National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for intense broadband sources

  1. Intense fusion neutron sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuteev, B. V.; Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Khripunov, V. I.

    2010-04-15

    The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 10{sup 15}-10{sup 21} neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 10{sup 20} neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the neutron itself.

  2. Energy Intensity Indicators: Commercial Source Energy Consumption |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Commercial Source Energy Consumption Energy Intensity Indicators: Commercial Source Energy Consumption Figure C1 below reports as index numbers over the period 1970 through 2011: 1) commercial building floor space, 2) energy use based on source energy consumption, 3) energy intensity, and 4) the year-to-year influence of weather. Activity: Since 1970, the quantity of commercial floor space has nearly doubled, with about half of that increase occurring after 1985. There

  3. Energy Intensity Indicators: Residential Source Energy Consumption |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Residential Source Energy Consumption Energy Intensity Indicators: Residential Source Energy Consumption Figure R1 below reports as index numbers over the period 1970 through 2011: 1) the number of U.S. households, 2) the average size of those housing units, 3) residential source energy consumption, 4) energy intensity, and 5) an overall structural component that represents "other explanatory factors." Activity: Since 1970, the number of household (occupied

  4. ON COMPUTING UPPER LIMITS TO SOURCE INTENSITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kashyap, Vinay L.; Siemiginowska, Aneta [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Van Dyk, David A.; Xu Jin [Department of Statistics, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-1250 (United States); Connors, Alanna [Eureka Scientific, 2452 Delmer Street, Suite 100, Oakland, CA 94602-3017 (United States); Freeman, Peter E. [Department of Statistics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Zezas, Andreas, E-mail: vkashyap@cfa.harvard.ed, E-mail: asiemiginowska@cfa.harvard.ed, E-mail: dvd@ics.uci.ed, E-mail: jinx@ics.uci.ed, E-mail: aconnors@eurekabayes.co, E-mail: pfreeman@cmu.ed, E-mail: azezas@cfa.harvard.ed [Physics Department, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, GR-710 03, Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2010-08-10

    A common problem in astrophysics is determining how bright a source could be and still not be detected in an observation. Despite the simplicity with which the problem can be stated, the solution involves complicated statistical issues that require careful analysis. In contrast to the more familiar confidence bound, this concept has never been formally analyzed, leading to a great variety of often ad hoc solutions. Here we formulate and describe the problem in a self-consistent manner. Detection significance is usually defined by the acceptable proportion of false positives (background fluctuations that are claimed as detections, or Type I error), and we invoke the complementary concept of false negatives (real sources that go undetected, or Type II error), based on the statistical power of a test, to compute an upper limit to the detectable source intensity. To determine the minimum intensity that a source must have for it to be detected, we first define a detection threshold and then compute the probabilities of detecting sources of various intensities at the given threshold. The intensity that corresponds to the specified Type II error probability defines that minimum intensity and is identified as the upper limit. Thus, an upper limit is a characteristic of the detection procedure rather than the strength of any particular source. It should not be confused with confidence intervals or other estimates of source intensity. This is particularly important given the large number of catalogs that are being generated from increasingly sensitive surveys. We discuss, with examples, the differences between these upper limits and confidence bounds. Both measures are useful quantities that should be reported in order to extract the most science from catalogs, though they answer different statistical questions: an upper bound describes an inference range on the source intensity, while an upper limit calibrates the detection process. We provide a recipe for computing upper limits that applies to all detection algorithms.

  5. Energy Intensity Indicators: Industrial Source Energy Consumption |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Industrial Source Energy Consumption Energy Intensity Indicators: Industrial Source Energy Consumption The industrial sector comprises manufacturing and other nonmanufacturing industries not included in transportation or services. Manufacturing includes 18 industry sectors, generally defined at the three-digit level of the North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS). The nonmanufacturing sectors are agriculture, forestry and fisheries, mining, and

  6. High intensity x-ray source using liquid gallium target

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smither, Robert K. (Hinsdale, IL); Knapp, Gordon S. (Cupertino, CA); Westbrook, Edwin M. (Chicago, IL); Forster, George A. (Westmont, IL)

    1990-01-01

    A high intensity x-ray source that uses a flowing stream of liquid gallium as a target with the electron beam impinging directly on the liquid metal.

  7. HIGH-INTENSITY, HIGH CHARGE-STATE HEAVY ION SOURCES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ALESSI,J.G.

    2004-08-16

    There are many accelerator applications for high intensity heavy ion sources, with recent needs including dc beams for RIA, and pulsed beams for injection into synchrotrons such as RHIC and LHC. The present status of sources producing high currents of high charge state heavy ions is reviewed. These sources include ECR, EBIS, and Laser ion sources. Benefits and limitations for these type sources are described. Possible future improvements in these sources are also mentioned.

  8. LED intense headband light source for fingerprint analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Villa-Aleman, Eliel

    2005-03-08

    A portable, lightweight and high-intensity light source for detecting and analyzing fingerprints during field investigation. On-site field analysis requires long hours of mobile analysis. In one embodiment, the present invention comprises a plurality of light emitting diodes; a power source; and a personal attachment means; wherein the light emitting diodes are powered by the power source, and wherein the power source and the light emitting diodes are attached to the personal attachment means to produce a personal light source for on-site analysis of latent fingerprints. The present invention is available for other applications as well.

  9. High Intensity Gamma-Ray Source (HIGS) Program Advisory Committee

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Intensity Gamma-Ray Source (HIGS) Program Advisory Committee June 10-11, 2014, DFELL Conference Room PROGRAM The HIGS PAC will meet on June 10 - 11, 2014 on the campus of Duke University. The detailed schedule of the presentations will be posted two weeks prior to the PAC meeting. Tuesday June 10 th Wednesday June 11 th

  10. Degree of polarization and source counts of faint radio sources from Stacking Polarized intensity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stil, J. M.; George, S. J.; Keller, B. W.; Taylor, A. R.

    2014-06-01

    We present stacking polarized intensity as a means to study the polarization of sources that are too faint to be detected individually in surveys of polarized radio sources. Stacking offers not only high sensitivity to the median signal of a class of radio sources, but also avoids a detection threshold in polarized intensity, and therefore an arbitrary exclusion of sources with a low percentage of polarization. Correction for polarization bias is done through a Monte Carlo analysis and tested on a simulated survey. We show that the nonlinear relation between the real polarized signal and the detected signal requires knowledge of the shape of the distribution of fractional polarization, which we constrain using the ratio of the upper quartile to the lower quartile of the distribution of stacked polarized intensities. Stacking polarized intensity for NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) sources down to the detection limit in Stokes I, we find a gradual increase in median fractional polarization that is consistent with a trend that was noticed before for bright NVSS sources, but is much more gradual than found by previous deep surveys of radio polarization. Consequently, the polarized radio source counts derived from our stacking experiment predict fewer polarized radio sources for future surveys with the Square Kilometre Array and its pathfinders.

  11. High intensity neutrino source superconducting solenoid cyrostat design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Page, T.M.; Nicol, T.H.; Feher, S.; Terechkine, I.; Tompkins, J.; /Fermilab

    2006-06-01

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) is involved in the development of a 100 MeV superconducting linac. This linac is part of the High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) R&D Program. The initial beam acceleration in the front end section of the linac is achieved using room temperature spoke cavities, each of which is combined with a superconducting focusing solenoid. These solenoid magnets are cooled with liquid helium at 4.5K, operate at 250 A and have a maximum magnetic field strength of 7.5 T. The solenoid cryostat will house the helium vessel, suspension system, thermal shield, multilayer insulation, power leads, instrumentation, a vacuum vessel and cryogenic distribution lines. This paper discusses the requirements and detailed design of these superconducting solenoid cryostats.

  12. Direct and quantitative broadband absorptance spectroscopy with multilayer cantilever probes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Wei-Chun; Tong, Jonathan Kien-Kwok; Liao, Bolin; Chen, Gang

    2015-04-21

    A system for measuring the absorption spectrum of a sample is provided that includes a broadband light source that produces broadband light defined within a range of an absorptance spectrum. An interferometer modulates the intensity of the broadband light source for a range of modulation frequencies. A bi-layer cantilever probe arm is thermally connected to a sample arm having at most two layers of materials. The broadband light modulated by the interferometer is directed towards the sample and absorbed by the sample and converted into heat, which causes a temperature rise and bending of the bi-layer cantilever probe arm. A detector mechanism measures and records the deflection of the probe arm so as to obtain the absorptance spectrum of the sample.

  13. H- Ion Sources for High Intensity Proton Drivers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Rolland Paul; Dudnikov, Vadim

    2015-02-20

    Existing RF Surface Plasma Sources (SPS) for accelerators have specific efficiencies for H+ and H- ion generation around 3 to 5 mA/cm2 per kW, where about 50 kW of RF power is typically needed for 50 mA beam current production. The Saddle Antenna (SA) SPS described here was developed to improve H- ion production efficiency, reliability and availability for pulsed operation as used in the ORNL Spallation Neutron Source . At low RF power, the efficiency of positive ion generation in the plasma has been improved to 200 mA/cm2 per kW of RF power at 13.56 MHz. Initial cesiation of the SPS was performed by heating cesium chromate cartridges by discharge as was done in the very first versions of the SPS. A small oven to decompose cesium compounds and alloys was developed and tested. After cesiation, the current of negative ions to the collector was increased from 1 mA to 10 mA with RF power 1.5 kW in the plasma (6 mm diameter emission aperture) and up to 30 mA with 4 kW RF power in the plasma and 250 Gauss longitudinal magnetic field. The ratio of electron current to negative ion current was improved from 30 to 2. Stable generation of H- beam without intensity degradation was demonstrated in the aluminum nitride (AlN) discharge chamber for 32 days at high discharge power in an RF SPS with an external antenna. Some modifications were made to improve the cooling and cesiation stability. The extracted collector current can be increased significantly by optimizing the longitudinal magnetic field in the discharge chamber. While this project demonstrated the advantages of the pulsed version of the SA RF SPS as an upgrade to the ORNL Spallation Neutron Source, it led to a possibility for upgrades to CW machines like the many cyclotrons used for commercial applications. Four appendices contain important details of the work carried out under this grant.

  14. Broadband visible light source based on AllnGaN light emitting diodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crawford, Mary H.; Nelson, Jeffrey S.

    2003-12-16

    A visible light source device is described based on a light emitting diode and a nanocluster-based film. The light emitting diode utilizes a semiconductor quantum well structure between n-type and p-type semiconductor materials on the top surface a substrate such as sapphire. The nanocluster-based film is deposited on the bottom surface of the substrate and can be derived from a solution of MoS.sub.2, MoSe.sub.2, WS.sub.2, and WSe.sub.2 particles of size greater than approximately 2 nm in diameter and less than approximately 15 nm in diameter, having an absorption wavelength greater than approximately 300 nm and less than approximately 650 nm.

  15. Intense Super-radiant X-rays from a Compact Source using a Nanocathode...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Intense Super-radiant X-rays from a Compact Source using a Nanocathode Array and Emittance Exchange Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Intense Super-radiant X-rays from a...

  16. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave broadband radiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Send Measurement : Shortwave broadband radiance A measure of the intrinsic radiant energy flux intensity, at wavelengths between 0.4 and 4 mu, emitted by a radiator in a...

  17. Short-term Human Vision Protection from Intense Light Sources | Princeton

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plasma Physics Lab Short-term Human Vision Protection from Intense Light Sources The primary objective of this invention is to minimize the sensitivity of the human eye to intense visible light by blocking or reducing the incident fluence of light before it can cause the eye to become insensitive to the light, or temporarily blinded. Typical applications may be pilots subjected to light from laser pointers, or workers in occupations that may expose them to temporary intense light sources.

  18. Intense Super-radiant X-rays from a Compact Source using a Nanocathode

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Array and Emittance Exchange (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Intense Super-radiant X-rays from a Compact Source using a Nanocathode Array and Emittance Exchange Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Intense Super-radiant X-rays from a Compact Source using a Nanocathode Array and Emittance Exchange A novel method of producing intense short wavelength radiation from relativistic electrons is described. The electrons are periodically bunched at the wavelength of interest enabling

  19. Broadband radiometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cannon, T.W.

    1994-07-26

    A broadband radiometer is disclosed including (a) an optical integrating sphere having generally spherical integrating chamber and an entry port for receiving light (e.g., having visible and ultraviolet fractions), (b) a first optical radiation detector for receiving light from the sphere and producing an electrical output signal corresponding to broadband radiation, (c) a second optical radiation detector for receiving light from the sphere and producing an electrical output signal corresponding to a predetermined wavelength fraction of the broadband radiation, and (d) an output for producing an electrical signal which is proportional to the difference between the two electrical output signals. The radiometer is very useful, for example, in measuring the absolute amount of ultraviolet light present in a given light sample. 8 figs.

  20. Intense Pulsed Neutron Source progress report for 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schriesheim, Alan

    1991-01-01

    The IPNS Progress Report 10th Anniversary Edition is being published in recognition of the first ten years of successful IPNS operation. To emphasize the significance of this milestone, we wanted this report to stand apart from the previous IPNS Progress Reports, and the best way to do this, we thought, was to make the design and organization of the report significantly different. In their articles, authors were asked to emphasize not only advances made since IPNS began operating but also the groundwork that was laid at its predecessor facilities - Argonne's ZING-P and ZING-P' prototype pulsed neutron sources and CP-5 reactor. Each article stands as a separate chapter in the report, since each represents a particular instrument or class of instruments, system, technique, or area of research. In some cases, contributions were similar to review articles in scientific journals, complete with extensive lists of references. Ten-year cumulative lists of members of IPNS committees and of scientists who have visited or done experiments at IPNS were assembled. A list of published and in press'' articles in journals, books, and conference proceedings, resulting from work done at IPNS during the past ten years, was compiled. And archival photographs of people and activities during the ten-year history of IPNS were located and were used liberally throughout the report. The titles of the chapters in this report are: accelerator; computer; radiation effects; powder; stress; single crystal; superconductivity; amorphous; small angle; reflection; quasielastic; inelastic; inelastic magnetic; deep inelastic; user program; the future; and publications.

