National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for intensive nonenergy intensive

  1. Building-Level Intensities

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Electricity Consumption and Expenditure Intensities for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Electricity Consumption",,,,,,"Electricity Expenditures" ,"per Building (thousand kWh)","per...

  2. Light intensity compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rushford, Michael C. (Livermore, CA)

    1990-01-01

    In a system for recording images having vastly differing light intensities over the face of the image, a light intensity compressor is provided that utilizes the properties of twisted nematic liquid crystals to compress the image intensity. A photoconductor or photodiode material that is responsive to the wavelength of radiation being recorded is placed adjacent a layer of twisted nematic liquid crystal material. An electric potential applied to a pair of electrodes that are disposed outside of the liquid crystal/photoconductor arrangement to provide an electric field in the vicinity of the liquid crystal material. The electrodes are substantially transparent to the form of radiation being recorded. A pair of crossed polarizers are provided on opposite sides of the liquid crystal. The front polarizer linearly polarizes the light, while the back polarizer cooperates with the front polarizer and the liquid crystal material to compress the intensity of a viewed scene. Light incident upon the intensity compressor activates the photoconductor in proportion to the intensity of the light, thereby varying the field applied to the liquid crystal. The increased field causes the liquid crystal to have less of a twisting effect on the incident linearly polarized light, which will cause an increased percentage of the light to be absorbed by the back polarizer. The intensity of an image may be compressed by forming an image on the light intensity compressor.

  3. Energy Intensity Strategy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rappolee, D.; Shaw, J.

    2008-01-01

    Our presentation will cover how we began the journey of conserving energy at our facility. We’ll discuss a basic layout of our energy intensity plan and the impact our team has had on the process, what tools we’re using, what goals have been...

  4. French intensive truck garden

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, T D

    1983-01-01

    The French Intensive approach to truck gardening has the potential to provide substantially higher yields and lower per acre costs than do conventional farming techniques. It was the intent of this grant to show that there is the potential to accomplish the gains that the French Intensive method has to offer. It is obvious that locally grown food can greatly reduce transportation energy costs but when there is the consideration of higher efficiencies there will also be energy cost reductions due to lower fertilizer and pesticide useage. As with any farming technique, there is a substantial time interval for complete soil recovery after there have been made substantial soil modifications. There were major crop improvements even though there was such a short time since the soil had been greatly disturbed. It was also the intent of this grant to accomplish two other major objectives: first, the garden was managed under organic techniques which meant that there were no chemical fertilizers or synthetic pesticides to be used. Second, the garden was constructed so that a handicapped person in a wheelchair could manage and have a higher degree of self sufficiency with the garden. As an overall result, I would say that the garden has taken the first step of success and each year should become better.

  5. High intensity femtosecond enhancement cavities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abram, Gilberto

    2009-01-01

    To produce extreme ultraviolet radiation via high harmonic generation (HHG) in rare gases, light intensities in excess of 1014 W/cm 2 are required. Usually such high intensity are obtained by parametric amplification of ...

  6. Intensity Frontier Instrumentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kettell S.; Rameika, R.; Tshirhart, B.

    2013-09-24

    The fundamental origin of flavor in the Standard Model (SM) remains a mystery. Despite the roughly eighty years since Rabi asked “Who ordered that?” upon learning of the discovery of the muon, we have not understood the reason that there are three generations or, more recently, why the quark and neutrino mixing matrices and masses are so different. The solution to the flavor problem would give profound insights into physics beyond the Standard Model (BSM) and tell us about the couplings and the mass scale at which the next level of insight can be found. The SM fails to explain all observed phenomena: new interactions and yet unseen particles must exist. They may manifest themselves by causing SM reactions to differ from often very precise predictions. The Intensity Frontier (1) explores these fundamental questions by searching for new physics in extremely rare processes or those forbidden in the SM. This often requires massive and/or extremely finely tuned detectors.

  7. Accelerators for Intensity Frontier Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derwent, Paul; /Fermilab

    2012-05-11

    In 2008, the Particle Physics Project Prioritization Panel identified three frontiers for research in high energy physics, the Energy Frontier, the Intensity Frontier, and the Cosmic Frontier. In this paper, I will describe how Fermilab is configuring and upgrading the accelerator complex, prior to the development of Project X, in support of the Intensity Frontier.

  8. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thacker, L.H.

    1995-10-17

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

  9. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thacker, L.H.

    1994-08-16

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

  10. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

    1995-01-01

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

  11. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

    1994-01-01

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

  12. Neutrino physics with an intense \

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Henning

    2010-11-16

    We study some of the physics potential of an intense $1\\,\\mathrm{MCi}$ $^{51}\\mathrm{Cr}$ source combined with the {\\sc Majorana Demonstrator} enriched germanium detector array. The {\\sc Demonstrator} will consist of detectors with ultra-low radioactive backgrounds and extremely low energy thresholds of~$\\sim 400\\,\\mathrm{eV}$. We show that it can improve the current limit on the neutrino magnetic dipole moment. We briefly discuss physics applications of the charged-current reaction of the $^{51}\\mathrm{Cr} neutrino with the $^{73}\\mathrm{Ge} isotope. Finally, we argue that the rate from a realistic, intense tritium source is below the detectable limit of even a tonne-scale HPGe experiment

  13. High Intensity Polarized Electron Gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redwine, Robert P.

    2012-07-31

    The goal of the project was to investigate the possibility of building a very high intensity polarized electron gun for the Electron-Ion Collider. This development is crucial for the eRHIC project. The gun implements a large area cathode, ring-shaped laser beam and active cathode cooling. A polarized electron gun chamber with a large area cathode and active cathode cooling has been built and tested. A preparation chamber for cathode activation has been built and initial tests have been performed. Major parts for a load-lock chamber, where cathodes are loaded into the vacuum system, have been manufactured.

  14. Experimental transport of intensity diffraction tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Justin Wu

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, I perform intensity-based tomographic phase imaging in two ways. First, I utilize the paraxial transport of intensity equation (TIE) to construct phase maps of a phase object at multiple projection angles ...

  15. Control Intensive Planning Planet 2003 Summer School

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bacchus, Fahiem

    in efficiency. Why not utilize that knowledge! Control Intensive Planning/F. Bacchus ­ p.2/131 #12;Goals Control Intensive planning involves finding ways to build and utilize richer domain models so as to support more utilize Forward Chaining. B C A C C A B A B pickup(A) unstack(B) Control Intensive Planning/F. Bacchus ­ p

  16. HI intensity mapping with FAST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bigot-Sazy, Marie-Anne; Battye, Richard A; Browne, Ian W A; Chen, Tianyue; Dickinson, Clive; Harper, Stuart; Maffei, Bruno; Olivari, Lucas C; Wilkinson, Peter N

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the detectability of large-scale HI intensity fluctuations using the FAST telescope. We present forecasts for the accuracy of measuring the Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations and constraining the properties of dark energy. The FAST $19$-beam L-band receivers ($1.05$--$1.45$ GHz) can provide constraints on the matter power spectrum and dark energy equation of state parameters ($w_{0},w_{a}$) that are comparable to the BINGO and CHIME experiments. For one year of integration time we find that the optimal survey area is $6000\\,{\\rm deg}^2$. However, observing with larger frequency coverage at higher redshift ($0.95$--$1.35$ GHz) improves the projected errorbars on the HI power spectrum by more than $2~\\sigma$ confidence level. The combined constraints from FAST, CHIME, BINGO and Planck CMB observations can provide reliable, stringent constraints on the dark energy equation of state.

  17. Beam intensity upgrade at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marchionni, A.; /Fermilab

    2006-07-01

    The performance of the Fermilab proton accelerator complex is reviewed. The coming into operation of the NuMI neutrino line and the implementation of slip-stacking to increase the anti-proton production rate has pushed the total beam intensity in the Main Injector up to {approx} 3 x 10{sup 13} protons/pulse. A maximum beam power of 270 kW has been delivered on the NuMI target during the first year of operation. A plan is in place to increase it to 350 kW, in parallel with the operation of the Collider program. As more machines of the Fermilab complex become available with the termination of the Collider operation, a set of upgrades are being planned to reach first 700 kW and then 1.2 MW by reducing the Main Injector cycle time and by implementing proton stacking.

  18. Energy Intensity Baselining and Tracking Guidance

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    betterbuildings.energy.gov Energy Intensity Baselining and Tracking Guidance i Preface The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Better Buildings, Better Plants Program (Better...

  19. Energy Intensity Indicators: Terminology and Definitions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Energy Intensity Indicators website uses the following terms with their associated definitions. The terms related to various definitions of energy are discussed first.

  20. Fundamental Physics at the Intensity Frontier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. L. Hewett; H. Weerts; R. Brock; J. N. Butler; B. C. K. Casey; J. Collar; A. de Gouvea; R. Essig; Y. Grossman; W. Haxton; J. A. Jaros; C. K. Jung; Z. T. Lu; K. Pitts; Z. Ligeti; J. R. Patterson; M. Ramsey-Musolf; J. L. Ritchie; A. Roodman; K. Scholberg; C. E. M. Wagner; G. P. Zeller; S. Aefsky; A. Afanasev; K. Agashe; C. Albright; J. Alonso; C. Ankenbrandt; M. Aoki; C. A. Arguelles; N. Arkani-Hamed; J. R. Armendariz; C. Armendariz-Picon; E. Arrieta Diaz; J. Asaadi; D. M. Asner; K. S. Babu; K. Bailey; O. Baker; B. Balantekin; B. Baller; M. Bass; B. Batell; J. Beacham; J. Behr; N. Berger; M. Bergevin; E. Berman; R. Bernstein; A. J. Bevan; M. Bishai; M. Blanke; S. Blessing; A. Blondel; T. Blum; G. Bock; A. Bodek; G. Bonvicini; F. Bossi; J. Boyce; R. Breedon; M. Breidenbach; S. J. Brice; R. A. Briere; S. Brodsky; C. Bromberg; A. Bross; T. E. Browder; D. A. Bryman; M. Buckley; R. Burnstein; E. Caden; P. Campana; R. Carlini; G. Carosi; C. Castromonte; R. Cenci; I. Chakaberia; M. C. Chen; C. H. Cheng; B. Choudhary; N. H. Christ; E. Christensen; M. E. Christy; T. E. Chupp; E. Church; D. B. Cline; T. E. Coan; P. Coloma; J. Comfort; L. Coney; J. Cooper; R. J. Cooper; R. Cowan; D. F. Cowen; D. Cronin-Hennessy; A. Datta; G. S. Davies; M. Demarteau; D. P. DeMille; A. Denig; R. Dermisek; A. Deshpande; M. S. Dewey; R. Dharmapalan; J. Dhooghe; M. R. Dietrich; M. Diwan; Z. Djurcic; S. Dobbs; M. Duraisamy; B. Dutta; H. Duyang; D. A. Dwyer; M. Eads; B. Echenard; S. R. Elliott; C. Escobar; J. Fajans; S. Farooq; C. Faroughy; J. E. Fast; B. Feinberg; J. Felde; G. Feldman; P. Fierlinger; P. Fileviez Perez; B. Filippone; P. Fisher; B. T. Flemming; K. T. Flood; R. Forty; M. J. Frank; A. Freyberger; A. Friedland; R. Gandhi; K. S. Ganezer; A. Garcia; F. G. Garcia; S. Gardner; L. Garrison; A. Gasparian; S. Geer; V. M. Gehman; T. Gershon; M. Gilchriese; C. Ginsberg; I. Gogoladze; M. Gonderinger; M. Goodman; H. Gould; M. Graham; P. W. Graham; R. Gran; J. Grange; G. Gratta; J. P. Green; H. Greenlee; R. C. Group; E. Guardincerri; V. Gudkov; R. Guenette; A. Haas; A. Hahn; T. Han; T. Handler; J. C. Hardy; R. Harnik; D. A. Harris; F. A. Harris; P. G. Harris; J. Hartnett; B. He; B. R. Heckel; K. M. Heeger; S. Henderson; D. Hertzog; R. Hill; E. A Hinds; D. G. Hitlin; R. J. Holt; N. Holtkamp; G. Horton-Smith; P. Huber; W. Huelsnitz; J. Imber; I. Irastorza; J. Jaeckel; I. Jaegle; C. James; A. Jawahery; D. Jensen; C. P. Jessop; B. Jones; H. Jostlein; T. Junk; A. L. Kagan; M. Kalita; Y. Kamyshkov; D. M. Kaplan; G. Karagiorgi; A. Karle; T. Katori; B. Kayser; R. Kephart; S. Kettell; Y. K. Kim; M. Kirby; K. Kirch; J. Klein; J. Kneller; A. Kobach; M. Kohl; J. Kopp; M. Kordosky; W. Korsch; I. Kourbanis; A. D. Krisch; P. Krizan; A. S. Kronfeld; S. Kulkarni; K. S. Kumar; Y. Kuno; T. Kutter; T. Lachenmaier; M. Lamm; J. Lancaster; M. Lancaster; C. Lane; K. Lang; P. Langacker; S. Lazarevic; T. Le; K. Lee; K. T. Lesko; Y. Li; M. Lindgren; A. Lindner; J. Link; D. Lissauer; L. S. Littenberg; B. Littlejohn; C. Y. Liu; W. Loinaz; W. Lorenzon; W. C. Louis; J. Lozier; L. Ludovici; L. Lueking; C. Lunardini; D. B. MacFarlane; P. A. N. Machado; P. B. Mackenzie; J. Maloney; W. J. Marciano; W. Marsh; M. Marshak; J. W. Martin; C. Mauger; K. S. McFarland; C. McGrew; G. McLaughlin; D. McKeen; R. McKeown; B. T. Meadows; R. Mehdiyev; D. Melconian; H. Merkel; M. Messier; J. P. Miller; G. Mills; U. K. Minamisono; S. R. Mishra; I. Mocioiu; S. Moed Sher; R. N. Mohapatra; B. Monreal; C. D. Moore; J. G. Morfin; J. Mousseau; L. A. Moustakas; G. Mueller; P. Mueller; M. Muether; H. P. Mumm; C. Munger; H. Murayama; P. Nath; O. Naviliat-Cuncin; J. K. Nelson; D. Neuffer; J. S. Nico; A. Norman; D. Nygren; Y. Obayashi; T. P. O'Connor; Y. Okada; J. Olsen; L. Orozco; J. L. Orrell; J. Osta; B. Pahlka; J. Paley; V. Papadimitriou; M. Papucci; S. Parke; R. H. Parker; Z. Parsa; K. Partyka; A. Patch; J. C. Pati; R. B. Patterson; Z. Pavlovic; G. Paz; G. N. Perdue; D. Perevalov; G. Perez; R. Petti; W. Pettus; A. Piepke; M. Pivovaroff; R. Plunkett; C. C. Polly; M. Pospelov; R. Povey; A. Prakesh; M. V. Purohit; S. Raby; J. L. Raaf; R. Rajendran; S. Rajendran; G. Rameika; R. Ramsey; A. Rashed; B. N. Ratcliff; B. Rebel; J. Redondo; P. Reimer; D. Reitzner; F. Ringer; A. Ringwald; S. Riordan; B. L. Roberts; D. A. Roberts; R. Robertson; F. Robicheaux; M. Rominsky; R. Roser; J. L. Rosner; C. Rott; P. Rubin; N. Saito; M. Sanchez; S. Sarkar; H. Schellman; B. Schmidt; M. Schmitt; D. W. Schmitz; J. Schneps; A. Schopper; P. Schuster; A. J. Schwartz; M. Schwarz; J. Seeman; Y. K. Semertzidis; K. K. Seth; Q. Shafi; P. Shanahan; R. Sharma; S. R. Sharpe; M. Shiozawa; V. Shiltsev; K. Sigurdson; P. Sikivie; J. Singh; D. Sivers; T. Skwarnicki; N. Smith; J. Sobczyk; H. Sobel; M. Soderberg; Y. H. Song; A. Soni; P. Souder; A. Sousa; J. Spitz; M. Stancari; G. C. Stavenga; J. H. Steffen

    2012-05-11

    The Proceedings of the 2011 workshop on Fundamental Physics at the Intensity Frontier. Science opportunities at the intensity frontier are identified and described in the areas of heavy quarks, charged leptons, neutrinos, proton decay, new light weakly-coupled particles, and nucleons, nuclei, and atoms.

  1. Fundamental Physics at the Intensity Frontier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hewett, J L; Brock, R; Butler, J N; Casey, B C K; Collar, J; de Gouvea, A; Essig, R; Grossman, Y; Haxton, W; Jaros, J A; Jung, C K; Lu, Z T; Pitts, K; Ligeti, Z; Patterson, J R; Ramsey-Musolf, M; Ritchie, J L; Roodman, A; Scholberg, K; Wagner, C E M; Zeller, G P; Aefsky, S; Afanasev, A; Agashe, K; Albright, C; Alonso, J; Ankenbrandt, C; Aoki, M; Arguelles, C A; Arkani-Hamed, N; Armendariz, J R; Armendariz-Picon, C; Diaz, E Arrieta; Asaadi, J; Asner, D M; Babu, K S; Bailey, K; Baker, O; Balantekin, B; Baller, B; Bass, M; Batell, B; Beacham, J; Behr, J; Berger, N; Bergevin, M; Berman, E; Bernstein, R; Bevan, A J; Bishai, M; Blanke, M; Blessing, S; Blondel, A; Blum, T; Bock, G; Bodek, A; Bonvicini, G; Bossi, F; Boyce, J; Breedon, R; Breidenbach, M; Brice, S J; Briere, R A; Brodsky, S; Bromberg, C; Bross, A; Browder, T E; Bryman, D A; Buckley, M; Burnstein, R; Caden, E; Campana, P; Carlini, R; Carosi, G; Castromonte, C; Cenci, R; Chakaberia, I; Chen, M C; Cheng, C H; Choudhary, B; Christ, N H; Christensen, E; Christy, M E; Chupp, T E; Church, E; Cline, D B; Coan, T E; Coloma, P; Comfort, J; Coney, L; Cooper, J; Cooper, R J; Cowan, R; Cowen, D F; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Datta, A; Davies, G S; Demarteau, M; DeMille, D P; Denig, A; Dermisek, R; Deshpande, A; Dewey, M S; Dharmapalan, R; Dhooghe, J; Dietrich, M R; Diwan, M; Djurcic, Z; Dobbs, S; Duraisamy, M; Dutta, B; Duyang, H; Dwyer, D A; Eads, M; Echenard, B; Elliott, S R; Escobar, C; Fajans, J; Farooq, S; Faroughy, C; Fast, J E; Feinberg, B; Felde, J; Feldman, G; Fierlinger, P; Perez, P Fileviez; Filippone, B; Fisher, P; Flemming, B T; Flood, K T; Forty, R; Frank, M J; Freyberger, A; Friedland, A; Gandhi, R; Ganezer, K S; Garcia, A; Garcia, F G; Gardner, S; Garrison, L; Gasparian, A; Geer, S; Gehman, V M; Gershon, T; Gilchriese, M; Ginsberg, C; Gogoladze, I; Gonderinger, M; Goodman, M; Gould, H; Graham, M; Graham, P W; Gran, R; Grange, J; Gratta, G; Green, J P; Greenlee, H; Guardincerri, E; Gudkov, V; Guenette, R; Haas, A; Hahn, A; Han, T; Handler, T; Hardy, J C; Harnik, R; Harris, D A; Harris, F A; Harris, P G; Hartnett, J; He, B; Heckel, B R; Heeger, K M; Henderson, S; Hertzog, D; Hill, R; Hinds, E A; Hitlin, D G; Holt, R J; Holtkamp, N; Horton-Smith, G; Huber, P; Huelsnitz, W; Imber, J; Irastorza, I; Jaeckel, J; Jaegle, I; James, C; Jawahery, A; Jensen, D; Jessop, C P; Jones, B; Jostlein, H; Junk, T; Kagan, A L; Kalita, M; Kamyshkov, Y; Kaplan, D M; Karagiorgi, G; Karle, A; Katori, T; Kayser, B; Kephart, R; Kettell, S; Kim, Y K; Kirby, M; Kirch, K; Klein, J; Kneller, J; Kobach, A; Kohl, M; Kopp, J; Kordosky, M; Korsch, W; Kourbanis, I; Krisch, A D; Krizan, P; Kronfeld, A S; Kulkarni, S; Kumar, K S; Kuno, Y; Kutter, T; Lachenmaier, T; Lamm, M; Lancaster, J; Lancaster, M; Lane, C; Lang, K; Langacker, P; Lazarevic, S; Le, T; Lee, K; Lesko, K T; Li, Y; Lindgren, M; Lindner, A; Link, J; Lissauer, D; Littenberg, L S; Littlejohn, B; Liu, C Y; Loinaz, W; Lorenzon, W; Louis, W C; Lozier, J; Ludovici, L; Lueking, L; Lunardini, C; MacFarlane, D B; Machado, P A N; Mackenzie, P B; Maloney, J; Marciano, W J; Marsh, W; Marshak, M; Martin, J W; Mauger, C; McFarland, K S; McGrew, C; McLaughlin, G; McKeen, D; McKeown, R; Meadows, B T; Mehdiyev, R; Melconian, D; Merkel, H; Messier, M; Miller, J P; Mills, G; Minamisono, U K; Mishra, S R; Mocioiu, I; Sher, S Moed; Mohapatra, R N; Monreal, B; Moore, C D; Morfin, J G; Mousseau, J; Moustakas, L A; Mueller, G; Mueller, P; Muether, M; Mumm, H P; Munger, C; Murayama, H; Nath, P; Naviliat-Cuncin, O; Nelson, J K; Neuffer, D; Nico, J S; Norman, A; Nygren, D; Obayashi, Y; O'Connor, T P; Okada, Y; Olsen, J; Orozco, L; Orrell, J L; Osta, J; Pahlka, B; Paley, J; Papadimitriou, V; Papucci, M; Parke, S; Parker, R H; Parsa, Z; Partyka, K; Patch, A; Pati, J C; Patterson, R B; Pavlovic, Z; Paz, G; Perdue, G N; Perevalov, D; Perez, G; Petti, R; Pettus, W; Piepke, A; Pivovaroff, M; Plunkett, R; Polly, C C; Pospelov, M; Povey, R; Prakesh, A; Purohit, M V; Raby, S; Raaf, J L; Rajendran, R; Rajendran, S; Rameika, G; Ramsey, R; Rashed, A; Ratcliff, B N; Rebel, B; Redondo, J; Reimer, P; Reitzner, D; Ringer, F; Ringwald, A; Riordan, S; Roberts, B L; Roberts, D A; Robertson, R; Robicheaux, F; Rominsky, M; Roser, R; Rosner, J L; Rott, C; Rubin, P; Saito, N; Sanchez, M; Sarkar, S; Schellman, H; Schmidt, B; Schmitt, M; Schmitz, D W; Schneps, J; Schopper, A; Schuster, P; Schwartz, A J; Schwarz, M; Seeman, J; Semertzidis, Y K; Seth, K K; Shafi, Q; Shanahan, P; Sharma, R; Sharpe, S R; Shiozawa, M; Shiltsev, V; Sigurdson, K; Sikivie, P; Singh, J; Sivers, D; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N; Sobczyk, J; Sobel, H; Soderberg, M; Song, Y H; Soni, A; Souder, P; Sousa, A; Spitz, J; Stancari, M; Stavenga, G C; Steffen, J H; Stepanyan, S; Stoeckinger, D; Stone, S; Strait, J; Strassler, M; Sulai, I A; Sundrum, R; Svoboda, R; Szczerbinska, B; Szelc, A; Takeuchi, T; Tanedo, P

    2012-01-01

    The Proceedings of the 2011 workshop on Fundamental Physics at the Intensity Frontier. Science opportunities at the intensity frontier are identified and described in the areas of heavy quarks, charged leptons, neutrinos, proton decay, new light weakly-coupled particles, and nucleons, nuclei, and atoms.

  2. Service Assessment Intense Space Weather Storms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schrijver, Karel

    Service Assessment Intense Space Weather Storms October 19 ­ November 07, 2003 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Weather Service Silver Spring, Maryland image. #12;Service Assessment Intense Space Weather Storms October 19 ­ November 07, 2003 April 2004 U

  3. Modeling Data-Intensive Web Sites 259 ModelingData-Intensive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modeling Data-Intensive Web Sites 259 ChapterXII ModelingData-Intensive Web Sites-by-stepapproachtothedesign,implementation and management of a Data-Intensive Web Site (DIWS). The approach introduces five data formulation is that of "Web fragments," that is an information decomposition technique that aids design, implementation

  4. Techniques for optically compressing light intensity ranges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rushford, Michael C.

    1989-01-01

    A pin hole camera assembly for use in viewing an object having a relatively large light intensity range, for example a crucible containing molten uranium in an atomic vapor laser isotope separator (AVLIS) system is disclosed herein. The assembly includes means for optically compressing the light intensity range appearing at its input sufficient to make it receivable and decipherable by a standard video camera. A number of different means for compressing the intensity range are disclosed. These include the use of photogray glass, the use of a pair of interference filters, and the utilization of a new liquid crystal notch filter in combination with an interference filter.

  5. Techniques for optically compressing light intensity ranges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rushford, M.C.

    1989-03-28

    A pin hole camera assembly for use in viewing an object having a relatively large light intensity range, for example a crucible containing molten uranium in an atomic vapor laser isotope separator (AVLIS) system is disclosed herein. The assembly includes means for optically compressing the light intensity range appearing at its input sufficient to make it receivable and decipherable by a standard video camera. A number of different means for compressing the intensity range are disclosed. These include the use of photogray glass, the use of a pair of interference filters, and the utilization of a new liquid crystal notch filter in combination with an interference filter. 18 figs.

  6. Energy Intensity Indicators: Commercial Source Energy Consumption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Figure C1 below reports as index numbers over the period 1970 through 2011: 1) commercial building floor space, 2) energy use based on source energy consumption, 3) energy intensity, and 4) the...

  7. Building dependability arguments for software intensive systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seater, Robert Morrison

    2009-01-01

    A method is introduced for structuring and guiding the development of end-to-end dependability arguments. The goal is to establish high-level requirements of complex software-intensive systems, especially properties that ...

  8. Technical Change, Investment and Energy Intensity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kratena, Kurt

    This paper analyzes the role of different components of technical change on energy intensity by applying a Translog variable cost function setting to the new EU KLEMS dataset for 3 selected EU countries (Italy, Finland and ...

  9. Absolute vs. intensity-based emission caps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellerman, A. Denny.

    Cap-and-trade systems limit emissions to some pre-specified absolute quantity. Intensity-based limits, that restrict emissions to some pre-specified rate relative to input or output, are much more widely used in environmental ...

  10. Computational phase imaging based on intensity transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waller, Laura A. (Laura Ann)

    2010-01-01

    Light is a wave, having both an amplitude and a phase. However, optical frequencies are too high to allow direct detection of phase; thus, our eyes and cameras see only real values - intensity. Phase carries important ...

  11. Applications in Data-Intensive Computing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, Anuj R.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Baxter, Douglas J.; Cannon, William R.; Chavarría-Miranda, Daniel; Choudhury, Sutanay; Gorton, Ian; Gracio, Deborah K.; Halter, Todd D.; Jaitly, Navdeep; Johnson, John R.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Macduff, Matt C.; Marquez, Andres; Monroe, Matthew E.; Oehmen, Christopher S.; Pike, William A.; Scherrer, Chad; Villa, Oreste; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Whitney, Paul D.; Zuljevic, Nino

    2010-04-01

    This book chapter, to be published in Advances in Computers, Volume 78, in 2010 describes applications of data intensive computing (DIC). This is an invited chapter resulting from a previous publication on DIC. This work summarizes efforts coming out of the PNNL's Data Intensive Computing Initiative. Advances in technology have empowered individuals with the ability to generate digital content with mouse clicks and voice commands. Digital pictures, emails, text messages, home videos, audio, and webpages are common examples of digital content that are generated on a regular basis. Data intensive computing facilitates human understanding of complex problems. Data-intensive applications provide timely and meaningful analytical results in response to exponentially growing data complexity and associated analysis requirements through the development of new classes of software, algorithms, and hardware.

  12. Laser intensity effects in noncommutative QED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Heinzl; Anton Ilderton; Mattias Marklund

    2010-02-17

    We discuss a two-fold extension of QED assuming the presence of strong external fields provided by an ultra-intense laser and noncommutativity of spacetime. While noncommutative effects leave the electron's intensity induced mass shift unchanged, the photons change significantly in character: they acquire a quasi-momentum that is no longer light-like. We study the consequences of this combined noncommutative strong-field effect for basic lepton-photon interactions.

  13. ON COMPUTING UPPER LIMITS TO SOURCE INTENSITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kashyap, Vinay L.; Siemiginowska, Aneta [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Van Dyk, David A.; Xu Jin [Department of Statistics, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-1250 (United States); Connors, Alanna [Eureka Scientific, 2452 Delmer Street, Suite 100, Oakland, CA 94602-3017 (United States); Freeman, Peter E. [Department of Statistics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Zezas, Andreas, E-mail: vkashyap@cfa.harvard.ed, E-mail: asiemiginowska@cfa.harvard.ed, E-mail: dvd@ics.uci.ed, E-mail: jinx@ics.uci.ed, E-mail: aconnors@eurekabayes.co, E-mail: pfreeman@cmu.ed, E-mail: azezas@cfa.harvard.ed [Physics Department, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, GR-710 03, Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2010-08-10

    A common problem in astrophysics is determining how bright a source could be and still not be detected in an observation. Despite the simplicity with which the problem can be stated, the solution involves complicated statistical issues that require careful analysis. In contrast to the more familiar confidence bound, this concept has never been formally analyzed, leading to a great variety of often ad hoc solutions. Here we formulate and describe the problem in a self-consistent manner. Detection significance is usually defined by the acceptable proportion of false positives (background fluctuations that are claimed as detections, or Type I error), and we invoke the complementary concept of false negatives (real sources that go undetected, or Type II error), based on the statistical power of a test, to compute an upper limit to the detectable source intensity. To determine the minimum intensity that a source must have for it to be detected, we first define a detection threshold and then compute the probabilities of detecting sources of various intensities at the given threshold. The intensity that corresponds to the specified Type II error probability defines that minimum intensity and is identified as the upper limit. Thus, an upper limit is a characteristic of the detection procedure rather than the strength of any particular source. It should not be confused with confidence intervals or other estimates of source intensity. This is particularly important given the large number of catalogs that are being generated from increasingly sensitive surveys. We discuss, with examples, the differences between these upper limits and confidence bounds. Both measures are useful quantities that should be reported in order to extract the most science from catalogs, though they answer different statistical questions: an upper bound describes an inference range on the source intensity, while an upper limit calibrates the detection process. We provide a recipe for computing upper limits that applies to all detection algorithms.

  14. Optical Intensity Interferometry through Atmospheric Turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peng Kian Tan; Aik Hui Chan; Christian Kurtsiefer

    2015-12-29

    Conventional ground-based astronomical observations suffer from image distortion due to atmospheric turbulence. This can be minimized by choosing suitable geographic locations or adaptive optical techniques, and avoided altogether by using orbital platforms outside the atmosphere. One of the promises of optical intensity interferometry is its independence from atmospherically induced phase fluctuations. By performing narrowband spectral filtering on sunlight and conducting temporal intensity interferometry using actively quenched avalanche photon detectors (APDs), the Solar $g^{(2)}(\\tau)$ signature was directly measured. We observe an averaged photon bunching signal of $g^{(2)}(\\tau) = 1.693 \\pm 0.003$ from the Sun, consistently throughout the day despite fluctuating weather conditions, cloud cover and elevation angle. This demonstrates the robustness of the intensity interferometry technique against atmospheric turbulence and opto-mechanical instabilities, and the feasibility to implement measurement schemes with both large baselines and long integration times.

  15. Delivering High IntensityDelivering High Intensity Proton Beam:Proton Beam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    11 Delivering High IntensityDelivering High Intensity Proton Beam:Proton Beam: Lessons for the NextFACT08NuFACT08 ­­ 4 July4 July S. ChildressS. Childress ­­ Proton BeamsProton Beams 22 Presentation OutlinePresentation Outline Key Proton Beam ConsiderationsKey Proton Beam Considerations The First

  16. Radiation Dose Measurement for High-Intensity Laser Interactions...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Radiation Dose Measurement for High-Intensity Laser Interactions with Solid Targets at SLAC Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Radiation Dose Measurement for High-Intensity...

  17. World Best Practice Energy Intensity Values for Selected Industrial Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn; Neelis, Maarten; Galitsky, Christina; Zhou, Nan

    2007-01-01

    1 2. World Best Practice Energy IntensityBrussels: IISI. Best practice energy use is also determinedalong with the best practice energy intensity value for

  18. World Best Practice Energy Intensity Values for Selected Industrial Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn; Neelis, Maarten; Galitsky, Christina; Zhou, Nan

    2007-01-01

    Best Practice Final and Primary Energy Intensity Values forWorld Best Practice Primary Energy Intensity Values forRecovered Pulp Note: Primary energy includes electricity

  19. 2014 call for NERSC's Data Intensive Computing Pilot Program...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NERSC's Data Intensive Computing Pilot Program 2014 call for NERSC's Data Intensive Computing Pilot Program Due December 10 November 18, 2013 by Francesca Verdier (0 Comments)...

  20. EIA Energy Efficiency-Residential Sector Energy Intensities,...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential Sector Energy Intensities RESIDENTIAL SECTOR ENERGY INTENSITIES: 1978-2005 Released Date: August 2004 Page Last Modified:June 2009 These tables provide estimates of...

  1. ITP Energy Intensive Processes: Improved Heat Recovery in Biomass...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Intensive Processes: Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing Key Energy Challenges Across U.S. Industry Guide to Low-Emission Boiler and Combustion Equipment Selection...

  2. WHERE ARE THE MOST INTENSE THUNDERSTORMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nesbitt, Steve

    provided unparalleled information on the global distribution of intense convective storms. T he Tropical-alti- tude, non-sun-synchronous orbit permits sampling throughout the diurnal cycle of precipitation. The cloud-top temperature of storms has been measured using infrared (IR) bright- ness temperature (Tb

  3. Energy Intensity Indicators: Transportation Energy Consumption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This section contains an overview of the aggregate transportation sector, combining both passenger and freight segments of this sector. The specific energy intensity indicators for passenger and freight can be obtained from the links, passenger transportation, or freight transportation. For further detail within the transportation sector, download the appropriate Trend Data worksheet containing detailed data and graphics for specific transportation modes.

  4. Adaptive Background Estimation using Intensity Independent Features

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lunds Universitet

    Adaptive Background Estimation using Intensity Independent Features Håkan Ardö, Rikard Berthilsson to rapid changes in lighting conditions. Furthermore, the features can be computed very efficiently using reliable way, also in outdoor scenes where the lighting conditions is changing rapidly due to passing

  5. Storage-Intensive Supercomputing Benchmark Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, J; Dossa, D; Gokhale, M; Hysom, D; May, J; Pearce, R; Yoo, A

    2007-10-30

    Critical data science applications requiring frequent access to storage perform poorly on today's computing architectures. This project addresses efficient computation of data-intensive problems in national security and basic science by exploring, advancing, and applying a new form of computing called storage-intensive supercomputing (SISC). Our goal is to enable applications that simply cannot run on current systems, and, for a broad range of data-intensive problems, to deliver an order of magnitude improvement in price/performance over today's data-intensive architectures. This technical report documents much of the work done under LDRD 07-ERD-063 Storage Intensive Supercomputing during the period 05/07-09/07. The following chapters describe: (1) a new file I/O monitoring tool iotrace developed to capture the dynamic I/O profiles of Linux processes; (2) an out-of-core graph benchmark for level-set expansion of scale-free graphs; (3) an entity extraction benchmark consisting of a pipeline of eight components; and (4) an image resampling benchmark drawn from the SWarp program in the LSST data processing pipeline. The performance of the graph and entity extraction benchmarks was measured in three different scenarios: data sets residing on the NFS file server and accessed over the network; data sets stored on local disk; and data sets stored on the Fusion I/O parallel NAND Flash array. The image resampling benchmark compared performance of software-only to GPU-accelerated. In addition to the work reported here, an additional text processing application was developed that used an FPGA to accelerate n-gram profiling for language classification. The n-gram application will be presented at SC07 at the High Performance Reconfigurable Computing Technologies and Applications Workshop. The graph and entity extraction benchmarks were run on a Supermicro server housing the NAND Flash 40GB parallel disk array, the Fusion-io. The Fusion system specs are as follows: SuperMicro X7DBE Xeon Dual Socket Blackford Server Motherboard; 2 Intel Xeon Dual-Core 2.66 GHz processors; 1 GB DDR2 PC2-5300 RAM (2 x 512); 80GB Hard Drive (Seagate SATA II Barracuda). The Fusion board is presently capable of 4X in a PCIe slot. The image resampling benchmark was run on a dual Xeon workstation with NVIDIA graphics card (see Chapter 5 for full specification). An XtremeData Opteron+FPGA was used for the language classification application. We observed that these benchmarks are not uniformly I/O intensive. The only benchmark that showed greater that 50% of the time in I/O was the graph algorithm when it accessed data files over NFS. When local disk was used, the graph benchmark spent at most 40% of its time in I/O. The other benchmarks were CPU dominated. The image resampling benchmark and language classification showed order of magnitude speedup over software by using co-processor technology to offload the CPU-intensive kernels. Our experiments to date suggest that emerging hardware technologies offer significant benefit to boosting the performance of data-intensive algorithms. Using GPU and FPGA co-processors, we were able to improve performance by more than an order of magnitude on the benchmark algorithms, eliminating the processor bottleneck of CPU-bound tasks. Experiments with a prototype solid state nonvolative memory available today show 10X better throughput on random reads than disk, with a 2X speedup on a graph processing benchmark when compared to the use of local SATA disk.

  6. Passive, Noiseless, Intensity Amplification of Repetitive Signals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maram, R; Li, M; Azańa, J

    2014-01-01

    Amplification of signal intensity is essential for initiating physical processes, diagnostics, sensing, communications, and scientific measurement. During traditional amplification, the signal is amplified by multiplying the signal carriers through an active gain process using an external power source. However, for repetitive waveforms, sufficient energy for amplification often resides in the signal itself. In such cases, the unneeded external power is wasted, and the signal is additionally degraded by noise and distortions that accompany active gain processes. We show noiseless, intensity amplification of repetitive optical pulse waveforms with a gain from 2 to ~20 without using active gain, by recycling energy already stored in the input repetitive signal. This "green" method uses dispersion-induced self-imaging (Talbot) effects to precisely re-distribute the original signal energy into fewer replica waveforms. This approach simply requires a suitable manipulation of the input signal's phase profile along t...

  7. Intensive Variables & Nanostructuring in Magnetostructural Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, Laura

    2014-08-13

    Over the course of this project, fundamental inquiry was carried out to investigate, understand and predict the effects of intensive variables, including the structural scale, on magnetostructural phase transitions in the model system of equiatomic FeRh. These transitions comprise simultaneous magnetic and structural phase changes that have their origins in very strong orbital-lattice coupling and thus may be driven by a plurality of effects.

  8. Nuclear astrophysics with intense photon beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shizuma, Toshiyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2012-07-09

    Quasi-monochromatic photon beams generated by inverse Compton scattering of laser light with high energy electrons can be used for precise measurements of photoneutrons and resonant scattered {gamma} rays. Extremely high intensity and small energy spreading width of the photon beam expected at the ELI Nuclear Physics facility would increase the experimental sensitivities considerably. Possible photonuclear reaction measurements relevant to the p-process nucleosynthesis are discussed.

  9. COLLIMATION OPTIMIZATION IN HIGH INTENSITY RINGS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CATALAN-LASHERAS,N.

    2001-06-18

    In high intensity proton rings, collimation is needed in order to maintain reasonable levels of residual activation and allow hands-on maintenance. Small acceptance to emittance ratio and restrained longitudinal space become important restrictions when dealing with low energy rings. The constraints and specifications when designing a collimation system for this type of machine will be reviewed. The SNS accumulator ring will serve as an examples long which we will illustrate the optimization path. Experimental studies of collimation with 1.3 GeV proton beams are currently under way in the U-70 machine in Protvino. The first results will be presented.

  10. Intense steady state electron beam generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hershcovitch, A.; Kovarik, V.J.; Prelec, K.

    1990-07-17

    An intense, steady state, low emittance electron beam generator is formed by operating a hollow cathode discharge plasma source at critical levels in combination with an extraction electrode and a target electrode that are operable to extract a beam of fast primary electrons from the plasma source through a negatively biased grid that is critically operated to repel bulk electrons toward the plasma source while allowing the fast primary electrons to move toward the target in the desired beam that can be successfully transported for relatively large distances, such as one or more meters away from the plasma source. 2 figs.

  11. Quantum Vacuum Experiments Using High Intensity Lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mattias Marklund; Joakim Lundin

    2009-04-02

    The quantum vacuum constitutes a fascinating medium of study, in particular since near-future laser facilities will be able to probe the nonlinear nature of this vacuum. There has been a large number of proposed tests of the low-energy, high intensity regime of quantum electrodynamics (QED) where the nonlinear aspects of the electromagnetic vacuum comes into play, and we will here give a short description of some of these. Such studies can shed light, not only on the validity of QED, but also on certain aspects of nonperturbative effects, and thus also give insights for quantum field theories in general.

  12. High intensity discharge device containing oxytrihalides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lapatovich, W.P.; Keeffe, W.M.; Liebermann, R.W.; Maya, J.

    1987-06-09

    A fill composition for a high intensity discharge device including mercury, niobium oxytrihalide, and a molecular stabilization agent is provided. The molar ratio of niobium oxytrihalide to the molecular stabilization agent in the fill is in the range of from about 5:1 to about 7.5:1. Niobium oxytrihalide is present in the fill in sufficient amount to produce, by dissociation in the discharge, atomic niobium, niobium oxide, NbO, and niobium dioxide, NbO[sub 2], with the molar ratio of niobium-containing vapor species to mercury in the fill being in the range of from about 0.01:1 to about 0.50:1; and mercury pressure of about 1 to about 50 atmospheres at lamp operating temperature. There is also provided a high intensity discharge device comprising a sealed light-transmissive arc tube; the arc tube including the above-described fill; and an energizing means for producing an electric discharge within the arc tube. 7 figs.

  13. China's energy intensity and its determinants at the provincial level

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Xin, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01

    Energy intensity is defined as the amount of energy consumed per dollar of GDP (Gross Domestic Product). The People's Republic of China's (China's) energy intensity has been declining significantly since the late 1970s. ...

  14. INERTIAL FUSION DRIVEN BY INTENSE HEAVY-ION BEAMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharp, W. M.

    2011-01-01

    HIFAN 1830 INERTIAL FUSION DRIVEN BY INTENSE HEAVY-ION BEAMSAC02-05CH11231. INERTIAL FUSION DRIVEN BY INTENSE HEAVY-ION467 (1992). [38] R. W. Moir, Fusion Tech. 25, 5 (1994) [39

  15. Energy End-Use Intensities in Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    lighting intensities per lighted square foot-hour (Figure 23). * Food service and health care buildings had the highest water-heating intensities per square foot--more than...

  16. Precipitation amount and intensity measurements with the Ott Pluvio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wauben, Wiel

    Precipitation amount and intensity measurements with the Ott Pluvio Wiel Wauben Instrumental Department, INSA-IO, KNMI August 26, 2004 #12;#12;Precipitation amount and intensity measurements................................................................................... 1 2. Precipitation sensors................................................................... 5 2

  17. Turbulence Intensity Comparisons for Pipes with/without Welds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    Turbulence Intensity Comparisons for Pipes with/without Welds Oct. 24, 2012 Yan Zhan 1 #12;Outline · Line Plot of TI at the Pipe Exit · Contour of Turbulence Intensity (Page 4 - 9) ­ with a weld - 3.2M ­ with a weld ­ 2.5M · Contour of Turbulence Intensity (Page 10 - 15) ­ with a weld - 3.2M ­ without a weld ­ 3

  18. Reconstruction of Intensity From Covered Samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barabash, Rozaliya; Watkins, Thomas R; Meisner, Roberta Ann; Burchell, Timothy D; Rosseel, Thomas M

    2015-01-01

    The safe handling of activated samples requires containment and covering the sample to eliminate any potential for contamination. Subsequent characterization of the surface with x-rays ideally necessitates a thin film. While many films appear visually transparent, they are not necessarily x-ray transparent. Each film material has a unique beam attenuation and sometimes have amorphous peaks that can superimpose with those of the sample. To reconstruct the intensity of the underlying activated sample, the x-ray attenuation and signal due to the film needs to be removed from that of the sample. This requires the calculation of unique deconvolution parameters for the film. The development of a reconstruction procedure for a contained/covered sample is described.

  19. Position, rotation, and intensity invariant recognizing method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ochoa, Ellen (Pleasanton, CA); Schils, George F. (San Ramon, CA); Sweeney, Donald W. (Alamo, CA)

    1989-01-01

    A method for recognizing the presence of a particular target in a field of view which is target position, rotation, and intensity invariant includes the preparing of a target-specific invariant filter from a combination of all eigen-modes of a pattern of the particular target. Coherent radiation from the field of view is then imaged into an optical correlator in which the invariant filter is located. The invariant filter is rotated in the frequency plane of the optical correlator in order to produce a constant-amplitude rotational response in a correlation output plane when the particular target is present in the field of view. Any constant response is thus detected in the output The U.S. Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC04-76DP00789 between the U.S. Department of Energy and AT&T Technologies, Inc.

  20. THE CENTER FOR DATA INTENSIVE COMPUTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GLIMM,J.

    2002-11-01

    CDIC will provide state-of-the-art computational and computer science for the Laboratory and for the broader DOE and scientific community. We achieve this goal by performing advanced scientific computing research in the Laboratory's mission areas of High Energy and Nuclear Physics, Biological and Environmental Research, and Basic Energy Sciences. We also assist other groups at the Laboratory to reach new levels of achievement in computing. We are ''data intensive'' because the production and manipulation of large quantities of data are hallmarks of scientific research in the 21st century and are intrinsic features of major programs at Brookhaven. An integral part of our activity to accomplish this mission will be a close collaboration with the University at Stony Brook.

  1. THE CENTER FOR DATA INTENSIVE COMPUTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GLIMM,J.

    2001-11-01

    CDIC will provide state-of-the-art computational and computer science for the Laboratory and for the broader DOE and scientific community. We achieve this goal by performing advanced scientific computing research in the Laboratory's mission areas of High Energy and Nuclear Physics, Biological and Environmental Research, and Basic Energy Sciences. We also assist other groups at the Laboratory to reach new levels of achievement in computing. We are ''data intensive'' because the production and manipulation of large quantities of data are hallmarks of scientific research in the 21st century and are intrinsic features of major programs at Brookhaven. An integral part of our activity to accomplish this mission will be a close collaboration with the University at Stony Brook.

  2. THE CENTER FOR DATA INTENSIVE COMPUTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GLIMM,J.

    2003-11-01

    CDIC will provide state-of-the-art computational and computer science for the Laboratory and for the broader DOE and scientific community. We achieve this goal by performing advanced scientific computing research in the Laboratory's mission areas of High Energy and Nuclear Physics, Biological and Environmental Research, and Basic Energy Sciences. We also assist other groups at the Laboratory to reach new levels of achievement in computing. We are ''data intensive'' because the production and manipulation of large quantities of data are hallmarks of scientific research in the 21st century and are intrinsic features of major programs at Brookhaven. An integral part of our activity to accomplish this mission will be a close collaboration with the University at Stony Brook.

  3. Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care Ii (Mimic-Ii): A Public-Access Intensive Care Unit Database

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saeed, Mohammed

    Objective: We sought to develop an intensive care unit research database applying automated techniques to aggregate high-resolution diagnostic and therapeutic data from a large, diverse population of adult intensive care ...

  4. Distilling two-atom distance information from intensity-intensity correlation functions RID A-5077-2009 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Jun-Tao; Evers, Joerg; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2006-01-01

    accessible in experiments. For this, we numerically solve the time-evolution equations of the system and calculate the steady-state intensity-intensity correlation by using the Laplace transform and quantum regression theory. By varying the interatomic...

