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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection cxs applied" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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1

Interconnection | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Interconnection Interconnection Jump to: navigation, search Interconnection standards govern the technical and procedural process by which an electric customer connects an electric-generating system to the grid. Interconnection standards specify the technical, contractual, metering, and rate rules that system owners and utilities must abide by. Standards for systems interconnected at the distribution level are typically adopted by state public utility commissions, while the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) has adopted standards for systems interconnected at the transmission level. Not all states have adopted interconnection standards, and some state’ standards apply only to investor-owned utilities, – not to municipal utilities and electric cooperatives. [1]

2

Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards < Back Eligibility Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Buying & Making Electricity Water Energy Sources Solar Wind Program Info State Maine Program Type Interconnection Provider Maine Public Utilities Commission The Maine Public Utility Commission (PUC) adopted interconnection procedures in January 2010. These rules apply to all transmission and distribution utilities operating in the state and apply to all distribution generation (not just renewables). Maine's interconnection procedures, based in part on the Interstate Renewable Energy Council Inc. 2006 Model Interconnection Procedures,* identify four different tiers with

3

Interconnection Standards | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards Jump to: navigation, search Interconnection standards govern the technical and procedural process by which an electric customer connects an electric-generating system to the grid. Interconnection standards specify the technical, contractual, metering, and rate rules that system owners and utilities must abide by. Standards for systems interconnected at the distribution level are typically adopted by state public utility commissions, while the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) has adopted standards for systems interconnected at the transmission level. Not all states have adopted interconnection standards, and some states’ standards apply only to investor-owned utilities – not to municipal utilities and electric cooperatives. [1]

4

Interconnection Panel  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Panel Dan Tunnicliff, P.E. Manager, Government Segment, Southern California Edison Southern California Edison Application Processing Technical Scoping Meeting Technical Studies Interconnection Agreement Project Implementation Overview of Generation Interconnection Process (GIP) * Transmission Level Interconnections - Governed by CAISO Tariff. * Generally for 220 kV and higher. * All applications must be submitted to the CAISO. * CAISO administers its tariff, which is approved by FERC. * Distribution Level Interconnections - Governed by SCE's WDAT. * Generally below 220 kV. * All applications must be submitted to SCE. * SCE administers its tariff, which is approved by FERC. 2 Southern California Edison Interconnection agreements are critically

5

Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Tribal Government Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Wind Energy Sources Solar Home Weatherization Program Info State South Dakota Program Type Interconnection Provider S.D. Public Utilities Commission South Dakota's interconnection standards for distributed generation, adopted by the state Public Utilities Commission (PUC) in May 2009, apply to customers of investor-owned utilities.* The rules provide for four levels of interconnection for systems up to 10 megawatts (MW) in capacity:

6

Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards < Back Eligibility Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Wind Energy Sources Solar Program Info State Connecticut Program Type Interconnection Provider Public Utilities Regulatory Authority In December 2007, the Connecticut Department of Public Utility Control (DPUC) now called the Public Utilities Regulatory Authority (PURA) approved new interconnection guidelines for distributed energy systems up to 20 megawatts (MW) in capacity. Connecticut's interconnection guidelines apply to the state's two investor-owned utilities -- Connecticut Light and Power

7

Interconnection Standards (Utah  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

procedures are divided into three levels: * '''Level 1 Interconnection''' applies to inverter-based systems with a maximum capacity of 25 kilowatts (kW). These systems must comply...

8

Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Fed. Government General Public/Consumer Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Tribal Government Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Water Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Solar Home Weatherization Wind Program Info State Florida Program Type Interconnection Provider Florida Public Service Commission In March 2008, the Florida Public Service Commission (PSC) adopted interconnection rules for renewable-energy systems up to two megawatts (MW) in capacity. The PSC rules apply only to the state's investor-owned utilities; the rules do not apply to electric cooperatives or municipal

9

Interconnect Issues  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnect Issues in NE Serge Khalife, 15 th April 2010 Agenda  About National Grid and Service territories  Scope and definitions  Interconnection Process Overview  Time Frames and Fees  Governmental Entity Exceptions  Net Metering Limit  Technical Issues  Observations and recommendations  Questions and Answers Service Territories Map Scope and definitions  The Distributed Generation Group at National Grid process interconnection applications on the distribution system typically 10 MW and under with a few exceptions.  ISO-NE process larger interconnection applications on the transmission system. Their timelines and procedures vary from National Grid's Distributed Generation process.  Governmental Entity : The Commonwealth of Massachusetts, or any

10

Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Residential Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Wind Energy Sources Solar Program Info State Texas Program Type Interconnection Provider Public Utility Commission of Texas The Texas Public Utility Regulatory Act (PURA) of 1999 included a provision that "a customer is entitled to have access to on-site distributed generation". As a result, the Public Utility Commission of Texas (PUCT) adopted interconnection standards in 1999. The rules apply to electrical generating facilities (consisting of one or more on-site distributed-generation units) located at a customer's point of delivery,

11

Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards < Back Eligibility Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Wind Energy Sources Solar Program Info State Minnesota Program Type Interconnection Provider Minnesota Public Utilities Commission Minnesota's net-metering law, enacted in 1983, applies to all investor-owned utilities, municipal utilities and rural electric cooperatives. Qualifying facilities of less than 1,000 kilowatts (kW) are eligible for net metering. However, uniform interconnection regulations were not implemented when net metering was established.

12

Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Multi-Family Residential Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Solar Water Wind Program Info State New Jersey Program Type Interconnection Provider New Jersey Board of Public Utilities New Jersey's interconnection standards apply statewide to all electric distribution utilities, but not to the small number of municipal utilities and electric cooperatives in the state. The rules, first adopted in 2001, have been revised several times since their inception, most recently in May 2012. The current standards include the following basic provisions:

13

Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Industrial Institutional Nonprofit Residential Schools Utility Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Wind Energy Sources Solar Program Info State Colorado Program Type Interconnection Provider Colorado Public Utilities Commission In December 2005, the Colorado Public Utilities Commission (PUC) adopted standards for net metering and interconnection, as required by Amendment 37, a renewable-energy ballot initiative approved by Colorado voters in November 2004. The PUC standards generally apply to utilities with 40,000 or more customers and all cooperative utilities.*

14

Interconnection Guidelines | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Guidelines Interconnection Guidelines Interconnection Guidelines < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Industrial Residential Savings Category Bioenergy Buying & Making Electricity Solar Home Weatherization Water Wind Program Info State Nebraska Program Type Interconnection Provider Nebraska Energy Office Nebraska enacted legislation in May 2009 [http://nebraskalegislature.gov/FloorDocs/101/PDF/Final/LB436.pdf (LB 436)], establishing general rules for interconnecting and net metering systems that generate electricity. Nebraska's policy applies to systems that use solar, wind, methane, biomass, hydropower or geothermal resources to produce electricity and have a rated capacity of 25 kilowatts (kW) or less. To be eligible, a facility must meet all applicable safety, performance,

15

Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards < Back Eligibility Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Buying & Making Electricity Water Solar Wind Program Info State Virginia Program Type Interconnection Provider Virginia State Corporation Commission Virginia has two interconnection standards: one for net-metered systems and one for systems that are not net-metered. '''Interconnection for Net-Metered Systems''' Customer-generators that net meter must comply with the interconnection rules within the regulations governing net metering (20 VAC 5-315-40). These rules apply to residential customers generating up to 10 kW* and commercial systems of up to 500 kW (or greater if the utility's net

16

Interconnect Issues  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Property Property Asset Management Office of General Counsel Real Property Division Richard R. Butterworth Senior Assistant General Counsel (202) 501-4436 richard.butterworth@gsa.gov The Problem: * Most agreements require indemnity clauses - usually either by tariff or by the submission of standard contracts to PSCs * Federal Government precluded from providing indemnity by: * Anti-deficiency Act - 31 U.S.C. 665(a) * Adequacy of Appropriations Act - 41 U.S.C. 11 GSA - Utility Interconnection Agreements GSA - Utility Interconnection Agreements * Exception: Utility Contracts * GAO decisions lay foundation for exception for utility contracts * Narrow exception GSA - Utility Interconnection Agreements * Application to Interconnection Agreements * Keys: Requirement for service Tariff or PSC action on contract

17

Hopper Interconnect  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Interconnect Interconnect Interconnect jaguar xt4 Hopper's "Gemini" network is connected in a 3D torus. Description Hopper's compute nodes are connected via a custom high-bandwidth, low-latency network provided by Cray. The connectivity is in the form of a "mesh" in which each node is connected to other nearby nodes like strands in a fishing net, except that the mesh extends in three dimensions. Each network node handles not only data destined for itself, but also data to be relayed to other nodes. Nodes at the "edges" of the mesh network are connected to nodes at the other edge to form a 3-D torus. The custom chips that route communication over the network are known as "Gemini" and the entire network is often referred to as the "Cray Gemini

18

VOLUME 46 JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY NOVEMBER 2007 Supplying Baseload Power and Reducing Transmission Requirements by Interconnecting Wind Farms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wind is the worlds fastest growing electric energy source. Because it is intermittent, though, wind is not used to supply baseload electric power today. Interconnecting wind farms through the transmission grid is a simple and effective way of reducing deliverable wind power swings caused by wind intermittency. As more farms are interconnected in an array, wind speed correlation among sites decreases and so does the probability that all sites experience the same wind regime at the same time. The array consequently behaves more and more similarly to a single farm with steady wind speed and thus steady deliverable wind power. In this study, benefits of interconnecting wind farms were evaluated for 19 sites, located in the midwestern United States, with annual average wind speeds at 80 m above ground, the hub height of modern wind turbines, greater than 6.9 m s ?1 (class 3 or greater). It was found that an average of 33 % and a maximum of 47 % of yearly averaged wind power from interconnected farms can be used as reliable, baseload electric power. Equally significant, interconnecting multiple wind farms to a common point and then connecting that point to a far-away city can allow the long-distance portion of transmission capacity to be reduced, for example, by 20 % with only a 1.6 % loss of energy. Although most parameters, such as intermittency, improved less than linearly as the number of interconnected sites increased, no saturation of the benefits

Cristina L. Archer; Mark; Z. Jacobson

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards < Back Eligibility Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Wind Energy Sources Solar Program Info State New Mexico Program Type Interconnection Provider New Mexico Public Regulation Commission Interconnection in New Mexico is governed by New Mexico Public Regulation Commission (PRC) Rule 568 and Rule 569. These rules, adopted in July 2008, revised and clarified the state's existing rules. Rule 569 applies to all qualifying facilities (QFs) under PURPA, which generally includes all renewable-energy systems and combined-heat-and-power (CHP) systems up to 80

20

Advanced Interconnect Development  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this project are to develop cost-effective, optimized materials for intermediate temperature SOFC interconnect and interconnect/electrode interface applications and identify and understand degradation processes in interconnects and at their interfaces with electrodes.

Yang, Z.G.; Maupin, G.; Simner, S.; Singh, P.; Stevenson, J.; Xia, G.

2005-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection cxs applied" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Superconductive interconnections for cryoelectronics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Factors affecting the use of superconducting interconnections for cryoelectronics will be examined. The fundamental questions to be answered are why interconnections are important for high performance computing

Kenneth Rose

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Pulsed wave interconnect  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pulsed wave interconnect is proposed for global interconnect applications. Signals are represented by localized wavepackets that propagate along the interconnect lines at the local speed of light to trigger the receivers. Energy consumption is reduced ... Keywords: CMOS, VLSI, high-speed interconnect, nonlinear transmission line, pulse compression, soliton, wafer-scale-integration

Pingshan Wang; Gen Pei; Edwin Chih-Chuan Kan

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Puerto Rico - Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Puerto Rico - Interconnection Standards Puerto Rico - Interconnection Standards Puerto Rico - Interconnection Standards < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Industrial Institutional Local Government Multi-Family Residential Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Wind Energy Sources Solar Home Weatherization Program Info Program Type Interconnection Provider Autoridad de Energía Electrica de Puerto Rico In 2007, the Autoridad de Energía Electrica de Puerto Rico (PREPA*) adopted interconnection standards based on the standard contained in the federal Energy Policy Act of 2005. PREPA promulgated interconnection rules in August 2008 that apply to all distributed generation (DG) projects that

24

Interconnection Guidelines | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

General Public/Consumer General Public/Consumer Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Wind Solar Program Info State Arkansas Program Type Interconnection Provider Arkansas Public Service Commission In April 2001, Arkansas enacted legislation directing the Arkansas Public Service Commission (PSC) to establish net-metering rules for certain renewable-energy systems. The Arkansas Public Service Commission (PSC) adopted net-metering rules in July 2002 (Order No. 02-046-R). Section 3 applies to the interconnection of net-metered facilities to existing electric power systems.* Systems that generate electricity using solar, wind, hydro, geothermal and biomass resources are eligible to interconnect

25

Interconnection Guidelines | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Bioenergy Bioenergy Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Buying & Making Electricity Solar Home Weatherization Wind Program Info State Kansas Program Type Interconnection Provider Kansas Corporation Commission Kansas adopted the Net Metering and Easy Connection Act in May 2009 (see K.S.A. 66-1263 through 66-1271), establishing interconnection guidelines and net metering for customer-owned generators. Net metering and the accompanying interconnection guidelines apply to systems that generate electricity using solar, wind, methane, biomass or hydro resources, and to fuel cells using hydrogen produced by an eligible renewable technology, with a rated capacity of 25 kilowatts (kW) or less for residential customers, 200 kW or less for non-residential customers and 1.5 megawatts

26

Interconnection Standards (Indiana) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

provide three levels of interconnection to customer-generators. Level 1: Applies to inverter-based systems with a maximum nameplate capacity of 10 kilowatts (kW). These systems...

27

Durability of Metallic Interconnects and Protective Coatings  

SciTech Connect

To build up a useful voltage, a number of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are electrically connected into series in a stack via interconnects, which are placed between adjacent cells. In addition to functioning as a bi-polar electrical connector, the interconnect also acts as a separator plate that separates the fuel at the anode side of one cell from the air at the cathode side on an adjacent cell. During SOFC operation at the high temperatures, the interconnects are thus simultaneously exposed to the oxidizing air at one side and a reducing fuel that can be either hydrogen or hydrocarbon at the other. Besides, they are in contact with adjacent components, such as electrodes or electrical contacts, seals, etc. With steady reduction in SOFC operating temperatures into the low or intermediate range 600-850oC, oxidation resistant alloys are often used to construct interconnects. However, the metallic interconnects may degrade via interactions at their interfaces with surrounding environments or adjacent components, potentially affecting the stability and performance of interconnects and the SOFC stacks. Thus protection layers are applied to metallic interconnects that also intend to mitigate or prevent chromium migration into cells and the cell poisoning. This chapter provides a comprehensive review of materials for metallic interconnects, their degradation and coating protection.

Yang, Zhenguo; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

28

Interconnection Transmission Planning: Awards | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Transmission Planning: Awards Interconnection Transmission Planning: Awards List of Interconnection Transmission Planning awards under the American Recovery and...

29

Interconnection Standards for Small Generators | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Standards for Small Generators Interconnection Standards for Small Generators Interconnection Standards for Small Generators < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Tribal Government Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Water Wind Energy Sources Solar Home Weatherization Program Info Program Type Interconnection Provider Federal Energy Regulatory Commission The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) adopted "small generator" interconnection standards for distributed energy resources up to 20 megawatts (MW) in capacity in May 2005.* The FERC's standards apply only to facilities subject to the jurisdiction of the commission; these facilities

30

Solar cell array interconnects  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Electrical interconnects are disclosed for solar cells or other electronic components using a silver-silicone paste or a lead-tin (Pb-Sn) no-clean fluxless solder cream, whereby the high breakage of thin (<6 mil thick) solar cells using conventional solder interconnect is eliminated. The interconnects of this invention employs copper strips which are secured to the solar cells by a silver-silicone conductive paste which can be used at room temperature, or by a Pb-Sn solder cream which eliminates undesired residue on the active surfaces of the solar cells. Electrical testing using the interconnects of this invention has shown that no degradation of the interconnects developed under high current testing, while providing a very low contact resistance value. 4 figs.

Carey, P.G.; Thompson, J.B.; Colella, N.J.; Williams, K.A.

1995-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

31

Solar cell array interconnects  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Electrical interconnects for solar cells or other electronic components using a silver-silicone paste or a lead-tin (Pb-Sn) no-clean fluxless solder cream, whereby the high breakage of thin (<6 mil thick) solar cells using conventional solder interconnect is eliminated. The interconnects of this invention employs copper strips which are secured to the solar cells by a silver-silicone conductive paste which can be used at room temperature, or by a Pb-Sn solder cream which eliminates undesired residue on the active surfaces of the solar cells. Electrical testing using the interconnects of this invention has shown that no degradation of the interconnects developed under high current testing, while providing a very low contact resistance value.

Carey, Paul G. (Mountain View, CA); Thompson, Jesse B. (Brentwood, CA); Colella, Nicolas J. (Livermore, CA); Williams, Kenneth A. (Livermore, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Wind Energy Sources Solar Program Info State Indiana Program Type Interconnection Provider Indiana Utility Regulatory Commission In November 2005, the Indiana Utility Regulatory Commission (IURC) approved rules governing the interconnection of distributed generation (DG). Indiana's interconnection rules require the state's investor-owned utilities to provide three levels of interconnection to customer-generators.

33

Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards < Back Eligibility Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Buying & Making Electricity Solar Wind Program Info State Nevada Program Type Interconnection Provider Public Utilities Commission of Nevada In December 2003, the Nevada Public Utilities Commission (PUC) adopted interconnection standards for customers of NV Energy (formerly Nevada Power and Sierra Pacific Power) with on-site generation up to 20 megawatts (MW) in capacity. These standards are largely consistent with IEEE 1547 standards, California's interconnection rule (California Rule 21) and the model interconnection agreement developed by the National Association of

34

SOFC INTERCONNECT DEVELOPMENT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An interconnect for an SOFC stack is used to connect fuel cells into a stack. SOFC stacks are expected to run for 40,000 hours and 10 thermal cycles for the stationary application and 10,000 hours and 7000 thermal cycles for the transportation application. The interconnect of a stack must be economical and robust enough to survive the SOFC stack operation temperature of 750 C and must maintain the electrical connection to the fuel cells throughout the lifetime and under thermal cycling conditions. Ferritic and austenitic stainless steels, and nickel-based superalloys were investigated as possible interconnect materials for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks. The alloys were thermally cycled in air and in a wet nitrogen-argon-hydrogen (N2-Ar-H2-H2O) atmosphere. Thermogravimetry was used to determine the parabolic oxidation rate constants of the alloys in both atmospheres. The area-specific resistance of the oxide scale and metal substrates were measured using a two-probe technique with platinum contacts. The study identifies two new interconnect designs which can be used with both bonded and compressive stack sealing mechanisms. The new interconnect designs offer a solution to chromium vaporization, which can lead to degradation of some (chromium-sensitive) SOFC cathodes.

Diane M. England

2004-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

35

interconnect | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

interconnect interconnect Dataset Summary Description Emissions from energy use in buildings are usually estimated on an annual basis using annual average multipliers. Using annual numbers provides a reasonable estimation of emissions, but it provides no indication of the temporal nature of the emissions. Therefore, there is no way of understanding the impact on emissions from load shifting and peak shaving technologies such as thermal energy storage, on-site renewable energy, and demand control. Source NREL Date Released April 11th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated April 11th, 2011 (3 years ago) Keywords buildings carbon dioxide emissions carbon footprinting CO2 commercial buildings electricity emission factors ERCOT hourly emission factors interconnect nitrogen oxides NOx

36

Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Energy Sources Solar Home Weatherization Wind Program Info State Pennsylvania Program Type Interconnection Provider Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission The Pennsylvania Public Utilities Commission was required to adopt interconnection standards and net-metering rules by the Alternative Energy Portfolio Standards Act of 2004.The PUC subsequently adopted interconnection standards for net-metered distributed generation (DG)

37

Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards < Back Eligibility Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Wind Energy Sources Solar Home Weatherization Program Info State Michigan Program Type Interconnection Provider Michigan Public Service Commission The Michigan Public Service Commission (PSC) first adopted interconnection standards for distributed generation (DG) in September 2003. The original standards provided for 5 levels of interconnection with cutoffs at 30 kilowatts (kW), 150 kW, 750 kW, and 2 megawatts (MW), but left many details

38

Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Solar Wind Program Info State Oregon Program Type Interconnection Provider Oregon Public Utility Commission Oregon has three separate interconnection standards: one for net-metered systems, one for small generator facilities (non-net metered systems) and one for large generator facilities (non-net metered systems). Oregon has also established separate net metering requirements and interconnection standards for the state's primary investor-owned utilities (PGE and

39

Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Wind Energy Sources Solar Home Weatherization Program Info State District of Columbia Program Type Interconnection Provider Washington Utilities and Transportation Commission In September 2007, the Washington Utilities and Transportation Commission (UTC) adopted interconnection standards for distributed generation (DG) systems up to 20 megawatts (MW) in capacity. The revised standards provide for two separate levels of interconnection based on system capacity. The

40

Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Solar Buying & Making Electricity Home Weatherization Water Wind Program Info State Kentucky Program Type Interconnection Provider Kentucky Public Service Commission In April 2008, Kentucky enacted legislation which required the Kentucky Public Service Commission (PSC) to develop interconnection and net metering guidelines for all retail electric suppliers operating in Kentucky (excluding TVA utilities). The Kentucky PSC adopted those guidelines on January 8, 2009 (Order 2008-00169). The PSC's rules set forth a two-tiered approach to simplify the interconnection process:

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection cxs applied" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Energy Sources Solar Wind Program Info State Maryland Program Type Interconnection Provider Maryland Public Service Commission In April 2007, Maryland enacted legislation ([http://mgaleg.maryland.gov/2007RS/chapters_noln/Ch_119_sb0595E.pdf S.B. 595]) requiring the Maryland Public Service Commission (PSC) to form a small generator interconnection working group to develop interconnection standards and procedures that are "consistent with nationally adopted

42

Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Wind Energy Sources Solar Program Info State New York Program Type Interconnection Provider New York State Department of Public Service New York first adopted uniform interconnection standards in 1999 (see history below). The Standard Interconnection Requirements (SIR) have subsequently been amended several times since, most recently with the adoption of far reaching revisions in February 2009. Several more minor

43

Interconnection Guidelines | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Guidelines Interconnection Guidelines Interconnection Guidelines < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Buying & Making Electricity Energy Sources Solar Wind Program Info State Delaware Program Type Interconnection Provider Delaware Public Service Commission '''''Note: Delaware law ([http://delcode.delaware.gov/title26/c010/index.shtml#1014 26 Del. C. § 1014]) requires the Delaware Public Service Commission (PSC), Delaware Electric Cooperative (DEC), and municipal utilities to develop interconnection rules using as a guide the Interstate Renewable Energy Council's (IREC) model interconnection rules and the U.S. Department of

44

Interconnection Guidelines | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Guidelines Interconnection Guidelines Interconnection Guidelines < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Residential Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Wind Energy Sources Solar Program Info State Arizona Program Type Interconnection Provider Arizona Corporation Commission '''''Note: In June 2007, the Arizona Corporation Commission (ACC) initiated a rulemaking process to establish statewide interconnection standards for distributed generation (DG). This proceeding is still in progress. Until the new official rules go into effect, the commission has recommended that the utilities use the [http://images.edocket.azcc.gov/docketpdf/0000074361.pdf Interconnection

45

Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards < Back Eligibility Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Wind Energy Sources Solar Program Info State Hawaii Program Type Interconnection Provider Hawaii Public Utilities Commission Hawaii has established simplified interconnection rules for small renewables and separate rules for all other distributed generation (DG). For inverter-based systems up to 10 kilowatts (kW) in capacity (and inverter-based DG under 250 kW on islands other than Kauai), there is a simple application process for interconnection. Systems must use inverters

46

Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Wind Energy Sources Solar Home Weatherization Water Program Info State North Carolina Program Type Interconnection Provider North Carolina Utilities Commission The North Carolina Utilities Commission (NCUC) adopted comprehensive interconnection standards for distributed generation in June 2008. The NCUC standards, which are similar to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC) interconnection standards for small generators,

47

Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

You are here You are here Home » Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Water Solar Wind Program Info State Iowa Program Type Interconnection Provider Iowa Utilities Board Different rules govern the interconnection of distributed generation facilities in Iowa, depending on whether or not the interconnection is with a utility whose rates are regulated by the Iowa Utilities Board (IUB). Rate regulated utilities include only the state's two investor-owned utilities -- MidAmerican Energy and Interstate Power and Light (IPL) -- and Linn

48

Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

You are here You are here Home » Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Residential Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Wind Energy Sources Solar Program Info State Vermont Program Type Interconnection Provider Vermont Public Service Board Vermont has adopted separate interconnection standards for net-metered energy systems that are 150 kW or less, and for all other distributed-generation (DG) systems. '''Interconnection Standards for Net-Metered Systems 150 kW or less''' Vermont requires electric utilities to offer net metering to all customers with photovoltaic (PV) systems, wind-energy systems, fuel cells or

49

Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards < Back Eligibility Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Biofuels Alternative Fuel Vehicles Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Wind Energy Sources Solar Home Weatherization Program Info State Wisconsin Program Type Interconnection Provider Public Service Commission of Wisconsin In February 2004, the Wisconsin Public Service Commission adopted interconnection standards for distributed generation (DG) systems up to 15 megawatts (MW) in capacity. All investor-owned utilities (IOUs) and municipal utilities are required to abide by the standard provisions.

50

Interconnection Guidelines | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Guidelines Interconnection Guidelines Interconnection Guidelines < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Wind Energy Sources Solar Home Weatherization Water Program Info State South Carolina Program Type Interconnection Provider Public Service Commission of South Carolina The South Carolina Public Service Commission (PSC) adopted simplified interconnection guidelines for small distributed generation (DG) in December 2006. These guidelines address renewable-energy systems and other forms of DG up to 20 kilowatts (kW) in capacity for residential systems,

51

Interconnection Guidelines | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Guidelines Interconnection Guidelines Interconnection Guidelines < Back Eligibility Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Buying & Making Electricity Solar Wind Program Info State Missouri Program Type Interconnection Provider Missouri Department of Natural Resources Missouri enacted legislation (S.B. 54) in June 2007 requiring all of the state's electric utilities -- including municipal utilities and electric cooperatives -- to offer net metering to customers with systems up to 100 kilowatts (kW) in capacity that generate electricity using wind energy, solar-thermal energy, hydroelectric energy, photovoltaics (PV), fuel cells

52

Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

(S.B. 680) requiring the Illinois Commerce Commission (ICC) to establish standards for net metering and interconnection for renewable energy systems by April 1, 2008....

53

Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Biofuels Alternative Fuel Vehicles Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Energy Sources Solar Home Weatherization Wind Program Info State New Hampshire Program Type Interconnection Provider New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission New Hampshire requires all utilities selling electricity in the state to offer net metering to customers who own or operate systems up to one megawatt (1 MW) in capacity that generate electricity using solar, wind, geothermal, hydro, tidal, wave, biomass, landfill gas, bio-oil or

54

Interconnection Guidelines | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

net-metering law includes basic interconnection requirements for systems up to 25 kilowatts (kW) in capacity that generate electricity using solar, wind, hydropower or biomass...

55

Memory test time reduction by interconnecting test items  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The idea is to interconnect test items to reuse memory states left from the previous test item for saving initialization and verification sequences. Meanwhile, signal settling time of the tester between two consecutive test items being applied can also ... Keywords: NP-hard problem, constraints, graph theory, initialization sequences, integer linear programming model, integer programming, integrated circuit testing, integrated memory circuits, interconnection problem, iterations, linear programming, memory test time reduction, rural Chinese postman problem, signal settling time, successive ILP models, test items interconnection, verification sequences

Wen-Jer Wu; Chuan Yi Tang

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards < Back Eligibility Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Wind Energy Sources Solar Program Info State Ohio Program Type Interconnection Provider Ohio Public Utilities Commission '''''Note: In July 2012, the Public Utilities Commission of Ohio (PUCO) opened a docket ([http://dis.puc.state.oh.us/CaseRecord.aspx?CaseNo=12-2051&x=0&y=0 Case 12-0251-EL-ORD]) to review the net metering and interconnection rules for investor-owned utilities. Details will be posted as more information is available.'''''

57

interconnect region | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

interconnect region interconnect region Dataset Summary Description Datasets are for the US electricity grid system interconnect regions (ASCC, FRCC, HICC, MRO, NPCC, RFC, SERC, SPP, TRE, WECC) for 2008. The data is provided in life cycle inventory (LCI) forms (both xls and xml). A module report and a detailed spreadsheet are also included. Source US Life Cycle Inventory Database Date Released May 01st, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords ASCC FRCC HICC interconnect region LCI life cycle inventory MRO NPCC RFC SERC SPP TRE unit process US utilities WECC Data application/zip icon interconnect_lci_datasets_2008.zip (zip, 6.3 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period License License Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and Licence (PDDL)

58

Process for electrically interconnecting electrodes  

SciTech Connect

Electrical interconnects for solar cells or other electronic components using a silver-silicone paste or a lead-tin (Pb--Sn) no-clean fluxless solder cream, whereby the high breakage of thin (<6 mil thick) solar cells using conventional solder interconnect is eliminated. The interconnects of this invention employs copper strips which are secured to the solar cells by a silver-silicone conductive paste which can be used at room temperature, or by a Pb--Sn solder cream which eliminates undesired residue on the active surfaces of the solar cells. Electrical testing using the interconnects of this invention has shown that no degradation of the interconnects developed under high current testing, while providing a very low contact resistance value.

Carey, Paul G. (Mountain View, CA); Thompson, Jesse B. (Brentwood, CA); Colella, Nicolas J. (Livermore, CA); Williams, Kenneth A. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

State Agency Input Regarding Electric Resource and Transmission Planning in the Texas Interconnection Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, State Agency...

60

Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, State Agency Input Regarding Electric Resource and Transmission Planning in the Texas Interconnection...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection cxs applied" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

PJM Interconnection, LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

PJM Interconnection, LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name PJM Interconnection, LLC Place Norristown, PA References SGIC1 No information has been entered for this organization....

62

Kinsus Interconnect Technology Corp | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Kinsus Interconnect Technology Corp Jump to: navigation, search Name Kinsus Interconnect Technology Corp Place Taiwan Sector Solar Product Engaged in the manufacture of chip...

63

Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Alternative Fuel Vehicles Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Solar Home Weatherization Wind Program Info State Utah Program Type Interconnection Provider Utah Public Service Commission Utah requires the state's only investor-owned utility, Rocky Mountain Power (RMP), and most electric cooperatives* to offer net metering to customers who generate electricity using solar energy, wind energy, hydropower, hydrogen, biomass, landfill gas, geothermal energy, waste gas or waste heat capture and recovery. The bill that established net metering also established some basic rules for interconnection. In April 2010, the Utah Public Service Commission (PSC) adopted final rules for interconnection. The rules described below took effect April 30, 2010.

64

Interconnection Agreements for Onsite Generation  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Agreements Interconnection Agreements for Onsite Generation Office of Real Property Asset Management Office of General Counsel Real Property Division Richard R. Butterworth Senior Assistant General Counsel (202) 501-4436 richard.butterworth@gsa.gov The Problem: * Most agreements require indemnity clauses - usually either by tariff or by the submission of standard contracts to PSCs * Federal Government precluded from providing indemnity by: * Anti-deficiency Act - 31 U.S.C. 665(a) * Adequacy of Appropriations Act - 41 U.S.C. 11 GSA - Utility Interconnection Agreements GSA - Utility Interconnection Agreements * Exception: Utility Contracts * GAO decision sets the foundation for exception for utility contracts - 59 Comp. Gen. 705 * But it's a narrow exception

65

Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards Interconnection Standards < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Residential Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Wind Energy Sources Solar Program Info State California Program Type Interconnection Provider California Public Utilities Commission '''''Note: The California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) approved a [http://docs.cpuc.ca.gov/EFILE/MOTION/162852.PDF proposed settlement] in September 2012, enacting the first fundamental redesign of Rule 21 since 2000. The complete revised Rule 21 Tariff, as described at a high level below, can be found beginning on page 136 of CPUC Decision 12-09-018. The individual tariffs adopted by the utilities can be found on the CPUC web

66

Renewable Systems Interconnection: Executive Summary  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy launched the Renewable Systems Interconnection (RSI) study in 2007 to address the challenges to high penetrations of distributed renewable energy technologies. The RSI study consists of 14 additional reports.

Kroposki, B.; Margolis, R.; Kuswa, G.; Torres, J.; Bower, W.; Key, T.; Ton, D.

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Method of doping interconnections for electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A dense, electronically conductive interconnection layer 26 is bonded on a porous, tubular, electronically conductive air electrode structure 16, optionally supported by a ceramic support 22, by (A) forming a layer of oxide particles of at least one of the metals Ca, Sr, Co, Ba or Mg on a part 24 of a first surface of the air electrode 16, (B) heating the electrode structure, (C) applying a halide vapor containing at least lanthanum halide and chromium halide to the first surface and applying a source of oxygen to a second opposite surface of the air electrode so that they contact at said first surface, to cause a reaction of the oxygen and halide and cause a dense lanthanum-chromium oxide structure to grow, from the first electrode surface, between and around the oxide particles, where the metal oxide particles get incoporated into the lanthanum-chromium oxide structure as it grows thicker with time, and the metal ions in the oxide particles diffuse into the bulk of the lanthamum-chromium oxide structure, to provide a dense, top, interconnection layer 26 on top of the air electrode 16. A solid electrolyte layer 18 can be applied to the uncovered portion of the air electrode, and a fuel electrode 20 can be applied to the solid electrolyte, to provide an electrochemical cell 10.

Pal, Uday B. (Monroeville, PA); Singhal, Subhash C. (Murrysville, PA); Moon, David M. (Pittsburgh, PA); Folser, George R. (Lower Burrell, PA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Topic A Awardee: Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

A Awardee: Eastern Interconnection Planning A Awardee: Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative Topic A Awardee: Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative The Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) was initiated by a coalition of regional Planning Authorities. These Planning Authorities are entities listed on the NERC compliance registry as Planning Authorities and represent the entire Eastern Interconnection. The EIPC was founded to be a broad-based, transparent collaborative process among all interested stakeholders: State and Federal policy makers Consumer and environmental interests Transmission Planning Authorities Market participants generating, transmitting or consuming electricity within the Eastern Interconnection. The EIPC will provide a grass-roots approach which builds upon the regional

69

Interconnection Standards | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Industrial Industrial Residential Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Solar Home Weatherization Wind Program Info State West Virginia Program Type Interconnection Provider West Virginia Public Service Commission In 2006, West Virginia stakeholders came together to consider net metering, interconnection as required by the Federal Energy Policy Act (2005) and agreed upon a "Statement of Consensus Among Parties," which was presented to and accepted by the West Virginia Public Service Commission (PSC) in December 2006. The consensus agreement did include interconnection guidelines for the state, however, the PSC did not initiate a formal rule-making or incorporate the guidelines into agency rules. Rather, the

70

GSA-Utility Interconnection Agreements  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Property Property Asset Management Office of General Counsel Real Property Division Richard R. Butterworth Senior Assistant General Counsel (202) 501-4436 richard.butterworth@gsa.gov The Problem: * Most agreements require indemnity clauses - usually either by tariff or by the submission of standard contracts to PSCs * Federal Government precluded from providing indemnity by: * Anti-deficiency Act - 31 U.S.C. 665(a) * Adequacy of Appropriations Act - 41 U.S.C. 11 GSA - Utility Interconnection Agreements GSA - Utility Interconnection Agreements Exception: Utility Contracts * GAO decision sets the foundation for exception for utility contracts - 59 Comp. Gen. 705 * But it's a narrow exception - B-197583, January 19, 1981 GSA - Utility Interconnection Agreements

71

Learn More About Interconnections | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Learn More About Learn More About Interconnections Learn More About Interconnections Learn More About Interconnections EASTERN INTERCONNECTION North America is comprised of two major and three minor alternating current (AC) power grids or "interconnections." The Eastern Interconnection reaches from Central Canada Eastward to the Atlantic coast (excluding Québec), South to Florida and West to the foot of the Rockies (excluding most of Texas). All of the electric utilities in the Eastern Interconnection are electrically tied together during normal system conditions and operate at a synchronized frequency operating at an average of 60Hz. Click here for more information. DOE is in the process of issuing awards to two entities in the Eastern Interconnection: one to the Eastern Interconnection Planning

72

Interconnection Guidelines | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Industrial Industrial Residential Savings Category Bioenergy Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Wind Solar Program Info State Louisiana Program Type Interconnection Provider Louisiana Public Service Commission '''''Note: Ongoing proceedings related to net metering can be found in [http://lpscstar.louisiana.gov/star/portal/lpsc/page/Dockets/portal.aspx Docket R-31417.]''''' The Louisiana Public Service Commission (PSC) adopted rules for net metering and interconnection in November 2005. Louisiana's rules, based on those in place in Arkansas, require publicly-owned utilities and rural electric cooperatives to offer net metering to customers with systems that generate electricity using solar, wind, hydropower, geothermal or biomass

73

Interconnection Guidelines (Rhode Island) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection Guidelines (Rhode Island) Interconnection Guidelines (Rhode Island) Interconnection Guidelines (Rhode Island) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Multi-Family Residential Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Bioenergy Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Solar Home Weatherization Wind Program Info State Rhode Island Program Type Interconnection Provider Rhode Island Public Utilities Commission Rhode Island enacted legislation (HB 6222) in June 2011 to standardize the application process for the interconnection of customer-sited renewable-energy systems to the state's distribution grid. Rhode Island's interconnection policy is not nearly as comprehensive as

74

Analysis of electric vehicle interconnection with commercial  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Analysis of electric vehicle interconnection with commercial building microgrids Michael Stadler, process, or service by its trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily Laboratories America Inc. Analysis of electric vehicle interconnection with commercial building microgrids

75

Learn More About Interconnections | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Development Electricity Policy Coordination and Implementation Transmission Planning Recovery Act Interconnection Transmission Planning Congestion Studies Coordination of...