  1. Intense Pulsed Neutron Source progress report for 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    The IPNS Progress Report 10th Anniversary Edition is being published in recognition of the first ten years of successful IPNS operation. To emphasize the significance of this milestone, we wanted this report to stand apart from the previous IPNS Progress Reports, and the best way to do this, we thought, was to make the design and organization of the report significantly different. In their articles, authors were asked to emphasize not only advances made since IPNS began operating but also the groundwork that was laid at its predecessor facilities - Argonne`s ZING-P and ZING-P` prototype pulsed neutron sources and CP-5 reactor. Each article stands as a separate chapter in the report, since each represents a particular instrument or class of instruments, system, technique, or area of research. In some cases, contributions were similar to review articles in scientific journals, complete with extensive lists of references. Ten-year cumulative lists of members of IPNS committees and of scientists who have visited or done experiments at IPNS were assembled. A list of published and ``in press`` articles in journals, books, and conference proceedings, resulting from work done at IPNS during the past ten years, was compiled. And archival photographs of people and activities during the ten-year history of IPNS were located and were used liberally throughout the report. The titles of the chapters in this report are: accelerator; computer; radiation effects; powder; stress; single crystal; superconductivity; amorphous; small angle; reflection; quasielastic; inelastic; inelastic magnetic; deep inelastic; user program; the future; and publications.

  2. Determining X-ray source intensity and confidence bounds in crowded fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Primini, F. A.; Kashyap, V. L.

    2014-11-20

    We present a rigorous description of the general problem of aperture photometry in high-energy astrophysics photon-count images, in which the statistical noise model is Poisson, not Gaussian. We compute the full posterior probability density function for the expected source intensity for various cases of interest, including the important cases in which both source and background apertures contain contributions from the source, and when multiple source apertures partially overlap. A Bayesian approach offers the advantages of allowing one to (1) include explicit prior information on source intensities, (2) propagate posterior distributions as priors for future observations, and (3) use Poisson likelihoods, making the treatment valid in the low-counts regime. Elements of this approach have been implemented in the Chandra Source Catalog.

  3. Utilizing gas-filled cavities for the generation of an intense muon source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stratakis, Diktys; Neuffer, David V.

    2015-05-03

    A key requirement for designing intense muon sources is operating rf cavities in multi-tesla magnetic fields. Recently, a proof-of-principle experiment demonstrated that an rf cavity filed with high pressure hydrogen gas could meet this goal. In this study, rigorous simulation is used to design and evaluate the performance of an intense muon source with gas filled cavities. We present a new lattice design and compare our results with conventional schemes. We detail the influence of gas pressure on the muon production rate.

  4. Development of high-intensity D-D and D-T neutron sources and neutron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    filters for medical and industrial applications (Thesis/Dissertation) | SciTech Connect Thesis/Dissertation: Development of high-intensity D-D and D-T neutron sources and neutron filters for medical and industrial applications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Development of high-intensity D-D and D-T neutron sources and neutron filters for medical and industrial applications × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a

  5. Overview of the High Intensity Neutrino Source Linac R&D program at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webber, R.C.; Appollinari, G.; Carneiro, J.P.; Gonin, I.; Hanna, B.; Hays, S.; Khabiboulline, T.; Lanfranco, G.; Madrak, R.L.; Moretti, A.; Nicol, T.; /Fermilab /Argonne

    2008-09-01

    The Fermilab High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) Linac R&D program is building a first-of-a-kind 60 MeV superconducting H- linac. The HINS Linac incorporates superconducting solenoids for transverse focusing, high power RF vector modulators for independent control of multiple cavities powered from a single klystron, and superconducting spoke-type accelerating cavities starting at 10 MeV. This will be the first application and demonstration of any of these technologies in a low-energy, high-intensity proton/H- linear accelerator. The HINS effort is relevant to a high intensity, superconducting H- linac that might serve the next generation of neutrino physics and muon storage ring/collider experiments. An overview of the HINS program, machine design, status, and outlook is presented.

  6. Design of an intense muon source with a carbon and mercury target

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stratakis, D.; Berg, J. S.; Neuffer, D.; Ding, X.

    2015-05-03

    In high-intensity sources, muons are produced by firing high energy protons onto a target to produce pions. The pions decay to muons which are captured and accelerated. In the present study, we examine the performance of the channel for two different target scenarios: one based on liquid mercury and another one based on a solid carbon target. We produce distributions with the two different target materials and discuss differences in particle spectrum near the sources. We then propagate the distributions through our capture system and compare the full system performance for the two target types.

  7. Long lifetime, low intensity light source for use in nighttime viewing of equipment maps and other writings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, Alan M. (Livermore, CA); Edwards, William R. (Modesto, CA)

    1983-01-01

    A long-lifetime light source with sufficiently low intensity to be used for reading a map or other writing at nighttime, while not obscuring the user's normal night vision. This light source includes a diode electrically connected in series with a small power source and a lens properly positioned to focus at least a portion of the light produced by the diode.

  8. Intense beams from gases generated by a permanent magnet ECR ion source at PKU

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ren, H. T.; Chen, J. E.; Peng, S. X.; Lu, P. N.; Yan, S.; Zhou, Q. F.; Zhao, J.; Yuan, Z. X.; Guo, Z. Y.

    2012-02-15

    An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source is designed for the production of high-current ion beams of various gaseous elements. At the Peking University (PKU), the primary study is focused on developing suitable permanent magnet ECR ion sources (PMECRs) for separated function radio frequency quadrupole (SFRFQ) accelerator and for Peking University Neutron Imaging Facility. Recently, other kinds of high-intensity ion beams are required for new acceleration structure demonstration, simulation of fusion reactor material irradiation, aviation bearing modification, and other applications. So we expanded the ion beam category from O{sup +}, H{sup +}, and D{sup +} to N{sup +}, Ar{sup +}, and He{sup +}. Up to now, about 120 mA of H{sup +}, 83 mA of D{sup +}, 50 mA of O{sup +}, 63 mA of N{sup +}, 70 mA of Ar{sup +}, and 65 mA of He{sup +} extracted at 50 kV through a {phi} 6 mm aperture were produced by the PMECRs at PKU. Their rms emittances are less than 0.2 {pi} mm mrad. Tungsten samples were irradiated by H{sup +} or He{sup +} beam extracted from this ion source and H/He holes and bubbles have been observed on the samples. A method to produce a high intensity H/He mixed beam to study synergistic effect is developed for nuclear material irradiation. To design a He{sup +} beam injector for coupled radio frequency quadruple and SFRFQ cavity, He{sup +} beam transmission experiments were carried out on PKU low energy beam transport test bench and the transmission was less than 50%. It indicated that some electrode modifications must be done to decrease the divergence of He{sup +} beam.

  9. Intense Pulsed Neutron Source: Progress report 1991--1996. 15. Anniversary edition -- Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-05-01

    The 15th Anniversary Edition of the IPNS Progress Report is being published in recognition of the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source`s first 15 years of successful operation as a user facility. To emphasize the importance of this milestone, the author shave made the design and organization of the report significantly different from previous IPNS Progress Reports. This report consists of two volumes. For Volume 1, authors were asked to prepare articles that highlighted recent scientific accomplishments at IPNS, from 1991 to present; to focus on and illustrate the scientific advances achieved through the unique capabilities of neutron studies performed by IPNS users; to report on specific activities or results from an instrument; or to focus on a body of work encompassing different neutron-scattering techniques. Articles were also included on the accelerator system, instrumentation, computing, target, and moderators. A list of published and ``in press` articles in journals, books, and conference proceedings, resulting from work done at IPNS since 1991, was compiled. This list is arranged alphabetically according to first author. Publication references in the articles are listed by last name of first author and year of publication. The IPNS experimental reports received since 1991 are compiled in Volume 2. Experimental reports referenced in the articles are listed by last name of first author, instrument designation, and experiment number.

  10. Intense Pulsed Neutron Source: Progress report 1991--1996. 15. Anniversary edition -- Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marzec, B.

    1996-05-01

    The 15th Anniversary Edition of the IPNS Progress Report is being published in recognition of the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source`s first 15 years of successful operation as a user facility. To emphasize the importance of this milestone, the authors have made the design and organization of the report significantly different from previous IPNS Progress Reports. This report consists of two volumes. For Volume 1, authors were asked to prepare articles that highlighted recent scientific accomplishments at IPNS, from 1991 to present; to focus on and illustrate the scientific advances achieved through the unique capabilities of neutron studies performed by IPNS users; to report on specific activities or results from an instrument; or to focus on a body of work encompassing different neutron-scattering techniques. Articles were also included on the accelerator system, instrumentation, computing, target, and moderators. A list of published and ``in press` articles in journals, books, and conference proceedings, resulting from work done at IPNS since 1991, was compiled. This list is arranged alphabetically according to first author. Publication references in the articles are listed by last name of first author and year of publication. The IPNS experimental reports received since 1991 are compiled in Volume 2. Experimental reports referenced in the articles are listed by last name of first author, instrument designation, and experiment number.

  11. Long lifetime, low intensity light source for use in nighttime viewing of equipment maps and other writings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, A.M.; Edwards, W.R.

    1983-10-11

    A long-lifetime light source with sufficiently low intensity to be used for reading a map or other writing at nighttime, while not obscuring the user's normal night vision is disclosed. This light source includes a diode electrically connected in series with a small power source and a lens properly positioned to focus at least a portion of the light produced by the diode. 1 fig.

  12. Long lifetime, low intensity light source for use in nighttime viewing of equipment maps and other writings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, A.M.; Edwards, W.R.

    1982-03-23

    A long-lifetime light source is discussed with sufficiently low intensity to be used for reading a map or other writing at nightime, while not obscuring the user's normal night vision. This light source includes a diode electrically connected in series with a small power source and a lens properly positioned to focus at least a portion of the light produced by the diode.

  13. Broad-band beam buncher

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldberg, David A. (Walnut Creek, CA); Flood, William S. (Berkeley, CA); Arthur, Allan A. (Martinez, CA); Voelker, Ferdinand (Orinda, CA)

    1986-01-01

    A broad-band beam buncher is disclosed, comprising an evacuated housing, an electron gun therein for producing an electron beam, a buncher cavity having entrance and exit openings through which the beam is directed, grids across such openings, a source providing a positive DC voltage between the cavity and the electron gun, a drift tube through which the electron beam travels in passing through such cavity, grids across the ends of such drift tube, gaps being provided between the drift tube grids and the entrance and exit grids, a modulator for supplying an ultrahigh frequency modulating signal to the drift tube for producing velocity modulation of the electrons in the beam, a drift space in the housing through which the velocity modulated electron beam travels and in which the beam is bunched, and a discharge opening from such drift tube and having a grid across such opening through which the bunched electron beam is discharged into an accelerator or the like. The buncher cavity and the drift tube may be arranged to constitute an extension of a coaxial transmission line which is employed to deliver the modulating signal from a signal source. The extended transmission line may be terminated in its characteristic impedance to afford a broad-band response and the device as a whole designed to effect broad-band beam coupling, so as to minimize variations of the output across the response band.

  14. ARM: Broadband Radiometer Station (BRS) broadband shortwave and longwave 1-min radiation data with Dutton correction

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Laura Riihimaki

    1993-09-01

    Broadband Radiometer Station (BRS) broadband shortwave and longwave 1-min radiation data with Dutton correction

  15. ARM: Broadband Radiometer Station (BRS) broadband shortwave and longwave 1-min radiation data with Dutton correction

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Laura Riihimaki

    Broadband Radiometer Station (BRS) broadband shortwave and longwave 1-min radiation data with Dutton correction

  16. High-intensity ion sources for accelerators with emphasis on H-beam formation and transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, Roderich [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    This paper lays out the fundamental working principles of a variety of high-current ion sources for accelerators in a tutorial manner, and gives examples of specific source types such as d. c. discharge- and rf-driven multicusp sources. Penning-type and ECR-based sources while discussing those principles, pointing out general performance limits as well as the performance parameters of specific sources. Laser-based, two-chamber-. and surface-ionization sources are briefly mentioned. Main aspects of this review are particle feed. ionization mechanism, beam formation and beam transport. Issues seen with beam formation and low-energy transport of negative hydrogen-ion beams are treated in detail.

  17. Numerical and experimental study of atomic transport and Balmer line intensity in Linac4 negative ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shibata, T. Nishida, K.; Hatayama, A.; Mattei, S.; Lettry, J.

    2015-04-08

    Time structure of Balmer H{sub ?} line intensity in Linac4 RF plasma has been analyzed by the combined simulation model of atomic transport and Collisional-Radiative models. As a preliminary result, time variation of the line intensity in the ignition phase of RF plasma is calculated and compared with the experimental results by photometry. For the comparison, spatial distribution of the local H{sub ?} photon emission rate at each time is calculated from the numerical model. The contribution of the local photon emission rates to the observed line intensity via optical viewing port is also investigated by application of the mock-up of the optical viewing port and the known light source. It has been clarified from the analyses that the higher and the lower peaks of the H{sub ?} line intensity observed during 1 RF cycle is mainly due to the different spatial distributions in the electron energy distribution function and the resultant local photon emission rate. These results support previous suggestion that the existence of the capacitive electric field in axial direction leads to the higher/lower peaks of the line intensity.

  18. A high intensity 200 mA proton source for the FRANZ-Project (Frankfurt-Neutron-Source at the Stern-Gerlach-Center)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schweizer, W. Ratzinger, U.; Klump, B.; Volk, K.

    2014-02-15

    At the University of Frankfurt a high current proton source has been developed and tested for the FRANZ-Project [U. Ratzinger, L. P. Chau, O. Meusel, A. Schempp, K. Volk, M. Heil, F. Kppeler, and R. Stieglitz, Intense pulsed neutron source FRANZ in the 1500 keV range, ICANS-XVIII Proceedings, Dongguan, April 2007, p. 210]. The ion source is a filament driven arc discharge ion source. The new design consists of a plasma generator, equipped with a filter magnet to produce nearly pure proton beams (92 %), and a compact triode extraction system. The beam current density has been enhanced up to 521 mA/cm{sup 2}. Using an emission opening radius of 4 mm, a proton beam current of 240 mA at 50 keV beam energy in continuous wave mode (cw) has been extracted. This paper will present the current status of the proton source including experimental results of detailed investigations of the beam composition in dependence of different plasma parameters. Both, cw and pulsed mode were studied. Furthermore, the performance of the ion source was studied with deuterium as working gas.

  19. Liquid lithium target as a high intensity, high energy neutron source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parkin, Don M.; Dudey, Norman D.