  5. Data Intensive Architecture for Scalable Cyber Analytics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, Bryan K.; Johnson, John R.; Critchlow, Terence J.

    2011-12-19

    Cyber analysts are tasked with the identification and mitigation of network exploits and threats. These compromises are difficult to identify due to the characteristics of cyber communication, the volume of traffic, and the duration of possible attack. In this paper, we describe a prototype implementation designed to provide cyber analysts an environment where they can interactively explore a month’s worth of cyber security data. This prototype utilized On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) techniques to present a data cube to the analysts. The cube provides a summary of the data, allowing trends to be easily identified as well as the ability to easily pull up the original records comprising an event of interest. The cube was built using SQL Server Analysis Services (SSAS), with the interface to the cube provided by Tableau. This software infrastructure was supported by a novel hardware architecture comprising a Netezza TwinFin® for the underlying data warehouse and a cube server with a FusionIO drive hosting the data cube. We evaluated this environment on a month’s worth of artificial, but realistic, data using multiple queries provided by our cyber analysts. As our results indicate, OLAP technology has progressed to the point where it is in a unique position to provide novel insights to cyber analysts, as long as it is supported by an appropriate data intensive architecture.

  6. Intense ultraviolet perturbations on aquatic primary producers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guimarais, Mayrene; Horvath, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    During the last decade, the hypothesis that one or more biodiversity drops in the Phanerozoic eon, evident in the geological record, might have been caused by the most powerful kind of stellar explosion so far known (Gamma Ray Bursts) has been discussed in several works. These stellar explosions could have left an imprint in the biological evolution on Earth and in other habitable planets. In this work we calculate the short-term lethality that a GRB would produce in the aquatic primary producers on Earth. This effect on life appears as a result of ultraviolet (UV) re-transmission in the atmosphere of a fraction of the gamma energy, resulting in an intense UV flash capable of penetrating ~ tens of meters in the water column in the ocean. We focus on the action of the UV flash on phytoplankton, as they are the main contributors to global aquatic primary productivity. Our results suggest that the UV flash could cause an hemispheric reduction of phytoplankton biomass in the upper mixed layer of the World Ocean o...

  7. Economic potential of intensive culture of Penaeus vannamei in Mexico 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De La Mora Perez-Arce, Jose Bernardo

    1991-01-01

    operations; these operations included stocking, feeding, monitoring and harvesting of semi- intensively managed ponds stocked with Penaeus vannamei. Also, intensively managed round ponds were studied during my internship; this allowed me to become.... EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Two hypothetical shrimp farms on the Pacific coast of Mexico were designed to allow financial analysis of methods and management technologies developed in the USA for intensive culture of Penaeus vannamei under local conditions in west...

  8. Ionized channel generation of an intense-relativistic electron beam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frost, Charles A. (Albuquerque, NM); Leifeste, Gordon T. (Albuquerque, NM); Shope, Steven L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1988-01-01

    A foilless intense relativistic electron beam generator uses an ionized cnel to guide electrons from a cathode passed an anode to a remote location.

  9. Table 6. Energy intensity by State (2000-2011

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy intensity by State (2000-2011)" "thousand Btu per dollar of GDP" ,,,"Change" ,,,"2000 to 2011" "State",1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005...

  10. Energy End-Use Intensities in Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Intensities The purpose of this section is to provide information on how energy was used for space conditioning--heating, cooling, and ventilation--in commercial...

  11. Response of High-Tc Superconductor Metamaterials to High Intensity...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Response of High-Tc Superconductor Metamaterials to High Intensity THz Radiation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Response of High-Tc Superconductor...

  12. Table C10. Electricity Consumption and Expenditure Intensities...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Electricity Consumption and Expenditure Intensities, 1999" ,"Electricity Consumption",,,,,,"Electricity Expenditures" ,"per Building (thousand kWh)","per Square Foot (kWh)","per...

  13. The Fermilab Main Injector: high intensity operation and beam...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The Fermilab Main Injector: high intensity operation and beam loss control Authors: Brown, Bruce C. ; Adamson, Philip ; Capista, David ; Chou, Weiren ; Kourbanis, Ioanis ;...

  14. Title of Dissertation: LONGITUDINAL DYNAMICS OF AN INTENSE ELECTRON BEAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anlage, Steven

    ABSTRACT Title of Dissertation: LONGITUDINAL DYNAMICS OF AN INTENSE ELECTRON BEAM John Richardson fusion, spallation neutron sources, free-electron lasers, and other applications. In addition, all beams beams. #12;LONGITUDINAL DYNAMICS OF AN INTENSE ELECTRON BEAM By John Richardson Harris. Dissertation

  15. Title of Dissertation: CONTROL AND TRANSPORT OF INTENSE ELECTRON BEAMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anlage, Steven

    ABSTRACT Title of Dissertation: CONTROL AND TRANSPORT OF INTENSE ELECTRON BEAMS Hui Li, Doctor of beam characteristics over long distances. The University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER), which uses low energy, high current electron beams to model the transport physics of intense space

  16. Vessel tractography using an intensity based tensor model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yanikoglu, Berrin

    Vessel tractography using an intensity based tensor model Suheyla Cetin1 , Gozde Unal1 , Ali Demir1 method, which is based on an intensity-based tensor that fits to a vessel. Our model is initialized with a single seed point and it is ca- pable of capturing whole vessel tree by an automatic branch detection

  17. Intensive Summer Spanish Courses in Barcelona for Erasmus & University .

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greifswald, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität

    Intensive Summer Spanish Courses in Barcelona for Erasmus & University . 2014 -AUGUST 11th -SEPTEMBER- OCTOBER SpainBcn-Programs in Barcelona, is the best place to learn Spanish fast, in a warm in Barcelona or elsewhere in Spain (many students attending Spanish Universities take a 2/3/4 weeks Intensive

  18. Knowledge-Intensive Work in the Oil and Gas Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knowledge-Intensive Work in the Oil and Gas Industry: A Case Study Thesis for the degree collaborative work practices within a large international oil and gas company (OGC). The work is founded empirical findings, we argue that in knowledge-intensive, interdisciplinary work such as oil and gas

  19. The investigation of high intensity laser driven micro neutron sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghoniem, Nasr M.

    , access to high temperature states of mat- ter capable of thermonuclear fusion and/or the effi- cientThe investigation of high intensity laser driven micro neutron sources for fusion materials. The application of fast pulse, high intensity lasers to drive low cost DT point neutron sources for fusion

  20. LIQUID METAL JET TARGETS FOR INTENSE HIGH ENERGY BEAMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    LIQUID METAL JET TARGETS FOR INTENSE HIGH ENERGY BEAMS G. I. Silvestrov, Budker Institute for Nuclear Physics Novosibirsk, August 1998. #12;1 LIQUID METAL JET TARGETS FOR INTENSE HIGH ENERGY BEAMS target of liquid metal. The technical solution is producing the target in the form of flat jet flowing

  1. Precipitation amount and intensity measurements using a windscreen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wauben, Wiel

    Precipitation amount and intensity measurements using a windscreen Wiel Wauben Instrumental Department, INSA-IO, KNMI June 21, 2004 #12;#12;Precipitation amount and intensity measurements using................................................................................... 1 2. Precipitation gauge and measurement setup............................ 3 2.1. KNMI electronic

  2. A Comprehensive System of U.S. Energy Intensity Indicators

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report describes a comprehensive system of energy intensity indicators for the United States that has been developed for the Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) over the past decade. This system of indicators is hierarchical in nature, beginning with detailed indexes of energy intensity for various sectors of the economy, which are ultimately aggregated to an overall energy intensity index for the economy as a whole. The aggregation of energy intensity indexes to higher levels in the hierarchy is performed with a version of the Log Mean Divisia index (LMDI) method. Based upon the data and methods in the system of indicators, the economy-wide energy intensity index shows a decline of about 14% in 2011 relative to a 1985 base year.

  3. Variability of Gas Composition and Flux Intensity in Natural Marine Hydrocarbon Seeps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, J F; Schwager, Katherine; Washburn, Libe

    2005-01-01

    of gas composition and flux intensity in natural marineof gas composition and flux intensity in natural marine

  4. Spatiotemporal focusing does not always improve axial intensity localization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Ya; Wang, Zhaohui; Li, Guihua; Zeng, Bin; He, Fei; Chu, Wei; Yao, Jinping; Qiao, Lingling

    2015-01-01

    We report on an experimental comparison on critical intensities of nonlinear self-focusing in air with conventional focusing and spatiotemporal focusing schemes. Our results show that the conventional focusing with the focal lens completely filled with the incident beam allows for the strongest axial intensity confinement against the self-focusing effect. This is because that in the high-numerical-aperture condition, the focal spot will have a compact size which results in a high focal intensity. Meanwhile, the Rayleigh length of the focused beam will be substantially shortened which efficiently postpones the onset of self-focusing.

  5. Channeling of intense laser beams in underdense plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feit, M.D.; Garrison, J.C.; Rubenchik, A.M.

    1997-09-01

    A hydrodynamic simulation is used to show that intense laser pulses propagating in underdense plasmas create stable, long-lived, and completely evacuated channels. At low intensities, I=10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2}, self focusing seriously distorts the temporal envelope of the pulse, but channeling still occurs. At high intensities, I=10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}, channeling can proceed over many diffraction lengths with significant distortion restricted to the leading edge of the pulse. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  6. Energy intensity in China's iron and steel sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Jingsi, M.C.P. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    In this study, I examine the spatial and economic factors that influence energy intensity in China's iron and steel sector, namely industrial value added, renovation investment, coke consumption, and local coke supply. ...

  7. China energy issues : energy intensity, coal liquefaction, and carbon pricing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Ning, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    In my dissertation I explore three independent, but related, topics on China's energy issues. First, I examine the drivers for provincial energy-intensity trends in China, and finds that technology innovation is the key ...

  8. Engineering Strength, Porosity, and Emission Intensity of Nanostructur...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Engineering Strength, Porosity, and Emission Intensity of Nanostructured CdSe Networks by Altering the Building-Block Shape Home Author: H. Yu, R. Bellair, R. M. Kannan, S. L....

  9. IFTS Intensive Course on Advanced Plasma Physics-Spring 2011,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zonca, Fulvio

    IFTS Intensive Course on Advanced Plasma Physics-Spring 2011, Non-linear charged particle dynamics/2 with the arc length along the magnetic field line, at the lowest order in the drift expansion for the charged

  10. Energy End-Use Intensities in Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    as buildings of the 1980's. In this section, intensities are based upon the entire building stock, not just those buildings using a particular fuel for a given end use. This...

  11. 2nd conference on Intense field- Short Wavelength Atomic and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    nd conference on Intense field- Short Wavelength Atomic and Molecular Processes - ISWAMP2 http:iswamp2.jlu.edu.cn July 20-22, 2013; Xi'an, China...

  12. Diurnal analysis of intensity trends in Atlantic tropical cyclones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kowch, Roman S

    2013-01-01

    I postulate that a diurnal cycle may exist in observational variables related to tropical cyclone (TC) intensity. Prior studies document a significant diurnal signal in moist convection across tropical regions. Since ...

  13. Estimating material and energy intensities of urban areas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quinn, David James, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to develop methods to estimate, analyze and visualize the resource intensity of urban areas. Understanding the resource consumption of the built environment is particularly relevant in cities ...

  14. precipitation frequency & intensity in instantaneous and aggregated data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuang, Zhiming

    precipitation frequency & intensity in instantaneous and aggregated data Michela Biasutti1, Sandra - Ocean Implications (and a suggestion for model diagnostics) Outline #12;4 Minute-by-minute precipitation

  15. Observational tests of hurricane intensity estimations using GPS radio occultations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vergados, Panagiotis

    This study presents a novel approach to estimating the intensity of hurricanes using temperature profiles from Global Positioning System radio occultation (GPSRO) measurements. Previous research has shown that the temperature ...

  16. Interpreting the unresolved intensity of cosmologically redshifted line radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Switzer, Eric R; Masui, Kiyoshi W; Pen, Ue-Li; Voytek, Tabitha C

    2015-01-01

    Intensity mapping experiments survey the spectrum of diffuse line radiation rather than detect individual objects at high signal-to-noise. Spectral maps of unresolved atomic and molecular line radiation contain three-dimensional information about the density and environments of emitting gas, and efficiently probe cosmological volumes out to high redshift. Intensity mapping survey volumes also contain all other sources of radiation at the frequencies of interest. Continuum foregrounds are typically ~10^2-10^3 times brighter than the cosmological signal. The instrumental response to bright foregrounds will produce new spectral degrees of freedom that are not known in advance, nor necessarily spectrally smooth. The intrinsic spectra of foregrounds may also not be well-known in advance. We describe a general class of quadratic estimators to analyze data from single-dish intensity mapping experiments, and determine contaminated spectral modes from the data itself. The key attribute of foregrounds is not that they ...

  17. Energy Intensity Trends in AEO2010 (released in AEO2010)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    Energy intensity (energy consumption per dollar of real GDP) indicates how much energy a country uses to produce its goods and services. From the early 1950s to the early 1970s, U.S. total primary energy consumption and real GDP increased at nearly the same annual rate. During that period, real oil prices remained virtually flat. In contrast, from the mid-1970s to 2008, the relationship between energy consumption and real GDP growth changed, with primary energy consumption growing at less than one-third the previous average rate and real GDP growth continuing to grow at its historical rate. The decoupling of real GDP growth from energy consumption growth led to a decline in energy intensity that averaged 2.8% per year from 1973 to 2008. In the Annual Energy Outlook 2010 Reference case, energy intensity continues to decline, at an average annual rate of 1.9% from 2008 to 2035.

  18. Intense Muon Beams for Experiments at Project X

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.M. Ankenbrandt, R.P. Johnson, C. Y. Yoshikawa, V.S. Kashikhin, D.V. Neuffer, J. Miller, R.A. Rimmer

    2011-03-01

    A coherent approach for providing muon beams to several experiments for the intensity-frontier program at Project X is described. Concepts developed for the front end of a muon collider/neutrino factory facility, such as phase rotation and ionization cooling, are applied, but with significant differences. High-intensity experiments typically require high-duty-factor beams pulsed at a time interval commensurate with the muon lifetime. It is challenging to provide large RF voltages at high duty factor, especially in the presence of intense radiation and strong magnetic fields, which may preclude the use of superconducting RF cavities. As an alternative, cavities made of materials such as ultra-pure Al and Be, which become very good –but not super– conductors at cryogenic temperatures, can be used.

  19. Foreground Subtraction in Intensity Mapping with the SKA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolz, Laura; Alonso, David; Blake, Chris; Bull, Philip; Chang, Tzu-Ching; Ferreira, Pedro G; Kuo, Cheng-Yu; Santos, Marios G; Shaw, Richard

    2015-01-01

    21cm intensity mapping experiments aim to observe the diffuse neutral hydrogen (HI) distribution on large scales which traces the Cosmic structure. The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) will have the capacity to measure the 21cm signal over a large fraction of the sky. However, the redshifted 21cm signal in the respective frequencies is faint compared to the Galactic foregrounds produced by synchrotron and free-free electron emission. In this article, we review selected foreground subtraction methods suggested to effectively separate the 21cm signal from the foregrounds with intensity mapping simulations or data. We simulate an intensity mapping experiment feasible with SKA phase 1 including extragalactic and Galactic foregrounds. We give an example of the residuals of the foreground subtraction with a independent component analysis and show that the angular power spectrum is recovered within the statistical errors on most scales. Additionally, the scale of the Baryon Acoustic Oscillations is shown to be unaffecte...

  20. Simulating the Large-Scale Structure of HI Intensity Maps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seehars, Sebastian; Witzemann, Amadeus; Refregier, Alexandre; Amara, Adam; Akeret, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Intensity mapping of neutral hydrogen (HI) is a promising observational probe of cosmology and large-scale structure. We present wide field simulations of HI intensity maps based on N-body simulations, the halo model, and a phenomenological prescription for assigning HI mass to halos. The simulations span a redshift range of 0.35 HI. We apply and compare several estimators for the angular power spectrum and its covariance. We verify that they agree with analytic predictions on large scales and study the validity of approximations based on Gaussian random fields, particularly in the context of the covariance. We discuss how our results and the simulated maps can be useful for planning and interpreting future HI intensity mapping surveys.

  1. Numerical solution of transient eddy current problems with input current intensities as boundary data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RodrĂ­guez, Rodolfo

    Numerical solution of transient eddy current problems with input current intensities as boundary to solve transient eddy current problems with input current intensities as data, formulated in terms: Eddy current problems, time-dependent electromagnetic problems, input current intensities, finite

  2. Measurements of integral muon intensity at large zenith angles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. N. Dmitrieva; D. V. Chernov; R. P. Kokoulin; K. G. Kompaniets; G. Mannocchi; A. A. Petrukhin; O. Saavedra; V. V. Shutenko; D. A. Timashkov; G. Trinchero; I. I. Yashin

    2006-11-28

    High-statistics data on near-horizontal muons collected with Russian-Italian coordinate detector DECOR are analyzed. Precise measurements of muon angular distributions in zenith angle interval from 60 to 90 degrees have been performed. In total, more than 20 million muons are selected. Dependences of the absolute integral muon intensity on zenith angle for several threshold energies ranging from 1.7 GeV to 7.2 GeV are derived. Results for this region of zenith angles and threshold energies have been obtained for the first time. The dependence of integral intensity on zenith angle and threshold energy is well fitted by a simple analytical formula.

  3. High intensity proton operation at the Brookhaven AGS accelerator complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahrens, L.A.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Bleser, E.; Brennan, J.M.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J.W.; Onillon, E.; Reece, R.K.; Roser, T.; Soukas, A.

    1994-08-01

    With the completion of the AGS rf upgrade, and the implementation of a transition {open_quotes}jump{close_quotes}, all of accelerator systems were in place in 1994 to allow acceleration of the proton intensity available from the AGS Booster injector to AGS extraction energy and delivery to the high energy users. Beam commissioning results with these new systems are presented. Progress in identifying and overcoming other obstacles to higher intensity are given. These include a careful exploration of the stopband strengths present on the AGS injection magnetic porch, and implementation of the AGS single bunch transverse dampers throughout the acceleration cycle.

  4. Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in energy-intensive industries in key developing countries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Phylipsen, Dian

    1999-01-01

    Energy Efficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions ReductionEnergy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Energy-IntensiveEnergy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Energy-Intensive

  5. Experiments at the Intensity Frontier | U.S. DOE Office of Science...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Intensity Frontier High Energy Physics (HEP) HEP Home About Research Facilities User Facilities Facility Ops Experiments at the Energy Frontier Experiments at the Intensity...

  6. Intensive neutrino source on the base of lithium converter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyashuk, V I

    2015-01-01

    An intensive antineutrino source with a hard spectrum (with energy up to 13 MeV, average energy 6.5 MeV) can be realized on the base of beta-decay of short living isotope 8Li (0.84 s). The 8Li isotope (generated in activation of 7Li isotope) is a prime perspective antineutrino source owing to the hard antineutrino spectrum and square dependence of cross section on the energy. Up today nuclear reactors are the most intensive neutrino sources. Antineutrino reactor spectra have large uncertainties in the summary antineutrino spectrum at energy E>6 MeV. Use of 8Li isotope allows to decrease sharply the uncertainties or to exclude it completely. An intensive neutron fluxes are requested for rapid generation of 8Li isotope. The installations on the base of nuclear reactors can be an alternative for nuclear reactors as traditional neutron sources. It is possible creation of neutrino sources another in principle: on the base of tandem of accelerators, neutron generating targets and lithium converter. An intensive neu...

  7. PNNLs Data Intensive Computing research battles Homeland Security threats

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    David Thurman; Joe Kielman; Katherine Wolf; David Atkinson

    2012-12-31

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratorys (PNNL's) approach to data intensive computing (DIC) is focused on three key research areas: hybrid hardware architecture, software architectures, and analytic algorithms. Advancements in these areas will help to address, and solve, DIC issues associated with capturing, managing, analyzing and understanding, in near real time, data at volumes and rates that push the frontiers of current technologies.

  8. Explosive photodissociation of methane induced by ultrafast intense laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kong Fanao; Luo Qi; Xu Huailiang; Sharifi, Mehdi; Song Di; Chin, See Leang

    2006-10-07

    A new type of molecular fragmentation induced by femtosecond intense laser at the intensity of 2x10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2} is reported. For the parent molecule of methane, ethylene, n-butane, and 1-butene, fluorescence from H (n=3{yields}2), CH (A {sup 2}{delta}, B {sup 2}{sigma}{sup -}, and C {sup 2}{sigma}{sup +}{yields}X {sup 2}{pi}), or C{sub 2} (d {sup 3}{pi}{sub g}{yields}a {sup 3}{pi}{sub u}) is observed in the spectrum. It shows that the fragmentation is a universal property of neutral molecule in the intense laser field. Unlike breaking only one or two chemical bonds in conventional UV photodissociation, the fragmentation caused by the intense laser undergoes vigorous changes, breaking most of the bonds in the molecule, like an explosion. The fragments are neutral species and cannot be produced through Coulomb explosion of multiply charged ion. The laser power dependence of CH (A{yields}X) emission of methane on a log-log scale has a slope of 10{+-}1. The fragmentation is thus explained as multiple channel dissociation of the superexcited state of parent molecule, which is created by multiphoton excitation.

  9. PNNL Data-Intensive Computing for a Smarter Energy Grid

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Carol Imhoff; Zhenyu (Henry) Huang; Daniel Chavarria

    2012-12-31

    The Middleware for Data-Intensive Computing (MeDICi) Integration Framework, an integrated platform to solve data analysis and processing needs, supports PNNL research on the U.S. electric power grid. MeDICi is enabling development of visualizations of grid operations and vulnerabilities, with goal of near real-time analysis to aid operators in preventing and mitigating grid failures.

  10. Continuous Snow Depth, Intensive Site 1, Barrow, Alaska

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Bob Busey; Larry Hinzman; Vladimir Romanovsky; William Cable

    Continuous Snow depth data are being collected at several points within four intensive study areas in Barrow, Alaska. These data are being collected to better understand the energy dynamics above the active layer and permafrost. They complement in-situ snow and soil measurements at this location. The data could also be used as supporting measurements for other research and modeling activities.

  11. Solar panels are cost intensive, have limitations with respect to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langendoen, Koen

    Solar panels are cost intensive, have limitations with respect to where they can be integrated of the window, integrated in the window frames, strip-shaped CIGS PV solar cells convert the light the CIGS PV solar cells in the form of strips at the edges of the window in the window frame. These solar

  12. IFTS Intensive Course on Advanced Plasma Physics-Spring 2011,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zonca, Fulvio

    IFTS Intensive Course on Advanced Plasma Physics-Spring 2011, Non-linear charged particle dynamics, the arc length along the magnetic field line and J the second invariant. (iii) In a large aspect ration), Ann. Phys. 41, 302), where the authors show that, when studying the physics of magnetized plasmas

  13. High Intensity Muon Beams in Osaka -MuSIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    High Intensity Muon Beams in Osaka - MuSIC Yoshitaka Kuno Osaka Unviersity, Osaka, Japan ! THB2014 ·Muon Transport ·COMET ·MuSIC facility at Osaka University ·MuSIC stage-I for µSR ·PRISM demonstration at MuSIC ·Phase Rotation at FFAG ·Summary #12;Muon Beam Sources #12;ISIS EM, RIKEN-RAL J-PARC, MUSE

  14. Continuous Snow Depth, Intensive Site 1, Barrow, Alaska

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Bob Busey; Larry Hinzman; Vladimir Romanovsky; William Cable

    2014-11-06

    Continuous Snow depth data are being collected at several points within four intensive study areas in Barrow, Alaska. These data are being collected to better understand the energy dynamics above the active layer and permafrost. They complement in-situ snow and soil measurements at this location. The data could also be used as supporting measurements for other research and modeling activities.

  15. Surface Intensive Materials Processing for Multi-Functional Purposes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ila, D.; Williams, E.K.; Muntele, C.I.; George, M.A.; Poker, D.B.; Hensley, D.K.; Larkin, D.J.

    2000-03-06

    We have chosen silicon carbide (SiC) as a multi-functional material to demonstrate the application of surface intensive processing for device fabrication. We will highlight two devices which are produced in house at the Center for Irradiation of materials of Alabama A and M university: (A) High temperature electronic gas sensor, (B) High temperature optical properties/sensor.

  16. Gamma Ray Bursts Sudden, intense flashes of gamma rays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of - Department of Physics, Electroweak Interaction Research Group

    Gamma Ray Bursts #12;The Case Sudden, intense flashes of gamma rays come from nowhere and disappear with out a trace. Incredibly powerful: A single gamma ray burst is hundreds of times brighter a supernova #12;Who Vela (1960's) Looking for arms testing, found gamma ray bursts Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

  17. PNNL pushing scientific discovery through data intensive computing breakthroughs

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Deborah Gracio; David Koppenaal; Ruby Leung

    2012-12-31

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratorys approach to data intensive computing (DIC) is focused on three key research areas: hybrid hardware architectures, software architectures, and analytic algorithms. Advancements in these areas will help to address, and solve, DIC issues associated with capturing, managing, analyzing and understanding, in near real time, data at volumes and rates that push the frontiers of current technologies.

  18. Drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liska, D.J.; Schamaun, R.G.; Clark, D.C.; Potter, R.C.; Frank, J.A.

    1980-03-11

    The disclosure relates to a drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators. The system comprises a series of box-sections girders independently adjustably mounted on a linear accelerator. A plurality of drift tube holding stems are individually adjustably mounted on each girder.

  19. Intense Lithium Streams in Tokamaks 1 Leonid E. Zakharov,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zakharov, Leonid E.

    Intense Lithium Streams in Tokamaks 1 Leonid E. Zakharov, Princeton University, Princeton Plasma. Temperature of the streams. 2. Lithium jets. 3. Injection into vacuum chamber. 4. Propulsion inside the vacuum chamber. 5. Stability of the lithium streams. 6. Expulsion of the lithium. 7. Summary. PRINCETON PLASMA

  20. Intensity Based Image Registration By Nonparametric Local Smoothing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu, Peihua

    features is often a challenging and time-consuming process, intensity-based image registration, by which of this technique is to integrate useful information from different sources (e.g., CT, PET, SPECT, X-ray, ultrasound an important tool for improving the quality of certain image-based technologies [21]. Mathematically, the image

  1. Intensity Based Image Registration By Nonparametric Local Smoothing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu, Peihua

    features is often a challenging and time­consuming process, intensity­based image registration, by which of this technique is to integrate useful information from different sources (e.g., CT, PET, SPECT, X­ray, ultrasound an important tool for improving the quality of certain image­based technologies [21]. Mathematically, the image

  2. Global warming and hurricane intensity and frequency: The debate continues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kareem, Ahsan

    Global warming and hurricane intensity and frequency: The debate continues Megan Mc mmccull3@nd.edu ABSTRACT: The recent destruction due to hurricanes and the apparent increase in frequency. Warm water holds more energy to fuel hurricanes and may contribute to the conditions needed

  3. A unified approach for inversion problems in intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Censor, Yair

    intensities (radiation intensity map) deliverable by all beamlets, that would result in a clinically value, however, this radiation intensity map must be implementable, in a clinically acceptable formA unified approach for inversion problems in intensity-modulated radiation therapy Yair Censor1

  4. Regulation of GHG emissions from transportation fuels: Emission quota versus emission intensity standard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, Deepak

    2010-01-01

    mandated envision that blending gasoline (or diesel) withemission intensity as blending gasoline from crude oil with

  5. Cross-correlation cosmography with HI intensity mapping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pourtsidou, Alkistis; Crittenden, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The cross-correlation of a foreground density field with two different background convergence fields can be used to measure cosmographic distance ratios and constrain dark energy parameters. We investigate the possibility of performing such measurements using a combination of optical galaxy surveys and HI intensity mapping surveys, with emphasis on the performance of the planned Square Kilometre Array (SKA). Using HI intensity mapping to probe the foreground density tracer field and/or the background source fields has the advantage of excellent redshift resolution and a longer lever arm achieved by using the lensing signal from high redshift background sources. Our results show that, for our best SKA-optical configuration of surveys, a constant equation of state for dark energy can be constrained to $\\simeq 8\\%$ for a sky coverage $f_{\\rm sky}=0.5$ and assuming a $\\sigma(\\Omega_{\\rm DE})=0.03$ prior for the dark energy density parameter.

  6. Fusion neutron yield from high intensity laser-cluster interaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, J.; Petrov, G.M.; Velikovich, A.L. [Naval Research Laboratory, Plasma Physics Division, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2006-06-15

    The fusion neutron yield from a compact neutron source is studied. Laser-irradiated deuterium clusters serve as a precursor of high-energy deuterium ions, which react with the walls of a fusion reaction chamber and produce copious amounts of neutrons in fusion reactions. The explosion of deuterium clusters with initial radius of 50-200 A irradiated by a subpicosecond laser with intensity of 10{sup 16} W/cm{sup 2} is examined theoretically. We studied the conversion efficiency of laser energy to ion kinetic energy, the mean and maximum ion kinetic energy, and ion energy distribution function by a molecular dynamics model. A yield of {approx}10{sup 5}-10{sup 6} neutrons/J is obtainable for a peak laser intensity of 10{sup 16}-10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2} and clusters with an initial radius of 200-400 A.

  7. Dynamic characteristic of intense short microwave propagation in an atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yee, J.H.; Alvarez, R.A.; Mayhall, D.J.; Madsen, N.K.; Cabayan, H.S.

    1983-07-01

    The dynamic behavior of an intense microwave pulse which propagates through the atmosphere will be presented. Our theoretical results are obtained by solving Maxwell's equations, together with the electron fluid equations. Our calculations show that although large portions of the initial energy are absorbed by the electrons that are created through the avalanche process, a significant amount of energy is still able to reach the earth's surface. The amount of energy that reaches the earth's surface as a function of initial energy and wave shape after having propagated through 100 km in the atmosphere are investigated. Results for the air breakdown threshold intensity as a function of the pressure for different pulse widths and different frequencies will also be presented. In addition, we will present a comparison between the theoretical and the experimental results for the pulse shape of a short microwave pulse after it has traveled through a rectangular wave guide which contains a section of air. 23 references, 9 figures.

  8. Device for imaging scenes with very large ranges of intensity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deason, Vance Albert (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-11-15

    A device for imaging scenes with a very large range of intensity having a pair of polarizers, a primary lens, an attenuating mask, and an imaging device optically connected along an optical axis. Preferably, a secondary lens, positioned between the attenuating mask and the imaging device is used to focus light on the imaging device. The angle between the first polarization direction and the second polarization direction is adjustable.

  9. CHALLENGES IN DATA INTENSIVE ANALYSIS AT SCIENTIFIC EXPERIMENTAL USER FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kleese van Dam, Kerstin; Li, Dongsheng; Miller, Stephen D.; Cobb, John W.; Green, Mark L.; Ruby, Catherine L.

    2011-12-31

    This chapter will discuss the critical data intensive analysis and visualiza-tion challenges faced by the experimental science community at large scale and laboratory based facilities. The chapter will further highlight initial solutions under development through community efforts and lay out perspectives for the future, such as the potential of more closely linked experimental and computational science approaches, methods to achieve real time analysis capabilities and the challenges and opportunities of data integration across experimental scales, levels of theory and varying techniques.

  10. A measurement of the relative intensities of some vibronic bands 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loyd, Coleman Monroe

    1955-01-01

    ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . 1 II ~ EXPERIMENTAL ~ III ~ PROCEDURE FOR INTENSITI NEASUREHENTS . IV. EXPERINENTAL RESULTS FOR CHLORINE DIOXIDE ~ ~ ~ ~ 5 14 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 19 V. EXPERIHENTAL RESULTS FOR SULPHUR DIOXIDE. . . . 26 VI. CONCLUSIONS...INE DIOXIDE APPARATUS ~ . o . . . ~ 9 4. TOP VIEW OF CH1 CRINE DIOXIDE APPARATUS . 5 ~ CHLORINE DIOXIDE ABSORPTION SPECTROGRAM WITH CAI IBRATION BLANKS ~ ~ ~ e ~ ~ e ~ ~ ~ 6, CHLORINE DIOXIDE DECONPOSITION IiN PROGRESS 10 . 11 7. H AND D CURVE FOil...

  11. Intensive neutrino source on the base of lithium converter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. I. Lyashuk; Yu. S Lutostansky

    2015-04-13

    An intensive antineutrino source with a hard spectrum (with energy up to 13 MeV, average energy 6.5 MeV) can be realized on the base of beta-decay of short living isotope 8Li (0.84 s). The 8Li isotope (generated in activation of 7Li isotope) is a prime perspective antineutrino source owing to the hard antineutrino spectrum and square dependence of cross section on the energy. Up today nuclear reactors are the most intensive neutrino sources. Antineutrino reactor spectra have large uncertainties in the summary antineutrino spectrum at energy E>6 MeV. Use of 8Li isotope allows to decrease sharply the uncertainties or to exclude it completely. An intensive neutron fluxes are requested for rapid generation of 8Li isotope. The installations on the base of nuclear reactors can be an alternative for nuclear reactors as traditional neutron sources. It is possible creation of neutrino sources another in principle: on the base of tandem of accelerators, neutron generating targets and lithium converter. An intensive neutron flux (i.e., powerful neutron source) is requested for realization of considered neutrino sources (neutrino factories). Different realizations of lithium antineutrino sources (lithium converter on the base of high purified 7Li isotope) are discussed: static regime (i.e., without transport of 8Li isotope to the neutrino detector); dynamic regime (transport of 8Li isotope to the remote detector in a closed cycle); an operation of lithium converter in tandem of accelerator with a neutron-producing target on the base of tungsten, lead or bismuth. Different chemical compounds of lithium (as the substance of the converter) are considered. Heavy water solution of LiOD is proposed as a serious alternative to high-pure 7Li in a metallic state.

  12. Energy Intensity Indicators: Methodology Downloads | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015 Infographic courtesyEducation Data JamDepartment2 AEnergy Intensity

  13. High-intensity positron microprobe at Jefferson Lab

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Golge, Serkan; Vlahovic, Branislav; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan B.

    2014-06-19

    We present a conceptual design for a novel continuous wave electron-linac based high-intensity slow-positron production source with a projected intensity on the order of 1010 e+/s. Reaching this intensity in our design relies on the transport of positrons (T+ below 600 keV) from the electron-positron pair production converter target to a low-radiation and low-temperature area for moderation in a high-efficiency cryogenic rare gas moderator, solid Ne. The performance of the integrated beamline has been verified through computational studies. The computational results include Monte Carlo calculations of the optimized electron/positron beam energies, converter target thickness, synchronized raster system, transport of themore »beam from the converter target to the moderator, extraction of the beam from the channel, and moderation efficiency calculations. For the extraction of positrons from the magnetic channel a magnetic field terminator plug prototype has been built and experimental data on the effectiveness of this prototype are presented. The dissipation of the heat away from the converter target and radiation protection measures are also discussed.« less

  14. High-intensity positron microprobe at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golge, Serkan; Vlahovic, Branislav; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan B.

    2014-06-19

    We present a conceptual design for a novel continuous wave electron-linac based high-intensity slow-positron production source with a projected intensity on the order of 1010 e+/s. Reaching this intensity in our design relies on the transport of positrons (T+ below 600 keV) from the electron-positron pair production converter target to a low-radiation and low-temperature area for moderation in a high-efficiency cryogenic rare gas moderator, solid Ne. The performance of the integrated beamline has been verified through computational studies. The computational results include Monte Carlo calculations of the optimized electron/positron beam energies, converter target thickness, synchronized raster system, transport of the beam from the converter target to the moderator, extraction of the beam from the channel, and moderation efficiency calculations. For the extraction of positrons from the magnetic channel a magnetic field terminator plug prototype has been built and experimental data on the effectiveness of this prototype are presented. The dissipation of the heat away from the converter target and radiation protection measures are also discussed.

  15. Effects of interplanetary shock inclinations on auroral power intensity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliveira, D M; Tsurutani, B T; Gjerloev, J W

    2015-01-01

    We derive fast forward interplanetary (IP) shock speeds and impact angles to study the geoeffectivness of 461 IP shocks that occurred from January 1995 to December 2013 using ACE and WIND spacecraft data. The geomagnetic activity is inferred from the SuperMAG project data. SuperMAG is a large chain which employs more than 300 ground stations to compute enhanced versions of the traditional geomagnetic indices. The SuperMAG auroral electroject SME index, an enhanced version of the traditional AE index, is used as an auroral power (AP) indicator. AP intensity jumps triggered by shock impacts are correlated with both shock speed and impact angle. It is found that high AP intensity events typically occur when high speed IP shocks impact the Earths magnetosphere with the shock normal almost parallel to the Sun-Earth line. This result suggests that symmetric and strong magnetospheric compression leads to favorable conditions for intense auroral power release, as shown previously by simulations and observations. Some...

  16. High-intensity positron microprobe at Jefferson Lab

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Golge, Serkan [North Carolina Central Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Vlahovic, Branislav [North Carolina Central Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan B. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2014-06-21

    We present a conceptual design for a novel continuous wave electron-linac based high-intensity slow-positron production source with a projected intensity on the order of 1010 e+/s. Reaching this intensity in our design relies on the transport of positrons (T+ below 600 keV) from the electron-positron pair production converter target to a low-radiation and low-temperature area for moderation in a high-efficiency cryogenic rare gas moderator, solid Ne. The performance of the integrated beamline has been verified through computational studies. The computational results include Monte Carlo calculations of the optimized electron/positron beam energies, converter target thickness, synchronized raster system, transport of the beam from the converter target to the moderator, extraction of the beam from the channel, and moderation efficiency calculations. For the extraction of positrons from the magnetic channel a magnetic field terminator plug prototype has been built and experimental data on the effectiveness of this prototype are presented. The dissipation of the heat away from the converter target and radiation protection measures are also discussed.

  17. Incorporating Non-energy Benefits into Energy Savings Performance Contracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larsen, Peter; Goldman, Charles; Gilligan, Donald; Singer, Terry

    2012-06-01

    This paper evaluates the issue of non-energy benefits within the context of the U.S. energy services company (ESCO) industry?a growing industry comprised of companies that provide energy savings and other benefits to customers through the use of performance-based contracting. Recent analysis has found that ESCO projects in the public/institutional sector, especially at K-12 schools, are using performance-based contracting, at the behest of the customers, to partially -- but not fully -- offset substantial accumulated deferred maintenance needs (e.g., asbestos removal, wiring) and measures that have very long paybacks (roof replacement). This trend is affecting the traditional economic measures policymakers use to evaluate success on a benefit to cost basis. Moreover, the value of non-energy benefits which can offset some or all of the cost of the non-energy measures -- including operations and maintenance (O&M) savings, avoided capital costs, and tradable pollution emissions allowances-- are not always incorporated into a formal cost-effectiveness analysis of ESCO projects. Nonenergy benefits are clearly important to customers, but state and federal laws that govern the acceptance of these types of benefits for ESCO projects vary widely (i.e., 0-100percent of allowable savings can come from one or more non-energy categories). Clear and consistent guidance on what types of savings are recognized in Energy Savings agreements under performance contracts is necessary, particularly where customers are searching for deep energy efficiency gains in the building sector.

  18. Field assessment of an aluminum intensive passenger car

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuenca, R.M.

    1994-12-31

    Ford Motor Co. has made a small batch of ``aluminum intensive vehicles`` (AIV), consisting of mid-size cars (Taurus/Sable) with all-aluminum bodies. The first twenty vehicles were made for internal evaluation at Ford, but the second batch of twenty has been placed on the hands of selected independent users, primarily automotive suppliers, for long term field assessment. The mass reduction achieved in the body of an AIV is shown, and compared with an equivalent standard steel body. Argonne obtained one of these vehicles last October; this is an assessment of the fuel consumption and other operational characteristics of this type of car to date.

  19. Rider Energy Expenditure during High Intensity Horse Activity 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Reilly, Colleen L

    2015-04-29

    (DDR) to determine if playing DDR for 30 min a day could meet minimum exercise requirements. Experienced DDR players as well as inexperienced DDR players were observed to determine if they could meet energy expenditure requirements. This study..., in contradiction with the Nintendo Wii study found that experienced DDR players exhibited exercise of a moderate intensity with mean HR of 161.2 beats per min (bpm) and mean VO2 of 25.2mL·kg -1·min-1 and expended more than 150 kcal in the 30 min exercise which...

  20. Assessing Internet energy intensity: A review of methods and results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coroama, Vlad C.; Hilty, Lorenz M.; Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Lerchenfeldstr. 5, 9014 St. Gallen; Centre for Sustainable Communications, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Lindstedtsvägen 5, 100 44 Stockholm

    2014-02-15

    Assessing the average energy intensity of Internet transmissions is a complex task that has been a controversial subject of discussion. Estimates published over the last decade diverge by up to four orders of magnitude — from 0.0064 kilowatt-hours per gigabyte (kWh/GB) to 136 kWh/GB. This article presents a review of the methodological approaches used so far in such assessments: i) top–down analyses based on estimates of the overall Internet energy consumption and the overall Internet traffic, whereby average energy intensity is calculated by dividing energy by traffic for a given period of time, ii) model-based approaches that model all components needed to sustain an amount of Internet traffic, and iii) bottom–up approaches based on case studies and generalization of the results. Our analysis of the existing studies shows that the large spread of results is mainly caused by two factors: a) the year of reference of the analysis, which has significant influence due to efficiency gains in electronic equipment, and b) whether end devices such as personal computers or servers are included within the system boundary or not. For an overall assessment of the energy needed to perform a specific task involving the Internet, it is necessary to account for the types of end devices needed for the task, while the energy needed for data transmission can be added based on a generic estimate of Internet energy intensity for a given year. Separating the Internet as a data transmission system from the end devices leads to more accurate models and to results that are more informative for decision makers, because end devices and the networking equipment of the Internet usually belong to different spheres of control. -- Highlights: • Assessments of the energy intensity of the Internet differ by a factor of 20,000. • We review top–down, model-based, and bottom–up estimates from literature. • Main divergence factors are the year studied and the inclusion of end devices. • We argue against extending the Internet system boundary beyond data transmission. • Decision-makers need data that differentiates between end devices and transmission.

  1. Fermilab | Science at Fermilab | Experiments & Projects | Intensity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (Journal Article) | SciTechSubmitted More OftenFrontier Intensity

  2. Optical Fiber High Temperature Sensor Instrumentation for Energy Intensive Industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, Kristie L.; Wang, Anbo; Pickrell, Gary R.

    2006-11-14

    This report summarizes technical progress during the program “Optical Fiber High Temperature Sensor Instrumentation for Energy Intensive Industries”, performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The objective of this program was to use technology recently invented at Virginia Tech to develop and demonstrate the application of self-calibrating optical fiber temperature and pressure sensors to several key energy-intensive industries where conventional, commercially available sensors exhibit greatly abbreviated lifetimes due primarily to environmental degradation. A number of significant technologies were developed under this program, including • a laser bonded silica high temperature fiber sensor with a high temperature capability up to 700°C and a frequency response up to 150 kHz, • the world’s smallest fiber Fabry-Perot high temperature pressure sensor (125 x 20 ?m) with 700°C capability, • UV-induced intrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric sensors for distributed measurement, • a single crystal sapphire fiber-based sensor with a temperature capability up to 1600°C. These technologies have been well demonstrated and laboratory tested. Our work plan included conducting major field tests of these technologies at EPRI, Corning, Pratt & Whitney, and Global Energy; field validation of the technology is critical to ensuring its usefulness to U.S. industries. Unfortunately, due to budget cuts, DOE was unable to follow through with its funding commitment to support Energy Efficiency Science Initiative projects and this final phase was eliminated.

  3. Precision monitoring of relative beam intensity for Mu2e

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, N.J.; Kopp, S.E.; /Texas U.; Prebys, E.; /Fermilab

    2011-04-01

    For future experiments at the intensity frontier, precise and accurate knowledge of beam time structure will be critical to understanding backgrounds. The proposed Mu2e experiment will utilize {approx}200 ns (FW) bunches of 3 x 10{sup 7} protons at 8 GeV with a bunch-to-bunch period of 1695 ns. The out-of-bunch beam must be suppressed by a factor of 10{sup -10} relative to in-bunch beam and continuously monitored. I propose a Cerenkov-based particle telescope to measure secondary production from beam interactions in a several tens of microns thick foil. Correlating timing information with beam passage will allow the determination of relative beam intensity to arbitrary precision given a sufficiently long integration time. The goal is to verify out-of-bunch extinction to the level 10{sup -6} in the span of several seconds. This will allow near real-time monitoring of the initial extinction of the beam resonantly extracted from Fermilabs Debuncher before a system of AC dipoles and collimators, which will provide the final extinction. The effect on beam emittance is minimal, allowing the necessary continuous measurement. I will present the detector design and some concerns about bunch growth during the resonant extraction.

  4. The interaction of intense subpicosecond laser pulses with underdense plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coverdale, C.A.

    1995-05-11

    Laser-plasma interactions have been of interest for many years not only from a basic physics standpoint, but also for their relevance to numerous applications. Advances in laser technology in recent years have resulted in compact laser systems capable of generating (psec), 10{sup 16} W/cm{sup 2} laser pulses. These lasers have provided a new regime in which to study laser-plasma interactions, a regime characterized by L{sub plasma} {ge} 2L{sub Rayleigh} > c{tau}. The goal of this dissertation is to experimentally characterize the interaction of a short pulse, high intensity laser with an underdense plasma (n{sub o} {le} 0.05n{sub cr}). Specifically, the parametric instability known as stimulated Raman scatter (SRS) is investigated to determine its behavior when driven by a short, intense laser pulse. Both the forward Raman scatter instability and backscattered Raman instability are studied. The coupled partial differential equations which describe the growth of SRS are reviewed and solved for typical experimental laser and plasma parameters. This solution shows the growth of the waves (electron plasma and scattered light) generated via stimulated Raman scatter. The dispersion relation is also derived and solved for experimentally accessible parameters. The solution of the dispersion relation is used to predict where (in k-space) and at what frequency (in {omega}-space) the instability will grow. Both the nonrelativistic and relativistic regimes of the instability are considered.

  5. Ferroplasmons: Intense Localized Surface Plasmons in Metal-Ferromagnetic Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sachan, Ritesh [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Malasi, Abhinav [ORNL; Ge, Jingxuan [Materials Science and Engineering Department, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA; Yadavali, Sagar P [ORNL; Gangopadhyay, Anup [Washington University, St. Louis; Krishna, Dr. Hare [Washington University, St. Louis; Garcia, Hernando [Southern Illinois University; Duscher, Gerd J M [ORNL; Kalyanaraman, Ramki [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2014-01-01

    Interaction of photons with matter at length scales far below their wavelengths has given rise to many novel phenomena, including localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). However, LSPR with narrow bandwidth (BW) is observed only in a select few noble metals, and ferromagnets are not among them. Here, we report the discovery of LSPR in ferromagnetic Co and CoFe alloy (8% Fe) in contact with Ag in the form of bimetallic nanoparticles prepared by pulsed laser dewetting. These plasmons in metal-erromagnetic nanostructures, or ferroplasmons (FP) for short, are in the visible spectrum with comparable intensity and BW to those of the LSPRs from the Ag regions. This finding was enabled by electron energy-loss mapping across individual nanoparticles in a monochromated scanning transmission electron microscope. The appearance of the FP is likely due to plasmonic interaction between the contacting Ag and Co nanoparticles. Since there is no previous evidence for materials that simultaneously show ferromagnetism and such intense LSPRs, this discovery may lead to the design of improved plasmonic materials and applications. It also demonstrates that materials with interesting plasmonic properties can be synthesized using bimetallic nanostructures in contact with each other.

