and describes NREL's efforts to create a gearbox failure database.

Sheng, S.; Lantz, E.

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Continuous Reliability Enhancement for Wind (CREW) database : wind plant reliability benchmark.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To benchmark the current U.S. wind turbine fleet reliability performance and identify the major contributors to component-level failures and other downtime events, the Department of Energy funded the development of the Continuous Reliability Enhancement for Wind (CREW) database by Sandia National Laboratories. This report is the third annual Wind Plant Reliability Benchmark, to publically report on CREW findings for the wind industry. The CREW database uses both high resolution Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) data from operating plants and Strategic Power Systems' ORAPWind%C2%AE (Operational Reliability Analysis Program for Wind) data, which consist of downtime and reserve event records and daily summaries of various time categories for each turbine. Together, these data are used as inputs into CREW's reliability modeling. The results presented here include: the primary CREW Benchmark statistics (operational availability, utilization, capacity factor, mean time between events, and mean downtime); time accounting from an availability perspective; time accounting in terms of the combination of wind speed and generation levels; power curve analysis; and top system and component contributors to unavailability.

Hines, Valerie Ann-Peters; Ogilvie, Alistair B.; Bond, Cody R.

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

EIS-0103: New England/Hydro-Quebec 450-kV Direct Current Transmission Line Interconnection  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Economic Regulatory Administration prepared this statement to evaluate the environmental impacts of the construction, maintenance and operation of a 57-mile transmission line from Monroe, New Hampshire, to the U.S./Canadian border for the purpose of economic exchange of power and increased reliability.

310

Spontaneous synchronization driven by energy transport in interconnected networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Understanding dynamical processes on networks is an important area of research in complex systems, with far reaching implications and applications in many real-world cases. Here we introduce and study a model of intertwined dynamics on interconnected networks, inspired by the human brain, which consists of bidirectionally coupled synchronization and energy transport processes. Remarkably, the proposed model allows the emergence of spontaneous switch-like synchronization transitions driven by the energy transport dynamics, which qualitatively mirror the transitions observed in human brain dynamics between resting-state and cognitive activity. We provide a steady-state analytical explanation for the observed behavior and show that the switch-like transition is robust over a wide range of model parameters and network topologies. Finally, we suggest that the complexity inherent in other interconnected dynamical processes might be responsible for various other emergent behaviors observed in natural systems.

Vincenzo Nicosia; Per Sebastian Skardal; Vito Latora; Alex Arenas

2015-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

311

Reliable solar: powering communities  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromising ScienceRecentRegionalReliability Technology earns

312

Series interconnected photovoltaic cells and method for making same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A novel photovoltaic module and method for constructing the same are disclosed. The module includes a plurality of photovoltaic cells formed on a substrate and laterally separated by interconnection regions. Each cell includes a bottom electrode, a photoactive layer and a top electrode layer. Adjacent cells are connected in electrical series by way of a conductive-buffer line. The buffer line is also useful in protecting the bottom electrode against severing during downstream layer cutting processes. 11 figs.

Albright, S.P.; Chamberlin, R.R.; Thompson, R.A.

1995-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

313

Real Time Grid Reliability Management 2005  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The increased need to manage California?s electricity grid in real time is a result of the ongoing transition from a system operated by vertically-integrated utilities serving native loads to one operated by an independent system operator supporting competitive energy markets. During this transition period, the traditional approach to reliability management -- construction of new transmission lines -- has not been pursued due to unresolved issues related to the financing and recovery of transmission project costs. In the absence of investments in new transmission infrastructure, the best strategy for managing reliability is to equip system operators with better real-time information about actual operating margins so that they can better understand and manage the risk of operating closer to the edge. A companion strategy is to address known deficiencies in offline modeling tools that are needed to ground the use of improved real-time tools. This project: (1) developed and conducted first-ever demonstrations of two prototype real-time software tools for voltage security assessment and phasor monitoring; and (2) prepared a scoping study on improving load and generator response models. Additional funding through two separate subsequent work authorizations has already been provided to build upon the work initiated in this project.

Eto, Joe; Eto, Joe; Lesieutre, Bernard; Lewis, Nancy Jo; Parashar, Manu

2008-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

314

Spontaneous synchronization driven by energy transport in interconnected networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Understanding dynamical processes on networks is an important area of research in complex systems, with far reaching implications and applications in many real-world cases. However, the research to date has mainly focused on single dynamical processes occurring on isolated networks, and very little is known about the more interesting and realistic case of different kinds of intertwined dynamical processes taking place on interconnected networks. An example of the non-trivial combination of two types of dynamics can be found in the human brain, where cerebral circulation delivers the nutrients and oxygenated blood needed for the activity of the different brain areas, and in turn the activity of a region can induce changes in the distribution of blood flow. Here, we introduce and study a model of intertwined dynamics on interconnected networks, inspired by the human brain, which consists of bidirectionally coupled synchronization and energy transport processes. Remarkably, the proposed model allows the emergence of spontaneous switch-like synchronization transitions driven by the energy transport dynamics, which qualitatively mirror the transitions observed in human brain dynamics between resting-state and cognitive activity. We provide a steady-state analytical explanation for the observed behavior and furthermore show that the switch-like transition is robust over a wide range of model parameters and network topologies. We suggest that the complexity inherent in other interconnected dynamical processes might be responsible for various other emergent behaviors observed in natural systems.

Vincenzo Nicosia; Per Sebastian Skardal; Vito Latora; Alex Arenas

2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

315

Wind turbine reliability : a database and analysis approach.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US wind Industry has experienced remarkable growth since the turn of the century. At the same time, the physical size and electrical generation capabilities of wind turbines has also experienced remarkable growth. As the market continues to expand, and as wind generation continues to gain a significant share of the generation portfolio, the reliability of wind turbine technology becomes increasingly important. This report addresses how operations and maintenance costs are related to unreliability - that is the failures experienced by systems and components. Reliability tools are demonstrated, data needed to understand and catalog failure events is described, and practical wind turbine reliability models are illustrated, including preliminary results. This report also presents a continuing process of how to proceed with controlling industry requirements, needs, and expectations related to Reliability, Availability, Maintainability, and Safety. A simply stated goal of this process is to better understand and to improve the operable reliability of wind turbine installations.

Linsday, James (ARES Corporation); Briand, Daniel; Hill, Roger Ray; Stinebaugh, Jennifer A.; Benjamin, Allan S. (ARES Corporation)

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Systems reliability analysis for the national ignition facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Reliability, Availability and Maintainability (RAM) analysis was initiated for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The NIF is an inertial confinement fusion research facility designed to achieve controlled thermonuclear reaction; the preferred site for the NIF is the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The NIF RAM analysis has three purposes: (1) to allocate top level reliability and availability goals for the systems, (2) to develop an operability model for optimum maintainability, and (3) to determine the achievability of the allocated goals of the RAM parameters for the NIF systems and the facility operation as a whole. An allocation model assigns the reliability and availability goals for front line and support systems by a top-down approach; reliability analysis uses a bottom-up approach to determine the system reliability and availability from component level to system level.

Majumdar, K.C.; Annese, C.E.; MacIntyre, A.T.; Sicherman, A.

1996-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

317

ARMY VEHICLE DURABILITY OPTIMIZATION & RELIABILITY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ARMY VEHICLE DURABILITY OPTIMIZATION & RELIABILITY How to Optimize the Vehicle Design to Minimize/Reduce the Weight? Under These Uncertainties, How to Achieve Component Level Reliability? Under These Uncertainties, How to Achieve System Level Reliability? Dynamics Analysis FE Model System Model Dynamic Stress

Kusiak, Andrew

318

FIELD RELIABILITY OF ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I Ww i 1 i FIELD RELIABILITY OF ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS wcwotoias R I S 0 - M - 2 4 1 8 An analytical study of in-the fiald axparlanca of electronics reliability Tag¬© Elm Rise National Laboratory, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark February 1 0 8 4 #12;RIS√?-M-2418 FIELD RELIABILITY OP ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS An analytical

319

Reliability onMultilayerModels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Network Reliability Analysis Based onMultilayerModels László Jereb, Péter Bajor, Attila Kiss a reliability analysis approach which is based on the multilayer model of the telecommunication network. Simple two­state reliability models are assigned to the network elements making it possible to describe

László, Jereb

320

Testing for PV Reliability (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The DOE SUNSHOT workshop is seeking input from the community about PV reliability and how the DOE might address gaps in understanding. This presentation describes the types of testing that are needed for PV reliability and introduces a discussion to identify gaps in our understanding of PV reliability testing.

Kurtz, S.; Bansal, S.

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection reliability operating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Tubular solid oxide fuel cells with porous metal supports and ceramic interconnections  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell structure capable of operating at from 600.degree. C. to 800.degree. C. having a very thin porous hollow elongated metallic support tube having a thickness from 0.10 mm to 1.0 mm, preferably 0.10 mm to 0.35 mm, a porosity of from 25 vol. % to 50 vol. % and a tensile strength from 700 GPa to 900 GPa, which metallic tube supports a reduced thickness air electrode having a thickness from 0.010 mm to 0.2 mm, a solid oxide electrolyte, a cermet fuel electrode, a ceramic interconnection and an electrically conductive cell to cell contact layer.

Huang, Kevin (Export, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA)

2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

322

On the Configuration of the US Western Interconnection Voltage Stability Boundary  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

AbstractóStability limits are considered in power system planning and operations to estimate the available stability margins and, if possible, to maximize the utilization of transmission facilities. These important tasks are influenced by configuration of the stability boundary. The paper introduces a new fast approach to explore the voltage stability boundary of a large system and reveal its detailed multidimensional structure. The 17939-bus U.S. Western Interconnection planning model was used to illustrate the method. Significant peculiarities of the boundaryís configuration were identified, including its nonconvexity, discontinuity, branching and internal singularities (ďholesĒ) that were not known before and could not been found by traditional methods. Experiments using WECC system are performed to evaluate the computation time using different methods. Our results show that the proposed methods are very promising in reducing calculation time and complexity

Makarov, Yuri V.; Vyakaranam, Bharat; Wu, Di; Hou, Zhangshuan; Elbert, Stephen T.; Huang, Zhenyu

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

BI-LAYER p-n JUNCTION INTERCONNECTIONS FOR COAL BASED SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this report, a new approach for lower operating temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) interconnections (IC) consisting of a bi-layer structure is proposed and analyzed. The bi-layer structure consists of a p-type layer exposed to cathodic gas (air/oxygen) and an n-type layer exposed to anodic gas (fuel). It is theoretically shown that the interfacial oxygen partial pressure which is an important design variable, is dependent primarily on the oxygen partial pressure gradient across the IC, the low level oxygen conductivities of the two layers and is largely independent of their electronic conductivities and the total current density through the IC material. Experimental difficulties in fabricating bi-layer structures are presently being addressed.

Srikanth Gopalan

2005-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

324

INVESTIGATION OF NOVEL ALLOY TiC-Ni-Ni3Al FOR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL INTERCONNECT APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cell interconnect materials must meet stringent requirements. Such interconnects must operate at temperatures approaching 800 C while resisting oxidation and reduction, which can occur from the anode and cathode materials and the operating environment. They also must retain their electrical conductivity under these conditions and possess compatible coefficients of thermal expansion as the anode and cathode. Results are presented in this report for fuel cell interconnect candidate materials currently under investigation based upon nano-size titanium carbide (TiC) powders. The TiC is liquid phase sintered with either nickel (Ni) or nickel-aluminide (Ni{sub 3}Al) in varying concentrations. The oxidation resistance of the submicron grain TiC-metal materials is presented as a function weight change versus time at 700 C and 800 C for varying content of metal/intermetallic in the system. Electrical conductivity at 800 C as a function of time is also presented for TiC-Ni to demonstrate the vitality of these materials for interconnect applications. TGA studies showed that the weight gain was 0.8 mg/cm{sup 2} for TiC(30)-Ni(30wt.%) after 100 hours in wet air at 800 C and the weight gain was calculated to be 0.5205 mg/cm{sup 2} for TiC(30)- Ni(10 wt.%) after 100 hours at 700 C and 100 hours at 800 C. At room temperature the electrical conductivity was measured to be 2444 1/[ohm.cm] for TiC-Ni compositions. The electrical conductivities at 800 C in air was recorded to be 19 1/[ohm.cm] after 125 hours. Two identical samples were supplied to PNNL (Dr. Jeff Stevenson) for ASR testing during the pre-decision period and currently they are being tested there. Fabrication, oxidation resistance and electrical conductivity studies indicate that TiC-Ni-Ni{sub 3}Al ternary appears to be a very important system for the development of interconnect composition for solid oxide fuel cells.