76

Superconducting Multilayer Interconnect - lbl.gov  

Technique to fabricate multilayer interconnects and multiturn flux transformers for use with direct current superconducting quantum interference ...

77

Interconnection Guidelines | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Industrial Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Solar Buying & Making Electricity Wind Program Info State Georgia Program Type Interconnection Provider Georgia Public Service Commission The Georgia Cogeneration and Distributed Generation Act of 2001 allows residential electricity customers with photovoltaic (PV) systems, wind-energy systems or fuel cells up to 10 kilowatts (kW) in capacity, and commercial facilities up to 100 kW, to connect to the grid. The aggregate capacity of distributed generation systems is limited to 0.2% of a utility's system peak demand from the previous year. Interconnected customers must comply with all relevant national standards,

78

PJM Interconnection (Multiple States) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

PJM Interconnection (Multiple States) PJM Interconnection (Multiple States) PJM Interconnection (Multiple States) < Back Eligibility Developer Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Delaware Program Type Interconnection PJM (originally Pennsylvania, Jersey, Maryland) Interconnection is a Regional Transmission Organization (RTO) that coordinates the movement of wholesale electricity in all or parts of Delaware, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, New Jersey, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia and the District of Columbia. The PJM region has an area of 214,000 square miles, a population of about 60 million and a peak demand of 163,848 megawatts

79

Double interconnection fuel cell array  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell array (10) is made, containing number of tubular, elongated fuel cells (12) which are placed next to each other in rows (A, B, C, D), where each cell contains inner electrodes (14) and outer electrodes (18 and 18'), with solid electrolyte (16 and 16') between the electrodes, where the electrolyte and outer electrode are discontinuous, having two portions, and providing at least two opposed discontinuities which contain at least two oppositely opposed interconnections (20 and 20') contacting the inner electrode (14), each cell (12) having only three metallic felt electrical connectors (22) which contact surrounding cells, where each row is electrically connected to the other.

Draper, Robert (Churchill Boro, PA); Zymboly, Gregory E. (Murrysville, PA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Cascade solar cell having conductive interconnects  

SciTech Connect

Direct ohmic contact between the cells in an epitaxially grown cascade solar cell is obtained by means of conductive interconnects formed through grooves etched intermittently in the upper cell. The base of the upper cell is directly connected by the conductive interconnects to the emitter of the bottom cell. The conductive interconnects preferably terminate on a ledge formed in the base of the upper cell.

Borden, Peter G. (Menlo Park, CA); Saxena, Ram R. (Saratoga, CA)

1982-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection cxs applied" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Avista Utilities - Interconnection Guidelines (Idaho) | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

page on Facebook icon Twitter icon Avista Utilities - Interconnection Guidelines (Idaho) This is the approved revision of this page, as well as being the most recent. Jump...

82

A California Distributed Generation Primer: Interconnection and...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

California Distributed Generation Primer: Interconnection and Beyond Synopsis Speaker(s): Scott Tomashefsky Date: January 10, 2002 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar HostPoint...

83

USLCI Interconnect Region Electricity datasets, 2008 Datasets...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

spreadsheet are also included.

Datasets include generation and transmission of electricity for each of the interconnect regions. It is representative of the year...

84

Probabilistic Analysis of Multistage Interconnection Network Performance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present methods of calculating the value of two performance parameters for multipath, multistage interconnection networks: the normalized throughput and the probability of successful message transmission. We develop ...

Sobalvarro, Patrick G.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Definition: Interconnected Operations Service | Open Energy Informatio...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

operation of interconnected Bulk Electric Systems.1 Also Known As IOS Related Terms transmission lines, energy, transmission line, transmission service References ...

86

D R A F T Evaluating Interconnect  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

R A F T Evaluating Interconnect and Virtualization Performance for High Performance Computing Lavanya Ramakrishnan R. Shane Canon Krishna Muriki Iwona Sakrejda Nicholas J. Wright...

87

SECA Core Technology Program - SOFC Interconnect Meeting  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Core Technology Program - SOFC Interconnect Meeting July 28-29, 2004 Table of Contents Disclaimer Participants PDF-17KB Presentations Products Disclaimer This report was prepared...

88

Degradation of Manganese Cobalt Spinel SOFC Interconnect ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Degradation of Manganese Cobalt Spinel SOFC Interconnect Coatings. Author(s), Jeffrey W. Fergus, Yingjia Liu, Yu Zhao. On-Site Speaker...

89

Updating Technical Screens for PV Interconnection: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solar photovoltaics (PV) is the dominant type of distributed generation (DG) technology interconnected to electric distribution systems in the United States, and deployment of PV systems continues to increase rapidly. Considering the rapid growth and widespread deployment of PV systems in United States electric distribution grids, it is important that interconnection procedures be as streamlined as possible to avoid unnecessary interconnection studies, costs, and delays. Because many PV interconnection applications involve high penetration scenarios, the process needs to allow for a sufficiently rigorous technical evaluation to identify and address possible system impacts. Existing interconnection procedures are designed to balance the need for efficiency and technical rigor for all DG. However, there is an implicit expectation that those procedures will be updated over time in order to remain relevant with respect to evolving standards, technology, and practical experience. Modifications to interconnection screens and procedures must focus on maintaining or improving safety and reliability, as well as accurately allocating costs and improving expediency of the interconnection process. This paper evaluates the origins and usefulness of the capacity penetration screen, offers potential short-term solutions which could effectively allow fast-track interconnection to many PV system applications, and considers longer-term solutions for increasing PV deployment levels in a safe and reliable manner while reducing or eliminating the emphasis on the penetration screen.

Coddington, M.; Ellis, A.; Lynn, K.; Razon, A.; Key, T.; Kroposki, B.; Mather, B.; Hill, R.; Nicole, K.; Smith, J.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Interconnect Coupling Noise in CMOS VLSI Circuits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Interconnect between a CMOS driver and re- ceiver can be modeled as a 1ossy transmission line in high speed CMOS VLSI circuits as transition times become comparable to or less than the time of flight delay of the signal through the low resistivity interconnect. In this paper, closed form expressions for the coupling noise between adjacent interconnect are presented to estimate the coupling noise voltage on a quiet line. These expressions are based on an assumption that the interconnections are loosely coupled, where the effect of the coupling noise on the waveform of the active line is small and can be ne- glected. It is demonstrated that the output impedance of the CMOS driver should preferably be comparable to the interconnect impedance in order to reduce the propagation delay of the CMOS driver stage.

Kevin T. Tang; Eby G. Friedman

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic A,  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic A, Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic A, Interconnection-Level Analysis and Planning Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic A, Interconnection-Level Analysis and Planning A description of the requirements for Topic A for all Interconnections under the Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative, part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic A, Interconnection-Level Analysis and Planning More Documents & Publications Microsoft Word - yDE-FOA-0000068.rtf Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, Cooperation Among States in the Eastern Interconnection on Electric Resource Planning and Priorities Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, Cooperation

92

Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative - Meeting Calendars |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Technology Development » Transmission Planning » Technology Development » Transmission Planning » Recovery Act Interconnection Transmission Planning » Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative - Meeting Calendars Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative - Meeting Calendars Click on the links below to access each awardee's meeting and events calendar. Eastern Interconnection Topic A Awardee: Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative Topic B Awardee: Eastern Interconnection States' Planning Council Western Interconnection Topic A Awardee: Western Electricity Coordinating Council Topic B Awardee: Western Governors' Association Texas Interconnection Topic A and B Awardee: Electric Reliability Council of Texas Electricity Advisory Committee Technology Development Transmission Planning

93

Development of a flip-chip composite interconnection system.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The objective of this research is to develop a novel flip-chip composite interconnect structure to overcome the inherent weaknesses of the conventional solder bump interconnection. (more)

Wong, Stephen Chee Khuen.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

The regulation of internet interconnection : assessing network market power  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Interconnection agreements in the telecommunications industry have always been constrained by regulation. Internet interconnection has not received the same level of scrutiny. Recent debates regarding proposed mergers, ...

Maida, Elisabeth M. (Elisabeth Marigo)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Smart buildings with electric vehicle interconnection as buffer...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

buildings with electric vehicle interconnection as buffer for local renewables? Title Smart buildings with electric vehicle interconnection as buffer for local renewables?...

96

Utility Wind Integration Group Distributed Wind/Solar Interconnection...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Utility Wind Integration Group Distributed WindSolar Interconnection Workshop Utility Wind Integration Group Distributed WindSolar Interconnection Workshop May 21, 2013 8:00AM...

97

Microsoft PowerPoint - 071410 SECA poster (ceramic interconnect...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

C I DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC INTERCONNECT DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC INTERCONNECT M SOFC MATERIALS FOR SOFCS MATERIALS FOR SOFCS KYUNG JOONG YOON, JEFFRY W. STEVENSON, AND OLGA A. MARINA...

98

EIS-0437: Interconnection of the Buffalo Ridge III Wind Project...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection of the Buffalo Ridge III Wind Project, Brookings and Deuel Counties, South Dakota EIS-0437: Interconnection of the Buffalo Ridge III Wind Project, Brookings...

99

EA-1902: Northern Wind Interconnection Project, Summit, South...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Agencies You are here Home EA-1902: Northern Wind Interconnection Project, Summit, South Dakota EA-1902: Northern Wind Interconnection Project, Summit, South Dakota Summary...

100

Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic A,  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

A, A, Interconnection-Level Analysis and Planning Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic A, Interconnection-Level Analysis and Planning A description of the requirements for Topic A for all Interconnections under the Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative, part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic A, Interconnection-Level Analysis and Planning More Documents & Publications Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, Cooperation Among States in the Eastern Interconnection on Electric Resource Planning and Priorities Microsoft Word - yDE-FOA-0000068.rtf Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, Cooperation Among States in the Western Interconnection on Electric Resource Planning

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection cxs applied" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Hybrid Silicon Photonics for Optical Interconnects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and J. U. Yoon, Silicon photonics for compact, energy- ef?www.zurich.ibm.com/st/photonics/interconnects.html [3] R.comb laser, in Proc. SPIE Photonics West 2010, pp. 76070W

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Carbon nanotube synthesis for integrated circuit interconnects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Based on their properties, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been identified as ideal replacements for copper interconnects in integrated circuits given their higher current density, inertness, and higher resistance to ...

Nessim, Gilbert Daniel

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Interconnectable blocks for music and audio processing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis describes the technical implementation of a set of interconnectable blocks designed to be used by children to explore the possibilities of digital sound manipulation. In contrast to similar modular systems, ...

McPherson, Andrew, 1982-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Removing Barriers to Utility Interconnected Photovoltaic Inverters  

SciTech Connect

The Million Solar Roofs Initiative has motivated a renewed interest in the development of utility interconnected photovoltaic (UIPV) inverters. Government-sponsored programs (PVMaT, PVBONUS) and competition among utility interconnected inverter manufacturers have stimulated innovations and improved the performance of existing technologies. With this resurgence, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed a program to assist industry initiatives to overcome barriers to UIPV inverters. In accordance with newly adopted IEEE 929-2000, the utility interconnected PV inverters are required to cease energizing the utility grid when either a significant disturbance occurs or the utility experiences an interruption in service. Compliance with IEEE 929-2000 is being widely adopted by utilities as a minimum requirement for utility interconnection. This report summarizes work done at the SNL balance-of-systems laboratory to support the development of IEEE 929-2000 and to assist manufacturers in meeting its requirements.

Gonzalez, S.; Bonn, R.H.; Ginn, J.W.

2000-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

105

Accelerating Fatigue Testing for Cu Ribbon Interconnects (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This presentation describes fatigue experiments and discusses dynamic mechanical loading for Cu ribbon interconnects.

Bosco, N.; Silverman, T.; Wohlgemuth , J.; Kurtz, S.; Inoue, M.; Sakurai, K.; Shioda, T.; Zenkoh, H.; Miyashita, M.; Tadanori, T.; Suzuki, S.

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

NREL Variability Analysis for the Western Interconnect (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This presentation investigates the effects of several Energy Imbalance Markets implementations in the Western Interconnect.

Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; King, J.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative News Release | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative News Release Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative News Release Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative News Release The Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) today announced that its diverse array of stakeholders has reached consensus on the final set of "resource expansion futures" to be studied as part of the electric system transmission planning effort funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative News Release More Documents & Publications Electricity Advisory Committee Meeting Presentations October 2011 - Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Processes 2012 National Electric Transmission Congestion Study - Philadelphia Workshop EAC Recommendations for DOE Action Regarding Interconnection-Wide Planning

108

Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, Cooperation  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, Cooperation Among States in the Eastern Interconnection on Electric Resource Planning and Priorities Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, Cooperation Among States in the Eastern Interconnection on Electric Resource Planning and Priorities A description of the requirements for Topic B for the Eastern Interconnection under the Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative, part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. The fundamental purpose of the awards under Topic B is to facilitate dialogue and collaboration among the states in the respective interconnections (or among state agencies, in the Texas Interconnection). Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, Cooperation

109

Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, Cooperation  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cooperation Among States in the Western Interconnection on Electric Cooperation Among States in the Western Interconnection on Electric Resource Planning and Priorities Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, Cooperation Among States in the Western Interconnection on Electric Resource Planning and Priorities A description of the requirements for Topic B for the Western Interconnection under the Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative, part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. The fundamental purpose of the awards under Topic B is to facilitate dialogue and collaboration among the states in the respective interconnections (or among state agencies, in the Texas Interconnection). Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, Cooperation Among States in the Western Interconnection on Electric Resource Planning

110

Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, Cooperation  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, Cooperation Among States in the Eastern Interconnection on Electric Resource Planning and Priorities Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, Cooperation Among States in the Eastern Interconnection on Electric Resource Planning and Priorities A description of the requirements for Topic B for the Eastern Interconnection under the Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative, part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. The fundamental purpose of the awards under Topic B is to facilitate dialogue and collaboration among the states in the respective interconnections (or among state agencies, in the Texas Interconnection). Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, Cooperation

111

Resistive analysis of mixed carbon nanotube bundle interconnect and its comparison with copper interconnect  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As resistivity of Copper (Cu) increases with technology scaling, this drives us to look for new interconnect material for future very large scale integration (VLSI). Mixed carbon nanotube (CNT) bundle has superior properties like current carrying capacity ... Keywords: copper, interconnect, mixed carbon nanotube bundle

T. Alam; R. Dhiman; R. Chandel

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Interconnection Testing of Distributed Resources: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

With the publication of IEEE 1547-2003(TM) Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Resources With Electric Power Systems, the electric power industry has a need to develop tests and procedures to verify that interconnection equipment meets 1547 technical requirements. A new standard, IEEE P1547.1(TM), is being written to give detailed tests and procedures for confirming that equipment meets the interconnection requirements. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory has been validating test procedures being developed as part of IEEE P1547.1. As work progresses on the validation of those procedures, information and test reports are passed on to the working group of IEEE P1547.1 for future revisions.

Kroposki, B.; Basso, T.; DeBlasio, R.

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Planarization of metal films for multilevel interconnects  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In the fabrication of multilevel integrated circuits, each metal layer is anarized by heating to momentarily melt the layer. The layer is melted by sweeping laser pulses of suitable width, typically about 1 microsecond duration, over the layer in small increments. The planarization of each metal layer eliminates irregular and discontinuous conditions between successive layers. The planarization method is particularly applicable to circuits having ground or power planes and allows for multilevel interconnects. Dielectric layers can also be planarized to produce a fully planar multilevel interconnect structure. The method is useful for the fabrication of VLSI circuits, particularly for wafer-scale integration.

Tuckerman, David B. (Livermore, CA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Planarization of metal films for multilevel interconnects  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In the fabrication of multilevel integrated circuits, each metal layer is anarized by heating to momentarily melt the layer. The layer is melted by sweeping laser pulses of suitable width, typically about 1 microsecond duration, over the layer in small increments. The planarization of each metal layer eliminates irregular and discontinuous conditions between successive layers. The planarization method is particularly applicable to circuits having ground or power planes and allows for multilevel interconnects. Dielectric layers can also be planarized to produce a fully planar multilevel interconnect structure. The method is useful for the fabrication of VLSI circuits, particularly for wafer-scale integration.

Tuckerman, David B. (Livermore, CA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Interconnection Network for Tightly Coupled Accelerators Architecture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In recent years, heterogeneous clusters using accelerators have entered widespread use in high-performance computing systems. In such clusters, inter-node communication between accelerators normally requires several memory copies via CPU memory, which ... Keywords: PCI Express, Interconnect for accelerators, GPU cluster, Accelerator computing, Remote DMA

Toshihiro Hanawa, Yuetsu Kodama, Taisuke Boku, Mitsuhisa Sato

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Catalytic bipolar interconnection plate for use in a fuel cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A bipolar interconnection plate for use between adjacent fuel cell units in a stacked fuel cell assembly. Each plate is manufactured from an intermetallic composition, examples of which include NiAl or Ni.sub.3 Al which can catalyze steam reforming of hydrocarbons. Distributed within the intermetallic structure of the plate is a ceramic filler composition. The plate includes a first side with gas flow channels therein and a second side with fuel flow channels therein. A protective coating is applied to the first side, with exemplary coatings including strontium-doped or calcium-doped lanthanum chromite. To produce the plate, Ni and Al powders are combined with the filler composition, compressed at a pressure of about 10,000-30,000 psi, and heated to about 600.degree.-1000.degree. C. The coating is then applied to the first side of the completed plate using liquid injection plasma deposition or other deposition techniques.

Lessing, Paul A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Catalytic bipolar interconnection plate for use in a fuel cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A bipolar interconnection plate is described for use between adjacent fuel cell units in a stacked fuel cell assembly. Each plate is manufactured from an intermetallic composition, examples of which include NiAl or Ni{sub 3}Al which can catalyze steam reforming of hydrocarbons. Distributed within the intermetallic structure of the plate is a ceramic filler composition. The plate includes a first side with gas flow channels therein and a second side with fuel flow channels therein. A protective coating is applied to the first side, with exemplary coatings including strontium-doped or calcium-doped lanthanum chromite. To produce the plate, Ni and Al powders are combined with the filler composition, compressed at a pressure of about 10,000--30,000 psi, and heated to about 600--1000 C. The coating is then applied to the first side of the completed plate using liquid injection plasma deposition or other deposition techniques. 6 figs.

Lessing, P.A.

1996-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

118

Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, State  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

State Agency Input Regarding Electric Resource and Transmission Planning in State Agency Input Regarding Electric Resource and Transmission Planning in the Texas Interconnection Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, State Agency Input Regarding Electric Resource and Transmission Planning in the Texas Interconnection A description of the requirements for Topic B for the Texas Interconnect under the Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative, part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. The fundamental purpose of the awards under Topic B is to facilitate dialogue and collaboration among the states in the respective interconnections (or among state agencies, in the Texas Interconnection). Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, State Agency Input Regarding Electric Resource and Transmission Planning in the

119

High temperature solid electrolyte fuel cell configurations and interconnections  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

High temperature fuel cell configurations and interconnections are made including annular cells having a solid electrolyte sandwiched between thin film electrodes. The cells are electrically interconnected along an elongated axial outer surface.

Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills, PA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

EA-1884: Invenergy Interconnection for the Wray Wind Energy Project...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

4: Invenergy Interconnection for the Wray Wind Energy Project, Town of Wray, Yuma County, CO EA-1884: Invenergy Interconnection for the Wray Wind Energy Project, Town of Wray, Yuma...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection cxs applied" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Pb-free Solders and Emerging Interconnect and Packaging ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this Symposium, emerging interconnect and packaging technologies and insights into existing materials and technologies, including Pb-free, Pb-

122

Analysis of challenges for on-chip optical interconnects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Optical interconnects are touted as the solution to the performance bottleneck of future interconnects in scaled technology nodes. Though significant strides have been made in realizing silicon photonic devices that can give high performance in controlled ... Keywords: modulator, on-chip optical interconnect, polarization sensitivity, ring-resonator, thermal sensitivity

Rajeev K. Dokania; Alyssa B. Apsel

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Interconnected networks and the governance of risk and trust  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Interconnected networks constitute the backbone of our society and bring many advantages to our daily life and activities. At the same time, however, our dependence on these networks and the fact that they are all interconnected makes our society vulnerable. ... Keywords: Risk, governance, interconnection, networks, trust

Victor Bekkers; Marcel Thaens

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Electroplating of Cu(Ag) thin films for interconnect applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electromigration effects in interconnect metallizations cause a need for materials with superior resistance against electromigration failure but with adequate electrical properties. In principle, Cu(Ag) alloys are potential candidates to become an interconnect ... Keywords: Copper-silver alloy thin film, Electrochemical deposition, Interconnect material

S. Strehle; S. Menzel; J. W. Bartha; K. Wetzig

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Technology Assessment of Interconnection Products for Distributed Resources: 2001 Update  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This interim technology assessment for distributed resources (DR), including generation and storage, is intended to assist system engineers in understanding the availability and application of interconnection products. The report provides a frame of reference to assess these products by defining a set of interconnection functions, descriptive elements, and applications and documenting the state of the art of interconnection products.

2001-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

126

Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative News Release  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

1 1 NEWS RELEASE FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE May 23, 2011 Contact: David Whiteley d.a.whiteley@att.net 314-753-6200 Eastern Interconnection Grid Planning Authorities to Study Set of Stakeholder-Identified Electric System Futures The Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) today announced that its diverse array of stakeholders has reached consensus on the final set of "resource expansion futures" to be studied as part of the electric system transmission planning effort funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). "We have taken a major step forward with the stakeholder-defined specifications for the resource futures to be considered in the macroeconomic analysis in Phase I of the Project. The stakeholders are to be congratulated for their hard work in achieving a

127

Frequency Instability Problems in North American Interconnections  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Frequency Instability Problems in Frequency Instability Problems in North American Interconnections May 1, 2011 DOE/NETL-2011/1473 Frequency Instability Problems in North American Interconnections Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference therein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement,

128

Performance testing of small interconnected wind systems  

SciTech Connect

There is a need for performance information on small windmills intended for interconnected operation with utility distribution service. The owner or prospective buyer needs the data to estimate economic viability and service reliability, while the utility needs it to determine interconnection arrangements, maintain quality of power delivered by its line, and to answer customer inquiries. No existing testing program provides all the information needed, although the Rocky Flats test site comes close. To fill this need for Michigan, Consumers Power Company and the Michigan Electric Cooperative Association helped support a two-year program at Michigan State University involving extensive performance testing of an Enertech 1500 and a 4-kW Dakota with a Gemini inverter. The performance study suggested measurements necessary to characterize SWECS for interconnected operation. They include SWECS energy output to a-c line, miles of wind passing the rotor, var-hour metering for average var consumption, and recording watt, current, and voltmeters to assess SWECS output variability. Added instruments for waveform measurement (to assess power quality) are also needed. Typical data taken at the MSU test site are used to illustrate the techniques and preliminary data from a current project is given. Finally, conclusions about SWECS performance are listed.

Park, G.L.; Krauss, O.; Miller, J.

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

CX-007380: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Exclusion Determination CX-007380: Categorical Exclusion Determination National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study CX(s) Applied: A9 Date: 10262011...

130

CX-007890: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Exclusion Determination CX-007890: Categorical Exclusion Determination Mid-Atlantic Offshore Wind Interconnection and Transmission (MAOWIT) CX(s) Applied: A9 Date: 02222012...

131

CX-010338: Categorical Exclusion Determination  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Eugene Substation Fiber Interconnection CX(s) Applied: B4.7 Date: 05/21/2013 Location(s): Oregon Offices(s): Bonneville Power Administration

132

CX-010385: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Categorical Exclusion Determination PG&E Interconnection Agreement Appendix A Capacity Limit Increase for Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory CX(s) Applied: B4.1 Date:...

133

Definition: Interconnection Reliability Operating Limit Tv | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Limit Tv Limit Tv Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Interconnection Reliability Operating Limit Tv The maximum time that an Interconnection Reliability Operating Limit can be violated before the risk to the interconnection or other Reliability Coordinator Area(s) becomes greater than acceptable. Each Interconnection Reliability Operating Limit's Tv shall be less than or equal to 30 minutes.[1] Related Terms Interconnection Reliability Operating Limitinterconnection, interconnection References ↑ Glossary of Terms Used in Reliability Standards An i LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. nline Glossary Definition Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Definition:Interconnection_Reliability_Operating_Limit_Tv&oldid=493031

134

Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative News Release | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative News Release Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative News Release Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative News Release The Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) today announced that its diverse array of stakeholders has reached consensus on the final set of "resource expansion futures" to be studied as part of the electric system transmission planning effort funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative News Release More Documents & Publications Electricity Advisory Committee Meeting Presentations October 2011 - Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Processes EAC Recommendations for DOE Action Regarding Interconnection-Wide Planning - June 6, 2013 Application to Export Electric Energy OE Docket No. EA-352 NaturEner Tie

135

Method of forming a leak proof plasma sprayed interconnection layer on an electrode of an electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A dense, substantially gas-tight, electrically conductive interconnection layer is formed on an electrode structure of an electrochemical cell by: (A) providing an electrode structure; (B) forming on a selected portion of the electrode surface, an interconnection layer having the general formula La{sub 1{minus}x}M{sub x}Cr{sub 1{minus}y}N{sub y}O{sub 3}, where M is a dopant selected from the group of Ca, Sr, Ba, and mixtures thereof, and where N is a dopant selected from the group of Mg, Co, Ni, Al, and mixtures thereof, and where x and y are each independently about 0.075--0.25, by thermally spraying, preferably plasma arc spraying, a flux added interconnection spray powder, preferably agglomerated, the flux added powder comprising flux particles, preferably including dopant, preferably (CaO){sub 12}(Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 7} flux particles including Ca and Al dopant, and LaCrO{sub 3} interconnection particles, preferably undoped LaCrO{sub 3}, to form a dense and substantially gas-tight interconnection material bonded to the electrode structure by a single plasma spraying step; and (C) heat treating the interconnection layer at from about 1,200 to 1,350 C to further densify and heal the micro-cracks and macro-cracks of the thermally sprayed interconnection layer. The result is a substantially gas-tight, highly doped, electrically conductive interconnection material bonded to the electrode structure. The electrode structure can be an air electrode, and a solid electrolyte layer can be applied to the unselected portion of the air electrode, and further a fuel electrode can be applied to the solid electrolyte, to form an electrochemical cell for generation of electrical power. 4 figs.

Kuo, L.J.H.; Vora, S.D.

1995-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

136

Method of forming a leak proof plasma sprayed interconnection layer on an electrode of an electrochemical cell  

SciTech Connect

A dense, substantially gas-tight, electrically conductive interconnection layer is formed on an electrode structure of an electrochemical cell by: (A) providing an electrode structure; (B) forming on a selected portion of the electrode surface, an interconnection layer having the general formula La.sub.1-x M.sub.x Cr.sub.1-y N.sub.y O.sub.3, where M is a dopant selected from the group of Ca, Sr, Ba, and mixtures thereof, and where N is a dopant selected from the group of Mg, Co, Ni, Al, and mixtures thereof, and where x and y are each independently about 0.075-0.25, by thermally spraying, preferably plasma arc spraying, a flux added interconnection spray powder, preferably agglomerated, the flux added powder comprising flux particles, preferably including dopant, preferably (CaO).sub.12. (Al.sub.2 O.sub.3).sub.7 flux particles including Ca and Al dopant, and LaCrO.sub.3 interconnection particles, preferably undoped LaCrO.sub.3, to form a dense and substantially gas-tight interconnection material bonded to the electrode structure by a single plasma spraying step; and, (C) heat treating the interconnection layer at from about 1200.degree. to 1350.degree. C. to further densify and heal the micro-cracks and macro-cracks of the thermally sprayed interconnection layer. The result is a substantially gas-tight, highly doped, electrically conductive interconnection material bonded to the electrode structure. The electrode structure can be an air electrode, and a solid electrolyte layer can be applied to the unselected portion of the air electrode, and further a fuel electrode can be applied to the solid electrolyte, to form an electrochemical cell for generation of electrical power.

Kuo, Lewis J. H. (Monroeville, PA); Vora, Shailesh D. (Monroeville, PA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Development of Ceramic Interconnect Materials for SOFC  

SciTech Connect

Currently, acceptor-doped lanthanum chromite is the state-of-the-art ceramic interconnect material for high temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) due to its fairly good electronic conductivity and chemical stability in both oxidizing and reducing atmospheres, and thermal compatibility with other cell components. The major challenge for acceptor-doped lanthanum chromite for SOFC interconnect applications is its inferior sintering behavior in air, which has been attributed to the development of a thin layer of Cr2O3 at the interparticle necks during the initial stages of sintering. In addition, lanthanum chromite is reactive with YSZ electrolyte at high temperatures, forming a highly resistive lanthanum zirconate phase (La2Zr2O7), which further complicates co-firing processes. Acceptor-doped yttrium chromite is considered to be one of the promising alternatives to acceptor-doped lanthanum chromite because it is more stable with respect to the formation of hydroxides in SOFC operating conditions, and the formation of impurity phases can be effectively avoided at co-firing temperatures. In addition, calcium-doped yttrium chromite exhibits higher mechanical strength than lanthanum chromite-based materials. The major drawback of yttrium chromite is considered to be its lower electrical conductivity than lanthanum chromite. The properties of yttrium chromites could possibly be improved and optimized by partial substitution of chromium with various transition metals. During FY10, PNNL investigated the effect of various transition metal doping on chemical stability, sintering and thermal expansion behavior, microstructure, electronic and ionic conductivity, and chemical compatibility with other cell components to develop the optimized ceramic interconnect material.

Yoon, Kyung J.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Marina, Olga A.

2010-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

138

Environmental Regulation Impacts on Eastern Interconnection Performance  

SciTech Connect

In the United States, recent environmental regulations will likely result in the removal of nearly 30 GW of oil and coal-fired generation from the power grid, mostly in the Eastern Interconnection (EI). The effects of this transition on voltage stability and transmission line flows have previously not been studied from a system-wide perspective. This report discusses the results of power flow studies designed to simulate the evolution of the EI over the next few years as traditional generation sources are replaced with environmentally friendlier ones such as natural gas and wind.

Markham, Penn N [ORNL; Liu, Yilu [ORNL; Young II, Marcus Aaron [ORNL

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Updating Interconnection Screens for PV System Integration  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This white paper evaluates the origins and usefulness of the capacity penetration screen, offer short-term solutions which could effectively allow fast-track interconnection to many PV system applications, and considers longer-term solutions for increasing PV deployment levels in a safe and reliable manner while reducing or eliminating the emphasis on the penetration screen. Short-term and longer-term alternatives approaches are offered as examples; however, specific modifications to screening procedures should be discussed with stakeholders and must ultimately be adopted by state and federal regulatory bodies.

Coddington, M.; Mather, B.; Kroposki, B.; Lynn, K.; Razon, A.; Ellis, A.; Hill, R.; Key, T.; Nicole, K.; Smith, J.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Repairable chip bonding/interconnect process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A repairable, chip-to-board interconnect process which addresses cost and testability issues in the multi-chip modules is disclosed. This process can be carried out using a chip-on-sacrificial-substrate technique, involving laser processing. This process avoids the curing/solvent evolution problems encountered in prior approaches, as well is resolving prior plating problems and the requirements for fillets. For repairable high speed chip-to-board connection, transmission lines can be formed on the sides of the chip from chip bond pads, ending in a gull wing at the bottom of the chip for subsequent solder. 10 figs.

Bernhardt, A.F.; Contolini, R.J.; Malba, V.; Riddle, R.A.

1997-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection cxs applied" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Repairable chip bonding/interconnect process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A repairable, chip-to-board interconnect process which addresses cost and testability issues in the multi-chip modules. This process can be carried out using a chip-on-sacrificial-substrate technique, involving laser processing. This process avoids the curing/solvent evolution problems encountered in prior approaches, as well is resolving prior plating problems and the requirements for fillets. For repairable high speed chip-to-board connection, transmission lines can be formed on the sides of the chip from chip bond pads, ending in a gull wing at the bottom of the chip for subsequent solder.

Bernhardt, Anthony F. (Berkeley, CA); Contolini, Robert J. (Livermore, CA); Malba, Vincent (Livermore, CA); Riddle, Robert A. (Tracy, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Topic B Awardee: Eastern Interconnection States' Planning Council |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Eastern Interconnection States' Eastern Interconnection States' Planning Council Topic B Awardee: Eastern Interconnection States' Planning Council The Eastern Interconnection States' Planning Council (EISPC) is an historic endeavor initially funded by an award from the United States Department of Energy (DOE) pursuant to a provision of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). The goal is to create an unprecedented collaborative among the states in the Eastern Interconnection. Comprised of public utility commissions, Governors' offices, energy offices, and other key government representatives, this collaboration will foster and produce consistent and coordinated direction to the regional and interconnection-level analyses and planning. Significant state input and direction increases the probability that the outputs will be useful to the

143

Recovery Act Interconnection Transmission Planning | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Act Interconnection Act Interconnection Transmission Planning Recovery Act Interconnection Transmission Planning View a Map of the Interconnections View a Map of the Interconnections Robust and reliable transmission and distribution networks are essential to achieving the Administration's clean energy goals, including the development, integration, and delivery of new renewable and other low-carbon resources in the electricity sector, and the use of these resources to displace petroleum-based fuels in the transportation sector. Pursuant to Title IV of the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (2009), the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability is helping to strengthen the capabilities for long-term analysis and planning in the three interconnections serving the lower 48

144

Special Issue: Selected Research from the First Optical Interconnects Conference  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This introduction to the special issue summarizes the creation of the first Optical Interconnects Conference, discusses some key themes in the field, and introduces the seven articles included in the special issue. Keywords: Special issues and sections,Optical interconnections,High performance computing,Silicon,Photonics,Data communications,Wavelength division multiplexing,wavelength division multiplexing,optical interconnects,high-performance computing,data centers,datacomm,silicon photonics

Jeffrey A. Kash, Raymond G. Beausoleil

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Using a Collaborative Approach to Interconnection-Wide Transmission Analyses  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interconnection-Wide Planning in Interconnection-Wide Planning in the Eastern Interconnection EIPC Update for the DOE Electricity Advisory Committee October 20, 2011 David A. Whiteley Presentation Topics * Update on process and structure * Study results so far * Value unlocked * What's next 2 Update on Process and Structure * EIPC - 26 EI Planning Authorities (Planning Coordinators) * Integrate and analyze approved regional plans * Develop interregional expansion scenarios to be studied * Develop interregional transmission expansion options * Consistent with Orders 890 and 1000 * Self-funded * Primary activity is DOE funded interconnection studies project - 2 phases 3 Who are the PAs? * Alcoa Power Generating * American Transmission Co. * Duke Energy Carolinas * Electric Energy Inc. * Entergy *

146

Pb-Free Solders and Next Generation Interconnects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2012. Symposium, Pb-Free Solders and Next Generation Interconnects. Sponsorship. Organizer(s), Thomas R. Bieler ,...

147

All Copper Flip-Chip Interconnect - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, A novel flip-chip technology using electroless copper deposition has been used to produce all-copper, chip-to-substrate interconnect.

148

Pepco and PJM Interconnection Comments on District of Columbia...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Pepco and PJM Interconnection Comments on District of Columbia Public Service Commission, Docket No. EO-05-01 Comments and Answer to Requests for Rehearing Pepco and PJM...

149

Response from PJM Interconnection LLC and Pepco to Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

PJM Interconnection LLC and Pepco to Department of Energy Request for Information Concerning the Potential Need for Potomac River Station Generation Response from PJM...

150

Photonic crystal cavity based architecture for optical interconnects.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Todays information and communication industry is confronted with a serious bottleneck due to the prohibitive energy consumption and limited transmission bandwidth of electrical interconnects. Silicon (more)

Debnath, Kapil

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Characterization of Mn-Co Electrodeposition for SOFC Interconnect ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Characterization of Mn-Co Electrodeposition for SOFC Interconnect Applications by QCM. Author(s), Junwei Wu, Ayyakkannu Manivannan,...

152

Microsoft Word - Poster Abstract_2010_PNNL_Ceramic Interconnect...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3: Development of Ceramic Interconnect Materials for SOFC Kyung Joong Yoon, Jeffry W. Stevenson, and Olga Marina A-site calcium doped yttrium chromite was additionally doped with...

153

Electrodeposited Mn-Co Alloy Coating For SOFC Interconnects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Electrodeposited Mn-Co Alloy Coating For SOFC Interconnects. Author(s), Heather McCrabb, Tim Hall, Junwei Wu, Hui Zhang, Xingbo Liu,...

154

The 8th TMS Lead Free Solder and Interconnect Technology ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

TMS 2012: Continuing Education: The 8th TMS Lead Free Solder and Interconnect Technology Workshop March 11-15, 2012 Orlando, FL. Who should attend:

155

Pb-Free Solders and Next Generation Interconnects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Symposium. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2011. Symposium, Pb-Free Solders and Next Generation Interconnects. Sponsorship, MS&T...

156

Microgrid V2G Charging Station Interconnection Testing (Presentation)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This presentation by Mike Simpson of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) describes NREL's microgrid vehicle-to-grid charging station interconnection testing.

Simpson, M.

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Pb-free Solders and Advanced Interconnecting Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Pb-free solders and interconnects for automotive and power electronics ... and Orientation Evolution in Sn-Ag-Cu Solder Joints in Ball Grid Array Packages.