  6. DZero data-intensive computing on the Open Science Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbott, B.; /Oklahoma U.; Baranovski, A.; Diesburg, M.; Garzoglio, G.; /Fermilab; Kurca, T.; /Lyon, IPN; Mhashilkar, P.; /Fermilab

    2007-09-01

    High energy physics experiments periodically reprocess data, in order to take advantage of improved understanding of the detector and the data processing code. Between February and May 2007, the DZero experiment has reprocessed a substantial fraction of its dataset. This consists of half a billion events, corresponding to about 100 TB of data, organized in 300,000 files. The activity utilized resources from sites around the world, including a dozen sites participating to the Open Science Grid consortium (OSG). About 1,500 jobs were run every day across the OSG, consuming and producing hundreds of Gigabytes of data. Access to OSG computing and storage resources was coordinated by the SAM-Grid system. This system organized job access to a complex topology of data queues and job scheduling to clusters, using a SAM-Grid to OSG job forwarding infrastructure. For the first time in the lifetime of the experiment, a data intensive production activity was managed on a general purpose grid, such as OSG. This paper describes the implications of using OSG, where all resources are granted following an opportunistic model, the challenges of operating a data intensive activity over such large computing infrastructure, and the lessons learned throughout the project.

  7. Effect of variable suckling intensity upon serum luteinzing hormone in brangus heifers and effect of varible suckling intensity and estrogen administration upon serum luteinizing hormone in brahman cows 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forrest, Philip Kent

    1979-01-01

    EFFECT OF VARIABLE SUCKLING INTENSITY UPON SERUM LUTEINIZING HORMONE IN BRANGUS HEIFERS AND EFFECT OF VARIABLE SUCKLING INTENSITY AND ESTROGEN ADMINISTRATION UPON SERUM LUTEINIZING HORMONE IN BRAHMAN COWS A Thesis by PHILIP KENT FORREST... HORMONE IN BRANGUS HEIFERS AND EFFECT OF VARIABLE SUCKLING INTENSITY AND ESTROGEN ADMINISTRATION UPON SERUM LUTEINIZING HORMONE IN BRAHMAN COWS A Thesis by PHILIP KENT FORREST Approved as to sty1e and content by: (+M Chairman of Committee) Head...

  8. Nonlinear increase of X-ray intensities from thin foils irradiated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    increase of X-ray intensities from thin foils irradiated with a 200 TW femtosecond laser Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nonlinear increase of X-ray intensities...

  9. February 11, 1997 Signal-to-Noise Ratio of Intensity Interferometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kemner, Ken

    . INTRODUCTION The prospects for an x-ray Hanbury Brown and Twiss (HBT) intensity interferometry experiment using Hanbury Brown and Twiss #12;3 experiment with visible light,[10] in which the correlation of the intensity

  10. Detecting Hazardous Intensive Care Patient Episodes Using Real-time Mortality Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hug, Caleb

    2009-08-26

    The modern intensive care unit (ICU) has become a complex, expensive, data-intensive environment. Caregivers maintain an overall assessment of their patients based on important observations and trends. If an advanced ...

  11. Detecting hazardous intensive care patient episodes using real-time mortality models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hug, Caleb W. (Caleb Wayne)

    2009-01-01

    The modern intensive care unit (ICU) has become a complex, expensive, data-intensive environment. Caregivers maintain an overall assessment of their patients based on important observations and trends. If an advanced ...

  12. Verifica(on of Hurricane Irene, Isaac and Sandy's Storm Track, Intensity, and Wind Radii Errors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miami, University of

    Verifica(on of Hurricane Irene, Isaac and Sandy's Storm Track, Intensity/onal Hurricane Center (NHC). Forecasts of the track have steadily improved over the past, intensity (MWND) and wind radii (WRAD) errors of Hurricane Irene (2011

  13. Optically Interconnected Data Center Architecture for Bandwidth Intensive Energy Efficient Networking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergman, Keren

    Optically Interconnected Data Center Architecture for Bandwidth Intensive Energy Efficient will either be prohibitively costly, overly complex, or result in unsustainable energy requirements. Network of communication-intensive applications. Recent network architectures based on optical circuit switching leverage

  14. Strategies for the Commercialization & Deployment of GHG Intensity-Reducing Technologies & Practices

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report looks at the best methods of commercializing and deploying energy technologies that reduce greenhouse gas intensity.

  15. Quantifying Regional Economic Impacts of CO2 Intensity Targets in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Da

    2012-09-01

    To address rising energy use and CO2 emissions, China’s leadership has enacted energy and CO2 intensity

  16. Energy Policy 30 (2002) 151163 Aggregating physical intensity indicators: results of applying the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2002-01-01

    Energy Policy 30 (2002) 151­163 Aggregating physical intensity indicators: results of applying and interpretation of energy intensity indicators are a continuing source of debate in the field of energy policy the performance of energy-related policies. Energy intensity indicators continue to be used for monitoring

  17. An Empirical Analysis of Energy Intensity and Its Determinants at the State Level

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 An Empirical Analysis of Energy Intensity and Its Determinants at the State Level Gilbert E. Metcalf* Aggregate energy intensity in the United States has been declining steadily since the mid-1970s and the first oil shock. Energy intensity can be reduced by improving efficiency in the use of energy

  18. Accessing defect dynamics using intense, nanosecond pulsed ion beams

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Persaud, A.; Barnard, J. J.; Guo, H.; Hosemann, P.; Lidia, S.; Minor, A. M.; Seidl, P. A.; Schenkel, T.

    2015-06-18

    Gaining in-situ access to relaxation dynamics of radiation induced defects will lead to a better understanding of materials and is important for the verification of theoretical models and simulations. We show preliminary results from experiments at the new Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX-II) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory that will enable in-situ access to defect dynamics through pump-probe experiments. Here, the unique capabilities of the NDCX-II accelerator to generate intense, nanosecond pulsed ion beams are utilized. Preliminary data of channeling experiments using lithium and potassium ions and silicon membranes are shown. We compare these data to simulation results using Crystalmore »Trim. Furthermore, we discuss the improvements to the accelerator to higher performance levels and the new diagnostics tools that are being incorporated.« less

  19. Can we detect "Unruh radiation" in the high intensity lasers?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Satoshi Iso; Yasuhiro Yamamoto; Sen Zhang

    2011-02-23

    An accelerated particle sees the Minkowski vacuum as thermally excited, which is called the Unruh effect. Due to an interaction with the thermal bath, the particle moves stochastically like the Brownian motion in a heat bath. It has been discussed that the accelerated charged particle may emit extra radiation (the Unruh radiation) besides the Larmor radiation, and experiments are under planning to detect such radiation by using ultrahigh intensity lasers. There are, however, counterarguments that the radiation is canceled by an interference effect between the vacuum fluctuation and the radiation from the fluctuating motion. In this reports, we review our recent analysis on the issue of the Unruh radiation. In this report, we particularly consider the thermalization of an accelerated particle in the scalar QED, and derive the relaxation time of the thermalization.

  20. Accessing defect dynamics using intense, nanosecond pulsed ion beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Persaud, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barnard, J. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Guo, H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hosemann, P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lidia, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Minor, A. M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Seidl, P. A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schenkel, T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Gaining in-situ access to relaxation dynamics of radiation induced defects will lead to a better understanding of materials and is important for the verification of theoretical models and simulations. We show preliminary results from experiments at the new Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX-II) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory that will enable in-situ access to defect dynamics through pump-probe experiments. Here, the unique capabilities of the NDCX-II accelerator to generate intense, nanosecond pulsed ion beams are utilized. Preliminary data of channeling experiments using lithium and potassium ions and silicon membranes are shown. We compare these data to simulation results using Crystal Trim. Furthermore, we discuss the improvements to the accelerator to higher performance levels and the new diagnostics tools that are being incorporated.

  1. Overview of High Intensity Linac Programs in Europe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garoby, R

    2004-01-01

    Recent years have seen a boost in the support by the European Union (EU) of accelerator research in Europe. Provided they coordinate their efforts and define common goals and strategies, laboratories and institutions from the member states can receive a financial support reaching 50% of the total project cost. In the field of High Intensity Linacs, the EU has already supported the EURISOL initiative for nuclear physics, which this year is applying for funding of a Design Study, and the development of linacs for Waste Transmutation. More recently, an initiative for high-energy physics has been approved, which includes a programme for the development of pulsed linac technologies. The coordination and synergy imposed by the EU rules increase the benefit of the allocated resources. Combined with the ongoing internal projects in the partner laboratories, these European initiatives represent a strong effort focussed towards the development of linac technologies. This paper summarises the requests from the various E...

  2. Lifetime Analysis at High Intensity Colliders Applied to the LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salvachua, B; Bruce, R; Burkart, F; Redaelli, S; Valentino, G; Wollmann, D

    2013-01-01

    The beam lifetime is one of the main parameters to define the performance of a collider. In a super-conducting machine like the LHC, the lifetime determines the intensity reach for a given collimation cleaning. The beam lifetime can be calculated from the direct measurement of beam current. However, due to the noise in the beam current signal only an average lifetime over several seconds can be calculated. We propose here an alternative method, which uses the signal of the beam loss monitors in the vicinity of the primary collimators to get the instantaneous beam lifetime at the collimators. In this paper we compare the lifetime from the two methods and investigate the minimum lifetime over the LHC cycle for all the physics fills in 2011 and 2012. These data provide a reference for estimates of performance reach from collimator cleaning.

  3. Simulations for single-dish intensity mapping experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bigot-Sazy, M -A; Battye, R A; Browne, I W A; Ma, Y -Z; Maffei, B; Noviello, F; Remazeilles, M; Wilkinson, P N

    2015-01-01

    HI intensity mapping is an emerging tool to probe dark energy. Observations of the redshifted HI signal will be contaminated by instrumental noise, atmospheric and Galactic foregrounds. The latter is expected to be four orders of magnitude brighter than the HI emission we wish to detect. We present a simulation of single-dish observations including an instrumental noise model with 1/f and white noise, and sky emission with a diffuse Galactic foreground and HI emission. We consider two foreground cleaning methods: spectral parametric fitting and principal component analysis. For a smooth frequency spectrum of the foreground and instrumental effects, we find that the parametric fitting method provides residuals that are still contaminated by foreground and 1/f noise, but the principal component analysis can remove this contamination down to the thermal noise level. This method is robust for a range of different models of foreground and noise, and so constitutes a promising way to recover the HI signal from the ...

  4. Towards phasing using high X-ray intensity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galli, Lorenzo; Son, Sang -Kil; Barends, Thomas R. M.; White, Thomas A.; Barty, Anton; Botha, Sabine; Boutet, Sébastien; Caleman, Carl; Doak, R. Bruce; Nanao, Max H.; Nass, Karol; Shoeman, Robert L.; Timneanu, Nicusor; Santra, Robin; Schlichting, Ilme; Chapman, Henry N.

    2015-09-30

    X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) show great promise for macromolecular structure determination from sub-micrometre-sized crystals, using the emerging method of serial femtosecond crystallography. The extreme brightness of the XFEL radiation can multiply ionize most, if not all, atoms in a protein, causing their scattering factors to change during the pulse, with a preferential `bleaching' of heavy atoms. This paper investigates the effects of electronic damage on experimental data collected from a Gd derivative of lysozyme microcrystals at different X-ray intensities, and the degree of ionization of Gd atoms is quantified from phased difference Fourier maps. In conclusion, a pattern sorting scheme is proposed to maximize the ionization contrast and the way in which the local electronic damage can be used for a new experimental phasing method is discussed.

  5. Emittance of positron beams produced in intense laser plasma interaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Hui; Hazi, A.; Link, A.; Anderson, S.; Gronberg, J.; Izumi, N.; Tommasini, R.; Wilks, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Sheppard, J. C. [SLAC, Standford University, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Meyerhofer, D. D. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Baldis, H. A.; Marley, E.; Park, J.; Williams, G. J. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Fedosejev, R.; Kerr, S. [Department of Applied Science, University of Alberta, Alberta T6G 2R3 (Canada)

    2013-01-15

    The first measurement of the emittance of intense laser-produced positron beams has been made. The emittance values were derived through measurements of positron beam divergence and source size for different peak positron energies under various laser conditions. For one of these laser conditions, we used a one dimensional pepper-pot technique to refine the emittance value. The laser-produced positrons have a geometric emittance between 100 and 500 mm{center_dot}mrad, comparable to the positron sources used at existing accelerators. With 10{sup 10}-10{sup 12} positrons per bunch, this low emittance beam, which is quasi-monoenergetic in the energy range of 5-20 MeV, may be useful as an alternative positron source for future accelerators.

  6. Ultra-High Intensity Magnetic Field Generation in Dense Plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisch, Nathaniel J

    2014-01-08

    I. Grant Objective The main objective of this grant proposal was to explore the efficient generation of intense currents. Whereasthefficient generation of electric current in low-­?energy-­? density plasma has occupied the attention of the magnetic fusion community for several decades, scant attention has been paid to carrying over to high-­?energy-­? density plasma the ideas for steady-­?state current drive developed for low-­?energy-­? density plasma, or, for that matter, to inventing new methodologies for generating electric current in high-­?energy-­?density plasma. What we proposed to do was to identify new mechanisms to accomplish current generation, and to assess the operation, physics, and engineering basis of new forms of current drive in regimes appropriate for new fusion concepts.

  7. Adaptive RF Transient Reduction for HIGH Intensity Beams with Gaps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tückmantel, Joachim

    2006-01-01

    When a high-intensity beam with bunch-trains and gaps passes a cavity with a high-gain vector feedback enforcing a constant voltage, large transients appear, stressing the RF high power hardware and increasing the trip rate. By modulating the cavity voltage with a varying periodic waveform (set-function), the RF power can be made constant while still preserving the high feedback gain. The average cavity voltage is conserved but bunches have to settle at slightly shifted positions. A method is derived to obtain this set-function in practice while making no assumptions or measurements of the beam or RF parameters. Adiabatic iterations are made including the whole machine as an analog computing device, using all parameters as they are. A computer simulation shows the success of the method.

  8. Working Group Report: Computing for the Intensity Frontier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rebel, B.; Sanchez, M.C.; Wolbers, S.

    2013-10-25

    This is the report of the Computing Frontier working group on Lattice Field Theory prepared for the proceedings of the 2013 Community Summer Study ("Snowmass"). We present the future computing needs and plans of the U.S. lattice gauge theory community and argue that continued support of the U.S. (and worldwide) lattice-QCD effort is essential to fully capitalize on the enormous investment in the high-energy physics experimental program. We first summarize the dramatic progress of numerical lattice-QCD simulations in the past decade, with some emphasis on calculations carried out under the auspices of the U.S. Lattice-QCD Collaboration, and describe a broad program of lattice-QCD calculations that will be relevant for future experiments at the intensity and energy frontiers. We then present details of the computational hardware and software resources needed to undertake these calculations.

  9. High intensity neutrino source superconducting solenoid cyrostat design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Page, T.M.; Nicol, T.H.; Feher, S.; Terechkine, I.; Tompkins, J.; /Fermilab

    2006-06-01

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) is involved in the development of a 100 MeV superconducting linac. This linac is part of the High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) R&D Program. The initial beam acceleration in the front end section of the linac is achieved using room temperature spoke cavities, each of which is combined with a superconducting focusing solenoid. These solenoid magnets are cooled with liquid helium at 4.5K, operate at 250 A and have a maximum magnetic field strength of 7.5 T. The solenoid cryostat will house the helium vessel, suspension system, thermal shield, multilayer insulation, power leads, instrumentation, a vacuum vessel and cryogenic distribution lines. This paper discusses the requirements and detailed design of these superconducting solenoid cryostats.

  10. INERTIAL FUSION DRIVEN BY INTENSE HEAVY-ION BEAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharp, W. M.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D. P.; Barnard, J. J.; Cohen, R. H.; Dorf, M. A.; Lund, S. M.; Perkins, L. J.; Terry, M. R.; Logan, B. G.; Bieniosek, F. M.; Faltens, A.; Henestroza, E.; Jung, J. Y.; Kwan, J. W.; Lee, E. P.; Lidia, S. M.; Ni, P. A.; Reginato, L. L.; Roy, P. K.; Seidl, P. A.; Takakuwa, J. H.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W. L.; Davidson, R. C.; Gilson, E. P.; Kaganovich, I. D.; Qin, H.; Startsev, E.; Haber, I.; Kishek, R. A.; Koniges, A. E.

    2011-03-31

    Intense heavy-ion beams have long been considered a promising driver option for inertial-fusion energy production. This paper briefly compares inertial confinement fusion (ICF) to the more-familiar magnetic-confinement approach and presents some advantages of using beams of heavy ions to drive ICF instead of lasers. Key design choices in heavy-ion fusion (HIF) facilities are discussed, particularly the type of accelerator. We then review experiments carried out at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) over the past thirty years to understand various aspects of HIF driver physics. A brief review follows of present HIF research in the US and abroad, focusing on a new facility, NDCX-II, being built at LBNL to study the physics of warm dense matter heated by ions, as well as aspects of HIF target physics. Future research directions are briefly summarized.

  11. Towards phasing using high X-ray intensity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Galli, Lorenzo; Son, Sang -Kil; Barends, Thomas R. M.; White, Thomas A.; Barty, Anton; Botha, Sabine; Boutet, Sébastien; Caleman, Carl; Doak, R. Bruce; Nanao, Max H.; et al

    2015-09-30

    X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) show great promise for macromolecular structure determination from sub-micrometre-sized crystals, using the emerging method of serial femtosecond crystallography. The extreme brightness of the XFEL radiation can multiply ionize most, if not all, atoms in a protein, causing their scattering factors to change during the pulse, with a preferential `bleaching' of heavy atoms. This paper investigates the effects of electronic damage on experimental data collected from a Gd derivative of lysozyme microcrystals at different X-ray intensities, and the degree of ionization of Gd atoms is quantified from phased difference Fourier maps. In conclusion, a pattern sorting schememore »is proposed to maximize the ionization contrast and the way in which the local electronic damage can be used for a new experimental phasing method is discussed.« less

  12. Intense Pulsed Neutron Emission from a Compact Pyroelectric Driven Accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, V; Meyer, G; Falabella, S; Guethlein, G; Sampayan, S; Kerr, P; Rusnak, B; Morse, J

    2008-10-08

    Intense pulsed D-D neutron emission with rates >10{sup 10} n/s during the pulse, pulse widths of {approx}100's ns, and neutron yields >10 k per pulse are demonstrated in a compact pyroelectric accelerator. The accelerator consists of a small pyroelectric LiTaO{sub 3} crystal which provides the accelerating voltage and an independent compact spark plasma ion source. The crystal voltage versus temperature is characterized and compare well with theory. Results show neutron output per pulse that scales with voltage as V{approx}1.7. These neutron yields match a simple model of the system at low voltages but are lower than predicted at higher voltages due to charge losses not accounted for in the model. Interpretation of the data against modeling provides understanding of the accelerator and in general pyroelectric LiTaO{sub 3} crystals operated as charge limited negative high voltage targets. The findings overall serve as the proof-of-principle and basis for pyroelectric neutron generators that can be pulsed, giving peak neutron rates orders of magnitude greater than previous work, and notably increase the potential applications of pyroelectric based neutron generators.

  13. Quasiperiodic and chaotic motions in intense field multiphoton processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shih-I Chu

    1987-09-25

    The question of the behavior of quantum systems in time-dependent fields whose classical counterparts exhibit chaotic behavior is addressed. For any nondissipative bounded quantum system under the influence of polychromatic (i.e., quasiperiodic) fields, it is proved by means of the many-mode Floquet theory that the auto-correlation function will recur infinitely often in the course of time, indicating no strict quantum stochasticity is possible. In particular, for an N-level quantum system undergoing multiphoton transitions, its dynamic behavior is described by the quasiperiodic motion of an (N/sup 2/--1)-dimensional coherence vector S-arrow-right in accord with the SU(N) dynamic symmetries. On the other hand, for any dissipative quantum system, SU(N) symmetries are broken, and non-quasiperiodic behavior is observed as the coherence vector S-arrow-right evolves from an initially (N/sup 2/--1)-dimensional space to a lower-dimensional space. The dynamical behaviors are illustrated for two- and three-level quantum systems driven by intense bichromatic laser fields.

  14. National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2013-01-01

    the Tool BEST Cement: Benchmarking and Energy Savings ToolZhou. 2008. World Best Practice Energy Intensity Values forpublications/world-best-practice-energy- intensity-values-

  15. Industrial Sector Energy Demand: Revisions for Non-Energy-Intensive Manufacturing (released in AEO2007)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2007-01-01

    For the industrial sector, the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) analysis and projection efforts generally have focused on the energy-intensive industriesfood, bulk chemicals, refining, glass, cement, steel, and aluminumwhere energy cost averages 4.8% of annual operating cost. Detailed process flows and energy intensity indicators have been developed for narrowly defined industry groups in the energy-intensive manufacturing sector. The non-energy-intensive manufacturing industries, where energy cost averages 1.9% of annual operating cost, previously have received somewhat less attention, however. In Annual Energy Outlook 2006 (AEO), energy demand projections were provided for two broadly aggregated industry groups in the non-energy-intensive manufacturing sector: metal-based durables and other non-energy-intensive. In the AEO2006 projections, the two groups accounted for more than 50% of the projected increase in industrial natural gas consumption from 2004 to 2030.

  16. Changes in energy intensity in the manufacturing sector 1985--1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-15

    In this report, energy intensity is defined as the ratio of energy consumption per unit of output. Output is measured as the constant dollar of value of shipments and receipts, and two measures of energy consumption are presented in British thermal units (Btu): Offsite-Produced Energy and Total Inputs of Energy. A decrease in energy intensity from one period to another suggests an increase in energy efficiency, and vice versa. Energy efficiency can be defined and measured in various ways. Certain concepts of energy efficiency, especially those limited to equipment efficiencies, cannot be measured over time using changes in energy-intensity ratios. While improved energy efficiency will tend to reduce energy intensity, it is also true that a change in energy intensity can be due to factors unrelated to energy efficiency. For this report, energy intensity is used as a surrogate measure for energy efficiency, based on industry knowledge and current methodological analyses.

  17. HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS WITH INTENSE HEAVY ION BEAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; More, R.M.; Roy, P.K.; Ni, P.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.L.; Barnard, J.J.

    2010-03-16

    The US heavy ion fusion science program has developed techniques for heating ion-beam-driven warm dense matter (WDM) targets. The WDM conditions are to be achieved by combined longitudinal and transverse space-charge neutralized drift compression of the ion beam to provide a hot spot on the target with a beam spot size of about 1 mm, and pulse length about 1-2 ns. As a technique for heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density, intense beams of heavy ions are capable of delivering precise and uniform beam energy deposition dE/dx, in a relatively large sample size, and the ability to heat any solid-phase target material. Initial experiments use a 0.3 MeV K+ beam (below the Bragg peak) from the NDCX-I accelerator. Future plans include target experiments using the NDCX-II accelerator, which is designed to heat targets at the Bragg peak using a 3-6 MeV lithium ion beam. The range of the beams in solid matter targets is about 1 micron, which can be lengthened by using porous targets at reduced density. We have completed the fabrication of a new experimental target chamber facility for WDM experiments, and implemented initial target diagnostics to be used for the first target experiments in NDCX-1. The target chamber has been installed on the NDCX-I beamline. The target diagnostics include a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, VISAR, and high-speed gated cameras. Initial WDM experiments will heat targets by compressed NDCX-I beams and will explore measurement of temperature and other target parameters. Experiments are planned in areas such as dense electronegative targets, porous target homogenization and two-phase equation of state.

  18. HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS WITH INTENSE HEAVY ION BEAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; More, R.M.; Roy, P.K.; Ni, P.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.L.; Barnard, J.J.

    2008-08-01

    The US heavy ion fusion science program has developed techniques for heating ion-beam-driven warm dense matter (WDM) targets. The WDM conditions are to be achieved by combined longitudinal and transverse space-charge neutralized drift compression of the ion beam to provide a hot spot on the target with a beam spot size of about 1 mm, and pulse length about 1-2 ns. As a technique for heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density, intense beams of heavy ions are capable of delivering precise and uniform beam energy deposition dE/dx, in a relatively large sample size, and the ability to heat any solid-phase target material. Initial experiments use a 0.3 MeV K+ beam (below the Bragg peak) from the NDCX-I accelerator. Future plans include target experiments using the NDCX-II accelerator, which is designed to heat targets at the Bragg peak using a 3-6 MeV lithium ion beam. The range of the beams in solid matter targets is about 1 micron, which can be lengthened by using porous targets at reduced density. We have completed the fabrication of a new experimental target chamber facility for WDM experiments, and implemented initial target diagnostics to be used for the first target experiments in NDCX-1. The target chamber has been installed on the NDCX-I beamline. The target diagnostics include a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, VISAR, and high-speed gated cameras. Initial WDM experiments will heat targets by compressed NDCX-I beams and will explore measurement of temperature and other target parameters. Experiments are planned in areas such as dense electronegative targets, porous target homogenization and two-phase equation of state.

  19. Glass Strengthening via High-Intensity Plasma-Arc Heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wereszczak, Andrew A; Harper, David C; Duty, Chad E; Patel, P

    2010-01-01

    The use of a high-intensity plasma-arc lamp was used to irradiate the surface of soda-lime silicate glass tiles to determine if an increase in strength could be achieved. The lamp had a power density of 3500 W/cm2, a processing area of 1 cm x 10 cm, irradiated near-infrared heating at a wavelength between 0.2 1.4 m, and was controlled to unidirectionally sweep across 50-mm-square tiles at a constant speed of 8 mm/s. Ring-on-ring (RoR) equibiaxial flexure and 4 pt uni-directional flexure testings of entire tiles were used to measure and compare failure stress distributions of treated and untreated glass. Even with non-optimized processing conditions, RoR failure stress increased by approximately 25% and the 4 pt bend failure stress increased by approximately 65%. Strengthening was due to a fire-polishing-like mechanism. The arc-lamp heat-treatment caused the location of the strength-limiting flaws in the 4-pt-bend tiles to change; namely, failure initiation occurred on the gage section surface for the treated glass whereas it occurred at a gage section edge for the untreated. Arc-lamp heat-treatment is attractive not only because it provides strengthening, but because it can (non-contact) process large amounts of glass quickly and inexpensively, and is a process that either a glass manufacturer or end-user can readily employ.

  20. Energy end-use intensities in commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This report examines energy intensities in commercial buildings for nine end uses: space heating, cooling, ventilation, lighting, water heating, cooking, refrigeration, office equipment, and other. The objective of this analysis was to increase understanding of how energy is used in commercial buildings and to identify targets for greater energy efficiency which could moderate future growth in demand. The source of data for the analysis is the 1989 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption survey (CBECS), which collected detailed data on energy-related characteristics and energy consumption for a nationally representative sample of approximately 6,000 commercial buildings. The analysis used 1989 CBECS data because the 1992 CBECS data were not yet available at the time the study was initiated. The CBECS data were fed into the Facility Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) system, a building energy simulation program developed by the US Department of Energy`s Pacific Northwest Laboratory, to derive engineering estimates of end-use consumption for each building in the sample. The FEDS estimates were then statistically adjusted to match the total energy consumption for each building. This is the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) first report on energy end-use consumption in commercial buildings. This report is part of an effort to address customer requests for more information on how energy is used in buildings, which was an overall theme of the 1992 user needs study. The end-use data presented in this report were not available for publication in Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1989 (DOE/EIA-0318(89), Washington, DC, April 1992). However, subsequent reports on end-use energy consumption will be part of the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption and Expenditures series, beginning with a 1992 data report to be published in early 1995.

  1. Prostate Bed Motion During Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klayton, Tracy; Price, Robert; Buyyounouski, Mark K.; Sobczak, Mark; Greenberg, Richard; Li, Jinsheng; Keller, Lanea; Sopka, Dennis; Kutikov, Alexander; Horwitz, Eric M.

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Conformal radiation therapy in the postprostatectomy setting requires accurate setup and localization of the prostatic fossa. In this series, we report prostate bed localization and motion characteristics, using data collected from implanted radiofrequency transponders. Methods and Materials: The Calypso four-dimensional localization system uses three implanted radiofrequency transponders for daily target localization and real-time tracking throughout a course of radiation therapy. We reviewed the localization and tracking reports for 20 patients who received ultrasonography-guided placement of Calypso transponders within the prostate bed prior to a course of intensity-modulated radiation therapy at Fox Chase Cancer Center. Results: At localization, prostate bed displacement relative to bony anatomy exceeded 5 mm in 9% of fractions in the anterior-posterior (A-P) direction and 21% of fractions in the superior-inferior (S-I) direction. The three-dimensional vector length from skin marks to Calypso alignment exceeded 1 cm in 24% of all 652 fractions with available setup data. During treatment, the target exceeded the 5-mm tracking limit for at least 30 sec in 11% of all fractions, generally in the A-P or S-I direction. In the A-P direction, target motion was twice as likely to move posteriorly, toward the rectum, than anteriorly. Fifteen percent of all treatments were interrupted for repositioning, and 70% of patients were repositioned at least once during their treatment course. Conclusion: Set-up errors and motion of the prostatic fossa during radiotherapy are nontrivial, leading to potential undertreatment of target and excess normal tissue toxicity if not taken into account during treatment planning. Localization and real-time tracking of the prostate bed via implanted Calypso transponders can be used to improve the accuracy of plan delivery.

  2. SU-E-T-409: Intensity Modulated Robotic Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, B; Jin, L; Li, J; Chen, L; Ma, C; Fan, J; Zhang, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: As compared with the IRIS-based models, the MLC-based CyberKnife system allows more efficient treatment delivery due to its improved coverage of large lesions and intensity modulation. The treatment delivery efficiency is mainly determined by the number of selected nodes. This study aimed to demonstrate that relatively small sets of optimally selected nodes could produce high-quality plans. Methods: The full body path of the CyberKnife system consists of 110 nodes, from which we selected various sets for 4 prostate cancer cases using our in-house beamselection software. With the selected nodes we generated IMRT plans using our in-house beamlet-based inverse-planning optimization program. We also produced IMRT plans using the MultiPlan treatment planning system (version 5.0) for the same cases. Furthermore, the nodes selected by MultiPlan were used to produce plans with our own optimization software so that we could compare the quality of the selected sets of nodes. Results: Our beam-selection program selected one node-set for each case, with the number of nodes ranging from 23 to 34. The IMRT plans based on the selected nodes and our in-house optimization program showed adequate target coverage, with favorable critical structure sparing for the cases investigated. Compared with the plans using the nodes selected by MultiPlan, the plans generated with our selected beams provided superior rectum/bladder sparing for 75% of the cases. The plans produced by MultiPlan with various numbers of nodes also suggested that the plan quality was not compromised significantly when the number of nodes was reduced. Conclusion: Our preliminary results showed that with beamletbased planning optimization, one could produce high-quality plans with an optimal set of nodes for MLC-based robotic radiotherapy. Furthermore, our beam-selection strategy could help further improve critical structure sparing.

  3. Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy With Dose Painting to Treat Rhabdomyosarcoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Joanna C.; Dharmarajan, Kavita V.; Wexler, Leonard H.; La Quaglia, Michael P.; Happersett, Laura; Wolden, Suzanne L.

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To examine local control and patterns of failure in rhabdomyosarcoma patients treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy (RT) with dose painting (DP-IMRT). Patients and Methods: A total of 41 patients underwent DP-IMRT with chemotherapy for definitive treatment. Nineteen also underwent surgery with or without intraoperative RT. Fifty-six percent had alveolar histologic features. The median interval from beginning chemotherapy to RT was 17 weeks (range, 4-25). Very young children who underwent second-look procedures with or without intraoperative RT received reduced doses of 24-36 Gy in 1.4-1.8-Gy fractions. Young adults received 50.4 Gy to the primary tumor and lower doses of 36 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions to at-risk lymph node chains. Results: With 22 months of median follow-up, the actuarial local control rate was 90%. Patients aged {<=}7 years who received reduced overall and fractional doses had 100% local control, and young adults had 79% (P=.07) local control. Three local failures were identified in young adults whose primary target volumes had received 50.4 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions. Conclusions: DP-IMRT with lower fractional and cumulative doses is feasible for very young children after second-look procedures with or without intraoperative RT. DP-IMRT is also feasible in adolescents and young adults with aggressive disease who would benefit from prophylactic RT to high-risk lymph node chains, although dose escalation might be warranted for improved local control. With limited follow-up, it appears that DP-IMRT produces local control rates comparable to those of sequential IMRT in patients with rhabdomyosarcoma.

  4. Monitoring I/O on Data-Intensive Clusters Visualizing Disk Reads...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Clinton, Mike Mason, Graham Van Heule - HPC 3 1 LA---UR---14---26019 Background Motivation: - IO Intensive Jobs * Large amounts of scientific data 2 Background Motivation: -...

  5. Table 8. Carbon intensity of the economy by State (2000-2011

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Carbon intensity of the economy by State (2000-2011)" "metric tons energy-related carbon dioxide per million dollars of GDP" ,,,"Change" ,,,"2000 to 2011"...

  6. Table 7. Carbon intensity of the energy supply by State (2000...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Carbon intensity of the energy supply by State (2000-2011)" "kilograms of energy-related carbon dioxide per million Btu" ,,,"Change" ,,,"2000 to 2011"...

  7. Intense Super-radiant X-rays from a Compact Source using a Nanocathode...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    periodically bunched at the wavelength of interest enabling in-phase super-radiant emission that is far more intense than from unbunched electrons. The periodic bunching is...

  8. Generation of Stable (3+1)-dimensional High-intensity Ultrashort Light Pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todorov, T. P.; Koprinkov, I. G. [Department of Applied Physics, Technical University of Sofia, 1000 Sofia (Bulgaria); Todorova, M. E. [College of Energetics and Electronics, Technical University of Sofia, 1000 Sofia (Bulgaria); Todorov, M. D. [Faculty of Appl. Math. and Informatics, Technical University of Sofia, 1000 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2010-11-25

    The spatiotemporal dynamics of high-intensity femtosecond laser pulses is studied within a rigorous physical model. The pulse propagation is described by the nonlinear envelope equation. The propagation and the material equations are solved self-consistently at realistic physical conditions. Self-compression of the pulse around single-cycle regime and dramatic increase of the pulse intensity is found. At certain conditions, the peak intensity, transversal width, time duration, and the spatiotemporal pulse shape remain stable with the propagation of the pulse, resembling a soliton formation process. This, to our knowledge, is the first simulation of high-intensity ultrashort soliton formation dynamics in the (3+1)-dimensional case.

  9. A Comparison of Iron and Steel Production Energy Use and Energy Intensity in China and the U.S.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Intensity GJ/t kgce/t Primary Energy Intensity* GJ/t kgce/tIntensity GJ/t kgce/t Primary Energy Intensity* GJ/t kgce/Scenarios 1, 4 and 6 the primary energy value includes T&D

  10. ISSUANCE 2015-12-02: Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for High-Intensity Discharge Lamps, Final Determination

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for High-Intensity Discharge Lamps, Final Determination

  11. 2d-PIC simulation of atomic clusters in intense laser fields F. Greschik and H.-J. Kull,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kull, Hans-Jörg

    Title page Full title 2d-PIC simulation of atomic clusters in intense laser fields Authors F of atomic clusters in intense laser fields Abstract Collective absorption of intense laser pulses by atomic by electron emission increases as a power law with the laser intensity. The absorbed energy per electron

  12. Title of dissertation: Precision Control of Intense Electron Beams in a Low-Energy Ring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anlage, Steven

    ABSTRACT Title of dissertation: Precision Control of Intense Electron Beams in a Low-Energy Ring ELECTRON BEAMS IN A LOW-ENERGY RING by Chao Wu Dissertation submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of particle accelerators require beams with high intensity and low emittance in a stable fashion. An important

  13. A Computational Model of Knowledge-Intensive Learning and Problem Solving1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aamodt, Agnar

    1 A Computational Model of Knowledge-Intensive Learning and Problem Solving1 Agnar Aamodt Knowledge. If knowledge-based systems are to become more competent and robust in solving real world problems, they need model - a framework -for knowledge-intensive problem solving and learning from experience. The model has

  14. Second-Best Instruments for Near-Term Climate Policy: Intensity Targets vs. the Safety Valve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wing, Ian Sue

    Second-Best Instruments for Near-Term Climate Policy: Intensity Targets vs. the Safety Valve Mort Keywords: Uncertainty, climate change, instrument choice, safety valve, intensity target. Abstract Current to be preferred over a safety valve. 1 #12;1. Introduction As many countries prepare to begin their implementation

  15. Storage of water on vegetation under simulated rainfall of varying intensity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keim, Richard

    Storage of water on vegetation under simulated rainfall of varying intensity R.F. Keim a,*, A Little is understood about how storage of water on forest canopies varies during rainfall, even though storage changes intensity of throughfall and thus affects a variety of hydrological processes

  16. Measurement of proton and anti-proton intensities in the Tevatron Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen Pordes et al.

    2003-06-04

    This paper describes the techniques used to measure the intensities of the proton (p) and anti-proton ({bar p}) beams in the Tevatron collider. The systems provide simultaneous measurements of the intensity of the 36 proton and 36 antiproton bunches and their longitudinal profiles.

  17. Initial ultraviolet-B intensity data at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patten, K.O. Jr.; Wuebbles, D.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Smith, G.J. [New Zealand Inst. for Industrial Research and Development, Lower Hutt (New Zealand)

    1993-10-01

    A measurement of UV-B reaching the ground has been established at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The instrument is the same as those operated by the National Institute for Water and Atmospheric Research in their network in New Zealand. The wavelength response of the radiometer is similar to the response of human skin to UV-B. Intensity data are collected by averaging meter readings over 10 minutes from 6:00 am to 6:00 pm Pacific Standard Time, then converting to effective UV-B intensity normalized at 310 nm. This report checks the intensities obtained at LLNL from November 1992 to July 1993 against the expected results: Increased solar zenith angle, whether from the daily cycle or from the yearly cycle in solar position, should decrease UV-B intensity at the ground due to increased optical path; and, intervening cloud cover should decrease ground UV-B intensity. Three additional findings are reported here: Maximum UV-B intensity on cloudless days does not always follow a smooth curve, but instead varies either high or low to some extent; Morning UV-B intensities are less than those in the afternoon at comparable solar zenith angles at certain times of year; LLNL wintertime daily-averaged UV-B intensities are somewhat higher than those observed at Auckland, New Zealand in their winter of 1992.

  18. The Effect of Topography on Storm-Track Intensity in a Relatively Simple General Circulation Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Son, Seok-Woo

    The Effect of Topography on Storm-Track Intensity in a Relatively Simple General Circulation Model The effect of topography on storm-track intensity is examined with a set of primitive equation model flow impinging on the topography. If the background flow consists of a weak double jet, higher

  19. Issues and R&D Required for the Intensity Frontier Accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiltsev, V.; Henderson, S.; Hurh, P.; Kourbanis, I.; Lebedev, V.

    2013-09-26

    Operation, upgrade and development of accelerators for Intensity Frontier face formidable challenges in order to satisfy both the near-term and long-term Particle Physics program. Here we discuss key issues and R&D required for the Intensity Frontier accelerators.

  20. Generation of mega-electron-volt electron beams by an ultrafast intense laser pulse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Umstadter, Donald

    Generation of mega-electron-volt electron beams by an ultrafast intense laser pulse Xiaofang Wang filamentation and beam breakup. These results suggest an approach for generating a beam of femtosecond, Me-intensity lasers has made it pos- sible to study extreme physics on a tabletop. Among the studies, the generation

  1. A hybrid approach to beam angle optimization in intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertsimas, Dimitris

    Linear programming Computational experiments a b s t r a c t Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy Optimization) is an important problem and is today often based on human experience. In this context, we faceA hybrid approach to beam angle optimization in intensity-modulated radiation therapy D. Bertsimas

  2. Improved Heat Transfer and Performance of High Intensity Combustion Systems for Reformer Furnace Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, F. D. M.; Kondratas, H. M.

    1983-01-01

    Developments over the past fifteen years have evolved new short flame, high intensity (1,000,000 BTU/HR/ft3 ) combustion systems for industrial uses. Such systems produce a more uniform and higher heat flux than conventional low intensity systems...

  3. Plasma discreteness eects in the presence of an intense, ultrashort laser pulse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plasma discreteness eects in the presence of an intense, ultrashort laser pulse V.I. Savchenko, intense laser pulse are investigated. Although, for most plasmas of interest, the damping of the laser pulse is due to collective plasma eects, in certain regimes the energy absorbed in the plasma micro#12

  4. Plasma discreteness effects in the presence of an intense, ultrashort laser pulse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plasma discreteness effects in the presence of an intense, ultrashort laser pulse V. I. Savchenko irradiated by an ultrashort, intense laser pulse are investigated. Although, for most plasmas of interest, the damping of the laser pulse is due to collective plasma effects, in certain regimes the energy absorbed

  5. Plasma discreteness effects in the presence of an intense, ultrashort laser pulse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plasma discreteness effects in the presence of an intense, ultrashort laser pulse V.I. Savchenko, intense laser pulse are investigated. Although, for most plasmas of interest, the damping of the laser pulse is due to collective plasma effects, in certain regimes the energy absorbed in the plasma

  6. Soil protozoa--An intensive study of population dynamics and community structure in an upland grassland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soil protozoa--An intensive study of population dynamics and community structure in an upland intensive investigation of soil protozoan diversity sponsored by the Natural Environment Research Council within the context of the fractal character of the soil. We developed methods for estimating

  7. Molecular Dynamics of Methylamine, Methanol, and Methyl Fluoride Cations in Intense 7 Micron Laser Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlegel, H. Bernhard

    Molecular Dynamics of Methylamine, Methanol, and Methyl Fluoride Cations in Intense 7 Micron Laser of methylamine (CH3NH2 + ), methanol (CH3OH+ ), and methyl fluoride (CH3F+ ) cations by short, intense laser 7 m laser pulses. This work is motivated by recent studies of methanol cations by Yamanouchi and co

  8. The Kuznets-Kaldor-Puzzle and Neutral Cross-Capital-Intensity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Güting, Ralf Hartmut

    The Kuznets-Kaldor-Puzzle and Neutral Cross-Capital-Intensity Structural Change by Denis Stijepic://www.fernuni-hagen.de/ls_wagner/en/ #12;The Kuznets-Kaldor-Puzzle and Neutral Cross- Capital-Intensity Structural Change* Denis Stijepic The Kuznets-Kaldor stylized facts are one of the most striking empirical observations about the development

  9. Light intensity, prey detection and foraging mechanisms of age 0 year yellow perch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mensinger, Allen F.

    Light intensity, prey detection and foraging mechanisms of age 0 year yellow perch H. E. RICHMOND feeding trials at varying light intensities. Perch were highly effective predators and captured Daphnia pulicaria with 94% overall foraging success at light levels ranging from 0 to 3400lx. Maximum average

  10. 28th International Cosmic Ray Conference 4041 Long-Term Cosmic Ray Intensities: Physical Reconstruc-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Usoskin, Ilya G.

    model of the heliosphere, we calculate the expected differential spectra and integral intensity of galactic cosmic rays at the Earth's orbit since 1610. The calculated cosmic ray integral intensity. (2000) have recently calculated the open solar magnetic flux for the last 400 years from sunspot data

  11. Vasco: A Visual Approach to Explore Object Churn in Framework-intensive Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dufour, Bruno

    Vasco: A Visual Approach to Explore Object Churn in Framework-intensive Applications Fleur Duseau,dufour,sahraouh}@iro.umontreal.ca Abstract--Bloat, and particularly object churn, is a common performance problem in framework-intensive applications. Ob- ject churn consists of an excessive use of temporary objects. Identifying and understanding

  12. U.S. Greenhouse Gas Intensity and the Global Climate Change Initiative (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    On February 14, 2002, President Bush announced the Administrations Global Climate Change Initiative. A key goal of the Climate Change Initiative is to reduce U.S. greenhouse gas intensity by 18% over the 2002 to 2012 time frame. For the purposes of the initiative, greenhouse gas intensity is defined as the ratio of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions to economic output.

  13. Electrochemical Control of the Time-Dependent Intensity Fluctuations in Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brolo, Alexandre G.

    in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) intensities were recorded from a roughened silver electrode the applied potential. The potential-controlled distribution of SERS intensities was interpreted by considering the modulation of the surface coverage of the adsorbed dye by the interfacial electric field

  14. Development status of triple-junction solar cells optimized for low intensity low temperature applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Development status of triple-junction solar cells optimized for low intensity low temperature triple-junction solar cells manufactured by AZUR SPACE Solar Power GmbH under low intensity low unusable for deep space missions. Fig. 1: Example of a flat spot effect present in a triple- junction solar

  15. Oecologia (2000) 124:270279 Springer-Verlag 2000 Abstract Disturbance frequency, intensity, and areal ex-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCabe, Declan

    2000-01-01

    Oecologia (2000) 124:270­279 © Springer-Verlag 2000 Abstract Disturbance frequency, intensity The intensity, frequency, and area of disturbance may de- termine the abundance and species richness of an assem for recoloniza- tion. If disturbance frequency is greater than the rate of competitive exclusion, diversity may

  16. Energy Policy 35 (2007) 52675286 The implications of the historical decline in US energy intensity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    Energy Policy 35 (2007) 5267­5286 The implications of the historical decline in US energy intensity for long-run CO2 emission projections Ian Sue Winga,Ă, Richard S. Eckausb a Center for Energy 2007 Abstract This paper analyzes the influence of the long-run decline in US energy intensity

  17. FINAL FOCUS ION BEAM INTENSITY FROM TUNGSTEN FOIL CALORIMETER AND SCINTILLATOR IN NDCX-I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lidia, S.M.; Bieniosek, F.; Henestroza, E.; Ni, P.; Seidl, P.

    2010-04-30

    Laboratory high energy density experiments using ion beam drivers rely upon the delivery of high-current, high-brightness ion beams with high peak intensity onto targets. Solid-state scintillators are typically used to measure the ion beam spatial profile but they display dose-dependent degradation and aging effects. These effects produce uncertainties and limit the accuracy of measuring peak beam intensities delivered to the target. For beam tuning and characterizing the incident beam intensity, we have developed a cross-calibrating diagnostic suite that extends the upper limit of measurable peak intensity dynamic range. Absolute intensity calibration is obtained with a 3 {micro}m thick tungsten foil calorimeter and streak spectrometer. We present experimental evidence for peak intensity measures in excess of 400 kW/cm{sup 2} using a 0.3 MV, 25 mA, 5-20 {micro}sec K{sup +1} beam. Radiative models and thermal diffusion effects are discussed because they affect temporal and spatial resolution of beam intensity profiles.

  18. A sensitivity study of the thermodynamic environment on GFDL model hurricane intensity: Implications for global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, W.; Tuleya, R.E.; Ginis, I.

    2000-01-01

    In this study, the effect of thermodynamic environmental changes on hurricane intensity is extensively investigated with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory hurricane model for a suite of experiments with different initial upper-tropospheric temperature anomalies up to {+-}4 C and sea surface temperatures ranging from 26 to 31 C given the same relative humidity profile. The results indicate that stabilization in the environmental atmosphere and sea surface temperature (SST) increase cause opposing effects on hurricane intensity. The offsetting relationship between the effects of atmospheric stability increase (decrease) and SST increase (decrease) is monotonic and systematic in the parameter space. This implies that hurricane intensity increase due to a possible global warming associated with increased CO{sub 2} is considerably smaller than that expected from warming of the oceanic waters alone. The results also indicate that the intensity of stronger (weaker) hurricanes is more (less) sensitive to atmospheric stability and SST changes. The model-attained hurricane intensity is found to be well correlated with the maximum surface evaporation and the large-scale environmental convective available potential energy. The model-attained hurricane intensity if highly correlated with the energy available from wet-adiabatic ascent near the eyewall relative to a reference sounding in the undisturbed environment for all the experiments. Coupled hurricane-ocean experiments show that hurricane intensity becomes less sensitive to atmospheric stability and SST changes since the ocean coupling causes larger (smaller) intensity reduction for stronger (weaker) hurricanes. This implies less increase of hurricane intensity related to a possible global warming due to increased CO{sub 2}.

  19. Intense terahertz emission from relativistic circularly polarized laser pulses interaction with overdense plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Zi-Yu; Li, Xiao-Ya [National Key Laboratory of Shock Wave and Detonation Physics, Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)] [National Key Laboratory of Shock Wave and Detonation Physics, Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Yu, Wei [Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)] [Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2013-10-15

    During the interaction of a relativistic circularly polarized laser pulse with an overdense plasma target, the longitudinal motion of bunches of electrons under the action of light pressure and electrostatic restore force can emit intense terahertz (THz) pulses. This mechanism allows high pump laser intensity and large electron number participating in the emission. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations are carried out to investigate the THz emission. The results suggest that such a source can produce remarkably intense THz pulses with energy of several mJ/sr and power of tens of gigawatts, which could find applications in nonlinear studies and relativistic laser-plasma interaction diagnostics.