Rasit Koc; Geoffrey Swift; Hua Xie

2005-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

325

Human Factors for Situation Assessment in Grid Operations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Executive Summary Despite advances in technology, power system operators must assimilate overwhelming amounts of data to keep the grid operating. Analyses of recent blackouts have clearly demonstrated the need to enhance the operatorís situation awareness (SA). The long-term objective of this research is to integrate valuable technologies into the grid operator environment that support decision making under normal and abnormal operating conditions and remove non-technical barriers to enable the optimum use of these technologies by individuals working alone and as a team. More specifically, the research aims to identify methods and principles to increase SA of grid operators in the context of system conditions that are representative or common across many operating entities and develop operationally relevant experimental methods for studying technologies and operational practices which contribute to SA. With increasing complexity and interconnectivity of the grid, the scope and complexity of situation awareness have grown. New paradigms are needed to guide research and tool development aimed to enhance and improve operations. In reviewing related research, operating practices, systems, and tools, the present study established a taxonomy that provides a perspective on research and development surrounding power grid situation awareness and clarifies the field of human factors/SA for grid operations. Information sources that we used to identify critical factors underlying SA included interviews with experienced operational personnel, available historical summaries and transcripts of abnormal conditions and outages (e.g., the August 14, 2003 blackout), scientific literature, and operational policies/procedures and other documentation. Our analysis of August 2003 blackout transcripts and interviews adopted a different perspective than previous analyses of this material, and we complemented this analysis with additional interviews. Based on our analysis and a broad literature review, we advocate a new perspective on SA in terms of sensemaking, also called situated or ecological decision making, where the focus of the investigation is to understand why the decision maker(s) experienced the situation the way they did, or why what they saw made sense to them at the time. This perspective is distinct from the traditional branch of human factors research in the field which focuses more on ergonomics and the transactional relationship between the human operator and the systems. Consistent with our findings from the literature review, we recognized an over-arching need to focus SA research on issues surrounding the concept of shared knowledge; e.g., awareness of what is happening in adjacent areas as well as oneís own area of responsibility. Major findings were: a) Inadequate communication/information sharing is pervasive, b) Information is available, but not used. Many tools and mechanisms exist for operators to build awareness of the physical grid system, yet the transcripts reveal that they still need to call and exchange information with operators of neighboring areas to improve or validate their SA. The specific types of information that they request are quite predictable and, in most cases, cover information that could be available to both operators and reliability coordinators through readily available displays or other data sources, c) Shared Knowledge is Required on Operations/Actions as Well as Physical Status. In an ideal, technologically and organizationally perfect world, every control room and every reliability coordinator may have access to complete data across all regional control areas and yet, there would still be reason for the operators to call each other to gain and improve their SA of power grid operations, and d) Situation Awareness as sensemaking and shared knowledge.

Guttromson, Ross T.; Schur, Anne; Greitzer, Frank L.; Paget, Mia L.

2007-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

326

Assessment of Solder Interconnect Integrity in Dismantled Electronic Components from N57 and B61 Tube-Type Radars  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aging analyses were performed on solder joints from two radar units: (1) a laboratory, N57 tube-type radar unit and (2) a field-returned, B61-0, tube-type radar unit. The cumulative temperature environments experienced by the units during aging were calculated from the intermetallic compound layer thickness and the mean Pb-rich phase particle size metrics for solder joints in the units, assuming an aging time of 35 years for both radars. Baseline aging metrics were obtained from a laboratory test vehicle assembled at AS/FM and T; the aging kinetics of both metrics were calculated from isothermal aging experiments. The N57 radar unit interconnect board solder joints exhibited very little aging. The eyelet solder joints did show cracking that most likely occurred at the time of assembly. The eyelet, SA1126 connector solder joints, showed some delamination between the Cu pad and underlying laminate. The B61 field-returned radar solder joints showed a nominal degree of aging. Cracking of the eyelet solder joints was observed. The Pb-rich phase particle measurements indicated additional aging of the interconnects as a result of residual stresses. Cracking of the terminal pole connector, pin-to-pin solder joint was observed; but it was not believed to jeopardize the electrical functionality of the interconnect. Extending the stockpile lifetime of the B61 tube-type radar by an additional 20 years would not be impacted by the reliability of the solder joints with respect to further growth of the intermetallic compound layer. Additional coarsening of the Pb-rich phase will increase the joints' sensitivity to thermomechanical fatigue.

Rejent, J.A.; Vianco, P.T.; Woodrum, R.A.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

U.S. Virgin Islands Establishes Interconnection Standards to...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

ensure that the procedure it ultimately adopted would encourage and promote renewable energy development without compromising the safety and reliability of the electricity...

328

Maximal Reliability for Unit-weighted Composites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

precisely measure scale reliability. In H. Yanai, A. Okada,A useful indicator of reliability? Personality & IndividualJ. M. F. (2000). Linking reliability and factor analysis:

Peter M. Bentler

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

RELIABILITY IMPROVEMENT OF BART TRAIN CONTROL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

it was a response to the reliability problems introduced by~atelyowned rights. RELIABILITY IMPROVEMENT OF BART VEHICLEtask group to improve the reliability of the Bay Area Rapid

Turner, D.B.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Microgrids and Heterogeneous Power Quality and Reliability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

high security, quality, reliability, and availabilityĒ, IEEELave, and Marija Ilic: ďCreating Reliability Choice: HowBuilding Less Reliability into Electric Power Grids Could

Marnay, Chris

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

CERTS: Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions - Research Highlights  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Historically, the U.S. electric power industry was vertically integrated, and utilities were responsible for system planning, operations, and reliability management. As the nation moves to a competitive market structure, these functions have been disaggregated, and no single entity is responsible for reliability management. As a result, new tools, technologies, systems, and management processes are needed to manage the reliability of the electricity grid. However, a number of simultaneous trends prevent electricity market participants from pursuing development of these reliability tools: utilities are preoccupied with restructuring their businesses, research funding has declined, and the formation of Independent System Operators (ISOs) and Regional Transmission Organizations (RTOs) to operate the grid means that control of transmission assets is separate from ownership of these assets; at the same time, business uncertainty, and changing regulatory policies have created a climate in which needed investment for transmission infrastructure and tools for reliability management has dried up. To address the resulting emerging gaps in reliability R&D, CERTS has undertaken much-needed public interest research on reliability technologies for the electricity grid. CERTS' vision is to: (1) Transform the electricity grid into an intelligent network that can sense and respond automatically to changing flows of power and emerging problems; (2) Enhance reliability management through market mechanisms, including transparency of real-time information on the status of the grid; (3) Empower customers to manage their energy use and reliability needs in response to real-time market price signals; and (4) Seamlessly integrate distributed technologies--including those for generation, storage, controls, and communications--to support the reliability needs of both the grid and individual customers.

Eto, Joseph

2003-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

332

A hedge fund business plan : investment theory, operations, and capital raising for Broadgates Capital Management  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Launching a start-up hedge fund is a complex, multifaceted endeavor that requires an understanding of the interconnectivity between capital raising, investment strategy, regulation, and fund operations. The purpose of this ...

Mills, Jeffrey David

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

MULTIAREA SYSTEM RELIABILITY: THE ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF SYSTEM SECURITY CRITERIA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MULTIAREA SYSTEM RELIABILITY: THE ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF SYSTEM SECURITY CRITERIA BY TEOMAN GULER B assessment studies and the quantification of the economics of secure power system operations security and the economics of secure operations in the competitive market environment. The advent

Gross, George

334

Final Report on Transmission Pricing in the Western Interconnection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under this project, the Committee on Regional Electric Power Cooperation (CREPC) of the Western Interstate Energy Board developed a ''western pricing and congestion management proposal'' in order to foster efficient wholesale power markets and efficient use and expansion of the transmission grid. Drafts of this paper provided useful information to states/provinces in the Western Interconnection as Western Regional Transmission Organization (RTO) transmission pricing proposals have continued to evolve. Throughout the project there has been a gradual, but incomplete agreement on pricing systems to be used by RTOs in the West.

Douglas C. Larson; Lawrence Nordell

2003-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

335

Electromigration kinetics and critical current of Pb-free interconnects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electromigration kinetics of Pb-free solder bump interconnects have been studied using a single bump parameter sweep technique. By removing bump to bump variations in structure, texture, and composition, the single bump sweep technique has provided both activation energy and power exponents that reflect atomic migration and interface reactions with fewer samples, shorter stress time, and better statistics than standard failure testing procedures. Contact metallurgies based on Cu and Ni have been studied. Critical current, which corresponds to the Blech limit, was found to exist in the Ni metallurgy, but not in the Cu metallurgy. A temperature dependence of critical current was also observed.

Lu, Minhua; Rosenberg, Robert [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States)

2014-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

336

Series interconnected photovoltaic cells and method for making same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A novel photovoltaic module (10) and method for constructing the same are disclosed. The module (10) includes a plurality of photovoltaic cells (12) formed on a substrate (14) and laterally separated by interconnection regions (15). Each cell (12) includes a bottom electrode (16), a photoactive layer (18) and a top electrode layer (20). Adjacent cells (12) are connected in electrical series by way of a conductive-buffer line (22). The buffer line (22) is also useful in protecting the bottom electrode (16) against severing during downstream layer cutting processes.

Albright, Scot P. (El Paso, TX); Chamberlin, Rhodes R. (El Paso, TX); Thompson, Roger A. (Littleton, CO)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Evaluation of a Functional Interconnect System for SOFC's  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of this project was to validate the concept and application of a functional interconnect, based on a ferritic stainless steel, for a solid oxide fuel cell through manufacturing trials, laboratory testing, and field experience. The materials of construction and their surfaces were to be optimized for the particular service conditions and include low-cost ferritic stainless steels, novel postprocess treatments, and third-party coatings. This work aimed to optimize specific aspects of substrate alloy chemistry and to study the effects of long-term exposures on resistive oxide film structure and chemistry, interaction with applied surface coatings, and effectiveness of novel surface treatments.

Matthew Bender; James Rakowski

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

338

National Electric Transmission Study 2006 Western Interconnection Analysis  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGY TAXBalanced Scorecard Federal2 to:DieselEnergy AuditorWestern Interconnection 2006

339

Reliability Assessment of Fault-Tolerant Dc-Dc Converters for Photovoltaic Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reliability Assessment of Fault-Tolerant Dc-Dc Converters for Photovoltaic Applications Sairaj V performance and reliability analysis of switch-mode, dc-dc power converters employed as front ends of the converter's steady-state operation on device failure rates. Markov reliability models are derived to assess

Liberzon, Daniel

340

Reliability Modeling of Cyber-Physical Electric Power Systems: A System-Theoretic Framework  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Reliability Modeling of Cyber-Physical Electric Power Systems: A System-Theoretic Framework systematic reliability analysis tools to address planning and operation challenges of future electric power and the introduction of new sources of uncertainty in systems already inherently complex. Current reliability analysis

Liberzon, Daniel

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection reliability operating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Power Reliability at BASF Corporation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Power Reliability at BASF Corporation Thomas R. Theising Energy Systems Manager BASF Corporation ABSTRACT: Quality is defined not as what the supplier puts into the product but what the customer gets out and is willing to pay for. Power... of overcoming these problems. The approach of addressing the reliability of its utility systems is common within BASF. This paper will address one of BASF?s approaches to addressing Power Reliability. PROBLEM RECOGNITION: The first issue to address...

Theising, T. R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Power Reliability at BASF Corporation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Power Reliability at BASF Corporation Thomas R. Theising Energy Systems Manager BASF Corporation ABSTRACT: Quality is defined not as what the supplier puts into the product but what the customer gets out and is willing to pay for. Power... of overcoming these problems. The approach of addressing the reliability of its utility systems is common within BASF. This paper will address one of BASF?s approaches to addressing Power Reliability. PROBLEM RECOGNITION: The first issue to address...

Theising, T. R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Reliable, Low-Cost Distributed Generator/Utility System Interconnect: Final Subcontract Report, November 2001-March 2004  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the detailed study and development of new GE anti-islanding controls for two classes of distributed generation. One is inverter-interfaced, while the other is synchronous machine interfaced.

Ye, Z.; Walling, R.; Miller, N.; Du, P.; Nelson, K.; Li, L.; Zhou, R.; Garces, L.; Dame, M.

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

CSD Safety and Reliability Data  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Reliability Data Forecourt CSD Workshop Argonne National Laboratory Kevin Harrison 20-Mar-2013 2 Approach - Composite Data Products CDPs DDPs Results Internal analysis completed...

345

WECC releases its first-ever transmission plan for the Western Interconnection  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) announced the release of its first 10-Year Regional Transmission Plan (Plan) for the Western Interconnection.

346

Interconnection of Direct-drive Wind Turbines Using A Series Connected DC Grid.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This thesis presents the concept of a "distributed HVDC converter" for offshore wind farms. The proposed converter topology allows series interconnection of wind turbines obviatingÖ (more)

Veilleux, Etienne

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Comparing Germany's and California's Interconnection Processes for PV Systems (White Paper)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Establishing interconnection to the grid is a recognized barrier to the deployment of distributed energy generation. This report compares interconnection processes for photovoltaic projects in California and Germany. This report summarizes the steps of the interconnection process for developers and utilities, the average length of time utilities take to process applications, and paperwork required of project developers. Based on a review of the available literature, this report finds that while the interconnection procedures and timelines are similar in California and Germany, differences in the legal and regulatory frameworks are substantial.

Tweedie, A.; Doris, E.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Generation Interconnection Policies and Wind Power: A Discussion of Issues, Problems, and Potential Solutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the adoption and implementation of FERC Order 2003 and the reasons for the sharp rise in generation interconnection filings in recent years.

Porter, K.; Fink, S.; Mudd, C.; DeCesaro, J.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

DC electrodeposition of MnĖCo alloys on stainless steels for SOFC interconnect application  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High conductivity coatings that resist oxide scale growth and reduce chromium evaporation are needed to make stainless steel interconnect materials viable for long-term stable operation of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). Mn1.5Co1.5O4 spinel is one of the most promising coatings for interconnect application because of its high conductivity, good chromium retention capability, as well as good CTE match to ferritic stainless steels. MnĖCo electrodeposition followed by oxidization is potentially a low cost method for fabrication of (Mn,Co)3O4 spinel coatings. This work looks at the co-deposition of MnĖCo alloys for this application. As a guide to optimize the deposition process, characterizations of the cathodic reactions and reaction potentials are done using polarization curves. It was found that as cobalt concentration was varied that the alloy composition became richer in cobalt, indicating that the deposition is regular co-deposition process. It was also found that at 0.05M Co concentration in excess gluconate the MnĖCo alloys composition could be tuned by varying the current density. Coatings with MnĖCo around 1:1 could be obtained at a current density of 250 mA/cm2. However, the higher potential increased hydrogen production making the films more porous. Oxidation of the alloy coatings showed that much of the porosities could be eliminated during oxidation. It was found in a number of samples that fully dense coatings where obtained. The composition of the oxidized coating was found to become enriched in Mn, possibly due to the Mn fast diffusion from the substrate.