    1976-01-01

    This invention provides a target jet for charged particles. In one embodiment the charged particles are high energy deuterons that bombard the target jet to produce high intensity, high energy neutrons. To this end, deuterons in a vacuum container bombard an endlessly circulating, free-falling, sheet-shaped, copiously flowing, liquid lithium jet that gushes by gravity from a rectangular cross-section vent on the inside of the container means to form a moving web in contact with the inside wall of the vacuum container. The neutrons are produced via break-up of the beam in the target by stripping, spallation and compound nuclear reactions in which the projectiles (deuterons) interact with the target (Li) to produce excited nuclei, which then "boil off" or evaporate a neutron.

  20. Intense combined source of neutrons and photons for interrogation based on compact deuteron RF accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurennoy, S. S.; Garnett, R. W.; Rybarcyk, L. J.

    2015-06-18

    Interrogation of special nuclear materials can benefit from mobile sources providing significant fluxes of neutrons (108/s at 2.5 MeV, 1010/s at 14.1 MeV) and of photons (>1012/s at 1-3 MeV). We propose a source that satisfies these requirements simultaneously plus also provides, via the reaction 11B(d,n)12C(γ15.1), a significant flux of 15-MeV photons, which are highly penetrating and optimal for inducing photo-fission in actinides. The source is based on a compact (< 5 m) deuteron RF accelerator that delivers an average current of a few mA of deuterons at 3-4 MeV to a boron target. The accelerator consists of a short RFQ followed by efficient inter-digital H-mode structures with permanent-magnet-quadrupole beam focusing [Kurennoy et al. (2012)], which suit perfectly for deuteron acceleration at low energies. Our estimates, based on recent measurements, indicate that the required fluxes of both neutrons and photons can be achieved at ~1 mA of 4-MeV deuterons. The goal of the proposed study is to confirm feasibility of the approach and develop requirements for future full system implementation.

  1. Intense combined source of neutrons and photons for interrogation based on compact deuteron RF accelerator

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kurennoy, S. S.; Garnett, R. W.; Rybarcyk, L. J.

    2015-06-18

    Interrogation of special nuclear materials can benefit from mobile sources providing significant fluxes of neutrons (108/s at 2.5 MeV, 1010/s at 14.1 MeV) and of photons (>1012/s at 1-3 MeV). We propose a source that satisfies these requirements simultaneously plus also provides, via the reaction 11B(d,n)12C(γ15.1), a significant flux of 15-MeV photons, which are highly penetrating and optimal for inducing photo-fission in actinides. The source is based on a compact (< 5 m) deuteron RF accelerator that delivers an average current of a few mA of deuterons at 3-4 MeV to a boron target. The accelerator consists of a shortmore » RFQ followed by efficient inter-digital H-mode structures with permanent-magnet-quadrupole beam focusing [Kurennoy et al. (2012)], which suit perfectly for deuteron acceleration at low energies. Our estimates, based on recent measurements, indicate that the required fluxes of both neutrons and photons can be achieved at ~1 mA of 4-MeV deuterons. The goal of the proposed study is to confirm feasibility of the approach and develop requirements for future full system implementation.« less

  2. Research progress on ionic plasmas generated in an intense hydrogen negative ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takeiri, Y. Tsumori, K.; Nagaoka, K.; Kaneko, O.; Ikeda, K.; Nakano, H.; Kisaki, M.; Tokuzawa, T.; Osakabe, M.; Kondo, T.; Sato, M.; Shibuya, M.; Komada, S.; Sekiguchi, H.; Geng, S.

    2015-04-08

    Characteristics of ionic plasmas, observed in a high-density hydrogen negative ion source, are investigated with a multi-diagnostics system. The ionic plasma, which consists of hydrogen positive- and negative-ions with a significantly low-density of electrons, is generated in the ion extraction region, from which the negative ions are extracted through the plasma grid. The negative ion density, i.e., the ionic plasma density, as high as the order of 110{sup 17}m{sup ?3}, is measured with cavity ring-down spectroscopy, while the electron density is lower than 110{sup 16}m{sup ?3}, which is confirmed with millimeter-wave interferometer. Reduction of the negative ion density is observed at the negative ion extraction, and at that time the electron flow into the ionic plasma region is observed to conserve the charge neutrality. Distribution of the plasma potential is measured in the extraction region in the direction normal to the plasma grid surface with a Langmuir probe, and the results suggest that the sheath is formed at the plasma boundary to the plasma grid to which the bias voltage is applied. The beam extraction should drive the negative ion transport in the ionic plasma across the sheath formed on the extraction surface. Larger reduction of the negative ions at the beam extraction is observed in a region above the extraction aperture on the plasma grid, which is confirmed with 2D image measurement of the H? emission and cavity ring-down spectroscopy. The electron distribution is also measured near the plasma grid surface. These various properties observed in the ionic plasma are discussed.

  3. Broad-band beam buncher

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldberg, D.A.; Flood, W.S.; Arthur, A.A.; Voelker, F.

    1984-03-20

    A broad-band beam bunther is disclosed, comprising an evacuated housing, an electron gun therein for producing an electron beam, a buncher cavity having entrance and exit openings through which the beam is directed, grids across such openings, a source providing a positive DC voltage between the cavity and the electron gun, a drift tube through which the electron beam travels in passing through such cavity, grids across the ends of such drift tube, gaps being provided between the drift tube grids and the entrance and exit grids, a modulator for supplying an ultrahigh frequency modulating signal to the drift tube for producing velocity modulation of the electrons in the beam, a drift space in the housing through which the velocity modulated electron beam travels and in which the beam is bunched, and a discharge opening from such drift tube and having a grid across such opening through which the bunched electron beam is discharged into an accelerator or the like. The buncher cavity and the drift tube may be arranged to constitute an extension of a coaxial transmission line which is employed to deliver the modulating signal from a signal source. The extended transmission line may be terminated in its characteristic impedance to afford a broad-

  4. NSA Broadband Instrument Study: Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Broadband Instrument Study: Update PI: Scott Richardson, NSA SST Co-Is: Chuck Long, Tom Stoffel, Ells Dutton, Joe Michalsky, Jeff Zirzow... Background * NSA last site where Diffuse Correction VAP applied * In analyses of results prior to release, an apparent problem surfaced... Typical Corrections: SGP All POSITIVE corrections Typical Corrections: TWP All POSITIVE corrections NSA Corrections Some NEGATIVE Full corrections SGP Winter Corrections All POSITIVE corrections NSA Broadband Operations *

  5. Note: {sup 6}Li III light intensity observation for {sup 6}Li{sup 3+} ion beam operation at Hyper-Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muto, Hideshi; Ohshiro, Yukimitsu; Yamaka, Shoichi; Yamaguchi, Hidetoshi; Shimoura, Susumu; Watanabe, Shin-ichi; Oyaizu, Michihiro; Kobayashi, Kiyoshi; Kotaka, Yasuteru; Nishimura, Makoto; Kase, Masayuki; Kubono, Shigeru; Hattori, Toshiyuki

    2014-12-15

    The light intensity of {sup 6}Li III line spectrum at ? = 516.7 nm was observed during {sup 6}Li{sup 3+} beam tuning at the Hyper-Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source. Separation of ion species of the same charge to mass ratio with an electromagnetic mass analyzer is known to be an exceptionally complex process. However, {sup 6}Li III line intensity observation conducted in this study gives new insights into its simplification of this process. The light intensity of {sup 6}Li III line spectrum from the ECR plasma was found to have a strong correlation with the extracted {sup 6}Li{sup 3+} beam intensity from the RIKEN Azimuthal Varying Field cyclotron.

  6. The direct injection of intense ion beams from a high field electron cyclotron resonance ion source into a radio frequency quadrupole

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodrigues, G. Kanjilal, D.; Roy, A.; Becker, R.; Baskaran, R.

    2014-02-15

    The ion current achievable from high intensity ECR sources for highly charged ions is limited by the high space charge. This makes classical extraction systems for the transport and subsequent matching to a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator less efficient. The direct plasma injection (DPI) method developed originally for the laser ion source avoids these problems and uses the combined focusing of the gap between the ion source and the RFQ vanes (or rods) and the focusing of the rf fields from the RFQ penetrating into this gap. For high performance ECR sources that use superconducting solenoids, the stray magnetic field of the source in addition to the DPI scheme provides focusing against the space charge blow-up of the beam. A combined extraction/matching system has been designed for a high performance ECR ion source injecting into an RFQ, allowing a total beam current of 10 mA from the ion source for the production of highly charged {sup 238}U{sup 40+} (1.33 mA) to be injected at an ion source voltage of 60 kV. In this design, the features of IGUN have been used to take into account the rf-focusing of an RFQ channel (without modulation), the electrostatic field between ion source extraction and the RFQ vanes, the magnetic stray field of the ECR superconducting solenoid, and the defocusing space charge of an ion beam. The stray magnetic field is shown to be critical in the case of a matched beam.

  7. Broadband Outdoor Radiometer Callibration Process for the Atmospheric...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Broadband Outdoor Radiometer Calibration Process for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement ... Broadband Outdoor Radiometer Calibration Process for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement ...

  8. How Argonne's Intense Pulsed Neutron Source came to life and gained its niche : the view from an ecosystem perspective.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westfall, C.; Office of The Director

    2008-02-25

    At first glance the story of the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) appears to have followed a puzzling course. When researchers first proposed their ideas for an accelerator-driven neutron source for exploring the structure of materials through neutron scattering, the project seemed so promising that both Argonne managers and officials at the laboratory's funding agency, the Department of Energy (DOE), suggested that it be made larger and more expensive. But then, even though prototype building, testing, and initial construction went well a group of prominent DOE reviewers recommended in fall 1980 that it be killed, just months before it had been slated to begin operation, and DOE promptly accepted the recommendation. In response, Argonne's leadership declared the project was the laboratory's top priority and rallied to save it. In late 1982, thanks to another review panel led by the same scientist who had chaired the panel that had delivered the death sentence, the project was granted a reprieve. However, by the late 1980s, the IPNS was no longer top priority within the international materials science community, at Argonne, or within the DOE budget because prospects for another, larger materials science accelerator emerged. At just this point, the facility started to produce exciting scientific results. For the next two decades, the IPNS, its research, and its experts became valued resources at Argonne, within the U.S. national laboratory system, and within the international materials science community. Why did this Argonne project prosper and then almost suffer premature death, even though it promised (and later delivered) good science? How was it saved and how did it go on to have a long, prosperous life for more than a quarter of a century? In particular, what did an expert assessment of the quality of IPNS science have to do with its fate? Getting answers to such questions is important. The U.S. government spends a lot of money to produce science and technology at multipurpose laboratories like Argonne. For example, in the mid-1990s, about the time the IPNS's fortunes were secured, DOE spent more than $6 billion a year to fund nine such facilities, with Argonne's share totaling $500 million. And an important justification for funding these expensive laboratories is that they operate expensive but powerful scientific tools like the IPNS, generally considered too large to be built and managed by universities. Clearly, 'life and death' decision making has a lot to tell us about how the considerable U.S. federal investment in science and technology at national laboratories is actually transacted and, indeed, how a path is cleared or blocked for good science to be produced. Because forces within Argonne, DOE, and the materials science community obviously dictated the changing fortunes of the IPNS, it makes sense to probe the interactions binding these three environments for an understanding of how the IPNS was threatened and how it survived. In other words, sorting out what happened requires analyzing the system that includes all three environments. In an attempt to find a better way to understand its twists and turns, I will view the life-and-death IPNS story through the lens of an ecological metaphor. Employing the ideas and terms that ecologists use to describe what happens in a system of shared resources, that is, an ecosystem, I will describe the IPNS as an organism that vied with competitors for resources to find a niche in the interrelated environments of Argonne, DOE, and the materials science community. I will start with an explanation of the Argonne 'ecosystem' before the advent of the IPNS and then describe how the project struggled to emerge in the 1970s, how it scratched its way to a fragile niche in the early 1980s, and how it adapted and matured through the turn of the 21st century. The paper will conclude with a summary of what the ecosystem perspective shows about the life and death struggle of the IPNS and reflect on what that perspective reveals about how researc

  9. Evaluation of Arctic Broadband Surface Radiation Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsui, N.; Long, Charles N.; Augustine, J. A.; Halliwell, D.; Uttal, Taneil; Longenecker, D.; Niebergale, J.; Wendell, J.; Albee, R.

    2012-02-24

    The Arctic is a challenging environment for making in-situ radiation measurements. A standard suite of radiation sensors is typically designed to measure the total, direct and diffuse components of incoming and outgoing broadband shortwave (SW) and broadband thermal infrared, or longwave (LW) radiation. Enhancements can include various sensors for measuring irradiance in various narrower bandwidths. Many solar radiation/thermal infrared flux sensors utilize protective glass domes and some are mounted on complex mechanical platforms (solar trackers) that rotate sensors and shading devices that track the sun. High quality measurements require striking a balance between locating sensors in a pristine undisturbed location free of artificial blockage (such as buildings and towers) and providing accessibility to allow operators to clean and maintain the instruments. Three significant sources of erroneous data include solar tracker malfunctions, rime/frost/snow deposition on the instruments and operational problems due to limited operator access in extreme weather conditions. In this study, a comparison is made between the global and component sum (direct [vertical component] + diffuse) shortwave measurements. The difference between these two quantities (that theoretically should be zero) is used to illustrate the magnitude and seasonality of radiation flux measurement problems. The problem of rime/frost/snow deposition is investigated in more detail for one case study utilizing both shortwave and longwave measurements. Solutions to these operational problems are proposed that utilize measurement redundancy, more sophisticated heating and ventilation strategies and a more systematic program of operational support and subsequent data quality protocols.

  10. Broadband light-emitting diode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fritz, I.J.; Klem, J.F.; Hafich, M.J.

    1998-07-14

    A broadband light-emitting diode is disclosed. The broadband light-emitting diode (LED) comprises a plurality of III-V compound semiconductor layers grown on a semiconductor substrate, with the semiconductor layers including a pair of cladding layers sandwiched about a strained-quantum-well active region having a plurality of different energy bandgaps for generating light in a wavelength range of about 1.3--2 {micro}m. In one embodiment of the present invention, the active region may comprise a first-grown quantum-well layer and a last-grown quantum-well layer that are oppositely strained; whereas in another embodiment of the invention, the active region is formed from a short-period superlattice structure (i.e. a pseudo alloy) comprising alternating thin layers of InGaAs and InGaAlAs. The use a short-period superlattice structure for the active region allows different layers within the active region to be simply and accurately grown by repetitively opening and closing one or more shutters in an MBE growth apparatus to repetitively switch between different growth states therein. The broadband LED may be formed as either a surface-emitting LED or as an edge-emitting LED for use in applications such as chemical sensing, fiber optic gyroscopes, wavelength-divisionmultiplexed (WDM) fiber-optic data links, and WDM fiber-optic sensor networks for automobiles and aircraft. 10 figs.