  20. Prospects for clustering and lensing measurements with forthcoming intensity mapping and optical surveys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pourtsidou, Alkistis; Crittenden, Robert; Metcalf, R Benton

    2015-01-01

    We explore the potential of using intensity mapping surveys (MeerKAT, SKA) and optical galaxy surveys (DES, LSST) to detect HI clustering and weak gravitational lensing of 21cm emission in auto- and cross-correlation. Our forecasts show that high precision measurements of the clustering and lensing signals can be made in the near future using the intensity mapping technique. Such studies can be used to test the intensity mapping method, and constrain parameters such as the HI density $\\Omega_{\\rm HI}$, the HI bias $b_{\\rm HI}$ and the galaxy-HI correlation coefficient $r_{\\rm HI-g}$.

  1. Environmental Emissions Nonenergy Benefits Working Paper: ARRA Period

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, David; Bausch, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    Weatherization reduces energy usage by low-income households, and thereby reduces the environmental impacts of the production and consumption of energy and reduces the social costs associated with those environmental impacts. The nonenergy benefits study conducted as part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) evaluation focused on measuring the emissions reductions resulting from WAP program energy usage reductions and estimating the societal value of those emission reductions. While there are other environmental impacts associated with the WAP program, this study focused on emissions impacts because the 2010 National Research Council (NRC) report Hidden Costs of Energy: The Unpriced Consequences of Energy Production and Use recommended that Congress focus on emissions costs because they have the highest documented social impact costs

  2. Manpower planning and cycle-time reduction of a labor-intensive assembly line

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oh, Shao Chong

    2010-01-01

    The demand for Gas Lift Mandrels(GLM) in the oil and gas industry is expected to increase over the next few years, requiring Schlumberger's GLM assembly line to increase their manufacturing capacity. Given the labor-intensive ...

  3. Note: Design and initial results of a multi-pulsed intense electron beam source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xia, L., E-mail: xialiansheng@caep.cn; Zhang, H.; Yang, A.; Shen, Y.; Wang, W.; Wen, L.; Zhang, K.; Shi, J.; Zhang, L.; Deng, J. [Institute of Fluid Physics, CAEP, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2014-06-15

    A multi-pulsed intense electron beam source is introduced, including the design and the initial experimental results. The source can generate a burst of three pulses of intense electron beams with energy of 2–3 MeV and beam intensities of around 2.5 kA. An inductive adder is chosen to generate the pulsed diode voltages and a dispenser cathode is chosen to emit electron beams. The test results indicate that the design of the source is reliable. The multi-pulsed diode voltage is up to 2.5 MV and the beam intensities are more than 2 kA at the exit of the source with small variation.

  4. Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing Key Energy Challenges Across U.S. Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-03-07

    AMO is developing advanced technologies that cut energy use and carbon emissions in some of the most energy-intensive processes within U.S. manufacturing. The brochure describes the AMO R&D projects that address these challenges.

  5. Laser enhanced high-intensity focused ultrasound thrombolysis: An in vitro study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Huizhong; Yang, Xinmai

    2013-01-17

    Laser-enhanced thrombolysis by high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment was studied in vitro with bovine blood clots. To achieve laser-enhanced thrombolysis, laser light was employed to illuminate the sample concurrently with HIFU...

  6. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Magnesium-Intensive Front End Sub-Structure Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by USAMP at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about magnesium-intensive front end sub...

  7. Hybrid intensity and time-of-flight signal processing techniques for intelligent distance sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hiromi, Itariu

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of "smart" consumer electronics, distance sensing is an increasingly important field in optical sensing. A novel approach to active infrared(IR) 1D distance sensing is proposed, employing both intensity and ...

  8. Determinants of energy intensity in industrialized countries : a comparison of China and India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Feiya

    2006-01-01

    The amount of final energy per unit of economic output (usually in terms of gross domestic product, or GDP), known as energy intensity, is often used to measure the effectiveness of energy use and the consumption patterns ...

  9. Correlation of intensity fluctuations in beams generated by quasi-homogeneous sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Visser, Taco D.

    of intensity fluctuations (the Hanbury Brown­Twiss effect) that occurs in electromagnetic beams.1364/JOSAA.31.002152 1. INTRODUCTION In the mid-1950s Hanbury Brown and Twiss (HBT) deter- mined the angular

  10. Generation and search of axion-like light particle using intense crystalline field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei Liao

    2011-07-19

    Intense electric field $\\sim 10^{10}-10^{11}$ V/cm in crystal has been known for a long time and has wide applications. We study the conversion of axion-like light particle and photon in the intense electric field in crystal. We find that the conversion of axion-like particle and photon happens for energy larger than keV range. We propose search of axion-like light particle using the intense crystalline field. We discuss the solar axion search experiment and a variety of shining-through-wall experiment using crystalline field. Due to the intense crystalline field which corresponds to magnetic field $\\sim 10^4-10^5$ Tesla these experiments are very interesting. In particular these experiments can probe the mass range of axion-like particle from eV to keV.

  11. [19] OSCILLATIONMETHOD 211 breaks down, and the most intense reflections will be systematically un-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrison, Stephen C.

    intensities from crystals of large unit cell. The problems imposed by the need to analyze the digitized data of two perpendicular bent mirrors, providing glancing-angle reflection in horizontal and vertical planes

  12. Bulk ablation of soft tissue with intense ultrasound: Modeling and experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mast, T. Douglas

    , the thermal de- struction of large tissue volumes is most commonly per- formed using radiofrequency RF ablation electromagnetic radiation in the 400­700 kHz range .3,4 Intense ultrasound treatment, first

  13. Physics of Neutralization of Intense Charged Particle Beam Pulses by a Background Plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaganovich, I.D.

    2010-01-01

    2002). J.D. Lawson, “Physics of Charged Particles Beams”, (B. Kusse, J. Moschella, Physics of Fluids 30 , 245 (1987).Davidson and H. Qin, “ Physics of Intense Charged Particle

  14. The emergence of negotiated family care in intensive care - a grounded theory approach 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kean, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    This thesis describes a qualitative enquiry into the experiences of families visiting an adult intensive care unit (ICU) during a critical illness of a family member and nurses’ perceptions of families in this environment. ...

  15. Apparatus and process for active pulse intensity control of laser beam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilcox, Russell B. (Oakland, CA)

    1992-01-01

    An optically controlled laser pulse energy control apparatus and process is disclosed wherein variations in the energy of a portion of the laser beam are used to vary the resistance of a photodetector such as a photoresistor through which a control voltage is fed to a light intensity controlling device through which a second portion of the laser beam passes. Light attenuation means are provided to vary the intensity of the laser light used to control the resistance of the photodetector. An optical delay path is provided through which the second portion of the beam travels before reaching the light intensity controlling device. The control voltage is supplied by a variable power supply. The apparatus may be tuned to properly attenuate the laser beam passing through the intensity controlling device by adjusting the power supply, the optical delay path, or the light attenuating means.

  16. Multi-objective fuel policies: Renewable fuel standards versus Fuel greenhouse gas intensity standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, Deepak

    2010-01-01

    of both biofuel and fossil fuel and thereby increases totalof proof to show world fossil fuel price decreases under anyGHG intensity among fossil fuels. We ?nd that the relative

  17. Extreme rainfall intensities and long-term rainfall risk from tropical cyclones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langousis, Andreas, 1981-

    2009-01-01

    We develop a methodology for the frequency of extreme rainfall intensities caused by tropical cyclones (TCs) in coastal areas. The mean rainfall field associated with a TC with maximum tangential wind speed Vmax, radius ...

  18. Energy Intensity Changes by Sector, 1985-2011 – Alternative Measures by Type of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Further insight with regard to the comparison of intensity changes by sector can be gained by looking at how they differ with respect to different definitions of energy use. Source energy...

  19. Zone folding effect in Raman G-band intensity of twisted bilayer graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dresselhaus, Mildred

    The G-band Raman intensity is calculated for twisted bilayer graphene as a function of laser excitation energy based on the extended tight binding method. Here we explicitly consider the electron-photon and electron-phonon ...

  20. Network of Spaces and Interaction-Related Behaviors in Adult Intensive Care Units

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rashid, Mahbub; Boyle, Diane K.; Crosser, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Using three spatial network measures of “space syntax”, this correlational study describes four interaction-related behaviors among three groups of users in relation to visibility and accessibility of spaces in four adult intensive care units (ICUs...

  1. Energy prices and energy intensity in China : a structural decomposition analysis and econometrics study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Xiaoyu

    2006-01-01

    Since the start of its economic reforms in 1978, China's energy prices relative to other prices have increased. At the same time, its energy intensity, i.e., energy consumption per unit of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), has ...

  2. Intensity-resolved Above Threshold Ionization Yields of Atoms with Ultrashort Laser Pulses 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Nathan Andrew

    2012-10-19

    The above threshold ionization (ATI) spectra provide a diversity of information about a laser-atom ionization process such as laser intensity, pulse duration, carrier envelope phase, and atomic energy level spacing. However, the spatial distribution...

  3. Photoionization dynamics and angular squeezing phenomenon in intense long-wavelength laser fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chu, Shih-I; Zhou, Zhongyuan

    2011-03-11

    We develop a coherent-state Ehrenfest trajectory (CSET) approach for the nonperturbative study of full electronic and nuclear dynamics of molecules interacting with intense laser fields. In this approach, electrons and ...

  4. Generation of Ultra-intense Gamma-ray Train by QED Harmonics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Chen; Zhang, Xiaomei; Ji, Liangliang; Wang, Wenpeng; Xu, Jiancai; Zhao, Xueyan; Yi, Longqing; Shi, Yin; Zhang, Lingang; Xu, Tongjun; Pei, Zhikun; Xu, Zhizhan

    2015-01-01

    When laser intensity exceeds 10^22W/cm^2, photons with energy above MeV can be generated from high-order harmonics process in the laser-plasma interaction. We find that under such laser intensity, QED effect plays a dominating role in the radiation pattern. Contrast to the gas and relativistic HHG processes, both the occurrence and energy of gamma-ray emission produced by QED harmonics are random and QED harmonics are usually not coherent, while the property of high intensity and ultra-short duration is conserved. Our simulation shows that the period of gamma-ray train is half of the laser period and the peak intensity is 1.4e22W/cm^2. This new harmonic production with QED effects are crucial to light-matter interaction in strong field and can be verified in experiments by 10PW laser facilities in the near future.

  5. Energy prices and energy intensity in China : a structural decomposition analysis and econometric study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Xiaoyu, M.C.P. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2005-01-01

    Since the start of its economic reforms in 1978, China's energy prices relative to other prices have increased. At the same time, its energy intensity, i.e., physical energy consumption per unit of Gross Domestic Product ...

  6. Sensitivity of Tropical Cyclone Intensity to Ventilation in an Axisymmetric Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Brian

    The sensitivity of tropical cyclone intensity to ventilation of cooler, drier air into the inner core is examined using an axisymmetric tropical cyclone model with parameterized ventilation. Sufficiently strong ventilation ...

  7. Sub-Orbital Scale variations in the Intensity of the Arabian Sea Monsoon 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ivanochko, Tara S

    A high-resolution multi-proxy reconstruction of the Arabian Sea Summer Monsoon (ASSM) intensity over the past 90,000 years has been determined using two marine sediment cores: one from the Somali margin and one from the ...

  8. Gregorian optical system with non-linear optical technology for protection against intense optical transients

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ackermann, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM); Diels, Jean-Claude M. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-06-26

    An optical system comprising a concave primary mirror reflects light through an intermediate focus to a secondary mirror. The secondary mirror re-focuses the image to a final image plane. Optical limiter material is placed near the intermediate focus to optically limit the intensity of light so that downstream components of the optical system are protected from intense optical transients. Additional lenses before and/or after the intermediate focus correct optical aberrations.

  9. Operation of the intensity monitors in beam transport lines at Fermilab during Run IIą

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Crisp, J.; Fellenz, B.; Fitzgerald, J.; Heikkinen, D.; Ibrahim, M. A.

    2011-10-06

    The intensity of charged particle beams at Fermilab must be kept within pre-determined safety and operational envelopes in part by assuring all beam within a few percent has been transported from any source to destination. Beam instensity monitors with toroidial pickups provide such beam intensity measurements in the transport lines between accelerators at FNAL. With Run II, much effort was made to continually improve the resolution and accuracy of the system.

  10. Nighttime atmospheric stability changes and their effects on the temporal intensity of a mesoscale convective complex 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hovis, Jeffrey Scott

    1988-01-01

    NIGHTTIME ATMOSPHERIC STABILITY CHANGES AND THEIR EFFECTS ON THE TEMPORAL INTENSITY OF A MESOSCALE CONVECTIVE COMPLEX A Thesis JEFFREY SCOTT HOVIS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1988 Major Subject: Meteorology NIGHTTIME ATMOSPHERIC STABILITY CHANGES AND THEIR EFFECTS ON THE TEMPORAL INTENSITY OF A MESOSCALE CONVECTIVE COMPLEX A Thesis JEFFREY SCOTT HOVIS Approved as to style...

  11. Nonlinear dynamics of ionization stabilization of atoms in intense laser fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Norman; C. Chandre; T. Uzer; Peijie Wang

    2014-12-06

    We revisit the stabilization of ionization of atoms subjected to a superintense laser pulse using nonlinear dynamics. We provide an explanation for the lack of complete ionization at high intensity and for the decrease of the ionization probability as intensity is increased. We investigate the role of each part of the laser pulse (ramp-up, plateau, ramp-down) in this process. We emphasize the role of the choice for the ionization criterion, energy versus distance criterion.

  12. Measuring the impact of an intensive commodity price risk management education program on agricultural producers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCorkle, Dean Alexander

    2005-08-29

    -1 MEASURING THE IMPACT OF AN INTENSIVE COMMODITY PRICE RISK MANAGEMENT EDUCATION PROGRAM ON AGRICULTURAL PRODUCERS A Dissertation by DEAN ALEXANDER MCCORKLE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY May 2005 Major Subject: Agricultural Education MEASURING THE IMPACT OF AN INTENSIVE COMMODITY PRICE RISK MANAGEMENT EDUCATION PROGRAM ON AGRICULTURAL PRODUCERS A Dissertation by DEAN ALEXANDER MCCORKLE...

  13. Tone-evoked Fos labeling in the central auditory pathway : effects of stimulus intensity and auditory fear conditioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santos, Teresa P. G

    2006-01-01

    Understanding intensity coding and auditory learning are basic concerns of research on the auditory central pathway. There is no unifying model of intensity coding but several mechanisms have been proposed to play a role. ...

  14. Comparison of the Evolution of Energy Intensity in Spain and in the EU15. Why is Spain Different?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ocańa, Carlos

    Energy intensity in Spain has increased since 1990, while the opposite has happened in the EU15. Decomposition analysis of primary energy intensity ratios has been used to identify which are the key sectors driving the ...

  15. Challenges and opportunities in accounting for non-energy use CO2 emissions: an editorial comment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masanet, Eric; Sathaye, Jayant

    2009-01-01

    and opportunities in accounting for non-energy use CO 2emissions (233 Mt CO 2 ), accounting for around one-third ofCO2 emissions? 3 Accounting challenges and opportunities

  16. AIJ in the Non-Energy Sector in India: Opportunities and Concerns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ravindranath, N.H.; Meili, Anandi; Anita, R.

    1998-01-01

    and Land use in India; Some Energy Issues, Ambio, 24, 420-these problems. In the energy sector, India aims to initiateAIJ in the Non-Energy Sector in India: Opportunities and

  17. Foreground contamination in Ly? intensity mapping during the epoch of reionization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gong, Yan; Cooray, Asantha; Silva, Marta; Santos, Mario G.

    2014-04-10

    The intensity mapping of Ly? emission during the epoch of reionization will be contaminated by foreground emission lines from lower redshifts. We calculate the mean intensity and the power spectrum of Ly? emission at z ? 7 and estimate the uncertainties according to the relevant astrophysical processes. We find that the low-redshift emission lines from 6563 Ĺ H?, 5007 Ĺ [O III], and 3727 Ĺ [O II] will be strong contaminants on the observed Ly? power spectrum. We make use of both the star formation rate and luminosity functions to estimate the mean intensity and power spectra of the three foreground lines at z ? 0.5 for H?, z ? 0.9 for [O III], and z ? 1.6 for [O II], as they will contaminate the Ly? emission at z ? 7. The [O II] line is found to be the strongest. We analyze the masking of the bright survey pixels with a foreground line above some line intensity threshold as a way to reduce the contamination in an intensity mapping survey. We find that the foreground contamination can be neglected if we remove pixels with fluxes above 1.4 × 10{sup –20} W m{sup –2}.

  18. Intensity-resolved ionization yields of aniline with femtosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strohaber, J.; Hart, N.; Zhu, F.; Nava, R.; Pham, F.; Kolomenskii, A. A.; Paulus, G. G.; Schuessler, H. A.; Mohamed, T.; Schroeder, H.

    2011-12-15

    We present experimental results for the ionization of aniline and benzene molecules subjected to intense ultrashort laser pulses. Measured parent molecular ions yields were obtained using a recently developed technique capable of three-dimensional imaging of ion distributions within the focus of a laser beam. By selecting ions originating from the central region of the focus, where the spatial intensity distribution is nearly uniform, volumetric-free intensity-dependent ionization yields were obtained. The measured data revealed a previously unseen resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI)-like process. Comparison of benzene, aniline, and Xe ion yields demonstrates that the observed intensity-dependent structures are not due to geometric artifacts in the focus. Finally for intensities greater than {approx}3x10{sup 13} W/cm{sup 2}, we attribute the ionization of aniline to a stepwise process going through the {pi}{sigma}{sup *} state which sits three photons above the ground state and two photons below the continuum.

  19. Intensive Observation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACT EVALUATION PLANIs gravityIntellectual PropertyEnergyAdvisor XESpring

  20. Constant-intensity waves and their modulation instability in non-Hermitian potentials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konstantinos G. Makris; Ziad H. Musslimani; Demetrios N. Christodoulides; Stefan Rotter

    2015-03-31

    In all of the diverse areas of science where waves play an important role, one of the most fundamental solutions of the corresponding wave equation is a stationary wave with constant intensity. The most familiar example is that of a plane wave propagating in free space. In the presence of any Hermitian potential, a wave's constant intensity is, however, immediately destroyed due to scattering. Here we show that this fundamental restriction is conveniently lifted when working with non-Hermitian potentials. In particular, we present a whole new class of waves that have constant intensity in the presence of linear as well as of nonlinear inhomogeneous media with gain and loss. These solutions allow us to study, for the first time, the fundamental phenomenon of modulation instability in an inhomogeneous environment. Our results pose a new challenge for the experiments on non-Hermitian scattering that have recently been put forward.

  1. Calculation of integrated intensities in aberration-corrected Z-contrast images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molina, S. I. [Universidad de Cadiz, Spain; Guerrero, M. P. [Universidad de Cadiz, Spain; Galindo, Pedro [Universidad de Cadiz, Spain; Sales, David [Universidad de Cadiz, Spain; Varela del Arco, Maria [ORNL; Pennycook, Stephen J [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Inclusion of spatial incoherence has been shown to give quantitative agreement between non-aberration-corrected high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy images and theoretical simulations. Here we show that, using the same approach, a significant improvement in the correlation between calculated and experimental normalized integrated intensities is obtained in the InAsP ternary semiconductor alloy, but residual discrepancies remain. We have demonstrated, in good agreement with experimental intensities obtained in calibrated samples, that normalized integrated intensities show a low dependence on the sample thickness over a wide range of thickness values. This behaviour does not occur in conventional (non-aberration-corrected) images and constitutes a powerful tool for straightforward interpretation of high-resolution images in terms of atomic column-resolved compositional maps.

  2. Optimization of infrared two-color multicycle field synthesis for intense-isolated-attosecond-pulse generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lan Pengfei; Takahashi, Eiji J.; Midorikawa, Katsumi [Extreme Photonics Research Group, RIKEN Advanced Science Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    We present the optimization of the two-color synthesis method for generating an intense isolated attosecond pulse (IAP) in the multicycle regime. By mixing an infrared assistant pulse with a Ti:sapphire main pulse, we show that an IAP can be produced using a multicycle two-color pulse with a duration longer than 30 fs. We also discuss the influence of the carrier-envelope phase (CEP) and the relative intensity on the generation of IAPs. By optimizing the wavelength of the assistant field, IAP generation becomes insensitive to the CEP slip. Therefore, the optimized two-color method enables us to relax the requirements of pulse duration and easily produce the IAP with a conventional multicycle laser pulse. In addition, it enables us to markedly suppress the ionization of the harmonic medium. This is a major advantage for efficiently generating intense IAPs from a neutral medium by applying the appropriate phase-matching and energy-scaling techniques.

  3. Increase in the Intensity of Postmonsoon Bay of Bengal Tropical Cyclones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balaguru, Karthik; Taraphdar, Sourav; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Foltz, Gregory R.

    2014-05-28

    The post-monsoon (October-November) tropical cyclone (TC) season in the Bay of Bengal has spawned many of the deadliest storms in recorded history. Here it is shown that the intensity of post-monsoon Bay of Bengal TCs, and the contribution of major TCs to total TC power, increased during 1981-2010. It is found that changes in environmental parameters are responsible for the observed increases in TC intensity. Increases in sea surface temperature and upper ocean heat content made the ocean more conducive to TC development, while enhanced convective instability made the atmosphere more favorable for the growth of TCs. The largest changes in the atmosphere and ocean occurred in the eastern Bay of Bengal, where nearly all major TCs form. These changes are part of positive linear trends, suggesting that the intensity of post-monsoon Bay of Bengal TCs may continue to increase in the future.

  4. Technique for compressing light intensity ranges utilizing a specifically designed liquid crystal notch filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rushford, Michael C. (Livermore, CA)

    1988-01-01

    A pin hole camera assembly for use in viewing an object having a relatively large light intensity range, for example a crucible containing molten metal in an atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) system is disclosed herein. The assembly includes means for optically compressing the light intensity range appearing at its input sufficient to make it receivable and decipherable by a standard video camera. To accomplish this, the assembly utilizes the combination of interference filter and a liquid crystal notch filter. The latter which preferably includes a cholesteric liquid crystal arrangement is configured to pass light at all wavelengths, except a relatively narrow wavelength band which defines the filter's notch, and includes means for causing the notch to vary to at least a limited extent with the intensity of light at its light incidence surface.

  5. Unveiling temporal correlations characteristic to phase transition in the intensity of a fibre laser radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andres Aragoneses; Laura Carpi; Nikita Tarasov; Dmitry V. Churkin; M. C. Torrent; Cristina Masoller; Sergei K. Turitsyn

    2015-06-09

    We use advanced statistical tools of time-series analysis to characterize the dynamical complexity of the transition to optical wave turbulence in a fibre laser. Ordinal analysis and the horizontal visibility graph applied to the experimentally measured laser output intensity reveal the presence of temporal correlations during the transition from the laminar to the turbulent lasing regimes. Both methods unveil coherent structures with well defined time-scales and strong correlations both, in the timing of the laser pulses and in their peak intensities. Our approach is generic and may be used in other complex systems that undergo similar transitions involving the generation of extreme fluctuations.

  6. Generation of high pressure shocks relevant to the shock-ignition intensity regime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batani, D.; Folpini, G.; Giuffrida, L.; Maheut, Y.; Malka, G.; Nicolai, Ph.; Ribeyre, X. [Université Bordeaux, CNRS, CEA, CELIA (Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications), UMR 5107, F-33405 Talence (France)] [Université Bordeaux, CNRS, CEA, CELIA (Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications), UMR 5107, F-33405 Talence (France); Antonelli, L. [Université Bordeaux, CNRS, CEA, CELIA (Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications), UMR 5107, F-33405 Talence (France) [Université Bordeaux, CNRS, CEA, CELIA (Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications), UMR 5107, F-33405 Talence (France); Universitŕ di Roma “Tor Vergata,” Roma (Italy); Atzeni, S.; Marocchino, A.; Schiavi, A. [Dipartimento SBAI, Université di Roma “La Sapienza” and CNISM, Roma (Italy)] [Dipartimento SBAI, Université di Roma “La Sapienza” and CNISM, Roma (Italy); Badziak, J.; Chodukowski, T.; Kalinowska, Z.; Pisarczyk, T.; Rosinski, M. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland)] [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Baffigi, F.; Cristoforetti, G.; Gizzi, L. A.; Koester, P. [Intense Laser Irradiation Laboratory, INO-CNR, Pisa (Italy)] [Intense Laser Irradiation Laboratory, INO-CNR, Pisa (Italy); and others

    2014-03-15

    An experiment was performed using the PALS laser to study laser-target coupling and laser-plasma interaction in an intensity regime ?10{sup 16}?W/cm{sup 2}, relevant for the “shock ignition” approach to Inertial Confinement Fusion. A first beam at low intensity was used to create an extended preformed plasma, and a second one to create a strong shock. Pressures up to 90 Megabars were inferred. Our results show the importance of the details of energy transport in the overdense region.

  7. Simultaneous electronic and the magnetic excitation of a ferromagnet by intense THz pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shalaby, Mostafa; Hauri, Christoph P

    2015-01-01

    The speed of magnetization reversal is a key feature in magnetic data storage. Magnetic fields from intense THz pulses have been recently shown to induce small magnetization dynamics in Cobalt thin film on the sub-picosecond time scale. Here, we show that at higher field intensities, the THz electric field starts playing a role, strongly changing the dielectric properties of the cobalt thin film. Both the electronic and magnetic responses are found to occur simultaneously, with the electric field response persistent on a time scale orders of magnitude longer than the THz stimulus

  8. Life-cycle energy savings potential from aluminum-intensive vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stodolsky, F.; Vyas, A.; Cuenca, R.; Gaines, L.

    1995-07-01

    The life-cycle energy and fuel-use impacts of US-produced aluminum-intensive passenger cars and passenger trucks are assessed. The energy analysis includes vehicle fuel consumption, material production energy, and recycling energy. A model that stimulates market dynamics was used to project aluminum-intensive vehicle market shares and national energy savings potential for the period between 2005 and 2030. We conclude that there is a net energy savings with the use of aluminum-intensive vehicles. Manufacturing costs must be reduced to achieve significant market penetration of aluminum-intensive vehicles. The petroleum energy saved from improved fuel efficiency offsets the additional energy needed to manufacture aluminum compared to steel. The energy needed to make aluminum can be reduced further if wrought aluminum is recycled back to wrought aluminum. We find that oil use is displaced by additional use of natural gas and nonfossil energy, but use of coal is lower. Many of the results are not necessarily applicable to vehicles built outside of the United States, but others could be used with caution.

  9. Energy Production, Frictional Dissipation, and Maximum Intensity of a Numerically Simulated Tropical Cyclone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yuqing

    0 Energy Production, Frictional Dissipation, and Maximum Intensity of a Numerically Simulated is eventually dissipated due to surface friction. Since the energy production rate is a linear function while intensifies. When the dissipation rate eventually reaches the production rate, the TC has no excess energy

  10. Energy Production, Frictional Dissipation, and Maximum Intensity of a Numerically Simulated Tropical Cyclone*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yuqing

    Energy Production, Frictional Dissipation, and Maximum Intensity of a Numerically Simulated is eventually dissipated due to surface friction. Since the energy production rate is a linear function while intensifies. When the dissipation rate eventually reaches the production rate, the TC has no excess energy

  11. Outsourcing Resource-Intensive Tasks from Mobile Apps to Clouds: Android and Aneka Integration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buyya, Rajkumar

    the reduction of application execution time and extension of mobile device battery life. Keywords--Mobile Cloud, resulting in an enhanced user experience. However, the development of a mobile cloud application-intensive mobile tasks in order to alleviate the mobile device load and, consequently, extend the battery life. We

  12. Modeling proton intensity gradients and radiation dose equivalents in the inner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pringle, James "Jamie"

    Modeling proton intensity gradients and radiation dose equivalents in the inner heliosphere using exposure in IP space. In this paper, we utilize EMMREM to study the radial dependence of proton peak crossfield diffusion at large radial distances. Our results show that radial dependencies of proton peak

  13. Measurement and interpretation of threshold stress intensity factors for steels in high-pressure hydrogen gas.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dadfarnia, Mohsen; Nibur, Kevin A.; San Marchi, Christopher W.; Sofronis, Petros; Somerday, Brian P.; Foulk, James W., III; Hayden, Gary A.

    2010-07-01

    Threshold stress intensity factors were measured in high-pressure hydrogen gas for a variety of low alloy ferritic steels using both constant crack opening displacement and rising crack opening displacement procedures. The sustained load cracking procedures are generally consistent with those in ASME Article KD-10 of Section VIII Division 3 of the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, which was recently published to guide design of high-pressure hydrogen vessels. Three definitions of threshold were established for the two test methods: K{sub THi}* is the maximum applied stress intensity factor for which no crack extension was observed under constant displacement; K{sub THa} is the stress intensity factor at the arrest position for a crack that extended under constant displacement; and K{sub JH} is the stress intensity factor at the onset of crack extension under rising displacement. The apparent crack initiation threshold under constant displacement, K{sub THi}*, and the crack arrest threshold, K{sub THa}, were both found to be non-conservative due to the hydrogen exposure and crack-tip deformation histories associated with typical procedures for sustained-load cracking tests under constant displacement. In contrast, K{sub JH}, which is measured under concurrent rising displacement and hydrogen gas exposure, provides a more conservative hydrogen-assisted fracture threshold that is relevant to structural components in which sub-critical crack extension is driven by internal hydrogen gas pressure.

  14. Fast Gaussian Process Methods for Point Process Intensity Estimation John P. Cunningham JCUNNIN@STANFORD.EDU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    time requirements. We demonstrate problem specific methods for a class of renewal processes coupled with point process observation models. The problem of intensity estimation then becomes not address the appropriateness of doubly-stochastic point pro- cess models for particular applications

  15. The spatial scales, distribution, and intensity of natural marine hydrocarbon seeps near Coal Oil Point, California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washburn, Libe

    The spatial scales, distribution, and intensity of natural marine hydrocarbon seeps near Coal Oil pollution sources. A field of strong hydrocarbon seepage offshore of Coal Oil Point near Santa Barbara in the Coal Oil Point field to measure directly the atmospheric gas flux from three seeps of varying size

  16. Energy-efficient Data-intensive Computing with a Fast Array of Wimpy Nodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    necessary to unlock its energy efficiency potential. First, we present a deep study into building FAWNEnergy-efficient Data-intensive Computing with a Fast Array of Wimpy Nodes Vijay R. Vasudevan CMU other entity. #12;Keywords: Energy Efficiency, Low Power, Cluster Computing, Flash #12;For my family

  17. A TEST OF THE PRECIPITATION AMOUNT AND INTENSITY MEASUREMENTS WITH THE OTT PLUVIO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wauben, Wiel

    A TEST OF THE PRECIPITATION AMOUNT AND INTENSITY MEASUREMENTS WITH THE OTT PLUVIO Wiel M.F. Wauben precipitation sensor of Ott has been tested at KNMI in order to find out whether it is a suitable candidate for replacing the current operational KNMI precipitation gauge. Tests performed at the calibration facilities

  18. Resistive Memory Based Acceleration of Data Intensive Computing Engin Ipek and Eby G. Friedman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friedman, Eby G.

    significant acceleration and energy reduction over a broad set of data intensive applications. Additionally both write energy and latency in high performance STT-MRAM on-chip caches. 2 Resistive TCAM Accelerator cell and array archi- tecture. High capacity resistive TCAM circuits are placed on a DDR3 compatible

  19. USING THE EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING INTENSITY SCALE TO IMPROVE URBAN AREA EARTHQUAKE EMERGENCY RESPONSE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Irfanoglu, Ayhan

    USING THE EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING INTENSITY SCALE TO IMPROVE URBAN AREA EARTHQUAKE EMERGENCY distribution estimation of earthquake damage in building stocks is presented. The purpose is to start a strong urban area earthquake. We used a pair of ground motion and building-tag color databases

  20. (Submitted to Earthquake Spectra in April, 2001.) Structure-Specific Scalar Intensity Measures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sweetman, Bert

    (Submitted to Earthquake Spectra in April, 2001.) Structure-Specific Scalar Intensity Measures for Near-Source and Ordinary Earthquake Ground Motions Nicolas Luco and C. Allin Cornell, M.EERI Introduced of earthquake records, and (b) linear regression analysis. The efficiency and sufficiency of each

  1. AN ASSESSMENT OF ENERGY INTENSITY INDICATORS AND THEIR ROLE AS POLICY -MAKING TOOLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AN ASSESSMENT OF ENERGY INTENSITY INDICATORS AND THEIR ROLE AS POLICY - MAKING TOOLS by Mallika as policy tools in the context of issues related to the development, interpretation and application trends in energy use, their role as climate change policy tools is limited, particularly

  2. Fermi-LAT ?-ray anisotropy and intensity explained by unresolved radio-loud active galactic nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mauro, Mattia Di; Cuoco, Alessandro; Donato, Fiorenza [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitŕ di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, Torino, 10125 Italy (Italy); Siegal-Gaskins, Jennifer M., E-mail: mattia.dimauro@to.infn.it, E-mail: alessandro.cuoco@to.infn.it, E-mail: donato@to.infn.it, E-mail: jsg@tapir.caltech.edu [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA, 91125 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN) are expected to contribute substantially to both the intensity and anisotropy of the isotropic ?-ray background (IGRB). In turn, the measured properties of the IGRB can be used to constrain the characteristics of proposed contributing source classes. We consider individual subclasses of radio-loud AGN, including low-, intermediate-, and high-synchrotron-peaked BL Lacertae objects, flat-spectrum radio quasars, and misaligned AGN. Using updated models of the ?-ray luminosity functions of these populations, we evaluate the energy-dependent contribution of each source class to the intensity and anisotropy of the IGRB. We find that collectively radio-loud AGN can account for the entirety of the IGRB intensity and anisotropy as measured by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). Misaligned AGN provide the bulk of the measured intensity but a negligible contribution to the anisotropy, while high-synchrotron-peaked BL Lacertae objects provide the dominant contribution to the anisotropy. In anticipation of upcoming measurements with the Fermi-LAT and the forthcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array, we predict the anisotropy in the broader energy range that will be accessible to future observations.

  3. Effects of grazing intensity on soil carbon stocks following deforestation of a Hawaiian dry tropical forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elmore, Andrew J.

    : carbon isotopes, elevation, Hawai'i, imaging spectroscopy, land-use change, pastures, remote sensing be addressed, future changes in ecosystem dynamics and atmospheric carbon dioxide cannot be easily predictedEffects of grazing intensity on soil carbon stocks following deforestation of a Hawaiian dry

  4. MODELLING THE VERTICAL WIND SPEED AND TURBULENCE INTENSITY PROFILES AT PROSPECTIVE OFFSHORE WIND FARM SITES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    MODELLING THE VERTICAL WIND SPEED AND TURBULENCE INTENSITY PROFILES AT PROSPECTIVE OFFSHORE WIND important for offshore wind energy utilisation are discussed and tested: Four models for the surface tested with data from the offshore field measurement Rřdsand by extrapolating the measured 10 m wind

  5. MODELLING THE VERTICAL WIND SPEED AND TURBULENCE INTENSITY PROFILES AT PROSPECTIVE OFFSHORE WIND FARM SITES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    MODELLING THE VERTICAL WIND SPEED AND TURBULENCE INTENSITY PROFILES AT PROSPECTIVE OFFSHORE WIND for conditions important for offshore wind energy utilisation are compared and tested: Four models tested with data from the offshore field measurement Rřdsand by extrapolating the measured 10 m wind

  6. On the Varieties of Clouds for Data Intensive Computing Robert L. Grossman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossman, Robert

    On the Varieties of Clouds for Data Intensive Computing Robert L. Grossman University of Illinois and with the reliability of a data center. We distinguish between clouds that provide on-demand computing instances (such as Amazon's EC2 service) and clouds that provide on-demand computing capacity (such as provided by Hadoop

  7. 1407 Letters to the Editor 1407 merged sea lion uses intensity cues to localize under-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

    1407 Letters to the Editor 1407 merged sea lion uses intensity cues to localize under- water sound Pinnipeds,"in Studies of Captive Wild Animals. edited by H. Markowitz and V. Stevens(Nelson-Hail, Chicago. J. McGillandJ.P. Goldberg,"Pure-toneintensitydis- orimination and energy detection," J. Aeoust. SCc

  8. Lake Sediments as Archives of Recurrence Rates and Intensities of Past Flood Events

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilli, Adrian

    Lake Sediments as Archives of Recurrence Rates and Intensities of Past Flood Events Adrian Gilli is an expanding field as the damage potential of floods and flood-related processes is increasing of methods is employed using diverse biologic, geomorphic or geologic evidences to track past flood events

  9. Polarity and energetics of inner core lightning in three intense North Atlantic hurricanes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cummer, Steven A.

    Atlantic hurricanes Jeremy N. Thomas,1,2,3 Natalia N. Solorzano,1,3 Steven A. Cummer,4 and Robert H and energetics of lightning within 100 km of the centers (inner core regions) of North Atlantic hurricanes Emily important for hurricane intensity change forecasting. Additionally, we find that the majority of inner core

  10. Explaining Long-Run Changes in the Energy Intensity of the U.S. Economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sue Wing, Ian.

    Recent events have revived interest in explaining the long-run changes in the energy intensity of the U.S. economy. We use a KLEM dataset for 35 industries over 39 years to decompose changes in the aggregate energy-GDP ...

  11. Generation of intense continuum extreme-ultraviolet radiation by many-cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    LETTERS Generation of intense continuum extreme-ultraviolet radiation by many-cycle laser fields P in ultrashort pulse engineering have recently led to the breakthroughs of the generation of attosecond (10-18 s) pulse trains1­7 and isolated pulses8­11 . Although trains of multiple pulses can be generated through

  12. Field and intensity correlations in amplifying random media Alexey Yamilov,1,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamilov, Alexey

    functions CFs is fundamentally flawed. Theoretically, the spatial and spectral CFs are obtained by average configurations diverges, and so do the ensemble-averaged CFs. Experimen- tally, the divergence of laser intensity the nonlasing ones, thus they dominate the CFs. The width of spectral CFs is simply equal to the lasing mode

  13. Superconductivity-induced phonon anomalies in high-Tc superconductors: A Raman intensity study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sipe,J. E.

    Superconductivity-induced phonon anomalies in high-Tc superconductors: A Raman intensity study O. V of a number of Raman-active phonons below the superconducting transition temperature in YBa2Cu3O7 x , Bi2Sr2Ca to obtain information about the superconducting state.4 Several years ago, Friedl et al.5 ob- served

  14. Title of Dissertation: NONLINEAR DYNAMICS OF EXTENDED SYSTEMS: CHAOS FRONTS, RARE INTENSE EVENTS,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anlage, Steven

    ABSTRACT Title of Dissertation: NONLINEAR DYNAMICS OF EXTENDED SYSTEMS: CHAOS FRONTS, RARE INTENSE Edward Ott Department of Physics We investigate the nonlinear dynamics of three extended systems: chaos considered as nodes and actors as links. #12;NONLINEAR DYNAMICS OF EXTENDED SYSTEMS: CHAOS FRONTS, RARE

  15. Production of intense negative hydrogen beams with polarized nuclei by selective neutralization of cold negative ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hershcovitch, A.

    1984-02-13

    A process for selectively neutralizing H/sup -/ ions in a magnetic field to produce an intense negative hydrogen ion beam with spin polarized protons. Characteristic features of the process include providing a multi-ampere beam of H/sup -/ ions that are

  16. Degree of polarization and source counts of faint radio sources from Stacking Polarized intensity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stil, J. M.; George, S. J.; Keller, B. W.; Taylor, A. R.

    2014-06-01

    We present stacking polarized intensity as a means to study the polarization of sources that are too faint to be detected individually in surveys of polarized radio sources. Stacking offers not only high sensitivity to the median signal of a class of radio sources, but also avoids a detection threshold in polarized intensity, and therefore an arbitrary exclusion of sources with a low percentage of polarization. Correction for polarization bias is done through a Monte Carlo analysis and tested on a simulated survey. We show that the nonlinear relation between the real polarized signal and the detected signal requires knowledge of the shape of the distribution of fractional polarization, which we constrain using the ratio of the upper quartile to the lower quartile of the distribution of stacked polarized intensities. Stacking polarized intensity for NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) sources down to the detection limit in Stokes I, we find a gradual increase in median fractional polarization that is consistent with a trend that was noticed before for bright NVSS sources, but is much more gradual than found by previous deep surveys of radio polarization. Consequently, the polarized radio source counts derived from our stacking experiment predict fewer polarized radio sources for future surveys with the Square Kilometre Array and its pathfinders.

  17. A reduced voltage polarization intensity electrooptic modulator in SBN:60 utilizing a step strain waveguide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ottinger, Tina Lynette

    1997-01-01

    . Electrooptic modulation via the linear electrooptic effect has been demonstrated by polarization intensity modulation at 0.633 gm wavelength in both substrates. LiNbo3 devices require a v,, of 10.75 V for a Tc-radian phase shift. SBN devices require a voltage...

  18. MERIT -The High Intensity Liquid Mercury Target Experiment at the CERN PS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    placed long straight sections around the ring of the accelerator, thus creating intense neutrino beams-induced pressure waves and resulting pitting corrosion in the containment walls and cavitation formation. The use of a free flowing liquid in the form of a jet is a promising design option to address these issues

  19. Adaptive control of input field to achieve desired output intensity profile in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahn, Joseph M.

    Adaptive control of input field to achieve desired output intensity profile in multimode fiber fiber (MMF) with random mode coupling by controlling the input field distribution using a spatial light objective function. We present an adaptive sequential coordinate ascent (SCA) algorithm for controlling

  20. Revised: 6 November 1991 Trends in the Consumption of Energy-Intensive Basic Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    materials consumption patterns on energy use is the recognition that physical units (kilograms) are moreRevised: 6 November 1991 Trends in the Consumption of Energy-Intensive Basic Materials. 1. INTRODUCTION} Industry accounts for 50% of total energy use in developing countries

  1. Journal of Philosophy, Inc. A Note on Extension, Intension, and Truth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Belnap, Nuel

    Journal of Philosophy, Inc. A Note on Extension, Intension, and Truth Author(s): Anil Gupta and Nuel Belnap Source: The Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 84, No. 3 (Mar., 1987), pp. 168-174 Published by: Journal of Philosophy, Inc. Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2026597 Accessed: 28/05/2009 11

  2. An Economy-based Algorithm for Scheduling Data-Intensive Applications on Global Grids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buyya, Rajkumar

    An Economy-based Algorithm for Scheduling Data-Intensive Applications on Global Grids Srikumar suggested a computational economy metaphor for resource management within compute and data grids. However, the issue of scheduling jobs that require distributed data within an economy-based data grid has not been

  3. Intense plasma waves at and near the solar wind termination shock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gurnett, Donald A.

    LETTERS Intense plasma waves at and near the solar wind termination shock D. A. Gurnett1 & W. S wind termination shock. The observations were obtained from the plasma-wave instrument on the Voyager 2 a series of crossings of the termination shock at a heliocentric radial distance of 83.7 AU. The spectrum

  4. Mul$-scale Demand-Side Management for Con$nuous Power-intensive Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    1 Mul$-scale Demand-Side Management for Con$nuous Power-intensive Processes-dependent) Load Informa(on Electricity ((me-dependent) Load Informa(on Transmission, Distribu Response Energy Efficiency Demand-Side Management (DSM)1 Integra

  5. Multi-scale Demand-Side Management for Continuous Power-intensive Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    , with an emphasis on price responsive programs", CRA No. D06090, Technical report, The World Bank. Electricity (time-intensive industries for electricity markets in Germany. Applied Energy, 88:432­441, 2011. Industrial DSM decreased Stochastic Operational Strategic (design)Single plant Robust schedules w.r.t. electricity prices - FOCAPO

  6. Systems for controlling the intensity variations in a laser beam and for frequency conversion thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skupsky, S.; Craxton, R.S.; Soures, J.

    1990-10-02

    In order to control the intensity of a laser beam so that its intensity varies uniformly and provides uniform illumination of a target, such as a laser fusion target, a broad bandwidth laser pulse is spectrally dispersed spatially so that the frequency components thereof are spread apart. A disperser (grating) provides an output beam which varies spatially in wavelength in at least one direction transverse to the direction of propagation of the beam. Temporal spread (time delay) across the beam is corrected by using a phase delay device (a time delay compensation echelon). The dispersed beam may be amplified with laser amplifiers and frequency converted (doubled, tripled or quadrupled in frequency) with nonlinear optical elements (birefringent crystals). The spectral variation across the beam is compensated by varying the angle of incidence on one of the crystals with respect to the crystal optical axis utilizing a lens which diverges the beam. Another lens after the frequency converter may be used to recollimate the beam. The frequency converted beam is recombined so that portions of different frequency interfere and, unlike interference between waves of the same wavelength, there results an intensity pattern with rapid temporal oscillations which average out rapidly in time thereby producing uniform illumination on target. A distributed phase plate (also known as a random phase mask), through which the spectrally dispersed beam is passed and then focused on a target, is used to provide the interference pattern which becomes nearly modulation free and uniform in intensity in the direction of the spectral variation. 16 figs.

  7. Effect of pulse intensity distributions on fragment internal energy in the infrared multiphoton dissociation of vinyl

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Effect of pulse intensity distributions on fragment internal energy in the infrared multiphoton the rovibra- tional energy distributions of fragmentsl formed in the infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD energies of the frag- ment can be well characterized in terms of a Boltzmann distribution with a single

  8. Operation of the DC current transformer intensity monitors at FNAL during run II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crisp, J.; Fellenz, B.; Heikkinen, D.; Ibrahim, M.A.; Meyer, T.; Vogel, G.; /Fermilab

    2012-01-01

    Circulating beam intensity measurements at FNAL are provided by five DC current transformers (DCCT), one per machine. With the exception of the DCCT in the Recycler, all DCCT systems were designed and built at FNAL. This paper presents an overview of both DCCT systems, including the sensor, the electronics, and the front-end instrumentation software, as well as their performance during Run II.

  9. Temporary Acceleration of Electrons While Inside an Intense Electromagnetic Pulse Kirk T. McDonald

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    Temporary Acceleration of Electrons While Inside an Intense Electromagnetic Pulse Kirk T. Mc. In­ tense electromagnetic pulses of astrophysical origin can lead to very energetic photons via potential'' associated with the envelope of the electromagnetic pulse [3]. The resulting temporary energy

  10. Temporary Acceleration of Electrons While Inside an Intense Electromagnetic Pulse Kirk T. McDonald

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    Temporary Acceleration of Electrons While Inside an Intense Electromagnetic Pulse Kirk T. Mc. In- tense electromagnetic pulses of astrophysical origin can lead to very energetic photons via of the electromagnetic pulse [3]. The resulting temporary energy transfer to the longitudinal motion of the electron can

  11. Investigation of long-period fiber gratings induced by high-intensity femtosecond UV laser pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nikogosyan, David N.

    efficiency with that for other existing meth- ods of recording. We studied the temperature sensing properties changes in the fiber core induced by thermal heating, were developed. They include the use of a CO2 laserInvestigation of long-period fiber gratings induced by high-intensity femtosecond UV laser pulses

  12. Magnetic Propulsion of Intense Lithium Streams in a Tokamak Magnetic Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zakharov, Leonid E.