Wu, Junwei; Jiang, Yinglu; Johnson, Christopher; Liu, Xingbo

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

NORTH AMERICAN ELECTRIC RELIABILITY COUNCIL: Preliminary Disturbance...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

NORTH AMERICAN ELECTRIC RELIABILITY COUNCIL: Preliminary Disturbance Report NORTH AMERICAN ELECTRIC RELIABILITY COUNCIL: Preliminary Disturbance Report The following information...

351

Reliability Estimation for Double Containment Piping  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Double walled or double containment piping is considered for use in the ITER international project and other next-generation fusion device designs to provide an extra barrier for tritium gas and other radioactive materials. The extra barrier improves confinement of these materials and enhances safety of the facility. This paper describes some of the design challenges in designing double containment piping systems. There is also a brief review of a few operating experiences of double walled piping used with hazardous chemicals in different industries. This paper recommends approaches for the reliability analyst to use to quantify leakage from a double containment piping system in conceptual and more advanced designs. The paper also cites quantitative data that can be used to support such reliability analyses.

L. Cadwallader; T. Pinna

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Electrical isolation of component cells in monolithically interconnected modules  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A monolithically interconnected photovoltaic module having cells which are electrically connected which comprises a substrate, a plurality of cells formed over the substrate, each cell including a primary absorber layer having a light receiving surface and a p-region, formed with a p-type dopant, and an n-region formed with an n-type dopant adjacent the p-region to form a single pn-junction, and a cell isolation diode layer having a p-region, formed with a p-type dopant, and an n-region formed with an n-type dopant adjacent the p-region to form a single pn-junction, the diode layer intervening the substrate and the absorber layer wherein the absorber and diode interfacial regions of a same conductivity type orientation, the diode layer having a reverse-breakdown voltage sufficient to prevent inter-cell shunting, and each cell electrically isolated from adjacent cells with a vertical trench trough the pn-junction of the diode layer, interconnects disposed in the trenches contacting the absorber regions of adjacent cells which are doped an opposite conductivity type, and electrical contacts.

Wanlass, Mark W. (Golden, CO)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

On Irregular Interconnect Fabrics for Self-Assembled Nanoscale Electronics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nanoscale electronics and novel fabrication technologies bear unique opportunities for self-assembling multi-billion component systems in a largely random manner, which would likely lower fabrication costs significantly compared to a definite ad hoc assembly. It has been shown that communication networks with the small-world property have major advantages in terms of transport characteristics and robustness over regularly connected systems. In this paper we pragmatically investigate the properties of an irregular, abstract, yet physically plausible small-world interconnect fabric that is inspired by modern network-on-chip paradigms. We vary the framework's key parameters, such as the connectivity, the number of switch blocks, the number of virtual channels, the routing strategy, the distribution of long- and short-range connections, and measure the network's transport characteristics and robustness against failures. We further explore the ability and efficiency to solve two simple toy problems, the synchronization and the density classification task. The results confirm that (1) computation in irregular assemblies is a promising new computing paradigm for nanoscale electronics and (2) that small-world interconnect fabrics have major advantages over local CA-like topologies. Finally, the results will help to make important design decisions for building self-assembled electronics in a largely random manner.

Christof Teuscher

2006-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

354

Applying Reliability Models to the Space Shuttle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Applying Reliability Models to the Space Shuttle Norman F. Schneidewind Ted W. Keller #12;What are Reliability Models? Reliability Models are tools that Help Us: · Predict software Reliability. · Control software Reliability. · Assess software Reliability. This functions let an organization determine

Feitelson, Dror

355

Increasing positive displacement charging pump reliability  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of positive displacement pumps in many PWRs is an integral part of providing reactivity control via the Chemical and Volume Control system. This usually requires the continuous operation of at least one pump, typically with a flow rate of 44 gpm {at} 2,310 psig (167 lpm {at} 160 bar). Some PWRs use multiple pumps, and vary the letdown, while others use variable speed pumps. Regardless, the charging pumps run continuously. With the amount of reciprocating mass, differential pressure, and friction, it is a battle to maintain the pumps in peak operating condition for long periods of time. This paper will show how Entergy Operations` Waterford 3 SES was able to increase the reliability of the positive displacement Charging Pumps. Many different solutions were evaluated, and several adopted. The results are undeniable, as availability has increased and O and M costs have been reduced by 90% over 6 years.

Wade, J.H. III [Entergy Operations, Inc., Killona, LA (United States)

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

FORMAL SEMANTICS AND VERIFICATION OF DYNAMIC RELIABILITY BLOCK DIAGRAMS FOR SYSTEM RELIABILITY MODELING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FORMAL SEMANTICS AND VERIFICATION OF DYNAMIC RELIABILITY BLOCK DIAGRAMS FOR SYSTEM RELIABILITY captured by existing reliability modeling tools. In this paper, we introduce a new reliability modeling tool, called dynamic reliability block diagrams (DRBD), for modeling dynamic relationships between

Xu, Haiping

357

Photovoltaic performance and reliability workshop  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This workshop was the sixth in a series of workshops sponsored by NREL/DOE under the general subject of photovoltaic testing and reliability during the period 1986--1993. PV performance and PV reliability are at least as important as PV cost, if not more. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities, and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in the field were brought together to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this evolving field of PV reliability. The papers presented here reflect this effort since the last workshop held in September, 1992. The topics covered include: cell and module characterization, module and system testing, durability and reliability, system field experience, and standards and codes.

Mrig, L. [ed.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Individual Differences in Human Reliability Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

While human reliability analysis (HRA) methods include uncertainty in quantification, the nominal model of human error in HRA typically assumes that operator performance does not vary significantly when they are given the same initiating event, indicators, procedures, and training, and that any differences in operator performance are simply aleatory (i.e., random). While this assumption generally holds true when performing routine actions, variability in operator response has been observed in multiple studies, especially in complex situations that go beyond training and procedures. As such, complexity can lead to differences in operator performance (e.g., operator understanding and decision-making). Furthermore, psychological research has shown that there are a number of known antecedents (i.e., attributable causes) that consistently contribute to observable and systematically measurable (i.e., not random) differences in behavior. This paper reviews examples of individual differences taken from operational experience and the psychological literature. The impact of these differences in human behavior and their implications for HRA are then discussed. We propose that individual differences should not be treated as aleatory, but rather as epistemic. Ultimately, by understanding the sources of individual differences, it is possible to remove some epistemic uncertainty from analyses.

Jeffrey C. Joe; Ronald L. Boring

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Degradation of solid oxide fuel cell metallic interconnects in fuels containing sulfur  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrogen is the main fuel for all types of fuel cells except direct methanol fuel cells. Hydrogen can be generated from all manner of fossil fuels, including coal, natural gas, diesel, gasoline, other hydrocarbons, and oxygenates (e.g., methanol, ethanol, butanol, etc.). Impurities in the fuel can cause significant performance problems and sulfur, in particular, can decrease the cell performance of fuel cells, including solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). In the SOFC, the high (800-1000įC) operating temperature yields advantages (e.g., internal fuel reforming) and disadvantages (e.g., material selection and degradation problems). Significant progress in reducing the operating temperature of the SOFC from ~1000 ļC to ~750 ļC may allow less expensive metallic materials to be used for interconnects and as balance of plant (BOP) materials. This paper provides insight on the material performance of nickel, ferritic steels, and nickel-based alloys in fuels containing sulfur, primarily in the form of H2S, and seeks to quantify the extent of possible degradation due to sulfur in the gas stream.

Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Extraction and Modeling of the Optoelectronic Characteristics of an Optical Interconnect Link  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Extraction and Modeling of the Optoelectronic Characteristics of an Optical Interconnect Link a technique that enables the extraction and modeling of some of the channel's optoelectronic characteristics and optoelectronic com- ponents utilized in the link. 1. Introduction In the last decade optical interconnects have

Esener, Sadik C.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection reliability operating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Predictions, Challenges, and Opportunities in CMOS Compatible On-Chip Optical Interconnect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to a few picoseconds. IV. ELECTRICAL VS. OPTICAL INTERCONNECTS Different criteria used in the design of the . Friedman Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Rochester, Rochester, New York for electrical interconnect. Predictions of the performance of CMOS compatible optical devices are made based

Friedman, Eby G.

362

Plasticity contributions to interface adhesion in thin-film interconnect structures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Plasticity contributions to interface adhesion in thin-film interconnect structures Michael Lanea of plasticity in thin copper layers on the interface fracture resistance in thin-film interconnect structures yield properties together with a plastic flow model for the metal layers were used to predict

Vainchtein, Anna

363

Power Reduction of CMP Communication Networks via RF-Interconnects M-C. Frank Chang  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- alized via integration of Radio Frequency Interconnect (RF- I) through on-chip transmission lines of analog waves over on- chip transmission lines. These technologies include radio fre- quency interconnect latency and low energy consumption [5][7]. RF-I transmission lines provide single-cycle cross

Cong, Jason "Jingsheng"

364

Control Design for Interconnected Power Systems with OLTCs via Robust Decentralized Control  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Control Design for Interconnected Power Systems with OLTCs via Robust Decentralized Control the problem of designing a decentralized control of interconnected power systems, with OLTC and SVCs, under-scale Markov jump parameter systems framework. In this paper, unlike other control schemes, OLTC transformers

Pota, Himanshu Roy

365

Catalytic bipolar interconnection plate for use in a fuel cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A bipolar interconnection plate for use between adjacent fuel cell units in a stacked fuel cell assembly. Each plate is manufactured from an intermetallic composition, examples of which include NiAl or Ni.sub.3 Al which can catalyze steam reforming of hydrocarbons. Distributed within the intermetallic structure of the plate is a ceramic filler composition. The plate includes a first side with gas flow channels therein and a second side with fuel flow channels therein. A protective coating is applied to the first side, with exemplary coatings including strontium-doped or calcium-doped lanthanum chromite. To produce the plate, Ni and Al powders are combined with the filler composition, compressed at a pressure of about 10,000-30,000 psi, and heated to about 600.degree.-1000.degree. C. The coating is then applied to the first side of the completed plate using liquid injection plasma deposition or other deposition techniques.

Lessing, Paul A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Catalytic bipolar interconnection plate for use in a fuel cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A bipolar interconnection plate is described for use between adjacent fuel cell units in a stacked fuel cell assembly. Each plate is manufactured from an intermetallic composition, examples of which include NiAl or Ni{sub 3}Al which can catalyze steam reforming of hydrocarbons. Distributed within the intermetallic structure of the plate is a ceramic filler composition. The plate includes a first side with gas flow channels therein and a second side with fuel flow channels therein. A protective coating is applied to the first side, with exemplary coatings including strontium-doped or calcium-doped lanthanum chromite. To produce the plate, Ni and Al powders are combined with the filler composition, compressed at a pressure of about 10,000--30,000 psi, and heated to about 600--1000 C. The coating is then applied to the first side of the completed plate using liquid injection plasma deposition or other deposition techniques. 6 figs.

Lessing, P.A.

1996-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

367

Geothermal Power and Interconnection: The Economics of Getting to Market  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides a baseline description of the transmission issues affecting geothermal technologies. The report begins with a comprehensive overview of the grid, how it is planned, how it is used, and how it is paid for. The report then overlays onto this 'big picture' three types of geothermal technologies: conventional hydrothermal systems; emerging technologies such as enhanced engineered geothermal systems (EGS) and geopressured geothermal; and geothermal co-production with existing oil and gas wells. Each category of geothermal technology has its own set of interconnection issues, and these are examined separately for each. The report draws conclusions about each technology's market affinities as defined by factors related to transmission and distribution infrastructure. It finishes with an assessment of selected markets with known geothermal potential, identifying those that offer the best prospects for near-term commercial development and for demonstration projects.

Hurlbut, D.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Quantum Dissipative Systems and Feedback Control Design by Interconnection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The purpose of this paper is to extend J.C. Willems' theory of dissipative systems to the quantum domain. This general theory, which combines perspectives from the quantum physics and control engineering communities, provides useful methods for analysis and design of dissipative quantum systems. We describe the interaction of the plant and a class of exosystems in general quantum feedback network terms. Our results include an infinitesimal characterization of the dissipation property, which generalizes the well-known Positive Real and Bounded Real Lemmas, and is used to study some properties of quantum dissipative systems. We also show how to formulate control design problems using quantum network models, which implements Willems' `control by interconnection' for open quantum systems. This control design formulation includes, for example, standard problems of stabilization, regulation, and robust control.

Matthew R. James; John Gough

2009-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

369

Efficient algorithm to compute mutually connected components in interconnected networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mutually connected components (MCCs) play an important role as a measure of resilience in the study of interconnected networks. Despite their importance, an efficient algorithm to obtain physical properties of all MCCs during the removals of links is not available. Here, using a well-known fully-dynamic graph algorithm, we propose an efficient algorithm to accomplish this. We show that the time complexity of this algorithm is approximately $\\mathcal{O}(N^{1.2})$, which is more efficient than the brute-force algorithm with complexity $\\mathcal{O}(N^{2})$. We anticipate this algorithm to allow simulations with complex dynamic rules to research a size regime that was not permitted before.

Hwang, S; Lee, Deokjae; Kahng, B

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Optimal Planning and Operation of Smart Grids with Electric Vehicle Interconnection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

there is no PV installed and no stationary battery capacity.Battery Efficiency Near Top-of-Charge and the Impact on PV

Stadler, Michael

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Preliminary Response of PJM Interconnection, L.L.C. to the Operating...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

. In summary, PJM understands the difficulty facing the Department in having to balance the important conflicting interests presented here. However, PJM does not regard Option A as...