158

Trinity Public Utilities District Direct Interconnection Project  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

LEAD FEDERAL AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy LEAD FEDERAL AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy COOPERATING AGENCIES: U.S. Forest Service, U.S. Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation TITLE: Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Trinity Public Utilities District Direct Interconnection Project, DOE/EIS-0389 LOCATION: Trinity County, California CONTACT: For additional information on this For general information on the final environmental impact U.S. Department of Energy National statement, contact: Environmental Policy Act process, write or call: Mr. Mark J. Wieringa Ms. Carol M. Borgstrom, Director Western Area Power Administration Office of NEPA Policy and Compliance P.O. Box 281213 Health, Safety and Security (GC-20) Lakewood, CO 80228 U.S. Department of Energy

159

Integration and electrical characterization of carbon nanotube via interconnects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are considered a promising material for interconnects in the future generations of microchips because of their low electrical resistance and excellent mechanical stability. In particular, CNT-based contacts appear advantageous ... Keywords: CNT, Carbon nanotubes, Contact, Electrical characterization, Integration, Interconnect

Nicolo' Chiodarelli; Yunlong Li; Daire J. Cott; Sofie Mertens; Nick Peys; Marc Heyns; Stefan De Gendt; Guido Groeseneken; Philippe M. Vereecken

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Towards Modeling Interconnection Networks of Exascale Systems with OMNet++  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the objectives of the decade for High-Performance Computing systems is to reach the exascale level of computing power before 2018, hence this will require strong efforts in their design. In that sense, High-speed low-latency interconnection networks ... Keywords: HPC interconnection networks, Performance evaluation, Simulation tools, OMNeT++

Pedro Yebenes, Jesus Escudero-Sahuquillo, Pedro J. Garcia, Francisco J. Quiles

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection cxs applied" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

An efficient approach to simultaneous transistor and interconnect sizing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we study the simultaneous transistor and interconnect sizing (STIS) problem. We define a class of optimization problems as CH-posynomial programs and reveal a general dominance property for all CH-posynomial programs. We show that the ... Keywords: CH-posynomial programs, STIS, circuit CAD, driver/buffer, transistor and interconnect sizing, transistor sizing, wire sizing problem

Jason Cong; Lei He

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Updating Small Generator Interconnection Procedures for New Market Conditions  

SciTech Connect

Federal and state regulators are faced with the challenge of keeping interconnection procedures updated against a backdrop of evolving technology, new codes and standards, and considerably transformed market conditions. This report is intended to educate policymakers and stakeholders on beneficial reforms that will keep interconnection processes efficient and cost-effective while maintaining a safe and reliable power system.

Coddington, M.; Fox, K.; Stanfield, S.; Varnado, L.; Culley, T.; Sheehan, M.

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Control Performance Standards and Procedures for Interconnected Operation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents joint efforts of the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) and EPRI to develop new control area performance standards for operation of the North American Interconnections. These criteria will optimize operational efficiency of the Interconnections without impacting power system security.

1997-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

164

Large-scale integrated photonics for high-performance interconnects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Moore's Law has set great expectations that the performance of information technology will improve exponentially until at least the end of this decade. Although the physics of silicon transistors alone might allow these expectations to be met, the physics ... Keywords: DWDM, Hardware, Optical interconnects, interconnects

Raymond G. Beausoleil

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Interconnection of asynchronous Boolean networks, asymptotic and transient dynamics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The dynamics of the interconnection of two Boolean networks is analyzed directly from the properties of the two individual modules. Motivated by biological systems where multiple timescales are present, we consider asynchronous Boolean networks, whose ... Keywords: Asynchronous Boolean networks, Model reduction, Multicellular systems, System interconnection

Laurent Tournier; Madalena Chaves

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

10 Year Transmission Plan for the Western Electricity Interconnection  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

10 Year Transmission Plan for the Western Electricity 10 Year Transmission Plan for the Western Electricity Interconnection Released 10 Year Transmission Plan for the Western Electricity Interconnection Released October 3, 2011 - 8:11am Addthis Western Electricity Coordinating Council releases its first-ever transmission plan for the Western Interconnection. The Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) announced the release of its first 10-Year Regional Transmission Plan (Plan) for the Western Interconnection. The Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability awarded WECC a $14.5 million grant under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to expand on its transmission planning activities. Looking ahead to 2020, the Plan focuses on how to meet the Western Interconnection's transmission requirements, including transmission

167

Pepco and PJM Interconnection Comments on District of Columbia Public  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Pepco and PJM Interconnection Comments on District of Columbia Pepco and PJM Interconnection Comments on District of Columbia Public Service Commission, Docket No. EO-05-01 Comments and Answer to Requests for Rehearing Pepco and PJM Interconnection Comments on District of Columbia Public Service Commission, Docket No. EO-05-01 Comments and Answer to Requests for Rehearing Docket No. EO-05-01: In accordance with Order No. 202-06-1, issued by the Department of Energy on February 17, 2006. Potomac Electric Power Company and PJM Interconnection, L.L.C. jointly submit these comments and answer to the requests for rehearing submitted by the City of Alexandria, Virginia and the Director of the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality in the captioned proceeding . Pepco and PJM Interconnection Comments on District of Columbia Public

168

Low Carbon Jobs in an Interconnected World | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jobs in an Interconnected World Jobs in an Interconnected World Jump to: navigation, search Name Low Carbon Jobs in an Interconnected World Agency/Company /Organization Global Climate Network Partner Institute for Public Policy Research Sector Energy Focus Area Energy Efficiency, Renewable Energy Topics Co-benefits assessment, Background analysis Website http://www.ippr.org.uk/publica Country Australia, Brazil, China, Germany, India, Nigeria, South Africa, United Kingdom, United States Australia and New Zealand, South America, Eastern Asia, Western Europe, Southern Asia, Western Africa, Southern Africa, Northern Europe, Northern America References Low Carbon Jobs in an Interconnected World[1] Low Carbon Jobs in an Interconnected World Author: Global Climate Network Price: Free Publication Date: 30 March 2010

169

Clad metals by roll bonding for SOFC interconnects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Metallic interconnects have been becoming an increasingly interesting topic in the development in intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). High temperature oxidation resistant alloys are currently considered as candidate materials. Among these alloys however, different groups of alloys demonstrate different advantages and disadvantages, and few if any can completely satisfy the stringent requirements for the application. To integrate the advantages and avoid the disadvantages of different groups of alloys, clad metal has been proposed for SOFC interconnect applications and interconnect structures. This paper gives a brief overview of the cladding approach and its applications, and discuss the viability of this technology to fabricate the metallic layered-structure interconnects. To examine the feasibility of this approach, the austenitic Ni-base alloy Haynes 230 and the ferritic stainless steel AL 453 were selected as examples and manufactured into a clad metal. Its suitability as an interconnect construction material was investigated.

Chen, L.; Jha, B; Yang, Z Gary; Xia, Gordon; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Singh, Prabhakar

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

, Analysis of U.S. Net Metering and Interconnection Policy  

SciTech Connect

Historically, the absence of interconnection standards has been one of the primary barriers to the deployment of distributed generation (DG) in the United States. Although significant progress in the development of interconnection standards was achieved at both the federal and state levels in 2005, interconnection policy and net-metering policy continue to confound regulators, lawmakers, DG businesses, clean-energy advocates and consumers. For this reason it is critical to keep track of developments related to these issues. The North Carolina Solar Center (NCSC) is home to two Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC) projects -- the National Interconnection Project and the Database of State Incentives for Renewable Energy (DSIRE). This paper will present the major federal and state level policy developments in interconnection and net metering in 2005 and early 2006. It will also present conclusions based an analysis of data collected by these two projects.

Haynes, Rusty; Cook, Chris

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Energy and water in the Western and Texas interconnects.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Department of Energy's Office of Electricity has initiated a $60M program to assist the electric industry in interconnection-level analysis and planning. The objective of this effort is to facilitate the development or strengthening of capabilities in each of the three interconnections serving the lower 48 states of the United States, to prepare analyses of transmission requirements under a broad range of alternative futures and develop long-term interconnection-wide transmission expansion plans. The interconnections are the Western Interconnection, the Eastern Interconnection, and the Texas Interconnection. One element of this program address the support and development of an integrated energy-water Decision Support System (DSS) that will enable planners in the Western and Texas Interconnections to analyze the potential implications of water stress for transmission and resource planning (the Eastern Interconnection is not participating in this element). Specific objectives include: (1) Develop an integrated Energy-Water Decision Support System (DSS) that will enable planners in the Western and Texas Interconnections to analyze the potential implications of water stress for transmission and resource planning. (2) Pursue the formulation and development of the Energy-Water DSS through a strongly collaborative process between members of this proposal team and the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC), Western Governors Association (WGA), the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) and their associated stakeholder teams. (3) Exercise the Energy-Water DSS to investigate water stress implications of the transmission planning scenarios put forward by WECC, WGA, and ERCOT. The goals of this project are: (1) Develop an integrated Energy-Water Decision Support System (DSS) that will enable planners to analyze the potential implications of water stress for transmission and resource planning. (2) Pursue the formulation and development of the Energy-Water DSS through a strongly collaborative process between Western Electricity Coordinating Council, Electric Reliability Council of Texas, Western Governors Association, and Western States Water Council. (3) Exercise the Energy-Water DSS to investigate water transmission planning scenarios.

Tidwell, Vincent Carroll

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

A Stabilization of Frequency Oscillations in a Parallel AC-DC Interconnected Power System via an HVDC Link  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents a new application of High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) link to stabilization of frequency oscillations in a parallel AC-DC interconnected power system. When an interconnected AC power system is subjected to a large load with rapid change, system frequency may be considerably disturbed and becomes oscillatory. By utilizing the system interconnections as the control channels of HVDC link, the tie-line power modulation of HVDC link through interconnections is applicable for stabilizing the frequency oscillations of AC systems. In the design of power modulation controller, the technique of overlapping decompositions and the eigenvalue assignment are applied to establish the state feedback control scheme. To evaluate control effects, a linearized model of a parallel AC-DC interconnected system, including a power modulation controller of HVDC link, is investigated by simulation study. Simulation results show that the proposed controller is not only effective in damping out frequency oscillations, but also capable of alleviating the transient frequency swing caused by a large load disturbance.

Issarachai Ngamroo

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

PP-82-3 The Joint Owners of the Highgate Interconnection Facilities...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

3 The Joint Owners of the Highgate Interconnection Facilities PP-82-3 The Joint Owners of the Highgate Interconnection Facilities Presidential Permit authorizing The Joint Owners...

174

USLCI Interconnect Region Electricity datasets, 2008 | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

76 76 Varnish cache server Browse Upload data GDR 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load) Throttled (bot load) Guru Meditation: XID: 2142278976 Varnish cache server USLCI Interconnect Region Electricity datasets, 2008 Dataset Summary Description Datasets are for the US electricity grid system interconnect regions (ASCC, FRCC, HICC, MRO, NPCC, RFC, SERC, SPP, TRE, WECC) for 2008. The data is provided in life cycle inventory (LCI) forms (both xls and xml). A module report and a detailed spreadsheet are also included.Datasets include generation and transmission of electricity for each of the interconnect regions. It is representative of the year 2008 mix of fuels used for utility generations for each of the interconnect regions and is based on the EIA electricity reports for all power plants in the US. Detailed information on the methodology is included in the module report and detailed spreadsheet.

175

PARS II New Contractor Information for Interconnection Security Agreement  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

New Contractor Information for Interconnection Security Agreement New Contractor Information for Interconnection Security Agreement V1.0 (November 18, 2010) The Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters Program Cyber Security Plan (PCSP), dated February 2008, requires the Project Assessment and Reporting System (PARS) II System Owner and the contractor sign an Interconnection Security Agreement (ISA). The requirement for an Interconnection Security Agreement can be found on page 182 of the PCSP. The ISA template is available for review on the PARS II portal (http://management.energy.gov/online_resources/pars2.htm) under Contractor Documents. Before the contractor begins sending data to PARS II, DOE will send the ISA to the contractor for review and signature. In order to prepare the ISA for review and signature, the PARS II Support Team needs

176

Webinar: Understanding the Interconnection and Transmission Service Queues  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Webinar: Understanding the Interconnection and Transmission Service Webinar: Understanding the Interconnection and Transmission Service Queues Webinar: Understanding the Interconnection and Transmission Service Queues March 5, 2012 - 6:10pm Addthis This webinar will take place March 28, 2012, from 11 a.m.-12:30 p.m. MDT. Hosted by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs, DOE's Tribal Energy Program, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Western Area Power Administration, this Web seminar will answer the following questions: What is the large generator interconnection procedure? How is transmission service requested? What does this mean for Tribes interested in gaining access to the transmission system? This is the fifth in a series of webinars that will run through September 2012.

177

Utility Wind Integration Group Distributed Wind/Solar Interconnection  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Utility Wind Integration Group Distributed Wind/Solar Utility Wind Integration Group Distributed Wind/Solar Interconnection Workshop Utility Wind Integration Group Distributed Wind/Solar Interconnection Workshop May 21, 2013 8:00AM MDT to May 22, 2013 5:00PM MDT Golden, Colorado This two-day workshop will answer your questions about interconnecting wind and solar plants and other distributed generation applications to electric distribution systems while providing insight on integrating large-scale renewable generation into the transmission system. Held at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) state-of-the-art Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) on the first day and at the Western Area Power Administration's Electric Power Training Center (EPTC) on the second day, the workshop will provide an overview of wind and solar interconnection

178

Advanced Unit Commitment Strategies in the United States Eastern Interconnection  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project sought to evaluate the impacts of high wind penetrations on the U.S. Eastern Interconnection and analyze how different unit commitment strategies may affect these impacts.

Meibom, P.; Larsen, H. V.; Barth, R.; Brand, H.; Tuohy, A.; Ela, E.

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Interconnect scaling into the sub-10nm regime  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Scaling of conventional interconnects faces two major challenges: increased effective copper resistivity at nano-scale linewidth, and degraded copper wire reliability at higher current density. Analysis shows that when the linewidth of Cu wire scales ...

Xiangyu Chen; Jiale Liang; H.-S. Philip Wong

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Microbenchmark Performance Comparison of High-Speed Cluster Interconnects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-speed cluster interconnects Myrinet, Quadrics, and InfiniBand achieve low latency and high bandwidth with low host overhead. However, they show quite different performance behaviors when handling communication buffer reuse patterns.

Jiuxing Liu; Balasubramanian Chandrasekaran; Weikuan Yu; Jiesheng Wu; Darius Buntinas; Sushmitha Kini; Dhabaleswar K. Panda; Pete Wyckoff

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection cxs applied" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

The feasibility of on-chip interconnection using antennas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The feasibility of integrating antennas and required circuits to form wireless interconnects in foundry digital CMOS technologies has been demonstrated. The key challenges including the effects of metal structures associated with integrated circuits, ...

K. K. O; K. Kim; B. Floyd; J. Mehta; H. Yoon; C.-M. Hung; D. Bravo; T. Dickson; X. Guo; R. Li; N. Trichy; J. Caserta; W. Bomstad; J. Branch; D.-J. Yang; J. Bohorquez; J. Chen; E.-Y. Seok; L. Gao; A. Sugavanam; J.-J. Lin; S. Yu; C. Cao; M.-H. Hwang; Y.-R. Ding; S.-H. Hwang; H. Wu; N. Zhang; J. E. Brewer

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Nanoantenna couplers for metal-insulator-metal waveguide interconnects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

State-of-the-art copper interconnects suffer from increasing spatial power dissipation due to chip downscaling and RC delays reducing operation bandwidth. Wide bandwidth, minimized Ohmic loss, deep sub-wavelength confinement ...

Onbasli, Mehmet Cengiz

183

Field solver technologies for variation-aware interconnect parasitic extraction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Advances in integrated circuit manufacturing technologies have enabled high density onchip integration by constantly scaling down the device and interconnect feature size. As a consequence of the ongoing technology scaling ...

El-Moselhy, Tarek Ali

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Microsoft Word - Poster Abstract_2010_PNNL_Steel Interconnect...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2: Dual Interconnect Coatings for Planar SOFC Stacks Jung Pyung Choi, Jeffry W. Stevenson, K. Scott Weil, Yeong-Shyung Chou, Z. Gary Yang, and Gordon Xia Ferritic stainless steel...

185

8th Annual TMS Lead Free Solder and Interconnect Technology ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

8th Annual TMS Lead Free Solder and Interconnect. Technology Workshop. Sunday, March 11, 2012 9:00 a.m. 4:30 p.m.. Member fee: $15. Nonmember fee:...

186

Energy scalability of on-chip interconnection networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

On-chip interconnection networks (OCN) such as point-to-point networks and buses form the communication backbone in multiprocessor systems-on-a-chip, multicore processors, and tiled processors. OCNs consume significant ...

Konstantakopoulos, Theodoros K., 1977-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Interconnect modeling and optimization in deep sub-micron technologies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Interconnect will be a major bottleneck for deep sub-micron technologies in the years to come. This dissertation addresses the communication aspect from a power consumption and transmission speed perspective. A model for ...

Sotiriadis, Paul Peter P. (Paul Peter Peter-Paul), 1973-

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Interconnecting PV on New York City's Secondary Network Distribution System  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study describes technical assistance provided by NREL to help New York City and Con Edison improve the interconnection of distributed PV systems on a secondary network distribution system.

Anderson, K.; Coddington, M.; Burman, K.; Hayter, S.; Kroposki, B.; Watson, A.

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

EA-1902: Northern Wind Interconnection Project, Summit, South Dakota  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

DOEs Western Area Power Administration is preparing this EA to evaluate the environmental impacts of the interconnection of the proposed Northern Wind Project in Summit, South Dakota.

190

Evaluation of phase change materials for reconfigurable interconnects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The possible use of programmable integrated circuit interconnect vias using an indirectly heated phase change material is evaluated. Process development and materials investigations are examined. Devices capable of multiple ...

Khoo, Chee Ying

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Applied Science  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Applied Science Applied Science Correlation of predicted and measured iron oxidation states in mixed iron oxides H. D. Rosenfeld and W. L. Holstein Development of a quantitative measurement of a diesel spray core using synchrotron x-rays C.F. Powell, Y. Yue, S. Gupta, A. McPherson, R. Poola, and J. Wang Localized phase transformations by x-ray-induced heating R.A. Rosenberg, Q. Ma, W. Farrell, E.D. Crozier, G.J. Soerensen, R.A. Gordon, and D.-T. Jiang Resonant x-ray scattering at the Se edge in ferroelectric liquid crystal materials L. Matkin, H. Gleeson, R. Pindak, P. Mach, C. Huang, G. Srajer, and J. Pollmann Synchrotron-radiation-induced anisotropic wet etching of GaAs Q. Ma, D.C. Mancini, and R.A. Rosenberg Synchrotron-radiation-induced, selective-area deposition of gold on

192

Stability of chromite interconnections in dual environments  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

One of the most critical technical concerns in high-temperature SOFCs is the physical, chemical, and electrical stability of the interconnect (typically a doped lanthanum chromite) in the dual (oxidizing and reducing atmosphere) SOFC environment. The reducing or fuel side may experience oxygen partial pressures (P(O{sub 2})) from 10{sup {minus}18} to 10{sup {minus}6} atmospheres, while the oxidizing side may have P(O{sub 2}) from 10{sup {minus}6} to greater than 1 atm. These conditions limit the possible candidate materials to lanthanum or yttrium chromites. In the past decade, much work has centered on development of air-sinterable chromites and understanding their physical properties; little work, however, has focused on the stability of these chromites in dual environments. Chromite powders were synthesized using the glycine-nitrate process. The powders were calcined at 1,000 C for 1 hour and then uniaxially pressed into bars (46mm x 16mm x 3mm) at 55 MPa and isostatically pressed at 138 MPa. Samples were sintered in air. The dependence of the physical properties of sintered lanthanum chromites upon ambient P(O{sub 2}) and temperature (using dilatometry, thermogravimetric analysis, and oxygen permeation measurements) were studied. La{sub 1{minus}x}A{sub x}CrO{sub 3} and Y{sub 1{minus}x}Ca{sub x}CrO{sub 3}, where A is Ca or Sr and x was varied from 0.1 to 0.4 were evaluated in this study. The P(O{sub 2}) was varied using a buffered CO{sub 2}/Ar-4%H{sub 2} gas system, enabling expansion measurements to be made over a partial pressure range from 10{sup {minus}5} to 10{sup {minus}18} atmosphere at 800, 900, and 1,000 C.

Armstrong, T.R.; Stevenson, J.W.; Raney, P.; Pederson, L.R.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Developing Generic Dynamic Models for the 2030 Eastern Interconnection Grid  

SciTech Connect

The Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) has built three major power flow cases for the 2030 Eastern Interconnection (EI) based on various levels of energy/environmental policy conditions, technology advances, and load growth. Using the power flow cases, this report documents the process of developing the generic 2030 dynamic models using typical dynamic parameters. The constructed model was validated indirectly using the synchronized phasor measurements by removing the wind generation temporarily.

Kou, Gefei [ORNL] [ORNL; Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL] [ORNL; Markham, Penn N [ORNL] [ORNL; Liu, Yilu [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Pre-Certification Testing of Vendor Interconnection Products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A recent EPRI-sponsored project surveyed the state of interconnection hardware and practices used in the connection of distributed generation and storage to the electric power system. The assessment reviewed the adequacy of these products and practices to meet expected future distributed generation (DR) applications and identified gaps in knowledge. The project also tested the performance of several available interconnection products used for protective relaying and paralleling functions. This report giv...

2002-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

195

Solid-state energy storage module employing integrated interconnect board  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to an improved electrochemical energy storage device. The electrochemical energy storage device includes a number of solid-state, thin-film electrochemical cells which are selectively interconnected in series or parallel through use of an integrated interconnect board. The interconnect board is typically disposed within a sealed housing which also houses the electrochemical cells, and includes a first contact and a second contact respectively coupled to first and second power terminals of the energy storage device. The interconnect board advantageously provides for selective series or parallel connectivity with the electrochemical cells, irrespective of electrochemical cell position within the housing. In one embodiment, a sheet of conductive material is processed by employing a known milling, stamping, or chemical etching technique to include a connection pattern which provides for flexible and selective interconnecting of individual electrochemical cells within the housing, which may be a hermetically sealed housing. Fuses and various electrical and electro-mechanical devices, such as bypass, equalization, and communication devices for example, may also be mounted to the interconnect board and selectively connected to the electrochemical cells.

Rouillard, Jean (Saint-Luc, CA); Comte, Christophe (Montreal, CA); Daigle, Dominik (St-Hyacinthe, CA); Hagen, Ronald A. (Stillwater, MN); Knudson, Orlin B. (Vadnais Heights, MN); Morin, Andre (Longueuil, CA); Ranger, Michel (Lachine, CA); Ross, Guy (Beloeil, CA); Rouillard, Roger (Beloeil, CA); St-Germain, Philippe (Outremont, CA); Sudano, Anthony (Laval, CA); Turgeon, Thomas A. (Fridley, MN)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Compact Models for Transient Analysis of Single-Layer Graphene Nanoribbon Interconnects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carbon based interconnects have shown immense potential as a candidate to replace traditional copper interconnects for on-chip applications. In that, 2D Graphene Nanoribbon (GNR) interconnects offer superior electrical properties owing to larger mean ... Keywords: GNR, time-domain analysis, delay, energy, interconnects, 3 dB frequency, EDP (energy delay product)

Prashant Kumar, Arun Singh, Anshul Garg, Rohit Sharma

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Carbon Nanomaterials: The Ideal Interconnect Technology for Next-Generation ICs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Editor's note:Carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoribbons are two promising next-generation interconnect technologies. Electrical modeling and performance analysis have demonstrated the superiority of these emerging technologies compared to conventional ... Keywords: design and test, carbon nanomaterials, carbon nanotube (CNT), graphene nanoribbon (GNR), electrical interconnects, optical interconnects, RF or wireless interconnects, on-chip vias, through-silicon vias (TSVs), delay, power

Hong Li; Chuan Xu; Kaustav Banerjee

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Geometric effects modelling for the PJM interconnection system. Part 1; Earth surface potentials computation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes an ionospheric source current model and development of an earth resistivity model used to calculate geomagnetic induced currents (GIC) on the Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland Interconnection (PJM). Ionospheric current is modelled as a gaussian distributed current sheet above the earth. Geological details are included by dividing the PJM service area into 11 different earth resistivity regions. The resulting earth surface potential (ESP) at each power system substation is then calculated. A companion paper describes how this ESP is applied to the power system model to calculate the geomagnetic induced current in the power system equipment and facilities.

Towle, J.N. (Diversified EM, Seattle, WA (US)); Prabhakara, F.S. (Power Technologies, Inc., Schenectady, NY (US)); Ponder, J.Z. (PJM Interconnection, Norristown, PA (US))

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Electrodeposited Mn-Co Alloy Coating For SOFC Interconnects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electrodeposited Electrodeposited Mn-Co Alloy Coating For SOFC Interconnects H. McCrabb * , T. Hall * , J. Wu # , H. Zhang # , X. Liu # , E.J. Taylor * * Faraday Technology Inc., 315 Huls Dr., Clayton, OH 45315, USA # West Virginia University, Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Eng.ESB, Morgantown, WV, 26506, USA Overall Objective Overall Objective Principal Investigator: Heather McCrabb, Company Name: Faraday Technology, Inc., Address: 315 Huls Drive, Clayton, OH 45315, Phone: 937-836-7749, E-mail: heathermccrabb@faradaytechnology.com, Company website: faradaytechnology.com Previous Work at WVU Results Develop an inexpensive manufacturing process for depositing (Mn,Co) 3 O 4 spinel coatings onto SOFC interconnects. Introduction The decrease in the SOFC operating temperatures from 1000°C to between 650 and 850°C has enabled the use of chromia-forming ferritic stainless steels as interconnects

200

Renewable Energy Interconnection and Storage - Technical Aspects | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Renewable Energy Interconnection and Storage - Technical Aspects Renewable Energy Interconnection and Storage - Technical Aspects Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Spain Installed Wind Capacity Website Focus Area: Renewable Energy Topics: Market Analysis Website: www.gwec.net/index.php?id=131 Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/spain-installed-wind-capacity-website Language: English Policies: Regulations Regulations: Feed-in Tariffs This website presents an overview of total installed wind energy capacity in Spain per year from 2000 to 2010. The page also presents the main market developments from 2010; a policy summary; a discussion of the revision in feed-in tariffs in 2010; and a future market outlook. References Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Renewable_Energy_Interconnection_and_Storage_-_Technical_Aspects&oldid=514543"

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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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201

Net Metering and Interconnection Procedures-- Incorporating Best Practices  

SciTech Connect

State utility commissions and utilities themselves are actively developing and revising their procedures for the interconnection and net metering of distributed generation. However, the procedures most often used by regulators and utilities as models have not been updated in the past three years, in which time most of the distributed solar facilities in the United States have been installed. In that period, the Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC) has been a participant in more than thirty state utility commission rulemakings regarding interconnection and net metering of distributed generation. With the knowledge gained from this experience, IREC has updated its model procedures to incorporate current best practices. This paper presents the most significant changes made to IREC???¢????????s model interconnection and net metering procedures.

Jason Keyes, Kevin Fox, Joseph Wiedman, Staff at North Carolina Solar Center

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

National Electric Transmission Study 2006 Western Interconnection Analysis  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Western Interconnection Western Interconnection 2006 Congestion Assessment Study Prepared by the Western Congestion Analysis Task Force May 08, 2006 2 Western Interconnection 2006 Congestion Study - DOE Task 3 - 1. 2008 Modeling Study 2. 2015 Modeling Study - 2015 Planned Resource Development (IRPs and RPS) 3. W.I. Historical Path Usage Studies - 1999 thru 2005 - Physical congestion - Commercial congestion 3 WCATF Modeling Studies ABB Gridview Model * Model uses WECC 2005 L&R load forecast, modified with NPCC data for the NW, RMATS load forecasts for the Rocky Mtn area and the latest CEC load forecast for California * Hourly load shapes were developed using FERC 714 * Incremental transmission was added to a WECC 2008 case to represent 2015 network topology * WECC path ratings were used, modified as necessary to more closely

203

EIS-0434: Hualapai Valley Solar Interconnection Project, Arizona |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

34: Hualapai Valley Solar Interconnection Project, Arizona 34: Hualapai Valley Solar Interconnection Project, Arizona EIS-0434: Hualapai Valley Solar Interconnection Project, Arizona Overview Hualapai Valley Solar, LLC, proposes to construct, operate and maintain a 340-megawatt, solar-powered generating facility in Mohave County, near Kingman, Ariz. The proposed project would use concentrating solar-power-trough technology to capture the sun's heat to make steam, which would power a traditional steam turbine generator. Proposed infrastructure would consist of a solar field, power block, thermal energy storage system, substation site, transmission line, temporary laydown areas and other ancillary facilities. Public Comment Opportunities No public comment opportunities available at this time. Documents Available for Download

204

Solar cell interconnection and packaging using tape carrier  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an array of photovoltaic cells. It comprises: photovolatic cells having a ratio of mass to surface area of less than 60 milligrams/square centimeter; a dielectric tape having a carrier surface for supporting the photovoltaic cells; interconnect means including an electrical circuit for electrically interconnecting the photovoltaic cells, the interconnect means supported by the dielectric tape on the carrier surface, the electrical circuit including contact fingers; and means defining primary openings in the dielectric tape, a primary opening being associated with a contact finger and positioned such that the contact finger can be directed from below the carrier surface in the direction of the photovoltaic cells and electrically connected to a photovoltaic cell, a portion of both sides of the contact finger being substantially free of the dielectric tape. This patent also describes the array of the above claim, wherein the photovoltaic cells are tandem cells including an upper subcell and a lower subcell.

Kim, N.P.; Stanbery, B.J.

1991-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

205

National Electric Transmission Congestion Study 2006 Eastern Interconnection Analysis  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Memorandum To: Poonum Agrawal, David Meyer, U.S. Department of Energy CRA No. D08554-00 From: Prashant Murti, Alex Rudkevich, CRA International Date: Finalized March 13, 2006 Subject: GE MAPS INPUT ASSUMPTIONS: EASTERN INTERCONNECT This memorandum summarizes salient inputs to the CRA locational price forecasting model (GE MAPS). The model geographic footprint encompasses the US portion of the Eastern Interconnect and the Canadian province of Ontario. The analyses simulate the years 2008 and 2011. Primary data sources for the CRA GE MAPS model include the NERC MMWG, the General Electric generation and transmission databases for the Eastern Interconnect, various publications by NERC regions and Independent System Operators, FERC submissions by generation and transmission owners,

206

IEEE 1547 Series of Standards: Interconnection Issues; Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

IEEE 1547TM 2003 Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Resources With Electric Power Systems is the first in the 1547 series of planned interconnection standards. Major issues and a wealth of constructive dialogue arose during 1547 development. There was also a perceived increased vitality in updating complementary IEEE standards and developing additional standards to accommodate modern electrical and electronics systems and improved grid communications and operations. Power engineers and other stakeholders looking to the future are poised to incorporate 1547 into their knowledge base to help transform our nation's aging distribution systems while alleviating some of the burden on existing transmission systems.

Basso, T.; DeBlasio, R.

2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Corrosion Performance of Ferritic Steel for SOFC Interconnect Applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ferritic stainless steels have been identified as potential candidates for interconnects in planar-type solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) operating below 800C. Crofer 22 APU was selected for this study. It was studied under simulated SOFC-interconnect dual environment conditions with humidified air on one side of the sample and humidified hydrogen on the other side at 750C. The surfaces of the oxidized samples were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with microanalytical capabilities. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was also used in this study.

Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Holcomb, G.R.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Bullard, S.J.; Jablonski, P.D.; Alman, D.E.

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Effects of composition on sintering of current interconnects in SOFC  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The sintering behavior of alkaline-earth-substituted lanthanum and yttrium chromites, which are candidates for the current interconnect in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) was investigated. Extensive commercialization of SOFC technology may involve co-sintering as a method to reduce production costs. Co-sintering will require that the interconnect material reaches high density (closed porosity) under conditions in which the air-electrode material, a manganite, maintains substantial porosity and remains stable. Therefore, ideal chromite compositions are those that attain greater than 94% of theoretical density in high PO{sub 2} atmosphere at temperatures near or below 1400{degree}C.

Chick, L.A.; Bates, J.L.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Effects of composition on sintering of current interconnects in SOFC  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The sintering behavior of alkaline-earth-substituted lanthanum and yttrium chromites, which are candidates for the current interconnect in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) was investigated. Extensive commercialization of SOFC technology may involve co-sintering as a method to reduce production costs. Co-sintering will require that the interconnect material reaches high density (closed porosity) under conditions in which the air-electrode material, a manganite, maintains substantial porosity and remains stable. Therefore, ideal chromite compositions are those that attain greater than 94% of theoretical density in high PO[sub 2] atmosphere at temperatures near or below 1400[degree]C.

Chick, L.A.; Bates, J.L.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Method and closing pores in a thermally sprayed doped lanthanum chromite interconnection layer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A dense, substantially gas-tight electrically conductive interconnection layer is formed on an air electrode structure of an electrochemical cell by (A) providing an air electrode surface; (B) forming on a selected portion of the electrode surface, a layer of doped LaCrO{sub 3} particles doped with an element or elements selected from Ca, Sr, Ba, Mg, Co, Ni, Al and mixtures thereof by thermal spraying doped LaCrO{sub 3} particles, either by plasma arc spraying or flame spraying; (C) depositing a mixture of CaO and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} on the surface of the thermally sprayed layer; and (D) heating the doped LaCrO{sub 3} layer coated with CaO and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} surface deposit at from about 1,000 C to 1,200 C to substantially close the pores, at least at a surface, of the thermally sprayed doped LaCrO{sub 3} layer. The result is a dense, substantially gas-tight, highly doped, electrically conductive interconnection material bonded to the electrode surface. A solid electrolyte layer can be applied to the nonselected portion of the air electrode. A fuel electrode can be applied to the solid electrolyte, to form an electrochemical cell, for example for generation of electrical power. 5 figs.

Singh, P.; Ruka, R.J.

1995-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

211

Method of forming a plasma sprayed interconnection layer on an electrode of an electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A dense, substantially gas-tight, electrically conductive interconnection layer is formed on an air electrode structure of an electrochemical cell by (A) providing an electrode surface; (B) forming on a selected portion of the electrode surface, a layer of doped LaCrO{sub 3} particles doped with an element selected from Ca, Sr, Ba, Mg, Co, Ni, Al and mixtures thereof by plasma spraying doped LaCrO{sub 3} powder, preferably compensated with chromium as Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and/or dopant element, preferably by plasma arc spraying; and, (C) heating the doped and compensated LaCrO{sub 3} layer to about 1100 C to 1300 C to provide a dense, substantially gas-tight, substantially hydration-free, electrically conductive interconnection material bonded to the electrode surface. A solid electrolyte layer can be applied to the unselected portion of the air electrode, and a fuel electrode can be applied to the solid electrolyte, to provide an electrochemical cell. 6 figs.

Spengler, C.J.; Folser, G.R.; Vora, S.D.; Kuo, L.; Richards, V.L.

1995-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

212

Method of forming a plasma sprayed interconnection layer on an electrode of an electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A dense, substantially gas-tight, electrically conductive interconnection layer is formed on an air electrode structure of an electrochemical cell by (A) providing an electrode surface; (B) forming on a selected portion of the electrode surface, a layer of doped LaCrO.sub.3 particles doped with an element selected from Ca, Sr, Ba, Mg, Co, Ni, Al and mixtures thereof by plasma spraying doped LaCrO.sub.3 powder, preferably compensated with chromium as Cr.sub.2 O.sub.3 and/or dopant element, preferably by plasma arc spraying; and, (C) heating the doped and compensated LaCrO.sub.3 layer to about 1100.degree. C. to 1300.degree. C. to provide a dense, substantially gas-tight, substantially hydration-free, electrically conductive interconnection material bonded to the electrode surface. A solid electrolyte layer can be applied to the unselected portion of the air electrode, and a fuel electrode can be applied to the solid electrolyte, to provide an electrochemical cell.

Spengler, Charles J. (Murrysville, PA); Folser, George R. (Lower Burrell, PA); Vora, Shailesh D. (Monroeville, PA); Kuo, Lewis (Monroeville, PA); Richards, Von L. (Anyola, IN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Method and closing pores in a thermally sprayed doped lanthanum chromite interconnection layer  

SciTech Connect

A dense, substantially gas-tight electrically conductive interconnection layer is formed on an air electrode structure of an electrochemical cell by (A) providing an air electrode surface; (B) forming on a selected portion of the electrode surface, a layer of doped LaCrO.sub.3 particles doped with an element or elements selected from Ca, Sr, Ba, Mg, Co, Ni, Al and mixtures thereof by thermal spraying doped LaCrO.sub.3 particles, either by plasma arc spraying or flame spraying; (C) depositing a mixture of CaO and Cr.sub.2 O.sub.3 on the surface of the thermally sprayed layer; and (D) heating the doped LaCrO.sub.3 layer coated with CaO and Cr.sub.2 O.sub.3 surface deposit at from about 1000.degree. C. to 1200.degree. C. to substantially close the pores, at least at a surface, of the thermally sprayed doped LaCrO.sub.3 layer. The result is a dense, substantially gas-tight, highly doped, electrically conductive interconnection material bonded to the electrode surface. A solid electrolyte layer can be applied to the nonselected portion of the air electrode. A fuel electrode can be applied to the solid electrolyte, to form an electrochemical cell, for example for generation of electrical power.

Singh, Prabhakar (Export, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Interconnecting Smart Objects with IP: The Next Internet  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Smart object technology, sometimes called the Internet of Things, is having a profound impact on our day-to-day lives. Interconnecting Smart Objects with IP is the first book that takes a holistic approach to the revolutionary area of IP-based ...

Jean-Philippe Vasseur; Adam Dunkels

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Synapse: a scalable protocol for interconnecting heterogeneous overlay networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents Synapse, a scalable protocol for information retrieval over the inter-connection of heterogeneous overlay networks. Applications on top of Synapse see those intra-overlay networks as a unique inter-overlay network. Scalability in ... Keywords: information retrieval, overlay networks, peer-to-peer

Luigi Liquori; Cdric Tedeschi; Laurent Vanni; Francesco Bongiovanni; Vincenzo Ciancaglini; Bojan Marinkovi?

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Imprint lithography enabling ultra-low loss coaxial interconnects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Processing techniques have been demonstrated to fabricate a novel structure with smooth transitions, metallic shielding, and encapsulated air dielectric layers using sacrificial polymers and the three-dimensional patterning capabilities of imprint lithography. ... Keywords: Air dielectrics, Imprint lithography, Interconnects, Sacrificial polymers

Venmathy Rajarathinam; Nathan Fritz; Sue Ann Bidstrup Allen; Paul A. Kohl

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Design considerations for high-data-rate chip interconnect systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Over the past decade, data rates for electrical interconnects in interchip communications systems have experienced a dramatic increase from <1 Gb/s to 10 Gb/s and beyond to keep up with ever increasing demands for more I/O bandwidth from modern high-capacity ...