    Magnetic Propulsion of Intense Lithium Streams in a Tokamak Magnetic Field Leonid E. Zakharov the theory of magnetic propulsion of liquid lithium streams and their stability in tokamaks takes into account the propulsion e#11;ect, viscosity and the drag force due to magnetic pumping

  13. Ultrahigh-Intensity Optical Slow-Wave Structure B. D. Layer,1,3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milchberg, Howard

    current laser energy and side leakage. Hydrogen and argon plasma wave- guides up to 1.5 cm in lengthUltrahigh-Intensity Optical Slow-Wave Structure B. D. Layer,1,3 A. York,1,3 T. M. Antonsen,2,3 S and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA 2 Department of Electrical and Computer

  14. Impact of Low-Level Jets on the Nocturnal Urban Heat Island Intensity in Oklahoma City

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xue, Ming

    Impact of Low-Level Jets on the Nocturnal Urban Heat Island Intensity in Oklahoma City XIAO-MING HU Center for Analysis and Prediction of Storms, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma PETRA M. KLEIN AND MING XUE Center for Analysis and Prediction of Storms and School of Meteorology, University of Oklahoma

  15. High-Level Fusion of Depth and Intensity for Pedestrian Classification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gavrila, Dariu M.

    High-Level Fusion of Depth and Intensity for Pedestrian Classification Marcus Rohrbach1,3 , Markus. This paper presents a novel approach to pedestrian classi- fication which involves a high-level fusion pedestrians and non-pedestrians. We refrain from the construction of a joint feature space, but instead employ

  16. Idaho Habitat/Natural Production Monitoring, Part II: Intensive Monitoring Subproject : Annual Progress Report 1990.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiefer, Russell B.; Forster, Katharine A.

    1992-04-01

    Project 83-7 was established under the Northeast Power Planning Council's 1982 Fish and Wildlife Program, Measure 704 (d) (1) to monitor natural production of anadromous fish, evaluate Bonneville Power Administration habitat improvement project, and develop a credit record for off-site mitigation projects in Idaho. Project 83-7 is divided into two sub-projects: general and intensive monitoring. Results of the intensive monitoring sub-project are reported here. Results from the general monitoring sub-project will be reported in a separate document. The purpose of this intensive monitoring project is to determine the number of returning chinook and steelhead adults necessary to achieve optimal smolt production, and develop mitigation accounting based on increases in smolt production. Two locations are being intensively studied to meet these objectives. Information from this research will be applied to parr monitoring streams statewide to develop escapement objectives and determine success of habitat enhancement projects. Field work began in 1987 in upper Salmon River and Crooked River (South Fork Clearwater River tributary). Methods include using weirs to trap adults, conducting ground and aerial redd counts, snorkeling to estimate parr populations, PIT-tagging juveniles to determine parr-tosmolt survival, trapping fall and spring downstream emigrants with scoop traps, and outplanting adults to determine juvenile carrying capacity. PIT tags also provide a wide range of other information such as migration timing, effects of flow and passage conditions on smolt survival, other factors affecting smolt survival, and growth.

  17. Real Time Biomedical Data Streaming Platform (RIMES): a data-intensive virtual environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schulze, Jürgen P.

    Real Time Biomedical Data Streaming Platform (RIMES): a data-intensive virtual environment Kejun@ucsd.edu Abstract - In this paper we present Real tIme bioMEdical data Streaming platform (RIMES), a data of California, San Diego. RIMES extends scientists' desktops to biomedical grid computation resources and mass

  18. U.S. Greenhouse Gas Intensity and the Global Climate Change Initiative (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    On February 14, 2002, President Bush announced the Administrations Global Climate Change Initiative. A key goal of the Climate Change Initiative is to reduce U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity-defined as the ratio of total U.S. GHG emissions to economic output-by 18% over the 2002 to 2012 time frame.

  19. Target Material Irradiation Studies for High-Intensity Accelerator Beams , H. Ludewig1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    Target Material Irradiation Studies for High-Intensity Accelerator Beams N. Simos1* , H. Kirk1 , H on the behavior of special materials and composites under irradiation conditions and their potential use irradiated target material. The ever greater deposited energy and induced thermo-mechanical loads combined

  20. Intense red upconversion luminescence from Tm3Yb3 codoped transparent glass ceramic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Wenwu

    Intense red upconversion luminescence from Tm3Yb3 codoped transparent glass ceramic Wei Xu,1 (Doc. ID 158093); published January 12, 2012 Tm3Yb3 codoped transparent glass ceramic containing -PbF2 choose the oxyfluoride glass ceramic as the host material in our investigations. Through thermal treat

  1. Are ceramics and bricks reliable absolute geomagnetic intensity carriers? Juan Morales a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cattin, Rodolphe

    Are ceramics and bricks reliable absolute geomagnetic intensity carriers? Juan Morales a, , Avto performed on the raw material (clay and paste) and on in situ prepared baked ceramics and bricks included indicate a mixture of multi- domain and a significant amount of single-domain grains. Ceramic pieces

  2. Effect of initial turbulence intensity and velocity profile on liquid jets for IFE beamline protection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdou, Mohamed

    Effect of initial turbulence intensity and velocity profile on liquid jets for IFE beamline ion inertial fusion reactors utilize banks of liquid jets and vortex flow tubes to protect sensitive observations and quantitative data for rectangular and circular jets are compared in an effort to illuminate

  3. Effect of initial turbulence intensity and velocity profile on liquid jets for IFE beamline protection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    Effect of initial turbulence intensity and velocity profile on liquid jets for IFE beamline reactors utilize banks of liquid jets and vortex flow tubes to protect sensitive beam line components from for rectangular and circular jets are compared in an effort to illuminate the critical phenomena involved

  4. Experiences with Applying STPA to Software-Intensive Systems in the Automotive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, Stefan

    Experiences with Applying STPA to Software-Intensive Systems in the Automotive Domain Asim in the automotive industries: Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC). The results of the application of STPA to our case can result in accidents. Safety critical-systems are increasingly used in the automotive industry

  5. Industrial Technologies Program Research Plan for Energy-Intensive Process Industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapas, Richard B.; Colwell, Jeffery A.

    2007-10-01

    In this plan, the Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) identifies the objectives of its cross-cutting strategy for conducting research in collaboration with industry and U.S. Department of Energy national laboratories to develop technologies that improve the efficiencies of energy-intensive process industries.

  6. Present and future perspectives for high energy density physics with intense heavy ion and laser beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Germany! accelerator facilities, together with two high energy laser systems: petawatt high energy laserPresent and future perspectives for high energy density physics with intense heavy ion and laser!, Plasmaphysik, Darmstadt, Germany 2 Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Darmstadt

  7. P1.26 ROLE OF WARM OCEAN FEATURES ON INTENSITY CHANGE: HURRICANE OPAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P1.26 ROLE OF WARM OCEAN FEATURES ON INTENSITY CHANGE: HURRICANE OPAL Lynn K. Shay, Gustavo J. Goni elds during hurricane Opal. 2. HURRICANE OPAL As shown in Fig. 1a., the passage of hurricane Opal, hurricane Opal moved over a warm core eddy detected by the altimeter onboard the NASA oceanographic TOPogra

  8. JETS: intense circulations in atmospheres and ocean OC569c Spring 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 JETS: intense circulations in atmospheres and ocean OC569c Spring 2008 Room 211 Ocean Teaching.ocean.washington.edu/research/gfd Outline a look at the extratropical jet stream with synoptic data: transport, energy, vertical structure or veering with height) the Hadley cell and its limited size oceanic jets and boundary currents Why

  9. Seismic Intensity Estimation of Tall Buildings in Earthquake Early Warning System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greer, Julia R.

    prediction equation (GMPE) that predicts response spectral amplitude from knowledge of earthquake magnitudeSeismic Intensity Estimation of Tall Buildings in Earthquake Early Warning System M. H. Cheng & T. W. Graves U.S. Geological Survey, USA SUMMARY: In California, United States, an earthquake early

  10. Regulation of GHG emissions from transportation fuels: Emission quota versus emission intensity standard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, Deepak

    2010-01-01

    relative to coal than base case IV: Transportation cost isCoal-based ethanol pro- 0.430 duction cost ($/liter) Ethanol transportation 0.050 cost -transportation 0.130 cost - road ($/liter) Energy used in biore?ning 13.85 (MJ/liter) GHG intensity of coal-

  11. Energy use and energy intensity of the U.S. chemical industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Worrell, E.; Phylipsen, D.; Einstein, D.; Martin, N.

    2000-04-01

    The U.S. chemical industry is the largest in the world, and responsible for about 11% of the U.S. industrial production measured as value added. It consumes approximately 20% of total industrial energy consumption in the U.S. (1994), and contributes in similar proportions to U.S. greenhouse gas emissions. Surprisingly, there is not much information on energy use and energy intensity in the chemical industry available in the public domain. This report provides detailed information on energy use and energy intensity for the major groups of energy-intensive chemical products. Ethylene production is the major product in terms of production volume of the petrochemical industry. The petrochemical industry (SIC 2869) produces a wide variety of products. However, most energy is used for a small number of intermediate compounds, of which ethylene is the most important one. Based on a detailed assessment we estimate fuel use for ethylene manufacture at 520 PJ (LHV), excluding feedstock use. Energy intensity is estimated at 26 GJ/tonne ethylene (LHV), excluding feedstocks.The nitrogenous fertilizer production is a very energy intensive industry, producing a variety of fertilizers and other nitrogen-compounds. Ammonia is the most important intermediate chemical compound, used as basis for almost all products. Fuel use is estimated at 268 PJ (excluding feedstocks) while 368 PJ natural gas is used as feedstock. Electricity consumption is estimated at 14 PJ. We estimate the energy intensity of ammonia manufacture at 39.3 GJ/tonne (including feedstocks, HHV) and 140 kWh/tonne, resulting in a specific primary energy consumption of 40.9 GJ/tonne (HHV), equivalent to 37.1 GJ/tonne (LHV). Excluding natural gas use for feedstocks the primary energy consumption is estimated at 16.7 GJ/tonne (LHV). The third most important product from an energy perspective is the production of chlorine and caustic soda. Chlorine is produced through electrolysis of a salt-solution. Chlorine production is the main electricity consuming process in the chemical industry, next to oxygen and nitrogen production. We estimate final electricity use at 173 PJ (48 TWh) and fuel use of 38 PJ. Total primary energy consumption is estimated at 526 PJ (including credits for hydrogen export). The energy intensity is estimated at an electricity consumption of 4380 kWh/tonne chlorine and fuel consumption of 3.45 GJ/tonne chlorine, where all energy use is allocated to chlorine production. Assuming an average power generation efficiency of 33% the primary energy consumption is estimated at 47.8 GJ/tonne chlorine (allocating all energy use to chlorine).

  12. Target Allocation Methodology for China's Provinces: Energy Intensity in the 12th FIve-Year Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohshita, Stephanie; Price, Lynn

    2011-03-21

    Experience with China's 20% energy intensity improvement target during the 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) (2006-2010) has shown the challenges of rapidly setting targets and implementing measures to meet them. For the 12th FYP (2011-2015), there is an urgent need for a more scientific methodology to allocate targets among the provinces and to track physical and economic indicators of energy and carbon saving progress. This report provides a sectoral methodology for allocating a national energy intensity target - expressed as percent change in energy per unit gross domestic product (GDP) - among China's provinces in the 12th FYP. Drawing on international experience - especially the European Union (EU) Triptych approach for allocating Kyoto carbon targets among EU member states - the methodology here makes important modifications to the EU approach to address an energy intensity rather than a CO{sub 2} emissions target, and for the wider variation in provincial energy and economic structure in China. The methodology combines top-down national target projections and bottom-up provincial and sectoral projections of energy and GDP to determine target allocation of energy intensity targets. Total primary energy consumption is separated into three end-use sectors - industrial, residential, and other energy. Sectoral indicators are used to differentiate the potential for energy saving among the provinces. This sectoral methodology is utilized to allocate provincial-level targets for a national target of 20% energy intensity improvement during the 12th FYP; the official target is determined by the National Development and Reform Commission. Energy and GDP projections used in the allocations were compared with other models, and several allocation scenarios were run to test sensitivity. The resulting allocations for the 12th FYP offer insight on past performance and offer somewhat different distributions of provincial targets compared to the 11th FYP. Recommendations for reporting and monitoring progress on the targets, and methodology improvements, are included.

  13. World Best Practice Energy Intensity Values for SelectedIndustrial Sectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn; Neelis, Maarten; Galitsky,Christina; Zhou, Nan

    2007-06-05

    "World best practice" energy intensity values, representingthe most energy-efficient processes that are in commercial use in atleast one location worldwide, are provided for the production of iron andsteel, aluminium, cement, pulp and paper, ammonia, and ethylene. Energyintensity is expressed in energy use per physical unit of output for eachof these commodities; most commonly these are expressed in metric tonnes(t). The energy intensity values are provided by major energy-consumingprocesses for each industrial sector to allow comparisons at the processlevel. Energy values are provided for final energy, defined as the energyused at the production facility as well as for primary energy, defined asthe energy used at the production facility as well as the energy used toproduce the electricity consumed at the facility. The "best practice"figures for energy consumption provided in this report should beconsidered as indicative, as these may depend strongly on the materialinputs.

  14. QUIET-SUN INTENSITY CONTRASTS IN THE NEAR-ULTRAVIOLET AS MEASURED FROM SUNRISE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirzberger, J.; Feller, A.; Riethmueller, T. L.; Schuessler, M.; Borrero, J. M.; Gandorfer, A.; Solanki, S. K.; Barthol, P.; Afram, N.; Unruh, Y. C.; Berdyugina, S. V.; Berkefeld, T.; Schmidt, W.; Bonet, J. A.; MartInez Pillet, V.; Knoelker, M.; Title, A. M.

    2010-11-10

    We present high-resolution images of the Sun in the near-ultraviolet spectral range between 214 nm and 397 nm as obtained from the first science flight of the 1 m SUNRISE balloon-borne solar telescope. The quiet-Sun rms intensity contrasts found in this wavelength range are among the highest values ever obtained for quiet-Sun solar surface structures-up to 32.8% at a wavelength of 214 nm. We compare the rms contrasts obtained from the observational data with theoretical intensity contrasts obtained from numerical magnetohydrodynamic simulations. For 388 nm and 312 nm the observations agree well with the numerical simulations whereas at shorter wavelengths discrepancies between observed and simulated contrasts remain.

  15. HOT ELECTRON ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS FROM ULTRA-INTENSE LASER SOLID INTERACTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, H; Wilks, S C; Kruer, W; Patel, P; Shepherd, R

    2008-10-08

    Measurements of electron energy distributions from ultra-intense (>10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}) laser-solid interactions using an electron spectrometer are presented. These measurements were performed on the Vulcan petawatt laser at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and the Callisto laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The effective hot electron temperatures (T{sub hot}) have been measured for laser intensities (I{lambda}{sup 2}) from 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2} {micro}m{sup 2} to 10{sup 21} W/cm{sup 2} {micro}m{sup 2} for the first time, and T{sub hot} is found to increase as (I{lambda}{sup 2}){sup 0.34} {+-} 0.4. This scaling agrees well with the empirical scaling published by Beg et al. (1997), and is explained by a simple physical model that gives good agreement with experimental results and particle-in-cell simulations.

  16. Calculation of integrated intensities in aberration-corrected Z-contrast images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molina Rubio, Sergio I [ORNL; Guerrero, M. P. [Universidad de Cadiz, Spain; Galindo, Pedro [Universidad de Cadiz, Spain; Sales, David [Universidad de Cadiz, Spain; Varela del Arco, Maria [ORNL; Pennycook, Stephen J [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Inclusion of spatial incoherence has been shown to give quantitative agreement between non-aberration-corrected high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy images and theoretical simulations. Here we show the same approach is valid for aberration-corrected probes, by fitting theoretical and experimental normalized integrated intensities obtained in ternary semiconductor alloys of calibrated composition. We have demonstrated that normalized integrated intensities show a low dependence on the sample thickness over a wide range of thickness values. This behavior does not occur in conventional (non-aberration-corrected) images and constitutes a powerful tool for straightforward interpretation of high-resolution images in terms of atomic column resolved compositional maps.

  17. Heavy and superheavy elements production in high intensive fluxes of explosive process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutostansky, Yu S; Panov, I V

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical model of heavy and superheavy nuclei production in intensive pulsed neutron fluxes of explosive process is developed. The pulse character of the process allows dividing it in time into two stages: very short rapid process of multiple neutron captures with higher temperature and very intensive neutron fluxes, and relatively slower process with lower temperature and neutron fluxes. The model was also extended for calculation of the transuranium yields in nuclear explosions takes into account the adiabatic character of the process, the probabilities of delayed fission, and the emission of delayed neutrons. Also the binary starting target isotopes compositions were included. Calculations of heavy transuranium and transfermium nuclei production were made for Mike, Par and Barbel experiments, performed in USA. It is shown that the production of transfermium neutron-rich nuclei and superheavy elements with A ~ 295 is only possible in case of binary mixture of starting isotopes with the significant addit...

  18. Short intense ion pulses for materials and warm dense matter research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seidl, Peter A; Lidia, Steven M; Persaud, Arun; Stettler, Matthew; Takakuwa, Jeffrey H; Waldron, William L; Schenkel, Thomas; Barnard, John J; Friedman, Alex; Grote, David P; Davidson, Ronald C; Gilson, Erik P; Kaganovich, Igor D

    2015-01-01

    We have commenced experiments with intense short pulses of ion beams on the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment-II at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, by generating beam spots size with radius r Tesla short focal length solenoid compresses the beam in the presence of the large volume plasma near the end of this section before the target. The scientific topics to be explored are warm dense matter, the dynamics of radiation damage in materials, and intense beam and beam-plasma physics including selected topics of relevance to the development of heavy-ion drivers for inertial fusion energy. Here we describe the accelerator commissioning and time-resolved ionoluminescence measurements of yttrium aluminium perovskite using the fully integrated accel...

  19. Breaking of relativistically intense longitudinal space charge waves: A description using Dawson sheet model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sengupta, Sudip, E-mail: sudip@ipr.res.in [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat , Gandhinagar - 382428 (India)

    2014-02-11

    Spatio-temporal evolution of relativistically intense longitudinal space charge waves in a cold homogeneous plasma is studied analytically as well as numerically, as an initial value problem, using Dawson sheet model. It is found that, except for very special initial conditions which generates the well known longitudinal Akhiezer-Polovin mode, for all other initial conditions, the waves break through a novel mechanism called phase mixing at an amplitude well below the Akhiezer-Polovin limit. An immediate consequence of this is, that Akhiezer-Polovin waves break when subjected to arbitrarily small longitudinal perturbations. We demonstrate this by performing extensive numerical simulations. This result may be of direct relevance to ultrashort, ultraintense laser/beam pulse-plasma interaction experiments where relativistically intense waves are routinely excited.

  20. Axial magnetic field generation by intense circularly polarized laser pulses in underdense plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naseri, N.; Rozmus, W. [Theoretical Physics Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2J1 (Canada); Bychenkov, V. Yu. [Theoretical Physics Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2J1 (Canada); P. N. Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2010-08-15

    Axial magnetic field generation by intense circularly polarized laser beams in underdense plasmas has been studied with three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations and by means of theoretical analysis. Comparisons between analytical models and simulation results have identified an inverse Faraday effect as the main mechanism of the magnetic field generation in inhomogeneous plasmas. The source of azimuthal nonlinear currents and of the axial magnetic field depends on the transverse inhomogeneities of the electron density and laser intensity. The fields reach a maximum strength of several tens of megagauss for laser pulses undergoing relativistic self-focusing and channeling in moderately relativistic regime. Ultrarelativistic laser conditions inhibit magnetic field generation by directly reducing a source term and by generating fully evacuated plasma channels.

  1. Determining X-ray source intensity and confidence bounds in crowded fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Primini, F. A.; Kashyap, V. L.

    2014-11-20

    We present a rigorous description of the general problem of aperture photometry in high-energy astrophysics photon-count images, in which the statistical noise model is Poisson, not Gaussian. We compute the full posterior probability density function for the expected source intensity for various cases of interest, including the important cases in which both source and background apertures contain contributions from the source, and when multiple source apertures partially overlap. A Bayesian approach offers the advantages of allowing one to (1) include explicit prior information on source intensities, (2) propagate posterior distributions as priors for future observations, and (3) use Poisson likelihoods, making the treatment valid in the low-counts regime. Elements of this approach have been implemented in the Chandra Source Catalog.

  2. Backcoupling of acoustic streaming on the temperature field inside high-intensity discharge lamps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwieger, Joerg; Wolff, Marcus; Manders, Freddy; Suijker, Jos

    2015-01-01

    Operating high-intensity discharge lamps in the high frequency range (20-300 kHz) provides energy-saving and cost reduction potentials. However, commercially available lamp drivers do not make use of this operating strategy because light intensity fluctuations and even lamp destruction are possible. The reason for the fluctuating discharge arc are acoustic resonances in this frequency range that are excited in the arc tube. The acoustic resonances in turn generate a fluid flow that is caused by the acoustic streaming effect. Here, we present a 3D multiphysics model to determine the influence of acoustic streaming on the temperature field in the vicinity of an acoustic eigenfrequency. In that case a transition from stable to instable behavior occurs. The model is able to predict when light flicker can be expected. The results are in very good accordance with accompanying experiments.

  3. Calculation of synchrotron radiation from high intensity electron beam at eRHIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jing Y.; Chubar, O.; Litvinenko, V.

    2012-05-20

    The Electron-Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (eRHIC) at Brookhaven National Lab is an upgrade project for the existing RHIC. A 30 GeV energy recovery linac (ERL) will provide a high charge and high quality electron beam to collide with proton and ion beams. This will improve the luminosity by at least 2 orders of magnitude. The synchrotron radiation (SR) from the bending magnets and strong quadrupoles for such an intense beam could be penetrating the vacuum chamber and producing hazards to electronic devices and undesired background for detectors. In this paper, we calculate the SR spectral intensity, power density distributions and heat load on the chamber wall. We suggest the wall thickness required to stop the SR and estimate spectral characteristics of the residual and scattered background radiation outside the chamber.

  4. Hole boring in a DT pellet and fast ion ignition with ultra-intense laser pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naumova, N; Tikhonchuk, V T; Labaune, C; Sokolov, I V; Mourou, G; 10.1103/PhysRevLett.102.025002

    2009-01-01

    Recently achieved high intensities of short laser pulses open new prospects in their application to hole boring in inhomogeneous overdense plasmas and for ignition in precompressed DT fusion targets. A simple analytical model and numerical simulations demonstrate that pulses with intensities exceeding 1022 W/cm2 may penetrate deeply into the plasma as a result of efficient ponderomotive acceleration of ions in the forward direction. The penetration depth as big as hundreds of microns depends on the laser fluence, which has to exceed a few tens of GJ/cm2. The fast ions, accelerated at the bottom of the channel with an efficiency of more than 20%, show a high directionality and may heat the precompressed target core to fusion conditions.

  5. Proposal for an RF roadmap towards Ultimate Intensity in the LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baudrenghien, P

    2012-01-01

    The LHC currently operates with 1380 bunches at 50 ns spacing and 1.4 1011 p per bunch (0.35A DC). In this paper the RF operation with ultimate bunch intensity (1.7 1011 p per bunch) and 25 ns spacing (2808 bunches per beam) summing up to 0.86A DC is presented. With the higher beam current, the demanded klystron power will be increased and the longitudinal stability margin reduced. One must also consider the impact of a klystron trip (voltage and power transients in the three turns latency before the beam is actually dumped). In this work a scheme is proposed that can deal with ultimate bunch intensity. Only a minor upgrade of the Low Level RF is necessary: the field set point will be modulated according to the phase shift produced by the transient beam loading, thus minimizing the RF power while keeping the strong feedback for stability and reduction of the RF noise.

  6. Optical apparatus using liquid crystals for shaping the spatial intensity of optical beams having designated wavelengths

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobs, S.D.; Cerqua, K.A.

    1987-07-14

    The spatial intensity profile of an optical beam of designated wavelengths, such as a laser beam, is shaped (the beam is apodized) by means of cholesteric liquid crystals of opposite chirality disposed successively along the path of the beam. The crystals have curved surfaces, which may be defined by a lens which defines the thickness of the liquid crystal fluid gap in a liquid crystal cell, so as to vary the selective reflection of the designated wavelength across the aperture of the beam. In this way, a soft aperture is provided. By using tandem cell pairs having liquid crystals of opposite chirality, but of different pitch, and with lenses of different curvature, beams of different wavelengths which are projected colinearly along the path may be individually tailored in spatial intensity profile. 11 figs.

  7. Infrared Two-Color Multicycle Laser Field Synthesis for Generating an Intense Attosecond Pulse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takahashi, Eiji J.; Lan Pengfei; Nabekawa, Yasuo; Midorikawa, Katsumi [Extreme Photonics Research Group, RIKEN Advanced Science Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Muecke, Oliver D. [Photonics Institute, Vienna University of Technology, Gusshausstrasse 27-387, A-1040 Vienna (Austria)

    2010-06-11

    We propose and demonstrate the generation of a continuum high-order harmonic spectrum by mixing multicycle two-color (TC) laser fields with the aim of obtaining an intense isolated attosecond pulse. By optimizing the wavelength of a supplementary infrared pulse in a TC field, a continuum harmonic spectrum was created around the cutoff region without carrier-envelope phase stabilization. The obtained harmonic spectra clearly show the possibility of generating isolated attosecond pulses from a multicycle TC laser field, which is generated by an 800 nm, 30 fs pulse mixed with a 1300 nm, 40 fs pulse. Our proposed method enables us not only to relax the requirements for the pump pulse duration but also to reduce ionization of the harmonic medium. This concept opens the door to create an intense isolated attosecond pulse using a conventional femtosecond laser system.

  8. Numerical simulations of stripping effects in high-intensity hydrogen ion linacs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carneiro, J.-P.; Mustapha, B.; Ostroumov, P.N.; /Argonne

    2008-12-01

    Numerical simulations of H{sup -} stripping losses from blackbody radiation, electromagnetic fields, and residual gas have been implemented into the beam dynamics code TRACK. Estimates of the stripping losses along two high-intensity H{sup -} linacs are presented: the Spallation Neutron Source linac currently being operated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and an 8 GeV superconducting linac currently being designed at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory.

  9. Absolute intensity calibration of the 32-channel heterodyne radiometer on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, X.; Zhao, H. L.; Liu, Y. Li, E. Z.; Han, X.; Ti, A.; Hu, L. Q.; Zhang, X. D.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C.

    2014-09-15

    This paper presents the results of the in situ absolute intensity calibration for the 32-channel heterodyne radiometer on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak. The hot/cold load method is adopted, and the coherent averaging technique is employed to improve the signal to noise ratio. Measured spectra and electron temperature profiles are compared with those from an independent calibrated Michelson interferometer, and there is a relatively good agreement between the results from the two different systems.

  10. Spatiotemporal study of the local thermodynamic equilibrium deviations in high-intensity discharge lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helali, H.; Bchir, T.; Araoud, Z.; Charrada, K.

    2013-04-15

    The aim of this work is to study the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) deviations in arc discharges plasma generated in high-intensity discharge lamps operating under an ac (50 Hz) power supply. To achieve this goal, we elaborate a two-temperature, two-dimensional, and time-depending model. We have found numerical results almost reproducing the experimental data, which allows us to validate this model. After validation, we have discussed different energy term effects on the LTE deviations.

  11. Relative intensity noise and frequency noise of a compact Brillouin laser made

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    made of 4.9 m long bulk As2Se3 (AsSe) chalcogenide fiber, which has a Brillouin gain coefficient g]. The purpose of this Letter is twofold: first to demonstrate the possibility of making compact BFLs made of AsSe performances in terms of intensity and frequency noise of a BFL made of chalco- genide MOF. The AsSe MOF [inset

  12. Electric characteristics of germanium Vertical Multijunction (VMJ) photovoltaic cells under high intensity illumination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unishkov, V.A.

    1997-03-01

    This paper presents the results of the performance evaluation of Vertical Multijunction (VMJ) germanium (Ge) photovoltaic (PV) cells. Vertical Multijunction Germanium Photovoltaic cells offer several advantages for Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) applications such as high intensity light conversion, low series resistance, more efficient coupling to lower temperature sources, high output voltage, simplified heat rejection system as well as potentially simple fabrication technology and low cost photovoltaic converter device. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Managing Hardware Configurations and Data Products for the Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hincks, Adam D

    2014-01-01

    The Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment (CHIME) is an ambitious new radio telescope project for measuring cosmic expansion and investigating dark energy. Keeping good records of both physical configuration of its 1280 antennas and their analogue signal chains as well as the ~100 TB of data produced daily from its correlator will be essential to the success of CHIME. In these proceedings we describe the database-driven software we have developed to manage this complexity.

  14. On the control of filamentation of intense laser beams propagating in underdense plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, E.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    In indirect drive inertial confinement fusion ignition designs, the laser energy is delivered into the hohlraum through the laser entrance holes (LEHs), which are sized as small as practicable to minimize x-ray radiation losses. On the other hand, deleterious laser plasma processes, such as filamentation and stimulated backscatter, typically increase with laser intensity. Ideally, therefore, the laser spot shape should be a close fit to the LEH, with uniform (envelope) intensity in the spot and minimal energy at larger radii spilling onto the LEH material. This keeps the laser intensity as low as possible, consistent with the area of the LEH aperture and the power requirements of the design. This can be achieved (at least for apertures significantly larger than the laser's aberrated focal spot) by the use of custom-designed phase plates. However, outfitting the 192-beam National Ignition Facility [J. A. Paisner, E. M. Campbell, and W. J. Hogan, Fusion Tech. 26, 755 1994)] laser with multiple sets of phase plates optimized for a variety of different LEH aperture sizes is an expensive proposition. It is thus important to assess the impact on laser-plasma interaction processes of using phase plates with a smaller than optimum focal spot (or even no phase plates at all{exclamation_point}) and then defocusing the beam to expand it to fill the LEH and lower its intensity. Significant effects are found from changes in the characteristic sizes of the laser speckle, from the lack of uniformity of the laser envelope out of the focal plane and on the efficacy of additional polarization smoothing and/or smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD). These effects are quantified with analytic estimates and simulations using PF3D, our laser-plasma interaction code.

  15. Trapping and Destruction of Long-Range High-Intensity Optical Filaments by Molecular Quantum Wakes in Air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milchberg, Howard

    in Air S. Varma, Y.-H. Chen, and H. M. Milchberg Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied in atmospheric air on the long-range filamentary propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses. In a pump following a pump pulse filamenting in air has a dramatic effect on the propagation of an intense probe pulse

  16. Intense emission of cluster anions from gold targets under impact of keV/u gold clusters.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Intense emission of cluster anions from gold targets under impact of keV/u gold clusters. M the emission yield of anionic clusters increases much faster with n than expected from simple proportionality. Accordingly, the most intense emission is observed for Au7 - : under Au9 + impact the Au7 - yield per incident

  17. Annual and semiannual variations of the location and intensity of large-scale field-aligned currents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Higuchi, Tomoyuki

    . In the flank sectors the average FAC latitude is higher around the solstices than around the equinoxes the equinoxes. The average dayside FAC intensity is larger in the summer hemisphere than in the winter, the result suggests that the FAC tends to be more intense around the equinoxes, which is consistent

  18. Taxes and Trading versus Intensity Standards: Second-Best Environmental Policies with Incomplete Regulation (Leakage) or Market Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holland, Stephen P.

    2009-01-01

    trading) have not been compared under leakage or market power.and Trading versus Intensity Standards: Second-Best Environmental Policies with Incomplete Regulation (Leakage) or Market Powerand Trading versus Intensity Standards: Second-Best Environmental Policies with Incomplete Regulation (Leakage) or Market Power

  19. Line asymmetry of solar p-modes: Reversal of asymmetry in intensity power spectra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawan Kumar; Sarbani Basu

    1999-02-19

    The sense of line asymmetry of solar p-modes in the intensity power spectra is observed to be opposite of that seen in the velocity power spectra. Theoretical calculations provide a good understanding and fit to the observed velocity power spectra whereas the reverse sense of asymmetry in the intensity power spectrum has been poorly understood. We show that when turbulent eddies arrive at the top of the convection zone they give rise to an observable intensity fluctuation which is correlated with the oscillation they generate, thereby affecting the shape of the line in the p-mode power spectra and reversing the sense of asymmetry (this point was recognized by Nigam et al. and Roxburgh & Vorontsov). The addition of the correlated noise displaces the frequencies of peaks in the power spectrum. Depending on the amplitude of the noise source the shift in the position of the peak can be substantially larger than the frequency shift in the velocity power spectra. In neither case are the peak frequencies precisely equal to the eigenfrequencies of p-modes. We suggest two observations which can provide a test of the model discussed here.

  20. A search for the sulphur hexafluoride cation with intense, few cycle laser pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dota, Krithika; Mathur, Deepak; Centre for Atomic and Molecular Physics, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104 ; Dharmadhikari, Aditya K.; Dharmadhikari, Jayashree A.; Patra, Kaustuv; Tiwari, Ashwani K.

    2013-11-21

    It is well established that upon ionization of sulphur hexafluoride, the SF{sub 6}{sup +} ion is never observed in mass spectra. Recent work with ultrashort intense laser pulses has offered indications that when strong optical field are used, the resulting “bond hardening” can induce changes in the potential energy surfaces of molecular cations such that molecular ions that are normally unstable may, indeed, become metastable enough to enable their detection by mass spectrometry. Do intense, ultrashort laser pulses permit formation of SF{sub 6}{sup +}? We have utilized intense pulses of 5 fs, 11 fs, and 22 fs to explore this possibility. Our results are negative: no evidence is discovered for SF{sub 6}{sup +}. However, multiply charged sulphur and fluorine ions from highly charged SF{sub 6}{sup q+} ions are observed that enable us to resolve the controversy regarding the kinetic energy release accompanying formation of F{sup +} fragment ions. Quantum chemical computations of field-distorted potential energy curves of SF{sub 6} and its molecular ion enable us to rationalize our non-observation of SF{sub 6}{sup +}. Our findings have implications for high harmonic generation from SF{sub 6} in the few-cycle regime.

  1. Nonlinear photoresponse of field effect transistors terahertz detectors at high irradiation intensities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    But, D. B.; Drexler, C.; Ganichev, S. D.; Sakhno, M. V.; Sizov, F. F.; Dyakonova, N.; Drachenko, O.; Gutin, A.; Knap, W.

    2014-04-28

    Terahertz power dependence of the photoresponse of field effect transistors, operating at frequencies from 0.1 to 3 THz for incident radiation power density up to 100?kW/cm{sup 2} was studied for Si metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistors and InGaAs high electron mobility transistors. The photoresponse increased linearly with increasing radiation intensity up to the kW/cm{sup 2} range. Nonlinearity followed by saturation of the photoresponse was observed for all investigated field effect transistors for intensities above several kW/cm{sup 2}. The observed photoresponse nonlinearity is explained by nonlinearity and saturation of the transistor channel current. A theoretical model of terahertz field effect transistor photoresponse at high intensity was developed. The model explains quantitative experimental data both in linear and nonlinear regions. Our results show that dynamic range of field effect transistors is very high and can extend over more than six orders of magnitudes of power densities (from ?0.5 mW/cm{sup 2} to ?5?kW/cm{sup 2})

  2. Proceedings of the workshop on the science of intense radioactive ion beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClelland, J.B.; Vieira, D.J. (comps.)

    1990-10-01

    This report contains the proceedings of a 2-1/2 day workshop on the Science of Intense Radioactive Ion Beams which was held at the Los Alamos National Laboratory on April 10--12, 1990. The workshop was attended by 105 people, representing 30 institutions from 10 countries. The thrust of the workshop was to develop the scientific opportunities which become possible with a new generation intense Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility, currently being discussed within North America. The workshop was organized around five primary topics: (1) reaction physics; (2) nuclei far from stability/nuclear structure; (3) nuclear astrophysics; (4) atomic physics, material science, and applied research; and (5) facilities. Overview talks were presented on each of these topics, followed by 1-1/2 days of intense parallel working group sessions. The final half day of the workshop was devoted to the presentation and discussion of the working group summary reports, closing remarks and a discussion of future plans for this effort.

  3. Method and apparatus for measuring the intensity and phase of an ultrashort light pulse

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kane, Daniel J. (Santa Fe, NM); Trebino, Rick P. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-01-01

    The pulse shape I(t) and phase evolution x(t) of ultrashort light pulses are obtained using an instantaneously responding nonlinear optical medium to form a signal pulse. A light pulse, such a laser pulse, is split into a gate pulse and a probe pulse, where the gate pulse is delayed relative to the probe pulse. The gate pulse and the probe pulse are combined within an instantaneously responding optical medium to form a signal pulse functionally related to a temporal slice of the gate pulse corresponding to the time delay of the probe pulse. The signal pulse is then input to a wavelength-selective device to output pulse field information comprising intensity vs. frequency for a first value of the time delay. The time delay is varied over a range of values effective to yield an intensity plot of signal intensity vs. wavelength and delay. In one embodiment, the beams are overlapped at an angle so that a selected range of delay times is within the intersection to produce a simultaneous output over the time delays of interest.

  4. Stress-intensity-factor influence coefficients for semielliptical inner-surface flaws in clad pressure vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keeney, J.A.; Bryson, J.W.

    1995-12-31

    A problem of particular interest in pressure vessel technology is the calculation of accurate stress-intensity factors for semielliptical surface cracks in cylinders. Computing costs for direct solution techniques can be prohibitive when applied to three-dimensional (3-D) geometries with time-varying boundary conditions such as those associated with pressurized thermal shock. An alternative superposition technique requires the calculation of a set of influence coefficients for a given 3-D crack model that can be superimposed to obtain mode-I stress-intensity factors. This paper presents stress-intensity-factor influence coefficients (SIFICs) for axially and circumferentially oriented finite-length semielliptical inner-surface flaws with aspect ratios (total crack length (2c) to crack depth (a)) of 2, 6, and 10 for clad cylinders having an internal radius to wall thickness (t) ratio of 10. SIFICs are computed for flaw depths in the range of 0.01 {le} a/t {le} 0.5 and two cladding thicknesses. The incorporate of this SIFIC data base in fracture mechanics codes will facilitate the generation of fracture mechanics solutions for a wide range of flaw geometries as may be required in structural integrity assessments of pressurized-water and boiling-water reactors.

  5. Propagation and absorption of high-intensity femtosecond laser radiation in diamond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kononenko, V V; Konov, V I; Gololobov, V M; Zavedeev, E V [A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-31

    Femtosecond interferometry has been used to experimentally study the photoexcitation of the electron subsystem of diamond exposed to femtosecond laser pulses of intensity 10{sup 11} to 10{sup 14} W cm{sup -2}. The carrier concentration has been determined as a function of incident intensity for three harmonics of a Ti : sapphire laser (800, 400 and 266 nm). The results demonstrate that, in a wide range of laser fluences (up to those resulting in surface and bulk graphitisation), a well-defined multiphoton absorption prevails. We have estimated nonlinear absorption coefficients for pulsed radiation at ? = 800 nm (four-photon transition) and at 400 and 266 nm (indirect and direct two-photon transitions, respectively). It has also been shown that, at any considerable path length of a femtosecond pulse in diamond (tens of microns or longer), the laser beam experiences a severe nonlinear transformation, determining the amount of energy absorbed by the lattice, which is important for the development of technology for diamond photostructuring by ultrashort pulses. The competition between wave packet self-focusing and the plasma defocusing effect is examined as a major mechanism governing the propagation of intense laser pulses in diamond. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  6. Report of the Snowmass M6 Working Group on high intensity proton sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiren Chou and J. Wei

    2002-08-20

    The U.S. high-energy physics program needs an intense proton source, a 1-4 MW Proton Driver (PD), by the end of this decade. This machine will serve as a stand-alone facility that will provide neutrino superbeams and other high intensity secondary beams such as kaons, muons, neutrons, and anti-protons (cf. E1 and E5 group reports) and also serve as the first stage of a neutrino factory (cf. M1 group report). It can also be a high brightness source for a VLHC. Based on present accelerator technology and project construction experience, it is both feasible and cost-effective to construct a 1-4 MW Proton Driver. Two recent PD design studies have been made, one at FNAL and the other at the BNL. Both designed PD's for 1 MW proton beams at a cost of about U.S. $200M (excluding contingency and overhead) and both designs were upgradeable to 4 MW. An international collaboration between FNAL, BNL and KEK on high intensity proton facilities is addressing a number of key design issues. The superconducting (sc) RF cavities, cryogenics, and RF controls developed for the SNS can be directly adopted to save R&D efforts, cost, and schedule. PD studies are also actively being pursued at Europe and Japan.

  7. REPORT OF THE SNOWMASS M6 WORKING GROUP ON HIGH INTENSITY PROTON SOURCES.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CHOU,W.; WEI,J.

    2001-08-14

    The M6 working group had more than 40 active participants (listed in Section 4). During the three weeks at Snowmass, there were about 50 presentations, covering a wide range of topics associated with high intensity proton sources. The talks are listed in Section 5. This group also had joint sessions with a number of other working groups, including E1 (Neutrino Factories and Muon Colliders), E5 (Fixed-Target Experiments), M1 (Muon Based Systems), T4 (Particle Sources), T5 (Beam dynamics), T7 (High Performance Computing) and T9 (Diagnostics). The M6 group performed a survey of the beam parameters of existing and proposed high intensity proton sources, in particular, of the proton drivers. The results are listed in Table 1. These parameters are compared with the requirements of high-energy physics users of secondary beams in Working Groups E1 and E5. According to the consensus reached in the E1 and E5 groups, the U.S. HEP program requires an intense proton source, a 1-4 MW Proton Driver, by the end of this decade.

  8. Erasing the Milky Way: new cleaning technique applied to GBT intensity mapping data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolz, L; Abdalla, F B; Anderson, C M; Chang, T -C; Li, Y -C; Masui, K W; Switzer, E; Pen, U -L; Voytek, T C; Yadav, J

    2015-01-01

    We present the first application of a new foreground removal pipeline to the current leading HI intensity mapping dataset, obtained by the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). We study the 15hr and 1hr field data of the GBT observations previously presented in Masui et al. (2013) and Switzer et al. (2013) covering about 41 square degrees at 0.6 < z < 1.0 which overlaps with the WiggleZ galaxy survey employed for the cross-correlation with the maps. In the presented pipeline, we subtract the Galactic foreground continuum and the point source contaminations using an independent component analysis technique (fastica) and develop a description for a Fourier-based optimal weighting estimator to compute the temperature power spectrum of the intensity maps and cross-correlation with the galaxy survey data. We show that fastica is a reliable tool to subtract diffuse and point-source emission by using the non-Gaussian nature of their probability functions. The power spectra of the intensity maps and the cross-correlation...

  9. Electromagnetic cascade in high energy electron, positron, and photon interactions with intense laser pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. S. Bulanov; C. B. Schroeder; E. Esarey; W. P. Leemans

    2013-06-05

    The interaction of high energy electrons, positrons, and photons with intense laser pulses is studied in head-on collision geometry. It is shown that electrons and/or positrons undergo a cascade-type process involving multiple emissions of photons. These photons can consequently convert into electron-positron pairs. As a result charged particles quickly lose their energy developing an exponentially decaying energy distribution, which suppresses the emission of high energy photons, thus reducing the number of electron-positron pairs being generated. Therefore, this type of interaction suppresses the development of the electromagnetic avalanche-type discharge, i.e., the exponential growth of the number of electrons, positrons, and photons does not occur in the course of interaction. The suppression will occur when 3D effects can be neglected in the transverse particle orbits, i.e., for sufficiently broad laser pulses with intensities that are not too extreme. The final distributions of electrons, positrons, and photons are calculated for the case of a high energy e-beam interacting with a counter-streaming, short intense laser pulse. The energy loss of the e-beam, which requires a self-consistent quantum description, plays an important role in this process, as well as provides a clear experimental observable for the transition from the classical to quantum regime of interaction.

  10. Experimental verification of a model describing the intensity distribution from a single mode optical fiber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moro, Erik A; Puckett, Anthony D; Todd, Michael D

    2011-01-24

    The intensity distribution of a transmission from a single mode optical fiber is often approximated using a Gaussian-shaped curve. While this approximation is useful for some applications such as fiber alignment, it does not accurately describe transmission behavior off the axis of propagation. In this paper, another model is presented, which describes the intensity distribution of the transmission from a single mode optical fiber. A simple experimental setup is used to verify the model's accuracy, and agreement between model and experiment is established both on and off the axis of propagation. Displacement sensor designs based on the extrinsic optical lever architecture are presented. The behavior of the transmission off the axis of propagation dictates the performance of sensor architectures where large lateral offsets (25-1500 {micro}m) exist between transmitting and receiving fibers. The practical implications of modeling accuracy over this lateral offset region are discussed as they relate to the development of high-performance intensity modulated optical displacement sensors. In particular, the sensitivity, linearity, resolution, and displacement range of a sensor are functions of the relative positioning of the sensor's transmitting and receiving fibers. Sensor architectures with high combinations of sensitivity and displacement range are discussed. It is concluded that the utility of the accurate model is in its predicative capability and that this research could lead to an improved methodology for high-performance sensor design.

  11. Fundamental physics at the intensity frontier. Report of the workshop held December 2011 in Rockville, MD.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hewett, J.L.; Weerts, H.; Brock, R.; Butler, J.N.; Casey, B.C.K.; Lu, Z.T.; Wagner, C.E.M.; Dietrich, M.R.; Djurcic, Z.; Goodman, M.; Green, J.P.; Holt, R.J.; Mueller, P.; Paley, J.; Reimer, P.; Singh, J.; Upadhye, A.

    2012-06-05

    Particle physics aims to understand the universe around us. The Standard Model of particle physics describes the basic structure of matter and forces, to the extent we have been able to probe thus far. However, it leaves some big questions unanswered. Some are within the Standard Model itself, such as why there are so many fundamental particles and why they have different masses. In other cases, the Standard Model simply fails to explain some phenomena, such as the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry in the universe, the existence of dark matter and dark energy, and the mechanism that reconciles gravity with quantum mechanics. These gaps lead us to conclude that the universe must contain new and unexplored elements of Nature. Most of particle and nuclear physics is directed towards discovering and understanding these new laws of physics. These questions are best pursued with a variety of approaches, rather than with a single experiment or technique. Particle physics uses three basic approaches, often characterized as exploration along the cosmic, energy, and intensity frontiers. Each employs different tools and techniques, but they ultimately address the same fundamental questions. This allows a multi-pronged approach where attacking basic questions from different angles furthers knowledge and provides deeper answers, so that the whole is more than a sum of the parts. A coherent picture or underlying theoretical model can more easily emerge, to be proven correct or not. The intensity frontier explores fundamental physics with intense sources and ultra-sensitive, sometimes massive detectors. It encompasses searches for extremely rare processes and for tiny deviations from Standard Model expectations. Intensity frontier experiments use precision measurements to probe quantum effects. They typically investigate very large energy scales, even higher than the kinematic reach of high energy particle accelerators. The science addresses basic questions, such as: Are there new sources of CP violation? Is there CP violation in the leptonic sector? Are neutrinos their own antiparticles? Do the forces unify? Is there a weakly coupled hidden sector that is related to dark matter? Do new symmetries exist at very high energy scales? To identify the most compelling science opportunities in this area, the workshop Fundamental Physics at the Intensity Frontier was held in December 2011, sponsored by the Office of High Energy Physics in the US Department of Energy Office of Science. Participants investigated the most promising experiments to exploit these opportunities and described the knowledge that can be gained from such a program. The workshop generated much interest in the community, as witnessed by the large and energetic participation by a broad spectrum of scientists. This document chronicles the activities of the workshop, with contributions by more than 450 authors. The workshop organized the intensity frontier science program along six topics that formed the basis for working groups: experiments that probe (i) heavy quarks, (ii) charged leptons, (iii) neutrinos, (iv) proton decay, (v) light, weakly interacting particles, and (vi) nucleons, nuclei, and atoms. The conveners for each working group included an experimenter and a theorist working in the field and an observer from the community at large. The working groups began their efforts well in advance of the workshop, holding regular meetings and soliciting written contributions. Specific avenues of exploration were identified by each working group. Experiments that study rare strange, charm, and bottom meson decays provide a broad program of measurements that are sensitive to new interactions. Charged leptons, particularly muons and taus, provide a precise probe for new physics because the Standard Model predictions for their properties are very accurate. Research at the intensity frontier can reveal CP violation in the lepton sector, and elucidate whether neutrinos are their own antiparticles. A very weakly coupled hidden-sector that may comprise the dark matter in the univ

  12. A Comprehensive System of Energy Intensity Indicators for the U.S.: Methods, Data and Key Trends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belzer, David B.