372

Optimal Planning and Operation of Smart Grids with Electric Vehicle Interconnection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for the available PV, solar thermal, and EV parking lots atphotovoltaic (PV), solar thermal, stationary batteries,maximum possible PV and solar thermal adoption as well as

Stadler, Michael

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Optimal Planning and Operation of Smart Grids with Electric Vehicle Interconnection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is limited by battery size - Heat storage is limited bybattery discharging efficiency, dimensionless electricity storagefor other non-storage technologies, $ EV battery degradation

Stadler, Michael

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Optimal Planning and Operation of Smart Grids with Electric Vehicle Interconnection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

efficiency requirements - Maximum emission limits Investment constraints: - Payback period is constrained Storage constraints: - Electricity stored is limited by batterybattery minimum state of charge, dimensionless EV battery charging efficiency, dimensionless EV battery discharging efficiency, dimensionless electricity storage

Stadler, Michael

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Optimal Planning and Operation of Smart Grids with Electric Vehicle Interconnection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

costs, EV battery degradation costs, and sales. min C ?????electricity sales, $ Electricity exchange with EVs D EV m,h

Stadler, Michael

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Optimal Planning and Operation of Smart Grids with Electric Vehicle Interconnection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

storage [GWh] combined heat and power (CHP) and otheron Microgrid Combined Heat and Power Adoption,Ē Journal ofcarbon emissions, combined heat and power, commercial

Stadler, Michael

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Optimal Planning and Operation of Smart Grids with Electric Vehicle Interconnection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

buildings/energyplus/. EPRI-DOE Handbook of Energy StorageApplications (2003). EPRI, Palo Alto, CA, and the U.S.2004), (SGIP, 2008), (EPRI-DOE, 2003), (Mechanical Cost Data

Stadler, Michael

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Optimal Planning and Operation of Smart Grids with Electric Vehicle Interconnection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GWh] combined heat and power (CHP) and other distributenand combined heat and power (CHP) systems with and withoutrenewable energy source or CHP system at the building could

Stadler, Michael

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Preliminary Response of PJM Interconnection, L.L.C. to the Operating Plan  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of Energy Power.pdf11-161-LNG |September 15,2015 | Department of Energy University of California -Inc.of

380

Optimal Planning and Operation of Smart Grids with Electric Vehicle Interconnection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is anErnest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, OneErnest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA,

Stadler, Michael

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection reliability operating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Optimal Planning and Operation of Smart Grids with Electric Vehicle Interconnection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

driven demand response in these commercial buildings. Byenable demand response. When connected to buildings, mobile

Stadler, Michael

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Operational experience with superconducting synchrotron magnets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The operational experience with the Fermilab Tevatron is presented, with emphasis on reliability and failure modes. Comprisons are made between the operating efficiencies for the superconducting machine and for he conventional Main Ring.

Martin, P.S.

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Effects of Oxide Thickness on Scale and Interface Stresses under Isothermal Cooling and Micro-Indentation for Ferritic Stainless Steel Interconnect  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Interconnects in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) provide the electrical connection between the individual cells, as well as separate the anode air from the cathode fuel for each cell. The recently developed anode-supported planar SOFCs design allows the cell working temperature to be 800oC and lower, which led to the proposed use of ferritic stainless steel as interconnects and current collectors in the SOFC systems. Many experimental studies have shown that metal based interconnects will go through surface oxidation under the typical operating temperature and environment of an SOFC system. Since the oxide scale is formed at the outer surface of interconnect, its microstructure (morphology, texture), properties (electrical, thermal and mechanical properties), and structural integrity/stability will have a significant impact on the performance of interconnect. In this paper, we study the oxide growth kinetics and stresses generated during scale growth the thermal cycling for Cr-Fe based alloy, e.g. Crofer 22 APU. The goal is to predict the interconnect life under typical operating conditions and thermal cycles. First, a mathematical model is developed based on the growth of scale and coupling relation between diffusion and stress field. The following phenomena are considered: 1) The predominant cationic diffusion and cation distribution within the oxide scale in transient state and steady state; 2) Chemical reaction within the scale as well as the growth kinetics of the oxide scale; 3) Stresses distribution during the oxidation, especially for mid- and long-term treatment; 4) Coupling relationship or interaction between oxidation induced stresses and mass diffusion within the scale. Next, thermal stresses generated due to temperature changes in thermal cycling are predicted using finite element analyses for different substrate and scale thickness. In general, very high compressive in-plane stresses are predicted for the oxide layer. Also, high shear stress is also predicted on the oxide/substrate interface. The predicted shear stress on the interface is used to compare with the experimentally determined bond strength to predict delamination. Finally, scale spallation and IC life prediction are predicted by comparing the compressive stress in the scale with the critical buckling load for the delaminated scale.

Sun, Xin; Liu, Wenning N.; Vetrano, John S.; Yang, Zhenguo; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2007-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

384

Photovoltaics performance and reliability workshop  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document consists of papers and viewgraphs compiled from the proceedings of a workshop held in September 1992. This workshop was the fifth in a series sponsored by NREL/DOE under the general subject areas of photovoltaic module testing and reliability. PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others exchanged technical knowledge and field experience. The topics of cell and module characterization, module and system performance, materials and module durability/reliability research, solar radiation, and applications are discussed.

Mrig, L. [ed.] [ed.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Photovoltaics performance and reliability workshop  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document consists of papers and viewgraphs compiled from the proceedings of a workshop held in September 1992. This workshop was the fifth in a series sponsored by NREL/DOE under the general subject areas of photovoltaic module testing and reliability. PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others exchanged technical knowledge and field experience. The topics of cell and module characterization, module and system performance, materials and module durability/reliability research, solar radiation, and applications are discussed.

Mrig, L. (ed.) [ed.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

JRF (Quality, Reliability and Operations Research): 2013 INDIAN STATISTICAL INSTITUTE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Research, (E) Quality Management and Systems and (F) Mathematics. A broad coverage for each of the above), Queuing theory (M/M/s), Game theory (two person zero-sum game). E. Quality Management and Systems: Quality, Quality planning, Quality costs, Total qual- ity management, Six sigma, Quality management system concepts

Bandyopadhyay, Antar

387

Advancing Visibility of Grid Operations to Improve Reliability | Department  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustionImprovement3-- ------------------------------ChapterJuly 20142Lora Toyof Energy Visibility

388

Data Center Efficiency and IT Equipment Reliability at Wider Operating  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat Pump Models | Department1 Prepared by:DTE Energy VideoDark Matter andTemperature

389

Washington DC Reliability Requirements and the Need to Operate Mirant's  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector GeneralDepartment of EnergyofProject is onModeling andReportandVDepartmentWarmWashPotomac River

390

Impact of dispersed solar and wind systems on electric distribution planning and operation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Small-scale dispersed solar photovoltaic and wind generation (DSW) will affect the generation, transmission, and distribution systems of an electric utility. This study examines the technical and economic impacts of dispersing DSW devices within the distribution system. Dispersed intermittent generation is included. Effects of DSW devices on capital investments, reliability, operating and maintenance costs, protection requirements, and communication and control requirements are examined. A DSW operation model is developed to help determine the dependable capacity of fluctuating solar photovoltaic and wind generation as part of the distribution planning process. Specific case studies using distribution system data and renewable resource data for Southern California Edison Company and Consumers Power Company are analyzed to gain insights into the effects of interconnecting DSW devices. The DSW devices were found to offer some distribution investment savings, depending on their availability during peak loads. For a summer-peaking utility, for example, dispersing photovoltaic systems is more likely to defer distribution capital investments than dispersing wind systems. Dispersing storage devices to increase DSW's dependable capacity for distribution systems needs is not economically attractive. Substation placement of DSW and storage devices is found to be more cost effective than feeder or customer placement. Examination of the effects of DSW on distribution system operation showed that small customer-owned DSW devices are not likely to disrupt present time-current distribution protection coordination. Present maintenance work procedures, are adequate to ensure workmen's safety. Regulating voltages within appropriate limits will become more complex with intermittent generation along the distribution feeders.

Boardman, R.W.; Patton, R.; Curtice, D.H.

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Abstract--It is impractical to analyze all of the possible contingencies in a large-scale interconnected power network.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

University. He joined PJM Interconnection as a transmission planning engineer recently. (e-mail: chenq@pjm

McCalley, James D.

392

Reliability Assessment Using Discriminative Sampling and Metamodeling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 05M-400 Reliability Assessment Using Discriminative Sampling and Metamodeling G. Gary Wang Dept ABSTRACT Reliability assessment is the foundation for reliability engineering and reliability-based design optimization. It has been a difficult task, however, to perform both accurate and efficient reliability

Wang, Gaofeng Gary

393

Seasonal Movements and Spatial Distributions of Common Carp in an Interconnected Glacial Lake System in Eastern South Dakota  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

0 Seasonal Movements and Spatial Distributions of Common Carp in an Interconnected Glacial Lake in an Interconnected Glacial Lake System in Eastern South Dakota This thesis is approved as a creditable Distributions of Common Carp in an Interconnected Glacial Lake System in Eastern South Dakota Matthew J.

394

p r o g r e s s r e p o r t s Interconnect: A Fundamental Constraint  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

p r o g r e s s r e p o r t s Interconnect: A Fundamental Constraint André DeHon e n g e n i o u devices. This shows up most clearly when we need to interconnect physically distinct computa- tional to implement some larger computation or compu- tational structure. The interconnect which links these elements

Haile, Sossina M.

395

MEMS Reliability: Infrastructure, Test Structures, Experiments, and Failure Modes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The burgeoning new technology of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) shows great promise in the weapons arena. We can now conceive of micro-gyros, micro-surety systems, and micro-navigators that are extremely small and inexpensive. Do we want to use this new technology in critical applications such as nuclear weapons? This question drove us to understand the reliability and failure mechanisms of silicon surface-micromachined MEMS. Development of a testing infrastructure was a crucial step to perform reliability experiments on MEMS devices and will be reported here. In addition, reliability test structures have been designed and characterized. Many experiments were performed to investigate failure modes and specifically those in different environments (humidity, temperature, shock, vibration, and storage). A predictive reliability model for wear of rubbing surfaces in microengines was developed. The root causes of failure for operating and non-operating MEMS are discussed. The major failure mechanism for operating MEMS was wear of the polysilicon rubbing surfaces. Reliability design rules for future MEMS devices are established.

TANNER,DANELLE M.; SMITH,NORMAN F.; IRWIN,LLOYD W.; EATON,WILLIAM P.; HELGESEN,KAREN SUE; CLEMENT,J. JOSEPH; MILLER,WILLIAM M.; MILLER,SAMUEL L.; DUGGER,MICHAEL T.; WALRAVEN,JEREMY A.; PETERSON,KENNETH A.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

FFTF (Fast Flux Test Facility) reactor shutdown system reliability reevaluation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The reliability analysis of the Fast Flux Test Facility reactor shutdown system was reevaluated. Failure information based on five years of plant operating experience was used to verify original reliability numbers or to establish new ones. Also, system modifications made subsequent to performance of the original analysis were incorporated into the reevaluation. Reliability calculations and sensitivity analyses were performed using a commercially available spreadsheet on a personal computer. The spreadsheet was configured so that future failures could be tracked and compared with expected failures. A number of recommendations resulted from the reevaluation including both increased and decreased surveillance intervals. All recommendations were based on meeting or exceeding existing reliability goals. Considerable cost savings will be incurred upon implementation of the recommendations.

Pierce, B.F.

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Assessing reliability in energy supply systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

R.N. , 1984. Power-system reliability in perspective, in:L. (Eds. ), 1991. Applied Reliability Assessment in ElectricR. , Allan, R.N. , 1996. Reliability Evaluation of Power

McCarthy, Ryan W.; Ogden, Joan M.; Sperling, Daniel

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Assessing Reliability in Energy Supply Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

R.N. , 1984. Power-system reliability in perspective, in:L. (Eds. ), 1991. Applied Reliability Assessment in ElectricR. , Allan, R.N. , 1996. Reliability Evaluation of Power

McCarthy, Ryan; Ogden, Joan M.; Sperling, Dan

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Arnold Schwarzenegger REAL-TIME GRID RELIABILITY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor REAL-TIME GRID RELIABILITY MANAGEMENT California ISO Real Laboratory Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions APPENDIXC October 2008 CEC-500 (VSA) prototype to monitor system voltage conditions and provide real time dispatchers with reliability

400

Constructing Reliable Distributed Communication Systems with CORBA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Constructing Reliable Distributed Communication Systems with CORBA Silvano Maffeis Douglas C model to support reliable data- and process- oriented distributed systems that communicate through syn distributed object computing systems with CORBA. First, we examine the question of whether reliable applica

Schmidt, Douglas C.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection reliability operating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Failure and Reliability Analysis for the Master Pump Shutdown System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Master Pump Shutdown System (MPSS) will be installed in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site to monitor and control the transfer of liquid waste between tank farms and between the 200 West and 200 East areas through the Cross-Site Transfer Line. The Safety Function provided by the MPSS is to shutdown any waste transfer process within or between tank farms if a waste leak should occur along the selected transfer route. The MPSS, which provides this Safety Class Function, is composed of Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs), interconnecting wires, relays, Human to Machine Interfaces (HMI), and software. These components are defined as providing a Safety Class Function and will be designated in this report as MPSS/PLC. Input signals to the MPSS/PLC are provided by leak detection systems from each of the tank farm leak detector locations along the waste transfer route. The combination of the MPSS/PLC, leak detection system, and transfer pump controller system will be referred to as MPSS/SYS. The components addressed in this analysis are associated with the MPSS/SYS. The purpose of this failure and reliability analysis is to address the following design issues of the Project Development Specification (PDS) for the MPSS/SYS (HNF 2000a): (1) Single Component Failure Criterion, (2) System Status Upon Loss of Electrical Power, (3) Physical Separation of Safety Class cables, (4) Physical Isolation of Safety Class Wiring from General Service Wiring, and (5) Meeting the MPSS/PLC Option 1b (RPP 1999) Reliability estimate. The failure and reliability analysis examined the system on a component level basis and identified any hardware or software elements that could fail and/or prevent the system from performing its intended safety function.

BEVINS, R.R.

2000-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

402

Recommendations to Address Power Reliability Concerns Raised...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

to Address Power Reliability Concerns Raised as a Result of Pending Environmental Regulations for Electric Generation Stations Recommendations to Address Power Reliability Concerns...