Troy Beukema

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Designing Scalable PGAS Communication Subsystems on Cray Gemini Interconnect  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Cray Gemini Interconnect has been recently introduced as a next generation network architecture for building multi-petaflop supercomputers. Cray XE6 systems including LANL Cielo, NERSC Hopper, ORNL Titan and proposed NCSA BlueWaters leverage the Gemini Interconnect as their primary Interconnection network. At the same time, programming models such as the Message Passing Interface (MPI) and Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) models such as Unified Parallel C (UPC) and Co-Array Fortran (CAF) have become available on these systems. Global Arrays is a popular PGAS model used in a variety of application domains including hydrodynamics, chemistry and visualization. Global Arrays uses Aggregate Re- mote Memory Copy Interface (ARMCI) as the communication runtime system for Remote Memory Access communication. This paper presents a design, implementation and performance evaluation of scalable and high performance communication subsystems on Cray Gemini Interconnect using ARMCI. The design space is explored and time-space complexities of commu- nication protocols for one-sided communication primitives such as contiguous and uniformly non-contiguous datatypes, atomic memory operations (AMOs) and memory synchronization is presented. An implementation of the proposed design (referred as ARMCI-Gemini) demonstrates the efficacy on communication primitives, application kernels such as LU decomposition and full applications such as Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) application.

Vishnu, Abhinav; Daily, Jeffrey A.; Palmer, Bruce J.

2012-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

219

Modeling magnetic coupling for on-chip interconnect  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As advances in IC technologies and operat-ing frequencies make the modeling of on-chip magnetic interactions a necessity, it is apparent that extension of traditional inductance extraction approaches to full-chip scale problems is impractical. There ... Keywords: inductance, interconnect modeling, magnetic interaction, susceptance

Michael W. Beattie; Lawrence T. Pileggi

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Microsoft PowerPoint - Interconnect Development at PNNL.ppt ...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

l t f SOFC I t t Development of SOFC Interconnects and Coatings J.W. Stevenson, G.G. Xia, J.P. Choi, J.D. Templeton, X. Li, T.K. Oh, and Z. Nie Pacific Northwest National...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection cxs applied" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Interconnect agnostic checkpoint/restart in open MPI  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Long running High Performance Computing (HPC) applications at scale must be able to tolerate inevitable faults if they are to harness current and future HPC systems. Message Passing Interface (MPI) level transparent checkpoint/restart fault tolerance ... Keywords: MPI, checkpoint coordination protocol, checkpoint/restart, fault tolerance, high speed interconnect, infiniband, myrinet, rollback-recovery, shared memory

Joshua Hursey; Timothy I. Mattox; Andrew Lumsdaine

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Computational simulation of electromigration induced damage in copper interconnects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Current density levels are expected to increase by orders of magnitude in next generation power electronics and nanoelectronics. Electromigration which occur under high current density is the major concern for the nanoelectronics industry. Using a general ... Keywords: copper interconnects, damage mechanics, electromigration, electronics packaging reliability, thin film

Cemal Basaran; Minghui Lin; Shidong Li

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Electrode and method of interconnection sintering on an electrode of an electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrode structure (10) is made by applying a base layer of doped LaCrO.sub.3 particles on a portion of an electrode (16) and then coating the particles with a top layer composition such as CaO+Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, SrO+Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, or BaO+Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, and then heating the composition for a time effective to melt the composition and allow it to fill any open porosity in the base layer of doped LaCrO.sub.3 to form an interconnection (26), after which solid oxide electrolyte (18) can be applied to the remaining portion of the electrode (16) and the electrolyte (18) can be covered with a cermet exterior electrode (20).

Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, PA); Kuo, Lewis J. H. (Monroeville, PA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

System level performance analysis of carbon nanotube global interconnects for emerging chip multiprocessors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been widely proposed as interconnect fabrics for future ultra deep submicron (UDSM) technologies, there is a lack of system-level performance analysis using these interconnects. In this paper, we investigate the ...

Sudeep Pasricha; Fadi Kurdahi; Nikil Dutt

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Smart buildings with electric vehicle interconnection as buffer for local renewables?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Smart buildings with electric vehicle interconnection as buffer for local renewables? Michael, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement and partly by NEC Laboratories America Inc. Smart buildings with electric vehicle interconnection as buffer

226

Preliminary Response of PJM Interconnection, L.L.C. to the Operating...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Response of PJM Interconnection, L.L.C. to the Operating Plan of Mirant Potomac River, LLC Preliminary Response of PJM Interconnection, L.L.C. to the Operating Plan of Mirant...

227

DOE/EIS-0372; Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Bangor Hydro-Electric Company Northeast Reliability Interconnect (August 2005)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Northeast Reliability Interconnect DEIS Northeast Reliability Interconnect DEIS S-1 August 2005 SUMMARY S.1 BACKGROUND S.1.1 Purpose and Need for National Environmental Policy Act Review Executive Order (E.O.) 10485 (September 9, 1953), as amended by E.O. 12038 (February 7, 1978), requires that a Presidential permit be issued by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) before electric transmission facilities may be constructed, operated, maintained, or connected at the U.S. international border. Bangor Hydro-Electric Company (BHE) has applied to DOE to amend Presidential Permit PP-89, which authorizes BHE to construct a single-circuit, 345,000-volt (345-kV) alternating-current (AC) electric transmission line across the U.S. international border in the vicinity of Baileyville, Maine.

228

Operating Reserve Implication of Alternative Implementations of an Energy Imbalance Service on Wind Integration in the Western Interconnection: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During the past few years, there has been significant interest in alternative ways to manage power systems over a larger effective electrical footprint. Large regional transmission organizations in the Eastern Interconnection have effectively consolidated balancing areas, achieving significant economies of scale that result in a reduction in required reserves. Conversely, in the Western Interconnection there are many balancing areas, which will result in challenges if there is significant wind and solar energy development in the region. A recent proposal to the Western Electricity Coordinating Council suggests a regional energy imbalance service (EIS). To evaluate this EIS, a number of analyses are in process or are planned. This paper describes one part of an analysis of the EIS's implication on operating reserves under several alternative scenarios of the market footprint and participation. We improve on the operating reserves method utilized in the Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study and apply this modified approach to data from the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study.

Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; King, J.; Beuning, S.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

EAC Recommendations for DOE Action Regarding Interconnection-Wide Planning - June 6, 2013  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

EAC Recommendations for DOE Action Regarding Interconnection-Wide Planning, approved at the June 5-6, 2013 EAC Meeting.

230

Evaluating the energy consumption and the silicon area of on-chip interconnect architectures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sophisticated on-chip interconnects using packet and circuit switching techniques were recently proposed as a solution to non-scalable shared-bus schemes currently used in Systems-on-Chip (SoCs) implementation. Different interconnect architectures have ... Keywords: Energy consumption and area requirements, Load and traffic models, On-chip interconnects, Simulation and evaluation, System-on-Chip

Mohamed Bakhouya

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

PJM Interconnection, LLC Smart Grid Project | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

LLC Smart Grid Project LLC Smart Grid Project Jump to: navigation, search Project Lead PJM Interconnection, LLC Country United States Headquarters Location Norristown, Pennsylvania Additional Benefit Places Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, North Carolina, New Jersey, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Virgin Islands, West Virginia Recovery Act Funding $13,698,091.00 Total Project Value $228203511 Coverage Area Coverage Map: PJM Interconnection, LLC Smart Grid Project Coordinates 40.121497°, -75.3399048° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[]}

232

Geothermal Power and Interconnection: The Economics of Getting to Market  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Power and Power and Interconnection: The Economics of Getting to Market David Hurlbut Technical Report NREL/TP-6A20-54192 April 2012 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Geothermal Power and Interconnection: The Economics of Getting to Market David Hurlbut Prepared under Task No. WE11.0815 Technical Report NREL/TP-6A20-54192 April 2012 NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government.

233

Impact of High Solar Penetration in the Western Interconnection  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Impact of High Solar Penetration Impact of High Solar Penetration in the Western Interconnection Debra Lew National Renewable Energy Laboratory Nicholas Miller, Kara Clark, Gary Jordan, and Zhi Gao GE Energy Technical Report NREL/TP-5500-49667 December 2010 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Impact of High Solar Penetration in the Western Interconnection Debra Lew National Renewable Energy Laboratory Nicholas Miller, Kara Clark, Gary Jordan, and Zhi Gao GE Energy Prepared under Task No. SM101610

234

EIS-0435: Modification of the Groton Generation Station Interconnection  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

5: Modification of the Groton Generation Station 5: Modification of the Groton Generation Station Interconnection Agreement, Brown County, South Dakota EIS-0435: Modification of the Groton Generation Station Interconnection Agreement, Brown County, South Dakota Summary This EIS evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal for DOE's Western Area Power Administration to modify its Large Generator Connection Agreement for the Groton Generation Station in Brown County, South Dakota. The modification would allow Basin Electric Power Cooperative, which operates the generation station, to produce power above the current operating limit of 50 average megawatts. Public Comment Opportunities No public comment opportunities available at this time. Documents Available for Download June 3, 2011 EIS-0435: Final Environmental Impact Statement

235

Interconnecting PV on New York City's Secondary Network Distribution System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has teamed with cities across the country through the Solar America Cities (SAC) partnership program to help reduce barriers and accelerate implementation of solar energy. The New York City SAC team is a partnership between the City University of New York (CUNY), the New York City Mayor s Office of Long-term Planning and Sustainability, and the New York City Economic Development Corporation (NYCEDC).The New York City SAC team is working with DOE s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Con Edison, the local utility, to develop a roadmap for photovoltaic (PV) installations in the five boroughs. The city set a goal to increase its installed PV capacity from1.1 MW in 2005 to 8.1 MW by 2015 (the maximum allowed in 2005). A key barrier to reaching this goal, however, is the complexity of the interconnection process with the local utility. Unique challenges are associated with connecting distributed PV systems to secondary network distribution systems (simplified to ???¢????????networks???¢??????? in this report). Although most areas of the country use simpler radial distribution systems to distribute electricity, larger metropolitan areas like New York City typically use networks to increase reliability in large load centers. Unlike the radial distribution system, where each customer receives power through a single line, a network uses a grid of interconnected lines to deliver power to each customer through several parallel circuits and sources. This redundancy improves reliability, but it also requires more complicated coordination and protection schemes that can be disrupted by energy exported from distributed PV systems. Currently, Con Edison studies each potential PV system in New York City to evaluate the system s impact on the network, but this is time consuming for utility engineers and may delay the customer s project or add cost for larger installations. City leaders would like to streamline this process to facilitate faster, simpler, and less expensive distributed PV system interconnections. To assess ways to improve the interconnection process, NREL conducted a four-part study with support from DOE. The NREL team then compiled the final reports from each study into this report. In Section 1???¢????????PV Deployment Analysis for New York City???¢????????we analyze the technical potential for rooftop PV systems in the city. This analysis evaluates potential PV power production in ten Con Edison networks of various locations and building densities (ranging from high density apartments to lower density single family homes). Next, we compare the potential power production to network loads to determine where and when PV generation is most likely to exceed network load and disrupt network protection schemes. The results of this analysis may assist Con Edison in evaluating future PV interconnection applications and in planning future network protection system upgrades. This analysis may also assist other utilities interconnecting PV systems to networks by defining a method for assessing the technical potential of PV in the network and its impact on network loads. Section 2???¢????????A Briefing for Policy Makers on Connecting PV to a Network Grid???¢????????presents an overview intended for nontechnical stakeholders. This section describes the issues associated with interconnecting PV systems to networks, along with possible solutions. Section 3???¢????????Technical Review of Concerns and Solutions to PV Interconnection in New Y

K. Anderson; M. Coddington; K. Burman; S. Hayter; B. Kroposki; and A. Watson

2009-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

236

Reliability assessment of autonomous power systems incorporating HVDC interconnection links  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this paper is to present an improved computational method for the overall reliability assessment of autonomous power systems that may or may not contain HVdc interconnection links. This is a hybrid method based on a Monte-Carlo simulation sequential approach which incorporates an analytical approach for the reliability modeling of the HVdc transmission links. The developed models and techniques have been implemented into a computer program that can be used to simulate the operational practices and characteristics of the overall system under study efficiently and realistically. A set of reliability indices are calculated for each load-point of interest and the entire system while a set of additional indices is calculated for quantifying the reliability performance of the interconnection links under the specified operating requirements. The analysis of a practical system is also included for a number of studies representing its various operating and design characteristics.

Dialynas, E.N.; Koskolos, N.C. [National Technical Univ., Athens (Greece). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Agoris, D. [Public Power Corp., Athens (Greece)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Backside localization of open and shorted IC interconnections  

SciTech Connect

A new failure analysis technique has been developed for backside and frontside localization of open and shorted interconnections on ICs. This scanning optical microscopy technique takes advantage of the interactions between IC defects and localized heating using a focused infrared laser ({lambda} = 1,340 nm). Images are produced by monitoring the voltage changes across a constant current supply used to power the IC as the laser beam is scanned across the sample. The method utilizes the Seebeck Effect to localize open interconnections and Thermally-Induced Voltage Alteration (TIVA) to detects shorts. The interaction physics describing the signal generation process and several examples demonstrating the localization of opens and shorts are described. Operational guidelines and limitations are also discussed.

Cole, E.I. Jr.; Tangyunyong, P.; Barton, D.L.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

CCHP System with Interconnecting Cooling and Heating Network  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The consistency between building heating load, cooling load and power load are analyzed in this paper. The problem of energy waste and low equipment usage in a traditional CCHP (combined cooling, heating and power) system with generated electricity not supplied to the grid is analyzed in detail. Further, the new concept of CCHP system with cooling and heating network interconnecting is developed. Then, the Olympic Park energy system is presented to illustrate the advantage and improvement both in economy performance and energy efficiency.

Fu, L.; Geng, K.; Zheng, Z.; Jiang, Y.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

SOFC Interconnect and Compressive Seal Development at PNNL  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The development of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology represents an opportunity to achieve significant improvements in energy conversion efficiency and reduction of undesirable emissions. However, many technical challenges still need to be overcome before the utilization of the advantages of SOFC can take place. These challenges include the need for improved interconnects and seals for planar SOFC stacks. In this paper, we briefly summarize recent progress at PNNL in these two research areas.

Chou, Y S.; Yang, Z Gary; Singh, Prabhakar; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Xia, Gordon

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Series interconnected photovoltaic cells and method for making same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A novel photovoltaic module and method for constructing the same are disclosed. The module includes a plurality of photovoltaic cells formed on a substrate and laterally separated by interconnection regions. Each cell includes a bottom electrode, a photoactive layer and a top electrode layer. Adjacent cells are connected in electrical series by way of a conductive-buffer line. The buffer line is also useful in protecting the bottom electrode against severing during downstream layer cutting processes. 11 figs.

Albright, S.P.; Chamberlin, R.R.; Thompson, R.A.

1995-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection cxs applied" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Electrical Contacts between Cathodes and Metallic Interconnects in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To minimize electrical resistance, contact layers are often included between interconnects and electrodes during construction of a SOFC stack. In this work, simulated cathode/interconnect structures were used to investigate the effects of different contact materials on the contact resistance between a LSF cathode and a Crofer22 APU interconnect.. The results from the resistance measurements are reported and correlated to interfacial interactions occurring between the metallic interconnect and the contact materials, particularly perovskites. The materials requirements for the contact layers between cathodes and metallic interconnects in intermediate temperature SOFCs are also discussed.

Yang, Z Gary; Xia, Gordon; Singh, Prabhakar; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

2006-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

242

Corrosion of Metallic SOFC Interconnects in Coal Syngas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With recent reductions in the operating temperature of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC), the potential of using metallic interconnect has gone up. There is also an interest in using Coal syngas as the fuel gas and thus there is a need to analyze the behavior and performance of metallic interconnects when exposed to Coal syngas. Three high temperature material alloys, Crofer 22 APU, Ebrite and Haynes 230, having the potential to be used as SOFC interconnects were studied in simulated wet coal syngas. These alloys were exposed to syngas at 800 degrees C and for 100 hours. The exposure to coal syngas led to the formation of oxides and spinels, which evidently led to an increase in electrical resistance. Oxidation in a reducing and carburizing environment leads to unique phase and morphology formations. A comparative analysis was carried out for all the three alloys, wherein the samples were characterized by using SEM, EDS, Raman and X-Ray diffraction to obtain the morphology, thickness, composition and crystal structure of the oxides and spinels

Dastane, R.R. (University of West Virginia); Liu, X. (University of West Virginia); Johnson, C., Mao, Scott (University of Pittsburgh)

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Motion to Intervene and Initial Comments of PJM Interconnection, L.L.C. |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

and Initial Comments of PJM Interconnection, and Initial Comments of PJM Interconnection, L.L.C. Motion to Intervene and Initial Comments of PJM Interconnection, L.L.C. Motion to Intervene and Initial Comments of PJM Interconnection, L.L.C. On January 5, 2009, ITC Transmission filed with the Department of Energy a request to amend Presidential Permit PP-230-3, which authorizes ITC to own and operate specified electric transmission facilities at the Bunce Creek station that interconnect ITC with Hydro One Networks Inc electric transmission facilities at the Michigan-Ontario border. Motion to Intervene and Initial Comments of PJM Interconnection, L.L.C. More Documents & Publications Application for presidential permit OE Docket No. PP-230-4 International Transmission Company: Response of PJM Interconnection, L.L.C. to Answer of

244

GRR/Section 8-TX-b - ERCOT Interconnection | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

8-TX-b - ERCOT Interconnection 8-TX-b - ERCOT Interconnection < GRR Jump to: navigation, search GRR-logo.png GEOTHERMAL REGULATORY ROADMAP Roadmap Home Roadmap Help List of Sections Section 8-TX-b - ERCOT Interconnection 8-TX-b - ERCOT Interconnection Process.pdf Click to View Fullscreen Regulations & Policies PUCT Substantive Rule 25.198 Triggers None specified Click "Edit With Form" above to add content 8-TX-b - ERCOT Interconnection Process.pdf 8-TX-b - ERCOT Interconnection Process.pdf Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Flowchart Narrative This flowchart illustrates the procedures for interconnection with Electricity Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) in Texas. According to PUCT Substantive Rule 25.198, the responsibility for

245

FLIP: A flexible interconnection protocol for heterogeneous internetworking  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes the Flexible Interconnection Protocol, or FLIP, whose main goal is to allow interconnection of heterogeneous devices with varying power, processing, and communication capabilities, ranging from simple sensors to more powerful computing devices such as laptops and desktops. The vision is that FLIP will be used to interconnect such devices forming clouds in the farthest branches/leaves of the Internet, while still providing connectivity with the existing IP-based Internet infrastructure. Through its flexible, customizable headers FLIP integrates just the functions required by a given application and that can be handled by the underlying device. Simple devices like sensors will benefit from incurring close to optimal overhead saving not only bandwidth, but, more importantly, energy. More sophisticated devices in the cloud can be responsible for implementing more complex functions like reliable/ordered data delivery, communication with other device clouds and with the IP infrastructure. FLIP is designed to provide a basic substrate on which to build network- and transport-level functionality. In heterogeneous environments, FLIP allows devices with varying capabilities to coexist and interoperate under the same network infrastructure. We present the basic design of FLIP and describe its implementation under Linux. We also report on FLIPs performance when providing IPv4 and IPv6 as well as transport-layer functionality a la TCP and UDP. We show FLIPs energy efficiency in different sensor network scenarios. For example, we use FLIP to implement the directed diffusion communication paradigm and obtain an improvement of 50 % in energy savings over an existing directed diffusion implementation. Finally, we showcase FLIPs flexibility by demonstrating its ability to incorporate new protocol functions

Ignacio Solis; Katia Obraczka

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

METAL INTERCONNECTS FOR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL POWER SYSTEMS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Interconnect development is identified by the U.S. Department of Energy as a key technical area requiring focused research to meet the performance and cost goals under the Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance initiative. In the Phase I SECA Core Technology Program, Ceramatec investigated a commercial ferritic stainless steel composition for oxidation resistance properties by measuring the weight gain when exposed to air at the fuel cell operating temperature. A pre-treatment process that results in a dense, adherent scale was found to reduce the oxide scale growth rate significantly. A process for coating the surface of the alloy in order to reduce the in-plane resistance and potentially inhibit chromium oxide evaporation was also identified. The combination of treatments provided a very low resistance through the scale. The resistance measured was as low as 10 milliohm-cm{sup 2} at 750 C in air. The oxide scale was found to be stable in humidified air at 750 C. The resistance value was stable over several thermal cycles. A similar treatment and coating for the fuel side of the interconnect also showed an exceptionally low resistance of one milliohm-cm{sup 2} in humidified hydrogen at 750 C, and was stable through multiple thermal cycles. Analysis of the scale after exposure to various atmospheres showed the presence of a stable composition. When exposed to a dual (air and hydrogen) atmosphere however, the scale composition contains a mixture of phases. Based on results to-date, the alloy selection and the treatment processes appear to be well suited for SOFC interconnect application.

S. Elangovan; S. Balagopal; M. Timper; I. Bay; D. Larsen; J. Hartvigsen

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Series interconnected photovoltaic cells and method for making same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A novel photovoltaic module (10) and method for constructing the same are disclosed. The module (10) includes a plurality of photovoltaic cells (12) formed on a substrate (14) and laterally separated by interconnection regions (15). Each cell (12) includes a bottom electrode (16), a photoactive layer (18) and a top electrode layer (20). Adjacent cells (12) are connected in electrical series by way of a conductive-buffer line (22). The buffer line (22) is also useful in protecting the bottom electrode (16) against severing during downstream layer cutting processes.

Albright, Scot P. (El Paso, TX); Chamberlin, Rhodes R. (El Paso, TX); Thompson, Roger A. (Littleton, CO)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Western Interconnection Energy Imbalance Market Status and Prospects (Presentation)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This presentation describes how a new wholesale electricity market for energy imbalance ancillary services could be implemented and operated. Some conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Method for calculating additional reserve requirements due to wind and solar production; (2) EIM results in substantial reduction in reserves requirements and ramping demand; (3) Reduced participation reduces benefits for all but reduces the benefits to non-participants the most; (4) Full participation leads to maximum benefit across the Western Interconnection, up to 42% of total reserve requirement; and (5) Regional EIM implementations have smaller but substantial benefits.

Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; King, J.; Beuning, S.

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Production process for advanced space satellite system cables/interconnects.  

SciTech Connect

This production process was generated for the satellite system program cables/interconnects group, which in essences had no well defined production process. The driver for the development of a formalized process was based on the set backs, problem areas, challenges, and need improvements faced from within the program at Sandia National Laboratories. In addition, the formal production process was developed from the Master's program of Engineering Management for New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology in Socorro New Mexico and submitted as a thesis to meet the institute's graduating requirements.

Mendoza, Luis A.

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

GRR/Section 8-TX-c - Distributed Generation Interconnection | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GRR/Section 8-TX-c - Distributed Generation Interconnection GRR/Section 8-TX-c - Distributed Generation Interconnection < GRR Jump to: navigation, search GRR-logo.png GEOTHERMAL REGULATORY ROADMAP Roadmap Home Roadmap Help List of Sections Section 8-TX-c - Distributed Generation Interconnection 8-TX-c - Distributed Generation Interconnection.pdf Click to View Fullscreen Contact Agencies Public Utility Commission of Texas Regulations & Policies PUCT Substantive Rule 25.211 PUCT Substantive Rule 25.212 Triggers None specified Click "Edit With Form" above to add content 8-TX-c - Distributed Generation Interconnection.pdf 8-TX-c - Distributed Generation Interconnection.pdf Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Flowchart Narrative This flowchart illustrates the process for distributed generation (DG)

251

EA-1884: Invenergy Interconnection for the Wray Wind Energy Project, Town  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

84: Invenergy Interconnection for the Wray Wind Energy 84: Invenergy Interconnection for the Wray Wind Energy Project, Town of Wray, Yuma County, CO EA-1884: Invenergy Interconnection for the Wray Wind Energy Project, Town of Wray, Yuma County, CO Summary DOE's Western Area Power Administration prepared this EA to evaluate the environmental impacts of interconnecting the proposed Wray Wind Energy Project, for approximately 90 megawatts of wind generation, to Western's existing Wray Substation in Yuma County, Colorado. Public Comment Opportunities None available at this time. Documents Available for Download December 27, 2012 EA-1884: Finding of No Significant Impact Invenergy Interconnection for the Wray Wind Energy Project, Town of Wray, Yuma County, CO December 27, 2012 EA-1884: Final Environmental Assessment Invenergy Interconnection for the Wray Wind Energy Project, Town of Wray,

252

CX-001457: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

for Texas Interconnect- Topic A CX(s) Applied: A9, A11 Date: 03302010 Location(s): Austin, Texas Office(s): Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, National Energy...

253

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

for Texas Interconnect- Topic A CX(s) Applied: A9, A11 Date: 03302010 Location(s): Austin, Texas Office(s): Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, National Energy...

254

CX-010577: Categorical Exclusion Determination  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Peninsula Light Company Line and Load Interconnection Request L0308 (Amendment) CX(s) Applied: B4.12 Date: 07/25/2013 Location(s): Washington Offices(s): Bonneville Power Administration

255

Electrical isolation of component cells in monolithically interconnected modules  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A monolithically interconnected photovoltaic module having cells which are electrically connected which comprises a substrate, a plurality of cells formed over the substrate, each cell including a primary absorber layer having a light receiving surface and a p-region, formed with a p-type dopant, and an n-region formed with an n-type dopant adjacent the p-region to form a single pn-junction, and a cell isolation diode layer having a p-region, formed with a p-type dopant, and an n-region formed with an n-type dopant adjacent the p-region to form a single pn-junction, the diode layer intervening the substrate and the absorber layer wherein the absorber and diode interfacial regions of a same conductivity type orientation, the diode layer having a reverse-breakdown voltage sufficient to prevent inter-cell shunting, and each cell electrically isolated from adjacent cells with a vertical trench trough the pn-junction of the diode layer, interconnects disposed in the trenches contacting the absorber regions of adjacent cells which are doped an opposite conductivity type, and electrical contacts.

Wanlass, Mark W. (Golden, CO)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

WECC releases its first-ever transmission plan for the Western Interconnection  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) announced the release of its first 10-Year Regional Transmission Plan (Plan) for the Western Interconnection.

257

Comparing Germany's and California's Interconnection Processes for PV Systems (White Paper)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Establishing interconnection to the grid is a recognized barrier to the deployment of distributed energy generation. This report compares interconnection processes for photovoltaic projects in California and Germany. This report summarizes the steps of the interconnection process for developers and utilities, the average length of time utilities take to process applications, and paperwork required of project developers. Based on a review of the available literature, this report finds that while the interconnection procedures and timelines are similar in California and Germany, differences in the legal and regulatory frameworks are substantial.

Tweedie, A.; Doris, E.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Generation Interconnection Policies and Wind Power: A Discussion of Issues, Problems, and Potential Solutions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes the adoption and implementation of FERC Order 2003 and the reasons for the sharp rise in generation interconnection filings in recent years.

Porter, K.; Fink, S.; Mudd, C.; DeCesaro, J.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Optimal Planning and Operation of Smart Grids with Electric Vehicle Interconnection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Modeling of Plug-in Electric Vehicle Interactions with aV. (2010). Plug-in Electric Vehicle Interactions with aof Smart Grids with Electric Vehicle Interconnection M.

Stadler, Michael

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Wind energy and power system interconnection, control, and operation for high penetration of wind power .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??High penetration of wind energy requires innovations in different areas of power engineering. Methods for improving wind energy and power system interconnection, control, and operation (more)

Liang, Jiaqi

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection cxs applied" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Federal Utility Partnership Working Group - Utility Interconnection Panel  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

WORKING GROUP - Utility Interconnection Panel M. Renee Jewell, Program/Energy Manager, & Contracting Officer, Forest Service (reneejewell@fs.fed.us) SCENARIO: Fed Agencies had Solar PV Projects To Connect with Utility in California * United States (US) Forest Service (FS) - 1 small Solar Photovoltaic (PV) project; and - 1 small Renewable project (Solar PV) exporting energy to grid. * U.S. National Park Service (NPS) - 24 Small Solar Photovoltaic projects. * U.S. Dept. of Veterans Affairs (VA) - 6 Renewable generation projects of different sizes. FS Region 5 (California) - Solar Photovoltaic Installations Solar PV Project @ Mono Lake Visitor Center (Inyo NF) Solar PV Project (net exporter) @ San Dimas Technology and Development Center SITUATION - Utility Wanted Feds to Sign Its

262

Dual-environment effects on the oxidation of metallic interconnects  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Metallic interconnects in solid oxide fuel cells are exposed to a dual environment: fuel on one side (i.e., H2 gas) and oxidizer on the other side (i.e., air). It has been observed that the oxidation behavior of thin stainless steel sheet in air is changed by the presence of H2 on the other side of the sheet. The resulting dual-environment scales are flaky and more friable than the single-environment scales. The H2 disrupts the scale on the air side. A model to explain some of the effects of a dual environment is presented where hydrogen diffusing through the stainless steel sheet reacts with oxygen diffusing through the scale to form water vapor, which has sufficient vapor pressure to mechanically disrupt the scale. Experiments on preoxidized 316L stainless steel tubing exposed to air-air, H2-air, and H2-Ar environments are reported in support of the model.

Holcomb, G.R.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Bullard, S.J.

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Geothermal Power and Interconnection: The Economics of Getting to Market  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides a baseline description of the transmission issues affecting geothermal technologies. The report begins with a comprehensive overview of the grid, how it is planned, how it is used, and how it is paid for. The report then overlays onto this 'big picture' three types of geothermal technologies: conventional hydrothermal systems; emerging technologies such as enhanced engineered geothermal systems (EGS) and geopressured geothermal; and geothermal co-production with existing oil and gas wells. Each category of geothermal technology has its own set of interconnection issues, and these are examined separately for each. The report draws conclusions about each technology's market affinities as defined by factors related to transmission and distribution infrastructure. It finishes with an assessment of selected markets with known geothermal potential, identifying those that offer the best prospects for near-term commercial development and for demonstration projects.

Hurlbut, D.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

The Data Vortex, an All Optical Path Multicomputer Interconnection Network  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

All optical path interconnection networks employing dense wavelength division multiplexing can provide vast improvements in supercomputer performance. However, the lack of efficient optical buffering requires investigation of new topologies and routing techniques. This paper introduces and evaluates the Data Vortex optical switching architecture which uses cylindrical routing paths as a packet buffering alternative. In addition, the impact of the number of angles on the overall network performance is studied through simulation. Using optimal topology configurations, the Data Vortex is compared to two existing switching architecturesbutterfly and omega networks. The three networks are compared in terms of throughput, accepted traffic ratio, and average packet latency. The Data Vortex is shown to exhibit comparable latency and a higher acceptance rate (2x at 50 percent load) than the butterfly and omega topologies.

Cory Hawkins; Benjamin A. Small; D. Scott Wills; Keren Bergman

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Evaluation of a Functional Interconnect System for SOFC's  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

chemistry, interaction with applied surface coatings, and effectiveness of novel surface treatments.

Matthew Bender; James Rakowski

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

266

Integration of Distributed Resources in Electric Utility Systems: Current Interconnection Practice and Unified Approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accelerating commercialization of distributed resources (DR) has created the need for improved practices for interconnecting them with electric utility distribution systems. An assessment of current practice is provided, and a unified approach is recommended to achieve greater consistency. This report is a tool that readers can use to simplify their efforts in resolving DR interconnection problems.

1999-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

267

A comprehensive performance macro-modeling of on-chip RC interconnects considering line shielding effects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The delay of on-chip interconnect wiring is having an important influence on the timing performance of logic path. This is particularly true where drivers are connected through a non-negligible length of wire. If the Elmore resistance-capacitance delay ... Keywords: deep submicron, interconnect, modelling

S. Engels; R. Wilson; N. Azmard; Philippe Maurine

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Abstract--As symmetric multiprocessors become commonplace, the interconnection networks and the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and the communication system software in clusters of multiprocessors become critical to achieving high performance. Recently, Sun Microsystems has introduced a new system area network, Sun Fire Link interconnect, for its Sun Fire cluster systems. Sun Fire Link is a memory-based interconnect, where Sun MPI uses the Remote

Afsahi, Ahmad

269

Analysis of electromigration induced early failures in Cu interconnects for 45nm node  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bi-directional current stressing was used for monitoring electromigration (EM) lifetime evolution in 45nm node interconnects. Experimental results show that an initial bimodal distribution of lifetimes can be modified into a more robust mono-modal distribution. ... Keywords: Bi-directional current, Cu interconnects, Electromigration, FEM modeling

L. Arnaud; F. Cacho; L. Doyen; F. Terrier; D. Galpin; C. Monget

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Evaluating the effects of temperature gradients and currents nonuniformity in on-chip interconnects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper provides a compact but accurate electro-thermal model of a long wiring on-chip interconnect embedded in the complex layout of a ULSI digital circuit. The proposed technique takes into account both the effect of temperature gradients over the ... Keywords: Current nonuniformity, Electro-thermal model, On-chip interconnect, Propagation delay

N. Spennagallo; L. Codecasa; D. D'Amore; P. Maffezzoni

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

EIS-0437: Interconnection of the Buffalo Ridge III Wind Project, Brookings  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

37: Interconnection of the Buffalo Ridge III Wind Project, 37: Interconnection of the Buffalo Ridge III Wind Project, Brookings and Deuel Counties, South Dakota EIS-0437: Interconnection of the Buffalo Ridge III Wind Project, Brookings and Deuel Counties, South Dakota Summary This EIS evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to interconnect the Heartland Wind, LLC, proposed Buffalo Ridge III Wind Project in Brookings and Deuel Counties, South Dakota, to DOE's Western Area Power Administration transmission system. Public Comment Opportunities No public comment opportunities available at this time. Documents Available for Download August 29, 2012 EIS-0437: Notice of Cancellation of an Environmental Impact Statement Proposed Interconnection of the Buffalo Ridge III Wind Project, Brookings and Deuel Counties, SD

272

EIS-0438: Interconnection of the Proposed Hermosa West Wind Farm Project,  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

8: Interconnection of the Proposed Hermosa West Wind Farm 8: Interconnection of the Proposed Hermosa West Wind Farm Project, Albany County, WY EIS-0438: Interconnection of the Proposed Hermosa West Wind Farm Project, Albany County, WY SUMMARY This EIS will evaluate the environmental impacts of interconnecting the proposed 300-megawatt Hermosa West Wind Farm Project, in Albany County, Wyoming, with DOE's Western Area Power Administration's existing Craig-Ault 345-kilovolt transmission line. PUBLIC COMMENT OPPORTUNITIES None available at this time. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD October 5, 2012 EIS-0438: Draft Environmental Impact Statement Interconnection of the Proposed Hermosa West Wind Farm Project, Albany County, WY January 14, 2010 EIS-0438: Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement and Conduct Scoping Meetings

273

Applied Quantum Information Science  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Applied Quantum Information Science. Summary: Theory is being developed and used to devise methods for preserving ...

2012-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

274

Modeling of the performance of carbon nanotube bundle, cu/low-k and optical on-chip global interconnects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work, we have quantified and compared the performance of carbon nanotube (CNT) and optical interconnects with the existing technology of Cu/low-K interconnects for future high-performance ICs. We present these comparisons not only in terms of ... Keywords: Cu, Global interconnects, bandwidth density, carbon nanotube, latency, optics, power

Hoyeol Cho; Kyung-Hoae Koo; Pawan Kapur; Krishna C. Saraswat

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Study of metallic materials for solid oxide fuel cell interconnect applications.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Metallic interconnect acts as a gas separator and a gas distributor and therefore, it needs to function adequately in two widely different environments. The interconnect material will be exposed to air on one side and natural gas or coal-derived synthesis gas on the other side. The viable material for the interconnect application must be resistant not only to oxidation but also carburization in hydrocarbon containing low-oxygen environments. In addition, the scales that develop on the exposed surfaces must possess adequate electrical conductivity for them to function as current leads over long service life of the fuel cell. This report addresses five topics of interest for the development of metallic interconnects with adequate performance in fuel cells for long service life. The research conducted over the years and the conclusions reached were used to identify additional areas of research on materials for improved performance of components, especially metallic interconnects, in the complex fuel cell environments. This report details research conducted in the following areas: measurement of area specific electrical resistivity, corrosion performance in dual gas environments by experiments using alloy 446, long term corrosion performance of ferritic and austenitic alloys in hydrogen and methane-reformed synthesis fuel-gas environments, approaches to reduce the area resistance of metallic interconnect, and reduction of electrical resistivity of alumina scales on metallic interconnect. Based on the key requirements for metallic interconnects and the data developed on the corrosion behavior of candidate materials in meeting those requirements, several areas are recommended for further research to develop metallic interconnects with acceptable and reliable long-term performance in solid oxide fuel cells.

Natesan, K.; Zeng, Z.; Nuclear Engineering Division

2009-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

276

Dual Environment Effects on the Oxidation of Metallic Interconnects  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Metallic interconnects in solid oxide fuel cells are exposed to a dual environment: fuel on one side (i.e. H2 gas) and oxidizer on the other side (i.e. air). It has been observed that the oxidation behavior of thin stainless steel sheet in air is changed by the presence of H2 on the other side of the sheet. The resulting dual environment scales are flaky and more friable than the single environment scales. The H2 disrupts the scale on the air-side. A model to explain some of the effects of a dual environment is presented where hydrogen diffusing through the stainless steel sheet reacts with oxygen diffusing through the scale to form water vapor, which has sufficient vapor pressure to mechanically disrupt the scale. Experiments on preoxidized 316L stainless steel tubing exposed to air/air, H2/air, and H2/Ar environments are reported in support of the model.