  11. Broadband light-emitting diode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fritz, Ian J. (Albuquerque, NM); Klem, John F. (Sandia Park, NM); Hafich, Michael J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01

    A broadband light-emitting diode. The broadband light-emitting diode (LED) comprises a plurality of III-V compound semiconductor layers grown on a semiconductor substrate, with the semiconductor layers including a pair of cladding layers sandwiched about a strained-quantum-well active region having a plurality of different energy bandgaps for generating light in a wavelength range of about 1.3-2 .mu.m. In one embodiment of the present invention, the active region may comprise a first-grown quantum-well layer and a last-grown quantum-well layer that are oppositely strained; whereas in another embodiment of the invention, the active region is formed from a short-period superlattice structure (i.e. a pseudo alloy) comprising alternating thin layers of InGaAs and InGaAlAs. The use a short-period superlattice structure for the active region allows different layers within the active region to be simply and accurately grown by repetitively opening and closing one or more shutters in an MBE growth apparatus to repetitively switch between different growth states therein. The broadband LED may be formed as either a surface-emitting LED or as an edge-emitting LED for use in applications such as chemical sensing, fiber optic gyroscopes, wavelength-division-multiplexed (WDM) fiber-optic data links, and WDM fiber-optic sensor networks for automobiles and aircraft.

  12. Characterisation of a MeV Bremsstrahlung x-ray source produced from a high intensity laser for high areal density object radiography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Courtois, C.; Compant La Fontaine, A.; Bazzoli, S.; Bourgade, J. L.; Gazave, J.; Lagrange, J. M.; Landoas, O.; Dain, L. Le; Pichoff, N.; Edwards, R.; Aedy, C.; Mastrosimone, D.; Pien, G.; Stoeckl, C.

    2013-08-15

    Results of an experiment to characterise a MeV Bremsstrahlung x-ray emission created by a short (<10 ps) pulse, high intensity (1.4 × 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}) laser are presented. X-ray emission is characterized using several diagnostics; nuclear activation measurements, a calibrated hard x-ray spectrometer, and dosimeters. Results from the reconstructed x-ray energy spectra are consistent with numerical simulations using the PIC and Monte Carlo codes between 0.3 and 30 MeV. The intense Bremsstrahlung x-ray source is used to radiograph an image quality indicator (IQI) heavily filtered with thick tungsten absorbers. Observations suggest that internal features of the IQI can be resolved up to an external areal density of 85 g/cm{sup 2}. The x-ray source size, inferred by the radiography of a thick resolution grid, is estimated to be approximately 400 μm (full width half maximum of the x-ray source Point Spread Function)

  13. High-intensity polarized H-(proton), deuteron and 3He++ion source development at BNL.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zelenski,A.

    2008-06-23

    New techniques for the production of polarized electron, H{sup -} (proton), D (D+) and {sup 3}H{sup ++} ion beams are discussed. Feasibility studies of these techniques are in progress at BNL. An Optically Pumped Polarized H{sup -} Ion Source (OPPIS) delivers beam for polarization studies in RHIC. The polarized deuteron beam will be required for the deuteron Electron Dipole Moment (EDM) experiment, and the {sup 3}H{sup ++} ion beam is a part of the experimental program for the future eRHIC (Electron Ion) collider.

  14. Broadband Energy Networks Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Darby, Pennsylvania Zip: 19082 Product: Provides automated equipment and usage monitoring systems for energy management. References: Broadband Energy Networks Inc1 This article...

  15. SOURCE?

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SEEDplatform@ee.doe.gov. WHAT IS 0PEN SOURCE? Open source means that the base software code is publically available so that anyone has the ability to access and contribute to the code OPEN SOURCE BENEFITS * Platform is flexible and adaptable * Developers can create proprietary platform add- ons while still maintaining an inter-operable system * A national brand and standard is created * Local jurisdiction officials can have input on the direction and maintanence of the core code * The code base

  16. A Broadband Tensorial Magnetotelluric Study In The Travale Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Broadband Tensorial Magnetotelluric Study In The Travale Geothermal Field Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: A Broadband Tensorial...

  17. Effects of electron recirculation on a hard x-ray source observed during the interaction of a high intensity laser pulse with thin Au targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Compant La Fontaine, A.; Courtois, C.; Lefebvre, E.; Bourgade, J. L.; Landoas, O.; Thorp, K.; Stoeckl, C.

    2013-12-15

    The interaction of a high intensity laser pulse on the preplasma of a high-Z solid target produced by the pulse's pedestal generates high-energy electrons. These electrons subsequently penetrate inside the solid target and produce bremsstrahlung photons, generating an x-ray source which can be used for photonuclear studies or to radiograph high area density objects. The source characteristics are compared for targets with thin (20 μm) and thick (100 μm) Au foils on the Omega EP laser at Laboratory for Laser Energetics. Simulations using the particle-in-cell code CALDER show that for a 20 μm thickness Au target, electrons perform multiple round-trips in the target under the effect of the laser ponderomotive potential and the target electrostatic potential. These relativistic electrons have random transverse displacements, with respect to the target normal, attributed to electrostatic fluctuation fields. As a result, the x-ray spot size is increased by a factor 2 for thin target compared to thick targets, in agreement with experimental results. In addition, the computed doses agree with the measured ones provided that electron recirculation in the thin target is taken into account. A dose increase by a factor 1.7 is then computed by allowing for recirculation. In the 100 μm target case, on the other hand, this effect is found to be negligible.

  18. Production of large resonant plasma volumes in microwave electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alton, Gerald D. (Kingston, TN)

    1998-01-01

    Microwave injection methods for enhancing the performance of existing electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources. The methods are based on the use of high-power diverse frequency microwaves, including variable-frequency, multiple-discrete-frequency, and broadband microwaves. The methods effect large resonant "volume" ECR regions in the ion sources. The creation of these large ECR plasma volumes permits coupling of more microwave power into the plasma, resulting in the heating of a much larger electron population to higher energies, the effect of which is to produce higher charge state distributions and much higher intensities within a particular charge state than possible in present ECR ion sources.

  19. Production of large resonant plasma volumes in microwave electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alton, G.D.

    1998-11-24

    Microwave injection methods are disclosed for enhancing the performance of existing electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources. The methods are based on the use of high-power diverse frequency microwaves, including variable-frequency, multiple-discrete-frequency, and broadband microwaves. The methods effect large resonant ``volume`` ECR regions in the ion sources. The creation of these large ECR plasma volumes permits coupling of more microwave power into the plasma, resulting in the heating of a much larger electron population to higher energies, the effect of which is to produce higher charge state distributions and much higher intensities within a particular charge state than possible in present ECR ion sources. 5 figs.

  20. ARM - Measurement - Longwave broadband net irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    net irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Longwave broadband net irradiance The difference between upwelling and downwelling broadband longwave radiation. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available

  1. ARM - Measurement - Net broadband total irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsNet broadband total irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Net broadband total irradiance The difference between upwelling and downwelling, covering longwave and shortwave radiation. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each

  2. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave broadband total net irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    net irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave broadband total net irradiance The difference between upwelling and downwelling broadband shortwave radiation. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available

  3. Broadband diffractive lens or imaging element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ceglio, Natale M. (Livermore, CA); Hawryluk, Andrew M. (Modesto, CA); London, Richard A. (Oakland, CA); Seppala, Lynn G. (Livermore, CA)

    1993-01-01

    A broadband diffractive lens or imaging element produces a sharp focus and/or a high resolution image with broad bandwidth illuminating radiation. The diffractive lens is sectored or segmented into regions, each of which focuses or images a distinct narrowband of radiation but all of which have a common focal length. Alternatively, a serial stack of minus filters, each with a diffraction pattern which focuses or images a distinct narrowband of radiation but all of which have a common focal length, is used. The two approaches can be combined. Multifocal broadband diffractive elements can also be formed. Thin film embodiments are described.

  4. Broadband diffractive lens or imaging element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ceglio, Natale M. (Livermore, CA); Hawryluk, Andrew M. (Modesto, CA); London, Richard A. (Oakland, CA); Seppala, Lynn G. (Livermore, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A broadband diffractive lens or imaging element produces a sharp focus and/or a high resolution image with broad bandwidth illuminating radiation. The diffractive lens is sectored or segmented into regions, each of which focuses or images a distinct narrowband of radiation but all of which have a common focal length. Alternatively, a serial stack of minus filters, each with a diffraction pattern which focuses or images a distinct narrowband of radiation but all of which have a common focal length, is used. The two approaches can be combined. Multifocal broadband diffractive elements can also be formed.

  5. Broadband diffractive lens or imaging element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ceglio, N.M.; Hawryluk, A.M.; London, R.A.; Seppala, L.G.

    1993-10-26

    A broadband diffractive lens or imaging element produces a sharp focus and/or a high resolution image with broad bandwidth illuminating radiation. The diffractive lens is sectored or segmented into regions, each of which focuses or images a distinct narrowband of radiation but all of which have a common focal length. Alternatively, a serial stack of minus filters, each with a diffraction pattern which focuses or images a distinct narrowband of radiation but all of which have a common focal length, is used. The two approaches can be combined. Multifocal broadband diffractive elements can also be formed. Thin film embodiments are described. 21 figures.

  6. Broad-band characteristics of circular button pickups

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barry, W.C.

    1992-10-01

    A broad-band.theory of the circular button pickup is presented. Expressions for the longitudinal and transverse transfer impedance of a pair of such pickups are derived in the frequency domain. The broad-band expressions are shown to reduce to the standard electrostatic transfer functions for wavelengths large compared to the button diameter. The theory is shown to be in reasonable agreement with measurements performed on standard LEP button electrodes. In particular, the theory explains a resonance in the response of the LEP buttons which made them unsuitable, in standard form, for their intended application as pickups in the LBL Advanced Light Source feedback system. The buttons were modified to suppress the resonance and subsequently incorporated into the feedback system.

  7. ARM - Measurement - Longwave broadband downwelling irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    downwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Longwave broadband downwelling irradiance The total diffuse and direct radiant energy, at wavelengths longer than approximately 4 {mu}m, that is being emitted downwards. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file

  8. ARM - Measurement - Longwave broadband upwelling irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    upwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Longwave broadband upwelling irradiance The rate at which radiant energy, at a wavelength longer than approximately 4 {mu}m, is being emitted upwards into a radiation field and transferred across a surface area (real or imaginary) in a hemisphere of directions. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered

  9. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave broadband direct downwelling irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    downwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave broadband direct downwelling irradiance Radiant energy, across the wavelength range of 0.4 and 4 {mu}m, that is transferred directly from the sun to the receiver. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf)

  10. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave broadband total downwelling irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    total downwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave broadband total downwelling irradiance The total diffuse and direct radiant energy that comes from some continuous range of directions, at wavelengths between 0.4 and 4 {mu}m, that is being emitted downwards. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the

  11. Development of a ten inch manipulators-based, flexible, broadband

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    two-crystal spectrometer (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Development of a ten inch manipulators-based, flexible, broadband two-crystal spectrometer Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Development of a ten inch manipulators-based, flexible, broadband two-crystal spectrometer We have developed and implemented a broadband X-ray spectrometer with a variable energy range for use at the Atomic Weapons Establishment's Orion Laser. The spectrometer covers an energy

  12. Re: Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Studying the...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the requirements of Smart Grid Technology. ALU sees smart grid as one of several solutions offered by the technological advances and widespread deployment of broadband networks. ...

  13. DOE Request for Information - Implementing the National Broadband...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Data Access, Third Party Use, and Privacy DOE Request for Information - Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Empowering Consumers and the Smart Grid: Data Access, Third ...

  14. Re: DOE Request for Information - Implementing the National Broadband...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    to Inform Federal Smart Grid Policy Smart Grid Investments Improve Grid Reliability, Resilience, and Storm Responses (November 2014) Re: Implementing the National Broadband Plan by...

  15. Broadband perfect absorber based on one ultrathin layer of refractory...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This content will become publicly available on May 28, 2016 Title: Broadband perfect ... will become publicly available on May 28, 2016 Publisher's Version of Record 10.1364...

  16. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave broadband diffuse downwelling irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    diffuse downwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave broadband diffuse downwelling irradiance All of the solar radiation, across the wavelength range of 0.4 and 4 {mu}m, coming directly from the sky except for solar radiation coming directly from the sun and the circumsolar irradiance within approximately three degrees of the sun. Categories Radiometric Instruments

  17. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave broadband direct normal irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    direct normal irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave broadband direct normal irradiance The rate at which radiant energy in broad bands of wavelengths shorter than approximately 4{mu}m, that comes directly from the Sun without being scattered or absorbed in the atmosphere, passes through a unit area perpendicular to the direction from the Sun. Categories Radiometric

  18. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave broadband total upwelling irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    upwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave broadband total upwelling irradiance The rate at which radiant energy, at a wavelength between 0.4 and 4 {mu}m, is being emitted upwards into a radiation field and transferred across a surface area (real or imaginary) in a hemisphere of directions. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered

  19. Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Empowering Consumers...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy: Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Empowering Consumers and the Smart Grid: Data Access, Third Party Use, and Privacy FR Doc. 2010-11127 July 12, 2010

  20. Re: Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Empowering Consumers...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy: Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Empowering Consumers and the Smart Grid: Data Access, Third Party Use, and Privacy FR Doc. 2010-11127 July 12, 2010

  1. A two-dimensional broadband vibration energy harvester using

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    magnetoelectric transducer (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect A two-dimensional broadband vibration energy harvester using magnetoelectric transducer Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A two-dimensional broadband vibration energy harvester using magnetoelectric transducer In this study, a magnetoelectric vibration energy harvester was demonstrated, which aims at addressing the limitations of the existing approaches in single dimensional operation with narrow working bandwidth. A

  2. In the Matter of National Broadband Plan Request for Information:

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Communications Requirements | Department of Energy In the Matter of National Broadband Plan Request for Information: Communications Requirements In the Matter of National Broadband Plan Request for Information: Communications Requirements The American Public Power Association ("APPA") appreciates this opportunity to respond to the Department of Energy ("the Department" or "DOE") regarding its Request for Information ("RFI") on Implementing the National

  3. DOE Request for Information - Implementing the National Broadband Plan by

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Empowering Consumers and the Smart Grid: Data Access, Third Party Use, and Privacy | Department of Energy Request for Information - Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Empowering Consumers and the Smart Grid: Data Access, Third Party Use, and Privacy DOE Request for Information - Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Empowering Consumers and the Smart Grid: Data Access, Third Party Use, and Privacy Idaho Power Company ("Idaho Power") hereby submits the following

  4. System and method for detection of dispersed broadband signals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Qian, S.; Dunham, M.E.