403

Comments of North American Electric Reliability Corporation ...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) to DOE Smart Grid RFI: Addressing Policy and Logistical Challenges Comments of North American Electric Reliability...

404

NREL Publishes Gearbox Reliability Collaborative Findings Report...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

NREL Publishes Gearbox Reliability Collaborative Findings Report NREL Publishes Gearbox Reliability Collaborative Findings Report October 3, 2011 - 12:56pm Addthis This is an...

405

Sandia National Laboratories: Third Annual Continuous Reliability...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ClimateECEnergyThird Annual Continuous Reliability Enhancement for Wind (CREW) Database Report Now Available Third Annual Continuous Reliability Enhancement for Wind (CREW)...

406

Funding Opportunity Announcement: PHYSICS OF RELIABILITY: EVALUATING...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

PHYSICS OF RELIABILITY: EVALUATING DESIGN INSIGHTS FOR COMPONENT TECHNOLOGIES IN SOLAR 2 (PREDICTS 2) Funding Opportunity Announcement: PHYSICS OF RELIABILITY: EVALUATING DESIGN...

407

Smart Grid Investments Improve Grid Reliability, Resilience,...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Investments Improve Grid Reliability, Resilience, and Storm Responses (November 2014) Smart Grid Investments Improve Grid Reliability, Resilience, and Storm Responses (November...

408

Sandia National Laboratories: Continuous Reliability Enhancement...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

StandardsContinuous Reliability Enhancement for Wind (CREW) Database and Analysis Program Continuous Reliability Enhancement for Wind (CREW) Database and Analysis Program 2013 CREW...

409

Information Concerning Reliability Impacts under Various System...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Concerning Reliability Impacts under Various System Configurations of the Mirant Potomac River Plant Information Concerning Reliability Impacts under Various System Configurations...

410

Thermoelectric Materials By Design: Mechanical Reliability (Agreement...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

By Design: Mechanical Reliability (Agreement 14957) Thermoelectric Materials By Design: Mechanical Reliability (Agreement 14957) Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle...

411

Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability PROGRAM DESCRIPTION  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

32 Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE) leads national efforts to modernize the electric...

412

Electricity & Energy Reliability (WFP) | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Electricity & Energy Reliability (WFP) Electricity & Energy Reliability (WFP) The purpose of the workforce Plan is to provide focus and direction to Human Resources (HR) strategy....

413

Playas Grid Reliability and Distributed Energy Research  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The future looks bright for solar and renewable energies in the United States. Recent studies claim that by 2050, solar power could supply a third of all electricity demand in the countryís western states. Technology advances, soft policy changes, and increased energy consciousness will all have to happen to achieve this goal. But the larger question is, what would it take to do more throughout the United States? The studies tie future solar and renewable growth in the United States to programs that aim to lower the soft costs of solar adoption, streamline utility interconnections, and increase technology advances through research and development. At the state and local levels, the most important steps are: ē Net metering: Net metering policies lets customers offset their electric bills with onsite solar and receive reliable and fair compensation for the excess electricity they provide to the grid. Not surprisingly, what utilities consider fair is not necessarily a rate thatís favorable to solar customers. ē Renewable portfolio standards (RPS): RPS policies require utilities to provide a certain amount of their power from renewable sources; some set specific targets for solar and other renewables. Californiaís aggressive RPS1 of 33% renewable energy by 2020 is not bankrupting the state, or its residents. ē Strong statewide interconnection policies: Solar projects can experience significant delays and hassles just to get connected to the grid. Streamlined feasibility and impact analysis are needed. Good interconnection policies are crucial to the success of solar or renewable energy development. ē Financing options: Financing is often the biggest obstacle to solar adoption. Those obstacles can be surmounted with policies that support creative financing options like third-party ownership (TPO) and property assessed clean energy (PACE). Attesting to the significance of TPO is the fact that in Arizona, it accounted for 86% of all residential photovoltaic (PV) installations in Q1 20132. Policies beyond those at the state level are also important for solar. The federal government must play a role including continuation of the federal Investment tax credit,3 responsible development of solar resources on public lands, and support for research and development (R&D) to reduce the cost of solar and help incorporate large amounts of solar into the grid. The local level canít be ignored. Local governments should support: solar rights laws, feed-in tariffs (FITs), and solar-friendly zoning rules. A great example of how effective local policies can be is a city like Gainesville, Florida4, whose FIT policy has put it on the map as a solar leader. This is particularly noteworthy because the Sunshine State does not appear anywhere on the list of top solar states, despite its abundant solar resource. Lancaster, California5, began by streamlining the solar permitting process and now requires solar on every new home. Cities like these point to the power of local policies, and the ability of local governments to get things done. A conspicuously absent policy is Community Choice energy6, also called community choice aggregation (CCA). This model allows local governments to pool residential, business, and municipal electricity loads and to purchase or generate on their behalf. It provides rate stability and savings and allows more consumer choice and local control. The model need not be focused on clean energy, but it has been in California, where Marin Clean Energy7, the first CCA in California, was enabled by a state law -- highlighting the interplay of state and local action. Basic net metering8 has been getting a lot of attention. Utilities are attacking it9 in a number of states, claiming itís unfair to ratepayers who donít go solar. On the other hand, proponents of net metering say utilitiesí fighting stance is driven by worries about their bottom line, not concern for their customers. Studies in California10, Vermont11, New York12, and Texas13 have found that the benefits of net metering (like savings on investments

Romero, Van; Weinkauf, Don; Khan, Mushtaq; Helgeson, Wes; Weedeward, Kevin; LeClerc, Corey; Fuierer, Paul

2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

414

EIS-0389: Trinity Public Utility District Direct Interconnection, CA  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This EIS analyzes DOE's decision to construct and operate proposed power transmission facilities in Trinity County, California.

415

RF-MEMS capacitive switches with high reliability  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A reliable long life RF-MEMS capacitive switch is provided with a dielectric layer comprising a "fast discharge diamond dielectric layer" and enabling rapid switch recovery, dielectric layer charging and discharging that is efficient and effective to enable RF-MEMS switch operation to greater than or equal to 100 billion cycles.

Goldsmith, Charles L.; Auciello, Orlando H.; Carlisle, John A.; Sampath, Suresh; Sumant, Anirudha V.; Carpick, Robert W.; Hwang, James; Mancini, Derrick C.; Gudeman, Chris

2013-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

416

On the Reliability of the Autosub Autonomous Underwater Vehicle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

entered the design process The design philosophy for Autosub was based firmly on risk reduction. Indeed with reliability in mind and how operational practice complements that design philosophy. Section 3 identifies, the first phase of the project in 1989 comprised 26 work packages that assessed the feasibility and risks

Griffiths, Gwyn

417

Pulsed laser planarization of metal films for multilevel interconnects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Multilevel interconnect schemes for integrated circuits generally require one or more planarization steps, in order to maintain an acceptably flat topography for lithography and thin-film step coverage on the higher levels. Traditional approaches have involved planarization of the interlevel insulation (dielectric) layers, either by spin-on application (e.g., polyimide), or by reflow (e.g., phosphosilicate glass). We have pursued an alternative approach, in which each metal level is melted (hence planarized) using a pulsed laser prior to patterning. Short (approx.1 ..mu..s) pulses are used to preclude undesirable metallurgical reactions between the film, adhesion or barrier layer, and dielectric layer. Laser planarization of metals is particularly well suited to multilevel systems which include ground or power planes. Results are presented for planarization of gold films on SiO/sub 2/ dielectric layers using a flashlamp-pumped dye laser. The pulse duration is approx.1 ..mu..s, which allows the heat pulse to uniformly penetrate the gold while not penetrating substantially through the underlying SiO/sub 2/ (hence not perturbing the lower levels of metal). Excellent planarization of the gold films is achieved (less than 0.1 ..mu..m surface roughness, even starting with extreme topographic variations), as well as improved conductivity. To demonstrate the process, numerous planarized two-layer structures (transmission lines under a ground plane) were fabricated and characterized. 9 refs., 2 figs.

Tuckerman, D.B.; Schmitt, R.L.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS): Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides an independent review included an initial evaluation of the technical configuration and capital costs of establishing an undersea cable system and examining impacts to the existing electric transmission systems as a result of interconnecting the islands.

Woodford, D.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Energy Scalability of On-Chip Interconnection Networks in Multicore Architectures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

On-chip interconnection networks (OCNs) such as point-to-point networks and buses form the communication backbone in systems-on-a-chip, multicore processors, and tiled processors. OCNs can consume significant portions of ...

Agarwal, Anant

2008-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

420

Modeling and Analysis of Large-Scale On-Chip Interconnects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in computer aided design areas. This dissertation presents new methodologies for addressing the above two important challenging issues for large scale on-chip interconnect modeling and analysis: In the past, the standard statistical circuit modeling techniques...

Feng, Zhuo

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection reliability operating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Fast Algorithms for High Frequency Interconnect Modeling in VLSI Circuits and Packages  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to handle multiple dielectrics and magnetic materials. In this research, we solve three problems in interconnect modeling for high frequency circuits and packages. 1) Multiple dielectrics are common in integrated circuits and packages. We propose the first...

Yi, Yang

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

422

ACTIVE SUBSTRATES FOR OPTOELECTRONIC INTERCONNECT Donald Chiarulli, Steven Levitan, Jason Bakos  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACTIVE SUBSTRATES FOR OPTOELECTRONIC INTERCONNECT Donald Chiarulli, Steven Levitan, Jason Bakos Semiconductor ABSTRACT We present the design of an intelligent optoelectronic chip carrier (IOCC the sapphire. The result is an optoelectronic package that supports full CMOS performance, is mechanically

Bakos, Jason D.

423

Process based cost modeling of emerging optoelectronic interconnects : implications for material platform choice  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Continuously increasing demand for processing power, storage capacity, and I/O capacity in personal computing, data network, and display interface suggests that optical interconnects may soon supplant copper not only for ...

Liu, Shan, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Interconnection of on-site photovoltaic generation to the electric utility. [Conference paper  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electrical interconnection with the local electric utility of small, privately owned, on-site photovoltaic generating systems will be necessary. Legal guidelines exist through PURPA, administered by FERC, to establish interconnection, but economic viability will be the deciding factor in constructing photovoltaic generating systems. Although nationally recognized technical standards do not yet exist for interconnecting photovoltaic generation with an electric utility, most utilities have considered the need for developing cogeneration standards, and a few have developed such standards independently. Additional costs incurred by utilities in providing service interconnections to customers with cogeneration will be passed along to those customers, either as a direct assessment or as part of the applicable rate schedule. An economic-analysis methodology has been developed to allow comparing various possible photovoltaic-generating-system configurations under different utility rate structures and varying economic climates on a consistent basis.

Eichler, C.H.; Kilar, L.A.; Stiller, P.H.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

EIS-0438: Interconnection of the Proposed Hermosa West Wind Farm Project, Albany County, Wyoming  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

After the applicant withdrew its request to interconnect the proposed Hermosa West Wind Farm Project with Western Area Power Administrationís transmission system, Western cancelled preparation of an EIS to evaluate the potential environmental impacts of the proposal.

426

ELECTRIFICATION OF ISOLATED AREAS BY INTERCONNECTING DIFFERENT RENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY: A SUSTANAIBLE APPROACH  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

development integration of different aspects: > human > social > technical > economic > environmental FirstELECTRIFICATION OF ISOLATED AREAS BY INTERCONNECTING DIFFERENT RENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY intend to join their efforts to develop a technique to generate electricity from primary renewable

427

Relevance of Generation Interconnection Procedures to Feed-in Tariffs in the United States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Feed-in tariffs (FITs) have been used to promote renewable electricity development in over 40 countries throughout the past two decades. These policies generally provide guaranteed prices for the full system output from eligible generators for a fixed time period (typically 15-20 years). Due in part to the success of FIT policies in Europe, some jurisdictions in the United States are considering implementing similar policies, and a few have already put such policies in place. This report is intended to offer some guidance to policymakers and regulators on how generator interconnection procedures may affect the implementation of FITs and how state generator interconnection procedures can be formulated to support state renewable energy objectives. This report is based on a literature review of model interconnection procedures formulated by several organizations, as well as other documents that have reviewed, commented on, and in some cases, ranked state interconnection procedures.

Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Rogers, J.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Design of a decentralized detection filter for a class of interconnected LTI systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this thesis, we consider the problem of designing a decentralized detection filter for a class of homogeneous interconnected systems. In this class of systems, all subsystems have an identical structure. A fault in a subsystem propagates via...

Shankar, Shamanth

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Guest Editorial for Special Issue on High-Performance Multichip Interconnections  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The ten papers in this special issue focus on high-performance multichip interconnections. The papers span novel transmitter and receiver equalization and data-recovery architectures, channel architecture organizations, ...

Stojanovic, Vladimir Marko

430

Fully Integrated Graphene and Carbon Nanotube Interconnects for Gigahertz High-Speed Cmos Electronics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon-based nanomaterials such as metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), and graphene have been considered as some of the most promising candidates for future interconnect technology ...

Chen, Xiangyu

431

EIS-0437: Interconnection of the Buffalo Ridge III Wind Project, Brookings and Deuel Counties, South Dakota  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This EIS evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to interconnect the Heartland Wind, LLC, proposed Buffalo Ridge III Wind Project in Brookings and Deuel Counties, South Dakota, to DOEís Western Area Power Administration transmission system.

432

Priority Based Switch Allocator in Adaptive Physical Channel Regulator for On Chip Interconnects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chip multiprocessors (CMPs) are now popular design paradigm for microprocessors due to their power, performance and complexity advantages where a number of relatively simple cores are integrated on a single die. On chip interconnection network (No...