Holcomb, Gordon R.; Ziomek-Moroz, Malgorzata; Cramer, Stephen D.; Covino, Jr., Bernard S.; and Bullard, Sophie J.

2004-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

277

Understanding the Impact of Interconnect Failures on System Operation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hardware failures are inevitable on large high performance computing systems. Faults or performance degradations in the high-speed network can reduce the entire system s performance. Since the introduction of the Gemini interconnect, Cray systems have become resilient to many networking faults that were fatal in their previous generation systems. These new network reliability and resiliency features have enabled higher uptimes on Cray systems by allowing them to continue running with reduced network performance. Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed a set of user-level diagnostics that stresses the high-speed network and searches for components that are not performing as expected. Nearest-neighbor bandwidth tests check every network chip and network link in the system. Additionally, performance counters stored on the network ASIC s memory mapped registers (MMRs) are used to better understand the state of the network. Applications have also been characterized under various suboptimal network conditions to better understand what impact network problems have on user codes.

Ezell, Matthew A [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Assessment of Industrial Load for Demand Response across Western Interconnect  

SciTech Connect

Demand response (DR) has the ability to both increase power grid reliability and potentially reduce operating system costs. Understanding the role of demand response in grid modeling has been difficult due to complex nature of the load characteristics compared to the modeled generation and the variation in load types. This is particularly true of industrial loads, where hundreds of different industries exist with varying availability for demand response. We present a framework considering industrial loads for the development of availability profiles that can provide more regional understanding and can be inserted into analysis software for further study. The developed framework utilizes a number of different informational resources, algorithms, and real-world measurements to perform a bottom-up approach in the development of a new database with representation of the potential demand response resource in the industrial sector across the U.S. This tool houses statistical values of energy and demand response (DR) potential by industrial plant and geospatially locates the information for aggregation for different territories without proprietary information. This report will discuss this framework and the analyzed quantities of demand response for Western Interconnect (WI) in support of evaluation of the cost production modeling with power grid modeling efforts of demand response.

Alkadi, Nasr E [ORNL] [ORNL; Starke, Michael R [ORNL] [ORNL; Ma, Ookie [United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)] [United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Advanced Platform for Development and Evaluation of Grid Interconnection Systems Using Hardware-in-the-Loop: Part III -- Grid Interconnection System Evaluator: Preprint  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper, presented at the IEEE Green Technologies Conference 2013, describes a Grid Interconnection System Evaluator (GISE) that leverages hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation techniques to rapidly evaluate the grid interconnection standard conformance of an ICS according to the procedures in IEEE Std 1547.1 (TM). The architecture and test sequencing of this evaluation tool, along with a set of representative ICS test results from three different photovoltaic (PV) inverters, are presented. The GISE adds to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) evaluation platform that now allows for rapid development of ICS control algorithms using controller HIL (CHIL) techniques, the ability to test the dc input characteristics of PV-based ICSs through the use of a PV simulator capable of simulating real-world dynamics using power HIL (PHIL), and evaluation of ICS grid interconnection conformance.

Lundstrom, B.; Shirazi, M.; Coddington, M.; Kroposki, B.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Advanced Platform for Development and Evaluation of Grid Interconnection Systems Using Hardware-in-the-Loop: Part III - Grid Interconnection System Evaluator  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a Grid Interconnection System Evaluator (GISE) that leverages hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation techniques to rapidly evaluate the grid interconnection standard conformance of an ICS according to the procedures in IEEE Std 1547.1. The architecture and test sequencing of this evaluation tool, along with a set of representative ICS test results from three different photovoltaic (PV) inverters, are presented. The GISE adds to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) evaluation platform that now allows for rapid development of ICS control algorithms using controller HIL (CHIL) techniques, the ability to test the dc input characteristics of PV-based ICSs through the use of a PV simulator capable of simulating real-world dynamics using power HIL (PHIL), and evaluation of ICS grid interconnection conformance.

Lundstrom, B.; Shirazi, M.; Coddington, M.; Kroposki, B.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection cxs applied" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Metal Interconnection Made Inside the Micro-channel by Localized ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A metal ligand oil solution and a reducing agent aqueous solution are applied .... for Extending Plant Lives in Power Generation, Refinery & Petrochemical, and...

282

Response from PJM Interconnection LLC and Pepco to Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

PJM Interconnection LLC and Pepco to Department of PJM Interconnection LLC and Pepco to Department of Energy Request for Information Concerning the Potential Need for Potomac River Station Generation Response from PJM Interconnection LLC and Pepco to Department of Energy Request for Information Concerning the Potential Need for Potomac River Station Generation Docket No. EO-05-01: This letter will respond to your request for information concerning the potential need for Potomac River Station generation under the three reliability "scenarios" outlined by PJM and PEPCO. Response from PJM Interconnection LLC and Pepco to Department of Energy Request for Information Concerning the Potential Need for Potomac River Station Generation More Documents & Publications Information Concerning Reliability Impacts under Various System

283

Process based cost modeling of emerging optoelectronic interconnects : implications for material platform choice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Continuously increasing demand for processing power, storage capacity, and I/O capacity in personal computing, data network, and display interface suggests that optical interconnects may soon supplant copper not only for ...

Liu, Shan, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Innovative Distributed Power Grid Interconnection and Control Systems: Final Report, December 11, 2000 - August 30, 2005  

SciTech Connect

The contract goal was to further advance distributed generation in the marketplace by making installations more cost-effective and compatible with existing systems. This was achieved by developing innovative grid interconnection and control systems.

DePodesta, K.; Birlingmair, D.; West, R.

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

EIS-0438: Interconnection of the Proposed Hermosa West Wind Farm Project, Albany County, WY  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This EIS will evaluate the environmental impacts of interconnecting the proposed 300-megawatt Hermosa West Wind Farm Project, in Albany County, Wyoming, with DOEs Western Area Power Administrations existing Craig-Ault 345-kilovolt transmission line.

286

Relevance of Generation Interconnection Procedures to Feed-in Tariffs in the United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feed-in tariffs (FITs) have been used to promote renewable electricity development in over 40 countries throughout the past two decades. These policies generally provide guaranteed prices for the full system output from eligible generators for a fixed time period (typically 15-20 years). Due in part to the success of FIT policies in Europe, some jurisdictions in the United States are considering implementing similar policies, and a few have already put such policies in place. This report is intended to offer some guidance to policymakers and regulators on how generator interconnection procedures may affect the implementation of FITs and how state generator interconnection procedures can be formulated to support state renewable energy objectives. This report is based on a literature review of model interconnection procedures formulated by several organizations, as well as other documents that have reviewed, commented on, and in some cases, ranked state interconnection procedures.

Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Rogers, J.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Concentration, incumbency, and interconnection: broadband development and the lessons of history  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With recent investments in broadband network development, policymakers have devoted new attention and resources to the social, economic, and political questions surrounding broadband development. While progressive policy in this space necessarily depends ... Keywords: broadband, concentration, incumbency, infrastructure, interconnection, policy, telecommunications

Alissa Centivany; Steven Jackson

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Analysis of CNT bundle and its comparison with copper interconnect for CMOS and CNFET drivers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In nanoscale regime as the CMOS process technology continues to scale, the standard copper (Cu) interconnect will become a major hurdle for onchip communication due to high resistivity and electromigration. This paper presents the comprehensive evaluation ...

Abdul Kadir Kureshi; Mohd. Hasan

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Record of Decision for the Electrical Interconnection of the Windy Point Wind Energy Project.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has decided to offer contract terms for interconnection of 250 megawatts (MW) of power to be generated by the proposed Windy Point Wind Energy Project (Wind Project) into the Federal Columbia River Transmission System (FCRTS). Windy Point Partners, LLC (WPP) propose to construct and operate the proposed Wind Project and has requested interconnection to the FCRTS. The Wind Project will be interconnected at BPA's Rock Creek Substation, which is under construction in Klickitat County, Washington. The Rock Creek Substation will provide transmission access for the Wind Project to BPA's Wautoma-John Day No.1 500-kilovolt (kV) transmission line. BPA's decision to offer terms to interconnect the Wind Project is consistent with BPA's Business Plan Final Environmental Impact Statement (BP EIS) (DOE/EIS-0183, June 1995), and the Business Plan Record of Decision (BP ROD, August 15, 1995). This decision thus is tiered to the BP ROD.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Supplying Baseload Power and Reducing Transmission Requirements by Interconnecting Wind Farms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wind is the worlds fastest growing electric energy source. Because it is intermittent, though, wind is not used to supply baseload electric power today. Interconnecting wind farms through the transmission grid is a simple and effective way of ...

Cristina L. Archer; Mark Z. Jacobson

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Solid oxide fuel cell with single material for electrodes and interconnect  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid oxide fuel cell having a plurality of individual cells. A solid oxide fuel cell has an anode and a cathode with electrolyte disposed therebetween, and the anode, cathode and interconnect elements are comprised of substantially one material.

McPheeters, Charles C. (Naperville, IL); Nelson, Paul A. (Wheaton, IL); Dees, Dennis W. (Downers Grove, IL)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

On the State of the Art of Metal Interconnects for SOFC Application  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the recent developments for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) is oxide component materials capable of operating at lower temperatures such as 700-800C. This lower temperature range has provided for the consideration of metallic interconnects which have several advantages over ceramic interconnects: low cost, ease in manufacturing, and high conductivity. Most metals and alloys will oxidize under both the anode and cathode conditions within an SOFC, thus a chief requirement is that the base metal oxide scale must be electrically conductive since this constitutes the majority of the electrical resistance in a metallic interconnect. Common high temperature alloys form scales that contain chrome, silicon and aluminum oxides among others. Under SOFC operating conditions chrome oxide is a semi-conductor while silicon and aluminum oxides are insulators. In this talk we will review the evolution in candidate alloys and surface modifications which constitute an engineered solution for SOFC interconnect applications.

Jablonski@netl.doe.gov

2011-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

293

Energy Scalability of On-Chip Interconnection Networks in Multicore Architectures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

On-chip interconnection networks (OCNs) such as point-to-point networks and buses form the communication backbone in systems-on-a-chip, multicore processors, and tiled processors. OCNs can consume significant portions of ...

Agarwal, Anant

2008-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

294

Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS): Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report provides an independent review included an initial evaluation of the technical configuration and capital costs of establishing an undersea cable system and examining impacts to the existing electric transmission systems as a result of interconnecting the islands.

Woodford, D.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Phase 2 Report: Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS); Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report provides an independent review including an initial evaluation of the technical configuration and capital costs of establishing an undersea cable system and examining impacts to the existing electric transmission systems as a result of interconnecting the islands

Woodford, D.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

InGaAs monolithic interconnected modules (MIM)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A monolithic interconnected module (MIM) structure has been developed for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) applications. The MIM device consists of many individual InGaAs cells series-connected on a single semi-insulating (S.I.) InP substrate. An infrared (IR) back surface reflector (BSR), placed on the rear surface of the substrate, returns the unused portion of the TPV radiator output spectrum back to the emitter for recycling, thereby providing for high system efficiencies. Also, the use of a BSR obviates the need to use a separate filtering element. As a result, MIMs are exposed to the entire emitter output, thereby maximizing output power density. MIMs with an active area of 1 x 1-cm were comprised of 15 cells monolithically connected in series. Both lattice-matched and lattice-mismatched InGaAs/InP devices were produced, with bandgaps of 0.74 and 0.55 eV, respectively. The 0.74-eV modules demonstrated an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 6.158 V and a fill factor of 74.2% at a short-circuit current (Jsc) of 842 mA/cm{sup 2}, under flashlamp testing. The 0.55-eV modules demonstrated a Voc of 4.849 V and a fill factor of 57.8% at a Jsc of 3.87 A/cm{sup 2}. IR reflectance measurements (i.e., {lambda} > 2 {micro}m) of these devices indicated a reflectivity of {ge} 83%. Latest electrical and optical performance results for the MIMs will be presented.

Fatemi, N.S.; Jenkins, P.P.; Weizer, V.G.; Hoffman, R.W. Jr. [Essential Research, Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States); Wilt, D.M.; Scheiman, D.; Brinker, D. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (United States). Lewis Research Center; Murray, C.S.; Riley, D. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., West Mifflin, PA (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

297

SOUTHVIEWDR Center for Applied  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

/Geology Chemistry Biological Sciences Geology Lab Bookstore Reed Milledge Payne Memorial Hall SANFORD DR Center CAES Activity Center Visitors Center (Four Towers) Greenhouses Center for Applied Isotope Study

Hall, Daniel

298

Manufacturing Analysis of SOFC Interconnect Coating Processes - NexTech Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Manufacturing Analysis of SOFC Manufacturing Analysis of SOFC Interconnect Coating Processes- NexTech Materials Background The adoption of high-temperature metal alloys as alternatives to traditional ceramic interconnect materials provides a cost effective path for the production of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Low-cost and effective protective coatings must be developed for the metallic system and stack components for SOFCs to be economical. Since current

299

Technology Assessment of Interconnection Products for Distributed Resources: Research and Development Recommendations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A compatible and economical connection with the resident electrical power system is a key to realizing the full value of distributed generation and storage. This technology assessment looks at the status of interconnection equipment used for interconnecting distributed generation and storage with electric power systems. The assessment is intended to identify business opportunities and to provide specific research and development recommendations based on a manufacturer survey and technical assessment desc...

2000-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

300

Applied Energy Programs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Applied Energy Programs Applied Energy Programs Applied Energy Programs Los Alamos is using its world-class scientific capabilities to enhance national energy security by developing energy sources with limited environmental impact and by improving the efficiency and reliability of the energy infrastructure. CONTACT US Acting Program Director Melissa Fox (505) 663-5538 Email Applied Energy Program Office serves as the hub connecting the Laboratory's scientific and technical resources to DOE sponsors, DoD programs, and to industry. The Applied Energy Program Office manages Los Alamos National Laboratory programs funded by the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Offices of Energy Efficiency/Renewable Energy, Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, and Fossil Energy. With energy use increasing across the nation and the

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection cxs applied" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Essays in applied microeconomics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This dissertation consists of three chapters on topics in applied microeconomics. In the first chapter. I investigate whether voters are more likely to support additional spending on local public services when they perceive ...

Aron-Dine, Aviva

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Revised Record of Decision for the Electrical Interconnection of the Summit/Westward Project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has decided to amend its July 25, 2003, Record of Decision (ROD) regarding the proposed Summit/Westward Project (Project) to offer contract terms for an optional interconnection of this Project into the Federal Columbia River Transmission System (FCRTS). Under this optional interconnection plan, BPA would integrate electric power from the Project into the FCRTS at a point adjacent to Clatskanie People's Utility District (CPUD) existing Wauna Substation. In order to deliver power to this location, CPUD would develop a new substation (Bradbury Substation) at a site near the Project and a new 230-kV transmission line from there to CPUD's Wauna Substation, which is already connected to the FCRTS. As part of this revised decision, BPA will facilitate CPUD development of the Bradbury-Wauna transmission line by allowing joint use of BPA right-of-way. This will involve reconstructing a section of BPA's 115-kV Allston-Astoria No. 1 transmission line from single-circuit H-frame wood-pole design to double-circuit single metal pole design. Terms of BPA participation in CPUD's development of the Bradbury-Wauna transmission line will be documented in a Construction Agreement. This optional interconnection plan is in addition to BPA's previous offer for interconnection of the Project at BPA's Allston Substation, as documented in the July 25, 2003, ROD. As with the initial interconnection plan, the decision to offer terms to interconnect the Project through the optional interconnection plan is consistent with BPA's Business Plan Final Environmental Impact Statement (BP EIS) (DOE/EIS-0183, June 1995), and the Business Plan Record of Decision (BP ROD, August 1995). This decision thus is similarly tiered to the Business Plan ROD.

N /A

2004-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

303

On some selected issues in VLSI Interconnect Layouts in the nanometer range by  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

On some selected issues in VLSI Interconnect Layouts in the nanometer range The advent of deep sub-micron and nanometric regime for CMOS semiconductor technology has resulted in several restrictions in the physical design of VLSI circuits primarily through constraints imposed by interconnects. These constraints typically include the interconnect delay, congestion, cross-talk, power dissipation and others. These issues have to be considered in the physical design of VLSI circuits. For a specific set of design goals, faster design convergence is often achieved by considering estimates of some or all of these parameters in the physical synthesis and logic synthesis stages. Thus, accurate estimation of these parameters have direct impact on issues such as convergence, performance, yield and manufacturability of chips, and there is immense scope of research in design and performance of interconnects. In addition to these, efforts are on for exploration and use of routing architectures which are different from the traditional Manhattan architecture. In this survey, we attempt to provide a brief overview of some of the select areas of the state-of-the art research on interconnect routing in the deep sub-micron and nanometer range. 1.

Partha Sarathi Dasgupta

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Applied Science/Techniques  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Applied Science/Techniques Applied Science/Techniques Applied Science/Techniques Print The ALS is an excellent incubator of new scientific techniques and instrumentation. Many of the technical advances that make the ALS a world-class soft x-ray facility are developed at the ALS itself. The optical components in use at the ALS-mirrors and lenses optimized for x-ray wavelengths-require incredibly high-precision surfaces and patterns (often formed through extreme ultraviolet lithography at the ALS) and must undergo rigorous calibration and testing provided by beamlines and equipment from the ALS's Optical Metrology Lab and Berkeley Lab's Center for X-Ray Optics. New and/or continuously improved experimental techniques are also a crucial element of a thriving scientific facility. At the ALS, examples of such "technique" highlights include developments in lensless imaging, soft x-ray tomography, high-throughput protein analysis, and high-power coherent terahertz radiation.

305

Permitting and interconnection of solar PV generators for the Marin Energy Authority Feed-in Tariff Program.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Lack of access to information on the cost and timeframe for the permitting and interconnection of distributed renewable energy generation facilities may hinder renewable (more)

Rogers, Stephen Daniel

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Corrosion Behavior of Interconnect Candidate Alloys under Air//Simulated Reformate Dual Exposure Conditions  

SciTech Connect

Metallic interconnects in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks, perform in a very challenging dual environment, as they are simultaneously exposed to a reducing fuel (either hydrogen or a hydrocarbon fuel) on one side and air on the other side at elevated temperatures. Thus candidate metals or alloys for the interconnect applications must demonstrate excellent surface stability under the SOFC operating conditions. Following previous studies which led to an improved understanding of the oxidation/corrosion behavior of metals and alloys under air/hydrogen dual exposure conditions, PNNL recently investigated the behavior of Fe-Cr and Ni-Cr base interconnect candidate alloys in an air/simulated reformate dual environment. This paper reports and discusses the findings of this work.

Yang, Z Gary; Xia, Gordon; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Singh, Prabhakar

2008-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

307

High Temperature Corrosion Behavior of Oxidation Resistant Alloys under SOFC Interconnect Dual Exposures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The steady reduction in SOFC operating temperatures has led to increased interest in using metals and alloys to construct the stack interconnects that are exposed simultaneously to a fuel at the anode-side and air at the cathode-side during SOFC operation. Previous work has found that the high temperature oxidation and corrosion behavior of alloys under the dual exposure conditions can be significantly different from that in a single atmosphere exposure. To fully understand the anomalous oxidation and corrosion behavior under the interconnect dual exposure conditions, a number of metals and alloys were investigated under a variety of conditions, including both hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuels. This paper will present details of this work and discuss our current understanding on the anomalous oxidation behavior of metals and alloys observed under the interconnect dual exposure conditions.

Yang, Z Gary; Coffey, Greg W.; Rice, Joseph P.; Singh, Prabhakar; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Xia, Gordon

2006-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

308

Power System Generation and Inter-Connection Planning Model (SUPER) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Power System Generation and Inter-Connection Planning Model (SUPER) Power System Generation and Inter-Connection Planning Model (SUPER) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Power System Generation and Inter-Connection Planning Model (SUPER) Agency/Company /Organization: Latin American Energy Organization Sector: Energy Focus Area: Renewable Energy, Hydro Topics: Resource assessment Resource Type: Software/modeling tools Website: www.olade.org/superEn.html References: SUPER website [1] "This model is useful for multi-year electricity system planning studies, making it possible to analyze, optimize, simulate and develop hydrothermal power system expansion plans." References ↑ "SUPER website" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Power_System_Generation_and_Inter-Connection_Planning_Model_(SUPER)&oldid=329

309

Applied Mathematics | Argonne National Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Applied Mathematics Applied Mathematics Our work in applied mathematics ranges from algorithm design, to development of software tools and technology, to advanced simulations in...

310

Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS): Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Oahu Wind Integration and Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS) Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project Dennis Woodford Electranix Corporation Winnipeg, Manitoba Canada Subcontract Report NREL/SR-5500-50411 February 2011 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS) Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project Dennis Woodford Electranix Corporation Winnipeg, Manitoba Canada NREL Technical Monitor: David Corbus

311

Planarization of metal films for multilevel interconnects by pulsed laser heating  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In the fabrication of multilevel integrated circuits, each metal layer is planarized by heating to momentarily melt the layer. The layer is melted by sweeping laser pulses of suitable width, typically about 1 microsecond duration, over the layer in small increments. The planarization of each metal layer eliminates irregular and discontinuous conditions between successive layers. The planarization method is particularly applicable to circuits having ground or power planes and allows for multilevel interconnects. Dielectric layers can also be planarized to produce a fully planar multilevel interconnect structure. The method is useful for the fabrication of VLSI circuits, particularly for wafer-scale integration.

Tuckerman, David B. (Livermore, CA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Development of Readout Interconnections for the Si-W Calorimeter of SiD  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The SiD collaboration is developing a Si-W sampling electromagnetic calorimeter, with anticipated application for the International Linear Collider. Assembling the modules for such a detector will involve special bonding technologies for the interconnections, especially for attaching a silicon detector wafer to a flex cable readout bus. We review the interconnect technologies involved, including oxidation removal processes, pad surface preparation, solder ball selection and placement, and bond quality assurance. Our results show that solder ball bonding is a promising technique for the Si-W ECAL, and unresolved issues are being addressed.

Woods, M.; Fields, R.G.; Holbrook, B.; Lander, R.L.; Moskaleva, A.; Neher, C.; Pasner, J.; Tripathi, M.; /UC, Davis; Brau, J.E.; Frey, R.E.; Strom, D.; /Oregon U.; Breidenbach, M.; Freytag, D.; Haller, G.; Herbst, R.; Nelson, T.; /SLAC; Schier, S.; Schumm, B.; /UC, Santa Cruz

2012-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

313

Wind/PV Generation for Frequency Regulation and Oscillation Damping in the Eastern Interconnection  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the control of renewable energy sources, including the variable-speed wind generators and solar photovoltaic (PV) generators, for frequency regulation and inter-area oscillation damping in the U.S. Eastern Interconnection (EI). In this report, based on the user-defined wind/PV generator electrical control model and the 16,000-bus Eastern Interconnection dynamic model, the additional controllers for frequency regulation and inter-area oscillation damping are developed and incorporated and the potential contributions of renewable energy sources to the EI system frequency regulation and inter-area oscillation damping are evaluated.

Liu, Yong [The University of Tennessee, Knoxville] [The University of Tennessee, Knoxville; Gracia, Jose R [ORNL] [ORNL; Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL] [ORNL; Liu, Yilu [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Renewable Generation and Interconnection to the Electrical Grid in Southern California  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA EDISON® SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA EDISON® SM 1 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group Providence, Rhode Island April 15, 2010 Renewable Generation and Interconnection to the Electrical Grid in Southern California Daniel Tunnicliff, P.E. Manager, Government & Institutions SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA EDISON® SM 2 Overview * SCE Overview * SCE Procurement Objectives * Renewable Procurement * Challenges to Meeting Renewable Goals in California * Interconnection Processes * Lessons Learned SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA EDISON® SM 3 SCE Overview * Large system  13 million residents  4.8 million customer accounts  50,000-square-mile service area * Nation's leader in environmental solutions  Energy efficiency  Renewable energy procurement  Electric transportation  Advanced meters  Smart grid

315

Applied Science/Techniques  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Applied Science/Techniques Print Applied Science/Techniques Print The ALS is an excellent incubator of new scientific techniques and instrumentation. Many of the technical advances that make the ALS a world-class soft x-ray facility are developed at the ALS itself. The optical components in use at the ALS-mirrors and lenses optimized for x-ray wavelengths-require incredibly high-precision surfaces and patterns (often formed through extreme ultraviolet lithography at the ALS) and must undergo rigorous calibration and testing provided by beamlines and equipment from the ALS's Optical Metrology Lab and Berkeley Lab's Center for X-Ray Optics. New and/or continuously improved experimental techniques are also a crucial element of a thriving scientific facility. At the ALS, examples of such "technique" highlights include developments in lensless imaging, soft x-ray tomography, high-throughput protein analysis, and high-power coherent terahertz radiation.

316

FUNDAMENTAL STUDIES OF THE DURABILITY OF MATERIALS FOR INTERCONNECTS IN SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the result of the first eight months of effort on a project directed at improving metallic interconnect materials for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The results include cyclic oxidation studies of a group of ferritic alloys, which are candidate interconnect materials. The exposures have been carried out in simulated fuel cell atmospheres. The oxidation morphologies have been characterized and the ASR has been measured for the oxide scales. The effect of fuel cell electric current density on chromia growth rates has been considered The thermomechanical behavior of the scales has been investigated by stress measurements using x-ray diffraction and interfacial fracture toughness measurements using indentation. The ultimate goal of this thrust is to use knowledge of changes in oxide thickness, stress and adhesion to develop accelerated testing methods for evaluating SOFC interconnect alloys. Finally a theoretical assessment of the potential for use of ''new'' metallic materials as interconnect materials has been conducted and is presented in this report. Alloys being considered include materials based on pure nickel, materials based on the ''Invar'' concept, and coated materials to optimize properties in both the anode and cathode gases.

Frederick S. Pettit; Gerald H. Meier

2003-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

317

Novel dielectric capping layer approach for advanced copper interconnects using chemical grafting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Due to its low bulk resistivity copper has become the material of choice for ULSI interconnects. However its high diffusivity in dielectrics and weak chemical bonding to low-k materials require a capping layer as diffusion barrier and to improve adhesion. ... Keywords: Adhesion, Capping, Chemical grafting, Electromigration

I. Bispo; B. Couturier; P. H. Haumesser; P. Mangiagalli; H. Monchoix; G. Passemard; C. Peyne; S. Roy; N. Thieriet; P. Rabinzohn; C. Bureau

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

The Y-Architecture for On-Chip Interconnect: Analysis and Methodology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Y-architecture for on-chip interconnect is based on pervasiveuse of 0-, 120-, and 240-degree oriented semi-global and globalwiring. Its use of three uniform directions exploits on-chip routingresources more efficiently than traditional Manhattan ...

Hongyu Chen; Chung-Kuan Cheng; Andrew B. Kahng; Ion Mandoiu; Qinke Wang; Bo Yao

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Efficient on-line interconnect testing in FPGAs with provable detectability for multiple faults  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a very effective on-line interconnect built-in-self-test (BIST) method I-BIST for FPGAs that uses a combination of the following novel techniques: a track-adjacent and a switch-adjacent (also called "mirror adjacent") pairwise net comparison ...

Vishal Suthar; Shantanu Dutt

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

EIS-0485: Interconnection of the Grande Prairie Wind Farm, Holt County, Nebraska  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

DOEs Western Area Power Administration is preparing this EIS to evaluate the environmental impacts of interconnecting the proposed Grande Prairie Wind Farm, in Holt County, near the city of ONeill, Nebraska, to Westerns power transmission system. The proposed wind energy generation project would include up to 266 wind turbines.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection cxs applied" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Strategies and Challenges for Interconnecting Wireless Mesh and Wireless Sensor Networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wireless sensor networks and wireless mesh networks are popular research subjects. The interconnection of both network types enables next-generation applications and creates new optimization opportunities. However, current single-gateway solutions are ... Keywords: Cooperation strategies, Future networks, Wireless mesh network, Wireless sensor network

Stefan Bouckaert; Eli De Poorter; Benit Latr; Jeroen Hoebeke; Ingrid Moerman; Piet Demeester

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Advanced Unit Commitment Strategies for the U.S. Eastern Interconnection: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper outlines a study undertaken for the U.S. Eastern Interconnection in which different advanced unit commitment strategies were simulated for three different years to evaluate the benefits that may occur from using these strategies as an operational tool.

Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; Meibom, P.; Barth, R.; Tuohy, A.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

The Web of Things: interconnecting devices with high usability and performance Simon Duquennoy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Web of Things: interconnecting devices with high usability and performance Simon Duquennoy@gemalto.com Abstract In this paper, we show that Web protocols and technolo- gies are good candidates to design the Internet of Things. This approach allows anyone to access embedded devices through a Web application, via

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

324

Compact quasi-analytic equations for estimating the temperature distribution of ULSI interconnections  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the wide application of low dielectric constant materials in ULSI circuits, the problem of heat dissipation becomes more critical due to the small thermal conductivity of such materials. Compact quasi-analytic equations for estimating the temperature ... Keywords: ULSI circuits, interconnection, thermal behavior simulation

X. Xiao; X. You; G. Ruan

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Development of (Mn,Co)3O4 Protection Layers for Ferritic Stainless Steel Interconnects  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A spinel-based surface protection layer has been developed for alloy SOFC current collectors and bi-polar gas separators. The (Mn,Co)3O4 spinel with a nominal composition of Mn1.5Co1.5O4 demonstrates an excellent electrical conductivity and thermal expansion match to ferritic stainless steel interconnects. A slurry-coating technique provides a viable approach for fabricating protective layers of the spinel onto the steel interconnects. Thermally grown protection layers of Mn1.5Co1.5O4 have been found not only to significantly decrease the contact resistance between a LSF cathode and stainless steel interconnect, but also inhibits the sub-scale growth on the stainless steel. The combination of the inhibited sub-scale growth, good thermal expansion matching between the spinel and the stainless steel, and the closed-pore structure contribute to the excellent structural and thermomechanical stability of these spinel protection layers, which was verified by a long-term thermal-cycling test. The spinel protection layers can also act effectively to prevent outward diffusion of chromium from the interconnect alloy, preventing subsequent chromium migration into the cathode and contact materials. PNNL is currently engaged in studies intended to optimize the composition, microstructure, and fabrication procedure for the spinel protection layers.

Yang, Zhenguo; Simner, Steven P.; Singh, Prabhakar; Xia, Guanguang; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

2005-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

326

Proceedings of the 11th international workshop on System level interconnect prediction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On behalf of the organizing committee, we would like to welcome you to the 11th International Workshop on System-Level Interconnect Prediction (SLIP '09), held on July 26, 2009. This year SLIP is co-located with Design Automation Conference (DAC) ...

Chung-Kuan Cheng; Sherief Reda

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

RESEARCH CALL TO DOE/FEDERAL LABORATORIES Technical Support for Interconnection-Level Electric Infrastructure Planning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on electricity demand, and comparison of utility resource plans · Water/energy nexus · Technical assistance-year period covered by this research call. Area of Interest 2: New Technologies, Electricity Demand, and Utility Resource Plans a) Western Interconnection Project 1 - New Technologies and Electricity Demand Need

328

Modeling and Simulation Environment for Photonic Interconnection Networks in High Performance Computing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

at the scale of high performance computer clusters and warehouse scale data centers, system level simulations and results for rack scale photonic interconnection networks for high performance computing. Keywords: optical to the newsworthy power consumption [3], latency [4] and bandwidth challenges [5] of high performance computing (HPC

Bergman, Keren

329

Impact of gbit/s fiber optic chip-to-chip interconnects on digital processing systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Exploiting gbit/s photonic circuits and optical interconnect schemes for chip-to-chip communication promises to facilitate the development of large, highly parallel network computers that can solve computationally intensive tasks. The basic concept, potential applications, and key technological issues required to implement this approach are presented. 11 references.

Husain, A.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Stability analysis of T-S fuzzy models for nonlinear multiple time-delay interconnected systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, the Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model representation is extended to the stability analysis for nonlinear interconnected systems with multiple time-delays using linear matrix inequality (LMI) theory. In terms of Lyapunov's direct method for ... Keywords: Lyapunov's theory, fuzzy systems, time delay

C. W. Chen; W. L. Chiang; F. H. Hsiao

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Modeling and evaluation of ring-based interconnects for Network-on-Chip  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A popular network topology for Network-on-Chip (NoC) implementations is the two-dimensional mesh, which has its drawbacks in the communication latency scalability, and the concentration of the traffic in the center of the mesh. In this paper, we consider ... Keywords: Hierarchical ring, Interconnect topologies, Mesh, Modeling, Network-on-Chip, SystemC

Stephan Bourduas; Zeljko Zilic

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Solid oxide fuel cell with single material for electrodes and interconnect  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid oxide fuel cell is described having a plurality of individual cells. A solid oxide fuel cell has an anode and a cathode with electrolyte disposed there between, and the anode, cathode and interconnect elements are comprised of substantially one material. 9 figs.

McPheeters, C.C.; Nelson, P.A.; Dees, D.W.

1994-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

333

FUNDAMENTAL STUDIES OF THE DURABILITY OF MATERIALS FOR INTERCONNECTS IN SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This task involves theoretical analysis of possible alternative metallic interconnect schemes including: Ni and dispersion-strengthened Ni, low CTE alloys based on Fe-Ni (Invar), coatings to suppress evaporation, and incorporation of high conductivity paths. The most promising systems are being evaluated experimentally with regard to durability and oxide conductivity.

Hammer, J.; Laney, S.; Jackson, W.; Pettit, F.; Meier, J.; Dhanaraj, N.; Beuth, J.

2005-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

334

High-Performance Interconnects and Computing Systems: Quantitative Studies A thesis submitted to the Department of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. To measure and to predict the performance of parallel computer systems, parallel benchmarks are designedHigh-Performance Interconnects and Computing Systems: Quantitative Studies By Ying Qian A thesis characteristics, parallel programming paradigms used by the applications, and the machine system's architecture

Afsahi, Ahmad

335

Synthesis of electrical networks interconnecting PZT actuators to damp mechanical vibrations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper proves that it is possible to damp mechanical vibrations of some beam frames by means of piezoelectric actuators interconnected via passive networks. We create a kind of electromechanical wave guide where the electrical velocity group equals the mechanical one thus enabling an electromechanical energy transfer. Numerical simulations are presented which prove the technical feasibility of proposed device

dell'Isola, F; Porfiri, M

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Synthesis of electrical networks interconnecting PZT actuators to damp mechanical vibrations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper proves that it is possible to damp mechanical vibrations of some beam frames by means of piezoelectric actuators interconnected via passive networks. We create a kind of electromechanical wave guide where the electrical velocity group equals the mechanical one thus enabling an electromechanical energy transfer. Numerical simulations are presented which prove the technical feasibility of proposed device

F. dell'Isola; E. G. Henneke; M. Porfiri

2010-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

337

Graphene based nanomaterials for VLSI interconnect and energy-storage applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As IC feature sizes continue to be scaled below 45 nanometer, copper wires exhibit significant "size effects" resulting in a sharp rise in their resistivity, which, in turn, has adverse impact both on their performance as well as reliability--in the ... Keywords: carbon nanomaterials, carbon nanotubes, graphene nano-ribbons, interconnects, passives.

Kaustav Banerjee

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Carbon nanotube, graphene and atomic wires as next generation interconnects: current status and future promise  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carbon based metal wires such as carbon nanotube (CNT) and graphene nano ribbon (GNR) attracted much attention for possible applications as future interconnects. In particular, both CNTs and GNRs have long electron mean free path (~ ), high carrier ... Keywords: design, performance, quantum simulation, reliability

Saroj K. Nayak

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Revisiting VLSI Interconnects in Deep Sub-Micron: Some Open Questions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Deep sub-micron technology has increased the design complexity of VLSI circuits. Design of routers now has to take care of the timing issues for faster design convergence. This has yielded wider scope of research in design and performance of interconnects. ...

Parthasarathi Dasgupta

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Pricing Games among Interconnected Microgrids Gaurav S. Kasbekar and Saswati Sarkar  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Pricing Games among Interconnected Microgrids Gaurav S. Kasbekar and Saswati Sarkar Abstract--We consider a scenario with multiple independent microgrids close to each other in a region that are connected to each other and to the central grid (macrogrid). In each time slot, a given microgrid may produce more

Sarkar, Saswati

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection cxs applied" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Phase 1 - Evaluation of a Functional Interconnect System for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project is focused on evaluating the suitability of materials and complex multi-materials systems for use as solid oxide fuel cell interconnects. ATI Allegheny Ludlum has generated promising results for interconnect materials which incorporate modified surfaces. Methods for producing these surfaces include cladding, which permits the use of novel materials, and modifications via unique thermomechanical processing, which allows for the modification of materials chemistry. The University of Pittsburgh is assisting in this effort by providing use of their in-place facilities for dual atmosphere testing and ASR measurements, along with substantial work to characterize post-exposure specimens. Carnegie Mellon is testing interconnects for chromia scale spallation resistance using macro-scale and nano-scale indentation tests. Chromia spallation can increase electrical resistance to unacceptable levels and interconnect systems must be developed that will not experience spallation within 40,000 hours at operating temperatures. Spallation is one of three interconnect failure mechanisms, the others being excessive growth of the chromia scale (increasing electrical resistance) and scale evaporation (which can poison the cathode). The goal of indentation fracture testing at Carnegie Mellon is to accelerate the evaluation of new interconnect systems (by inducing spalls at after short exposure times) and to use fracture mechanics to understand mechanisms leading to premature interconnect failure by spallation. Tests include bare alloys from ATI and coated systems from DOE Laboratories and industrial partners, using ATI alloy substrates. West Virginia University is working towards developing a cost-effective material for use as a contact material in the cathode chamber of the SOFC. Currently materials such as platinum are well suited for this purpose, but are cost-prohibitive. For the solid-oxide fuel cell to become a commercial reality it is imperative that lower cost components be developed. Based on the results obtained to date, it appears that sterling silver could be an inexpensive, dependable candidate for use as a contacting material in the cathode chamber of the solid-oxide fuel cell. Although data regarding pure silver samples show a lower rate of thickness reduction, the much lower cost of sterling silver makes it an attractive alternative for use in SOFC operation.