    1999-06-08

    A system and method for detecting the presence of dispersed broadband signals in real time are disclosed. The present invention utilizes a bank of matched filters for detecting the received dispersed broadband signals. Each matched filter uses a respective robust time template that has been designed to approximate the dispersed broadband signals of interest, and each time template varies across a spectrum of possible dispersed broadband signal time templates. The received dispersed broadband signal x(t) is received by each of the matched filters, and if one or more matches occurs, then the received data is determined to have signal data of interest. This signal data can then be analyzed and/or transmitted to Earth for analysis, as desired. The system and method of the present invention will prove extremely useful in many fields, including satellite communications, plasma physics, and interstellar research. The varying time templates used in the bank of matched filters are determined as follows. The robust time domain template is assumed to take the form w(t)=A(t)cos[l brace]2[phi](t)[r brace]. Since the instantaneous frequency f(t) is known to be equal to the derivative of the phase [phi](t), the trajectory of a joint time-frequency representation of x(t) is used as an approximation of [phi][prime](t). 10 figs.

  5. System and method for detection of dispersed broadband signals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Qian, Shie; Dunham, Mark E.

    1999-06-08

    A system and method for detecting the presence of dispersed broadband signals in real time. The present invention utilizes a bank of matched filters for detecting the received dispersed broadband signals. Each matched filter uses a respective robust time template that has been designed to approximate the dispersed broadband signals of interest, and each time template varies across a spectrum of possible dispersed broadband signal time templates. The received dispersed broadband signal x(t) is received by each of the matched filters, and if one or more matches occurs, then the received data is determined to have signal data of interest. This signal data can then be analyzed and/or transmitted to Earth for analysis, as desired. The system and method of the present invention will prove extremely useful in many fields, including satellite communications, plasma physics, and interstellar research. The varying time templates used in the bank of matched filters are determined as follows. The robust time domain template is assumed to take the form w(t)=A(t)cos{2.phi.(t)}. Since the instantaneous frequency f(t) is known to be equal to the derivative of the phase .phi.(t), the trajectory of a joint time-frequency representation of x(t) is used as an approximation of .phi.'(t).

  6. Near-resonance enhanced O2 detection for dual-broadband pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering with an ultraviolet-visible setup at 266 nm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schenk, Martin; Seeger, Thomas; Leipertz, Alfred

    2005-07-01

    Broadband and dual-broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) are widely established tools for nonintrusive gas diagnostics. Up to now the investigations have been mainly performed for electronic nonresonant conditions of the gas species of interest. We report on the enhancement of the O2-N2 detection limit of dual-broadband pure rotational CARS by shifting the wavelength of the narrowband pump laser from the commonly used 532-266 nm. This enhancement is caused when the Schumann-Runge absorption band is approached near 176 nm. The principal concept of this experiment, i.e., covering the Raman resonance with a single- or dual-broadband combination of lasers in the visible range and moving only the narrowband probe laser near or directly into electronic resonant conditions in the UV range, should also be applicable to broadband CARS experiments to directly exploit electronic resonance effects for the purpose of single-shot concentration measurements of minority species. To quantify the enhancement in O2 sensitivity, comparative measurements at both a 266 and a 532 nm narrowband pump laser wavelength are presented, employing a 4-dicyanomethylene-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyram (DCM) dye laser as a broadband laser source at 635 nm. An increase of approximately 13% in the ratio of the rotational CARS cross sections of O2 and N2 was obtained. The broad spectral width of the CARS excitation profile was approximately equal for both setups. Further enhancement should be achievable by shifting the narrowband pump laser closer toward 176 nm, for example, with a frequency-doubled optical parametric oscillator or an excimer laser. The principal concept of this experiment should also be applicable to broadband CARS experiments to directly exploit electronic resonance effects of the narrowband pump laser with electronic transitions of minority species for the purpose of single-shot concentration measurements of those species.

  7. Broadband wide-angle dispersion measurements: Instrumental setup, alignment, and pitfalls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farhang, A.; Abasahl, B.; Dutta-Gupta, S.; Lovera, A.; Martin, O. J. F.; Mandracci, P.; Descrovi, E.

    2013-03-15

    The construction, alignment, and performance of a setup for broadband wide-angle dispersion measurements, with emphasis on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) measurements, are presented in comprehensive detail. In contrast with most SPR instruments working with a monochromatic source, this setup takes advantage of a broadband/white light source and has full capability for automated angle vs. wavelength dispersion measurements for any arbitrary nanostructure array. A cylindrical prism is used rather than a triangular one in order to mitigate refraction induced effects and allow for such measurements. Although seemingly simple, this instrument requires use of many non-trivial methods in order to achieve proper alignment over all angles of incidence. Here we describe the alignment procedure for such a setup, the pitfalls introduced from the finite beam width incident onto the cylindrical prism, and deviations in the reflected/transmitted beam resulting from the finite thickness of the sample substrate. We address every one of these issues and provide experimental evidences on the success of this instrument and the alignment procedure used.

  8. Broadband Particle Filtering in a Noisy Littoral Ocean (Conference) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Broadband Particle Filtering in a Noisy Littoral Ocean Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Broadband Particle Filtering in a Noisy Littoral Ocean Authors: Candy, J V Publication Date: 2015-02-12 OSTI Identifier: 1184166 Report Number(s): LLNL-CONF-667626 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC52-07NA27344 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: Presented at: OCEANS'15, Genova, Italy, May 18 - May 21, 2015 Research Org: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL),

  9. Re: National Broadband Plan (NBP) Request for Information: Data Access |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy National Broadband Plan (NBP) Request for Information: Data Access Re: National Broadband Plan (NBP) Request for Information: Data Access Whirlpool Corporation is honored to have been chosen as a recipient of a U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Smart Grid Investment Grant program grant of $19.3 million over a two year period - which the company will match with its own investments. Whirlpool Corporation recently announced that in 2011 it would deliver one million U.S.

  10. High-Voltage Broadband-Over-Powerline (HV-BPL) Field Test Report...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Voltage Broadband-Over-Powerline (HV-BPL) Field Test Report Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: High-Voltage Broadband-Over-Powerline (HV-BPL) Field Test...

  11. Microsoft Word - Broadband Over Power Lines_FINAL.06.01.10.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Broadband over Powerlines Can Accelerate the Transmission Smart Grid May 25, 2010 DOE/NETL-2010/1418 Broadband Over Power Lines Could Accelerate the Transmission Smart Grid Broadband Over Power Lines Could Accelerate the Transmission Smart Grid 1 Prepared by: Booz Allen Hamilton (BAH) Bruce Renz Renz Consulting, LLC DOE Contract number: DE-FE000400 Broadband Over Power Lines Could Accelerate the Transmission Smart Grid 2 Acknowledgements This report was prepared by Booz Allen Hamilton, Inc.

  12. Methods and devices for generation of broadband pulsed radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borguet, Eric; Isaienko, Oleksandr

    2013-05-14

    Methods and apparatus for non-collinear optical parametric ampliffication (NOPA) are provided. Broadband phase matching is achieved with a non-collinear geometry and a divergent signal seed to provide bandwidth gain. A chirp may be introduced into the pump pulse such that the white light seed is amplified in a broad spectral region.

  13. Status of the Broadband Heating Rate Profile (BBHRP) VAP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Status of the Broadband Heating Rate Profile (BBHRP) VAP Mlawer, Eli Atmospheric & Environmental Research, Inc. Clough, Shepard Atmospheric and Environmental Research Delamere, Jennifer Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. Miller, Mark Brookhaven National Laboratory Johnson, Karen Brookhaven National Laboratory Troyan, David Brookhaven National Laboratory Jensen, Michael Brookhaven National Laboratory Shippert, Timothy Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Long, Chuck Pacific

  14. Energy Intensity Indicators: Efficiency vs. Intensity

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Efficiency improvements in processes and equipment and other explanatory factors can contribute to observed changes in energy intensity. Within the category "other explanatory factors" we can...

  15. Measuring Broadband IR Irradiance in the Direct Solar Beam (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reda, I.

    2015-03-01

    Solar and atmospheric science radiometers, e.g. pyranometers, pyrheliometers, and photovoltaic cells are calibrated with traceability to a consensus reference, which is maintained by Absolute Cavity Radiometers (ACRs). The ACR is an open cavity with no window, developed to measure extended broadband direct solar irradiance beyond the ultraviolet and infrared bands below and above 0.2 um and 50 um, respectively. On the other hand, pyranometers and pyrheliometers are developed to measure broadband shortwave irradiance from approximately 0.3 um to 3 um, while the present photovoltaic cells are limited to approximately 0.3 um to 1 um. The broadband mismatch of ACR versus such radiometers causes discrepancy in radiometers' calibration methods that has not been discussed or addressed in the solar and atmospheric science literature. Pyrgeometers are also used for solar and atmospheric science applications and are calibrated with traceability to consensus reference, yet are calibrated during nighttime only, because no consensus reference has yet been established for the daytime longwave irradiance. This poster shows a method to measure the broadband IR irradiance in the direct solar beam from 3 um to 50 um, as a first step that might be used to help develop calibration methods to address the mismatch between broadband ACR and shortwave radiometers, and the lack of a daytime reference for pyrgeometers. The irradiance was measured from sunrise to sunset for 5 days when the sun disk was cloudless; the irradiance varied from approximately 1 Wm-2 to 16 Wm-2 for solar zenith angle from 80 degrees to 16 degrees respectively; estimated uncertainty is 1.5 Wm-2.

  16. Measuring Broadband IR Irradiance in the Direct Solar Beam (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reda, I.; Konings, J.; Xie, Y.; Dooraghi, M.; Sengupta, M.

    2015-03-01

    Solar and atmospheric science radiometers, e.g. pyranometers, pyrheliometers, and photovoltaic cells are calibrated with traceability to a consensus reference, which is maintained by Absolute Cavity Radiometers (ACRs). The ACR is an open cavity with no window, developed to measure extended broadband direct solar irradiance beyond the ultraviolet and infrared bands below and above 0.2 micrometers and 50 micrometers, respectively. On the other hand, pyranometers and pyrheliometers are developed to measure broadband shortwave irradiance from approximately 0.3 micrometers to 3 micrcometers, while the present photovoltaic cells are limited to approximately 0.3 micrometers to 1 micrometers. The broadband mismatch of ACR versus such radiometers causes discrepancy in radiometers' calibration methods that has not been discussed or addressed in the solar and atmospheric science literature. Pyrgeometers are also used for solar and atmospheric science applications and calibrated with traceability to consensus reference, yet calibrated during nighttime only, because no consensus reference has yet been established for the daytime longwave irradiance. This poster shows a method to measure the broadband IR irradiance in the direct solar beam from 3 micrometers to 50 micrometers, as first step that might be used to help develop calibration methods to address the mismatch between broadband ACR and shortwave radiometers, and the lack of a daytime reference for pyrgeometers. The irradiance was measured from sunrise to sunset for 5 days when the sun disk was cloudless; the irradiance varied from approximately 1 Wm-2 to 16 Wm-2 for solar zenith angle from 80 degres to 16 degrees respectively; estimated uncertainty is 1.5 Wm-2.

  17. Hyperbolic-metamaterial antennas for broadband enhancement of dipole emission to free space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valagiannopoulos, C. A.; Mirmoosa, M. S.; Nefedov, I. S.; Tretyakov, S. A.; Simovski, C. R.

    2014-10-28

    Dipole emitters used in nano optics and nanophotonics (e.g., fluorescent molecules or quantum dots) are weak radiators and thus detecting the radiation of a single emitter gets possible only if it is significantly enhanced. For this enhancement, one often utilizes resonant nanoantennas (Purcell's effect); this method, however, requires the exact knowledge of source location and radiation frequency which constitute a significant drawback. One known possibility for broadband location-insensitive radiation enhancement is to use a layer of the so-called hyperbolic metamaterial. However, the enhanced radiated energy is mainly directed into the volume of the lossy medium, where it is lost to heating. In this work, we suggest specific shapes of macroscopic hyperbolic metamaterial samples to open radiation windows for enhanced radiation to free space. We show that hyperbolic media slabs with properly shaped macroscopic grooves convert the evanescent waves produced by a dipole into waves traveling in free space, which results in the enhancement of useful radiation by one to two orders of magnitude. That level of enhancement of radiation into free-space which is also wideband and of non-resonant nature has not been reported up to now. These results may open possibilities for realization of broadband and directive antennas, where the primary radiators are randomly positioned fluorescent molecules or quantum dots.

  18. Energy Intensity Indicators: Electricity Generation Energy Intensity |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Electricity Generation Energy Intensity Energy Intensity Indicators: Electricity Generation Energy Intensity A kilowatt-hour (kWh) of electric energy delivered to the final user has an energy equivalent to 3,412 British thermal units (Btu). Figure E1, below, tracks how much energy was used by the various categories of electricity generators to produce a kWh of electricity (i.e., the heat rate). As shown in the figure, in 1950, central power plants producing only

  19. Neutral particle beam intensity controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dagenhart, William K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1986-01-01

    A neutral beam intensity controller is provided for a neutral beam generator in which a neutral beam is established by accelerating ions from an ion source into a gas neutralizer. An amplitude modulated, rotating magnetic field is applied to the accelerated ion beam in the gas neutralizer to defocus the resultant neutral beam in a controlled manner to achieve intensity control of the neutral beam along the beam axis at constant beam energy. The rotating magnetic field alters the orbits of ions in the gas neutralizer before they are neutralized, thereby controlling the fraction of neutral particles transmitted out of the neutralizer along the central beam axis to a fusion device or the like. The altered path or defocused neutral particles are sprayed onto an actively cooled beam dump disposed perpendicular to the neutral beam axis and having a central open for passage of the focused beam at the central axis of the beamline. Virtually zero therough 100% intensity control is achieved by varying the magnetic field strength without altering the ion source beam intensity or its species yield.