Mahapatra, Sonali

2014-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

433

Reuse Distance Based Circuit Replacement in Silicon Photonic Interconnection Networks for HPC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-scale distance, can help to further scale data-movement capabilities in high performance computing (HPC demands within high performance computing (HPC) systems. Silicon photonic (SiP) interconnects [1-3], which

Bergman, Keren

434

Phase 2 Report: Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS); Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides an independent review including an initial evaluation of the technical configuration and capital costs of establishing an undersea cable system and examining impacts to the existing electric transmission systems as a result of interconnecting the islands

Woodford, D.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Demonstration of monolithically integrated graphene interconnects for low-power CMOS applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In recent years, interconnects have become an increasingly difficult design challenge as their relative performance has not improved at the same pace with transistor scaling. The specifications for complex features, clock ...

Lee, Kyeong-Jae

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Innovative Distributed Power Grid Interconnection and Control Systems: Final Report, December 11, 2000 - August 30, 2005  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The contract goal was to further advance distributed generation in the marketplace by making installations more cost-effective and compatible with existing systems. This was achieved by developing innovative grid interconnection and control systems.

DePodesta, K.; Birlingmair, D.; West, R.

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Renewable Generation and Interconnection to the Electrical Grid in Southern California  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation covers the topic of "Renewable Generation and Interconnection to the Electrical Grid in Southern California," given at the Spring 2010 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting in Providence, Rhode Island.

438

E-Print Network 3.0 - at-speed interconnect bist Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: at-speed interconnect bist Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC TESTING: Theory and Applications 19,...

439

Pricing Games among Interconnected Microgrids Gaurav S. Kasbekar and Saswati Sarkar  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Pricing Games among Interconnected Microgrids Gaurav S. Kasbekar and Saswati Sarkar Abstract than, less than or as much aggregate power as it requires. G. Kasbekar and S. Sarkar

Sarkar, Saswati

440

Reliability Driven Task Scheduling for Heterogeneous Systems Yi He, Zili Shao, Bin Xiao, Qingfeng Zhuge, Edwin Sha  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reliability Driven Task Scheduling for Heterogeneous Systems Yi He, Zili Shao, Bin Xiao, Qingfeng plant safe operations, etc., an important research problem is how to maximize system reliability while the heterogeneity of a system and satisfy both the reliability requirement and the given time constraint

Sha, Edwin

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection reliability operating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

ELECTR-5939; No of Pages 6 Please cite this article in press as: A. Sopinka, Variable Energy Resources: VERy Interesting Implications for the Western Interconnect, Electr. J. (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tej.2013.04.015  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Resources: VERy Interesting Implications for the Western Interconnect, Electr. J. (2013), http Interconnect Variable energy resources (VERs) are growing in the Western Interconnect. To backstop The North American bulk power system is comprised of four interconnected regions: the Western Interconnect

Pedersen, Tom

442

TRAVEL DEMAND AND RELIABLE FORECASTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TRAVEL DEMAND AND RELIABLE FORECASTS FOR TRANSIT MARK FILIPI, AICP PTP 23rd Annual Transportation transportation projects § Develop and maintain Regional Travel Demand Model § Develop forecast socio in cooperative review during all phases of travel demand forecasting 4 #12;Cooperative Review Should Include

Minnesota, University of

443

THOR Concept Complex simulation Autonomous control Conclusion Interconnection of the behavior-based control  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Schmidt Interconnection of iB2C and a detailed machine model rrlab.cs.uni-kl.de 2 #12;THOR Concept Complex of iB2C and a detailed machine model rrlab.cs.uni-kl.de 3 #12;THOR Concept Complex simulation Schmidt Interconnection of iB2C and a detailed machine model rrlab.cs.uni-kl.de 5 #12;THOR Concept Complex

Berns, Karsten

444

Ris-M-2584 RELIABILITY CALCULATIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ris√ł-M-2584 RELIABILITY CALCULATIONS Improvements of methods intended for calculation of reliability of structures and systems Kurt E. Petersen Abstract. Risk and reliability analysis is increasingly being used in evaluations of plant safety and plant reliability. The analysis can be performed either

445

Reliability Failure Mode, Effects, and Criticality Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reliability Failure Mode, Effects, and Criticality Analysis Addendum 1; HFE ~ ATM501 PAGE I I. Hiebert Reliability Engineer HFE · B-1 f #12;~~.~-~ -_ ~ ~ Reliability Failure Mode, Effects were slight adjustment in the linearizing resistors. The reliability is effected upward by the deletion

Rathbun, Julie A.

446

The design of a reliable reputation system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

reliability by spreading its transactions evenly across all 20 peers in the system (shown by Distribution

Swamynathan, Gayatri; Almeroth, Kevin C.; Zhao, Ben Y.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Grid Interconnection and Performance Testing Procedures for Vehicle-To-Grid (V2G) Power Electronics: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bidirectional power electronics can add vehicle-to-grid (V2G) capability in a plug-in vehicle, which then allows the vehicle to operate as a distributed resource (DR). The uniqueness of the battery-based V2G power electronics requires a test procedure that will not only maintain IEEE interconnection standards, but can also evaluate the electrical performance of the vehicle working as a DR. The objective of this paper is to discuss a recently published NREL technical report that provides interim test procedures for V2G vehicles for their integration into the electrical distribution systems and for their performance in terms of continuous output power, efficiency, and losses. Additionally, some other test procedures are discussed that are applicable to a V2G vehicle that desires to provide power reserve functions. A few sample test results are provided based on testing of prototype V2G vehicles at NREL.

Kramer, W.; Chakraborty, S.; Kroposki, B.; Hoke, A.; Martin, G.; Markel, T.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Vehicle to MicroGrid: Leveraging Existing Assets for Reliable Energy Management Mike Simpson, Tony Markel, and Michael O'Keefe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Vehicle to MicroGrid: Leveraging Existing Assets for Reliable Energy Management Mike Simpson, Tony Electricity GCV MicroGrid The Smith Electric Newton allelectric truckFort Carson Photovoltaic Installation ENERGY MANAGEMENT BUILDING ENERGY MANAGEMENT GRID OPERATION & RELIABILITY GRID OPERATION & RELIABILITY

449

Using wind plant data to increase reliability.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Operators interested in improving reliability should begin with a focus on the performance of the wind plant as a whole. To then understand the factors which drive individual turbine performance, which together comprise the plant performance, it is necessary to track a number of key indicators. Analysis of these key indicators can reveal the type, frequency, and cause of failures and will also identify their contributions to overall plant performance. The ideal approach to using data to drive good decisions includes first determining which critical decisions can be based on data. When those required decisions are understood, then the analysis required to inform those decisions can be identified, and finally the data to be collected in support of those analyses can be determined. Once equipped with high-quality data and analysis capabilities, the key steps to data-based decision making for reliability improvements are to isolate possible improvements, select the improvements with largest return on investment (ROI), implement the selected improvements, and finally to track their impact.

Peters, Valerie A. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Ogilvie, Alistair B.; McKenney, Bridget L.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

NREL: Performance and Reliability R&D - Photovoltaic Reliability  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the Contributions and AchievementsResearchReliability Workshops

451

Reliability and Maintainability Issues for the Next Linear Collider  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Large accelerators for high energy physics research traditionally have been designed using informal best design, engineering, and management practices to achieve acceptable levels of operational availability. However, the Next Linear Collider(NLC) project presents a particular challenge for operational availability due to the unprecedented size and complexity of the accelerator systems required to achieve the physics goals of high center-of-mass energy and high luminosity. Formal reliability and maintainability analysis, design, and implementation will be required to achieve acceptable operational availability for the high energy physics research program. This paper introduces some of the basic concepts of reliability analysis and applies them to the 2.6-cm microwave power system of the two 10-km-long, 250-GeV linacs that are currently proposed for the NLC design.

Wilson, Zane J.; Gold, Saul L.; Koontz, Ron F.; Lavine, Ted L.; /SLAC

2011-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

452

Radioisotope thermoelectric generator reliability and safety  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There are numerous occasions when a planetary mission requires energy in remote areas of the solar system. Anytime power is required much beyond Mars or the Asteroid Belts, solar power is not an option. The radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) was developed for such a mission requirement. It is a relatively small and lightweight power source that can produce power under adverse conditions. Just this type of source has become the backbone of the power system for far outer plant exploration. Voyagers I and II are utilizing RTGs, which will soon power the Galileo spacecraft to Jupiter and the Ulysses spacecraft to study the solar poles. The paper discusses RTG operation including thermoelectric design, converter design, general-purpose heat source; RTG reliability including design, testing, experience, and launch approval; and RTG safety issues and methods of ensuring safety.

Campbell, R.; Klein, J.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Full-scale tests help improve reliability of DST tools  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A joint-industry project set up procedures and full scale tests to determine the reliability and integrity of drill stem test (DST) tools for use in difficult high pressure, high temperature wells. These DST tool tests helped determine changes needed to address reliability in high pressure, high temperature (HPHT) conditions and has demonstrated that DST tools could maintain integrity in this type of environment. Eleven major operators and service/testing companies in the Norway/U.K. area undertook a joint industry study to address these problems and to determine methods to increase the reliability of DST operations in HPHT well testing. Emphasis was placed on the selection of the downhole equipment used for the HPHT drill stem tests and design of the full scale testing of the North-Sea-area field tools in use. Additionally, an investigation was to be made to establish methods that could be used to verify and increase equipment reliability. The project also included design parameters for contingency conditions that were not normally present during equipment operations but could exist in emergency situations. Eleven tools, including tester valves, multiple-cycle circulating valves, bypass valves, and safety/circulating valves, from different service company/suppliers were rigorously tested. The paper describes the project, the tools tested, test methods, and results.

Ringgenberg, P. [Halliburton Energy Services, Dallas, TX (United States); Self, J.C. [Statoil, Stavanger (Norway)

1996-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

454

Human Reliability Analysis for Digital Human-Machine Interfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper addresses the fact that existing human reliability analysis (HRA) methods do not provide guidance on digital human-machine interfaces (HMIs). Digital HMIs are becoming ubiquitous in nuclear power operations, whether through control room modernization or new-build control rooms. Legacy analog technologies like instrumentation and control (I&C) systems are costly to support, and vendors no longer develop or support analog technology, which is considered technologically obsolete. Yet, despite the inevitability of digital HMI, no current HRA method provides guidance on how to treat human reliability considerations for digital technologies.

Ronald L. Boring

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Human Reliability Analysis for Small Modular Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Because no human reliability analysis (HRA) method was specifically developed for small modular reactors (SMRs), the application of any current HRA method to SMRs represents tradeoffs. A first- generation HRA method like THERP provides clearly defined activity types, but these activity types do not map to the human-system interface or concept of operations confronting SMR operators. A second- generation HRA method like ATHEANA is flexible enough to be used for SMR applications, but there is currently insufficient guidance for the analyst, requiring considerably more first-of-a-kind analyses and extensive SMR expertise in order to complete a quality HRA. Although no current HRA method is optimized to SMRs, it is possible to use existing HRA methods to identify errors, incorporate them as human failure events in the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), and quantify them. In this paper, we provided preliminary guidance to assist the human reliability analyst and reviewer in understanding how to apply current HRA methods to the domain of SMRs. While it is possible to perform a satisfactory HRA using existing HRA methods, ultimately it is desirable to formally incorporate SMR considerations into the methods. This may require the development of new HRA methods. More practicably, existing methods need to be adapted to incorporate SMRs. Such adaptations may take the form of guidance on the complex mapping between conventional light water reactors and small modular reactors. While many behaviors and activities are shared between current plants and SMRs, the methods must adapt if they are to perform a valid and accurate analysis of plant personnel performance in SMRs.

Ronald L. Boring; David I. Gertman

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Impact of High Solar Penetration in the Western Interconnection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents an overview of the variable characteristics of solar power, as well as the accompanying grid dynamic performance and operational economics for a system with significant solar generation. The paper will show results of economic operational simulations of a very high solar generation future for the western half of the United States.

Lew, D.; Miller, N.; Clark, K.; Jordan, G.; Gao, Z.

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

The design, construction, and operation of long-distance high-voltage electricity transmission technologies.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report focuses on transmission lines, which operate at voltages of 115 kV and higher. Currently, the highest voltage lines comprising the North American power grid are at 765 kV. The grid is the network of transmission lines that interconnect most large power plants on the North American continent. One transmission line at this high voltage was built near Chicago as part of the interconnection for three large nuclear power plants southwest of the city. Lines at this voltage also serve markets in New York and New England, also very high demand regions. The large power transfers along the West Coast are generally at 230 or 500 kV. Just as there are practical limits to centralization of power production, there are practical limits to increasing line voltage. As voltage increases, the height of the supporting towers, the size of the insulators, the distance between conductors on a tower, and even the width of the right-of-way (ROW) required increase. These design features safely isolate the electric power, which has an increasing tendency to arc to ground as the voltage (or electrical potential) increases. In addition, very high voltages (345 kV and above) are subject to corona losses. These losses are a result of ionization of the atmosphere, and can amount to several megawatts of wasted power. Furthermore, they are a local nuisance to radio transmission and can produce a noticeable hum. Centralized power production has advantages of economies of scale and special resource availability (for instance, hydro resources), but centralized power requires long-distance transfers of power both to reach customers and to provide interconnections for reliability. Long distances are most economically served at high voltages, which require large-scale equipment and impose a substantial footprint on the corridors through which power passes. The most visible components of the transmission system are the conductors that provide paths for the power and the towers that keep these conductors at a safe distance from each other and from the ground and the natural and built environment. Common elements that are generally less visible (or at least more easily overlooked) include the maintained ROW along the path of the towers, access roads needed for maintenance, and staging areas used for initial construction that may be restored after construction is complete. Also visible but less common elements along the corridor may include switching stations or substations, where lines of similar or different voltages meet to transfer power.

Molburg, J. C.; Kavicky, J. A.; Picel, K. C.