James M. Rakowski

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

342

Applied antineutrino physics workshop.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This workshop is the fourth one of a series that includes the Neutrino Geophysics Conference at Honolulu, Hawaii, which I attended in 2005. This workshop was organized by the Astro-Particle and Cosmology laboratory in the recently opened Condoret building of the University of Paris. More information, including copies of the presentations, on the workshop is available on the website: www.apc.univ-paris7.fr/AAP2007/. The workshop aims at opening neutrino physics to various fields such that it can be applied in geosciences, nuclear industry (reactor and spent fuel monitoring) and non-proliferation. The workshop was attended by over 60 people from Europe, USA, Asia and Brazil. The meeting was also attended by representatives of the Comprehensive nuclear-Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The workshop also included a workshop dinner on board of a river boat sailing the Seine river.

Lund, James C.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Thermally-aware modeling and performance evaluation for single-walled carbon nanotube-based interconnects for future high performance integrated circuits  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Given the performance and reliability limits of conventional copper interconnects in the tens of nanometer regime, carbon-nanotube (CNT) based interconnects emerge as a potential reliable alternative for future high performance VLSI industry. In this ... Keywords: Carbon nanotube bundles, High performance interconnect, Thermal modeling

Amir Hosseini; Vahid Shabro

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Distributed control applied to combined electricity and natural gas infrastructures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract The optimization of combined electricity and natural gas systems is addressed in this paper. The two networks are connected via energy hubs. Using the energy hub concept, the interactions between the different infrastructures can be analyzed. A system consisting of several interconnected hubs forms a distributed power generation structure where each hub is controlled by its respective control agent. Recently, a distributed control method has been applied to such a system. The overall optimization problem including the entire system is decomposed into subproblems according to the control agents. In this paper, a parallel and serial version of that method is discussed. Simulation results are obtained through experiments on a three-hub benchmark system. I.

Michle Arnold; Rudy R. Negenborn; Gran Andersson; Bart De Schutter

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

DOE/EIS-0372; Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Bangor Hydro-Electric Company Northeast Reliability Interconnect (August 2005)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Sheet Northeast Reliability Interconnect DEIS Sheet Northeast Reliability Interconnect DEIS iii COVER SHEET Responsible Federal Agency: U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability Cooperating Agencies: U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service (NOAA Fisheries) Title: Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Bangor Hydro-Electric Company Northeast Reliability Interconnect Location: Hancock, Penobscot, and Washington Counties, Maine. Contacts: For additional information on this Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), contact: Dr. Jerry Pell, Project Manager Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy

346

Applied and Computational Mathematics Division  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Applied and Computational Mathematics Division. Topic Areas. Mathematics; Scientific Computing; Visualization; Quantum Computing. ...

2013-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

347

Making Connections: Case Studies of Interconnection Barriers and their Impact on Distributed Power Projects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Interconnection of Interconnection Barriers and their Impact on Distributed Power Projects M a k i n g M a k i n g Connections Connections NREL/SR-200-28053 Revised July 2000 United States Department Of Energy Distributed Power Program Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Power Technologies Joseph Galdo DOE Distributed Power Program Manager Office of Power Technologies, EE-15 U.S. Department of Energy Forrestal Building, 5H-021 1000 Independence Avenue SW Washington, DC 20585 Phone: (202) 586-0518 Fax: (202) 586-1640 Richard DeBlasio NREL Distributed Power Program Manager National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Blvd. (MS 3214) Golden, CO 80601 Phone: (303) 384-6452 Fax: (303) 384-6490 Gary Nakarado* National Renewable Energy Laboratory NREL Distributed Power Program Technical Monitor

348

Interconnection arrangement of routers of processor boards in array of cabinets supporting secure physical partition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A multiple processor computing apparatus includes a physical interconnect structure that is flexibly configurable to support selective segregation of classified and unclassified users. The physical interconnect structure includes routers in service or compute processor boards distributed in an array of cabinets connected in series on each board and to respective routers in neighboring row cabinet boards with the routers in series connection coupled to routers in series connection in respective neighboring column cabinet boards. The array can include disconnect cabinets or respective routers in all boards in each cabinet connected in a toroid. The computing apparatus can include an emulator which permits applications from the same job to be launched on processors that use different operating systems.

Tomkins, James L. (Albuquerque, NM); Camp, William J. (Albuquerque, NM)

2007-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

349

Phase 2 Report: Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS); Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Phase 2 Report: Oahu Wind Phase 2 Report: Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS) Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project Dennis Woodford Electranix Corporation Winnipeg, Manitoba Canada Subcontract Report NREL/SR-5500-50414 February 2011 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Phase 2 Report: Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS) Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project Dennis Woodford Electranix Corporation Winnipeg, Manitoba Canada

350

The Relevance of Generation Interconnection Procedures to Feed-in Tariffs in the United States  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Relevance of Generation The Relevance of Generation Interconnection Procedures to Feed-in Tariffs in the United States Sari Fink, Kevin Porter, and Jennifer Rogers Exeter Associates, Inc. Columbia, Maryland Subcontract Report NREL/SR-6A20-48987 October 2010 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 The Relevance of Generation Interconnection Procedures to Feed-in Tariffs in the United States Sari Fink, Kevin Porter, and Jennifer Rogers Exeter Associates, Inc. Columbia, Maryland

351

DOE/EA-1602: Alternative Intake Project Transmission Line and Interconnection Final Environmental Assessment (November 2008)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Alternative Intake Project Alternative Intake Project Transmission Line and Interconnection Final Environmental Assessment November 2008 DOE/EA-1602 DOE/EA-1602 Final Environmental Assessment for the Western Area Power Administration Alternative Intake Project Transmission Line and Interconnection As part of its comprehensive water quality strategy to protect and improve water quality for its customers, the Contra Costa Water District (CCWD) is implementing the Alternative Intake Project (AIP). The AIP will enable CCWD to relocate some of its existing diversions to Victoria Canal, a Delta location with higher-quality source water than is currently available at its Old River and Rock Slough intakes. The AIP project purpose is to protect and improve the quality of water delivered to CCWD's untreated-

352

Sintering aid for lanthanum chromite refractories. [As interconnect layer between electrodes in fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electronically conductive interconnect layer for use in a fuel cell or other electrolytic device is formed with sintering additives to permit densification in a monolithic structure with the electrode materials. Additions, including an oxide of boron and a eutectic forming composition of Group 2A metal fluorides with Group 3B metal fluorides and Group 2A metal oxides with Group 6B metal oxides, lower the required firing temperature of lanthanum chromite to permit densification to in excess of 94% of theoretical density without degradation of electrode material lamina. The monolithic structure is formed by tape casting thin layers of electrode, interconnect and electrolyte materials and sintering the green lamina together under common densification conditions.

Flandermeyer, B.K.; Poeppel, R.B.; Dusek, J.T.; Anderson, H.U.

1986-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

353

Bipolar plating of metal contacts onto oxide interconnection for solid oxide electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a method of forming an adherent metal deposit on a conducting layer of a tube sealed at one end. The tube is immersed with the sealed end down into an aqueous solution containing ions of the metal to be deposited. An ionically conducting aqueous fluid is placed inside the tube and a direct current is passed from a cathode inside the tube to an anode outside the tube. Also disclosed is a multi-layered solid oxide fuel cell tube which consists of an inner porous ceramic support tube, a porous air electrode covering the support tube, a non-porous electrolyte covering a portion of the air electrode, a non-porous conducting interconnection covering the remaining portion of the electrode, and a metal deposit on the interconnection. 1 fig.

Isenberg, A.O.

1987-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

354

Alternative materials for solid oxide fuel cells: Factors affecting air-sintering of chromite interconnections  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this research is to develop alternative materials for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) interconnections and electrodes with improved electrical, thermal and electrochemical properties. Another objective is to develop synthesis and fabrication processes for these materials whereby they can be consolidated in air into SOFCs. The approach is to (1) develop modifications of the current, state-of-the-art materials used in SOFCs, (2) minimize the number of cations used in the SOFC materials to reduce potential deleterious interactions, (3) improve thermal, electrical, and electrochemical properties, (4) develop methods to synthesize both state-of-the-art and alternative materials for the simultaneous fabrication and consolidation in air of the interconnections and electrodes with the solid electrolyte, and (5) understand electrochemical reactions at materials interfaces and the effects of component compositions and processing on those reactions.

Chick, L.A.; Bates, J.L.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

The Development of Interconnection Standards in Six States In 2007-2008  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the process of developing standards for the interconnection of photovoltaic systems and other generators under ten megawatts to the electric grid. State utility commission rulemakings in 2007-2008 in Florida, New Mexico, North Carolina, Maryland, Illinois and Utah provide the basis for analysis of what is and should be considered in the development of standards, and how the process can be improved. State interconnection standards vary substantially, and many utilities have discretion to establish additional or different requirements, creating literally hundreds of sets of rules. This lack of uniformity imposes a significant cost on project developers and installers to track and comply with applicable rules. As well, burdensome provisions and uncertain costs and timelines present formidable barriers to entry, which advocates have limited resources to challenge. For a better process, the author proposes: establishing federal standards as a baseline, involving solar advocates, and developing a utility cost-recovery mechanism.

Keyes, Jason B.

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Examination of Potential Benefits of an Energy Imbalance Market in the Western Interconnection  

SciTech Connect

In the Western Interconnection, there is significant interest in improving approaches to wide-area coordinated operations of the bulk electric power system, in part because of the increasing penetration of variable generation. One proposed solution is an energy imbalance market. This study focused on that approach alone, with the goal of identifying the potential benefits of an energy imbalance market in the year 2020.

Milligan, M.; Clark, K.; King, J.; Kirby, B.; Guo, T.; Liu, G.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Corrosion and Protection of Metallic Interconnects in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

Energy security and increased concern over environmental protection have spurred a dramatic world-wide growth in research and development of fuel cells, which electrochemically convert incoming fuel into electricity with no or low pollution. Fuel cell technology has become increasingly attractive to a number of sectors, including utility, automotive, and defense industries. Among the various types of fuel cells, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) operate at high temperature (typically 650-1,000 C) and have advantages in terms of high conversion efficiency and the flexibility of using hydrocarbon fuels, in addition to hydrogen. The high temperature operation, however, can lead to increased mass transport and interactions between the surrounding environment and components that are required to be stable during a lifetime of thousands of hours and up to hundreds of thermal cycles. For stacks with relatively low operating temperatures (<800 C), the interconnects that are used to electrically connect a number of cells in series are typically made from cost-effective metals or alloys. The metallic interconnects must demonstrate excellent stability in a very challenging environment during SOFC operation, as they are simultaneously exposed to both an oxidizing (air) environment on the cathode side and a reducing environment (hydrogen or a reformed hydrocarbon fuel) on the anode side. Other challenges include the fact that water vapor is likely to be present in both of these environments, and the fuel is likely to contain impurities, such as sulfides. Since the fuel is usually a reformed hydrocarbon fuel, such as natural gas, coal gas, biogas, gasoline, etc., the interconnect is exposed to a wet carbonaceous environment at the anode side. Finally, the interconnect must be stable towards any adjacent components, such as electrodes, seals and electrical contact materials, with which it is in physical contact.

Yang, Z Gary; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Singh, Prabhakar

2007-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

358

System Impacts from Interconnection of Distributed Resources: Current Status and Identification of Needs for Further Development  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents and evaluates system impacts from the interconnection of distributed resources to transmission and distribution systems, including a focus on renewable distributed resource technologies. The report also identifies system impact-resolution approaches and actions, including extensions of existing approaches. Lastly, the report documents the current challenges and examines what is needed to gain a clearer understanding of what to pursue to better avoid or address system impact issues.

Basso, T. S.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

HVDC Control Strategies to Improve Transient Stability in Interconnected Power Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents three HVDC modulation strategies to improve transient stability in an interconnected power system. AC variables such as rotor speeds, voltage phasors, and tieline power flows are used as input to the controller that modifies the power flow settings through the HVDC-links. The proposed techniques are tested on the IEEE 24-Bus reliability test system and critical clearing times obtained for several contingencies are analyzed. The paper shows that HVDC modulation can lead to substantial improvement in transient stability.

J. Hazra; Y. Phulpin; D. Ernst

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Delay uncertainty in single- and multi-wall carbon nanotube interconnects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carbon nanotube (CNT) has become the promising candidate for replacing the traditional copper based interconnect systems in future VLSI technology nodes. This paper analyzes delay uncertainty due to crosstalk in the Single- and Multi-wall CNT bundle ... Keywords: carbon nanotube (CNT), crosstalk delay, double-wall carbon nanotube (DWCNT), multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT), single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT), very large scale integration (VLSI)

Debaprasad Das; Hafizur Rahaman

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection cxs applied" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Degradation of solid oxide fuel cell metallic interconnects in fuels containing sulfur  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

SOFC from ~1000 C to ~750 C may allow less expensive metallic materials to be used for interconnects and as balance of plant (BOP) materials. This paper provides insight on the material performance of nickel, ferritic steels, and nickel-based alloys in fuels containing sulfur, primarily in the form of H2S, and seeks to quantify the extent of possible degradation due to sulfur in the gas stream.

Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Reactive power interconnection requirements for PV and wind plants : recommendations to NERC.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Voltage on the North American bulk system is normally regulated by synchronous generators, which typically are provided with voltage schedules by transmission system operators. In the past, variable generation plants were considered very small relative to conventional generating units, and were characteristically either induction generator (wind) or line-commutated inverters (photovoltaic) that have no inherent voltage regulation capability. However, the growing level of penetration of non-traditional renewable generation - especially wind and solar - has led to the need for renewable generation to contribute more significantly to power system voltage control and reactive power capacity. Modern wind-turbine generators, and increasingly PV inverters as well, have considerable dynamic reactive power capability, which can be further enhanced with other reactive support equipment at the plant level to meet interconnection requirements. This report contains a set of recommendations to the North-America Electricity Reliability Corporation (NERC) as part of Task 1-3 (interconnection requirements) of the Integration of Variable Generation Task Force (IVGTF) work plan. The report discusses reactive capability of different generator technologies, reviews existing reactive power standards, and provides specific recommendations to improve existing interconnection standards.

McDowell, Jason (General Electric, Schenectady, NY); Walling, Reigh (General Electric, Schenectady, NY); Peter, William (SunPower, Richmond, CA); Von Engeln, Edi (NV Energy, Reno, NV); Seymour, Eric (AEI, Fort Collins, CO); Nelson, Robert (Siemens Wind Turbines, Orlando, FL); Casey, Leo (Satcon, Boston, MA); Ellis, Abraham; Barker, Chris. (SunPower, Richmond, CA)

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Evaluation of a Surface Treatment on the Performance of Stainless Steels for SOFC Interconnect Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pack cementation-like Cerium based surface treatments have been found to be effective in enhancing the oxidation resistance of ferritic steels (Crofer 22APU) for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. The application of either a CeN- or CeO2 based surface treatment results in a decrease in weight gain by a factor of three after 4000 hours exposure to air+3%H2O at 800oC. Similar oxide scales formed on treated and untreated surfaces, with a continuous Cr-Mn outer oxide layer and a continuous inner Cr2O3 layer formed on the surface. However, the thickness of the scales, and the amount of internal oxidation were significantly reduced with the treatment, leading to the decrease in oxidation rate. This presentation will detail the influence of the treatment on the electrical properties of the interconnect. Half-cell experiments (LSM cathode sandwiched between two steel interconnects) and full SOFC button cell experiments were run with treated and untreated interconnects. Preliminary results indicate the Ce treatment can improve SOFC performance.

Alman, D.E.; Holcomb, Adler, T.A.; G.R.; Wilson, R.D.; Jablonski, P.D.

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Investigation of Oxidation-Resistant Alloy Interconnects for use in Planar SOFC Stacks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Over the past several years, advances in materials and fabrication techniques for planar SOFCs have allowed for a reduction in SOFC operating temperatures (e.g., 650-800C)[1]. Consequently, relatively inexpensive ferritic stainless steels that have good thermal expansion matching with the ceramic cells are now considered to be among the most promising candidate materials for the construction of interconnects in SOFC stacks. To function well in the stacks, the metallic interconnects must demonstrate: (i) Excellent stability over thousands of hours in a very challenging dual environment, as they are exposed simultaneously to a reducing atmosphere (fuel, such as hydrogen) on one side and an oxidizing atmosphere (air) on the other side; (ii) High electrical conductivity through both the bulk material and in-situ formed oxide scales; (iii) Bulk and interfacial thermal mechanical reliability and durability at the operating temperature; (iv) Compatibility with other materials in contact with interconnects such as seals and electrical contact materials. Our screening work[2-4] has indicated that only few, if any, traditional compositions could completely satisfy the aforementioned materials requirements in the long term. This paper summarizes the results of our evaluation of newly developed alloys and selected oxide-coated stainless steels. In addition, the anomalous oxidation of stainless steels under the dual environment is also briefly discussed.

Yang, Z Gary; Walker, Matthew S.; Singh, Prabhakar; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

2003-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

365

Effect of interconnect creep on long-term performance of SOFC of one cell stacks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Creep deformation becomes relevant for a material when the operating temperature is near or exceeds half of its melting temperature (in degrees of Kelvin). The operating temperatures for most of the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) under development in the SECA program are around 1073oK. High temperature ferritic alloys are potential candidates as interconnect (IC) materials and spacers due to their low cost and CTE compatibility with other SOFC components. Since the melting temperature of most stainless steel is around 1800oK, possible creep deformation of IC under the typical cell operating temperature should not be neglected. In this paper, the effects of interconnect creep behavior on stack geometry change and stress redistribution of different cell components are predicted and summarized. The goal of the study is to investigate the performance of the fuel cell stack by obtaining the fuel and air channel geometry changes due to creep of the ferritic stainless steel interconnect, therefore indicating possible SOFC performance change under long term operations. IC creep models were incorporated into SOFC-MP and Mentat FC, and finite element analyses were performed to quantify the deformed configuration of the SOFC stack under the long term steady state operating temperature. It is found that creep behavior of the ferritic stainless steel IC contributes to narrowing of both the fuel and the air flow channels. In addition, stress re-distribution of the cell components suggests the need for a compliant sealing material that also relaxes at operating temperature.

Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Oxidation Resistant, Cr Retaining, Electrically Conductive Coatings on Metallic Alloys for SOFC Interconnects  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes significant results from an on-going, collaborative effort to enable the use of inexpensive metallic alloys as interconnects in planar solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) through the use of advanced coating technologies. Arcomac Surface Engineering, LLC, under the leadership of Dr. Vladimir Gorokhovsky, is investigating filtered-arc and filtered-arc plasma-assisted hybrid coating deposition technologies to promote oxidation resistance, eliminate Cr volatility, and stabilize the electrical conductivity of both standard and specialty steel alloys of interest for SOFC metallic interconnect (IC) applications. Arcomac has successfully developed technologies and processes to deposit coatings with excellent adhesion, which have demonstrated a substantial increase in high temperature oxidation resistance, stabilization of low Area Specific Resistance values and significantly decrease Cr volatility. An extensive matrix of deposition processes, coating compositions and architectures was evaluated. Technical performance of coated and uncoated sample coupons during exposures to SOFC interconnect-relevant conditions is discussed, and promising future directions are considered. Cost analyses have been prepared based on assessment of plasma processing parameters, which demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed surface engineering process for SOFC metallic IC applications.

Vladimir Gorokhovsky

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

367

File:PUCT DG Interconnection Manual.pdf | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

PUCT DG Interconnection Manual.pdf PUCT DG Interconnection Manual.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Metadata File:PUCT DG Interconnection Manual.pdf Size of this preview: 463 × 599 pixels. Other resolution: 464 × 600 pixels. Go to page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 Go! next page → next page → Full resolution ‎(1,275 × 1,650 pixels, file size: 2.02 MB, MIME type: application/pdf, 114 pages) File history Click on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time.

368

PhoenixSim: a simulator for physical-layer analysis of chip-scale photonic interconnection networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent developments have shown the possibility of leveraging silicon nanophotonic technologies for chip-scale interconnection fabrics that deliver high bandwidth and power efficient communications both on- and off-chip. Since optical devices are fundamentally ...

Johnnie Chan; Gilbert Hendry; Aleksandr Biberman; Keren Bergman; Luca P. Carloni

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Status of the IEEE P1547 Draft Interconnection Standard and Distributed Energy Resources R&D: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Department of Energy (DOE) Distributed Power Program (DPP) is conducting work to complete, validate in the field, and support the development of a national interconnection standard for distributed energy resources (DER), and to address the institutional and regulatory barriers slowing the commercial adoption of DER systems. This work includes support for the IEEE standards, including P1547 Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Resources with Electric Power Systems, P1589 Standard for Conformance Test Procedures for Equipment Interconnecting Distributed Resources with Electric Power Systems, and the P1608 Application Guide. Work is also in progress on system integration research and development (R&D) on the interface and control of DER with local energy systems. Additional efforts are supporting high-reliability power for industry, evaluating innovative concepts for DER applications, and exploring plug-and-play interface and control technologies for intelligent autonomous interconnection systems. This paper summarizes (1) the current status of the IEEE interconnection standards and application guides in support of DER, and (2) the R&D in progress at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for interconnection and system integration and application of distributed energy resources.

Thomas, H. P.; Basso, T. S.; Kroposki, B.

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Development of Ni1-xCoxO as the cathode/interconnect contact for solid oxide fuel cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new type of material, Ni1-xCoxO, was developed for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathode/interconnect contact applications. The phase structure, coefficient of thermal expansion, sintering behavior, electrical property, and mechanical bonding strength of these materials were evaluated against the requirements of the SOFC cathode/interconnect contact. A dense cathode/interconnect contact layer was developed through reaction sintering from Ni and Co metal powders. An area specific resistance (ASR) as low as 5.5 mohm.cm2 was observed after 1000 h exposure in air at 800 C for the LSM/Ni0.33Co0.67O/AISI441 assembly. Average mechanical strengths of 6.8 and 5.0 MPa were obtained for the cathode/contact/cathode and interconnect/contact/interconnect structures, respectively. The significantly low ASR was probably due to the dense structure and therefore improved electrical conductivity of the Ni0.33Co0.67O contact and the good bonding of the interfaces between the contact and the cathode, and between the contact and the interconnect.

Lu, Zigui; Xia, Guanguang; Templeton, Joshua D.; Li, Xiaohong S.; Nie, Zimin; Yang, Zhenguo; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Applied Optoelectronics | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

optical semiconductor devices, packaged optical components, optical subsystems, laser transmitters, and fiber optic transceivers. References Applied Optoelectronics1...

372

Microfluidic interconnects  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A miniature connector for introducing microliter quantities of solutions into microfabricated fluidic devices, and which incorporates a molded ring or seal set into a ferrule cartridge, with or without a compression screw. The fluidic connector, for example, joins standard high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) tubing to 1 mm diameter holes in silicon or glass, enabling ml-sized volumes of sample solutions to be merged with .mu.l-sized devices. The connector has many features, including ease of connect and disconnect; a small footprint which enables numerous connectors to be located in a small area; low dead volume; helium leak-tight; and tubing does not twist during connection. Thus the connector enables easy and effective change of microfluidic devices and introduction of different solutions in the devices.

Benett, William J. (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter A. (Pleasanton, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Microfluidic interconnects  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A miniature connector for introducing microliter quantities of solutions into microfabricated fluidic devices. The fluidic connector, for example, joins standard high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) tubing to 1 mm diameter holes in silicon or glass, enabling ml-sized volumes of sample solutions to be merged with .mu.l-sized devices. The connector has many features, including ease of connect and disconnect; a small footprint which enables numerous connectors to be located in a small area; low dead volume; helium leak-tight; and tubing does not twist during connection. Thus the connector enables easy and effective change of microfluidic devices and introduction of different solutions in the devices.

Benett, William J. (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter A. (Pleasanton, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

NFRC Procedures for Applied Films  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Applied Films Applied Films Last update: 12/10/2013 07:29 PM NFRC now has a procedure for adding applied films to substrates in Optics5 and importing those applied film constructions into WINDOW5 to be used in a whole product calculation. The information presented below is provided to help simulators with this process. Feel free to contact us at WINDOWHelp@lbl.gov with questions or comments. NFRC Applied Film Procedure Applied Film Procedures (approved by NFRC) (PDF file) Approved Applied Film List (IGDB 33.0) (PDF file) NFRC Laminate Procedure Training Powerpoint with Examples (This Powerpoint presentation was used in the NFRC web based training sessions in December 2006 and January 2007) PowerPoint Presentation (PPT file) PowerPoint Presentation (PDF file) Help and Troubleshooting

375

Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Interconnection Queue Practices Technical Conference December 11, 2007  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

National Electric Transmission Congestion Study National Electric Transmission Congestion Study Workshop December 8, 2011 Hilton St. Louis Airport, 10330 Natural Bridge Road, St. Louis, Missouri 63134 Presented by: Jerry Lein Public Utility Analyst North Dakota Public Service Commission Phone: 701 328-1035 Fax: 701 328-2410 jlein@nd.gov Overview * ND Electric Energy Resources * Need for New Transmission - Interconnection Difficulties - Transmission Constraints * Regional Transmission Projects Update * Capacity Deliverability between RTOs ND Electric Energy Resources * ND Ranked #1 in U.S. for Wind Energy Potential - 1991 Pacific Northwest Labs study found ND Wind could potentially supply 36% of U.S. electric energy consumption. -

376

Microsoft Word - Load Availability Profiles and Constraints for the Western Interconnect_102513_clean.docx  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

7E 7E Grid Integration of Aggregated Demand Response, Part I: Load Availability Profiles and Constraints for the Western Interconnection Daniel J. Olsen, Nance Matson, Michael D. Sohn, Cody Rose, Junqiao Dudley, Sasank Goli, and Sila Kiliccote Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Marissa Hummon, David Palchak, Paul Denholm, and Jennie Jorgenson National Renewable Energy Laboratory Ookie Ma U.S. Department of Energy September 2013 Disclaimer Acknowledgements Abstract Foreword Table of Contents List of Figures List of Tables Executive Summary Introduction ≤ ≤ ≤

377

Investigation of anti-islanding schemes for utility interconnection of distributed fuel cell powered generations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The rapid emergence of distributed fuel cell powered generations (DFPGs) operating in parallel with utility has brought a number of technical concerns as more DFPGs are connected to utility grid. One of the most challenging problems is known as islanding phenomenon. This situation occurs when a network is disconnected from utility grid and is energized by local DFPGs. It can possibly result in injury to utility personnel arriving to service isolated feeders, equipment damage, and system malfunction. In response to the concern, this dissertation aims to develop a robust anti-islanding algorithm for utility interconnection of DFPGs. In the first part, digital signal processor (DSP) controlled power electronic converters for utility interconnection of DFPGs are developed. Current control in a direct-quadrature (dq) synchronous frame is proposed. The real and reactive power is controlled by regulating inverter currents. The proposed digital current control in a synchronous frame significantly enhances the performance of DFPGs. In the second part, the robust anti-islanding algorithm for utility interconnection of a DFPG is developed. The power control algorithm is proposed based on analysis of a real and reactive power mismatch. It continuously perturbs (±5%) the reactive power supplied by the DFPG while monitoring the voltage and frequency. If islanding were to occur, a measurable frequency deviation would take place, upon which the real power of the DFPG is further reduced to 80%; a drop in voltage positively confirms islanding. This method is shown to be robust and reliable. In the third part, an improved anti-islanding algorithm for utility interconnection of multiple DFPGs is presented. The cross correlation method is proposed and implemented in conjunction with the power control algorithm. It calculates the cross correlation index of a rate of change of the frequency deviation and (±5%) the reactive power. If this index increases above 50%, the chance of islanding is high. The algorithm initiates (±10%) the reactive power and continues to calculate the correlation index. If the index exceeds 80%, islanding is now confirmed. The proposed method is robust and capable of detecting islanding in the presence of several DFPGs independently operating. Analysis, simulation and experimental results are presented and discussed.

Jeraputra, Chuttchaval

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Fundamental Studies of the Durability of Materials for Interconnects in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ferritic stainless steels are a leading candidate material for use as an SOFC interconnect, but have the problem of forming volatile chromia species that lead to cathode poisoning. This project has focused both on optimization of ferritic alloys for SOFC applications and evaluating the possibility of using alternative materials. The initial efforts involved studying the oxidation behavior of a variety of chromia-forming ferritic stainless steels in the temperature range 700-900 C in atmospheres relevant to solid oxide fuel cell operation. The alloys exhibited a wide variety of oxidation behavior based on composition. A method for reducing the vaporization is to add alloying elements that lead to the formation of a thermally grown oxide layer over the protective chromia. Several commercial steels form manganese chromate on the surface. This same approach, combined with observations of TiO{sub 2} overlayer formation on the chromia forming, Ni-based superalloy IN 738, has resulted in the development of a series of Fe-22 Cr-X Ti alloys (X=0-4 wt%). Oxidation testing has indicated that this approach results in significant reduction in chromia evaporation. Unfortunately, the Ti also results in accelerated chromia scale growth. Fundamental thermo-mechanical aspects of the durability of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) interconnect alloys have also been investigated. A key failure mechanism for interconnects is the spallation of the chromia scale that forms on the alloy, as it is exposed to fuel cell environments. Indentation testing methods to measure the critical energy release rate (Gc) associated with the spallation of chromia scale/alloy systems have been evaluated. This approach has been used to evaluate the thermomechanical stability of chromia films as a function of oxidation exposure. The oxidation of pure nickel in SOFC environments was evaluated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to determine the NiO scaling kinetics and a four-point probe was used to measure the area-specific resistance (ASR) to estimate the electrical degradation of the interconnect. In addition to the baseline study of pure nickel, steps were taken to decrease the ASR through alloying and surface modifications. Finally, high conductivity composite systems, consisting of nickel and silver, were studied. These systems utilize high conductivity silver pathways through nickel while maintaining the mechanical stability that a nickel matrix provides.

Frederick S. Pettit; Gerald H. Meier

2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

379

Monolithic interconnected module with a tunnel junction for enhanced electrical and optical performance  

SciTech Connect

An improved thermophotovoltaic (TPV) n/p/n device is provided. Monolithic Interconnected Modules (MIMS), semiconductor devices converting infrared radiation to electricity, have been developed with improved electrical and optical performance. The structure is an n-type emitter on a p-type base with an n-type lateral conduction layer. The incorporation of a tunnel junction and the reduction in the amount of p-type material used results in negligible parasitic absorption, decreased series resistance, increased voltage and increased active area. The novel use of a tunnel junction results in the potential for a TPV device with efficiency greater than 24%.

Murray, Christopher S. (Bethel Park, PA); Wilt, David M. (Bay Village, OH)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

A Monolithic Interconnected module with a tunnel Junction for Enhanced Electrical and Optical Performance  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved thermophotovoltaic (TPV) n/p/n device is provided. Monolithic Interconnected Modules (MIMs), semiconductor devices converting infrared radiation to electricity, have been developed with improved electrical and optical performance. The structure is an n-type emitter on a p-type base with an n-type lateral conduction layer. The incorporation of a tunnel junction and the reduction in the amount of p-type material used results in negligible parasitic absorption, decreased series resistance, increased voltage and increased active area. The novel use of a tunnel junction results in the potential for a TPV device with efficiency greater than 24%.

Murray, Christopher Sean; Wilt, David Morgan

1999-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection cxs applied" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Modeling regional end user price/cost relationships in a widespread interconnected power system  

SciTech Connect

A combined programming and regression modeling approach is developed to analyze regional retail price/cost relationships for a widespread interconnected power system characterized by low population density and uniform (regulated) retail tariffs. The programming model is designed to calculate on the hour the delivered cost of electricity from 5 thermal power stations and one pumped storage hydrostation to end users in 8 distribution regions. A simultaneous equation regression model then analyses the link between retail prices charged end users, regional demand and supply characteristics, industry financial objectives and departures from economically efficient pricing. The electricity supply industry in Queensland Australia is used as a framework.

Tamaschke, R.; Docwra, G.; Stillman, R. [Univ. of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia)

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Antireflection Coating Design for Series Interconnected Multi-Junction Solar Cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

AR coating design for multi-junction solar cells can be more challenging than in the single junction case. Reasons for this are discussed. Analytical expressions used to optimize AR coatings for single junction solar cells are extended for use in monolithic, series interconnected multi-junction solar cell AR coating design. The result is an analytical expression which relates the solar cell performance (through J{sub SC}) directly to the AR coating design through the device reflectance. It is also illustrated how AR coating design can be used to provide an additional degree of freedom for current matching multi-junction devices.

AIKEN,DANIEL J.

1999-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

383

IEEE Smart Grid Series of Standards IEEE 2030 (Interoperability) and IEEE 1547 (Interconnection) Status: Preprint  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The IEEE American National Standards smart grid publications and standards development projects IEEE 2030, which addresses smart grid interoperability, and IEEE 1547TM, which addresses distributed resources interconnection with the grid, have made substantial progress since 2009. The IEEE 2030TM and 1547 standards series focus on systems-level aspects and cover many of the technical integration issues involved in a mature smart grid. The status and highlights of these two IEEE series of standards, which are sponsored by IEEE Standards Coordinating Committee 21 (SCC21), are provided in this paper.

Basso, T.; DeBlasio, R.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Dynamic Simulation Studies of the Frequency Response of the Three U.S. Interconnections with Increased Wind Generation  

SciTech Connect

Utility Systems Efficiencies, Inc. was tasked by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to conduct dynamic simulation studies of the three U.S. interconnections (Eastern, Western, and Texas). The simulations were prepared in support of LBNL's project for the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to study frequency-response-related issues that must be addressed to operate the power system reliably with large amounts of variable renewable generation. The objective of the simulation studies of each interconnection was to assess the effects of different amounts of wind generation on frequency behavior of each interconnection following a sudden loss of generation. The scenarios created to study these effects considered an operating circumstance in which system load is at or close to its minimum. The event studied was the sudden loss of the largest amount of generation recorded within each interconnection. The simulations calculated the impact of this event on interconnection frequency for three levels of wind generation. In addition to varying the amount of wind generation, the simulations varied the amount of operating reserves between a high level representative of current operating practices and a low level representative of the minimum required by present operating rules.

Mackin, Peter; Daschmans, R.; Williams, B.; Haney, B.; Hung, R.; Ellis, J.

2010-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

385

Dynamic Simulation Studies of the Frequency Response of the Three U.S. Interconnections with Increased Wind Generation  

SciTech Connect

Utility Systems Efficiencies, Inc. was tasked by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to conduct dynamic simulation studies of the three U.S. interconnections (Eastern, Western, and Texas). The simulations were prepared in support of LBNL's project for the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to study frequency-response-related issues that must be addressed to operate the power system reliably with large amounts of variable renewable generation. The objective of the simulation studies of each interconnection was to assess the effects of different amounts of wind generation on frequency behavior of each interconnection following a sudden loss of generation. The scenarios created to study these effects considered an operating circumstance in which system load is at or close to its minimum. The event studied was the sudden loss of the largest amount of generation recorded within each interconnection. The simulations calculated the impact of this event on interconnection frequency for three levels of wind generation. In addition to varying the amount of wind generation, the simulations varied the amount of operating reserves between a high level representative of current operating practices and a low level representative of the minimum required by present operating rules.

Mackin, Peter; Daschmans, R.; Williams, B.; Haney, B.; Hung, R.; Ellis, J.

2010-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

386

Review of the Recent Frequency Performance of the Eastern, Western and ERCOT Interconnections  

SciTech Connect

The reliable operation of an electric power system depends on careful management of the balance between generation and load to ensure that system frequency is maintained within narrow bounds around a scheduled value. Yet, maintaining frequency at the scheduled value is challenging because the load served is continuously changing, and occasionally, events such as the sudden loss of a large generation plant or large amount of load, cause frequency to deviate abruptly. This report reviews the recent history of frequency performance for all three U.S. interconnections: Eastern, Western, and the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT). The review is based on data collected by the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC). The review focuses on frequency response, which measures the performance of the interconnections immediately following sudden, large imbalances between load and generation. Trends in frequency response are presented and preliminary efforts are made to relate frequency response to other aspects of frequency performance and to examine aspects of the methods used to calculate frequency response.

Lacommare, Kristina S H

2010-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

387

A wet chemistry approach to sub-micron, removable flip chip interconnects.  

SciTech Connect

Higher performance is the main driver in the integrated circuit (IC) market, but along with added function comes the cost of increased input/output connections and larger die sizes. Space saving approaches aimed at solving these challenges includes two technologies; 3D stacking (3D-ICs) and flip chip assemblies. Emerging ICs require sub-micron scale interconnects which include vias for 3D-ICs and bump bonds for flip chips. Photolithographic techniques are commonly used to prepare templates followed by metal vapor deposition to create flip chip bump bonds. Both the lithography step and the metal properties required for bump bonding contribute to limiting this approach to a minimum bump size of -10 ?m. Here, we present a wet chemistry approach to fabricating uniform bump bonds of tunable size and height down to the nanoscale. Nanosphere lithography (NSL), a soft lithographic technique, is used to create a bump bond template or mask for nanoscale bumps. Electrochemical deposition is also used through photoresist templates to create uniform bump bonds across large area wafers or dies. This template approach affords bumps with tunable diameters from 100s of nanometers to microns (allowing for tunable interconnect pitch and via diameters) while the use of constant current electroplating gives uniform bump height over large areas (>1 cm{sup 2}).