  20. Metallic stereostructured layer: An approach for broadband polarization state manipulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiong, Xiang; Hu, Yuan-Sheng; Jiang, Shang-Chi; Hu, Yu-Hui; Fan, Ren-Hao; Ma, Guo-Bin; Shu, Da-Jun; Peng, Ru-Wen; Wang, Mu

    2014-11-17

    In this letter, we report a full-metallic broadband wave plate assembled by standing metallic L-shaped stereostructures (LSSs). We show that with an array of LSSs, high polarization conversion ratio is achieved within a broad frequency band. Moreover, by rotating the orientation of the array of LSSs, the electric components of the reflection beam in two orthogonal directions and their phase difference can be independently tuned. In this way, all the polarization states on the Poincar sphere can be realized. As examples, the functionalities of a quarter wave plate and a half wave plate are experimentally demonstrated with both reflection spectra and focal-plane-array imaging. Our designing provides a unique approach in realizing the broadband wave plate to manipulate the polarization state of light.

  1. Development of a ten inch manipulators-based, flexible, broadband two-crystal spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steel, A. B. Dunn, J.; Emig, J.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Brown, G. V.; Shepherd, R.; Marley, E. V.; Hoarty, D. J.

    2014-11-15

    We have developed and implemented a broadband X-ray spectrometer with a variable energy range for use at the Atomic Weapons Establishment's Orion Laser. The spectrometer covers an energy bandwidth of ∼1–2 keV using two independently mounted, movable Bragg diffraction crystals. Using combinations of cesium hydrogen pthlate, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, and pentaerythritol crystals, spectra covering the 1.4–2.5, 1.85–3.15, or 3.55–5.1 keV energy bands have been measured. Image plate is used for detection owing to its high dynamic range. Background signals caused by high energy X-rays and particles commonly produced in high energy laser experiments are reduced by a series of tantalum baffles and filters installed between the source and crystal and also between the crystals and detector.

  2. Re: DOE Request for Information - Implementing the National Broadband

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Plan by Studying the Communications Requirements of Electric Utilities To Inform Federal Smart Grid Policy | Department of Energy To Inform Federal Smart Grid Policy Re: DOE Request for Information - Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Studying the Communications Requirements of Electric Utilities To Inform Federal Smart Grid Policy The Edison Electric Institute ("EEI"), on behalf of its member companies, hereby submits the following comments in response to the Request for

  3. Re: DOE Request for Information - Implementing the National Broadband

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Plan by Studying the Communications Requirements of Electric Utilities to Inform Federal Smart Grid Policy | Department of Energy FPL hereby respectfully submits the following comments in response to the request by the Department of Energy for comments to Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Studying the Communications Requirements of Electric Utilities To Inform Federal Smart Grid Policy (Federal Register/Vol.75, No.90/Tuesday May 11, 2010). PDF icon Re: DOE Request for Information -

  4. Re: DOE Request for Information - Implementing the National Broadband

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Plan by Studying the Communications Requirements of Electric Utilities to Inform Federal Smart Grid Policy | Department of Energy DTE Energy Company appreciates the opportunity to respond to the Department of Energy's (DOE) Request for Information on the subject of Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Studying the Communications Requirements of Electric Utilities to Inform Federal Smart Grid Policy, which was published at 75 Federal Register 26206 on May 11, 2010. PDF icon Re: DOE

  5. Re: Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Empowering Consumers and

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    the Smart Grid: Data Access, Third Party Use, and Privacy | Department of Energy Empowering Consumers and the Smart Grid: Data Access, Third Party Use, and Privacy Re: Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Empowering Consumers and the Smart Grid: Data Access, Third Party Use, and Privacy Exelon Corporation (Exelon) hereby submits the following comments in response to the request by the Department of Energy ("DOE" or "Department") for information on state efforts to

  6. Re: Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Studying the Communications

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Requirements of Electric Utilities to Inform Federal Smart Grid Policy | Department of Energy Studying the Communications Requirements of Electric Utilities to Inform Federal Smart Grid Policy Re: Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Studying the Communications Requirements of Electric Utilities to Inform Federal Smart Grid Policy Alcatel-Lucent ("ALU") appreciates the opportunity to contribute to the Department of Energy's ("Department") Request for Information

  7. Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Empowering Consumers and the

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Smart Grid: Data Access, Third Party Use, and Privacy | Department of Energy Privacy Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Empowering Consumers and the Smart Grid: Data Access, Third Party Use, and Privacy The United States Telecom Association (USTelecom)1 is pleased to comment on the Request for Information (RFI) of the Department of Energy (DOE) in its proceeding requesting input from the public regarding current and potential practices and policies to empower consumers through

  8. Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Empowering Consumers and the

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Smart Grid: Data Access, Third Party Use, and Privacy- Request for Information | Department of Energy Privacy- Request for Information Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Empowering Consumers and the Smart Grid: Data Access, Third Party Use, and Privacy- Request for Information The Department of Energy (DOE) is seeking comments and information from interested parties to assist DOE in understanding current and potential practices and policies for the states and other entities 1 to

  9. Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Studying the Communications

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Requirements of Electric Utilities To Inform Federal Smart Grid Policy | Department of Energy Studying the Communications Requirements of Electric Utilities To Inform Federal Smart Grid Policy Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Studying the Communications Requirements of Electric Utilities To Inform Federal Smart Grid Policy The Department of Energy (DOE) is seeking comments and information from interested parties to assist DOE in understanding the communications requirements of

  10. Measuring Arithmetic Intensity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Home » For Users » Application Performance » Measuring Arithmetic Intensity Measuring Arithmetic Intensity Arithmetic intensity is a measure of floating-point operations (FLOPs) performed by a given code (or code section) relative to the amount of memory accesses (Bytes) that are required to support those operations. It is most often defined as a FLOP per Byte ratio (F/B). This application note provides a methodology for determining arithmetic intensity using Intel's Software Development

  11. Energy End-Use Intensities in Commercial Buildings 1989 -- Executive...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 Energy End-Use Intensities > Executive Summary Executive Summary Energy End Uses Ranked by Energy Consumption, 1989 Energy End Uses Ranked by Energy Consumption, 1989 Source:...

  12. National Synchrotron Light Source

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-08

    A tour of Brookhaven's National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). The NSLS is one of the world's most widely used scientific research facilities, hosting more than 2,500 guest researchers each year. The NSLS provides intense beams of infrared, ultraviole

  13. DOE Takes Steps to Implement the National Broadband Plan | Department of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Energy Takes Steps to Implement the National Broadband Plan DOE Takes Steps to Implement the National Broadband Plan May 11, 2010 - 12:54pm Addthis The Department of Energy has announced that it is taking steps to implement energy-related recommendations included in the National Broadband Plan, released by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in March. The plan included recommendations on a wide range of topics from expanding internet access to modernizing health information to

  14. Re: NBP RFI-Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Studying...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    recommendations from the FCC in the National Broadband Plan. Electric utilities and the ICT industry share a long tradition of partnering to build and maintain the communications...

  15. Building-Level Intensities

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Electricity Consumption and Expenditure Intensities for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Electricity Consumption",,,,,,"Electricity Expenditures" ,"per Building (thousand kWh)","per...

  16. Broadband extreme ultraviolet probing of transient gratings in vanadium dioxide

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sistrunk, Emily; Lawrence Livermore National Lab.; Grilj, Jakob; Ecole Polytechnique Federal de Lausanne; Jeong, Jaewoo; Samant, Mahesh G.; Gray, Alexander X.; Temple Univ. Philadelphia, PA; Drr, Hermann A.; Parkin, Stuart S. P.; et al

    2015-02-11

    Nonlinear spectroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft x-ray spectral range offers the opportunity for element selective probing of ultrafast dynamics using core-valence transitions (Mukamel et al., Acc. Chem. Res. 42, 553 (2009)). We demonstrate a step on this path showing core-valence sensitivity in transient grating spectroscopy with EUV probing. We study the optically induced insulator-to-metal transition (IMT) of a VO? film with EUV diffraction from the optically excited sample. The VO? exhibits a change in the 3p-3d resonance of V accompanied by an acoustic response. Due to the broadband probing we are able to separate the two features.

  17. Light intensity compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rushford, Michael C. (Livermore, CA)

    1990-01-01

    In a system for recording images having vastly differing light intensities over the face of the image, a light intensity compressor is provided that utilizes the properties of twisted nematic liquid crystals to compress the image intensity. A photoconductor or photodiode material that is responsive to the wavelength of radiation being recorded is placed adjacent a layer of twisted nematic liquid crystal material. An electric potential applied to a pair of electrodes that are disposed outside of the liquid crystal/photoconductor arrangement to provide an electric field in the vicinity of the liquid crystal material. The electrodes are substantially transparent to the form of radiation being recorded. A pair of crossed polarizers are provided on opposite sides of the liquid crystal. The front polarizer linearly polarizes the light, while the back polarizer cooperates with the front polarizer and the liquid crystal material to compress the intensity of a viewed scene. Light incident upon the intensity compressor activates the photoconductor in proportion to the intensity of the light, thereby varying the field applied to the liquid crystal. The increased field causes the liquid crystal to have less of a twisting effect on the incident linearly polarized light, which will cause an increased percentage of the light to be absorbed by the back polarizer. The intensity of an image may be compressed by forming an image on the light intensity compressor.

  18. Parametric study of broadband terahertz radiation generation based on interaction of two-color ultra-short laser pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moradi, S.; Ganjovi, A.; Shojaei, F.; Saeed, M.

    2015-04-15

    In this work, using a two-dimensional kinetic model based on particle in cell-Monte Carlo collision simulation method, the influence of different parameters on the broadband intense Terahertz (THz) radiation generation via application of two-color laser fields, i.e., the fundamental and second harmonic modes, is studied. These two modes are focused into the molecular oxygen (O{sub 2}) with uniform density background gaseous media and the plasma channels are created. Thus, a broadband THz pulse that is around the plasma frequency is emitted from the formed plasma channel and co-propagates with the laser pulse. For different laser pulse shapes, the THz electric field and its spectrum are both calculated. The effects of laser pulse and medium parameters, i.e., positive and negative chirp pulse, number of laser cycles in the pulse, laser pulse shape, background gas pressure, and exerted DC electric field on THz spectrum are verified. Application of a negatively chirped femtosecond (40 fs) laser pulse results in four times enhancement of the THz pulse energy (2 times in THz electric field). The emission of THz radiation is mostly observed in the forward direction.

  19. Hybrid metasurface for ultra-broadband terahertz modulation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Heyes, Jane E.; Withayachumnankul, Withawat; Grady, Nathaniel K.; Chowdhury, Dibakar Roy; Azad, Abul K.; Chen, Hou-Tong

    2014-11-05

    We demonstrate an ultra-broadband free-space terahertz modulator based on a semiconductor-integrated metasurface. The modulator is made of a planar array of metal cut-wires on a silicon-on-sapphire substrate, where the silicon layer functions as photoconductive switches. Without external excitation, the cut-wire array exhibits a Lorentzian resonant response with a transmission passband spanning dc up to the fundamental dipole resonance above 2 THz. Under photoexcitation with 1.55 eV near-infrared light, the silicon regions in the cut-wire gaps become highly conductive, causing a transition of the resonant metasurface to a wire grating with a Drude response. In effect, the low-frequency passband below 2more »THz evolves into a stopband for the incident terahertz waves. Experimental validations confirm a bandwidth of at least 100%, spanning 0.5 to 1.5 THz with -10 dB modulation depth. This modulation depth is far superior to -5 dB achievable from a plain silicon-on-sapphire substrate with effectively 25 times higher pumping energy. The proposed concept of ultra-broadband metasurface modulator can be readily extended to electrically controlled terahertz wave modulation.« less

  20. Broadband Heating Rate Profile Project (BBHRP) - SGP ripbe1mcfarlane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riihimaki, Laura; Shippert, Timothy

    2014-11-05

    The objective of the ARM Broadband Heating Rate Profile (BBHRP) Project is to provide a structure for the comprehensive assessment of our ability to model atmospheric radiative transfer for all conditions. Required inputs to BBHRP include surface albedo and profiles of atmospheric state (temperature, humidity), gas concentrations, aerosol properties, and cloud properties. In the past year, the Radiatively Important Parameters Best Estimate (RIPBE) VAP was developed to combine all of the input properties needed for BBHRP into a single gridded input file. Additionally, an interface between the RIPBE input file and the RRTM was developed using the new ARM integrated software development environment (ISDE) and effort was put into developing quality control (qc) flags and provenance information on the BBHRP output files so that analysis of the output would be more straightforward. This new version of BBHRP, sgp1bbhrpripbeC1.c1, uses the RIPBE files as input to RRTM, and calculates broadband SW and LW fluxes and heating rates at 1-min resolution using the independent column approximation. The vertical resolution is 45 m in the lower and middle troposphere to match the input cloud properties, but is at coarser resolution in the upper atmosphere. Unlike previous versions, the vertical grid is the same for both clear-sky and cloudy-sky calculations.

  1. Broadband Heating Rate Profile Project (BBHRP) - SGP ripbe370mcfarlane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riihimaki, Laura; Shippert, Timothy

    2014-11-05

    The objective of the ARM Broadband Heating Rate Profile (BBHRP) Project is to provide a structure for the comprehensive assessment of our ability to model atmospheric radiative transfer for all conditions. Required inputs to BBHRP include surface albedo and profiles of atmospheric state (temperature, humidity), gas concentrations, aerosol properties, and cloud properties. In the past year, the Radiatively Important Parameters Best Estimate (RIPBE) VAP was developed to combine all of the input properties needed for BBHRP into a single gridded input file. Additionally, an interface between the RIPBE input file and the RRTM was developed using the new ARM integrated software development environment (ISDE) and effort was put into developing quality control (qc) flags and provenance information on the BBHRP output files so that analysis of the output would be more straightforward. This new version of BBHRP, sgp1bbhrpripbeC1.c1, uses the RIPBE files as input to RRTM, and calculates broadband SW and LW fluxes and heating rates at 1-min resolution using the independent column approximation. The vertical resolution is 45 m in the lower and middle troposphere to match the input cloud properties, but is at coarser resolution in the upper atmosphere. Unlike previous versions, the vertical grid is the same for both clear-sky and cloudy-sky calculations.

  2. Intense steady state electron beam generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hershcovitch, A.; Kovarik, V.J.; Prelec, K.