    2014-08-31

    This report describes a comprehensive system of energy intensity indicators for the United States that has been developed for the Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) over the past decade. This system of indicators is hierarchical in nature, beginning with detailed indexes of energy intensity for various sectors of the economy, which are ultimately aggregated to an overall energy intensity index for the economy as a whole. The aggregation of energy intensity indexes to higher levels in the hierarchy is performed with a version of the Log Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) method. Based upon the data and methods in the system of indicators, the economy-wide energy intensity index shows a decline of about 14% in 2010 relative to a 1985 base year. Discussion of energy intensity indicators for each of the broad end-use sectors of the economy—residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation—is presented in the report. An analysis of recent changes in the efficiency of electricity generation in the U.S. is also included. A detailed appendix describes the data sources and methodology behind the energy intensity indicators for each sector.

  13. Energetic proton generation from intense Coulomb explosion of large-size ethane clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Song; Zhou Zili; Tian Ye; Lu Haiyang; Wang Wentao; Ju Jingjing; Xu Yi; Leng Yuxin; Ni Guoquan; Wang Cheng; Liu Jiansheng; Li Hongyu

    2013-04-15

    An experimental investigation is performed on the interaction of intense femtosecond laser pulses at the intensity of 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2} (55 fs, 160 mJ at 800 nm) with ethane cluster (C{sub 2}H{sub 6}){sub N} jets prepared under the backing pressure of 30 bars at room temperature (298 K). The experiment results indicate the generation of energetic protons, whose average and maximum kinetic energies are 12.2 and 138.1 keV, respectively, by Coulomb explosion of (C{sub 2}H{sub 6}){sub N} clusters. (C{sub 2}H{sub 6}){sub N} clusters of 5 nm in radius are generated in the experiment, which are 1.7 times larger than that of (CH{sub 4}){sub N} clusters prepared in the same conditions. Empirical estimation suggests that (C{sub 2}H{sub 6}){sub N} clusters with radius of about 9.6 nm can be prepared at 80-bars backing pressure at 308 K. While (C{sub 2}H{sub 6}){sub N} clusters of so large size are irradiated by sufficiently intense laser pulses, the average energy of protons will be increased up to 50 keV. It is inferred that such large-size deuterated ethane clusters (C{sub 2}D{sub 6}){sub N} will favor more efficient neutron generation due to the significant increase of the D-D nuclear reaction cross section in laser-driven cluster nuclear fusion.

  14. Downward Muon Intensity at Surface dI 0 (E 0 ; cos )

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Learned, John

    Downward Muon Intensity at Surface dI #22;0 (E #22;0 ; cos #18;) dE #22;0 = 0:14 #1; E #22;0 #1; 0 B @ 1 1 + 1:1E #22;0 cos #18; #3; 115 GeV + 0:054 1 + 1:1E #22;0 cos #18; ? 850 GeV + R c 1 C A Ref Approx. Isotropic H.E. Primary C.R. Flux Depth of Atmosphere a( ) q -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 cos q 10 100 1000

  15. Manipulation of the Raman process via incoherent pump, tunable intensity, and phase control 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Li-Gang; Qamar, Sajid; Zhu, Shi-Yao; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2008-01-01

    of the Raman process via incoherent pump, tunable intensity, and phase control Li-Gang Wang,1,2,3 Sajid Qamar,1 Shi-Yao Zhu,1,2,3 and M. Suhail Zubairy1,4,5 1Centre for Quantum Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 2...Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China 3Department of Physics, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong, China 4Institute for Quantum Studies and Department of Physics, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77845, USA 5...

  16. High-resolution electron-ion coincidence spectroscopy of ethanol in intense laser fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hatamoto, T.; Pruemper, G.; Okunishi, M.; Ueda, K.; Mathur, D.

    2007-06-15

    High-resolution electron-ion coincidence spectroscopy is used to (i) map correlations between electrons and ions from atomlike ionization of ethanol by intense 400 and 800 nm light pulses and (ii) disentangle the effects of dissociative multiphoton (MPI) and tunneling (TI) ionization. Electron spectra correlated with C{sup n+} (n=1,2,3) exhibit a continuum structure with a high-energy tail due to inelastic collisions involving rescattered electrons following TI, while those correlated with C{sub 2}H{sub n}O{sup +} have structure characteristic of MPI and above-threshold ionization.

  17. RESONANT FREQUENCY EDDY CURRENT LIFTOFF MEASUREMENTS FOR SHOT PEENING INTENSITY ASSESSMENT IN MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ko, Ray T.; Blodgett, Mark P. [Metals, Ceramics, and NDE Division, Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio 45433 (United States); Sathish, Shamachary; Boehnlein, Thomas R. [Structural Integrity Division, University of Dayton Research Institute, 300 College Park, Dayton, Ohio 45469-0120 (United States)

    2008-02-28

    The shot peening intensity of nickel base materials has been examined with an innovative eddy current measurement. The goal is to provide a nondestructive tool to quantitatively evaluate the surface conditions after shot peening. Traditionally, the residual stress caused by the shot peening process can be examined by X-ray diffraction. Recent eddy current works have shown promising results in evaluating the small conductivity variation due to the residual stress. This study explores the feasibility of utilizing the cable which connects to a network analyzer and a conventional eddy current probe to monitor the surface conditions due to the shot peening.

  18. High-intensity laser-driven proton acceleration enhancement from hydrogen containing ultrathin targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dollar, F.; Reed, S. A.; Matsuoka, T.; Bulanov, S. S.; Chvykov, V.; Kalintchenko, G.; McGuffey, C.; Rousseau, P.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Willingale, L.; Yanovsky, V.; Krushelnick, K.; Maksimchuk, A.; Litzenberg, D. W.

    2013-09-30

    Laser driven proton acceleration experiments from micron and submicron thick targets using high intensity (2 × 10{sup 21} W/cm{sup 2}), high contrast (10{sup ?15}) laser pulses show an enhancement of maximum energy when hydrogen containing targets were used instead of non-hydrogen containing. In our experiments, using thin (<1?m) plastic foil targets resulted in maximum proton energies that were consistently 20%–100% higher than when equivalent thickness inorganic targets, including Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and Al, were used. Proton energies up to 20 MeV were measured with a flux of 10{sup 7} protons/MeV/sr.

  19. Stationary self-focusing of intense laser beam in cold quantum plasma using ramp density profile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habibi, M.; Ghamari, F.

    2012-10-15

    By using a transient density profile, we have demonstrated stationary self-focusing of an electromagnetic Gaussian beam in cold quantum plasma. The paper is devoted to the prospects of using upward increasing ramp density profile of an inhomogeneous nonlinear medium with quantum effects in self-focusing mechanism of high intense laser beam. We have found that the upward ramp density profile in addition to quantum effects causes much higher oscillation and better focusing of laser beam in cold quantum plasma in comparison to that in the classical relativistic case. Our computational results reveal the importance and influence of formation of electron density profiles in enhancing laser self-focusing.

  20. Efficient electronic structure calculation for molecular ionization dynamics at high x-ray intensity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hao, Yajiang; Hanasaki, Kota; Son, Sang-Kil; Santra, Robin

    2015-01-01

    We present the implementation of an electronic-structure approach dedicated to ionization dynamics of molecules interacting with x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) pulses. In our scheme, molecular orbitals for molecular core-hole states are represented by linear combination of numerical atomic orbitals that are solutions of corresponding atomic core-hole states. We demonstrate that our scheme efficiently calculates all possible multiple-hole configurations of molecules formed during XFEL pulses. The present method is suitable to investigate x-ray multiphoton multiple ionization dynamics and accompanying nuclear dynamics, providing essential information on the chemical dynamics relevant for high-intensity x-ray imaging.

  1. Enhancing the energy of terahertz radiation from plasma produced by intense femtosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jahangiri, Fazel [Advanced Research Center for Beam Science, ICR, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan) [Advanced Research Center for Beam Science, ICR, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hashida, Masaki; Tokita, Shigeki; Sakabe, Shuji [Advanced Research Center for Beam Science, ICR, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan) [Advanced Research Center for Beam Science, ICR, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Physics, GSS, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Nagashima, Takeshi; Hangyo, Masanori [Department of Physics, GSS, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan) [Department of Physics, GSS, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)

    2013-05-13

    Terahertz (THz) radiation from atomic clusters illuminated by intense femtosecond laser pulses is investigated. By studying the angular distribution, polarization properties and energy dependence of THz waves, we aim to obtain a proper understanding of the mechanism of THz generation. The properties of THz waves measured in this study differ from those predicted by previously proposed mechanisms. To interpret these properties qualitatively, we propose that the radiation is generated by time-varying quadrupoles, which are produced by the ponderomotive force of the laser pulse.

  2. Steering proton migration in hydrocarbons using intense few-cycle laser fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kübel, M; Burger, C; Kling, Nora G; Li, H; Alnaser, A S; Bergues, B; Zherebtsov, S; Azzeer, A M; Ben-Itzhak, I; Moshammer, R; de Vivie-Riedle, R; Kling, M F

    2015-01-01

    Proton migration is a ubiquitous process in chemical reactions related to biology, combustion, and catalysis. Thus, the ability to control the movement of nuclei with tailored light, within a hydrocarbon molecule holds promise for far-reaching applications. Here, we demonstrate the steering of hydrogen migration in simple hydrocarbons, namely acetylene and allene, using waveform-controlled, few-cycle laser pulses. The rearrangement dynamics are monitored using coincident 3D momentum imaging spectroscopy, and described with a quantum-dynamical model. Our observations reveal that the underlying control mechanism is due to the manipulation of the phases in a vibrational wavepacket by the intense off-resonant laser field.

  3. Early-time interface instabilities in high intensity aero-breakup of liquid drop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, X Y

    2014-01-01

    The early-time interface instabilities in high intensity (high Weber number and high Reynolds number) aero-breakup of a liquid drop are investigated by numerical simulations. A combined analysis based on simulation results and linear-instability theory show that both RT (Rayleigh-Taylor) and KH (Kelvin-Helmholtz) instabilities contributes the dominant disturbances originate from about the half way from the stagnation point to the equator. This is verified further with a specially modified simulation, which decreases the effect of KH instability while keeps other flow properties unchanged.

  4. Observations of the filamentation of high-intensity laser-produced electron beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, M.S.; Beg, F.N.; Dangor, A.E.; Gopal, A.; Tatarakis, M.; Krushelnick, K. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Clark, E.L.; Evans, R.G. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Plasma Physics Department, AWE plc, Aldermaston, Reading RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Ledingham, K.W.D. [Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Plasma Physics Department, AWE plc, Aldermaston, Reading RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); McKenna, P. [Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Norreys, P.A. [Central Laser Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Oxon OX11 OQX (United Kingdom); Zepf, M. [Department of Physics, The Queen's University, University Road, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)

    2004-11-01

    Filamented electron beams have been observed to be emitted from the rear of thin solid targets irradiated by a high-intensity short-pulse laser when there is low-density plasma present at the back of the target. These observations are consistent with a laser-generated beam of relativistic electrons propagating through the target, which is subsequently fragmented by a Weibel-like instability in the low-density plasma at the rear. These measurements are in agreement with particle-in-cell simulations and theory, since the filamentation instability is predicted to be dramatically enhanced when the electron beam density approaches that of the background plasma.

  5. A Lightweight, High-performance I/O Management Package for Data-intensive Computing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jun

    2011-06-22

    Our group has been working with ANL collaborators on the topic â??bridging the gap between parallel file system and local file systemâ?ť during the course of this project period. We visited Argonne National Lab -- Dr. Robert Rossâ??s group for one week in the past summer 2007. We looked over our current project progress and planned the activities for the incoming years 2008-09. The PI met Dr. Robert Ross several times such as HEC FSIO workshop 08, SCâ??08 and SCâ??10. We explored the opportunities to develop a production system by leveraging our current prototype to (SOGP+PVFS) a new PVFS version. We delivered SOGP+PVFS codes to ANL PVFS2 group in 2008.We also talked about exploring a potential project on developing new parallel programming models and runtime systems for data-intensive scalable computing (DISC). The methodology is to evolve MPI towards DISC by incorporating some functions of Google MapReduce parallel programming model. More recently, we are together exploring how to leverage existing works to perform (1) coordination/aggregation of local I/O operations prior to movement over the WAN, (2) efficient bulk data movement over the WAN, (3) latency hiding techniques for latency-intensive operations. Since 2009, we start applying Hadoop/MapReduce to some HEC applications with LANL scientists John Bent and Salman Habib. Another on-going work is to improve checkpoint performance at I/O forwarding Layer for the Road Runner super computer with James Nuetz and Gary Gridder at LANL. Two senior undergraduates from our research group did summer internships about high-performance file and storage system projects in LANL since 2008 for consecutive three years. Both of them are now pursuing Ph.D. degree in our group and will be 4th year in the PhD program in Fall 2011 and go to LANL to advance two above-mentioned works during this winter break. Since 2009, we have been collaborating with several computer scientists (Gary Grider, John bent, Parks Fields, James Nunez, Hsing-Bung Chen, etc) from HPC5 and James Ahrens from Advanced Computing Laboratory in Los Alamos National Laboratory. We hold a weekly conference and/or video meeting on advancing works at two fronts: the hardware/software infrastructure of building large-scale data intensive cluster and research publications. Our group members assist in constructing several onsite LANL data intensive clusters. Two parties have been developing software codes and research papers together using both sidesâ?? resources.

  6. On the mechanisms of the quasi-biennial oscillations in the GCR intensity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krainev, M; Kalinin, M; Svirzhevskaya, A; Svirzhevsky, N

    2015-01-01

    Quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) is a well-known quasi-periodical variation with characteristic time 0.5-4 years in different solar, heliospheric and cosmic ray characteristics. In this paper a hypothesis is checked on the causes of the apparent lack of correlation between solar and heliospheric QBOs, then the possible mechanisms of QBO in the GCR intensity are discussed as well as the idea of the same nature of the step-like changes and Gnevyshev Gap effects in the GCR intensity. Our main conclusions are as follows: 1) In the first approximation the hypothesis is justified that the change in the sunspot and QBO cycles in the transition from the Sun to the heliosphere is due to 1) the different magnitude and time behavior of the large-scale and small-scale photospheric solar magnetic fields and 2) the stronger attenuation of the small-scale fields in this transition. 2) As the QBO in the HMF strength influences both the diffusion coefficients and drift velocity, it can give rise to the complex QBO in the GCR ...

  7. Production of intense negative hydrogen beams with polarized nuclei by selective neutralization of negative ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hershcovitch, Ady (Mount Sinai, NY)

    1987-01-01

    A process for selectively neutralizing H.sup.- ions in a magnetic field to produce an intense negative hydrogen ion beam with spin polarized protons. Characteristic features of the process include providing a multi-ampere beam of H.sup.- ions that are intersected by a beam of laser light. Photodetachment is effected in a uniform magnetic field that is provided around the beam of H.sup.- ions to spin polarize the H.sup.- ions and produce first and second populations or groups of ions, having their respective proton spin aligned either with the magnetic field or opposite to it. The intersecting beam of laser light is directed to selectively neutralize a majority of the ions in only one population, or given spin polarized group of H.sup.- ions, without neutralizing the ions in the other group thereby forming a population of H.sup.- ions each of which has its proton spin down, and a second group or population of H.sup.o atoms having proton spin up. Finally, the two groups of ions are separated from each other by magnetically bending the group of H.sup.- ions away from the group of neutralized ions, thereby to form an intense H.sup.- ion beam that is directed toward a predetermined objective.

  8. Experimental Parameters for a Cerium 144 Based Intense Electron Antineutrino Generator Experiment at Very Short Baselines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Gaffiot; T. Lasserre; G. Mention; M. Vivier; M. Cribier; M. Durero; V. Fischer; A. Letourneau; E. Dumonteil; I. S. Saldikov; G. V. Tikhomirov

    2015-02-09

    The standard three-neutrino oscillation paradigm, associated with small squared mass splittings $\\ll 0.1\\ \\mathrm{eV^2}$, has been successfully built up over the last 15 years using solar, atmospheric, long baseline accelerator and reactor neutrino experiments. However, this well-established picture might suffer from anomalous results reported at very short baselines in some of these experiments. If not experimental artifacts, such results could possibly be interpreted as the existence of at least an additional fourth sterile neutrino species, mixing with the known active flavors with an associated mass splitting $\\ll 0.1\\ \\mathrm{eV^2}$, and being insensitive to standard weak interactions. Precision measurements at very short baselines (5 to 15 m) with intense MeV electronic antineutrino emitters can be used to probe these anomalies. In this article, the expected antineutrino signal and backgrounds of a generic experiment which consists of deploying an intense beta minus radioactive source inside or in the vicinity of a large liquid scintillator detector are studied. The technical challenges to perform such an experiment are identified, along with quantifying the possible source and detector induced systematics, and their impact on the sensitivity to the observation of neutrino oscillations at short baselines.

  9. Universal and nonuniversal statistical properties of levels and intensities for chaotic Rydberg molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lombardi, M.; Seligman, T.H. (Laboratoire de Spectrometrie Physique-Universite Joseph Fourier de Grenoble, Boite Postale No. 87, 38402 Saint Martin d'Heres, CEDEX (France))

    1993-05-01

    We study Rydberg molecules taking into account the interaction between the rotational motion of the nuclei and the radial motion of the electron. This situation can be treated to a good approximation in quantum mechanics by the multichannel quantum-defect method which in turn has a well-defined classical limit. We are able to calculate very long sequences of levels and the corresponding amplitudes of wave packets. This allows us to study the statistical properties of both in detail. Our interest focuses on aspects of quantum chaos'' that can be particularly well understood in this case. Our main result is that, in a completely chaotic classical situation, where statistics of quantum-level spacings follow the expected universal Gaussian-orthogonal-ensemble behavior, and statistics of line intensities display the expected universal Porter-Thomas behavior, nonuniversal properties are explicitly contained in correlations between intensities and spacings, determined by the time needed for the classical system to mix on a length scale given by the quantum wavelength.

  10. Resource intensities of the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, E.; Phathanapirom, U.; Eggert, R.; Collins, J.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents resource intensities, including direct and embodied energy consumption, land and water use, associated with the processes comprising the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle. These processes include uranium extraction, conversion, enrichment, fuel fabrication and depleted uranium de-conversion. To the extent feasible, these impacts are calculated based on data reported by operating facilities, with preference given to more recent data based on current technologies and regulations. All impacts are normalized per GWh of electricity produced. Uranium extraction is seen to be the most resource intensive front end process. Combined, the energy consumed by all front end processes is equal to less than 1% of the electricity produced by the uranium in a nuclear reactor. Land transformation and water withdrawals are calculated at 8.07 m{sup 2} /GWh(e) and 1.37x10{sup 5} l/GWh(e), respectively. Both are dominated by the requirements of uranium extraction, which accounts for over 70% of land use and nearly 90% of water use.

  11. High-intensity, high-brightness polarized and unpolarized beam production in charge-exchange collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zelenski, A.; Ritter, J.; Zubets, V.; Steski, D.; Atoian, G.; Davydenko, V.; Ivanov, A.; Kolmogorov, A.

    2011-03-28

    Basic limitations on the high-intensity H{sup -} ion beam production were experimentally studied in charge-exchange collisions of the neutral atomic hydrogen beam in the Na-vapour jet ionizer cell. These studies are the part of the polarized source upgrade (to 10 mA peak current and 85% polarization) project for RHIC. In the source the atomic hydrogen beam of a 5-10 keV energy and total (equivalent) current up to 5 A is produced by neutralization of proton beam in pulsed hydrogen gas target. Formation of the proton beam (from the surface of the plasma emitter with a low transverse ion temperature {approx}0.2 eV) is produced by four-electrode spherical multi-aperture ion-optical system with geometrical focusing. The hydrogen atomic beam intensity up to 1.0 A/cm{sup 2} (equivalent) was obtained in the Na-jet ionizer aperture of a 2.0 cm diameter. At the first stage of the experiment H-beam with 36 mA current, 5 keV energy and {approx}1.0 cm {center_dot} mrad normalized emittance was obtained using the flat grids and magnetic focusing.

  12. The unsteady regime of intense short-pulse under-dens plasma interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yazdanpanah, Jam; Chakhmachi, Amir; Khalilzadeh, Elnaz

    2015-01-01

    We have performed a detailed study on the interaction of ultra-intense, short laser pulse with under-dens plasma. The underlying interaction physics is outlined and key topics like laser absorption and electron acceleration are addressed. This study is assisted by the extensive 1D3V particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations over a wide range of initial plasma densities, , ( is the critical density) and laser intensities, . It is noticed that the steady propagation of a short-pulse through a low density plasma is violated in proportion to the expression ( and are electron density laser gamma factor). Accordingly, when the plasma density rises toward the critical value, a new physical regime appears which has not been adequately explored, previously. Using general conservation laws it is demonstrated that due to the radiation pressure, strong wave-breaking (phase mixing) occurs in this regime. The electron acceleration is described in terms of the wave-breaking followed by the direct laser acceleration (DLA). A new ph...

  13. EVIDENCE OF FILAMENT UPFLOWS ORIGINATING FROM INTENSITY OSCILLATIONS ON THE SOLAR SURFACE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Wenda; Goode, Philip R.; Ning, Zongjun; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl; Ji Haisheng

    2010-08-10

    A filament footpoint rooted in an active region (NOAA 11032) was well observed for about 78 minutes with the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope at the Big Bear Solar Observatory on 2009 November 18 in H{alpha} {+-}0.75 A. This data set had high cadence ({approx}15 s) and high spatial resolution ({approx}0.''1) and offered a unique opportunity to study filament dynamics. As in previous findings from space observations, several dark intermittent upflows were identified, and they behave in groups at isolated locations along the filament. However, we have two new findings. First, we find that the dark upflows propagating along the filament channel are strongly associated with the intensity oscillations on the solar surface around the filament footpoints. The upflows start at the same time as the peak in the oscillations, illustrating that the upflow velocities are well correlated with the oscillations. Second, the intensity of one of the seven upflows detected in our data set exhibits a clear periodicity when the upflow propagates along the filament. The periods gradually vary from {approx}10 to {approx}5 minutes. Our results give observational clues on the driving mechanism of the upflows in the filament.

  14. Predicting the intensity mapping signal for multi-$J$ CO lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mashian, Natalie; Loeb, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel approach to estimating the intensity mapping signal of any CO rotational line emitted during the Epoch of Reionization (EoR). Our approach is based on large velocity gradient (LVG) modeling, a radiative transfer modeling technique that generates the full CO spectral line energy distribution (SLED) for a specified gas kinetic temperature, volume density, velocity gradient, molecular abundance, and column density. These parameters, which drive the physics of CO transitions and ultimately dictate the shape and amplitude of the CO SLED, can be linked to the global properties of the host galaxy, mainly the star formation rate (SFR) and the SFR surface density. By further employing an empirically derived SFR-M relation for high redshift galaxies, we can express the LVG parameters, and thus the specific intensity of any CO rotational transition, as functions of the host halo mass M and redshift z. Integrating over the range of halo masses expected to host CO-luminous galaxies, i.e. M >= 10^8 M{_\\o...

  15. The role of Nb in intensity increase of Er ion upconversion luminescence in zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smits, K. Sarakovskis, A.; Grigorjeva, L.; Millers, D.; Grabis, J.

    2014-06-07

    It is found that Nb co-doping increases the luminescence and upconversion luminescence intensity in rare earth doped zirconia. Er and Yb-doped nanocrystalline samples with or without Nb co-doping were prepared by sol-gel method and thermally annealed to check for the impact of phase transition on luminescence properties. Phase composition and grain sizes were examined by X-ray diffraction; the morphology was checked by scanning- and high-resolution transmission electron microscopes. Both steady-state and time-resolved luminescence were studied. Comparison of samples with different oxygen vacancy concentrations and different Nb concentrations confirmed the known assumption that oxygen vacancies are the main agents for tetragonal or cubic phase stabilization. The oxygen vacancies quench the upconversion luminescence; however, they also prevent agglomeration of rare-earth ions and/or displacement of rare-earth ions to grain surfaces. It is found that co-doping with Nb ions significantly (>20 times) increases upconversion luminescence intensity. Hence, ZrO{sub 2}:Er:Yb:Nb nanocrystals may show promise for upconversion applications.

  16. Intensity, duration, and frequency of precipitation extremes under 21st-century warming scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kao, Shih-Chieh [ORNL; Ganguly, Auroop R [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Recent research on the projection of precipitation extremes has either focused on conceptual physical mechanisms that generate heavy precipitation or rigorous statistical methods that extrapolate tail behavior. However, informing both climate prediction and impact assessment requires concurrent physically and statistically oriented analysis. A combined examination of climate model simulations and observation-based reanalysis data sets suggests more intense and frequent precipitation extremes under 21st-century warming scenarios. Utilization of statistical extreme value theory and resampling-based uncertainty quantification combined with consideration of the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship reveals consistently intensifying trends for precipitation extremes at a global-average scale. However, regional and decadal analyses reveal specific discrepancies in the physical mechanisms governing precipitation extremes, as well as their statistical trends, especially in the tropics. The intensifying trend of precipitation extremes has quantifiable impacts on intensity-duration-frequency curves, which in turn have direct implications for hydraulic engineering design and water-resources management. The larger uncertainties at regional and decadal scales suggest the need for caution during regional-scale adaptation or preparedness decisions. Future research needs to explore the possibility of uncertainty reduction through higher resolution global climate models, statistical or dynamical downscaling, as well as improved understanding of precipitation extremes processes.

  17. An ultra low noise AC beam transformer for deceleration and diagnostics of low intensity beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    González, C

    1999-01-01

    The design of a broad band ultra-low noise ferrite loaded AC beam transformer is presented. It is designed for use in the CERN Antiproton Decelerator (AD), where beams of a few 107 charges must be decelerated from 3.5 GeV/c to 100 MeV/c. It is used in the RF beam-phase loop, and for intensity and bunch shape measurements during deceleration. When the beam is debunched for cooling on magnetic flat tops, the pick-up is used for measurements of intensity and momentum distribution by means of longitudinal Schottky scans. When used as Schottky pick-up, the signal to noise ratio should be better by about 40 dB than the existing stripline based longitudinal Schottky pick-up. The integrated design of pick-up and associated low-noise amplifier is presented. The achieved noise performance of a few from 1 to 3 MHz is obtained by attaching a low-noise, high-impedance silicon JFET (junction field effect transistor) amplifier to a high-Q resonant ferrite loaded cavity, and then eliminating the resonant response by low-nois...

  18. Solar wind-magnetosphere coupling during intense magnetic storms (1978--1979)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez, W.D. ); Tsurutani, B.T.; Gonzalez, A.L.C.; Smith, E.J.; Tang, F.; Akasofu, S.

    1989-07-01

    The solar wind-magnetosphere coupling problem is investigated for the ten intense magnetic storms (Dst {lt}{minus}100 nT) that occurred during the 500 days (August 16, 1978 to December 28, 1979) studied by Gonzalez and Tsurutani (1987). This investigation concentrates on the ring current energization in terms of solar wind parameters, in order to explain the {vert bar} {minus}Dst {vert bar} growth observed during these storms. Thus several coupling functions are tested as energy input and several sets of the ring current decay time-constant {tau} are searched to find best correlations with the Dst response. From the fairly large correlation coefficients found in this study, there is strong evidence that large scale magnetopause reconnection operates during such intense storm events and that the solar wind ram pressure plays an important role in the ring current energization. Thus a ram pressure correction factor is suggested for expressions concerning the reconnection power during time intervals with large ram pressure variations.

  19. The effects of harvesting intensity on soil CO2 efflux and carbon content in an east Texas bottomland hardwood ecosystem 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Londo, Andrew James

    1995-01-01

    land. I examined the effects of harvest intensity on in situ and mineral soil respiration, along with total soil and soluble organic carbon, were examined in a bottomland hardwood forest. Treatments included a clearcut, a partial cut, and a non...

  20. PREDICTION OF MORTALITY IN AN INDIAN INTENSIVE CARE UNIT: COMPARISON BETWEEN APACHE II AND ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sudarshan, S.

    , Mumbai and ***Department of Medicine, K E M Hospital, Parel, Mumbai 400 012 ABSTRACT Background ­ Rule ­ Medical intensive care unit of King Edward Memorial (KEM) Hospital, Mumbai Subjects ­ 2962 consecutive

  1. Consumption-Based Adjustment of China's Emissions-Intensity Targets: An Analysis of its Potential Economic Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Springmann, M.

    China’s Twelfth Five-Year Plan (2011–2015) aims to achieve a national carbon intensity reduction of 17% through differentiated targets at the provincial level. Allocating the national target among China’s provinces is ...

  2. Extension of high-order harmonic generation cutoff via coherent control of intense few-cycle chirped laser pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carrera, Juan J.; Chu, Shih-I

    2007-03-16

    We present an ab initio quantum investigation of the high-order harmonic generation (HHG) cutoff extension using intense few-cycle chirped laser pulses. For a few-cycle chirped driving laser pulse, it is shown that significant ...

  3. Spatial and temporal variability of plankton stocks from acoustic backscatter intensity and direct measurements in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, Rebecca Lee

    2001-01-01

    and biological research show that acoustic backscatter intensity data recorded by ADCPs do represent a biological signal that serves as an approximation for zooplankton standing stocks in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Spectral analysis of acoustic data...

  4. Comparison Study of Energy Intensity in the Textile Industry: A Case Study in Five Textile Sub-sectors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, A.; Hasanabadi, A.; Abdorrazaghi, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper contributes to the understanding of energy use in the textile industry by comparing the energy intensity of textile plants in five major sub-sectors, i.e. spinning, weaving, wet-processing, worsted fabric manufacturing, and carpet...

  5. Effects of defoliation frequency and intensity on production of four burned and unburned bushed grassland communities in south central Kenya 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Too, Daniel Kipkoech

    1985-01-01

    ) and all communities by treatment and defoliation intensity and treatment within burned and unburned plots on the National Range Research Station, Kiboko, Kenya 32 5 Community X treatment interaction for total production (1982 + 1983) at the National... Station, Kiboko, Kenya 40 LID' OF FIGURES Continued Page 10 Phytomass (live + dead) across all communities by sea- son (1982), treatment and defoliation intensity within burned and unburned plots on the National Range Research Station, Kiboko, Kenya...

  6. 1. Wind-splash erosion 4. Relationships between rainfall intensity, wind-speed, wind direction and erosion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1. Wind-splash erosion 4. Relationships between rainfall intensity, wind-speed, wind direction and erosion 5. Longer term influence of wind-direction on landscape evolution 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1 of tubes at approximately two week intervals. Contour plots of rainfall intensity (mm/hr) against wind

  7. Method and apparatus for measuring the momentum, energy, power, and power density profile of intense particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gammel, George M. (Merrick, NY); Kugel, Henry W. (Somerset, NJ)

    1992-10-06

    A method and apparatus for determining the power, momentum, energy, and power density profile of high momentum mass flow. Small probe projectiles of appropriate size, shape and composition are propelled through an intense particle beam at equal intervals along an axis perpendicular to the beam direction. Probe projectiles are deflected by collisions with beam particles. The net beam-induced deflection of each projectile is measured after it passes through the intense particle beam into an array of suitable detectors.

  8. Deep-level emission in ZnO nanowires and bulk crystals: Excitation-intensity dependence versus crystalline quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hou, Dongchao; Voss, Tobias; Ronning, Carsten; Menzel, Andreas; Zacharias, Margit

    2014-06-21

    The excitation-intensity dependence of the excitonic near-band-edge emission (NBE) and deep-level related emission (DLE) bands in ZnO nanowires and bulk crystals is studied, which show distinctly different power laws. The behavior can be well explained with a rate-equation model taking into account deep donor and acceptor levels with certain capture cross sections for electrons from the conduction band and different radiative lifetimes. In addition, a further crucial ingredient of this model is the background n-type doping concentration inherent in almost all ZnO single crystals. The interplay of the deep defects and the background free-electron concentration in the conduction band at room temperature reproduces the experimental results well over a wide range of excitation intensities (almost five orders of magnitude). The results demonstrate that for many ZnO bulk samples and nanostructures, the relative intensity R?=?I{sub NBE}/I{sub DLE} can be adjusted over a wide range by varying the excitation intensity, thus, showing that R should not be taken as an indicator for the crystalline quality of ZnO samples unless absolute photoluminescence intensities under calibrated excitation conditions are compared. On the other hand, the results establish an all-optical technique to determine the relative doping levels in different ZnO samples by measuring the excitation-intensity dependence of the UV and visible luminescence bands.

  9. Physics of Neutralization of Intense High-Energy Ion Beam Pulses by Electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaganovich, I. D.; Davidson, R. C.; Dorf, M. A.; Startsev, E. A.; Sefkow, A. B.; Lee, E. P.; Friedman, A.

    2010-04-28

    Neutralization and focusing of intense charged particle beam pulses by electrons forms the basis for a wide range of applications to high energy accelerators and colliders, heavy ion fusion, and astrophysics. For example, for ballistic propagation of intense ion beam pulses, background plasma can be used to effectively neutralize the beam charge and current, so that the self-electric and self- magnetic fields do not affect the ballistic propagation of the beam. From the practical perspective of designing advanced plasma sources for beam neutralization, a robust theory should be able to predict the self-electric and self-magnetic fields during beam propagation through the background plasma. The major scaling relations for the self-electric and self-magnetic fields of intense ion charge bunches propagating through background plasma have been determined taking into account the effects of transients during beam entry into the plasma, the excitation of collective plasma waves, the effects of gas ionization, finite electron temperature, and applied solenoidal and dipole magnetic fields. Accounting for plasma production by gas ionization yields a larger self-magnetic field of the ion beam compared to the case without ionization, and a wake of current density and self-magnetic field perturbations is generated behind the beam pulse. A solenoidal magnetic field can be applied for controlling the beam propagation. Making use of theoretical models and advanced numerical simulations, it is shown that even a small applied magnetic field of about 100G can strongly affect the beam neutralization. It has also been demonstrated that in the presence of an applied magnetic field the ion beam pulse can excite large-amplitude whistler waves, thereby producing a complex structure of self-electric and self-magnetic fields. The presence of an applied solenoidal magnetic field may also cause a strong enhancement of the radial self-electric field of the beam pulse propagating through the background plasma. If controlled, this physical effect can be used for optimized beam transport over long distances.

  10. Physics of Neutralization of Intense Charged Particle Beam Pulses by a Background Plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaganovich, I.D.; Davidson, R.C.; Dorf, M.A.; Startsev, E.A.; Sefkow, A.B; Friedman, A.F.; Lee, E.P.

    2009-09-03

    Neutralization and focusing of intense charged particle beam pulses by a background plasma forms the basis for a wide range of applications to high energy accelerators and colliders, heavy ion fusion, and astrophysics. For example, for ballistic propagation of intense ion beam pulses, background plasma can be used to effectively neutralize the beam charge and current, so that the self-electric and self-magnetic fields do not affect the ballistic propagation of the beam. From the practical perspective of designing advanced plasma sources for beam neutralization, a robust theory should be able to predict the self-electric and self-magnetic fields during beam propagation through the background plasma. The major scaling relations for the self-electric and self-magnetic fields of intense ion charge bunches propagating through background plasma have been determined taking into account the effects of transients during beam entry into the plasma, the excitation of collective plasma waves, the effects of gas ionization, finite electron temperature, and applied solenoidal and dipole magnetic fields. Accounting for plasma production by gas ionization yields a larger self-magnetic field of the ion beam compared to the case without ionization, and a wake of current density and self-magnetic field perturbations is generated behind the beam pulse. A solenoidal magnetic field can be applied for controlling the beam propagation. Making use of theoretical models and advanced numerical simulations, it is shown that even a small applied magnetic field of about 100G can strongly affect the beam neutralization. It has also been demonstrated that in the presence of an applied magnetic field the ion beam pulse can excite large-amplitude whistler waves, thereby producing a complex structure of self-electric and self-magnetic fields. The presence of an applied solenoidal magnetic field may also cause a strong enhancement of the radial self-electric field of the beam pulse propagating through the background plasma. If controlled, this physical effect can be used for optimized beam transport over long distances.

  11. System and method that suppresses intensity fluctuations for free space high-speed optical communication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berman, Gennady P. (Los Alamos, NM); Bishop, Alan R. (Los Alamos, NM); Nguyen, Dinh C. (Los Alamos, NM); Chernobrod, Boris M. (Santa Fe, NM); Gorshkov, Vacheslav N. (Kiev, UA)

    2009-10-13

    A high-speed (Gbps), free space optical communication system is based on spectral encoding of radiation from a wide band light source, such as a laser. By using partially coherent laser beams in combination with a relatively slow photosensor, scintillations can be suppressed by orders of magnitude for distances of more than 10 km. To suppress the intensity fluctuations due to atmospheric turbulence, a source with partial transverse coherence in combination with slow response time photodetector is used. Information is encoded in the spectral domain of a wideband optical source by modulation of spectral amplitudes. A non-coherent light source with wide spectrum (an LED, for example) may be used for high-speed communication over short (less than about a mile) distances.

  12. Electrons trajectories around a bubble regime in intense laser plasma interaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Ding; Xie, Bai-Song; Ali Bake, Muhammad; Sang, Hai-Bo; Zhao, Xue-Yan; Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 ; Wu, Hai-Cheng

    2013-06-15

    Some typical electrons trajectories around a bubble regime in intense laser plasma interaction are investigated theoretically. By considering a modification of the fields and ellipsoid bubble shape due to the presence of residual electrons in the bubble regime, we study in detail the electrons nonlinear dynamics with or without laser pulse. To examine the electron dynamical behaviors, a set of typical electrons, which locate initially at the front of the bubble, on the transverse edge and at the bottom of the bubble respectively, are chosen for study. It is found that the range of trapped electrons in the case with laser pulse is a little narrower than that without laser pulse. The partial phase portraits for electrons around the bubble are presented numerically and their characteristic behaviors are discussed theoretically. Implication of our results on the high quality electron beam generation is also discussed briefly.

  13. Transport of Intensity Phase Retrieval of Arbitrary Wave Fields Including Vortices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Axel Lubk; Giulio Guzzinati; Felix Börrnert; Jo Verbeeck

    2014-12-05

    The phase problem can be considered as one of the cornerstones of quantum mechanics intimately connected to the detection process and the uncertainty relation. The latter impose fundamental limits on the manifold phase reconstruction schemes invented to date in particular at small magnitudes of the quantum wave. Here, we show that a rigorous solution of the Transport of Intensity Reconstruction (TIE) scheme in terms of a linear elliptic partial differential equation for the phase provides reconstructions even in the presence of wave zeros if particular boundary conditions (BCs) are given. We furthermore discuss how partial coherence hampers phase reconstruction and show that a modified version of the TIE reconstructs the curl-free current density at arbitrary (in-)coherence. This opens the way for a large variety of new applications in fields as diverse as astrophysics, geophysics, photonics, acoustics, and electron microscopy, where zeros in the respective wave field are a ubiquitous feature.

  14. Intense terahertz emission from molecular beam epitaxy-grown GaAs/GaSb(001)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sadia, Cyril P.; Laganapan, Aleena Maria; Agatha Tumanguil, Mae; Estacio, Elmer; Somintac, Armando; Salvador, Arnel; Que, Christopher T.; Yamamoto, Kohji; Tani, Masahiko

    2012-12-15

    Intense terahertz (THz) electromagnetic wave emission was observed in undoped GaAs thin films deposited on (100) n-GaSb substrates via molecular beam epitaxy. GaAs/n-GaSb heterostructures were found to be viable THz sources having signal amplitude 75% that of bulk p-InAs. The GaAs films were grown by interruption method during the growth initiation and using various metamorphic buffer layers. Reciprocal space maps revealed that the GaAs epilayers are tensile relaxed. Defects at the i-GaAs/n-GaSb interface were confirmed by scanning electron microscope images. Band calculations were performed to infer the depletion region and electric field at the i-GaAs/n-GaSb and the air-GaAs interfaces. However, the resulting band calculations were found to be insufficient to explain the THz emission. The enhanced THz emission is currently attributed to a piezoelectric field induced by incoherent strain and defects.

  15. Using XFELs for Probing of Complex Interaction Dynamics of Ultra-Intense Lasers with Solid Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kluge, Thomas; Huang, Lingen; Metzkes, Josefine; Schramm, Ulrich; Bussmann, Michael; Cowan, Thomas E

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the potential of X-ray free-electron lasers (XFEL) to advancethe understanding of complex plasma dynamics by allowing for the first time nanometer and femtosecond resolution at the same time in plasma diagnostics. Plasma phenomena on such short timescales are of high relevance for many fields of physics, in particular in the ultra-intense ultra-short laser interaction with matter. Highly relevant yet only partially understood phenomena may become directly accessible in experiment. These include relativistic laser absorption at solid targets, creation of energetic electrons and electron transport in warm dense matter, including the seeding and development of surface and beam instabilities, ambipolar expansion, shock formation, and dynamics at the surfaces or at buried layers. We demonstrate the potentials of XFEL plasma probing for high power laser matter interactions using exemplary the small angle X-ray scattering technique, focusing on general considerations for XFEL probing.

  16. MR-Guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound: Current Status of an Emerging Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Napoli, Alessandro, E-mail: napoli.alessandro@gmail.com; Anzidei, Michele, E-mail: michele.anzidei@gmail.com; Ciolina, Federica, E-mail: federica.ciolina@gmail.com; Marotta, Eugenio, E-mail: eugenio.marotta@gmail.com; Cavallo Marincola, Beatrice, E-mail: beatrice.cavalloamarincola@gmail.com; Brachetti, Giulia, E-mail: giuliabrachetti@gmail.com; Mare, Luisa Di, E-mail: luisadimare@gmail.com; Cartocci, Gaia, E-mail: gaia.cartocci@gmail.com; Boni, Fabrizio, E-mail: fabrizioboni00@gmail.com; Noce, Vincenzo, E-mail: vinc.noce@hotmail.it; Bertaccini, Luca, E-mail: lucaone84@libero.it; Catalano, Carlo, E-mail: carlo.catalano@uniroma1.it [Sapienza, University of Rome, Department of Radiological Sciences (Italy)] [Sapienza, University of Rome, Department of Radiological Sciences (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    The concept of ideal tumor surgery is to remove the neoplastic tissue without damaging adjacent normal structures. High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) was developed in the 1940s as a viable thermal tissue ablation approach. In clinical practice, HIFU has been applied to treat a variety of solid benign and malignant lesions, including pancreas, liver, prostate, and breast carcinomas, soft tissue sarcomas, and uterine fibroids. More recently, magnetic resonance guidance has been applied for treatment monitoring during focused ultrasound procedures (magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound, MRgFUS). Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging provides the best possible tumor extension and dynamic control of energy deposition using real-time magnetic resonance imaging thermometry. We introduce the fundamental principles and clinical indications of the MRgFUS technique; we also report different treatment options and personal outcomes.

  17. Theoretical and Computational Investigation of Periodically Focused Intense Charged-Particle Beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Chiping [Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-06-26

    The purpose of this report is to summarize results of theoretical and computational investigations of periodically focused intense charged-particle beams in parameter regimes relevant to the development of advanced high-brightness, high-power accelerators for high-energy physics research. The breakthroughs and highlights in our research in the period from April 1, 2010 to March 30, 2013 were: a) Theory and simulation of adiabatic thermal Child-Langmuir flow; b) Particle-in-cell simulations of adiabatic thermal beams in periodic solenoidal focusing field; c)Dynamics of charged particles in an adiabatic thermal beam equilibrium in a periodic solenoidal focusing field; d) Training of undergraduate researchers and graduate student in accelerator and beam physics. A brief introduction and summary is presented. Detailed descriptions of research results are provided in an appendix of publications at the end of the report.

  18. Devices for high precision x-ray beam intensity monitoring on BSRF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hua-Peng, LI; Zhao, Yi-Dong; Zheng, Lei; Liu, Shu-Hu; Zhao, Xiao-Liang; Zhao, Ya-Shuai

    2016-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation with the characteristic of high brilliance, high level of polarization, high collimation, low emittance and wide tunability in energy has been used as a standard source in metrology(1, 2). For a decade, lots of calibration work have been done on 4B7A in Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF) (3, 4). For the calibration process, a high-precision online monitor is indispensable. To control the uncertainty under 0.1%, we studied different sizes parallel ion chambers with rare-gas and used different collecting methods to monitor the x-ray intensity of the beamline. Two methods to collect the signal of the ion chambers: reading the current directly with electrometer or signal amplification to collect the counts were compared.

  19. Intense femtosecond photoexcitation of bulk and monolayer MoS{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paradisanos, I.; Fotakis, C.; Kymakis, E.; Kioseoglou, G.; Stratakis, E.

    2014-07-28

    The effect of femtosecond laser irradiation on bulk and single-layer MoS{sub 2} on silicon oxide is studied. Optical, field emission scanning electron microscopy and Raman microscopy were used to quantify the damage. The intensity of A{sub 1g} and E{sub 2g}{sup 1} vibrational modes was recorded as a function of the number of irradiation pulses. The observed behavior was attributed to laser-induced bond breaking and subsequent atoms removal due to electronic excitations. The single-pulse optical damage threshold was determined for the monolayer and bulk under 800?nm and 1030?nm pulsed laser irradiation, and the role of two-photon versus one photon absorption effects is discussed.

  20. Left-Right Symmetric Models at the High-Intensity Frontier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Castillo-Felisola, Oscar; Helo, Juan C; Kovalenko, Sergey G; Ortiz, Sebastian E

    2015-01-01

    We study constraints on Left-Right Symmetric models from searches of semileptonic decays of $D$, $D_{s}$, $B$ mesons, mediated by heavy neutrinos $N$ with masses $m_N\\sim $ GeV that go on their mass shell leading to a resonant enhancement of the rates. Using these processes we examine, as a function of $m_N$ and $M_{W_R}$, the physics reach of the recently proposed high-intensity beam dump experiment SHiP, which is expected to produce a large sample of $D_s$ mesons. We compare these results with the corresponding reach of neutrinoless double beta decay experiments, as well as like-sign dilepton searches with displaced vertices at the LHC. We conclude that the SHiP experiment has clear advantages in probing the Left-Right Symmetric models for heavy neutrinos in the GeV mass range.

  1. Dynamics of an electron in a relativistically intense laser field including radiaion reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galkin, A. L., E-mail: galkin@kapella.gpi.ru [Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Science (Russian Federation)

    2012-08-15

    The dynamics of an electron in a relativistically intense laser pulse field is described with the radiation reaction being taken into account. The study is based on solving the Newton equation with the Lorentz and the radiation reaction forces. Validation is provided for an iteration technique which makes it possible to remove the discrepancies found in the theoretical models of radiation reaction. It is demonstrated that an electron having a high initial velocity and colliding head-on with a laser pulse sheds a considerable part of its kinetic energy due to the radiation reaction. A broadening of the electromagnetic pulse emitted by the electron occurs as a result of the same effect. The findings obtained can be used to experimentally verify the effect of radiation reaction.

  2. Emittance growth of an nonequilibrium intense electron beam in a transport channel with discrete focusing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlsten, B.E.

    1997-02-01

    The author analyzes the emittance growth mechanisms for a continuous, intense electron beam in a focusing transport channel, over distances short enough that the beam does not reach equilibrium. The emittance grows from the effect of nonlinear forces arising from (1) current density nonuniformities, (2) energy variations leading to nonlinearities in the space-charge force even if the current density is uniform, (3) axial variations in the radial vector potential, (4) an axial velocity shear along the beam, and (5) an energy redistribution of the beam as the beam compresses or expands. The emittance growth is studied analytically and numerically for the cases of balanced flow, tight focusing, and slight beam scalloping, and is additionally studied numerically for an existing 6-MeV induction linear accelerator. Rules for minimizing the emittance along a beamline are established. Some emittance growth will always occur, both from current density nonuniformities that arise along the transport and from beam radius changes along the transport.