2008-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

458

Gearbox Reliability Collaborative Bearing Calibration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

NREL has initiated the Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) to investigate the root cause of the low wind turbine gearbox reliability. The GRC follows a multi-pronged approach based on a collaborative of manufacturers, owners, researchers and consultants. The project combines analysis, field testing, dynamometer testing, condition monitoring, and the development and population of a gearbox failure database. At the core of the project are two 750kW gearboxes that have been redesigned and rebuilt so that they are representative of the multi-megawatt gearbox topology currently used in the industry. These gearboxes are heavily instrumented and are tested in the field and on the dynamometer. This report discusses the bearing calibrations of the gearboxes.

van Dam, J.

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

ERTP: Energy-Efficient and Reliable Transport Protocol for Data Streaming in Wireless Sensor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ERTP: Energy-Efficient and Reliable Transport Protocol for Data Streaming in Wireless Sensor applications in Wireless Sensor Networks require re- liable and energy-efficient transport protocols [17] [18 of minutes or hours), energy-efficiency is. Long-term operation and reliable delivery of the sensed data

New South Wales, University of

460

SPIDERS Bi-Directional Charging Station Interconnection Testing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Smart Power Infrastructure Demonstration for Energy Reliability and Security (SPIDERS) program is a multi-year Department of Defense-Department of Energy (DOE) collaborative effort that will demonstrate integration of renewables into island-able microgrids using on-site generation control, demand response, and energy storage with robust security features at multiple installations. Fort Carson, Colorado, will be the initial development and demonstration site for use of plug-in electric vehicles as energy storage (also known as vehicle-to-grid or V2G).

Simpson, M.

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection reliability operating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Revised Record of Decision for the Electrical Interconnection of the Summit/Westward Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has decided to amend its July 25, 2003, Record of Decision (ROD) regarding the proposed Summit/Westward Project (Project) to offer contract terms for an optional interconnection of this Project into the Federal Columbia River Transmission System (FCRTS). Under this optional interconnection plan, BPA would integrate electric power from the Project into the FCRTS at a point adjacent to Clatskanie People's Utility District (CPUD) existing Wauna Substation. In order to deliver power to this location, CPUD would develop a new substation (Bradbury Substation) at a site near the Project and a new 230-kV transmission line from there to CPUD's Wauna Substation, which is already connected to the FCRTS. As part of this revised decision, BPA will facilitate CPUD development of the Bradbury-Wauna transmission line by allowing joint use of BPA right-of-way. This will involve reconstructing a section of BPA's 115-kV Allston-Astoria No. 1 transmission line from single-circuit H-frame wood-pole design to double-circuit single metal pole design. Terms of BPA participation in CPUD's development of the Bradbury-Wauna transmission line will be documented in a Construction Agreement. This optional interconnection plan is in addition to BPA's previous offer for interconnection of the Project at BPA's Allston Substation, as documented in the July 25, 2003, ROD. As with the initial interconnection plan, the decision to offer terms to interconnect the Project through the optional interconnection plan is consistent with BPA's Business Plan Final Environmental Impact Statement (BP EIS) (DOE/EIS-0183, June 1995), and the Business Plan Record of Decision (BP ROD, August 1995). This decision thus is similarly tiered to the Business Plan ROD.

N /A

2004-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

462

Service reliability measurement framework using smart card data : application to the London Underground  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Service reliability is an important dimension of performance to transit passengers, affecting not only their perceptions of service quality, but their travel behaviour as well. The ability of transit operators to understand ...

Uniman, David Louis

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Optimal Technology Selection and Operation of Microgrids in Commercial Buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

L ABORATORY Optimal Technology Selection and Operation ofEnvironmental Energy Technologies Division 15 January 2007for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions with funding

Marnay, Chris; Venkataramanan, Giri; Stadler, Michael; Siddiqui, Afzal; Firestone, Ryan; Chandran, Bala

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

The Materials Reliability Division has established several capabilities for analyzing the reliability of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Materials Reliability Division has established several capabilities for analyzing the reliability of small scale structures, including a number of custom instruments developed specifically@boulder.nist.gov FACILITIES Measurement Facilities: Small-Scale Mechanical Reliability Materials Science and Engineering

465

Microgrids and Heterogeneous Security, Quality, Reliability, and Availability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Energy Reliability, Distribution System Integrationand Energy Reliability, Distribution System Integration

Marnay, Chris

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

A Control Scheme of Enhanced Reliability for Multiple Chiller Plants Using Mergerd Building Cooling Load Measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the Eighth International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Berlin, Germany, October 20-22, 2008 much on the accuracy of the chiller model. Measurement accuracy and reliability are essential for the accuracy and reliability of chiller sequencing... Central Chilling Plant Monitoring and control Figure 1. Framework of enhancing building cooling load measurements using data fusion 2 ESL-IC-08-10-31 Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Berlin, Germany...

Wang, S.; Sun, Y.; Huang, G.; Zhu, N.

467

Effect of Creep of Ferritic Interconnect on Long-Term Performance of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stacks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-temperature ferritic alloys are potential candidates as interconnect (IC) materials and spacers due to their low cost and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) compatibility with other components for most of the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) . However, creep deformation becomes relevant for a material when the operating temperature exceeds or even is less than half of its melting temperature (in degrees of Kelvin). The operating temperatures for most of the SOFCs under development are around 1,073 K. With around 1,800 K of the melting temperature for most stainless steel, possible creep deformation of ferritic IC under the typical cell operating temperature should not be neglected. In this paper, the effects of IC creep behavior on stack geometry change and the stress redistribution of different cell components are predicted and summarized. The goal of the study is to investigate the performance of the fuel cell stack by obtaining the changes in fuel- and air-channel geometry due to creep of the ferritic stainless steel IC, therefore indicating possible changes in SOFC performance under long-term operations. The ferritic IC creep model was incorporated into software SOFC-MP and Mentat-FC, and finite element analyses were performed to quantify the deformed configuration of the SOFC stack under the long-term steady-state operating temperature. It was found that the creep behavior of the ferritic stainless steel IC contributes to narrowing of both the fuel- and the air-flow channels. In addition, stress re-distribution of the cell components suggests the need for a compliant sealing material that also relaxes at operating temperature.

Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Plastic deformation in Al (Cu) interconnects stressed by electromigration and studied by synchrotron polychromatic X-ray microdiffraction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Plastic deformation in Al (Cu) interconnects stressed bygrain orientation [7], study plastic deformation [12-15] andThis aspect of EM-induced plastic deformation in grains

Chen, Kai; Advanced Light Source; UCLA

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Sandia National Laboratories: Inverter Reliability  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -theErik Spoerke SSLS Exhibit atVehicleEnergyPolydotsMicroReliability 2013

470

Reliability Challenges for Solar Energy (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Presentation that reviews reliability issues related to various types of photovoltaic tecnnologies, including crystalline silicon, thin films, and concentrating PV.

Kurtz, S.

2009-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

471

LUNAR MASS SPECTROMETER RELIABILITY LOGIC DIAGRAM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

point (A) to (F). The block diagram also defines the reliability functions for the purpose of FMEA 1

Rathbun, Julie A.

472

SOFTWARE RELIABILITY SIMULATION Robert C. Tausworthe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CHAPTER 16 SOFTWARE RELIABILITY SIMULATION Robert C. Tausworthe Jet Propulsion Laboratory, together with their attributes and interrelationships, that are related to reliability 1 comprise what we here refer to as the reliability process. The artifacts of the software life cycle include doc­ uments

Lyu, Michael R.

473

Arnold Schwarzenegger REAL-TIME GRID RELIABILITY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor REAL-TIME GRID RELIABILITY MANAGEMENT Scoping Study Report Reliability Technology Solutions APPENDIXG October 2008 CEC-500-2008-049-APG #12;#12;Prepared By: Lawrence for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions and was funded by the California Energy Commission's Public

474

Network Reliability: Models, Measures and Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Network Reliability: Models, Measures and Analysis #3; L.Jereb Department of Telecommunications y quality services when the network elements apt to random failures. Several network reliability models have of network reliability analysis and summarizes the critical issues. A possible solution taking into account

László, Jereb

475

RELIABILITY-BASED CASTING PROCESS DESIGN OPTIMIZATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RELIABILITY-BASED CASTING PROCESS DESIGN OPTIMIZATION Richard Hardin1 , K.K. Choi1 , and Christoph 52242-1527 Keywords: Casting Process Design, Optimization, Reliability-Based Design Optimization purpose reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) software tool previously developed at the University

Beckermann, Christoph

476

Reliability Prediction -Array D Redundant Command Receiver  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reliability Prediction - Array D Redundant Command Receiver ATM 981 I PAGI 1 OP 16 DATE 26 Feb. 1971 This Reliability Prediction was prepared by Motorola's Government Electronics Division as required combiner· .. There was a reliability design goal of · 998 for a two-year mission on the ... lunar surface

Rathbun, Julie A.

477

Arnold Schwarzenegger REAL-TIME GRID RELIABILITY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor REAL-TIME GRID RELIABILITY MANAGEMENT Prototype Phasor-Based Real Reliability Technology Solutions APPENDIXE October 2008 CEC-500-2008-049-APE #12;#12;Prepared By: Lawrence in this report. #12;Slide 0 Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions Real-Time Dynamics

478

Reliability Analysis of Microelectronic Components and Materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Reliability Analysis of Microelectronic Components and Materials Increasing numbers of the degradation processes relevant to soldered joints is crucial for more reliable life-cycle predictions. Joining methods are critical for the reliable use of electronic packages. In particular, since the advent

Berlin,Technische Universität

479

Transductive Reliability Estimation for Kernel Based Classifiers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Transductive Reliability Estimation for Kernel Based Classifiers Dimitris Tzikas1 , Matjaz Kukar2@cs.uoi.gr Abstract. Estimating the reliability of individual classifications is very important in several applications such as medical diagnosis. Recently, the transductive approach to reliability estimation has been

Likas, Aristidis

480

Reliability Meets Big Data: Opportunities and Challenges  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reliability Meets Big Data: Opportunities and Challenges William Q. Meeker Department of Statistics, 2013 Abstract Reliability field data such as that obtained from warranty claims and maintenance records products, the nature of field reliability data is changing dramatically. In particular, products can

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection reliability operating" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Arnold Schwarzenegger REAL-TIME GRID RELIABILITY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor REAL-TIME GRID RELIABILITY MANAGEMENT Prototype Phasor-Based Real Research Program Prepared By: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Consortium for Electric Reliability in this report. #12;#12;USER GUIDE Version 3 August 2005 Prepared by: for Consortium for Electric Reliability

482

RELIABILITY IN PERSONAL POSITIONING Heidi Kuusniemi1*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RELIABILITY IN PERSONAL POSITIONING Heidi Kuusniemi1* , Gérard Lachapelle2 , Jarmo Takala1 1 interference effects lead to measurement errors, and reliability monitoring in terms of proper fault detection in future new possibilities to provide integrity and reliability information to the user both at signal

Calgary, University of

483

RELIABILITY ENGINEERING: OLD PROBLEMS AND NEW CHALLENGES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 RELIABILITY ENGINEERING: OLD PROBLEMS AND NEW CHALLENGES E. Zio Dept. of Energy, Polytechnic: enrico.zio@polimi.it Abstract The first recorded usage of the word reliability dates back to the 1800s, albeit referred to a person and not a technical system. Since then, the concept of reliability has become

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

484

Reliability modeling and evaluation of HVDC power transmission systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this paper is to present an improved computational method for evaluating the reliability indices of HVdc transmission systems. The developed models and computational techniques are described. These can be used to simulate the operational practices and characteristics of a system under study efficiently and realistically. This method is based on the failure modes and effects analysis and uses the event tree method and the minimal cut set approach to represent the system's operational behavior and deduce the appropriate system's failure modes. A set of five reliability indices is evaluated for each output node being analyzed together with the probability and frequency of encountering particular regions of system performance levels. The analysis of an assumed HVdc bipolar transmission system is also included.

Dialynas, E.N.; Koskolos, N.C. (National Technical Univ., Athens (Greece). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering)

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Comparison of reliability performance of group connected and conventional HVDC transmission systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A group connected HVDC transmission scheme is a variant of the unit connection where instead of a single generator, a group of generators are directly connected to the converter. Studies conducted in the past indicated that significant cost reduction can be achieved using this scheme. This is mainly due to the elimination of many components which results in considerable capital and operating cost savings to the utility. Concerns regarding the reliability performance of unit connected schemes were raised, however, there has not been a detailed reliability study conducted. This paper addresses the reliability evaluation aspect of a group connected scheme and compares the reliability performance of the group connected scheme with that of the conventional common collector system. Reliability models for both schemes were developed using a hypothetical system model based on the Nelson River system. Practical system component outage data was used to examine the reliability performance of both schemes.

Kuruganty, S. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering] [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

Interconnections between various analytic approaches applicable to third-order nonlinear differential equations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We unearth the interconnection between various analytical methods which are widely used in the current literature to identify integrable nonlinear dynamical systems described by third-order nonlinear ordinary differentiable equations (ODEs). We establish an important interconnection between extended Prelle-Singer procedure and {\\lambda}-symmetries approach applicable to third-order ODEs to bring out the various linkages associated with these different techniques. By establishing this interconnection we demonstrate that given any one of the quantities as a starting point in the family consisting of Jacobi last multipliers, Darboux polynomials, Lie point symmetries, adjoint-symmetries, {\\lambda}-symmetries, integrating factors and null forms one can derive the rest of the quantities in this family in a straightforward and unambiguous manner. We also illustrate our findings with three specific examples.

R. Mohanasubha; V. K. Chandrasekar; M. Senthilvelan; M. Lakshmanan

2015-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

487

Energy and Reliability Considerations For Adjustable Speed Driven Pumps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ENERGY AND RELIABILITY CONSIDERATIONS FOR ADJUSTABLE SPEED DRIVEN PUMPS Don Casada Senior Development Associate ABSTRACT Centrifugal devices such as pumps, fans, and compressors follow a general set of speed affinity laws: Q2 = QI *( N z... there is no static head, the system head, like the pump head, is proportional to the velocity, or flow rate, squared. As a result. the pump affinity laws also indicate how the pump and system will work together to define the operating point in such a system...