    1990-07-17

    An intense, steady state, low emittance electron beam generator is formed by operating a hollow cathode discharge plasma source at critical levels in combination with an extraction electrode and a target electrode that are operable to extract a beam of fast primary electrons from the plasma source through a negatively biased grid that is critically operated to repel bulk electrons toward the plasma source while allowing the fast primary electrons to move toward the target in the desired beam that can be successfully transported for relatively large distances, such as one or more meters away from the plasma source. 2 figs.

  3. Energy Intensity and Carbon Intensity by the Numbers | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Intensity and Carbon Intensity by the Numbers Energy Intensity and Carbon Intensity by the Numbers

  4. Quantitative broadband absorption and scattering spectroscopy in turbid media by combined frequency-domain and steady state methodologies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tromberg, Bruce J.; Berger, Andrew J.; Cerussi, Albert E.; Bevilacqua, Frederic; Jakubowski, Dorota

    2008-09-23

    A technique for measuring broadband near-infrared absorption spectra of turbid media that uses a combination of frequency-domain and steady-state reflectance methods. Most of the wavelength coverage is provided by a white-light steady-state measurement, whereas the frequency-domain data are acquired at a few selected wavelengths. Coefficients of absorption and reduced scattering derived from the frequency-domain data are used to calibrate the intensity of the steady-state measurements and to determine the reduced scattering coefficient at all wavelengths in the spectral window of interest. The absorption coefficient spectrum is determined by comparing the steady-state reflectance values with the predictions of diffusion theory, wavelength by wavelength. Absorption spectra of a turbid phantom and of human breast tissue in vivo, derived with the combined frequency-domain and steady-state technique, agree well with expected reference values.

  5. Simulation of free-electron lasers seeded with broadband radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bajlekov, Svetoslav; Fawley, William; Schroeder, Carl; Bartolini, Riccardo; Hooker, Simon

    2011-03-10

    The longitudinal coherence of free-electron laser (FEL) radiation can be enhanced by seeding the FEL with high harmonics of an optical laser pulse. The radiation produced by high-harmonic generation (HHG), however, has a fast-varying temporal profile that can violate the slowly varying envelope approximation and limited frequency window that is employed in conventional free-electron laser simulation codes. Here we investigate the implications of violating this approximation on the accuracy of simulations. On the basis of both analytical considerations and 1D numerical studies, it is concluded that, for most realistic scenarios, conventional FEL codes are capable of accurately simulating the FEL process even when the seed radiation violates the slowly varying envelope approximation. We additionally discuss the significance of filtering the harmonic content of broadband HHG seeds.

  6. Re: NBP RFI-Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Empowering...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Smart Grid: Data Access, Third Party Use and Privacy Re: NBP RFI-Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Empowering Consumers and the Smart Grid: Data Access, Third Party Use ...

  7. Development of a TIM-based, flexible, broadband two-crystal spectromet...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Development of a TIM-based, flexible, broadband two-crystal spectrometer Authors: Steel, A B ; Dunn, J ; Emig, J ; Beiersdorfer, P ; Brown, G V ; Shepherd, R ; Marley, E V ; ...

  8. ITP Energy Intensive Processes: Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio:

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Addressing Key Energy Challenges Across U.S. Industry | Department of Energy Energy Intensive Processes: Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing Key Energy Challenges Across U.S. Industry ITP Energy Intensive Processes: Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing Key Energy Challenges Across U.S. Industry PDF icon eip_report.pdf More Documents & Publications Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing Key Energy Challenges Across U.S. Industry Energy Technology

  9. Energy Intensity Indicators: Coverage

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This system of energy intensity indicators for total energy covers the economy as a whole and each of the major end-use sectors—transportation, industry, commercial, and residential, as well as the electric power sector. These sectors are shown in Figure 1. More detail for some of these sectors can be obtained by accessing the file "End-Use Sector Flowchart" below Figure 1.

  10. Broadband perfect absorber based on one ultrathin layer of refractory metal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Broadband perfect absorber based on one ultrathin layer of refractory metal Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on May 28, 2016 Title: Broadband perfect absorber based on one ultrathin layer of refractory metal Authors: Deng, Huixu ; Li, Zhigang ; Stan, Liliana ; Rosenmann, Daniel ; Czaplewski, David ; Gao, Jie ; Yang, Xiaodong Publication Date: 2015-05-28 OSTI Identifier: 1222270 Grant/Contract Number:

  11. Broadband turbulent spectra in gamma-ray burst light curves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Putten, Maurice H. P. M.; Guidorzi, Cristiano; Frontera, Filippo

    2014-05-10

    Broadband power density spectra offer a window to understanding turbulent behavior in the emission mechanism and, at the highest frequencies, in the putative inner engines powering long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We describe a chirp search method alongside Fourier analysis for signal detection in the Poisson noise-dominated, 2 kHz sampled, BeppoSAX light curves. An efficient numerical implementation is described in O(Nnlog n) operations, where N is the number of chirp templates and n is the length of the light-curve time series, suited for embarrassingly parallel processing. For the detection of individual chirps over a 1 s duration, the method is one order of magnitude more sensitive in signal-to-noise ratio than Fourier analysis. The Fourier-chirp spectra of GRB 010408 and GRB 970816 show a continuation of the spectral slope with up to 1 kHz of turbulence identified in low-frequency Fourier analysis. The same continuation is observed in an average spectrum of 42 bright, long GRBs. An outlook on a similar analysis of upcoming gravitational wave data is included.

  12. National Synchrotron Light Source

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    BNL

    2009-09-01

    A tour of Brookhaven's National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), hosted by Associate Laboratory Director for Light Sources, Stephen Dierker. The NSLS is one of the world's most widely used scientific research facilities, hosting more than 2,500 guest researchers each year. The NSLS provides intense beams of infrared, ultraviolet, and x-ray light for basic and applied research in physics, chemistry, medicine, geophysics, environmental, and materials sciences.

  13. NERSC Launches Data-intensive Science Pilot Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NERSC Launches Data-intensive Science Pilot Program NERSC Launches Data-intensive Science Pilot Program DOE Researchers Eligible to Apply for Resources, Expertise April 12, 2012 magic-hour-panorama.jpg NERSC's new data-intensive science pilot program is aimed at helping scientists capture, analyze and store the increasing stream of scientific data coming out of experiments, simulations and instruments, such as the Advanced Light Source (domed building in photo) at Berkeley Lab. Department of

  14. Energy Intensity Indicators: Terminology and Definitions | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Terminology and Definitions Energy Intensity Indicators: Terminology and Definitions The Energy Intensity Indicators website uses the following terms with their associated definitions. The terms related to various definitions of energy are discussed first. Three separate definitions of energy are used in the system of indicators: 1) delivered, 2) source, and 3) source, adjusted for electricity generation efficiency change. These definitions are discussed below. Delivered energy is the

  15. French intensive truck garden

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, T D

    1983-01-01

    The French Intensive approach to truck gardening has the potential to provide substantially higher yields and lower per acre costs than do conventional farming techniques. It was the intent of this grant to show that there is the potential to accomplish the gains that the French Intensive method has to offer. It is obvious that locally grown food can greatly reduce transportation energy costs but when there is the consideration of higher efficiencies there will also be energy cost reductions due to lower fertilizer and pesticide useage. As with any farming technique, there is a substantial time interval for complete soil recovery after there have been made substantial soil modifications. There were major crop improvements even though there was such a short time since the soil had been greatly disturbed. It was also the intent of this grant to accomplish two other major objectives: first, the garden was managed under organic techniques which meant that there were no chemical fertilizers or synthetic pesticides to be used. Second, the garden was constructed so that a handicapped person in a wheelchair could manage and have a higher degree of self sufficiency with the garden. As an overall result, I would say that the garden has taken the first step of success and each year should become better.

  16. Focused X-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piestrup, M.A.; Boyers, D.G.; Pincus, C.I.; Maccagno, P.

    1990-08-21

    Disclosed is an intense, relatively inexpensive X-ray source (as compared to a synchrotron emitter) for technological, scientific, and spectroscopic purposes. A conical radiation pattern produced by a single foil or stack of foils is focused by optics to increase the intensity of the radiation at a distance from the conical radiator. 8 figs.

  17. Focused X-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piestrup, Melvin A. (Woodside, CA); Boyers, David G. (Mountain View, CA); Pincus, Cary I. (Sunnyvale, CA); Maccagno, Pierre (Stanford, CA)

    1990-01-01

    An intense, relatively inexpensive X-ray source (as compared to a synchrotron emitter) for technological, scientific, and spectroscopic purposes. A conical radiation pattern produced by a single foil or stack of foils is focused by optics to increase the intensity of the radiation at a distance from the conical radiator.

  18. Microwave ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani; Thomae, Rainer W.

    2005-07-26

    A compact microwave ion source has a permanent magnet dipole field, a microwave launcher, and an extractor parallel to the source axis. The dipole field is in the form of a ring. The microwaves are launched from the middle of the dipole ring using a coaxial waveguide. Electrons are heated using ECR in the magnetic field. The ions are extracted from the side of the source from the middle of the dipole perpendicular to the source axis. The plasma density can be increased by boosting the microwave ion source by the addition of an RF antenna. Higher charge states can be achieved by increasing the microwave frequency. A xenon source with a magnetic pinch can be used to produce intense EUV radiation.

  19. INTERACTIVE: Energy Intensity and Carbon Intensity by the Numbers |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy INTERACTIVE: Energy Intensity and Carbon Intensity by the Numbers INTERACTIVE: Energy Intensity and Carbon Intensity by the Numbers February 19, 2016 - 11:53am Addthis Daniel Wood Daniel Wood Data Visualization and Cartographic Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Watch our CO2 drop dramatically compared to other countries in this interactive Curious about the total amount of carbon we emit into the atmosphere? Compare countries from around the globe using this tool. If

  20. Intensity Frontier Instrumentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kettell S.; Rameika, R.; Tshirhart, B.

    2013-09-24

    The fundamental origin of flavor in the Standard Model (SM) remains a mystery. Despite the roughly eighty years since Rabi asked Who ordered that? upon learning of the discovery of the muon, we have not understood the reason that there are three generations or, more recently, why the quark and neutrino mixing matrices and masses are so different. The solution to the flavor problem would give profound insights into physics beyond the Standard Model (BSM) and tell us about the couplings and the mass scale at which the next level of insight can be found. The SM fails to explain all observed phenomena: new interactions and yet unseen particles must exist. They may manifest themselves by causing SM reactions to differ from often very precise predictions. The Intensity Frontier (1) explores these fundamental questions by searching for new physics in extremely rare processes or those forbidden in the SM. This often requires massive and/or extremely finely tuned detectors.

  1. Negative Ion Source - Facilities - Cyclotron Institute

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Negative Ion Source Negative Ion Source. The Multi-Cusp Negative Ion Source was installed on the K150 Cyclotron in 2010. H- and D- ions are produced in the plasma chamber with a hot tantalum filament. The source is capable of producing milliamperes of ions and is used for experiments needing high intensity proton and deuteron beams.

  2. Development of a TIM-based, flexible, broadband two-crystal spectrometer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Development of a TIM-based, flexible, broadband two-crystal spectrometer Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Development of a TIM-based, flexible, broadband two-crystal spectrometer Authors: Steel, A B ; Dunn, J ; Emig, J ; Beiersdorfer, P ; Brown, G V ; Shepherd, R ; Marley, E V ; Hoarty, D J Publication Date: 2014-05-30 OSTI Identifier: 1144759 Report Number(s): LLNL-CONF-655229 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC52-07NA27344 Resource Type: Conference Resource

  3. Method and means of transmitting and receiving broad-band unipolar, ultrasonic pulses for ultrasonic inspection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, D.O.; Hsu, D.K.

    1993-12-14

    The invention includes a means and method for transmitting and receiving broadband, unipolar, ultrasonic pulses for ultrasonic inspection. The method comprises generating a generally unipolar ultrasonic stress pulse from a low impedance voltage pulse transmitter along a low impedance electrical pathway to an ultrasonic transducer, and receiving the reflected echo of the pulse by the transducer, converting it to a voltage signal, and passing it through a high impedance electrical pathway to an output. The means utilizes electrical components according to the method. The means and method allow a single transducer to be used in a pulse/echo mode, and facilitates alternatingly transmitting and receiving the broadband, unipolar, ultrasonic pulses. 25 figures.

  4. Method and means of transmitting and receiving broad-band unipolar, ultrasonic pulses for ultrasonic inspection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, Donald O.; Hsu, David K.

    1993-12-14

    The invention includes a means and method for transmitting and receiving broadband, unipolar, ultrasonic pulses for ultrasonic inspection. The method comprises generating a generally unipolar ultrasonic stress pulse from a low impedance voltage pulse transmitter along a low impedance electrical pathway to an ultrasonic transducer, and receiving the reflected echo of the pulse by the transducer, converting it to a voltage signal, and passing it through a high impedance electrical pathway to an output. The means utilizes electrical components according to the method. The means and method allow a single transducer to be used in a pulse/echo mode, and facilitates alternatingly transmitting and receiving the broadband, unipolar, ultrasonic pulses.

  5. The High Intensity Horizon at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tschirhart, R.S.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-01

    Fermilab's high intensity horizon is 'Project-X' which is a US led initiative with strong international participation that aims to realize a next generation proton source that will dramatically extend the reach of Intensity Frontier research. The Project-X research program includes world leading sensitivity in long-baseline and short-baseline neutrino experiments, a rich program of ultra-rare muon and kaon decays, opportunities for next-generation electric dipole moment experiments and other nuclear/particle physics probes, and a platform to investigate technologies for next generation energy applications. A wide range of R&D activities has supported mission critical accelerator subsystems, such as high-gradient superconducting RF accelerating structures, efficient RF power systems, cryo-modules and cryogenic refrigeration plants, advanced beam diagnostics and instrumentation, high-power targetry, as well as the related infrastructure and civil construction preparing for a construction start of a staged program as early as 2017.

  6. Methods and apparatus for broadband frequency comb stabilization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cox, Jonathan A; Kaertner, Franz X

    2015-03-17

    Feedback loops can be used to shift and stabilize the carrier-envelope phase of a frequency comb from a mode-locked fibers laser or other optical source. Compared to other frequency shifting and stabilization techniques, feedback-based techniques provide a wideband closed-loop servo bandwidth without optical filtering, beam pointing errors, or group velocity dispersion. It also enables phase locking to a stable reference, such as a Ti:Sapphire laser, continuous-wave microwave or optical source, or self-referencing interferometer, e.g., to within 200 mrad rms from DC to 5 MHz. In addition, stabilized frequency combs can be coherently combined with other stable signals, including other stabilized frequency combs, to synthesize optical pulse trains with pulse durations of as little as a single optical cycle. Such a coherent combination can be achieved via orthogonal control, using balanced optical cross-correlation for timing stabilization and balanced homodyne detection for phase stabilization.