Rowen, Adam M.; Barker, Joy M.; Gillen, J. Rusty; Orendorff, Christopher J.; Arrington, Christian L.; Yelton, William Graham

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Producing thin film photovoltaic modules with high integrity interconnects and dual layer contacts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

High performance photovoltaic modules are produced with improved interconnects by a special process. Advantageously, the photovoltaic modules have a dual layer back (rear) contact and a front contact with at least one layer. The front contact and the inner layer of the back contact can comprise a transparent conductive oxide. The outer layer of the back contact can comprise a metal or metal oxide. The front contact can also have a dielectric layer. In one form, the dual layer back contact comprises a zinc oxide inner layer and an aluminum outer layer and the front contact comprises a tin oxide inner layer and a silicon dioxide dielectric outer layer. One or more amorphous silicon-containing thin film semiconductors can be deposited between the front and back contacts. The contacts can be positioned between a substrate and an optional superstrate. During production, the transparent conductive oxide layer of the front contact is scribed by a laser, then the amorphous silicon-containing semiconductors and inner layer of the dual layer back contact are simultaneously scribed and trenched (drilled) by the laser and the trench is subsequently filled with the same metal as the outer layer of the dual layer back contact to provide a superb mechanical and electrical interconnect between the front contact and the outer layer of the dual layer back contact. The outer layer of the dual layer back contact can then be scribed by the laser. For enhanced environmental protection, the photovoltaic modules can be encapsulated.

Jansen, Kai W. (Lawrenceville, NJ); Maley, Nagi (Exton, PA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Producing thin film photovoltaic modules with high integrity interconnects and dual layer contacts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

High performance photovoltaic modules are produced with improved interconnects by a special process. Advantageously, the photovoltaic modules have a dual layer back (rear) contact and a front contact with at least one layer. The front contact and the inner layer of the back contact can comprise a transparent conductive oxide. The outer layer of the back contact can comprise a metal or metal oxide. The front contact can also have a dielectric layer. In one form, the dual layer back contact comprises a zinc oxide inner layer and an aluminum outer layer and the front contact comprises a tin oxide inner layer and a silicon dioxide dielectric outer layer. One or more amorphous silicon-containing thin film semiconductors can be deposited between the front and back contacts. The contacts can be positioned between a substrate and an optional superstrate. During production, the transparent conductive oxide layer of the front contact is scribed by a laser, then the amorphous silicon-containing semiconductors and inner layer of the dual layer back contact are simultaneously scribed and trenched (drilled) by the laser and the trench is subsequently filled with the same metal as the outer layer of the dual layer back contact to provide a superb mechanical and electrical interconnect between the front contact and the outer layer of the dual layer back contact. The outer layer of the dual layer back contact can then be scribed by the laser. For enhanced environmental protection, the photovoltaic modules can be encapsulated.

Jansen, Kai W. (Lawrenceville, NJ); Maley, Nagi (Exton, PA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Light-trapped, interconnected, Silicon-Film{trademark} modules. Final technical status report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

AstroPower has continued its development of an advanced thin-silicon-based photovoltaic module product. This module combines the performance advantages of thin light-trapped silicon layers with the capability of integration into a low-cost, monolithically interconnected module. This report summarized work carried out over a 3-year, cost-shared contract. Key results accomplished during this phase include an NREL-verified conversion efficiency of 12.5% on a 0.47-cm{sup 2} device. The device structure used an insulating substrate and an active layer less than 100 {micro}m thick. A new metalization scheme was designed using insulating crossovers. This technology was demonstrated on a 36-segment, 321-cm{sup 2}, interconnected module. That module was tested at NREL with an efficiency of 9.79%. Further advances in metalization have led to an advanced single back-contact design that will offer low cost through ease of processing and higher performance through reduced shading.

Hall, R.B.; Rand, J.A.; Ford, D.H.; Ingram, A.E. [AstroPower, Inc., Newark, DE (United States)

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Electrodeposition of Mn-Co Alloys on Stainless Steels for SOFC Interconnect Application  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chromium-containing ferritic stainless steels are the most popular materials for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) interconnect applications because of its oxidation resistance and easy fabrication process. However, excessive scale growth and chromium evaporation will degrade the cell performance. Highly conductive coatings that resist oxide scale growth and chromium evaporation may prevent both of these problems. Mn1.5Co1.5O4 spinel is one of the most promising coatings for interconnect application because of its high conducitivy, good chromium retention capability, as well as good CTE match. Electroplating of alloys or thin film multilayers followed by controlled oxidation to the desired spinel phase offers an additional deposition option. In the present study binary Mn/Co alloys was fabricated by electrodeposition, and polarization curves were used to characterize the cathodic reactions on substrate surface. By controlling the current density precisely, coatings with Mn/Co around 1:1 has been successfully deposited in Mn/Co =10 solutions, SEM and EDX was used to characterize the surface morphology and composition.

Wu, J. (West Virginia University); Jiang, Y. (West Virginia University); Johnson, C.; Gong, M. (West Virginia University); Liu, X. (West Virginia University)

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Definitional-mission report: I-shaped power-interconnection study in Thailand. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

The Government of Thailand is implementing a Southern Seaboard Development Project. The developing of the project will increase demand for all utility and infrastructure systems and services. The distribution of electric power in the new area falls within the responsibility of the Provincial Electricity Authority (PEA). The U.S. Trade and Development Program (TDP) funded a Definitional Mission to evaluate the prospects of TDP funding a feasibility study for an I-Shaped power interconnection study for supplying electricity to the 15 provinces in Southern Thailand. The mission concluded that TDP should provide a grant to PEA to select a U.S. firm to carry out the proposed I-Shaped Interconnection study for power distribution in southern Thailand. The overall potential for exports resulting from the project is conservatively estimated at $120 million, not including any follow-on work and spare parts inventory, typical of such projects. TDP's program in Thailand has enjoyed enviable success in exports and TDP's support of the proposed feasibility study will clearly maintain and very likely add to that momentum.

Shrivastava, V.K.; Sandell, D.H.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Advanced Platform for Development and Evaluation of Grid Interconnection Systems Using Hardware-in-the-Loop (Poster)  

SciTech Connect

This poster describes a Grid Interconnection System Evaluator (GISE) that leverages hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation techniques to rapidly evaluate the grid interconnection standard conformance of an ICS according to the procedures in IEEE Std 1547.1TM. The architecture and test sequencing of this evaluation tool, along with a set of representative ICS test results from three different photovoltaic (PV) inverters, are presented. The GISE adds to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) evaluation platform that now allows for rapid development of ICS control algorithms using controller HIL (CHIL) techniques, the ability to test the dc input characteristics of PV-based ICSs through the use of a PV simulator capable of simulating real-world dynamics using power HIL (PHIL), and evaluation of ICS grid interconnection conformance.

Lundstrom, B.; Shirazi, M.; Coddington, M.

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Record of Decision for the Electrical Interconnection of the COB Energy Facility (DOE/EIS-0343) (08/20/04)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

COB Energy Facility COB Energy Facility DECISION The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has decided to offer contract terms for interconnection of the COB Energy Facility with the Federal Columbia River Transmission System (FCRTS), as proposed in the COB Energy Facility Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) (DOE/EIS-0343, June 2004). Proposed by Peoples Energy Resources Company (PERC), the COB Energy Facility involves constructing and operating a new 1,160- megawatt (MW) natural gas-fired, combined-cycle power generation facility at a 50.6-acre site near Bonanza in Klamath County, Oregon, and a 7.2-mile-long 500-kilovolt (kV) transmission line south to BPA's Captain Jack Substation. A Generation Interconnection Agreement with PERC would provide for interconnection of the COB Energy Facility with the FCRTS and

395

Audit Report - Department of Energy's Interconnection Transmission Planning Program Funded through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Audit Report Department of Energy's Interconnection Transmission Planning Program Funded through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 OAS-RA-13-26 June 2013 Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 June 19, 2013 MEMORANDUM FOR THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR ELECTRICITY DELIVERY AND ENERGY RELIABILITY FROM: Rickey R. Hass Deputy Inspector General for Audit and Inspections Office of Inspector General SUBJECT: INFORMATION: Audit Report on "The Department of Energy's Interconnection Transmission Planning Program Funded through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009" BACKGROUND Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act), the Department of

396

Tailoring Fe-Base Alloys for Intermediate Temperature SOFC Interconnect Application  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarized the research efforts and major conclusions for our SECA Phase I and II project focused on Cr-free or low Cr Fe-Ni based alloy development for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) interconnect application. Electrical conductivity measurement on bulk (Fe,Ni){sub 3}O{sub 4} coupons indicated that this spinel phase possessed a higher electrical conductivity than Cr{sub 1.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} spinel and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, which was consistent with the low area specific resistance (ASR) of the oxide scale formed on these Fe-Ni based alloys. For Cr-free Fe-Ni binary alloys, although the increase in Ni content in the alloys improved the oxidation resistance, and the Fe-Ni binary alloys exhibited adequate CTE and oxide scale ASR, their oxidation resistance needs to be further improved. Systematic alloy design efforts have led to the identification of one low-Cr (6wt.%) Fe-Ni-Co based alloy which formed a protective, electrically-conductive Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} inner layer underneath a Cr-free, highly conductive spinel outer layer. This low-Cr, Fe-Ni-Co alloy has demonstrated a good CTE match with other cell components; high oxidation resistance comparable to that of Crofer; low oxide scale ASR with the formation of electrically-insulating phases in the oxide scale; no scale spallation during thermal cycling; adequate compatibility with cathode materials; and comparable mechanical properties with Crofer. The existence of the Cr-free (Fe,Co,Ni){sub 3}O{sub 4} outer layer effectively reduced the Cr evaporation and in transpiration testing resulted in a 6-fold decrease in Cr evaporation as compared to a state-of-the-art ferritic interconnect alloy. In-cell testing using an anode supported cell with a configuration of Alloy/Pt/LSM/YSZ/Ni+YSZ indicates that the formation of the Cr-free spinel layer via thermal oxidation was effective in blocking the Cr migration and thus improving the cell performance stability. Electroplating of the Fe-Ni-Co alloys as precursor to synthesize a protective spinel layer on commercial ferritic steels has been initiated to facilitate the utilization of the Cr-free spinel as a surface seal to block Cr evaporation. It is suggested that low-cost Fe-Ni-Co alloy coating on commercial ferritic steels might be the best approach to completely eliminate the Cr poisoning problem in SOFC stacks, while maintaining the relatively low overall cost of the interconnect component.

J.H. Zhu; M.P. Brady; H.U. Anderson

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

397

SURFACE-MODIFIED FERRITIC INTERCONNECT MATERIALS FOR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Interconnects are a critical element of an SOFC assembly and although much work has focused on chromium and chromium-iron alloys containing an oxide that is both oxidation resistant and electrically conductive, the thermal instability of typical native metal oxides allow interdiffusion of cations across the interconnect-electrode boundary that ultimately leads to degradation of SOFC performance. Phase I of the SECA Core Technology Program has been a one-year effort to investigate and evaluate the feasibility of: (1) Ion implanting an alumina-scale forming ferritic steel, such as FeCrAlY, to form an interconnect material with low resistance (< 0.1 {Omega}/cm{sup 2}) in oxidizing/reducing environments up to 800 C, and (2) Maintaining the above low resistance metric for an extended time (> 1000 hours at 800 C) in contact with an LSF cathode material. We confirmed, as part of our oxidation kinetics evaluation of FeCrAlY and 430 ferritic steel, the parabolic growth of a mixed chromia/alumina scale on FeCrAlY and a single chromia layer in the case of the 430 stainless steel; the outer contiguous layer of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, in the case of FeCrAlY, forming a stable, self-limiting, protective scale with no detectable cation interdiffusion between FeCrAlY and an LSF electrode even after 1000 hours at 800 C in air. To render the alumina scale conductive, we implanted either titanium or niobium ions into FeCrAlY scales to a fixed depth (0.12 {micro}m), varying only the thickness of the oxide. ASR for an un-doped FeCrAlY oxide scale (i.e., alumina) was more than an order of magnitude greater than the 430 control sample whereas, the ASR for the doped FeCrAlY oxide scale sample was comparable to the 430 control sample; hence, the resistance of a doped alumina scale on FeCrAlY was equal to the resistance of a chromia-scale forming alloy, such as 430 (chromia scales of which are typically < 0.1 {Omega}-cm). Along with the ASR measurements, AC impedance measurements were conducted to evaluate conduction mechanisms. From the AC impedance measurements, we observed that the addition of niobium resulted in at least a two order of magnitude reduction in resistance over the un-doped specimen and that the conduction in the doped alumina scale was pure electronic conduction, as opposed to mixed ionic-electronic conduction (dominated by intrinsic (ionic) defects) for the un-doped alumina scales. The DC resistance component was {approx}4 {Omega} although when this value is adjusted to account for the system resistance (i.e., leads, junctions, etc.), the ASR was determined to be < 0.1 {Omega}-cm; even after 1000 hours at 800 C in air. Our results have clearly shown that dopant additions increase the electronic conductivity of alumina forming scale alloys, such as FeCrAlY, transforming from a mixed ionic/electronic conduction mechanism. Just as importantly, the demonstrated stable formation of an alumina scale was shown to be an advantage over conventional pure chromia forming alloys as interconnect materials.

Bruce R. Lanning; James Arps; Ronghua Wei; Goeff Dearnaley

2004-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

398

Support pedestals for interconnecting a cover and nozzle band wall in a gas turbine nozzle segment  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas turbine nozzle segment has outer and inner band portions. Each band portion includes a nozzle wall, a cover and an impingement plate between the cover and nozzle wall defining two cavities on opposite sides of the impingement plate. Cooling steam is supplied to one cavity for flow through the apertures of the impingement plate to cool the nozzle wall. Structural pedestals interconnect the cover and nozzle wall and pass through holes in the impingement plate to reduce localized stress otherwise resulting from a difference in pressure within the chamber of the nozzle segment and the hot gas path and the fixed turbine casing surrounding the nozzle stage. The pedestals may be cast or welded to the cover and nozzle wall.

Yu, Yufeng Phillip (Simpsonville, SC); Itzel, Gary Michael (Simpsonville, SC); Webbon, Waylon Willard (Greenville, SC); Bagepalli, Radhakrishna (Schenectady, NY); Burdgick, Steven Sebastian (Schenectady, NY); Kellock, Iain Robertson (Simpsonville, SC)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Anomalous Corrosion Behavior of Stainless Steels under SOFC Interconnect Exposure Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In low temperature SOFC stacks, oxidation resistant alloys such as ferritic stainless steels have been proposed as candidate materials for the interconnect, which is simultaneously exposed to a fuel on the anode side and an oxidant on the cathode side. The corrosion behavior of ferritic stainless steels under these dual atmosphere exposure conditions was investigated in a specifically designed apparatus. It was discovered that, under the simultaneous exposure, the oxide scale formed on the airside of the sample was significantly different from scales formed when the alloy was exposed to air only. It appeared that the anomalous corrosion behavior during the simultaneous dual exposure was due to hydrogen transport through the bulk alloy from the fuel side to the air side.

Yang, Z Gary; Walker, Matthew S.; Singh, Prabhakar; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

2003-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

400

Vibration control in plates by uniformly distributed PZT actuators interconnected via electric networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper a novel device aimed at controlling the mechanical vibrations of plates by means of a set of electrically-interconnected piezoelectric actuators is described. The actuators are embedded uniformly in the plate wherein they connect every node of an electric network to ground, thus playing the two-fold role of capacitive element in the electric network and of couple suppliers. A mathematical model is introduced to describe the propagation of electro-mechanical waves in the device; its validity is restricted to the case of wave-forms with wave-length greater than the dimension of the piezoelectric actuators used. A self-resonance criterion is established which assures the possibility of electro-mechanical energy exchange. Finally the problem of vibration control in simply supported and clamped plates is addressed; the optimal net-impedance is determined. The results indicate that the proposed device can improve the performances of piezoelectric actuation

Stefano Vidoli; Francesco dell'Isola

2010-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

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401

Tubular solid oxide fuel cells with porous metal supports and ceramic interconnections  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell structure capable of operating at from 600.degree. C. to 800.degree. C. having a very thin porous hollow elongated metallic support tube having a thickness from 0.10 mm to 1.0 mm, preferably 0.10 mm to 0.35 mm, a porosity of from 25 vol. % to 50 vol. % and a tensile strength from 700 GPa to 900 GPa, which metallic tube supports a reduced thickness air electrode having a thickness from 0.010 mm to 0.2 mm, a solid oxide electrolyte, a cermet fuel electrode, a ceramic interconnection and an electrically conductive cell to cell contact layer.

Huang, Kevin (Export, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA)

2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

402

Vibration control in plates by uniformly distributed PZT actuators interconnected via electric networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper a novel device aimed at controlling the mechanical vibrations of plates by means of a set of electrically-interconnected piezoelectric actuators is described. The actuators are embedded uniformly in the plate wherein they connect every node of an electric network to ground, thus playing the two-fold role of capacitive element in the electric network and of couple suppliers. A mathematical model is introduced to describe the propagation of electro-mechanical waves in the device; its validity is restricted to the case of wave-forms with wave-length greater than the dimension of the piezoelectric actuators used. A self-resonance criterion is established which assures the possibility of electro-mechanical energy exchange. Finally the problem of vibration control in simply supported and clamped plates is addressed; the optimal net-impedance is determined. The results indicate that the proposed device can improve the performances of piezoelectric actuation

Vidoli, Stefano

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Cut set-based risk and reliability analysis for arbitrarily interconnected networks  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method for computing all-terminal reliability for arbitrarily interconnected networks such as the United States public switched telephone network. The method includes an efficient search algorithm to generate minimal cut sets for nonhierarchical networks directly from the network connectivity diagram. Efficiency of the search algorithm stems in part from its basis on only link failures. The method also includes a novel quantification scheme that likewise reduces computational effort associated with assessing network reliability based on traditional risk importance measures. Vast reductions in computational effort are realized since combinatorial expansion and subsequent Boolean reduction steps are eliminated through analysis of network segmentations using a technique of assuming node failures to occur on only one side of a break in the network, and repeating the technique for all minimal cut sets generated with the search algorithm. The method functions equally well for planar and non-planar networks.

Wyss, Gregory D. (Albuquerque, NM)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Investigation of AISI 441 Ferritic Stainless Steel and Development of Spinel Coatings for SOFC Interconnect Applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As part of an effort to develop cost-effective ferritic stainless steel-based interconnects for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks, both bare and spinel coated AISI 441 were studied in terms of metallurgical characteristics, oxidation behavior, and electrical performance. The conventional melt metallurgy used for the bulk alloy fabrication leads to significant processing cost reduction and the alloy chemistry with the presence of minor alloying additions of Nb and Ti facilitate the strengthening by precipitation and formation of Laves phase both inside grains and along grain boundaries during exposure in the intermediate SOFC operating temperature range. The Laves phase formed along the grain boundaries also ties up Si and prevents the formation of an insulating silica layer at the scale/metal interface during prolonged exposure. The substantial increase in ASR during long term oxidation due to oxide scale growth suggested the need for a conductive protection layer, which could also minimize Cr evaporation. In particular, Mn1.5Co1.5O4 based surface coatings on planar coupons drastically improved the electrical performance of the 441, yielding stable ASR values at 800C for over 5,000 hours. Ce-modified spinel coatings retained the advantages of the unmodified spinel coatings, and also appeared to alter the scale growth behavior beneath the coating, leading to a more adherent scale. The spinel protection layers appeared also to improve the surface stability of 441 against the anomalous oxidation that has been observed for ferritic stainless steels exposed to dual atmosphere conditions similar to SOFC interconnect environments. Hence, it is anticipated that, compared to unmodified spinel coatings, the Ce-modified coatings may lead to superior structural stability and electrical performance.

Yang, Zhenguo; Xia, Guanguang; Wang, Chong M.; Nie, Zimin; Templeton, Joshua D.; Singh, Prabhakar; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

2008-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

405

BNL | Accelerators for Applied Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Accelerators for Applied Research Accelerators for Applied Research Brookhaven National Lab operates several accelerator facilities dedicated to applied research. These facilities directly address questions and concerns on a tremendous range of fields, including medical imaging, cancer therapy, computation, and space exploration. Leading scientists lend their expertise to these accelerators and offer crucial assistant to collaborating researchers, pushing the limits of science and technology. Interested in gaining access to these facilities for research? See the contact number listed for each facility. RHIC tunnel Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer The Brookhaven Linac Isoptope Producer (BLIP)-positioned at the forefront of research into radioisotopes used in cancer treatment and diagnosis-produces commercially unavailable radioisotopes for use by the

406

CRC handbook of applied thermodynamics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The emphasis of this book is on applied thermodynamics, featuring the stage of development of a process rather than the logical development of thermodynamic principles. It is organized according to the types of problems encountered in industry, such as probing research, process assessment, and process development. The applied principles presented can be used in most areas of industry including oil and gas production and processing, chemical processing, power generation, polymer production, food processing, synthetic fuels production, specialty chemicals and pharmaceuticals production, bioengineered processes, etc.

Palmer, D.A. (Amoco Chemical Corp., Naperville, IL (USA). Research and Development Dept.)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Paper-mediated controlled densification and low temperature transfer of carbon nanotube forests for electronic interconnect application  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report on the fabrication and characterization of densified and transferred carbon nanotube forests for electronic interconnect application. A simple, low cost and quality method is developed for densifying vertically-aligned carbon nanotube (VA-CNTs) ... Keywords: Carbon nanotube, Carbon nanotube resistance, Carbon nanotube transfer, Densification, Post-growth processing, Young's modulus

Di Jiang; Teng Wang; Si Chen; Lilei Ye; Johan Liu

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Sustainable Energy Solutions Task 1.0: Networked Monitoring and Control of Small Interconnected Wind Energy Systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

4.\tDistribution transformers, lines, and other components, and wireless and wired communications and control These lab elements will be interconnected and will function together to form a complete testbed for distributed resource monitoring and control strategies and smart grid applications testing. Development of the lab system will continue beyond this project.

Janet.twomey@wichita.edu

2010-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

409

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: A9 | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

0, 2010 0, 2010 CX-001458: Categorical Exclusion Determination Cooperation on Electric Resource Planning and Priorities - Topic B CX(s) Applied: A9, A11 Date: 03/30/2010 Location(s): Austin, Texas Office(s): Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, National Energy Technology Laboratory March 30, 2010 CX-001457: Categorical Exclusion Determination Interconnection-Level Analysis and Planning for Texas Interconnect- Topic A CX(s) Applied: A9, A11 Date: 03/30/2010 Location(s): Austin, Texas Office(s): Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, National Energy Technology Laboratory March 30, 2010 CX-006983: Categorical Exclusion Determination Energy Efficiency and Conservation Strategy and Audits, Retrofit Program CX(s) Applied: A9, A11, B2.5, B5.1 Date: 03/30/2010 Location(s): Livonia, Michigan

410

California Energy Commission Apply Today!  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

photovoltaic project in the future. Peak Demand Savings: 95 kW Energy Savings: 1,510,849 kWh Annual Energy CostCalifornia Energy Commission Apply Today! "The College implemented all of the recommended projects Programs Office (916) 654-4147 pubprog@energy.state.ca.us "CEC financing allowed us to install many

411

implementing bioenergy applied research & development  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 A Northern Centre for Renewable Energy implementing bioenergy applied research & development plant measures to become carbon neutral and operate on renewable energy. UNBC is uniquely positioned for Climate Solutions, and UNBC. The Green University Centre will be a model of energy efficiency

Northern British Columbia, University of

412

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Golden Field Office | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

27, 2012 27, 2012 CX-007862: Categorical Exclusion Determination Northeast Photovoltaic Regional Training Provider CX(s) Applied: A9, A11, B3.14 Date: 01/27/2012 Location(s): Connecticut Offices(s): Golden Field Office January 27, 2012 CX-007861: Categorical Exclusion Determination SunShot New England · Open for Business CX(s) Applied: A9, A11 Date: 01/27/2012 Location(s): Connecticut Offices(s): Golden Field Office January 27, 2012 CX-007860: Categorical Exclusion Determination Team Vanguard (Northern California) - Streamlining and Standardizing Permitting, Interconnection CX(s) Applied: A9, A11 Date: 01/27/2012 Location(s): California Offices(s): Golden Field Office January 27, 2012 CX-007859: Categorical Exclusion Determination Developing Solar Friendly Communities CX(s) Applied: A9, A11

413

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: A11 | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

January 27, 2012 January 27, 2012 CX-007861: Categorical Exclusion Determination SunShot New England · Open for Business CX(s) Applied: A9, A11 Date: 01/27/2012 Location(s): Connecticut Offices(s): Golden Field Office January 27, 2012 CX-007860: Categorical Exclusion Determination Team Vanguard (Northern California) - Streamlining and Standardizing Permitting, Interconnection CX(s) Applied: A9, A11 Date: 01/27/2012 Location(s): California Offices(s): Golden Field Office January 27, 2012 CX-007859: Categorical Exclusion Determination Developing Solar Friendly Communities CX(s) Applied: A9, A11 Date: 01/27/2012 Location(s): Colorado Offices(s): Golden Field Office January 27, 2012 CX-007858: Categorical Exclusion Determination Southwest Solar Transformation Initiative CX(s) Applied: A9, A11

414

Vehicle Technologies Office: Applied Battery Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Applied Battery Research to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Applied Battery Research on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Applied Battery...

415

New codes and standards for utility - interconnection of AC PV modules  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Photovoltaic (PV) modules that provide only ac power give new dimensions to the use of, and utility interface of, PV systems because all of the dc issues are virtually eliminated. These AC PV modules offer the important advantage that customers may now purchase a PV system without hiring a design engineer. A qualified electrician will be able to install a complete PV system that performs as expected and meets local electrical codes. Simple installations of additional AC PV modules will be possible once the proper branch circuit wiring and protection have been installed. Codes and standards are currently being written to address the utility-interconnect issues for AC PV modules and other interactive inverters. An industry-supported Task Group has recently written and submitted proposals for changes to bring Article 690 of the 1999 National Electrical Code{reg_sign} (NEC{reg_sign}) up to the state-of-the-art for PV devices such as AC PV modules. This paper summarizes the proposed code changes and standards related to the evolving AC PV module technology in the United States. Topics such as the need for dedicated branch circuits for AC PV modules in residential applications are discussed and analyzed. Requirements for limiting the number of AC modules on a branch circuit and the listing requirements that make safe installations are discussed. Coordination of all standards activities for AC module installations, the building-integrated perspectives, and utility-interface issues is discussed.

Bower, W.

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

High-performance, lattice-mismatched InGaAs/InP monolithic interconnected modules (MIMs)  

SciTech Connect

High performance, lattice-mismatched p/n InGaAs/lnP monolithic interconnected module (MIM) structures were developed for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) applications. A MIM device consists of several individual InGaAs photovoltaic (PV) cells series-connected on a single semi-insulating (S.I.) InP substrate. Both interdigitated and conventional (i.e., non-interdigitated) MIMs were fabricated. The energy bandgap (Eg) for these devices was 0.60 eV. A compositionally step-graded InPAs buffer was used to accommodate a lattice mismatch of 1.1% between the active InGaAs cell structure and the InP substrate. 1x1-cm, 15-cell, 0.60-eV MIMs demonstrated an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 5.2 V (347 mV per cell) and a fill factor of 68.6% at a short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 2.0 A/cm{sup 2}, under flashlamp testing. The reverse saturation current density (Jo) was 1.6x10{sup {minus}6} A/cm{sup 2}. Jo values as low as 4.1x10{sup {minus}7} A/cm{sup 2} were also observed with a conventional planar cell geometry.

Fatemi, Navid S.; Wilt, David M.; Hoffman, Richard W., Jr.; Stan, Mark S.; Weizer, Victor G.; Jenkins, Phillip P.; Khan, Osman S.; Murray, Christopher S.; Scheiman, David; Brinker, David

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Probing the Geometry and Interconnectivity of Pores in Organic Aerogels Using Hyperpolarized 129Xe NMR Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Aerogels represent a class of novel open-pore materials with high surface area and nanometer pore sizes. They exhibit extremely low mass densities, low thermal conductivity, good acoustic insulation, and low dielectric constants. These materials have potential applications in catalysis, advanced separation techniques, energy storage, environmental remediation, and as insulating materials. Organic aerogels are stiffer and stronger than silica aerogels and are better insulators with higher thermal resistance. Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (RF) aerogels are typically prepared through the base-catalyzed sol-gel polymerization of resorcinol with formaldehyde in aqueous solution to produce gels, which are then dried in supercritical CO2.1,2 The [resorcinol]/ [catalyst] (R/C) ratio of the starting sol-gel solution has been determined to be the dominant factor that affects the properties of RF aerogels. Since the unique microstructures of aerogels are responsible for their unusual properties, characterizing the detailed porous structures and correlating them with the processing parameters are vital to establish rational design principles for novel organic aerogels with tailored properties. In this communication we report the first use of hyperpolarized (HP) 129Xe NMR to probe the geometry and interconnectivity of pores in RF aerogels and to correlate these with synthetic conditions. Our work demonstrates that HP 129Xe NMR is so far the only method for accurately measuring the free volume-to-surface-area (Vg/S) ratios for soft mesoporous materials without using any geometric models.

Moudrakovski, Igor L.; Wang, Li Q.; Baumann, T.; Satcher, J. H.; Exarhos, Gregory J.; Ratcliffe, C. I.; Ripmeester, J. A.

2004-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

418

Investigation of Modified Ni-Cr-Mn Base Alloys for SOFC Interconnect Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two Ni-Cr-W-Mn base alloys based on Haynes 230 were developed and evaluated against criteria relevant to SOFC interconnect applications, which included oxidation behavior under SOFC operating conditions, scale electrical conductivity, and thermal expansion. It was found that, similar to the ferritic stainless steel Crofer22 APU, additions of Mn led to the formation of a unique scale that was comprised of a M3O4 (M=Mn, Cr, Ni, ) spinel-rich top layer and Cr2O3-rich sub-layer. The modified alloys demonstrated reasonable oxidation resistance under SOFC operating conditions, though the Mn additions increased the scale growth rate and thus sacrificed to some extent the oxidation resistance of the base alloy (Haynes 230). The formation of a spinel-rich top layer improved the scale conductivity, especially during the early stages of oxidation, but the higher scale growth rate resulted in a higher rate of increase in the area-specific electrical resistance. Due to their FCC crystal structure, the Ni-Cr-W-Mn base alloys demonstrated a CTE that was higher than that of anode-supported cells and candidate ferritic stainless steels such as Crofer22 APU.

Yang, Z Gary; Singh, Prabhakar; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Xia, Gordon

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Oxidation Behavior of Ferritic Stainless Steels under SOFC Interconnect Exposure Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The oxidation of ferritic stainless steels has been studied under solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) interconnect dual exposure conditions, i.e. simultaneous exposure to air on one side of the sample, and moist hydrogen on the other side. This paper focuses on the oxidation behavior of ferritic stainless steels during the isothermal oxidation in the dual environments. It was found that scales grown on the air side under these dual exposure conditions can be significantly different from scales grown on samples exposed to air on both sides. In contrast, no substantial difference was observed between the scales grown on the fuel side of the dual atmosphere samples and scales grown on samples exposed to moist hydrogen on both sides. AISI430, with 17% Cr, suffered localized attack via formation of Fe2O3 hematite-rich nodules on the air side of dual exposure samples, while the spinel top layer of the air side scale of Crofer22 APU (23% Cr) was enriched in iron. For E-brite, with the highest Cr content (27%), no unusual phases were found in the scale on the air side, but it was noticed the air side scale was less dense and appeared to be more prone to defects than the scale grown in air only. The anomalous oxidation behavior of ferritic stainless steels on the air side of dual exposure specimens is related to the transport of hydrogen through the steel and its subsequent presence in the air side scale.

Yang, Zhenguo; Walker, Matthew S.; Singh, Prabhakar; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Norby, Truls

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Monte Carlo analysis of a monolithic interconnected module with a back surface reflector  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Recently, the photon Monte Carlo code, RACER-X, was modified to include wave-length dependent absorption coefficients and indices of refraction. This work was done in an effort to increase the code`s capabilities to be more applicable to a wider range of problems. These new features make RACER-X useful for analyzing devices like monolithic interconnected modules (MIMs) which have etched surface features and incorporates a back surface reflector (BSR) for spectral control. A series of calculations were performed on various MIM structures to determine the impact that surface features and component reflectivities have on spectral utilization. The traditional concern of cavity photonics is replaced with intra-cell photonics in the MIM design. Like the cavity photonic problems previously discussed, small changes in optical properties and/or geometry can lead to large changes in spectral utilization. The calculations show that seemingly innocuous surface features (e.g., trenches and grid lines) can significantly reduce the spectral utilization due to the non-normal incident photon flux. Photons that enter the device through a trench edge are refracted onto a trajectory where they will not escape. This leads to a reduction in the number of reflected below bandgap photons that return to the radiator and reduce the spectral utilization. In addition, trenches expose a lateral conduction layer in this particular series of calculations which increase the absorption of above bandgap photons in inactive material.

Ballinger, C.T.; Charache, G.W. [Lockheed Martin Corp., Schenectady, NY (United States); Murray, C.S. [Bettis Atomic Power Lab., West Mifflin, PA (United States)

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection cxs applied" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Oxidation resistance of novel ferritic stainless steels alloyed with titanium for SOFC interconnect applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chromia (Cr2O3) forming ferritic stainless steels are being developed for interconnect application in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC). A problem with these alloys is that in the SOFC environment chrome in the surface oxide can evaporate and deposit on the electrochemically active sites within the fuel cell. This poisons and degrades the performance of the fuel cell. The development of steels that can form conductive outer protective oxide layers other than Cr2O3 or (CrMn)3O4 such as TiO2 may be attractive for SOFC application. This study was undertaken to assess the oxidation behavior of ferritic stainless steel containing 1 weight percent (wt.%) Ti, in an effort to develop alloys that form protective outer TiO2 scales. The effect of Cr content (622 wt.%) and the application of a Ce-based surface treatment on the oxidation behavior (at 800 C in air+3% H2O) of the alloys was investigated. The alloys themselves failed to form an outer TiO2 scale even though the large negative {delta}G of this compound favors its formation over other species. It was found that in conjunction with the Ce-surface treatment, a continuous outer TiO2 oxide layer could be formed on the alloys, and in fact the alloy with 12 wt.% Cr behaved in an identical manner as the alloy with 22 wt.% Cr.

Jablonski, P.D.; Alman, D.E.

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

422

Record of Decision for the Electrical Interconnection of the Plymouth Generating Facility (DOE/EIS-0345)(10/14/03)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

for the Electrical Interconnection of the Plymouth Generating Facility October 2003 THE DECISION The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has decided to implement the proposed action identified in the Plymouth Generating Facility (PGF) Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) (DOE/EIS-0345, June 2003). The PGF, which has been proposed by Plymouth Energy, LLC (Plymouth Energy), involves construction and operation of a 307-megawatt (MW) natural gas-fired, combined-cycle power generation facility on a 44.5-acre site 2 miles west of Plymouth in Benton County, Washington. Under the proposed action, BPA will offer contract terms for interconnection of the PGF into the Federal Columbia River Transmission System (FCRTS) at BPA's proposed McNary-John Day 500-kilovolt (kV) transmission line at a point approximately

423

THREE ESSAYS ON APPLIED ECONOMICS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this dissertation three essays were presented. In the first two essays we measure the consumer welfare changes caused by U.S. meat price changes. In the third essay the dynamic structure of international gasoline prices using the time series methodology is investigated. In chapter II, we investigate the U.S. consumer behavior on meat consumption depending on a linear expenditure system (LES), and then we simulate the welfare effects of a set of price changes on the U.S. meat consumption. The simulation results show that the amount of consumer welfare change for each meat is not same across the meats under the same percentage change of price. The simulation results also show that when all the prices are doubled the total amount of CV reaches almost the same amount of current total quarterly expenditures for the three meats. In chapter III, we apply the compensating variation (CV) approach for the measurement of consumer welfare losses associated with beef price changes. We applied the long-run cointegrating relationship in vector error correction model (VECM) to estimate the Marshallian demand function. Apparently, the use of long-run cointegration in VECM in deriving the direct Marshallian demand function to measure the consumer welfare change is the first attempt in the literature. This is one of the contributions of the study. The simulation results show that the amount of consumer welfare change for beef is compatible with the one derived from LES methodology. In chapter IV, an empirical framework to summarize the interdependence of four international gasoline markets (New York, U.S. Gulf Coast, Rotterdam and Singapore) is presented. For that purpose, we employ a structural VECM and directed acyclic graphs (DAGs). To solve the identification problem in structural VECM, we apply DAGs derived from contemporaneous VECM innovations. The impulse response functions show that the time period in which a shock in a market affects the other market is very short. Forecast error variance decompositions (FEVD) shows that in all markets, except the U.S. Gulf Coast market, current and past shocks in their own market explained the most of the volatility in their own market in the Short-run.

Shin, Sang-Cheol

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Applied Materials | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Materials Materials Jump to: navigation, search Name Applied Materials Address 3050 Bowers Avenue Place Santa Clara, California Zip 95054 Sector Solar Stock Symbol AMAT Website http://www.appliedmaterials.co Coordinates 37.3775749°, -121.9794416° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":37.3775749,"lon":-121.9794416,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

425

Materials and process development for the monolithic interconnected module (MIM) InGaAs/InP TPV cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Four major components of a thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion system are a heat source, a graybody or a selective emitter, spectrum shaping elements such as filters, and photovoltaic (PV) cells. One approach to achieving a high voltage/low current configuration is to fabricate a device, where small area PV cells are monolithically series connected. The authors have termed this device a monolithic interconnected module (MIM). A MIM device has other advantages over conventional one-junction cells, such as simplified array interconnections and heat-sinking, and radiation recycling capability via a back surface reflector (BSR). The authors confine the contents of this article to the MIM materials, process development, and some optical results. The successful fabrication of InGaAs/InP MIM devices entails the development and optimization of several key components and processes. These include: isolation trench via geometry, selective chemical etching, contact and interconnect metallization, dielectric isolation barrier, back surface reflector (BSR), and anti-reflection (AR) coating. The selection, development, and testing of the materials and processes described above for MIM fabrication will be described.

Fatemi, N.S.; Jenkins, P.P.; Hoffman, R.W. Jr.; Weizer, V.G. [Essential Research, Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States); Wilt, D.M. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (United States). Lewis Research Center; Murray, C.S.; Riley, D. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., West Mifflin, PA (United States)

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

EERE Postdoctoral Research Awards: How to Apply  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

How to Apply to someone by E-mail Share EERE Postdoctoral Research Awards: How to Apply on Facebook Tweet about EERE Postdoctoral Research Awards: How to Apply on Twitter Bookmark...