  3. PanDA Beyond ATLAS: Workload Management for Data Intensive Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schovancova, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Klimentov, A; Maeno, T; Nilsson, P; Oleynik, D; Panitkin, S; Petrosyan, A; Vaniachine, A; Wenaus, T; Yu, D

    2013-01-01

    The PanDA Production ANd Distributed Analysis system has been developed by ATLAS to meet the experiment's requirements for a data-driven workload management system for production and distributed analysis processing capable of operating at LHC data processing scale. After 7 years of impressively successful PanDA operation in ATLAS there are also other experiments which can benefit from PanDA in the Big Data challenge, with several at various stages of evaluation and adoption. The new project "Next Generation Workload Management and Analysis System for Big Data" is extending PanDA to meet the needs of other data intensive scientific applications in HEP, astro-particle and astrophysics communities, bio-informatics and other fields as a general solution to large scale workload management. PanDA can utilize dedicated or opportunistic computing resources such as grids, clouds, and High Performance Computing facilities, and is being extended to leverage next generation intelligent networks in automated workflow mana...

  4. Disassembly time of deuterium-cluster-fusion plasma irradiated by an intense laser pulse

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bang, W.

    2015-07-02

    Energetic deuterium ions from large deuterium clusters (>10 nm diameter) irradiated by an intense laser pulse (>10ą? W/cm˛) produce DD fusion neutrons for a time interval determined by the geometry of the resulting fusion plasma. We show an analytical solution of this time interval, the plasma disassembly time, for deuterium plasmas that are cylindrical in shape. Assuming a symmetrically expanding deuterium plasma, we calculate the expected fusion neutron yield and compare with an independent calculation of the yield using the concept of a finite confinement time at a fixed plasma density. The calculated neutron yields agree quantitatively with the availablemore »experimental data. Our one-dimensional simulations indicate that one could expect a tenfold increase in total neutron yield by magnetically confining a 10 - keV deuterium fusion plasma for 10 ns.« less

  5. Strongly Intensive Measures for Particle Number Fluctuations: Effects of Hadronic Resonances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viktor V. Begun; Mark I. Gorenstein; Katarzyna Grebieszkow

    2015-05-15

    Strongly intensive measures $\\Delta$ and $\\Sigma$ are used to study event-by-event fluctuations of hadron multiplicities in nucleus-nucleus collisions. The effects of resonance decays are investigated within statistical model and relativistic transport model. Two specific examples are considered: resonance decays to two positively charged particles (e.g., $\\Delta^{++}\\rightarrow p+ \\pi^+$) and to $\\pi^+\\pi^-$-pairs. (e.g., $\\rho^0\\rightarrow \\pi^-+\\pi^+$). It is shown that resonance abundances at the chemical freeze-out can be estimated by measuring the fluctuations of the number of stable hadrons. These model results are compared to the full hadron-resonance gas analysis within both the grand canonical and canonical ensemble. The ultra-relativistic quantum molecular dynamics (UrQMD) model of nucleus-nucleus collisions is used to illustrate the role of global charge conservation, centrality selection, and limited experimental acceptance.

  6. Feasibility of an online adaptive replanning method for cranial frameless intensity-modulated radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calvo, Juan Francisco, E-mail: jfcdrr@gmail.com [Departamento de Oncología Radioterápica, Hospital Quirón, Barcelona (Spain); San José, Sol [Departamento de Oncología Radioterápica, Hospital Quirón, Barcelona (Spain); Garrido, LLuís [Institut de Cičncies del Cosmos i Departament ECM, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Puertas, Enrique; Moragues, Sandra; Pozo, Miquel [Departamento de Oncología Radioterápica, Hospital Quirón, Barcelona (Spain); Casals, Joan, E-mail: jfcdrr@yahoo.es [Departamento de Oncología Radioterápica, Hospital Quirón, Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-10-01

    To introduce an approach for online adaptive replanning (i.e., dose-guided radiosurgery) in frameless stereotactic radiosurgery, when a 6-dimensional (6D) robotic couch is not available in the linear accelerator (linac). Cranial radiosurgical treatments are planned in our department using intensity-modulated technique. Patients are immobilized using thermoplastic mask. A cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan is acquired after the initial laser-based patient setup (CBCT{sub setup}). The online adaptive replanning procedure we propose consists of a 6D registration-based mapping of the reference plan onto actual CBCT{sub setup}, followed by a reoptimization of the beam fluences (“6D plan”) to achieve similar dosage as originally was intended, while the patient is lying in the linac couch and the original beam arrangement is kept. The goodness of the online adaptive method proposed was retrospectively analyzed for 16 patients with 35 targets treated with CBCT-based frameless intensity modulated technique. Simulation of reference plan onto actual CBCT{sub setup}, according to the 4 degrees of freedom, supported by linac couch was also generated for each case (4D plan). Target coverage (D99%) and conformity index values of 6D and 4D plans were compared with the corresponding values of the reference plans. Although the 4D-based approach does not always assure the target coverage (D99% between 72% and 103%), the proposed online adaptive method gave a perfect coverage in all cases analyzed as well as a similar conformity index value as was planned. Dose-guided radiosurgery approach is effective to assure the dose coverage and conformity of an intracranial target volume, avoiding resetting the patient inside the mask in a “trial and error” way so as to remove the pitch and roll errors when a robotic table is not available.

  7. Simulations and experiments of intense ion beam compression in space and time.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, S. S. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA); Seidl, P. A. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA); Roy, P. K. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA); Lidia, S. M. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA); Coleman, J. E. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA); Kaganovich, I. D. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Gilson, E. P. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Welch, Dale Robert; Sefkow, Adam B.; Davidson, R. C. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ)

    2008-12-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory has achieved 60-fold longitudinal pulse compression of ion beams on the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) [P. K. Roy et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 234801 (2005)]. To focus a space-charge-dominated charge bunch to sufficiently high intensities for ion-beam-heated warm dense matter and inertial fusion energy studies, simultaneous transverse and longitudinal compression to a coincident focal plane is required. Optimizing the compression under the appropriate constraints can deliver higher intensity per unit length of accelerator to the target, thereby facilitating the creation of more compact and cost-effective ion beam drivers. The experiments utilized a drift region filled with high-density plasma in order to neutralize the space charge and current of an {approx}300 keV K{sup +} beam and have separately achieved transverse and longitudinal focusing to a radius <2 mm and pulse duration <5 ns, respectively. Simulation predictions and recent experiments demonstrate that a strong solenoid (B{sub Z} < 100 kG) placed near the end of the drift region can transversely focus the beam to the longitudinal focal plane. This paper reports on simulation predictions and experimental progress toward realizing simultaneous transverse and longitudinal charge bunch focusing. The proposed NDCX-II facility would capitalize on the insights gained from NDCX simulations and measurements in order to provide a higher-energy (>2 MeV) ion beam user-facility for warm dense matter and inertial fusion energy-relevant target physics experiments.

  8. Electromagnetic Weibel Instability in Intense Charged Particle Beams with Large Energy Anisotropy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward A. Startsev; Ronald C. Davidson

    2003-10-20

    In plasmas with strongly anisotropic distribution functions, collective instabilities may develop if there is sufficient coupling between the transverse and longitudinal degrees of freedom. Our previous numerical and theoretical studies of intense charged particle beams with large temperature anisotropy [E. A. Startsev, R. C. Davidson and H. Qin, PRSTAB, 6, 084401 (2003); Phys. Plasmas 9, 3138 (2002)] demonstrated that a fast, electrostatic, Harris-like instability develops, and saturates nonlinearly, for sufficiently large temperature anisotropy (T{sub {perpendicular}b}/T{sub {parallel}b} >> 1). The total distribution function after saturation, however, is still far from equipartitioned. In this paper the linearized Vlasov-Maxwell equations are used to investigate detailed properties of the transverse electromagnetic Weibel-type instability for a long charge bunch propagating through a cylindrical pipe of radius r{sub w}. The kinetic stability analysis is carried out for azimuthally symmetric perturbations about a two-temperature thermal equilibrium distribution in the smooth-focusing approximation. The most unstable modes are identified, and their eigenfrequencies, radial mode structure and instability thresholds are determined. The stability analysis shows that, although there is free energy available to drive the electromagnetic Weibel instability, the finite transverse geometry of the charged particle beam introduces a large threshold value for the temperature anisotropy ((T{sub {perpendicular}b}/T{sub {parallel}b}){sup Weibel} >> (T{sub {perpendicular}b}/T{sub {parallel}b}){sup Harris}) below which the instability is absent. Hence, unlike the case of an electrically neutral plasma, the Weibel instability is not expected to play as significant a role in the process of energy isotropization of intense unneutralized charged particle beams as the electrostatic Harris-type instability.

  9. Intensity-Value Corrections for Integrating Sphere Measurements of Solid Samples Measured behind Glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Timothy J.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Redding, Rebecca L.; Su, Yin-Fong; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Myers, Tanya L.; Stephan, Eric G.

    2014-11-01

    Accurate and calibrated directional-hemispherical reflectance spectra of solids are important for both in situ and remote sensing. Many solids are in the form of powders or granules and in order to measure their diffuse reflectance spectra in the laboratory, it is often necessary to place the samples behind a transparent medium such as glass for the UV, visible or near-infrared spectral regions. Using both experimental and theoretical methods we have found that the glass (fused quartz in our case) leads to artifacts in the reflectance values. We report for the first time that the measured reflectance intensity values, for both hemispherical and diffuse reflectance, are distorted by the additional reflectances arising at the air-quartz and sample-quartz interfaces. The values are dependent on the sample reflectance and are vertically shifted with intensity offsets in the hemispherical case leading to measured values up to ?6% too high for a 2% reflectance surface, ?3.8% too high for 10% reflecting materials, approximately correct for 40%- to 60%-diffuse reflecting surfaces, and ?1.5% too low for 99% reflecting Spectralon surfaces. For the case of diffuse-only reflectance, the measured values are uniformly too low due to the polished glass, with differences of nearly 6% for 99%-reflecting matte surfaces. The deviations arise from the added reflections from the quartz surfaces as verified by both theory and experiment, and have some dependence on sphere design. Empirical correction factors were implemented into post-processing software to redress the artifact for hemispherical and diffuse reflectance data across the 300 to 2300 nm range.

  10. Effects of q-profile structure on turbulence spreading: A fluctuation intensity transport analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yi, S.; Kwon, J. M.; Diamond, P. H.; Hahm, T. S.

    2014-09-15

    This paper studies effects of q-profile structure on turbulence spreading. It reports results of numerical experiments using global gyrokinetic simulations. We examine propagation of turbulence, triggered by an identical linear instability in a source region, into an adjacent, linearly stable region with variable q-profile. The numerical experiments are designed so as to separate the physics of turbulence spreading from that of linear stability. The strength of turbulence spreading is measured by the penetration depth of turbulence. Dynamics of spreading are elucidated by fluctuation intensity balance analysis, using a model intensity evolution equation which retains nonlinear diffusion and damping, and linear growth. It is found that turbulence spreading is strongly affected by magnetic shear s, but is hardly altered by the safety factor q itself. There is an optimal range of modest magnetic shear which maximizes turbulence spreading. For high to modest shear values, the spreading is enhanced by the increase of the mode correlation length with decreasing magnetic shear. However, the efficiency of spreading drops for sufficiently low magnetic shear even though the mode correlation length is comparable to that for the case of optimal magnetic shear. The reduction of spreading is attributed to the increase in time required for the requisite nonlinear mode-mode interactions. The effect of increased interaction time dominates that of increased mode correlation length. Our findings of the reduction of spreading and the increase in interaction time at weak magnetic shear are consistent with the well-known benefit of weak or reversed magnetic shear for core confinement enhancement. Weak shear is shown to promote locality, as well as stability.

  11. Total Absorption Gamma-ray Spectrometer (TAGS) Intensity Distributions from INL's Gamma-Ray Spectrometry Center

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Greenwood, R. E.

    A 252Cf fission-product source and the INL on-line isotope separator were used to supply isotope-separated fission-product nuclides to a total absorption -ray spectrometer. This spectrometer consisted of a large (25.4-cm diameter x 30.5-cm long) NaI(Tl) detector with a 20.3-cm deep axial well in which is placed a 300-mm2 x 1.0-mm Si detector. The spectra from the NaI(Tl) detector are collected both in the singles mode and in coincidence with the B-events detected in the Si detector. Ideally, this detector would sum all the energy of the B- rays in each cascade following the population of daughter level by B- decay, so that the event could be directly associated with a particular daughter level. However, there are losses of energy from attenuation of the rays before they reach the detector, transmission of rays through the detector, escape of secondary photons from Compton scattering, escape of rays through the detector well, internal conversion, etc., and the measured spectra are thus more complicated than the ideal case and the analysis is more complex. Analysis methods have been developed to simulate all of these processes and thus provide a direct measure of the B- intensity distribution as a function of the excitation energy in the daughter nucleus. These data yield more accurate information on the B- distribution than conventional decay-scheme studies for complex decay schemes with large decay energies, because in the latter there are generally many unobserved and observed but unplaced rays. The TAGS data have been analyzed and published [R. E. Greenwood et al., Nucl Instr. and metho. A390(1997)] for 40 fission product-nuclides to determine the B- intensity distributions. [Copied from the TAGS page at http://www.inl.gov/gammaray/spectrometry/tags.shtml]. Those values are listed on this page for quick reference.

  12. Modeling and Validation of Performance Limitations for the Optimal Design of Interferometric and Intensity-Modulated Fiber Optic Displacement Sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moro, Erik A.

    2012-06-07

    Optical fiber sensors offer advantages over traditional electromechanical sensors, making them particularly well-suited for certain measurement applications. Generally speaking, optical fiber sensors respond to a desired measurand through modulation of an optical signal's intensity, phase, or wavelength. Practically, non-contacting fiber optic displacement sensors are limited to intensity-modulated and interferometric (or phase-modulated) methodologies. Intensity-modulated fiber optic displacement sensors relate target displacement to a power measurement. The simplest intensity-modulated sensor architectures are not robust to environmental and hardware fluctuations, since such variability may cause changes in the measured power level that falsely indicate target displacement. Differential intensity-modulated sensors have been implemented, offering robustness to such intensity fluctuations, and the speed of these sensors is limited only by the combined speed of the photodetection hardware and the data acquisition system (kHz-MHz). The primary disadvantages of intensity-modulated sensing are the relatively low accuracy (?m-mm for low-power sensors) and the lack of robustness, which consequently must be designed, often with great difficulty, into the sensor's architecture. White light interferometric displacement sensors, on the other hand, offer increased accuracy and robustness. Unlike their monochromatic-interferometer counterparts, white light interferometric sensors offer absolute, unambiguous displacement measurements over large displacement ranges (cm for low-power, 5 mW, sources), necessitating no initial calibration, and requiring no environmental or feedback control. The primary disadvantage of white light interferometric displacement sensors is that their utility in dynamic testing scenarios is limited, both by hardware bandwidth and by their inherent high-sensitivity to Doppler-effects. The decision of whether to use either an intensity-modulated interferometric sensor depends on an appropriate performance function (e.g., desired displacement range, accuracy, robustness, etc.). In this dissertation, the performance limitations of a bundled differential intensity-modulated displacement sensor are analyzed, where the bundling configuration has been designed to optimize performance. The performance limitations of a white light Fabry-Perot displacement sensor are also analyzed. Both these sensors are non-contacting, but they have access to different regions of the performance-space. Further, both these sensors have different degrees of sensitivity to experimental uncertainty. Made in conjunction with careful analysis, the decision of which sensor to deploy need not be an uninformed one.

  13. Optical Multi-Channel Intensity Interferometry - or: How To Resolve O-Stars in the Magellanic Clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trippe, Sascha; Lee, Bangwon; Choi, Changsu; Oh, Junghwan; Lee, Taeseok; Yoon, Sung-Chul; Im, Myungshin; Park, Yong-Sun

    2014-01-01

    Intensity interferometry, based on the Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect, is a simple and inexpensive method for optical interferometry at microarcsecond angular resolutions; its use in astronomy was abandoned in the 1970s because of low sensitivity. Motivated by recent technical developments, we argue that the sensitivity of large modern intensity interferometers can be improved by factors up to approximately 25,000, corresponding to 11 photometric magnitudes, compared to the pioneering Narrabri Stellar Interferometer. This is made possible by (i) using avalanche photodiodes (APD) as light detectors, (ii) distributing the light received from the source over multiple independent spectral channels, and (iii) use of arrays composed of multiple large light collectors. Our approach permits the construction of large (with baselines ranging from few kilometers to intercontinental distances) optical interferometers at the cost of (very) long-baseline radio interferometers. Realistic intensity interferometer designs are abl...

  14. Intensity-Modulated Whole Abdominal Radiotherapy After Surgery and Carboplatin/Taxane Chemotherapy for Advanced Ovarian Cancer: Phase I Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rochet, Nathalie; Sterzing, Florian; Jensen, Alexandra D.; Dinkel, Julien; Herfarth, Klaus K.; Schubert, Kai; Eichbaum, Michael H.; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Debus, Juergen; Harms, Wolfgang

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility and toxicity of consolidative intensity-modulated whole abdominal radiotherapy (WAR) after surgery and chemotherapy in high-risk patients with advanced ovarian cancer. Methods and Materials: Ten patients with optimally debulked ovarian cancer International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Stage IIIc were treated in a Phase I study with intensity-modulated WAR up to a total dose of 30 Gy in 1.5-Gy fractions as consolidation therapy after adjuvant carboplatin/taxane chemotherapy. Treatment was delivered using intensity-modulated radiotherapy in a step-and-shoot technique (n = 3) or a helical tomotherapy technique (n = 7). The planning target volume included the entire peritoneal cavity and the pelvic and para-aortal node regions. Organs at risk were kidneys, liver, heart, vertebral bodies, and pelvic bones. Results: Intensity-modulated WAR resulted in an excellent coverage of the planning target volume and an effective sparing of the organs at risk. The treatment was well tolerated, and no severe Grade 4 acute side effects occurred. Common Toxicity Criteria Grade III toxicities were as follows: diarrhea (n = 1), thrombocytopenia (n = 1), and leukopenia (n = 3). Radiotherapy could be completed by all the patients without any toxicity-related interruption. Median follow-up was 23 months, and 4 patients had tumor recurrence (intraperitoneal progression, n = 3; hepatic metastasis, n = 1). Small bowel obstruction caused by adhesions occurred in 3 patients. Conclusions: The results of this Phase I study showed for the first time, to our knowledge, the clinical feasibility of intensity-modulated whole abdominal radiotherapy, which could offer a new therapeutic option for consolidation treatment of advanced ovarian carcinoma after adjuvant chemotherapy in selected subgroups of patients. We initiated a Phase II study to further evaluate the toxicity of this intensive multimodal treatment.

  15. Transport of thermal neutrons in different forms of liquid hydrogen and the production of intense beams of cold neutrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swaminathan, K.; Tewari, S.P.

    1982-10-01

    From their studies the authors find that the thermal neutron inelastic scattering kernel incorporating the chemical binding energy in liquid hydrogen is able to successfully explain various neutron transport studies such as pulsed neutron and steady-state neutron spectra. For an infinite-sized assembly, D/sub 2/ at 4 K yields a very intense flux of cold and ultracold neutrons. For the practicable finite assembly corresponding to B/sup 2/ = 0.0158 cm/sup -2/, it is found that liquid hydrogen at 11 K gives the most intense beam of cold neutrons.

  16. On the intensity contrast of solar photospheric faculae and network elements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Ortiz; S. K. Solanki; V. Domingo; M. Fligge; B. Sanahuja

    2002-06-29

    Sunspots, faculae and the magnetic network contribute to solar irradiance variations. The contribution due to faculae and the network is of basic importance, but suffers from considerable uncertainty. We determine the contrasts of active region faculae and the network, both as a function of heliocentric angle and magnetogram signal. To achieve this, we analyze near-simultaneous full disk images of photospheric continuum intensity and line-of-sight magnetic field provided by the Michelson Doppler Interferometer (MDI) on board the SOHO spacecraft. Starting from the surface distribution of the solar magnetic field we first construct a mask, which is then used to determine the brightness of magnetic features, and the relatively field-free part of the photosphere separately. By sorting the magnetogram signal into different bins we are able to distinguish between the contrasts of different concentrations of magnetic field. We find that the contrasts of active region faculae (large magnetogram signal) and the network (small signal) exhibit a very different CLV, showing that the populations of magnetic flux tubes are different. This implies that these elements need to be treated separately when reconstructing variations of the total solar irradiance with high precision. We have obtained an analytical expression for the contrast of photospheric magnetic features as a function of both position on the disk and magnetic field strength, by performing a 2-dimensional fit to the observations.

  17. Marginal Misses After Postoperative Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Allen M.; Farwell, D. Gregory; Luu, Quang; Chen, Leon M.; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan; Purdy, James A.

    2011-08-01

    Purpose: To describe the spatial distribution of local-regional recurrence (LRR) among patients treated postoperatively with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for head and neck cancer. Methods and Materials: The medical records of 90 consecutive patients treated by gross total resection and postoperative IMRT for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck from January 2003 to July 2009 were reviewed. Sites of disease were the oral cavity (43 patients), oropharynx (20 patients), larynx (15 patients), and hypopharynx (12 patients). Fifty patients (56%) received concurrent chemotherapy. Results: Seventeen of 90 patients treated with postoperative IMRT experienced LRR, yielding a 2-year estimate of local regional control of 80%. Among the LRR patients, 11 patients were classified as in-field recurrences, occurring within the physician-designated clinical target volume, and 6 patients were categorized as marginal recurrences. There were no out-of-field geographical misses. Sites of marginal LRRs included the contralateral neck adjacent to the spared parotid gland (3 patients), the dermal/subcutaneous surface (2 patients), and the retropharyngeal/retrostyloid lymph node region (1 patient). Conclusions: Although the incidence of geographical misses was relatively low, the possibility of this phenomenon should be considered in the design of target volumes among patients treated by postoperative IMRT for head and neck cancer.

  18. Apparatus for nuclear transmutation and power production using an intense accelerator-generated thermal neutron flux

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowman, C.D.

    1992-11-03

    Apparatus for nuclear transmutation and power production using an intense accelerator-generated thermal neutron flux. High thermal neutron fluxes generated from the action of a high power proton accelerator on a spallation target allows the efficient burn-up of higher actinide nuclear waste by a two-step process. Additionally, rapid burn-up of fission product waste for nuclides having small thermal neutron cross sections, and the practicality of small material inventories while achieving significant throughput derive from employment of such high fluxes. Several nuclear technology problems are addressed including 1. nuclear energy production without a waste stream requiring storage on a geological timescale, 2. the burn-up of defense and commercial nuclear waste, and 3. the production of defense nuclear material. The apparatus includes an accelerator, a target for neutron production surrounded by a blanket region for transmutation, a turbine for electric power production, and a chemical processing facility. In all applications, the accelerator power may be generated internally from fission and the waste produced thereby is transmuted internally so that waste management might not be required beyond the human lifespan.

  19. Lambda Station: On-demand flow based routing for data intensive Grid applications over multitopology networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bobyshev, A.; Crawford, M.; DeMar, P.; Grigaliunas, V.; Grigoriev, M.; Moibenko, A.; Petravick, D.; Rechenmacher, R.; Newman, H.; Bunn, J.; Van Lingen, F.; Nae, D.; Ravot, S.; Steenberg, C.; Su, X.; Thomas, M.; Xia, Y.; /Caltech

    2006-08-01

    Lambda Station is an ongoing project of Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and the California Institute of Technology. The goal of this project is to design, develop and deploy network services for path selection, admission control and flow based forwarding of traffic among data-intensive Grid applications such as are used in High Energy Physics and other communities. Lambda Station deals with the last-mile problem in local area networks, connecting production clusters through a rich array of wide area networks. Selective forwarding of traffic is controlled dynamically at the demand of applications. This paper introduces the motivation of this project, design principles and current status. Integration of Lambda Station client API with the essential Grid middleware such as the dCache/SRM Storage Resource Manager is also described. Finally, the results of applying Lambda Station services to development and production clusters at Fermilab and Caltech over advanced networks such as DOE's UltraScience Net and NSF's UltraLight is covered.

  20. A Dosimetric Comparison of Proton and Intensity-Modulated Photon Radiotherapy for Pediatric Parameningeal Rhabdomyosarcomas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozak, Kevin R.; Adams, Judith; Krejcarek, Stephanie J.; Tarbell, Nancy J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Yock, Torunn I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)], E-mail: tyock@partners.org

    2009-05-01

    Purpose: We compared tumor and normal tissue dosimetry of proton radiation therapy with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for pediatric parameningeal rhabdomyosarcomas (PRMS). Methods and Materials: To quantify dosimetric differences between contemporary proton and photon treatment for pediatric PRMS, proton beam plans were compared with IMRT plans. Ten patients treated with proton radiation therapy at Massachusetts General Hospital had IMRT plans generated. To facilitate dosimetric comparisons, clinical target volumes and normal tissue volumes were held constant. Plans were optimized for target volume coverage and normal tissue sparing. Results: Proton and IMRT plans provided acceptable and comparable target volume coverage, with at least 99% of the CTV receiving 95% of the prescribed dose in all cases. Improved dose conformality provided by proton therapy resulted in significant sparing of all examined normal tissues except for ipsilateral cochlea and mastoid; ipsilateral parotid gland sparing was of borderline statistical significance (p = 0.05). More profound sparing of contralateral structures by protons resulted in greater dose asymmetry between ipsilateral and contralateral retina, optic nerves, cochlea, and mastoids; dose asymmetry between ipsilateral and contralateral parotids was of borderline statistical significance (p = 0.05). Conclusions: For pediatric PRMS, superior normal tissue sparing is achieved with proton radiation therapy compared with IMRT. Because of enhanced conformality, proton plans also demonstrate greater normal tissue dose distribution asymmetry. Longitudinal studies assessing the impact of proton radiotherapy and IMRT on normal tissue function and growth symmetry are necessary to define the clinical consequences of these differences.

  1. Design of a High Intensity Neutron Source for Neutron-Induced Fission Yield Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Lantz; D. Gorelov; A. Jokinen; V. S. Kolhinen; A. Mattera; H. Penttilä; S. Pomp; V. Rakopoulos; S. Rinta-Antila; A. Solders

    2013-04-09

    The upgraded IGISOL facility with JYFLTRAP, at the accelerator laboratory of the University of Jyv\\"askyl\\"a, has been supplied with a new cyclotron which will provide protons of the order of 100 {\\mu}A with up to 30 MeV energy, or deuterons with half the energy and intensity. This makes it an ideal place for measurements of neutron-induced fission products from various actinides, in view of proposed future nuclear fuel cycles. The groups at Uppsala University and University of Jyv\\"askyl\\"a are working on the design of a neutron converter that will be used as neutron source in fission yield studies. The design is based on simulations with Monte Carlo codes and a benchmark measurement that was recently performed at The Svedberg Laboratory in Uppsala. In order to obtain a competitive count rate the fission targets will be placed very close to the neutron converter. The goal is to have a flexible design that will enable the use of neutron fields with different energy distributions. In the present paper, some considerations for the design of the neutron converter will be discussed, together with different scenarios for which fission targets and neutron energies to focus on.

  2. Photosensitive response of azobenzene containing films towards pure intensity or polarization interference patterns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yadavalli, Nataraja Sekhar; Santer, Svetlana; Saphiannikova, Marina

    2014-08-04

    In this paper, we report on differences in the response of photosensitive azobenzene containing films upon irradiation with the intensity or polarization interference patterns. Two materials are studied differing in the molecular weight: an azobenzene-containing polymer and a molecular glass formed from a much smaller molecule consisting of three connected azobenzene units. Topography changes occurring along with the changes in irradiation conditions are recorded using a homemade set-up combining an optical part for generation and shaping of interference patterns and an atomic force microscope for acquiring the kinetics of film deformation. In this way, we could reveal the unique behavior of photosensitive materials during the first few minutes of irradiation: the change in topography is initially driven by an increase in the azobenzene free volume along with the trans-cis isomerization, followed by the mass transport finally resulting in the surface relief grating. This study demonstrates the great potential of our setup to experimentally highlight puzzling processes governing the formation of surface relief gratings.

  3. Correlated-intensity velocimeter for arbitrary reflector for laser-produced plasma experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Zhehui; Luo Shengnian; Barnes, Cris W.; Briggs, Matthew E.; Paisley, Dennis L.; Paul, Stephen F.

    2006-10-15

    A laser-based technique, called correlated-intensity velocimeter for arbitrary reflector (CIVAR), is described for velocity measurement of reflecting surfaces in real time. Velocity versus time is an important measurement in laser-produced high-energy density plasma experiments because the motion of the surface depends on both the equation of the state of the surface material and laser-produced plasma. The physics and working principle of CIVAR are the same as those of a previous concept that resolves Doppler shift of plasma light emission using a pair of narrow passband interference filters. One unique feature of CIVAR is that a reflected laser beam is used instead of plasma emission. Therefore, CIVAR is applicable to both emitting and nonemitting reflecting surfaces. Other advantages of CIVAR include its simplicity, lower cost, and unambiguous data analysis that can be fully automated. The design of a single-point CIVAR is described in detail with emphasis on laser wavelength selection and signal-to-noise ratio. The single-point CIVAR system can be expanded into a multiple-point system straightforwardly. It is possible to use CIVAR concept to construct a two-dimensional imaging system for a nonuniform velocity field of a large reflecting surface; such a velocity imaging system may have applications beyond laser-produced plasma experiments, for example, in shock compression of condensed matter.

  4. Rate equations for nitrogen molecules in ultrashort and intense x-ray pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Ji-Cai; Cederbaum, Lorenz S; Cryan, James P; Glownia, James M; Schafer, Kenneth J; Buth, Christian

    2015-01-01

    We study theoretically the molecular dynamics of nitrogen molecules (N$_2$) exposed to x rays at a wavelength of 1.1 nm (1100 eV photon energy) from the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) free electron laser. Molecular rate equations are derived to describe the intertwined photoionization, decay, and dissociation processes occurring for N2 in intense and ultrafast x rays from LCLS. This model complements our earlier phenomenological approaches, the single-atom, symmetric-sharing, and fragmentation-matrix models of J. Chem. Phys. $\\mathbf{136}$, 214310 (2012). Our rate-equations are used to obtain the effective pulse energy at the sample and the time scale for the dissociation of the metastable dication N$_2^{2+}$. This leads to a very good agreement between the theoretically and experimentally obtained ion yields and, consequently, the average charge states. The effective pulse energy is found to decrease with shortening pulse duration. This variation in the effective pulse energy together with a change in th...

  5. Improved Planning Time and Plan Quality Through Multicriteria Optimization for Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craft, David L.; Hong, Theodore S.; Shih, Helen A.; Bortfeld, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To test whether multicriteria optimization (MCO) can reduce treatment planning time and improve plan quality in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: Ten IMRT patients (5 with glioblastoma and 5 with locally advanced pancreatic cancers) were logged during the standard treatment planning procedure currently in use at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH). Planning durations and other relevant planning information were recorded. In parallel, the patients were planned using an MCO planning system, and similar planning time data were collected. The patients were treated with the standard plan, but each MCO plan was also approved by the physicians. Plans were then blindly reviewed 3 weeks after planning by the treating physician. Results: In all cases, the treatment planning time was vastly shorter for the MCO planning (average MCO treatment planning time was 12 min; average standard planning time was 135 min). The physician involvement time in the planning process increased from an average of 4.8 min for the standard process to 8.6 min for the MCO process. In all cases, the MCO plan was blindly identified as the superior plan. Conclusions: This provides the first concrete evidence that MCO-based planning is superior in terms of both planning efficiency and dose distribution quality compared with the current trial and error-based IMRT planning approach.

  6. Biology and management of insect pests in North American intensively managed hardwood forest systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coyle, David R.; Nebeker, T., E.; Hart, E., R.; Mattson, W., J.

    2005-01-01

    Annu. Rev. Entomol. 50:1-29. Abstract Increasing demand for wood and wood products is putting stress on traditional forest production areas, leading to long-term economic and environmental concerns. Intensively managed hardwood forest systems (IMHFS), grown using conventional agricultural as well as forestry methods, can help alleviate potential problems in natural forest production areas. Although IMHFS can produce more biomass per hectare per year than natural forests, the ecologically simplified, monocultural systems may greatly increase the crops susceptibility to pests. Species in the genera Populus and Salix comprise the greatest acreage in IMHFS in North America, but other species, including Liquidambar styracifua and Platanus occidentalis, are also important. We discuss life histories, realized and potential damage, and management options for the most economically infuential pests that affect these hardwood species. The substantial inherent challenges associated with pest management in the monocultural environments created by IMHFS are reviewed. Finally, we discuss ways to design IMHFS that may reduce their susceptibility to pests, increase their growth and productivity potential, and create a more sustainable environment.

  7. Condition for production of circulating proton beam with intensity greater than space charge limit.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vadim Dudnikov

    2002-11-19

    Transverse e-p instability in proton rings could be damped by increasing the beam density and the rate of secondary particles production above the threshold level, with the corresponding decrease of unstable wavelength {lambda} below the transverse beam size h (increase of beam density n{sub b} and ion density n{sub i} above the threshold level: n{sub b} + n{sub i} > {beta}{sup 2}/(r{sub e} h{sup 2}), where r{sub e} = e{sup 2}/mc{sup 2}). Such island of stability can be reached by a fast charge-exchange injection without painting and enhanced generation of secondary plasma, which was demonstrated in a small scale Proton Storage Ring (PSR) at the Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk, Russia. With successful damping of e-p instability, the intensity of circulating proton beam, with a space charge neutralization was increased up to 6 times above a space charge limit. Corresponding tune shift without space charge neutralization should be up to {Delta}v=0.85 x 6 (in the ring with v = 0.85). In this paper, they review experimental observations of transverse instability of proton beams in various rings. they also discuss methods which can be used to damp the instability. Such experimental data could be useful for verification of computer simulation tools developed for the studies of the space charge and instabilities in realistic conditions.

  8. Retrospective Estimation of the Quality of Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Plans for Lung Cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koo, Jihye; Chung, Weon Kuu; Kim, Dong Wook

    2015-01-01

    This study estimated the planning quality of intensity-modulated radiotherapy in 42 lung cancer cases to provide preliminary data for the development of a planning quality assurance algorithm. Organs in or near the thoracic cavity (ipsilateral lung, contralateral lung, heart, liver, esophagus, spinal cord, and bronchus) were selected as organs at risk (OARs). Radiotherapy plans were compared using the conformity index (CI), coverage index (CVI), and homogeneity index (HI) of the planning target volume (PTV), OAR-PTV distance and OAR-PTV overlap volume, and the V10Gy, V20Gy, and equivalent uniform dose (EUD) of the OARs. The CI, CVI, and HI of the PTV were 0.54 - 0.89 , 0.90 - 1.00 , and 0.11 - 0.41, respectively. The mean EUDs (V10Gy, V20Gy) of the ipsilateral lung, contralateral lung, esophagus, cord, liver, heart, and bronchus were 8.07 Gy (28.06, 13.17), 2.59 Gy (6.53, 1.18), 7.02 Gy (26.17, 12.32), 3.56 Gy (13.56, 4.48), 0.72 Gy (2.15, 0.91), 5.14 Gy (19.68, 8.62), and 10.56 Gy (36.08, 19.79), respectivel...

  9. Intensity-modulated radiosurgery with rapidarc for multiple brain metastases and comparison with static approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Jiazhu; Pawlicki, Todd; Rice, Roger; Mundt, Arno J.; Sandhu, Ajay; Lawson, Joshua; Murphy, Kevin T.

    2012-04-01

    Rotational RapidArc (RA) and static intensity-modulated radiosurgery (IMRS) have been used for brain radiosurgery. This study compares the 2 techniques from beam delivery parameters and dosimetry aspects for multiple brain metastases. Twelve patients with 2-12 brain lesions treated with IMRS were replanned using RA. For each patient, an optimal 2-arc RA plan from several trials was chosen for comparison with IMRS. Homogeneity, conformity, and gradient indexes have been calculated. The mean dose to normal brain and maximal dose to other critical organs were evaluated. It was found that monitor unit (MU) reduction by RA is more pronounced for cases with larger number of brain lesions. The MU-ratio of RA and IMRS is reduced from 104% to 39% when lesions increase from 2 to 12. The dose homogeneities are comparable in both techniques and the conformity and gradient indexes and critical organ doses are higher in RA. Treatment time is greatly reduced by RA in intracranial radiosurgery, because RA uses fewer MUs, fewer beams, and fewer couch angles.

  10. Simulation of the Beam Dump for a High Intensity Electron Gun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doebert, S; Lefevre, T; Pepitone, K

    2014-01-01

    The CLIC Drive Beam is a high-intensity pulsed electron beam. A test facility for the Drive Beam electron gun will soon be commissioned at CERN. In this contribution we outline the design of a beam dump / Faraday cup capable of resisting the beam’s thermal load. The test facility will operate initially up to 140 keV. At such low energies, the electrons are absorbed very close to the surface of the dump, leading to a large energy deposition density in this thin layer. In order not to damage the dump, the beam must be spread over a large surface. For this reason, a small-angled cone has been chosen. Simulations using Geant4 have been performed to estimate the distribution of energy deposition in the dump. The heat transport both within the electron pulse and between pulses has been modelled using finite element methods to check the resistance of the dump at high repetition rates. In addition, the possibility of using a moveable dump to measure the beam profile and emittance is discussed.

  11. Stress Intensity of Delamination in a Sintered-Silver Interconnection: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeVoto, D. J.; Paret, P. P.; Wereszczak, A. A.

    2014-08-01

    In automotive power electronics packages, conventional thermal interface materials such as greases, gels, and phase-change materials pose bottlenecks to heat removal and are also associated with reliability concerns. The industry trend is toward high thermal performance bonded interfaces for large-area attachments. However, because of coefficient of thermal expansion mismatches between materials/layers and resultant thermomechanical stresses, adhesive and cohesive fractures could occur, posing a reliability problem. These defects manifest themselves in increased thermal resistance. This research aims to investigate and improve the thermal performance and reliability of sintered-silver for power electronics packaging applications. This has been experimentally accomplished by the synthesis of large-area bonded interfaces between metalized substrates and copper base plates that have subsequently been subjected to thermal cycles. A finite element model of crack initiation and propagation in these bonded interfaces will allow for the interpretation of degradation rates by a crack-velocity (V)-stress intensity factor (K) analysis. A description of the experiment and the modeling approach are discussed.

  12. Transcript of the workshop to discuss plans for a National High Intensity Radioactive Nuclear Beam Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nitschke, J.M. (ed.)

    1989-10-19

    Following the First International Conference on Radioactive Nuclear Beams'' in Berkeley, a workshop was held on October 19, 1989 at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to discuss plans for a National High Intensity Radioactive Nuclear Beam (RNB) Facility. The purpose of the workshop was -- after having discussed during the conference the physics question that can be addressed with RNBs -- to evaluate more concretely the possibilities for actually constructing such a facility in this country. It is becoming increasingly apparent that facility producing beams of radioactive nuclei with extreme neutron-to-proton ratios is of high scientific interest and technically feasible. It would allow the study of nuclear structure and astrophysical reactions very far from the line of stable nuclei, and could provide new possibilities of reaching the long-sought island of stability of superheavy nuclei. Such facilities are under advanced consideration in Japan and at CERN in Europe. This paper contains a slightly edited transcript of the tape recording that was made of the workshop.

  13. Collapse and revival of electromagnetic cascades in focused intense laser pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. A. Mironov; N. B. Narozhny; A. M. Fedotov

    2014-07-24

    We consider interaction of a high-energy electron beam with two counterpropagating femtosecond laser pulses. Nonlinear Compton scattering and electron-positron pair production by the emitted photons result in development of an electromagnetic "shower-type" cascade, which however collapses rather quickly due to energy losses by secondary particles. Nevertheless, the laser field accelerates the low-energy electrons and positrons trapped in the focal region, thus giving rise to development of electromagnetic cascade of another type ("avalanche-type"). This effect of cascade collapse and revival can be observed at the electron beam energy of the order of several GeV and intensity of the colliding laser pulses of the level of $10^{24}$W/cm$^2$. This means that it can be readily observed at the novel laser facilities which are either planned for the nearest future, or are already under construction. The proposed experimental setup provides the most realistic and promissory way to observe the "avalanche-type" cascades.

  14. Collapse and revival of electromagnetic cascades in focused intense laser pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mironov, A A; Fedotov, A M

    2014-01-01

    We consider interaction of a high-energy electron beam with two counterpropagating femtosecond laser pulses. Nonlinear Compton scattering and electron-positron pair production by the emitted photons result in development of an electromagnetic "shower-type" cascade, which however collapses rather quickly due to energy losses by secondary particles. Nevertheless, the laser field accelerates the low-energy electrons and positrons trapped in the focal region, thus giving rise to development of electromagnetic cascade of another type ("avalanche-type"). This effect of cascade collapse and revival can be observed at the electron beam energy of the order of several GeV and intensity of the colliding laser pulses of the level of $10^{24}$W/cm$^2$. This means that it can be readily observed at the novel laser facilities which are either planned for the nearest future, or are already under construction. The proposed experimental setup provides the most realistic and promissory way to observe the "avalanche-type" cascad...

  15. Intense Pulsed Neutron Source: Progress report 1991--1996. 15. Anniversary edition -- Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-05-01

    The 15th Anniversary Edition of the IPNS Progress Report is being published in recognition of the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source`s first 15 years of successful operation as a user facility. To emphasize the importance of this milestone, the author shave made the design and organization of the report significantly different from previous IPNS Progress Reports. This report consists of two volumes. For Volume 1, authors were asked to prepare articles that highlighted recent scientific accomplishments at IPNS, from 1991 to present; to focus on and illustrate the scientific advances achieved through the unique capabilities of neutron studies performed by IPNS users; to report on specific activities or results from an instrument; or to focus on a body of work encompassing different neutron-scattering techniques. Articles were also included on the accelerator system, instrumentation, computing, target, and moderators. A list of published and ``in press` articles in journals, books, and conference proceedings, resulting from work done at IPNS since 1991, was compiled. This list is arranged alphabetically according to first author. Publication references in the articles are listed by last name of first author and year of publication. The IPNS experimental reports received since 1991 are compiled in Volume 2. Experimental reports referenced in the articles are listed by last name of first author, instrument designation, and experiment number.

  16. It Takes Glue to Tango: MeDICi integration framework creates data-intensive computing pipeline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorton, Ian; Oehmen, Christopher S.; McDermott, Jason E.

    2008-11-01

    Biologists increasingly rely on high-performance computing (HPC) platforms to rapidly process the tsunami of data generated by high throughput genome and metagenome sequencing technology and high-throughput proteomics. Unfortunately, the platforms that produce the massive data sets rarely work smoothly with the interactive analysis and visualization programs used in bioinformatics. This makes it difficult for researchers to exploit the computational power of HPC platforms to speed scientific discovery. At the Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, Wash., researchers are creating computing environments for biologists that seamlessly integrate collections of data and computational resources. These advantages enable users to rapidly analyze high-throughput data. A major goal is to shield the biologist from the complexity of interacting with multiple dissimilar databases and running tasks on HPC platforms and computational clusters. One of those environments the MeDICi Integration Framework is now available for free download. Short for Middleware for Data-Intensive Computing, MeDICi makes it easy to integrate separate codes into complex applications that operate as a data analysis pipeline.

  17. Apparatus for nuclear transmutation and power production using an intense accelerator-generated thermal neutron flux

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowman, Charles D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1992-01-01

    Apparatus for nuclear transmutation and power production using an intense accelerator-generated thermal neutron flux. High thermal neutron fluxes generated from the action of a high power proton accelerator on a spallation target allows the efficient burn-up of higher actinide nuclear waste by a two-step process. Additionally, rapid burn-up of fission product waste for nuclides having small thermal neutron cross sections, and the practicality of small material inventories while achieving significant throughput derive from employment of such high fluxes. Several nuclear technology problems are addressed including 1. nuclear energy production without a waste stream requiring storage on a geological timescale, 2. the burn-up of defense and commercial nuclear waste, and 3. the production of defense nuclear material. The apparatus includes an accelerator, a target for neutron production surrounded by a blanket region for transmutation, a turbine for electric power production, and a chemical processing facility. In all applications, the accelerator power may be generated internally from fission and the waste produced thereby is transmuted internally so that waste management might not be required beyond the human lifespan.

  18. Characterization of the fast electrons distribution produced in a high intensity laser target interaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westover, B.; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 ; Chen, C. D.; Patel, P. K.; McLean, H.; Beg, F. N.

    2014-03-15

    Experiments on the Titan laser (?150?J, 0.7 ps, 2 × 10{sup 20} W cm{sup ?2}) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory were carried out in order to study the properties of fast electrons produced by high-intensity, short pulse laser interacting with matter under conditions relevant to Fast Ignition. Bremsstrahlung x-rays produced by these fast electrons were measured by a set of compact filter-stack based x-ray detectors placed at three angles with respect to the target. The measured bremsstrahlung signal allows a characterization of the fast electron beam spectrum, conversion efficiency of laser energy into fast electron kinetic energy and angular distribution. A Monte Carlo code Integrated Tiger Series was used to model the bremsstrahlung signal and infer a laser to fast electron conversion efficiency of 30%, an electron slope temperature of about 2.2?MeV, and a mean divergence angle of 39°. Simulations were also performed with the hybrid transport code ZUMA which includes fields in the target. In this case, a conversion efficiency of laser energy to fast electron energy of 34% and a slope temperature between 1.5?MeV and 4?MeV depending on the angle between the target normal direction and the measuring spectrometer are found. The observed temperature of the bremsstrahlung spectrum, and therefore the inferred electron spectrum are found to be angle dependent.