Casada, D.

488

EIS-0434: Hualapai Valley Solar Interconnection Project, Arizona  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Hualapai Valley Solar, LLC, proposes to construct, operate and maintain a 340-megawatt, solar-powered generating facility in Mohave County, near Kingman, Ariz. The proposed project would use concentrating solar-power-trough technology to capture the sun's heat to make steam, which would power a traditional steam turbine generator.

489

Effect of SOFC Interconnect-Coating Interactions on Coating Properties and Performance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The high operating temperature of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) provides good fuel flexibility which expands potential applications, but also creates materials challenges. One such challenge is the interconnect material, which was the focus of this project. In particular, the objective of the project was to understand the interaction between the interconnect alloy and ceramic coatings which are needed to minimize chromium volatilization and the associated chromium poisoning of the SOFC cathode. This project focused on coatings based on manganese cobalt oxide spinel phases (Mn,Co)3O4, which have been shown to be effective as coatings for ferritic stainless steel alloys. Analysis of diffusion couples was used to develop a model to describe the interaction between (Mn,Co)3O4 and Cr2O3 in which a two-layer reaction zone is formed. Both layers form the spinel structure, but the concentration gradients at the interface appear like a two-phase boundary suggesting that a miscibility gap is present in the spinel solid solution. A high-chromium spinel layer forms in contact with Cr2O3 and grows by diffusion of manganese and cobalt from the coating material to the Cr2O3. The effect of coating composition, including the addition of dopants, was evaluated and indicated that the reaction rate could be decreased with additions of iron, titanium, nickel and copper. Diffusion couples using stainless steel alloys (which form a chromia scale) had some similarities and some differences as compared to those with Cr2O3. The most notable difference was that the high-chromium spinel layer did not form in the diffusion couples with stainless steel alloys. This difference can be explained using the reaction model developed in this project. In particular, the chromia scale grows at the expense of the alloy, the high-chromia layer grows at the expense of chromia scale and the high-chromia layer is consumed by diffusion of chromium into the coating material. If the last process (dissolution of high-chromium spinel phase) is faster than the second process (formation of high-chromium spinel phase), the high-chromium layer may be consumed. The other important result of this mechanism is that it could result in a constant scale thickness if the scale forms at the same rate as it is consumed. This helps to explain the unexpected observation that the area specific resistance (ASR) of a SOFC with a (Mn,Co)3O4-coated ferritic stainless steel cathode becomes constant after long exposures. The project also evaluated the possibility of reducing the chromium content in a stainless steel alloy using experimental alloys. The conclusion of this evaluation is that at least 17-18% chromium is needed for good oxidation resistance is needed even if the alloy is coated with a spinel coating. Additional details on these findings are provided in a later section of this report and in the publications listed below.

Jeffrey W. Fergus

2012-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

490

Development of Readout Interconnections for the Si-W Calorimeter of SiD  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The SiD collaboration is developing a Si-W sampling electromagnetic calorimeter, with anticipated application for the International Linear Collider. Assembling the modules for such a detector will involve special bonding technologies for the interconnections, especially for attaching a silicon detector wafer to a flex cable readout bus. We review the interconnect technologies involved, including oxidation removal processes, pad surface preparation, solder ball selection and placement, and bond quality assurance. Our results show that solder ball bonding is a promising technique for the Si-W ECAL, and unresolved issues are being addressed.

Woods, M.; Fields, R.G.; Holbrook, B.; Lander, R.L.; Moskaleva, A.; Neher, C.; Pasner, J.; Tripathi, M.; /UC, Davis; Brau, J.E.; Frey, R.E.; Strom, D.; /Oregon U.; Breidenbach, M.; Freytag, D.; Haller, G.; Herbst, R.; Nelson, T.; /SLAC; Schier, S.; Schumm, B.; /UC, Santa Cruz

2012-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

491

Proposal to negotiate amendments to an existing contract for the assembly of interconnections for the LHC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This document concerns the proposal to negotiate amendments to the existing contract for the assembly of interconnections for the LHC. For the reasons explained in this document, the Finance Committee is invited to approve amendments to the existing contract with the consortium INEO (FR), ENDEL (FR) and GTI (NL) for the assembly of interconnections for the LHC for a total amount of 5 181 403 euros (8 095 424 Swiss francs), subject to revision, bringing the total amount of the contract to a maximum of 14 974 239 euros (23 395 751 Swiss francs), subject to revision. The amounts in Swiss francs have been calculated using the present rate of exchange.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Method of bonding an interconnection layer on an electrode of an electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrochemical cell containing an air electrode, contacting electrolyte and electronically conductive interconnection layer, and a fuel electrode, has the interconnection layer attached by: (A) applying a thin, closely packed, discrete layer of LaCrO[sub 3] particles, doped with an element selected from the group consisting of Ca, Sr, Co, Ba, Mg and their mixtures on a portion of the air electrode, and then (B) electrochemical vapor depositing a dense skeletal structure between and around the doped LaCrO[sub 3] particles. 2 figs.

Pal, U.B.; Isenberg, A.O.; Folser, G.R.

1992-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

493

Wind/PV Generation for Frequency Regulation and Oscillation Damping in the Eastern Interconnection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the control of renewable energy sources, including the variable-speed wind generators and solar photovoltaic (PV) generators, for frequency regulation and inter-area oscillation damping in the U.S. Eastern Interconnection (EI). In this report, based on the user-defined wind/PV generator electrical control model and the 16,000-bus Eastern Interconnection dynamic model, the additional controllers for frequency regulation and inter-area oscillation damping are developed and incorporated and the potential contributions of renewable energy sources to the EI system frequency regulation and inter-area oscillation damping are evaluated.

Liu, Yong [The University of Tennessee, Knoxville; Gracia, Jose R [ORNL; Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; Liu, Yilu [ORNL

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

Development of Readout Interconnections for the Si-W Calorimeter of SiD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The SiD collaboration is developing a Si-W sampling electromagnetic calorimeter, with anticipated application for the International Linear Collider. Assembling the modules for such a detector will involve special bonding technologies for the interconnections, especially for attaching a silicon detector wafer to a flex cable readout bus. We review the interconnect technologies involved, including oxidation removal processes, pad surface preparation, solder ball selection and placement, and bond quality assurance. Our results show that solder ball bonding is a promising technique for the Si-W ECAL, and unresolved issues are being addressed.

M. Woods; R. G. Fields; B. Holbrook; R. L. Lander; A. Moskaleva; C. Neher; J. Pasner; M. Tripathi; J. E. Brau; R. E. Frey; D. Strom; M. Breidenbach; D. Freytag; G. Haller; R. Herbst; T. Nelson; S. Schier; B. Schumm

2011-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

495

Method for reliability analysis of complex reactor systems. [LMFBR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method and a computer code for efficient and accurate reliability analyses of complex reactor systems are described and illustrated through an example. The method permits realistic analyses through its ability to accurately model and evaluate instantaneous and average unavailabilities for large systems with dependencies. The component models can include continuously monitored, non-repairable, and periodically tested components which are subject to failures resulting from components which are subject to failures resulting from component demands, stand-by conditions, human errors associated with testing and repair, as well as failures during actual operation. The numerical process used is efficient and allows analysis of general system configurations with arbitrary scheduling of maintenance operations.

Elerath, J.G.; Vaurio, J.K.; Wood, A.P.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Reliable computation of homogeneous azeotropes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is important to determine the existence and composition of homogeneous azeotropes in the analysis of phase behavior and in the synthesis and design of separation systems, from both theoretical and practical standpoints. A new method for reliably locating any and all homogeneous azeotropes for multicomponent mixtures is presented. The method also verifies the nonexistence of homogeneous azeotropes if none are present. The method is based on interval analysis, in particular an interval-Newton/generalized-bisection-algorithm providing a mathematical and computational guarantee that all azeotropes are located. This general-purpose technique can be applied in connection with any thermodynamic models. The technique is illustrated in several example problems using the Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC activity-coefficient models.

Maier, R.W.; Brennecke, J.F.; Stadtherr, M.A. [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

Flexibility Reserve Reductions from an Energy Imbalance Market with High Levels of Wind Energy in the Western Interconnection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The anticipated increase in variable generation in the Western Interconnection (WI) over the next several years has raised concerns about how to maintain system balance, especially in smaller Balancing Areas (BAs). Given renewable portfolio standards in the West, it is possible that more than 50 gigawatts (GW) of wind capacity will be installed by 2020. Significant quantities of solar generation are likely to be added as well. The consequent increase in variability and uncertainty that must be managed by the conventional generation fleet and responsive load make it attractive to consider ways in which Balancing Area Authorities (BAAs) can pool their variability and response resources, thus taking advantage of geographic and temporal diversity to increase overall operational efficiency. Our analysis considers several alternative forms of an Energy Imbalance Market (EIM) that have been proposed in the non-market areas of the WI. The proposed EIM includes two changes in operating practices that independently reduce variability and increase access to responsive resources: BAA cooperation and sub-hourly dispatch. As proposed, the EIM does not consider any form of coordinated unit commitment; however, over time it is possible that BAAs would develop formal or informal coordination plans. This report examines the benefits of several possible EIM implementations, both separately and in concert.

King, J.; Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.; S. Beuning

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Analysis of drought impacts on electricity production in the Western and Texas interconnections of the United States.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electricity generation relies heavily on water resources and their availability. To examine the interdependence of energy and water in the electricity context, the impacts of a severe drought to assess the risk posed by drought to electricity generation within the western and Texas interconnections has been examined. The historical drought patterns in the western United States were analyzed, and the risk posed by drought to electricity generation within the region was evaluated. The results of this effort will be used to develop scenarios for medium- and long-term transmission modeling and planning efforts by the Western Electricity Coordination Council (WECC) and the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT). The study was performed in response to a request developed by the Western Governors Association in conjunction with the transmission modeling teams at the participating interconnections. It is part of a U.S. Department of Energy-sponsored, national laboratory-led research effort to develop tools related to the interdependency of energy and water as part of a larger interconnection-wide transmission planning project funded under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. This study accomplished three main objectives. It provided a thorough literature review of recent studies of drought and the potential implications for electricity generation. It analyzed historical drought patterns in the western United States and used the results to develop three design drought scenarios. Finally, it quantified the risk to electricity generation for each of eight basins for each of the three drought scenarios and considered the implications for transmission planning. Literature on drought impacts on electricity generation describes a number of examples where hydroelectric generation capacity has been limited because of drought but only a few examples of impact on thermoelectric generation. In all documented cases, shortfalls of generation were met by purchasing power from the market, albeit at higher prices. However, sufficient excess generation and transmission must be available for this strategy to work. Although power purchase was the most commonly discussed drought mitigation strategy, a total of 12 response strategies were identified in the literature, falling into four main categories: electricity supply, electricity demand response, alternative water supplies, and water demand response. Three hydrological drought scenarios were developed based on a literature review and historical data analysis. The literature review helped to identify key drought parameters and data on drought frequency and severity. Historical hydrological drought data were analyzed for the western United States to identify potential drought correlations and estimate drought parameters. The first scenario was a West-wide drought occurring in 1977; it represented a severe drought in five of the eight basins in the study area. A second drought scenario was artificially defined by selecting the conditions from the 10th-percentile drought year for each individual basin; this drought was defined in this way to allow more consistent analysis of risk to electricity generation in each basin. The final scenario was based upon the current low-flow hydro modeling scenario defined by WECC, which uses conditions from the year 2001. These scenarios were then used to quantify the risk to electricity generation in each basin. The risk calculations represent a first-order estimate of the maximum amount of electricity generation that might be lost from both hydroelectric and thermoelectric sources under a worst-case scenario. Even with the conservative methodology used, the majority of basins showed a limited amount of risk under most scenarios. The level of risk in these basins is likely to be amenable to mitigation by known strategies, combined with existing reserve generation and transmission capacity. However, the risks to the Pacific Northwest and Texas Basins require further study. The Pacific Northwest is vulnerable because of its heavy reliance on hydroelectri

Harto, C. B.; Yan, Y. E.; Demissie, Y. K.; Elcock, D.; Tidwell, V. C.; Hallett, K.; Macknick, J.; Wigmosta, M. S.; Tesfa, T. K. (Environmental Science Division); (Sandia National Laboratory); (National Renewable Energy Laboratory); (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

2012-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

499

Application of reliability analysis method to fusion component testing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The term reliability here implies that a component satisfies a set of performance criteria while under specified conditions of use over a specified period of time. For fusion nuclear technology, the reliability goal to be pursued is the development of a mean time between failures (MTBF) for a component which is longer than its lifetime goal. While the component lifetime is mainly determined by the fluence limitation (i.e., damage level) which leads to performance degradation or failure, the MTBF represents an arithmetic average life of all units in a population. One method of assessing the reliability goal involves determining component availability needs to meet the goal plant availability, defining a test-analyze-fix development program to improve component reliability, and quantifying both test times and the number of test articles that would be required to ensure that a specified target MTBF is met. Statistically, constant failure rates and exponential life distributions are assumed for analyses and blanket component development is used as an example. However, as data are collected the probability distribution of the parameter of interest can be updated in a Bayesian fashion. The nuclear component testing program will be structured such that reliability requirements for DEMO can be achieved. The program shall not exclude the practice of a good design (such as reducing the complexity of the system to the minimum essential for the required operation), the execution of high quality manufacturing and inspection processes, and the implication of quality assurance and control for component development. In fact, the assurance of a high quality testing/development program is essential so that there is no question left for reliability.

Ying, A.Y.; Abdou, M.A. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

500

Long-Distance Interconnection as Solar Resource Intermittency Solution: Optimizing the Use of Energy Storage and the Geographic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Energy Storage and the Geographic Dispersion + Interconnection of Solar Generating Facilities. Marc J. R energy targets. Variability of the solar resource occurs across many different temporal scales: from energy storage and Long-distance interconnection coupled with geographic dispersion of solar generating