427

DOE/EIS-0183: Record of Decision for the Electrical Interconnection of the Shepherds Flat Wind Energy Project (07/18/08)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Shepherds Flat Wind Energy Project Shepherds Flat Wind Energy Project July 2008 B o n n e v i l l e P o w e r A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 1 INTRODUCTION The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has decided to offer contract terms for interconnection of up to 846 megawatts (MW) of power to be generated by the proposed Shepherds Flat Wind Energy Project (Wind Project) into the Federal Columbia River Transmission System (FCRTS). Caithness Shepherds Flat, LLC (CSF) proposes to construct and operate the proposed Wind Project and has requested interconnection to the FCRTS. The Wind Project will be interconnected at BPA's existing Slatt Substation in Gilliam County, Oregon. To provide the interconnection, BPA will expand BPA's existing Slatt Substation to accommodate a 230-kilovolt (kV) yard and will provide transmission access for up to 846 MW from the Wind

428

Analysis of the Impact of Balancing Area Cooperation on the Operation of the Western Interconnection with Wind and Solar Generation (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This presentation describes the analysis of the impact of balancing area cooperation on the operation of the Western Interconnection with wind and solar generation, including a discussion of operating reserves, ramping, production simulation, and conclusions.

Milligan, M.; Lew, D.; Jordan, G.; Piwko, R.; Kirby, B.; King, J.; Beuning, S.

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Effect of SOFC Interconnect-Coating Interactions on Coating Properties and Performance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The high operating temperature of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) provides good fuel flexibility which expands potential applications, but also creates materials challenges. One such challenge is the interconnect material, which was the focus of this project. In particular, the objective of the project was to understand the interaction between the interconnect alloy and ceramic coatings which are needed to minimize chromium volatilization and the associated chromium poisoning of the SOFC cathode. This project focused on coatings based on manganese cobalt oxide spinel phases (Mn,Co)3O4, which have been shown to be effective as coatings for ferritic stainless steel alloys. Analysis of diffusion couples was used to develop a model to describe the interaction between (Mn,Co)3O4 and Cr2O3 in which a two-layer reaction zone is formed. Both layers form the spinel structure, but the concentration gradients at the interface appear like a two-phase boundary suggesting that a miscibility gap is present in the spinel solid solution. A high-chromium spinel layer forms in contact with Cr2O3 and grows by diffusion of manganese and cobalt from the coating material to the Cr2O3. The effect of coating composition, including the addition of dopants, was evaluated and indicated that the reaction rate could be decreased with additions of iron, titanium, nickel and copper. Diffusion couples using stainless steel alloys (which form a chromia scale) had some similarities and some differences as compared to those with Cr2O3. The most notable difference was that the high-chromium spinel layer did not form in the diffusion couples with stainless steel alloys. This difference can be explained using the reaction model developed in this project. In particular, the chromia scale grows at the expense of the alloy, the high-chromia layer grows at the expense of chromia scale and the high-chromia layer is consumed by diffusion of chromium into the coating material. If the last process (dissolution of high-chromium spinel phase) is faster than the second process (formation of high-chromium spinel phase), the high-chromium layer may be consumed. The other important result of this mechanism is that it could result in a constant scale thickness if the scale forms at the same rate as it is consumed. This helps to explain the unexpected observation that the area specific resistance (ASR) of a SOFC with a (Mn,Co)3O4-coated ferritic stainless steel cathode becomes constant after long exposures. The project also evaluated the possibility of reducing the chromium content in a stainless steel alloy using experimental alloys. The conclusion of this evaluation is that at least 17-18% chromium is needed for good oxidation resistance is needed even if the alloy is coated with a spinel coating. Additional details on these findings are provided in a later section of this report and in the publications listed below.

Jeffrey W. Fergus

2012-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

430

Exploration of alloy 441 chemistry for solid oxide fuel cell interconnect application  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Alloy 441 stainless steel (UNS S 44100) is being considered for application as an SOFC interconnect material. There are several advantages to the selection of this alloy over other iron-based or nickel-based alloys: first and foremost alloy 441ss is a production alloy which is both low in cost and readily available. Second, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) more closely matches the CTE of the adjoining ceramic components of the fuel cell. Third, this alloy forms the Laves phase at typical SOFC operating temperatures of 600800 C. It is thought that the Laves phase preferentially consumes the Si present in the alloy microstructure. As a result it has been postulated that the long-term area specific resistance (ASR) performance degradation often seen with other ferritic stainless steels, which is associated with the formation of electrically resistive Si-rich oxide subscales, may be avoidable with alloy 441ss. In this paper we explore the physical metallurgy of alloy 441, combining computational thermodynamics with experimental verification, and discuss the results with regards to Laves phase formation under SOFC operating conditions. We show that the incorporation of the Laves phase into the microstructure cannot in itself remove sufficient Si from the ferritic matrix in order to completely avoid the formation of Si-rich oxide subscales. However, the thickness, morphology, and continuity of the Si-rich subscale that forms in this alloy is modified in comparison to non-Laves forming ferritic stainless steel alloys and therefore may not be as detrimental to long-term SOFC performance.

Paul D. Jablonski; Christopher J. Cowen; John S. Sears

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

INVESTIGATION OF NOVEL ALLOY TiC-Ni-Ni3Al FOR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL INTERCONNECT APPLICATIONS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cell interconnect materials must meet stringent requirements. Such interconnects must operate at temperatures approaching 800 C while resisting oxidation and reduction, which can occur from the anode and cathode materials and the operating environment. They also must retain their electrical conductivity under these conditions and possess compatible coefficients of thermal expansion as the anode and cathode. Results are presented in this report for fuel cell interconnect candidate materials currently under investigation based upon nano-size titanium carbide (TiC) powders. The TiC is liquid phase sintered with either nickel (Ni) or nickel-aluminide (Ni{sub 3}Al) in varying concentrations. The oxidation resistance of the submicron grain TiC-metal materials is presented as a function weight change versus time at 700 C and 800 C for varying content of metal/intermetallic in the system. Electrical conductivity at 800 C as a function of time is also presented for TiC-Ni to demonstrate the vitality of these materials for interconnect applications. TGA studies showed that the weight gain was 0.8 mg/cm{sup 2} for TiC(30)-Ni(30wt.%) after 100 hours in wet air at 800 C and the weight gain was calculated to be 0.5205 mg/cm{sup 2} for TiC(30)- Ni(10 wt.%) after 100 hours at 700 C and 100 hours at 800 C. At room temperature the electrical conductivity was measured to be 2444 1/[ohm.cm] for TiC-Ni compositions. The electrical conductivities at 800 C in air was recorded to be 19 1/[ohm.cm] after 125 hours. Two identical samples were supplied to PNNL (Dr. Jeff Stevenson) for ASR testing during the pre-decision period and currently they are being tested there. Fabrication, oxidation resistance and electrical conductivity studies indicate that TiC-Ni-Ni{sub 3}Al ternary appears to be a very important system for the development of interconnect composition for solid oxide fuel cells.

Rasit Koc; Geoffrey Swift; Hua Xie

2005-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

432

Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program: Apply for Weatherization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Apply Apply for Weatherization Assistance to someone by E-mail Share Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program: Apply for Weatherization Assistance on Facebook Tweet about Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program: Apply for Weatherization Assistance on Twitter Bookmark Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program: Apply for Weatherization Assistance on Google Bookmark Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program: Apply for Weatherization Assistance on Delicious Rank Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program: Apply for Weatherization Assistance on Digg Find More places to share Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program: Apply for Weatherization Assistance on AddThis.com... Plans, Implementation, & Results Weatherization Assistance Program Weatherization Services

433

Vehicle Technologies Office: Applied Battery Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Applied Battery Research Applied battery research addresses the barriers facing the lithium-ion systems that are closest to meeting the technical energy and power requirements for...

434

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

31 - 4240 of 26,777 results. 31 - 4240 of 26,777 results. Download Congestion Analysis of the Eastern Interconnection: Simulation Results Congestion Analysis of the Eastern Interconnection: Simulation Results http://energy.gov/oe/downloads/congestion-analysis-eastern-interconnection-simulation-results Download CX-008677: Categorical Exclusion Determination Columbia and Willamette River Crossings Liquefaction Hazard Assessment CX(s) Applied: B3.1 Date: 07/23/2012 Location(s): Oregon, Oregon, Washington, Washington Offices(s): Bonneville Power Administration http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-008677-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-008693: Categorical Exclusion Determination Wood Pole Structure Replacements on the Chehalis-Centralia No. 2 115 Kilovolt Transmission Line CX(s) Applied: B1.3

435

DARPA Learning Applied to Ground Robots (LAGR)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

DARPA Learning Applied to Ground Robots (LAGR) Project (Concluded). Summary: The National Institute of Standards ...

2012-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

436

Record of Decision for the Electrical Interconnection of the COB Energy Facility (DOE/EIS-0343)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The COB Energy Facility would be constructed on a site near the rural community of Bonanza, in Klamath County, Oregon. Generating components of the project would be constructed in either one or two phases, including four air-cooled combustion turbine generators fueled with natural gas, four heat recovery steam generators, and two steam turbines. Additional facilities include a new 7.2-mile-long 500-kV transmission line, a new 4.1-mile-long natural gas pipeline, a 2.8-mile-long water pipeline, a 20-acre wastewater evaporation pond or a 3,770-foot-long irrigation pipeline to deliver wastewater to a 31-acre pasture, a 4.7-acre stormwater infiltration basin, a 1.5-acre stormwater retention pond, and various tanks, buildings, exhaust stacks, parking, and storage areas. Natural gas to fuel the combustion turbines would be supplied by way of a new 4.1-mile-long, 20-inch-diameter pipeline from a Gas Transmission Northwest's Bonanza Compressor Station. The new pipeline would be constructed within private easements adjacent to or near Klamath County road rights-of-way. Although COB Energy Facility generators would use air-cooled condensers, the project would use an average of 72 gallons per minute for steam production and station service, up to a maximum of 210 gallons per minute. The source of this water would be one existing and two new wells near the project site, drawing from a deep aquifer consistent with a State of Oregon water right permit expected to be incorporated into the State energy facility site certificate. Process wastewater would either be used to irrigate pasture or held in a lined pond to evaporate. Sanitary water would be routed to an onsite septic tank then discharged to a leach field. No wastewater would be discharged to surface waters. The COB Energy Facility would interconnect to the FCRTS at Captain Jack Substation, 7.2 miles south of the project site. PERC would construct a new 500-kV transmission line from the project site to Captain Jack Substation. Part of the transmission line would cross public land managed by the Bureau of Land Management. BPA would install additional electrical equipment at Captain Jack Substation. At this time, PERC has not requested specific points of delivery.

N /A

2004-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

437

Operating Reserve Reductions from a Proposed Energy Imbalance Market with Wind and Solar Generation in the Western Interconnection  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper considers several alternative forms of an energy imbalance market (EIM) proposed in the nonmarket areas of the Western Interconnection. The proposed EIM includes two changes in operating practices that independently reduce variability and increase access to responsive resources: balancing authority cooperation and sub-hourly dispatch. As the penetration of variable generation increases on the power system, additional interest in coordination would likely occur. Several alternative approaches could be used, but consideration of any form of coordinated unit commitment is beyond the scope of this analysis. This report examines the benefits of several possible EIM implementations--both separately and in concert.

King, J.; Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.; Beuning, S.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Mechanical stability of the LHC dipole-dipole 50-75K thermal shield interconnect "floating" expansion joint concept  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The LHC dipole cryostats are equipped with thermal shields carrying super-insulation. A cold helium transfer line equipped with expansion joints is integrated into the shield carrying trays (aluminium profiles supported on three composite feet). The stainless steel (316 L) expansion joints compensate for thermal contraction/expansion of the aluminium panels as well as for their misalignment. Design of the LHC thermal shield interconnect is based on the "floating" expansion joint concept (distance between the supports is of around 5 m). The present paper is dedicated to the analysis of mechanical stability of this large span system working at room and at cryogenic temperatures.

Skoczen, Blazej

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Oxidation Kinetics Modeling Applying Phase Field Approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Oxidation Kinetics Modeling Applying Phase Field Approach ... chemical reaction rates will increase exponentially and environmental attack...

440

Applied Chemicals and Materials Staff Directory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Applied Chemicals and Materials Staff Directory. ... accept either a name, organizational name, or ... MML Organization. Contact. Material Measurement ...

2012-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection cxs applied" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Researcher, Los Alamos National Laboratory - Applied Physics...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Applied Physics Division | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response...

442

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING & APPLIED SCIENCE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

30 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING & APPLIED SCIENCE MIAMI UNIVERSITY 2005-2006 The program leads to the degree, Bachelor of Science in Applied Science, with a major in Chemical Engineering The chemical engineering students learn to apply the concepts of chemistry, biochemistry and biological science

Dollar, Anna

443

HVDC Control Strategies to Improve Transient Stability in Interconnected Power Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 High Voltage DC Transmission 1.0 Introduction HVDC has been applied in electric power systems for many years now. Figure 1 illustrates worldwide many of the HVDC applications [1]. Fig. 1 Wikipedia [2] provides an extensive table of all HVDC projects worldwide which can be visualized using googlemaps

Ernst, Damien

444

Light-trapped interconnected, Silicon-Film{trademark} modules. Annual technical status report, 18 November 1995--18 November 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

AstroPower is developing a module-manufacturing technology based on a film-silicon technology. AstroPower, as a Technology Partner in the Thin-Film PV Partnership, is employing its Silicon-Film{trademark} technology to develop an advanced thin-silicon-based product. This module will combine the design and process features of the most advanced thin-silicon solar cells with light-trapping. These cells will be integrated into a low-cost interconnected array. During the second year of the 3-year project, AstroPower`s emphasis was on developing key submodule fabrication processes. Key results of the work include developing a new thin-film growth concept process based on attaching the low-cost substrate to the thin silicon layer after film growth; developing a new technique to achieve light-trapping in thin layers of silicon based on pigmented high-temperature glass materials; and developing key submodule fabrication processes, including contact grid design, subelement isolation, and screen-printed interconnection.

Hall, R.B.; Rand, J.A.; Cotter, J.E.; Ford, D.H. [AstroPower, Inc., Newark, DE (United States)

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Record of Decision for the Electrical Interconnection of the Windy Point Wind Energy Project (DOE/EIS-0183) (11/29/06)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Windy Point Wind Energy Project Windy Point Wind Energy Project November 2006 B o n n e v i l l e P o w e r A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 1 INTRODUCTION The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has decided to offer contract terms for interconnection of 250 megawatts (MW) of power to be generated by the proposed Windy Point Wind Energy Project (Wind Project) into the Federal Columbia River Transmission System (FCRTS). Windy Point Partners, LLC (WPP) propose to construct and operate the proposed Wind Project and has requested interconnection to the FCRTS. 1 The Wind Project will be interconnected at BPA's Rock Creek Substation, which is under construction in Klickitat County, Washington. The Rock Creek Substation will provide transmission access for the Wind Project to BPA's Wautoma-John Day No.1 500-kilovolt (kV) transmission line.

446

Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Arlington Wind Interconnection Project (DOE/EIS-0183) (1/14/05)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

86 86 Federal Register / Vol. 70, No. 16 / Wednesday, January 26, 2005 / Notices 8. Mr. Mohan Singh, Regional Business Director, North Atlantic Division. Brenda S. Bowen, Army Federal Register Liaison Office. [FR Doc. 05-1383 Filed 1-25-05; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 3710-08-M DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Bonneville Power Administration Arlington Wind Interconnection Project AGENCY: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Notice of availability of Record of Decision (ROD). SUMMARY: This notice announces the availability of the ROD to offer contract terms to interconnect up to 200 megawatts of wind generation from the Columbia Energy Partners' proposed Arlington Wind Project into the Federal Columbia River Transmission System. The wind project will be interconnected

447

Revised Record of Decision for the Electrical Interconnection of the Summit/Westward Project (DOE/EIS-0183) (10/21/04)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Bonneville Power Administration Bonneville Power Administration Revised Record of Decision for the Electrical Interconnection of the Summit/Westward Project INTRODUCTION The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has decided to amend its July 25, 2003, Record of Decision (ROD) regarding the proposed Summit/Westward Project (Project) to offer contract terms for an optional interconnection of this Project into the Federal Columbia River Transmission System (FCRTS). Under this optional interconnection plan, BPA would integrate electric power from the Project into the FCRTS at a point adjacent to Clatskanie People's Utility District (CPUD) existing Wauna Substation. In order to deliver power to this location, CPUD would develop a new substation (Bradbury Substation) at a site near the Project and a new

448

Fundamental & Applied Bioenergy | Clean Energy | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

a new generation of efficient bioenergy strategies that will reduce U.S. dependence on foreign oil and help curb carbon emissions. Fundamental and applied bioenergy research at...

449

Applied Control Strategies at a Cogeneration Plant.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the effectiveness of classical strategies for dynamic control on authentic cogeneration processes. These strategies are applied (more)

Burns, Joseph William

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Applied Quantum Technology AQT | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AQT Jump to: navigation, search Name Applied Quantum Technology (AQT) Place Santa Clara, California Zip 95054 Product California-based manufacturer of CIGS (copper indium gallium...

451

Record of Decision for the Electrical Interconnection of the Chehalis Generation Facility (DOE/EIS-0230)(5/17/01)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Bonneville Power Administration Bonneville Power Administration Record of Decision for the Electrical Interconnection of the Chehalis Generation Facility May 2001 _______________________________________________________ SUMMARY Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has decided to offer contracts for integrating power from the Chehalis Generation Facility (CGF) into the Federal Columbia River Transmission System (FCRTS). These contracts will facilitate integration of power from CGF into the FCRTS for delivery to the wholesale power market. In reaching this decision, I have considered the potential environmental impacts addressed in BPA's Resource Contingency Program Environmental Impact Statement (RCP EIS, DOE/EIS-0230, November 1995), Supplement Analysis (SA, DOE/EIS-0230/SA-02, May 9, 2001), BPA's Business Plan Environmental Impact Statement (BP EIS, DOE/EIS-

452

Record of Decision for the Electrical Interconnection of Goldendale Energy Project (DOE/EIS-0183) (03/20/01)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Record of Decision for the Electrical Record of Decision for the Electrical Interconnection of Goldendale Energy Project SUMMARY Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has decided to offer terms for integrating power from the Goldendale Energy Project (GEP) into the Federal Columbia River Transmission System (FCRTS). BPA will offer contracts integrating power from GEP into the FCRTS for delivery to the wholesale power market. In reaching this decision, I have considered the potential environmental impacts addressed in BPA's Business Plan Environmental Impact Statement (BP EIS, DOE/EIS-0183) and a Supplement Analysis (DOE/EIS-0183/SA-03). I have also considered input from the public process for the GEP. BPA will distribute this Record of Decision (ROD) to all known interested and affected persons, Tribes, and agencies and will publish a notice of its availability in the

453

Sustainable Energy Solutions Task 1.0: Networked Monitoring and Control of Small Interconnected Wind Energy Systems  

SciTech Connect

EXECUTIVE SUMARRY This report presents accomplishments, results, and future work for one task of five in the Wichita State University Sustainable Energy Solutions Project: To develop a scale model laboratory distribution system for research into questions that arise from networked control and monitoring of low-wind energy systems connected to the AC distribution system. The lab models developed under this task are located in the Electric Power Quality Lab in the Engineering Research Building on the Wichita State University campus. The lab system consists of four parts: 1. A doubly-fed induction generator 2. A wind turbine emulator 3. A solar photovoltaic emulator, with battery energy storage 4. Distribution transformers, lines, and other components, and wireless and wired communications and control These lab elements will be interconnected and will function together to form a complete testbed for distributed resource monitoring and control strategies and smart grid applications testing. Development of the lab system will continue beyond this project.

Janet.twomey@wichita.edu

2010-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

454

Effects of Water Vapor on Oxidation Behavior of Ferritic Stainless Steels Under Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Interconnect Exposure Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The oxidation of ferritic stainless steels has been studied under solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) interconnect ''dual'' exposure conditions, i.e. simultaneous exposure to air on one side of the sample, and fuel (hydrogen) on the other. It was found that, under the dual exposures, the oxidation behavior of the stainless steels at the airside differed significantly from that observed during exposure to air at both sides. Increased water vapor partial pressure in the air at the airside further accelerated the anomalous oxidation, resulting in nucleation and growth of hematite in the scale that led to a localized attack. The accelerated oxidation and growth of the hematite nodules was a result of combined effects of hydrogen transport from the fuel side to the airside and the presence of increased water vapor.

Yang, Z Gary; Xia, Gordon; Singh, Prabhakar; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Grid Interconnection and Performance Testing Procedures for Vehicle-To-Grid (V2G) Power Electronics: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Bidirectional power electronics can add vehicle-to-grid (V2G) capability in a plug-in vehicle, which then allows the vehicle to operate as a distributed resource (DR). The uniqueness of the battery-based V2G power electronics requires a test procedure that will not only maintain IEEE interconnection standards, but can also evaluate the electrical performance of the vehicle working as a DR. The objective of this paper is to discuss a recently published NREL technical report that provides interim test procedures for V2G vehicles for their integration into the electrical distribution systems and for their performance in terms of continuous output power, efficiency, and losses. Additionally, some other test procedures are discussed that are applicable to a V2G vehicle that desires to provide power reserve functions. A few sample test results are provided based on testing of prototype V2G vehicles at NREL.

Kramer, W.; Chakraborty, S.; Kroposki, B.; Hoke, A.; Martin, G.; Markel, T.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Final Scientific/Technical Report for Building Transmission Capacity in the Western Interconnection to Support a Low Carbon Future  

SciTech Connect

The Building Transmission Capacity grant activities focused on educating both policy makers (primarily at Public Utility Commissions) and utilities across the West. Western Grid Group (WGG), the grant recipient, chose three methods to reach these audiences - direct outreach, a website that contains information on policies and strategies to integrate more variable generation resources, and a report - The Best of the West, Policies and Practices to Support Transition to a Lower-Carbon Electric Sector in the Western Interconnection and that highlights what is working in the West. While all avenues for education are effective the Best of the West report is the first west-wide assessment of its kind. The report details incremental changes that are working to integrate variable generation but it also expounds on what fundamental or transformative changes are needed to get to the 20% wind penetration and beyond.

Amanda Ormond; Merrisa Walker

2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

457

Using CrAIN Multilayer Coatings to Improve Oxidation Resistance of Steel Interconnects for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stacks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The requirements of low cost and high-tempurature corrosion resistance for bipolar interconnect plates in solid oxide fuel cell stacks has directed attention to the use of metal plates with oxidation resistant coatings. We have investigatedt he performance of steel plates with multilayer coatings consisting of CrN for electrical conductivity and CrAIN for oxidation resistance. The coatings were deposited usin large area filterd arc deposition technolgy, and subsequently annealed in air for up to 25 hours at 800 degrees celsius. The composition, structer and morphology of the coated plates were characterized using RBS, nuclear reaction analysis, AFM and TEM techniques. By altering the architecture of the layers within the coatings, the rate of oxidation was reduced by more than an order of magnitute. Electrical resistance was measured at room temperature.

Smith, Richard J.; Tripp, C.; Knospe, Anders; Ramana, C. V.; Gorokhovsky, Vladimir I.; Shutthanandan, V.; Gelles, David S.

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

High Performance Ceramic Interconnect Material for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs): Ca- and Transition Metal-doped Yttrium Chromite  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of transition metal substitution on thermal and electrical properties of Ca-doped yttrium chromite was investigated in relation to use as a ceramic interconnect in high temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). 10 at% Co, 4 at% Ni, and 1 at% Cu substitution on B-site of 20 at% Ca-doped yttrium chromite led to a close match of thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) with that of 8 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), and a single phase Y0.8Ca0.2Cr0.85Co0.1Ni0.04Cu0.01O3 remained stable between 25 and 1100 degree C over a wide oxygen partial pressure range. Doping with Cu significantly facilitated densification of yttrium chromite. Ni dopant improved both electrical conductivity and dimensional stability in reducing environments, likely through diminishing the oxygen vacancy formation. Substitution with Co substantially enhanced electrical conductivity in oxidizing atmosphere, which was attributed to an increase in charge carrier density and hopping mobility. Electrical conductivity of Y0.8Ca0.2Cr0.85Co0.1Ni0.04Cu0.01O3 at 900 degree C is 57 S/cm in air and 11 S/cm in fuel (pO2=510^-17 atm) environments. Chemical compatibility of doped yttrium chromite with other cell components was verified at the processing temperatures. Based on the chemical and dimensional stability, sinterability, and thermal and electrical properties, Y0.8Ca0.2Cr0.85Co0.1Ni0.04Cu0.01O3 is suggested as a promising SOFC ceramic interconnect to potentially overcome technical limitations of conventional acceptor-doped lanthanum chromites.

Yoon, Kyung J.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Marina, Olga A.

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

459

Applied technology section. Monthly report, March 1994  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is a monthly report giving the details on research currently being conducted at the Savannah River Technology Center. The following are areas of the research, engineering modeling and simulation, applied statistics, applied physics,experimental thermal hydraulics,and packaging and transportation.

Buckner, M.R.

1994-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

460

DRAFT GUIDANCE Applying for Other Uses of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DRAFT GUIDANCE Applying for Other Uses of Phosphogypsum: Submitting a Complete Petition 40 CFR 61 Assignment 0-2 #12;Applying for Other Uses of Phosphogypsum: Submitting a Complete Petition Table of Contents phosphogypsum in stacks? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.4. What

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "interconnection cxs applied" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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461

Applied Materials Inc AMAT | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Inc AMAT Inc AMAT Jump to: navigation, search Name Applied Materials Inc (AMAT) Place Santa Clara, California Zip 95052-8039 Sector Solar Product US-based manufacturer of equipment used in solar (silicon, thin-film, BIPV), semiconductor, and LCD markets. References Applied Materials Inc (AMAT)[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Applied Materials Inc (AMAT) is a company located in Santa Clara, California . References ↑ "Applied Materials Inc (AMAT)" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Applied_Materials_Inc_AMAT&oldid=342244" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations Companies Organizations Stubs What links here Related changes

462

Applied Materials Wind Turbine | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Wind Turbine Wind Turbine Jump to: navigation, search Name Applied Materials Wind Turbine Facility Applied Materials Sector Wind energy Facility Type Community Wind Facility Status In Service Owner Applied Materials Developer Applied Materials Energy Purchaser Applied Materials Location Gloucester MA Coordinates 42.62895426°, -70.65153122° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":42.62895426,"lon":-70.65153122,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

463

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Utah | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

April 23, 2010 April 23, 2010 CX-001971: Categorical Exclusion Determination Roy Energy Efficiency Retrofits CX(s) Applied: A11, B5.1 Date: 04/23/2010 Location(s): Roy, Utah Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy April 23, 2010 CX-001645: Categorical Exclusion Determination Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Infrastructure Upgrade Project CX(s) Applied: A1, A9 Date: 04/23/2010 Location(s): Salt Lake City, Utah Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory April 22, 2010 CX-002100: Categorical Exclusion Determination Utah-City-Sandy CX(s) Applied: A1, A9, A11, B2.5, B5.1 Date: 04/22/2010 Location(s): Sandy, Utah Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy April 20, 2010 CX-001805: Categorical Exclusion Determination Topic A: Western Interconnection-Level Analysis and Planning

464

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Western Area Power  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

April 1, 2013 April 1, 2013 CX-010106: Categorical Exclusion Determination Flaming Gorge Microwave Site Communications Building Access Road Repairs CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 04/01/2013 Location(s): Utah Offices(s): Western Area Power Administration-Rocky Mountain Region March 26, 2013 CX-010105: Categorical Exclusion Determination Urban Transmission Line Danger Tree Management CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 03/26/2013 Location(s): Colorado, Colorado, Colorado, Colorado, Wyoming Offices(s): Western Area Power Administration-Rocky Mountain Region January 23, 2013 CX-009804: Categorical Exclusion Determination Kersey West Switching Station Interconnection Kiowa Creek - Welc 115 Kilovolt Transmission Line CX(s) Applied: B4.1, B4.11 Date: 01/23/2013 Location(s): Colorado Offices(s): Western Area Power Administration-Rocky Mountain Region

465

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: California | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

May 24, 2011 May 24, 2011 CX-005983: Categorical Exclusion Determination Red Bluff Pumping Plant 6-kilovolt Interconnection Project CX(s) Applied: B4.12 Date: 05/24/2011 Location(s): Tehama County, California Office(s): Western Area Power Administration-Sierra Nevada Region May 24, 2011 CX-005980: Categorical Exclusion Determination Integrated Disposal Facility Fence Installation CX(s) Applied: B1.11 Date: 05/24/2011 Location(s): California Office(s): Office of River Protection-Richland Office May 20, 2011 CX-005873: Categorical Exclusion Determination Placer County Biomass Utilization Pilot Project CX(s) Applied: A9 Date: 05/20/2011 Location(s): Placer County, California Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office May 18, 2011 CX-005910: Categorical Exclusion Determination

466

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Alabama | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

September 17, 2010 September 17, 2010 CX-003730: Categorical Exclusion Determination Western Baldwin County, Alabama Grid Interconnection Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability 11.10 CX(s) Applied: A1, A9, B1.3, B4.6, B5.1 Date: 09/17/2010 Location(s): Baldwin County, Alabama Office(s): Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, National Energy Technology Laboratory September 10, 2010 CX-003889: Categorical Exclusion Determination Carolina Blue Skies Initiative CX(s) Applied: A1 Date: 09/10/2010 Location(s): Henager, Alabama Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory August 23, 2010 CX-003502: Categorical Exclusion Determination Institute for Sustainable Energy CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6 Date: 08/23/2010 Location(s): Alabama

467

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Oregon | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

January 18, 2010 January 18, 2010 CX-000731: Categorical Exclusion Determination Building 4 Equipment Decommissioning CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 01/18/2010 Location(s): Albany, Oregon Office(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory January 7, 2010 CX-000601: Categorical Exclusion Determination New Revenue Meters at Central Lincoln's Florence and Berrydale Substations CX(s) Applied: B4.6 Date: 01/07/2010 Location(s): Lane County, Oregon Office(s): Bonneville Power Administration January 7, 2010 CX-000602: Categorical Exclusion Determination Tillamook-Oceanside, 115-kilovolt Substation Interconnection CX(s) Applied: B4.6 Date: 01/07/2010 Location(s): Tillamook County, Oregon Office(s): Bonneville Power Administration December 2, 2009 CX-000012: Categorical Exclusion Determination

468

Categorical Exclusion (CX) Determinations By Date | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

7, 2010 7, 2010 CX-000602: Categorical Exclusion Determination Tillamook-Oceanside, 115-kilovolt Substation Interconnection CX(s) Applied: B4.6 Date: 01/07/2010 Location(s): Tillamook County, Oregon Office(s): Bonneville Power Administration January 7, 2010 CX-000702: Categorical Exclusion Determination Mississippi - Energy Efficient Buildings: Building Energy Codes and Beyond Energy Codes CX(s) Applied: A1, A9, A11 Date: 01/07/2010 Location(s): Mississippi Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory January 7, 2010 CX-000703: Categorical Exclusion Determination Maryland - Clean Energy Economic Development Initiative (CEEDI) CX(s) Applied: A1, A9, A11, B1.4, B1.5, B1.15, B1.22, B1.24, B1.31, B2.1, B2.2, B2.5, B5.1 Date: 01/07/2010

469

Washington | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

September 9, 2010 September 9, 2010 CX-003832: Categorical Exclusion Determination Issaquah Highlands Zero Energy Affordable Housing CX(s) Applied: A9, B2.2, B2.5, B5.1, B6.3 Date: 09/09/2010 Location(s): Seattle, Washington Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory September 8, 2010 CX-003908: Categorical Exclusion Determination Fiscal Year 2010 Columbia Basin Fish Accords with Colville Confederated Tribes CX(s) Applied: B1.25 Date: 09/08/2010 Location(s): Okanogan County, Washington Office(s): Bonneville Power Administration September 8, 2010 CX-003789: Categorical Exclusion Determination Grandview-Red Mountain Number 1 Proposed Transmission Line Interconnection CX(s) Applied: B4.6 Date: 09/08/2010 Location(s): Benton County, Washington

470

Ohio | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

May 24, 2010 May 24, 2010 CX-002410: Categorical Exclusion Determination Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Systems Print Verification Line Pilot Line CX(s) Applied: B3.6, A9 Date: 05/24/2010 Location(s): North Canton, Ohio Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office May 24, 2010 CX-002409: Categorical Exclusion Determination Ohio Advanced Energy Manufacturing Center CX(s) Applied: B3.6, A9, A11 Date: 05/24/2010 Location(s): Ohio Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office May 20, 2010 CX-002385: Categorical Exclusion Determination Ohio State American Recovery and Reinvestment Act - Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant - Act 1 (County Building Retrofits) Lucas County I - Boiler Interconnection CX(s) Applied: A9, A11, B5.1 Date: 05/20/2010

471

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

21 - 24530 of 31,917 results. 21 - 24530 of 31,917 results. Download CX-000279: Categorical Exclusion Determination Specific Manufacturing Capability Dial Room CX(s) Applied: B1.15 Date: 11/02/2009 Location(s): Idaho Office(s): Idaho Operations Office, Nuclear Energy http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-000279-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-000016: Categorical Exclusion Determination Ross-Lexington #1 Meter Project CX(s) Applied: B3.1 Date: 12/17/2009 Location(s): Vancouver, Washington Office(s): Bonneville Power Administration http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-000016-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-000607: Categorical Exclusion Determination Gardiner-Reedsport Substation Interconnection CX(s) Applied: B4.6 Date: 02/04/2010 Location(s): Douglas County, Oregon

472

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Golden Field Office | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

1, 2010 1, 2010 CX-002563: Categorical Exclusion Determination Clark Public Utilities CX(s) Applied: B5.1 Date: 05/21/2010 Location(s): Camas, Washington Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office May 20, 2010 CX-002414: Categorical Exclusion Determination Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Award Adair County, Oklahoma Materials Recycling Project CX(s) Applied: B5.1 Date: 05/20/2010 Location(s): Watts, Oklahoma Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office May 20, 2010 CX-002385: Categorical Exclusion Determination Ohio State American Recovery and Reinvestment Act - Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant - Act 1 (County Building Retrofits) Lucas County I - Boiler Interconnection CX(s) Applied: A9, A11, B5.1

473

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Office of Electricity Delivery and  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

February 9, 2010 February 9, 2010 CX-000760: Categorical Exclusion Determination Amber Kinetics Flywheel Energy Storage Demonstration CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 02/09/2010 Location(s): Freemont, California Office(s): Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, National Energy Technology Laboratory February 8, 2010 CX-000762: Categorical Exclusion Determination Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative CX(s) Applied: A9 Date: 02/08/2010 Location(s): Morristown, Pennsylvania Office(s): Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, National Energy Technology Laboratory February 8, 2010 CX-000764: Categorical Exclusion Determination Dynamic Line Rating Project CX(s) Applied: B3.11, B4.6 Date: 02/08/2010 Location(s): Texas Office(s): Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, National Energy

474

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: A11 | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

0, 2010 0, 2010 CX-002054: Categorical Exclusion Determination Loan and Grant Program, Energy Audits and Conservation Education Program, Sustainability Office CX(s) Applied: A9, A11, B5.1 Date: 04/20/2010 Location(s): Snohomish County, Washington Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office April 20, 2010 CX-002050: Categorical Exclusion Determination Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Funded Projects - Statement of Work (S) CX(s) Applied: A9, A11, B5.1 Date: 04/20/2010 Location(s): Loudoun County, Virginia Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office April 20, 2010 CX-001805: Categorical Exclusion Determination Topic A: Western Interconnection-Level Analysis and Planning CX(s) Applied: A9, A11 Date: 04/20/2010

475

Transient analysis of the interconnection of fuel cells as a distributed generation at the University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez Campus  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study presents the impact of the interconnection of Fuel Cells in the distribution system of the University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez Campus (RUM). The expected end-results will aid in the improvement of protection systems in the distribution system ...

Edy E. Jimenez; Levis R. Cabrera

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Modeling of decentralized linear observer and tracker for a class of unknown interconnected large-scale sampled-data nonlinear systems with closed-loop decoupling property  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel low-order modeling of decentralized linear observer-based tracker is presented in this paper for a class of unknown interconnected large-scale sampled-data nonlinear systems with closed-loop decoupling property. The appropriate (low-)order decentralized ... Keywords: Digital redesign, Large-scale system, Observer, Observer/Kalman filter identification, Tracker

Jason Sheng-Hong Tsai; Nien-Tsu Hu; Po-Chuan Yang; Shu-Mei Guo; Leang-San Shieh

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Applying System Engineering to Pharmaceutical Safety  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

While engineering techniques are used in the development of medical devices and have been applied to individual healthcare processes, such as the use of checklists in surgery and ICUs, the application of system engineering ...

Couturier, Matthieu

478

Applied Information Security, 1st edition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Applied Information Security guides readers through the installation and basic operation of IT Security software used in the industry today. Dos Commands; Password Auditors; Data Recovery & Secure Deletion; Packet Sniffer; Port Scanners; Vulnerability ...

Randy Boyle

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Baldrige FAQs: Applying for the Award  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... often use their feedback reports in their strategic planning processes to focus ... How long does it take to apply for the ... How long will it take to do a self ...

2013-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

480

Applied Field Research Initiative Deep Vadose Zone  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Applied Field Research Initiative Applied Field Research Initiative Deep Vadose Zone Located on the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, the Deep Vadose Zone Applied Field Research Initiative (DVZ AFRI) was established to protect water resources by addressing the challenge of preventing contamination in the deep vadose zone from reaching groundwater. Led by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, the Initiative is a collaborative effort that leverages Department of Energy (DOE) investments in basic science and applied research and the work of site contractors to address the complex deep vadose zone contamination challenges. Challenge Many vadose zone environments within the DOE complex consist of complex stratified layers of unconsolidated and water-unsaturated sediments that are, in many places, con-