  19. High-intensity double-pulse X-ray free-electron laser

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Marinelli, A.; Ratner, D.; Lutman, A. A.; Turner, J.; Welch, J.; Decker, F. J.; Loos, H.; Behrens, C.; Gilevich, S.; Miahnahri, A. A.; et al

    2015-03-06

    The X-ray free-electron laser has opened a new era for photon science, improving the X-ray brightness by ten orders of magnitude over previously available sources. Similar to an optical laser, the spectral and temporal structure of the radiation pulses can be tailored to the specific needs of many experiments by accurately manipulating the lasing medium, that is, the electron beam. Here we report the generation of mJ-level two-colour hard X-ray pulses of few femtoseconds duration with an XFEL driven by twin electron bunches at the Linac Coherent Light Source. This performance represents an improvement of over an order of magnitudemore »in peak power over state-of-the-art two-colour XFELs. The unprecedented intensity and temporal coherence of this new two-colour X-ray free-electron laser enable an entirely new set of scientific applications, ranging from X-ray pump/X-ray probe experiments to the imaging of complex biological samples with multiple wavelength anomalous dispersion.« less

  20. Ion Acceleration from the Interaction of Ultra-Intense Lasers with Solid Foils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, M

    2004-11-24

    The discovery that ultra-intense laser pulses (I > 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}) can produce short pulse, high energy proton beams has renewed interest in the fundamental mechanisms that govern particle acceleration from laser-solid interactions. Experiments have shown that protons present as hydrocarbon contaminants on laser targets can be accelerated up to energies > 50 MeV. Different theoretical models that explain the observed results have been proposed. One model describes a front-surface acceleration mechanism based on the ponderomotive potential of the laser pulse. At high intensities (I > 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}), the quiver energy of an electron oscillating in the electric field of the laser pulse exceeds the electron rest mass, requiring the consideration of relativistic effects. The relativistically correct ponderomotive potential is given by U{sub p} = ([1 + I{lambda}{sup 2}/1.3 x 10{sup 18}]{sup 1/2} - 1) m{sub o}c{sup 2}, where I{lambda}{sup 2} is the irradiance in W {micro}m{sup 2}/cm{sup 2} and m{sub o}c{sup 2} is the electron rest mass. At laser irradiance of I{lambda}{sup 2} {approx} 10{sup 20} W {micro}m{sup 2}/cm{sup 2}, the ponderomotive potential can be of order several MeV. A few recent experiments--discussed in Chapter 3 of this thesis--consider this ponderomotive potential sufficiently strong to accelerate protons from the front surface of the target to energies up to tens of MeV. Another model, known as Target Normal Sheath Acceleration (TNSA), describes the mechanism as an electrostatic sheath on the back surface of the laser target. According to the TNSA model, relativistic hot electrons created at the laser-solid interaction penetrate the foil where a few escape to infinity. The remaining hot electrons are retained by the target potential and establish an electrostatic sheath on the back surface of the target. In this thesis we present several experiments that study the accelerated ions by affecting the contamination layer from which they originate. Radiative heating was employed as a method of removing contamination from palladium targets doped with deuterium. We present evidence that ions heavier than protons can be accelerated if hydrogenous contaminants that cover the laser target can be removed. We show that deuterons can be accelerated from the deuterated-palladium target, which has been radiatively heated to remove contaminants. Impinging a deuteron beam onto a tritiated-titanium catcher could lead to the development of a table-top source of short-pulse, 14-MeV fusion neutrons. We also show that by using an argon-ion sputter gun, contaminants from one side of the laser target can be selectively removed without affecting the other side. We show that irradiating a thin metallic foil with an ultra-intense laser pulse produces a proton beam with a yield of 1.5-2.5 10{sup 11} and temperature, kT = 1.5 MeV with a maximum proton energy > 9 MeV. Removing contaminants from the front surface of the laser target with an argon-ion sputter gun, had no observable effect on the proton beam. However, removing contaminants from the back surface of the laser target reduced the proton beam by two orders of magnitude to, at most, a yield of {approx} 10{sup 9} and a maximum proton energy < 4 MeV. Based on these observations, we conclude that the majority (> 99%) of high energy protons (E > 5 MeV) from the interaction of an ultra-intense laser pulse with a thin foil originate on the back surface of the foil--as predicted by the TNSA model. Our experimental results are in agreement with PIC simulations showing back surface protons reach energies up to 13 MeV, while front surface protons reach a maximum energy of 4 MeV. Well diagnosed and controllable proton beams will have many applications: neutron radiography, material damage studies, production of medical isotopes, and as a high-resolution radiography tool for diagnosing opaque materials and plasmas. Well collimated and focusable ion beams may also prove beneficial for alternative inertial-fusion concepts such as proton fast ignition, a pote

  1. On the use of Standardized Precipitation Index(SPI) for drought intensity assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, M Naresh; Sai, M V R Sesha; Roy, P S

    2015-01-01

    Monthly rainfall data from June to October for 39 years was used to generate Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) values based on Gamma distribution for a low rainfall and a high rainfall district of Andhra Pradesh state, India. Comparison of SPI, with actual rainfall and rainfall deviation from the mean indicated that SPI values under-estimate the intensity of dryness/wetness when the rainfall is very low/very high respectively. As a result, the SPI in the worst drought years of 2002 and 2006 in the low rainfall district has indicated only moderate dryness instead of extreme dryness. The range of SPI values of the high rainfall district indicated better stretching, compared to that of the low rainfall district. Further, the SPI values of longer time scale (2-, 3- and 4- months) showed an extended range compared to 1-month, but the sensitivity in drought years has not improved significantly. To ascertain whether non normality of SPI is a possible reason, normality tests were conducted. The Shapiro-Wilk stat...

  2. A multivariate analysis of the energy intensity of sprawl versus compact living in the U.S. for 2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vermont, University of

    . The methods used are based on previous studies on energy cost of living. Total energy requirement is calculated as a function of individual energy intensities of goods and services derived from economic input period. These two issues have been addressed in "energy cost of living" studies starting around 1973

  3. The influence of laser pulse duration and energy on ICP-MS signal intensity, elemental fractionation, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    of the thermal processes, heating of the sample can result in preferential evaporation, melting, and ablationThe influence of laser pulse duration and energy on ICP-MS signal intensity, elemental width, irradiance, repetition rate, and pulse energy, are critical parameters which influence the laser

  4. 3D PIC simulations of electron beams created via reflection of intense laser light from a water target

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ngirmang, Gregory K; Feister, Scott; Morrison, John T; Chowdhury, Enam A; Frische, Kyle; Roquemore, W M

    2015-01-01

    We present 3D Particle-in-Cell (PIC) modeling of an ultra-intense laser experiment by the Extreme Light group at the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) using the PIC code LSP. This is the first time PIC simulations have been performed in 3D for this experiment which involves an ultra-intense, short-pulse (30 fs) laser interacting with a water jet target at normal incidence. These 3D PIC simulation results are compared to results from 2D(3$v$) PIC simulations for both $5.4\\cdot10^{17}$ W cm$^{-2}$ and $3\\cdot10^{18}$ W cm$^{-2}$ intensities. Comparing the 2D(3$v$) and 3D simulation results, the laser-energy-to-ejected-electron-energy conversion efficiencies were comparable, but the angular distribution of ejected electrons show interesting differences with qualitative differences at higher intensity. An analytic plane-wave model is provided that provides some explanation for the angular distribution and energies of ejected electrons in the 2D(3$v$) simulations. We also performed a 3D simulation with circular...

  5. Ionization and high-order harmonic generation in aligned benzene by a short intense circularly polarized laser pulse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moiseyev, Nimrod

    Ionization and high-order harmonic generation in aligned benzene by a short intense circularly and high-order harmonic generation by benzene aligned in the polarization plane of a short circularly pulses 4 . Recently, other types of HHG processes have been dis- covered in molecules. The planar benzene

  6. LETTER Natural soil microbes alter flowering phenology and the intensity of selection on flowering time in a wild Arabidopsis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dangl, Jeff

    biological characteristics of interest. Keywords Flowering time, life history, microbiome, phenology, plant­microbeLETTER Natural soil microbes alter flowering phenology and the intensity of selection on flowering occurring soil microbiomes and their constituent soil chemistries on flowering phenology and reproductive

  7. Received 9 May 2015 | Accepted 9 Sep 2015 | Published 9 Oct 2015 High-intensity power-resolved radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacDonald, Mark

    to image high-intensity fast-neutron and gamma-ray fields simultaneously. This system has been deployed. Monitoring systems, such as fission chambers and rhodium detector systems are expensive and have limited high temperatures, corrosion, extreme radiation levels and miniaturization. In-core monitoring systems

  8. Year ahead prediction of US landfalling hurricane numbers: the optimal combination of long and short baselines for intense hurricanes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jewson, S; Casey, C; Jewson, Stephen; Penzer, Jeremy; Casey, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    In previous work, we have shown how to combine long and short historical baselines to make predictions of future hurricane numbers. We now ask: how should such combinations change if we are interested in predicting the future number of intense hurricanes?

  9. Fermi-LAT gamma-ray anisotropy and intensity explained by unresolved Radio-Loud Active Galactic Nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mattia Di Mauro; Alessandro Cuoco; Fiorenza Donato; Jennifer M. Siegal-Gaskins

    2014-12-02

    Radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN) are expected to contribute substantially to both the intensity and anisotropy of the isotropic gamma-ray background (IGRB). In turn, the measured properties of the IGRB can be used to constrain the characteristics of proposed contributing source classes. We consider individual subclasses of radio-loud AGN, including low-, intermediate-, and high-synchrotron-peaked BL Lacertae objects, flat-spectrum radio quasars, and misaligned AGN. Using updated models of the gamma-ray luminosity functions of these populations, we evaluate the energy-dependent contribution of each source class to the intensity and anisotropy of the IGRB. We find that collectively radio-loud AGN can account for the entirety of the IGRB intensity and anisotropy as measured by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). Misaligned AGN provide the bulk of the measured intensity but a negligible contribution to the anisotropy, while high-synchrotron-peaked BL Lacertae objects provide the dominant contribution to the anisotropy. In anticipation of upcoming measurements with the Fermi-LAT and the forthcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array, we predict the anisotropy in the broader energy range that will be accessible to future observations.

  10. Use of a Linear Paul Trap to Study Random Noise-Induced Beam Degradation in High-Intensity Accelerators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilson, Erik

    -Intensity Accelerators Moses Chung* Accelerator Physics Center, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois equivalence between an alternating-gradient (AG) focusing system and a linear Paul trap system. It is observed that externally driven noise continuously produces a nonthermal tail of trapped ions

  11. Impact of a high-intensity fire on mixed evergreen and mixed conifer forests in the Peninsular

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deutschman, Douglas

    Impact of a high-intensity fire on mixed evergreen and mixed conifer forests in the Peninsular have changed the forest fire regime across the western United States by excluding fire. Fire conifer forest, oak woodland, chaparral and grassland. Most conifers were killed by the fire, especially

  12. 1738 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE, VOL. 36, NO. 4, AUGUST 2008 Propagation of a Short Intense Laser Pulse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strathclyde, University of

    Intense Laser Pulse in a Curved Plasma Channel Albert Reitsma and Dino Jaroszynski Abstract--In this paper laser light. If there is a perfect balance between the inward bending of light rays through the light along a curved path by bending the waveguide. Light bending in a plasma waveguide has been

  13. The phase-lock dynamics of the laser wakefield acceleration with an intensity-decaying laser pulse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Wentao; Liu, Jiansheng Wang, Wentao; Zhang, Zhijun; Chen, Qiang; Tian, Ye; Qi, Rong; Yu, Changhai; Wang, Cheng; Li, Ruxin Xu, Zhizhan; Tajima, T.

    2014-03-03

    An electron beam with the maximum energy extending up to 1.8?GeV, much higher than the dephasing limit, is experimentally obtained in the laser wakefield acceleration with the plasma density of 3.5?×?10{sup 18}?cm{sup ?3}. With particle in cell simulations and theoretical analysis, we find that the laser intensity evolution plays a major role in the enhancement of the electron energy gain. While the bubble length decreases due to the intensity-decay of the laser pulse, the phase of the electron beam in the wakefield can be locked, which contributes to the overcoming of the dephasing. Moreover, the laser intensity evolution is described for the phase-lock acceleration of electrons in the uniform plasma, confirmed with our own simulation. Since the decaying of the intensity is unavoidable in the long distance propagation due to the pump depletion, the energy gain of the high energy laser wakefield accelerator can be greatly enhanced if the current process is exploited.

  14. Seasonal to interannual variations in the intensity and central position of the surface Kuroshio east of Taiwan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Chau-Ron

    east of Taiwan Yi-Chia Hsin,1 Bo Qiu,2 Tzu-Ling Chiang,3 and Chau-Ron Wu3 Received 26 February 2013 changes of surface Kuroshio intensity and central position east of Taiwan during 1993) off northeast of Taiwan in winter (summer), whereas it has an offshore (inshore) path off southeast

  15. Seasonal to interannual variations in the intensity and central position of the surface Kuroshio east of Taiwan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu, Bo

    east of Taiwan Yi-Chia Hsin,1 Bo Qiu,2 Tzu-Ling Chiang,3 and Chau-Ron Wu3 Received 26 February 2013 intensity and central position east of Taiwan during 1993­2012 are investigated by quantitatively analyzing the satellite altimetry product. The Kuroshio moves inshore (offshore) off northeast of Taiwan in winter (summer

  16. uel cell systems offer clean and efficient energy production and are currently under intensive development by several manufac-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peng, Huei

    , hydro- gen generation by means of water electrolysis based on renewable energy from wind, waves, and sunF uel cell systems offer clean and efficient energy production and are currently under intensive- vide useful electric energy. A typical PEM-FC pro- vides up to 0.6 W/cm2 depending on the catalyst

  17. Energy Intensity Development of the German Iron and Steel Industry between 1991 and 2007 Marlene Arensa), 1)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    the specific energy consumption in selected countries (e.g. Germany, China, Brazil) between 1980 and 1991 using1 Energy Intensity Development of the German Iron and Steel Industry between 1991 and 2007 Marlene Management, 12, rue Pierre Sémard, BP127, 38003 Grenoble Cedex 01. Keywords: energy efficiency, steel

  18. Using SGML as a Basis for Data-Intensive NLP David McKelvie, Chris Brew & Henry Thompson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Using SGML as a Basis for Data-Intensive NLP David McKelvie, Chris Brew & Henry Thompson LanguageKelvie@ed. ac. uk ~z Chris. Brew@ed. ac. uk & H. Thompson@ed. ac. uk Abstract This paper describes the LT NSL

  19. Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies (ESG-CET): A Data Infrastructure for Data-Intensive Climate Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chervenak, Ann

    Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies (ESG-CET): A Data Infrastructure for Data-Intensive Climate Research Executive Committee: · Dean N. Williams (williams13@llnl.gov), Lawrence Livermore for managing and accessing ultrascale climate data. This production environment includes multiple national

  20. Phoenix: Making Data-intensive Grid Applications Fault-tolerant George Kola, Tevfik Kosar and Miron Livny

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Phoenix: Making Data-intensive Grid Applications Fault-tolerant George Kola, Tevfik Kosar and Miron pipeline. Taking the result of the analysis into ac- count, we have designed and implemented Phoenix at hand and reduces the time to grid-based solu- tion for their problem. We have developed Phoenix

  1. Impact of Airborne Doppler Radar Data Assimilation on the Numerical Simulation of Intensity Changes of Hurricane Dennis near a Landfall

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pu, Zhaoxia

    of Hurricane Dennis near a Landfall ZHAOXIA PU AND XUANLI LI Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University (Manuscript received 27 February 2009, in final form 15 May 2009) ABSTRACT Accurate forecasting of a hurricane's intensity changes near its landfall is of great importance in making an effective hurricane warning

  2. Impact of a Warm Ocean Eddy's Circulation on Hurricane-Induced Sea Surface Cooling with Implications for Hurricane Intensity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rhode Island, University of

    Impact of a Warm Ocean Eddy's Circulation on Hurricane-Induced Sea Surface Cooling with Implications for Hurricane Intensity RICHARD M. YABLONSKY AND ISAAC GINIS Graduate School of Oceanography) ABSTRACT Upper oceanic heat content (OHC) in advance of a hurricane is generally superior to prestorm sea

  3. A Comparison of Iron and Steel Production Energy Use and Energy Intensity in China and the U.S.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasanbeigi, Ali; Price, Lynn; Aden, Nathaniel; Chunxia, Zhang; Xiuping, Li; Fangqin, Shangguan

    2011-06-15

    Production of iron and steel is an energy-intensive manufacturing process. In 2006, the iron and steel industry accounted for 13.6% and 1.4% of primary energy consumption in China and the U.S., respectively (U.S. DOE/EIA, 2010a; Zhang et al., 2010). The energy efficiency of steel production has a direct impact on overall energy consumption and related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The goal of this study is to develop a methodology for making an accurate comparison of the energy intensity (energy use per unit of steel produced) of steel production. The methodology is applied to the steel industry in China and the U.S. The methodology addresses issues related to boundary definitions, conversion factors, and indicators in order to develop a common framework for comparing steel industry energy use. This study uses a bottom-up, physical-based method to compare the energy intensity of China and U.S. crude steel production in 2006. This year was chosen in order to maximize the availability of comparable steel-sector data. However, data published in China and the U.S. are not always consistent in terms of analytical scope, conversion factors, and information on adoption of energy-saving technologies. This study is primarily based on published annual data from the China Iron & Steel Association and National Bureau of Statistics in China and the Energy Information Agency in the U.S. This report found that the energy intensity of steel production is lower in the United States than China primarily due to structural differences in the steel industry in these two countries. In order to understand the differences in energy intensity of steel production in both countries, this report identified key determinants of sector energy use in both countries. Five determinants analyzed in this report include: share of electric arc furnaces in total steel production, sector penetration of energy-efficiency technologies, scale of production equipment, fuel shares in the iron and steel industry, and final steel product mix in both countries. The share of lower energy intensity electric arc furnace production in each country was a key determinant of total steel sector energy efficiency. Overall steel sector structure, in terms of average plant vintage and production capacity, is also an important variable though data were not available to quantify this in a scenario. The methodology developed in this report, along with the accompanying quantitative and qualitative analyses, provides a foundation for comparative international assessment of steel sector energy intensity.

  4. Building waste management core indicators through Spatial Material Flow Analysis: Net recovery and transport intensity indexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Font Vivanco, David; Puig Ventosa, Ignasi; Gabarrell Durany, Xavier

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sustainability and proximity principles have a key role in waste management. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Core indicators are needed in order to quantify and evaluate them. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A systematic, step-by-step approach is developed in this study for their development. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transport may play a significant role in terms of environmental and economic costs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Policy action is required in order to advance in the consecution of these principles. - Abstract: In this paper, the material and spatial characterization of the flows within a municipal solid waste (MSW) management system are combined through a Network-Based Spatial Material Flow Analysis. Using this information, two core indicators are developed for the bio-waste fraction, the Net Recovery Index (NRI) and the Transport Intensity Index (TII), which are aimed at assessing progress towards policy-related sustainable MSW management strategies and objectives. The NRI approaches the capacity of a MSW management system for converting waste into resources through a systematic metabolic approach, whereas the TII addresses efficiency in terms of the transport requirements to manage a specific waste flow throughout the entire MSW management life cycle. Therefore, both indicators could be useful in assessing key MSW management policy strategies, such as the consecution of higher recycling levels (sustainability principle) or the minimization of transport by locating treatment facilities closer to generation sources (proximity principle). To apply this methodological approach, the bio-waste management system of the region of Catalonia (Spain) has been chosen as a case study. Results show the adequacy of both indicators for identifying those points within the system with higher capacity to compromise its environmental, economic and social performance and therefore establishing clear targets for policy prioritization. Moreover, this methodological approach permits scenario building, which could be useful in assessing the outcomes of hypothetical scenarios, thus proving its adequacy for strategic planning.

  5. Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy Significantly Improves Acute Gastrointestinal Toxicity in Pancreatic and Ampullary Cancers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yovino, Susannah [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Poppe, Matthew; Jabbour, Salma [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); David, Vera; Garofalo, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Pandya, Naimesh [Department of Medical Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Alexander, Richard; Hanna, Nader [Department of Surgical Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Regine, William F., E-mail: wregine@umm.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Among patients with upper abdominal malignancies, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) can improve dose distributions to critical dose-limiting structures near the target. Whether these improved dose distributions are associated with decreased toxicity when compared with conventional three-dimensional treatment remains a subject of investigation. Methods and Materials: 46 patients with pancreatic/ampullary cancer were treated with concurrent chemoradiation (CRT) using inverse-planned IMRT. All patients received CRT based on 5-fluorouracil in a schema similar to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 97-04. Rates of acute gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity for this series of IMRT-treated patients were compared with those from RTOG 97-04, where all patients were treated with three-dimensional conformal techniques. Chi-square analysis was used to determine if there was a statistically different incidence in acute GI toxicity between these two groups of patients. Results: The overall incidence of Grade 3-4 acute GI toxicity was low in patients receiving IMRT-based CRT. When compared with patients who had three-dimensional treatment planning (RTOG 97-04), IMRT significantly reduced the incidence of Grade 3-4 nausea and vomiting (0% vs. 11%, p = 0.024) and diarrhea (3% vs. 18%, p = 0.017). There was no significant difference in the incidence of Grade 3-4 weight loss between the two groups of patients. Conclusions: IMRT is associated with a statistically significant decrease in acute upper and lower GI toxicity among patients treated with CRT for pancreatic/ampullary cancers. Future clinical trials plan to incorporate the use of IMRT, given that it remains a subject of active investigation.

  6. Postoperative Irradiation of Gynecologic Malignancies: Improving Treatment Delivery Using Aperture-Based Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nadeau, Sylvain [Departement de physique, de genie physique et d'optique, Universite Laval, Quebec, QC (Canada) and Departement de radio-oncologie et Centre de recherche de l'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec, QC (Canada)]. E-mail: sylvainn@rrsb.nb.ca; Bouchard, Myriam [Departement de radio-oncologie et Centre de recherche de l'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec, QC (Canada); Germain, Isabelle [Departement de radio-oncologie et Centre de recherche de l'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec, QC (Canada); Raymond, Paul-Emile [Departement de radio-oncologie et Centre de recherche de l'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec, QC (Canada); Beaulieu, Frederic [Departement de radio-oncologie et Centre de recherche de l'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec, QC (Canada); Beaulieu, Luc [Departement de physique, de genie physique et d'optique, Universite Laval, Quebec, QC (Canada); Departement de radio-oncologie et Centre de recherche de l'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec, QC (Canada); Roy, Rene [Departement de physique, de genie physique et d'optique, Universite Laval, Quebec, QC (Canada); Gingras, Luc [Departement de physique, de genie physique et d'optique, Universite Laval, Quebec, QC (Canada); Departement de radio-oncologie et Centre de recherche de l'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec, QC (Canada)

    2007-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate dosimetric and treatment delivery advantages of aperture-based intensity-modulated radiotherapy (AB-IMRT) for the treatment of patients receiving whole pelvic radiotherapy for gynecologic malignancies. Methods and Materials: Nineteen patients undergoing pelvic radiotherapy after resection of endometrial cancers were selected. A 45-Gy dose was prescribed to the target volume delineated on a planning CT scan. An in-house inverse planning system, Ballista, was used to develop a treatment plan using aperture-based multileaf collimator segments. This approach was compared with conventional four-field, enlarged four-field, and static beamlet-based IMRT (BB-IMRT) techniques in terms of target coverage, dose-volume histogram statistics for surrounding normal tissues, and numbers of segments and monitor units (MU). Results: Three quarters (76.4%) of the planning target volume received the prescription dose with conventional four-field plans. With adequate target coverage, the Ballista plans significantly reduced the volume of bowel and bladder irradiated at the prescribed dose (p < 0.001), whereas the two approaches provided equivalent results for the rectum (p 0.5). On the other hand, AB-IMRT and BB-IMRT plans showed only small differences in dose-volume histogram statistics of unknown clinical impact, whereas Ballista plan delivery required on average 73% and 59% fewer segments and MU, respectively. Conclusion: With respect to conventional techniques, AB-IMRT for the treatment of gynecologic malignancies provides dosimetric advantages similar to those with BB-IMRT but with clear treatment delivery improvements.

  7. Clinical Outcome of Adjuvant Treatment of Endometrial Cancer Using Aperture-Based Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bouchard, Myriam [Departement de Radio-oncologie et Centre de Recherche de L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec, QC (Canada); Nadeau, Sylvain M.Sc.; Gingras, Luc [Departement de Radio-oncologie et Centre de Recherche de L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec, QC (Canada); Departement de Physique, de Genie Physique et d'optique, Universite Laval, Quebec, QC (Canada); Raymond, Paul-Emile; Beaulieu, Frederic [Departement de Radio-oncologie et Centre de Recherche de L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec, QC (Canada); Beaulieu, Luc [Departement de Radio-oncologie et Centre de Recherche de L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec, QC (Canada); Departement de Physique, de Genie Physique et d'optique, Universite Laval, Quebec, QC (Canada); Fortin, Andre [Departement de Radio-oncologie et Centre de Recherche de L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec, QC (Canada); Germain, Isabelle [Departement de Radio-oncologie et Centre de Recherche de L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec, QC (Canada)], E-mail: isabelle.germain@chuq.qc.ca

    2008-08-01

    Purpose: To assess disease control and acute and chronic toxicity with aperture-based intensity-modulated radiotherapy (AB-IMRT) for postoperative pelvic irradiation of endometrial cancer. Methods and Materials: Between January and July 2005, after hysterectomy for endometrial cancer, 15 patients received 45 Gy to the pelvis using AB-IMRT. The AB-IMRT plans were generated by an in-house treatment planning system (Ballista). The AB-IMRT plans were used for treatment and were dosimetrically compared with three other approaches: conventional four-field, enlarged four-field, and beamlet-based IMRT (BB-IMRT). Disease control and toxicity were prospectively recorded and compared with retrospective data from 30 patients treated with a conventional four-field technique. Results: At a median follow-up of 27 months (range, 23-30), no relapse was noted among the AB-IMRT group compared with five relapses in the control group (p = 0.1). The characteristics of each group were similar, except for the mean body mass index, timing of brachytherapy, and applicator type used. Patients treated with AB-IMRT experienced more frequent Grade 2 or greater gastrointestinal acute toxicity (87% vs. 53%, p 0.02). No statistically significant difference was noted between the two groups regarding the incidence or severity of chronic toxicities. AB-IMRT plans significantly improved target coverage (93% vs. 76% of planning target volume receiving 45 Gy for AB-IMRT vs. conventional four-field technique, respectively). The sparing of organs at risk was similar to that of BB-IMRT. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that AB-IMRT provides excellent disease control with equivalent late toxicity compared with the conventional four-field technique. AB-IMRT provided treatment delivery and quality assurance advantages compared with BB-IMRT and could reduce the risk of second malignancy compared with BB-IMRT.

  8. Production of high intensity {sup 48}Ca for the 88-Inch Cyclotron and other updates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benitez, J. Y.; Hodgkinson, A.; Lyneis, C. M. Strohmeier, M.; Thullier, T.; Todd, D.; Xie, D.; Franzen, K. Y.

    2014-02-15

    Recently the Versatile ECR for NUclear Science (VENUS) ion source was engaged in a 60-day long campaign to deliver high intensity {sup 48}Ca{sup 11+} beam to the 88-Inch Cyclotron. As the first long term use of VENUS for multi-week heavy-element research, new methods were developed to maximize oven to target efficiency. First, the tuning parameters of VENUS for injection into the cyclotron proved to be very different than those used to tune VENUS for maximum beam output of the desired charge state immediately following its bending magnet. Second, helium with no oxygen support gas was used to maximize the efficiency. The performance of VENUS and its low temperature oven used to produce the stable requested 75 e?A of {sup 48}Ca{sup 11+} beam current was impressive. The consumption of {sup 48}Ca in VENUS using the low temperature oven was checked roughly weekly, and was found to be on average 0.27 mg/h with an ionization efficiency into the 11+ charge state of 5.0%. No degradation in performance was noted over time. In addition, with the successful operation of VENUS the 88-Inch cyclotron was able to extract a record 2 p?A of {sup 48}Ca{sup 11+}, with a VENUS output beam current of 219 e?A. The paper describes the characteristics of the VENUS tune used for maximum transport efficiency into the cyclotron as well as ongoing efforts to improve the transport efficiency from VENUS into the cyclotron. In addition, we briefly present details regarding the recent successful repair of the cryostat vacuum system.

  9. Outcomes After Intensity-Modulated Versus Conformal Radiotherapy in Older Men With Nonmetastatic Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bekelman, Justin E.; Mitra, Nandita; Efstathiou, Jason; Liao Kaijun; Sunderland, Robert; Yeboa, Deborah N.; Armstrong, Katrina

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: There is little evidence comparing complications after intensity-modulated (IMRT) vs. three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (CRT) for prostate cancer. The study objective was to test the hypothesis that IMRT, compared with CRT, is associated with a reduction in bowel, urinary, and erectile complications in elderly men with nonmetastatic prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: We undertook an observational cohort study using registry and administrative claims data from the SEER-Medicare database. We identified men aged 65 years or older diagnosed with nonmetastatic prostate cancer in the United States between 2002 and 2004 who received IMRT (n = 5,845) or CRT (n = 6,753). The primary outcome was a composite measure of bowel complications. Secondary outcomes were composite measures of urinary and erectile complications. We also examined specific subsets of bowel (proctitis/hemorrhage) and urinary (cystitis/hematuria) events within the composite complication measures. Results: IMRT was associated with reductions in composite bowel complications (24-month cumulative incidence 18.8% vs. 22.5%; hazard ratio [HR] 0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.79-0.93) and proctitis/hemorrhage (HR 0.78; 95% CI, 0.64-0.95). IMRT was not associated with rates of composite urinary complications (HR 0.93; 95% CI, 0.83-1.04) or cystitis/hematuria (HR 0.94; 95% CI, 0.83-1.07). The incidence of erectile complications involving invasive procedures was low and did not differ significantly between groups, although IMRT was associated with an increase in new diagnoses of impotence (HR 1.27, 95% CI, 1.14-1.42). Conclusion: IMRT is associated with a small reduction in composite bowel complications and proctitis/hemorrhage compared with CRT in elderly men with nonmetastatic prostate cancer.

  10. Life Cycle Energy and Environmental Assessment of Aluminum-Intensive Vehicle Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Sujit

    2014-01-01

    Advanced lightweight materials are increasingly being incorporated into new vehicle designs by automakers to enhance performance and assist in complying with increasing requirements of corporate average fuel economy standards. To assess the primary energy and carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) implications of vehicle designs utilizing these materials, this study examines the potential life cycle impacts of two lightweight material alternative vehicle designs, i.e., steel and aluminum of a typical passenger vehicle operated today in North America. LCA for three common alternative lightweight vehicle designs are evaluated: current production ( Baseline ), an advanced high strength steel and aluminum design ( LWSV ), and an aluminum-intensive design (AIV). This study focuses on body-in-white and closures since these are the largest automotive systems by weight accounting for approximately 40% of total curb weight of a typical passenger vehicle. Secondary mass savings resulting from body lightweighting are considered for the vehicles engine, driveline and suspension. A cradle-to-cradle life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted for these three vehicle material alternatives. LCA methodology for this study included material production, mill semi-fabrication, vehicle use phase operation, and end-of-life recycling. This study followed international standards ISO 14040:2006 [1] and ISO 14044:2006 [2], consistent with the automotive LCA guidance document currently being developed [3]. Vehicle use phase mass reduction was found to account for over 90% of total vehicle life cycle energy and CO2e emissions. The AIV design achieved mass reduction of 25% (versus baseline) resulting in reductions in total life cycle primary energy consumption by 20% and CO2e emissions by 17%. Overall, the AIV design showed the best breakeven vehicle mileage from both primary energy consumption and climate change perspectives.

  11. Replanning During Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Improved Quality of Life in Patients With Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Haihua; Hu Wei; Wang Wei; Chen Peifang; Ding Weijun; Luo Wei

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Anatomic and dosimetric changes have been reported during intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of replanning on quality of life (QoL) and clinical outcomes during the course of IMRT for NPC patients. Methods and Materials: Between June 2007 and August 2011, 129 patients with NPC were enrolled. Forty-three patients received IMRT without replanning, while 86 patients received IMRT replanning after computed tomography (CT) images were retaken part way through therapy. Chinese versions of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire C30 and Head and Neck Quality of Life Questionnaire 35 were completed before treatment began and at the end of treatment and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after the completion of treatment. Overall survival (OS) data were compared using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: IMRT replanning had a profound impact on the QoL of NPC patients, as determined by statistically significant changes in global QoL and other QoL scales. Additionally, the clinical outcome comparison indicates that replanning during IMRT for NPC significantly improved 2-year local regional control (97.2% vs 92.4%, respectively, P=.040) but did not improve 2-year OS (89.8% vs 82.2%, respectively, P=.475). Conclusions: IMRT replanning improves QoL as well as local regional control in patients with NPC. Future research is needed to determine the criteria for replanning for NPC patients undergoing IMRT.

  12. Hardware Architectures for Data-Intensive Computing Problems: A Case Study for String Matching

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tumeo, Antonino; Villa, Oreste; Chavarría-Miranda, Daniel

    2012-12-28

    DNA analysis is an emerging application of high performance bioinformatic. Modern sequencing machinery are able to provide, in few hours, large input streams of data, which needs to be matched against exponentially growing databases of known fragments. The ability to recognize these patterns effectively and fastly may allow extending the scale and the reach of the investigations performed by biology scientists. Aho-Corasick is an exact, multiple pattern matching algorithm often at the base of this application. High performance systems are a promising platform to accelerate this algorithm, which is computationally intensive but also inherently parallel. Nowadays, high performance systems also include heterogeneous processing elements, such as Graphic Processing Units (GPUs), to further accelerate parallel algorithms. Unfortunately, the Aho-Corasick algorithm exhibits large performance variability, depending on the size of the input streams, on the number of patterns to search and on the number of matches, and poses significant challenges on current high performance software and hardware implementations. An adequate mapping of the algorithm on the target architecture, coping with the limit of the underlining hardware, is required to reach the desired high throughputs. In this paper, we discuss the implementation of the Aho-Corasick algorithm for GPU-accelerated high performance systems. We present an optimized implementation of Aho-Corasick for GPUs and discuss its tradeoffs on the Tesla T10 and he new Tesla T20 (codename Fermi) GPUs. We then integrate the optimized GPU code, respectively, in a MPI-based and in a pthreads-based load balancer to enable execution of the algorithm on clusters and large sharedmemory multiprocessors (SMPs) accelerated with multiple GPUs.

  13. USING RUNNING DIFFERENCE IMAGES TO TRACK PROPER MOTIONS OF XUV CORONAL INTENSITY ON THE SUN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheeley, N. R. Jr.; Warren, H. P.; Lee, J. E-mail: harry.warren@nrl.navy.mil; Chung, S.; Katz, J.; Namkung, M

    2014-12-20

    We have developed a procedure for observing and tracking proper motions of faint XUV coronal intensity on the Sun and have applied this procedure to study the collective motions of cellular plumes and the shorter-period waves in sunspots. Our space/time maps of cellular plumes show a series of tracks with the same 5-8 minute repetition times and ?100 km s{sup –1} sky-plane speeds found previously in active-region fans and in coronal hole plumes. By synchronizing movies and space/time maps, we find that the tracks are produced by elongated ejections from the unipolar flux concentrations at the bases of the cellular plumes and that the phases of these ejections are uncorrelated from cell to cell. Thus, the large-scale motion is not a continuous flow, but is more like a system of independent conveyor belts all moving in the same direction along the magnetic field. In contrast, the proper motions in sunspots are clearly waves resulting from periodic disturbances in the sunspot umbras. The periods are ?2.6 minutes, but the sky-plane speeds and wavelengths depend on the heights of the waves above the sunspot. In the chromosphere, the waves decelerate from 35-45 km s{sup –1} in the umbra to 7-8 km s{sup –1} toward the outer edge of the penumbra, but in the corona, the waves accelerate to ?60-100 km s{sup –1}. Because chromospheric and coronal tracks originate from the same space/time locations, the coronal waves must emerge from the same umbral flashes that produce the chromospheric waves.

  14. An Anatomically Validated Brachial Plexus Contouring Method for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van de Velde, Joris, E-mail: joris.vandevelde@ugent.be [Department of Anatomy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Audenaert, Emmanuel [Department of Physical Medicine and Orthopedic Surgery, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Speleers, Bruno; Vercauteren, Tom; Mulliez, Thomas [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Vandemaele, Pieter; Achten, Eric [Department of Radiology, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Kerckaert, Ingrid; D'Herde, Katharina [Department of Anatomy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); De Neve, Wilfried [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Van Hoof, Tom [Department of Anatomy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To develop contouring guidelines for the brachial plexus (BP) using anatomically validated cadaver datasets. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) were used to obtain detailed visualizations of the BP region, with the goal of achieving maximal inclusion of the actual BP in a small contoured volume while also accommodating for anatomic variations. Methods and Materials: CT and MRI were obtained for 8 cadavers positioned for intensity modulated radiation therapy. 3-dimensional reconstructions of soft tissue (from MRI) and bone (from CT) were combined to create 8 separate enhanced CT project files. Dissection of the corresponding cadavers anatomically validated the reconstructions created. Seven enhanced CT project files were then automatically fitted, separately in different regions, to obtain a single dataset of superimposed BP regions that incorporated anatomic variations. From this dataset, improved BP contouring guidelines were developed. These guidelines were then applied to the 7 original CT project files and also to 1 additional file, left out from the superimposing procedure. The percentage of BP inclusion was compared with the published guidelines. Results: The anatomic validation procedure showed a high level of conformity for the BP regions examined between the 3-dimensional reconstructions generated and the dissected counterparts. Accurate and detailed BP contouring guidelines were developed, which provided corresponding guidance for each level in a clinical dataset. An average margin of 4.7 mm around the anatomically validated BP contour is sufficient to accommodate for anatomic variations. Using the new guidelines, 100% inclusion of the BP was achieved, compared with a mean inclusion of 37.75% when published guidelines were applied. Conclusion: Improved guidelines for BP delineation were developed using combined MRI and CT imaging with validation by anatomic dissection.

  15. EBT GAFCHROMIC{sup TM} film dosimetry in compensator-based intensity modulated radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vaezzadeh, Seyedali [Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Allahverdi, Mahmoud, E-mail: alahverdi@sina.tums.ac.ir [Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Radiotherapy—Oncology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nedaie, Hasan A. [Department of Radiotherapy—Oncology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ay, Mohammadreza [Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Center for Science and Technology in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shirazi, Alireza; Yarahmadi, Mehran [Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    The electron benefit transfer (EBT) GAFCHROMIC films possess a number of features making them appropriate for high-quality dosimetry in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Compensators to deliver IMRT are known to change the beam-energy spectrum as well as to produce scattered photons and to contaminate electrons; therefore, the accuracy and validity of EBT-film dosimetry in compensator-based IMRT should be investigated. Percentage-depth doses and lateral-beam profiles were measured using EBT films in perpendicular orientation with respect to 6 and 18 MV photon beam energies for: (1) different thicknesses of cerrobend slab (open, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 6.0 cm), field sizes (5×5, 10×10, and 20×20 cm{sup 2}), and measurement depths (D{sub max}, 5.0 and 10.0 cm); and (2) step-wedged compensator in a solid phantom. To verify results, same measurements were implemented using a 0.125 cm{sup 3} ionization chamber in a water phantom and also in Monte Carlo simulations using the Monte Carlo N-particle radiation transport computer code. The mean energy of photons was increased due to beam hardening in comparison with open fields at both 6 and 18 MV energies. For a 20×20 cm{sup 2} field size of a 6 MV photon beam and a 6.0 cm thick block, the surface dose decreased by about 12% and percentage-depth doses increased up to 3% at 30.0 cm depth, due to the beam-hardening effect induced by the block. In contrast, at 18 MV, the surface dose increased by about 8% and depth dose reduced by 3% at 30.0 cm depth. The penumbral widths (80% to 20%) increase with block thickness, field size, and beam energy. The EBT film results were in good agreement with the ionization chamber dose profiles and Monte Carlo N-particle radiation transport computer code simulation behind the step-wedged compensator. Also, there was a good agreement between the EBT-film and the treatment-planning results on the anthropomorphic phantom. The EBT films can be accurately used as a 2D dosimeter for dose verification and quality assurance of compensator-based C-IMRT.

  16. Modeling the neutral hydrogen distribution in the post-reionization Universe: intensity mapping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Villaescusa-Navarro, Francisco; Viel, Matteo; Datta, Kanan K.; Choudhury, T. Roy, E-mail: villaescusa@oats.inaf.it, E-mail: viel@oats.inaf.it, E-mail: kanan@ncra.tifr.res.in, E-mail: tirth@ncra.tifr.res.in

    2014-09-01

    We model the distribution of neutral hydrogen (HI) in the post-reionization era and investigate its detectability in 21 cm intensity mapping with future radio telescopes like the Square Kilometer array (SKA). We rely on high resolution hydrodynamical N-body simulations that have a state-of-the-art treatment of the low density photoionized gas in the inter-galactic medium (IGM). The HI is assigned a-posteriori to the gas particles following two different approaches: a halo-based method in which HI is assigned only to gas particles residing within dark matter halos; a particle-based method that assigns HI to all gas particles using a prescription based on the physical properties of the particles. The HI statistical properties are then compared to the observational properties of Damped Lyman-? Absorbers (DLAs) and of lower column density systems and reasonable good agreement is found for all the cases. Among the halo-based method, we further consider two different schemes that aim at reproducing the observed properties of DLAs by distributing HI inside halos: one of this results in a much higher bias for DLAs, in agreement with recent observations, which boosts the 21 cm power spectrum by a factor ? 4 with respect to the other recipe. Furthermore, we quantify the contribution of HI in the diffuse IGM to both ?{sub HI} and the HI power spectrum finding to be subdominant in both cases. We compute the 21 cm power spectrum from the simulated HI distribution and calculate the expected signal for both SKA1-mid and SKA1-low configurations at 2.4 ? z ? 4. We find that SKA will be able to detect the 21 cm power spectrum, in the non-linear regime, up to k ? 1 h/Mpc for SKA1-mid and k ? 5 h/Mpc for SKA1-low with 100 hours of observations. We also investigate the perspective of imaging the HI distribution. Our findings indicate that SKA1-low could detect the most massive HI peaks with a signal to noise ratio (SNR) higher than 5 for an observation time of about 1000 hours at z = 4, for a synthesized beam width of 2'. Detection at redshifts z?2.4 with SKA1-mid would instead require a much longer observation time to achieve a comparable SNR level.

  17. Strategies for the Commercialization and Deployment of Greenhouse Gas Intensity-Reducing Technologies and Practices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Committee on Climate Change Science and Technology Integration

    2009-01-01

    New technologies will be a critical component--perhaps the critical component--of our efforts to tackle the related challenges of energy security, climate change, and air pollution, all the while maintaining a strong economy. But just developing new technologies is not enough. Our ability to accelerate the market penetration of clean energy, enabling, and other climate-related technologies will have a determining impact on our ability to slow, stop, and reverse the growth in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Title XVI, Subtitle A, of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct 2005) directs the Administration to report on its strategy to promote the commercialization and deployment (C&D) of GHG intensity-reducing technologies and practices. The Act also requests the Administration to prepare an inventory of climate-friendly technologies suitable for deployment and to identify the barriers and commercial risks facing advanced technologies. Because these issues are related, they are integrated here within a single report that we, representing the Committee on Climate Change Science and Technology Integration (CCCSTI), are pleased to provide the President, the Congress, and the public. Over the past eight years, the Administration of President George W. Bush has pursued a series of policies and measures aimed at encouraging the development and deployment of advanced technologies to reduce GHG emissions. This report highlights these policies and measures, discusses the barriers to each, and integrates them within a larger body of other extant policy. Taken together, more than 300 policies and measures described in this document may be viewed in conjunction with the U.S. Climate Change Technology Program's (CCTP's) Strategic Plan, published in September 2006, which focuses primarily on the role of advanced technology and associated research and development (R&D) for mitigating GHG emissions. The CCTP, a multi-agency technology planning and coordination program, initiated by President Bush, and subsequently authorized in EPAct2005, is responsible for preparing this report on behalf CCCSTI. This report systematically examines the market readiness of key technologies important to meeting climate change mitigation goals. It assesses the barriers and business risks impeding their progress and greater market application. Importantly, by documenting the hundreds of Federal policies, programs, regulations, incentives, and other activities that are in effect and operating today to address these barriers, it provides a broad context for evaluating the adequacy of current policy and the potential need, if any, for additional measures that might be undertaken by government or industry. Finally, it draws conclusions about the current situation, identifies gaps and opportunities, and suggests analytical principles that should be applied to assess and formulate policies and measures to accelerate the commercialization and deployment of these technologies.

  18. Larynx-sparing techniques using intensity-modulated radiation therapy for oropharyngeal cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bar Ad, Voichita; Lin, Haibo; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Deville, Curtiland; Dutta, Pinaki R.; Tochner, Zelig; Both, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to explore whether the laryngeal dose can be reduced by using 2 intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) techniques: whole-neck field IMRT technique (WF-IMRT) vs. junctioned IMRT (J-IMRT). The effect on planning target volumes (PTVs) coverage and laryngeal sparing was evaluated. WF-IMRT technique consisted of a single IMRT plan, including the primary tumor and the superior and inferior neck to the level of the clavicular heads. The larynx was defined as an organ at risk extending superiorly to cover the arytenoid cartilages and inferiorly to include the cricoid cartilage. The J-IMRT technique consisted of an IMRT plan for the primary tumor and the superior neck, matched to conventional antero-posterior opposing lower neck fields at the level of the thyroid notch. A central block was used for the anterior lower neck field at the level of the larynx to restrict the dose to the larynx. Ten oropharyngeal cancer cases were analyzed. Both the primary site and bilateral regional lymphatics were included in the radiotherapy targets. The averaged V95 for the PTV57.6 was 99.2% for the WF-IMRT technique compared with 97.4% (p = 0.02) for J-IMRT. The averaged V95 for the PTV64 was 99.9% for the WF-IMRT technique compared with 98.9% (p = 0.02) for J-IMRT and the averaged V95 for the PT70 was 100.0% for WF-IMRT technique compared with 99.5% (p = 0.04) for J-IMRT. The averaged mean laryngeal dose was 18 Gy with both techniques. The averaged mean doses within the matchline volumes were 69.3 Gy for WF-MRT and 66.2 Gy for J-IMRT (p = 0.03). The WF-IMRT technique appears to offer an optimal coverage of the target volumes and a mean dose to the larynx similar with J-IMRT and should be further evaluated in clinical trials.

  19. Postoperative Intensity-Modulated Arc Therapy for Cervical and Endometrial Cancer: A Prospective Report on Toxicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vandecasteele, Katrien, E-mail: Katrien.Vandecasteele@uzgent.be [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Tummers, Philippe; Makar, Amin [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium)] [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Eijkeren, Marc van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Delrue, Louke [Department of Radiology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium)] [Department of Radiology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Denys, Hannelore [Department of Medical Oncology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium)] [Department of Medical Oncology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Lambert, Bieke [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium)] [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Beerens, Anne-Sophie [Department of Pathology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium)] [Department of Pathology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Van den Broecke, Rudy [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium)] [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Lambein, Kathleen [Department of Pathology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium)] [Department of Pathology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Fonteyne, Valerie; De Meerleer, Gert [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To report on toxicity after postoperative intensity-modulated arc therapy (IMAT) for cervical (CC) and endometrial cancer (EC). Methods and Materials: Twenty-four CC and 41 EC patients were treated with postoperative IMAT. If indicated, para-aortic lymph node irradiation (preventive or when affected, PALN) and/or concomitant cisplatin (40 mg/m Superscript-Two , weekly) was administered. The prescribed dose for IMAT was 45 Gy (CC, 25 fractions) and 46 Gy (EC, 23 fractions), followed by a brachytherapeutic boost if possible. Radiation-related toxicity was assessed prospectively. The effect of concomitant cisplatin and PALN irradiation was evaluated. Results: Regarding acute toxicity (n = 65), Grade 3 and 2 acute gastrointestinal toxicity was observed in zero and 63% of patients (79% CC, 54% EC), respectively. Grade 3 and 2 acute genitourinary toxicity was observed in 1% and 18% of patients, respectively. Grade 2 (21%) and 3 (12%) hematologic toxicity (n = 41) occurred only in CC patients. Seventeen percent of CC patients and 2% of EC patients experienced Grade 2 fatigue and skin toxicity, respectively. Adding cisplatin led to an increase in Grade >2 nausea (57% vs. 9%; p = 0.01), Grade 2 nocturia (24% vs. 4%; p = 0.03), Grade {>=}2 hematologic toxicity (38% vs. nil, p = 0.003), Grade {>=}2 leukopenia (33% vs. nil, p = 0.009), and a strong trend toward more fatigue (14% vs. 2%; p = 0.05). Para-aortic lymph node irradiation led to an increase of Grade 2 nocturia (31% vs. 4%, p = 0.008) and a strong trend toward more Grade >2 nausea (44% vs. 18%; p = 0.052). Regarding late toxicity (n = 45), no Grade 3 or 4 late toxicity occurred. Grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicity, genitourinary toxicity, and fatigue occurred in 4%, 9%, and 1% of patients. Neither concomitant cisplatin nor PALN irradiation increased late toxicity rates. Conclusions: Postoperative IMAT for EC or CC is associated with low acute and late toxicity. Concomitant chemotherapy and PALN irradiation influences acute but not late toxicity.

  20. Quantitative analysis of the x-ray diffraction intensities of undulated smectic phases in bent-core liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Folcia, C. L.; Etxebarria, J.; Ortega, J.

    2007-07-15

    X-ray diffraction diagrams of undulated smectic phases in bent-core liquid crystals have been theoretically studied. The intensities of the reflections have been obtained for different layer modulations, and a general expression has been deduced for orthogonal cells in terms of the different harmonics of the distortion. The case of sinusoidal modulation is especially simple and has been studied also in oblique cells. High-quality x-ray measurements of three compounds reported in the literature have been analyzed as examples. In all cases it has been deduced that the modulation is sinusoidal and its amplitude has been easily obtained by fitting the experimental intensities. Equatorial (h0) reflections have been also considered to obtain information about the structure of defects at the maxima and minima of the undulation.