  7. X-Ray Emitting GHz-Peaked Spectrum Galaxies: Testing a Dynamical-Radiative Model with Broad-Band Spectra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ostorero, L.; Moderski, R.; Stawarz, L.; Diaferio, A.; Kowalska, I.; Cheung, C.C.; Kataoka, J.; Begelman, M.C.; Wagner, S.J.; ,

    2010-06-07

    In a dynamical-radiative model we recently developed to describe the physics of compact, GHz-Peaked-Spectrum (GPS) sources, the relativistic jets propagate across the inner, kpc-sized region of the host galaxy, while the electron population of the expanding lobes evolves and emits synchrotron and inverse-Compton (IC) radiation. Interstellar-medium gas clouds engulfed by the expanding lobes, and photoionized by the active nucleus, are responsible for the radio spectral turnover through free-free absorption (FFA) of the synchrotron photons. The model provides a description of the evolution of the GPS spectral energy distribution (SED) with the source expansion, predicting significant and complex high-energy emission, from the X-ray to the {gamma}-ray frequency domain. Here, we test this model with the broad-band SEDs of a sample of eleven X-ray emitting GPS galaxies with Compact-Symmetric-Object (CSO) morphology, and show that: (i) the shape of the radio continuum at frequencies lower than the spectral turnover is indeed well accounted for by the FFA mechanism; (ii) the observed X-ray spectra can be interpreted as non-thermal radiation produced via IC scattering of the local radiation fields off the lobe particles, providing a viable alternative to the thermal, accretion-disk dominated scenario. We also show that the relation between the hydrogen column densities derived from the X-ray (N{sub H}) and radio (N{sub HI}) data of the sources is suggestive of a positive correlation, which, if confirmed by future observations, would provide further support to our scenario of high-energy emitting lobes.

  8. OZSPEC-2: An improved broadband high-resolution elliptical crystal x-ray spectrometer for high-energy density physics experiments (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heeter, R. F.; Anderson, S. G.; Booth, R.; Brown, G. V.; Emig, J.; Fulkerson, S.; McCarville, T.; Norman, D.; Schneider, M. B.; Young, B. K. F.

    2008-10-15

    A novel time, space, and energy-resolved x-ray spectrometer has been developed which produces, in a single snapshot, a broadband and relatively calibrated spectrum of the x-ray emission from a high-energy density laboratory plasma. The opacity zipper spectrometer (OZSPEC-1) records a nearly continuous spectrum for x-ray energies from 240 to 5800 eV in a single shot. The second-generation OZSPEC-2, detailed in this work, records fully continuous spectra on a single shot from any two of these three bands: 270-650, 660-1580, and 1960-4720 eV. These instruments thus record thermal and line radiation from a wide range of plasmas. These instruments' single-shot bandwidth is unmatched in a time-gated spectrometer; conversely, other broadband instruments are either time-integrated (using crystals or gratings), lack spectral resolution (diode arrays), or cover a lower energy band (gratings). The OZSPECs are based on the zipper detector, a large-format (100x35 mm) gated microchannel plate detector, with spectra dispersed along the 100 mm dimension. OZSPEC-1 and -2 both use elliptically bent crystals of OHM, RAP, and/or PET. Individual spectra are gated in 100 ps. OZSPEC-2 provides one-dimensional spatial imaging with 30-50 {mu}m resolution over a 1500 {mu}m field of view at the source. The elliptical crystal design yields broad spectral coverage with resolution E/{delta}E>500, strong rejection of hard x-ray backgrounds, and negligible source broadening for extended sources. Near-term applications include plasma opacity measurements, detailed spectra of inertial fusion Hohlraums, and laboratory astrophysics experiments.

  9. Neutral particle beam intensity controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dagenhart, W.K.

    1984-05-29

    The neutral beam intensity controller is based on selected magnetic defocusing of the ion beam prior to neutralization. The defocused portion of the beam is dumped onto a beam dump disposed perpendicular to the beam axis. Selective defocusing is accomplished by means of a magnetic field generator disposed about the neutralizer so that the field is transverse to the beam axis. The magnetic field intensity is varied to provide the selected partial beam defocusing of the ions prior to neutralization. The desired focused neutral beam portion passes along the beam path through a defining aperture in the beam dump, thereby controlling the desired fraction of neutral particles transmitted to a utilization device without altering the kinetic energy level of the desired neutral particle fraction. By proper selection of the magnetic field intensity, virtually zero through 100% intensity control of the neutral beam is achieved.

  10. Data-Intensive Benchmarking Suite

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-11-26

    The Data-Intensive Benchmark Suite is a set of programs written for the study of data-or storage-intensive science and engineering problems, The benchmark sets cover: general graph searching (basic and Hadoop Map/Reduce breadth-first search), genome sequence searching, HTTP request classification (basic and Hadoop Map/Reduce), low-level data communication, and storage device micro-beachmarking

  11. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

    1994-01-01

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

  12. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thacker, L.H.

    1995-10-17

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

  13. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thacker, L.H.

    1994-08-16

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

  14. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

    1995-01-01

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

  15. Tailored Terahertz Pulses from a Laser-Modulated Electron Beam

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in shaping the terahertz pulses by appropriate modulation of the laser pulse. The electromagnetic spectrum. The scarcity of intense broadband sources of radiation in the...

  16. Light Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a Light Source Data and Analysis Framework at NERSC Jack Deslippe, Shane Canon, Eli Dart, Abdelilah Essiari, Alexander Hexemer, Dula Parkinson, Simon Patton, Craig Tull + Many More The ALS Data Needs September 21, 2010 - NIST (MD) Light source data volumes are growing many times faster than Moore's law. ● Light source luminosity ● Detector resolution & rep-rates ● Sample automation BES user facilities serve 10,000 scientists and engineers every year. Mostly composed of many small

  17. Review Article: The weak interactive characteristic of resonance cells and broadband effect of metamaterials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Xiaopeng Song, Kun

    2014-10-15

    Metamaterials are artificial media designed to control electromagnetic wave propagation. Due to resonance, most present-day metamaterials inevitably suffer from narrow bandwidth, extremely limiting their practical applications. On the basis of tailored properties, a metamaterial within which each distinct unit cell resonates at its inherent frequency and has almost no coupling effect with the other ones, termed as weak interaction system, can be formulated. The total response of a weak interaction system can be treated as an overlap of the single resonance spectrum of each type of different unit cells. This intriguing feature therefore makes it possible to accomplish multiband or broadband metamaterials in a simple way. By introducing defects into metamaterials to form a weak interaction system, multiband and broadband electromagnetic metamaterials have first been experimentally demonstrated by our group. The similar concept can also be readily extended to acoustic and seismic metamaterials.

  18. Ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA); Ehlers, Kenneth W. (Alamo, CA)

    1984-01-01

    A magnetic filter for an ion source reduces the production of undesired ion species and improves the ion beam quality. High-energy ionizing electrons are confined by the magnetic filter to an ion source region, where the high-energy electrons ionize gas molecules. One embodiment of the magnetic filter uses permanent magnets oriented to establish a magnetic field transverse to the direction of travel of ions from the ion source region to the ion extraction region. In another embodiment, low energy 16 eV electrons are injected into the ion source to dissociate gas molecules and undesired ion species into desired ion species.

  19. System for obtaining smooth laser beams where intensity variations are reduced by spectral dispersion of the laser light (SSD)

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skupsky, Stanley (Rochester, NY); Kessler, Terrance J. (Rochester, NY); Short, Robert W. (Rochester, NY); Craxton, Stephen (Rochester, NY); Letzring, Samuel A. (Honeoye Falls, NY); Soures, John (Pittsford, NY)

    1991-01-01

    In an SSD (smoothing by spectral dispersion) system which reduces the time-averaged spatial variations in intensity of the laser light to provide uniform illumination of a laser fusion target, an electro-optic phase modulator through which a laser beam passes produces a broadband output beam by imposing a frequency modulated bandwidth on the laser beam. A grating provides spatial and angular spectral dispersion of the beam. Due to the phase modulation, the frequencies ("colors") cycle across the beam. The dispersed beam may be amplified and frequency converted (e.g., tripled) in a plurality of beam lines. A distributed phase plate (DPP) in each line is irradiated by the spectrally dispersed beam and the beam is focused on the target where a smooth (uniform intensity) pattern is produced. The color cycling enhances smoothing and the use of a frequency modulated laser pulse prevents the formation of high intensity spikes which could damage the laser medium in the power amplifiers.

  20. A Simple Empirical Equation to Calculate Cloud Optical Thickness from Shortwave Broadband Measurements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Simple Empirical Equation to Calculate Cloud Optical Thickness from Shortwave Broadband Measurements J. C. Barnard and C. N. Long Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Introduction Observational studies of shortwave cloud optical thickness, c , play an important role in determining how clouds affect climate. Accordingly, considerable effort has been, and continues to be expended to characterize the spatial and temporal distribution of c over the globe. This effort involves

  1. Room temperature broadband terahertz gains in graphene heterostructures based on inter-layer radiative transitions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Linlong [Key Laboratory of High Energy Density Physics and Technology, College of Physics and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064 (China); Chongqing institute of green and intelligent technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chongqing, 401122 (China); Du, Jinglei, E-mail: dujl@scu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of High Energy Density Physics and Technology, College of Physics and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064 (China); Shi, Haofei, E-mail: shi@cigit.ac.cn; Wei, Dongshan; Du, Chunlei, E-mail: cldu@cigit.ac.cn [Chongqing institute of green and intelligent technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chongqing, 401122 (China)

    2014-10-15

    We exploit inter-layer radiative transitions to provide gains to amplify terahertz waves in graphene heterostructures. This is achieved by properly doping graphene sheets and aligning their energy bands so that the processes of stimulated emissions can overwhelm absorptions. We derive an expression for the gain estimation and show the gain is insensitive to temperature variation. Moreover, the gain is broadband and can be strong enough to compensate the free carrier loss, indicating graphene based room temperature terahertz lasers are feasible.

  2. Re: NBP RFI-Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Empowering

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Consumers and the Smart Grid: Data Access, Third Party Use and Privacy | Department of Energy Empowering Consumers and the Smart Grid: Data Access, Third Party Use and Privacy Re: NBP RFI-Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Empowering Consumers and the Smart Grid: Data Access, Third Party Use and Privacy Smart grid provides consumers with unprecedented access and control of their electricity usage, and it provides utilities with the ability to manage the electric grid with

  3. Re: NBP RFI-Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Studying the

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Communications Requirements of Electric Utilities to Inform Federal Smart Grid Policy | Department of Energy Studying the Communications Requirements of Electric Utilities to Inform Federal Smart Grid Policy Re: NBP RFI-Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Studying the Communications Requirements of Electric Utilities to Inform Federal Smart Grid Policy The Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) is pleased to provide comments on the communications requirements of electric

  4. Broadband optical absorption by tunable Mie resonances in silicon nanocone arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Z. Y.; Zhang, R. J.; Wang, S. Y.; Lu, M.; Chen, X.; Zheng, Y. X.; Chen, L. Y.; Ye, Z.; Wang, C. Z.; Ho, K. M.

    2015-01-15

    Nanostructure arrays such as nanowire, nanopillar, and nanocone arrays have been proposed to be promising antireflection structures for photovoltaic applications due to their great light trapping ability. In this paper, the optical properties of Si nanopillar and nanocone arrays in visible and infrared region were studied by both theoretical calculations and experiments. The results show that the Mie resonance can be continuously tuned across a wide range of wavelength by varying the diameter of the nanopillars. However, Si nanopillar array with uniform diameter exhibits only discrete resonance mode, thus can't achieve a high broadband absorption. On the other hand, the Mie resonance wavelength in a Si nanocone array can vary continuously as the diameters of the cross sections increase from the apex to the base. Therefore Si nanocone arrays can strongly interact with the incident light in the broadband spectrum and the absorbance by Si nanocone arrays is higher than 95% over the wavelength from 300 to 2000 nm. In addition to the Mie resonance, the broadband optical absorption of Si nanocone arrays is also affected by Wood-Rayleigh anomaly effect and metal impurities introduced in the fabrication process.

  5. Broadband optical absorption by tunable Mie resonances in silicon nanocone arrays

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Z. Y.; Zhang, R. J.; Wang, S. Y.; Lu, M.; Chen, X.; Zheng, Y. X.; Chen, L. Y.; Ye, Z.; Wang, C. Z.; Ho, K. M.

    2015-01-15

    Nanostructure arrays such as nanowire, nanopillar, and nanocone arrays have been proposed to be promising antireflection structures for photovoltaic applications due to their great light trapping ability. In this paper, the optical properties of Si nanopillar and nanocone arrays in visible and infrared region were studied by both theoretical calculations and experiments. The results show that the Mie resonance can be continuously tuned across a wide range of wavelength by varying the diameter of the nanopillars. However, Si nanopillar array with uniform diameter exhibits only discrete resonance mode, thus can't achieve a high broadband absorption. On the other hand, themore » Mie resonance wavelength in a Si nanocone array can vary continuously as the diameters of the cross sections increase from the apex to the base. Therefore Si nanocone arrays can strongly interact with the incident light in the broadband spectrum and the absorbance by Si nanocone arrays is higher than 95% over the wavelength from 300 to 2000 nm. In addition to the Mie resonance, the broadband optical absorption of Si nanocone arrays is also affected by Wood-Rayleigh anomaly effect and metal impurities introduced in the fabrication process.« less

  6. Infrared light sources with semimetal electron injection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kurtz, Steven R. (Albuquerque, NM); Biefeld, Robert M. (Albuquerque, NM); Allerman, Andrew A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01

    An infrared light source is disclosed that comprises a layered semiconductor active region having a semimetal region and at least one quantum-well layer. The semimetal region, formed at an interface between a GaAsSb or GalnSb layer and an InAsSb layer, provides electrons and holes to the quantum-well layer to generate infrared light at a predetermined wavelength in the range of 2-6 .mu.m. Embodiments of the invention can be formed as electrically-activated light-emitting diodes (LEDs) or lasers, and as optically-pumped lasers. Since the active region is unipolar, multiple active regions can be stacked to form a broadband or multiple-wavelength infrared light source.

  7. Energy Intensity Indicators: Overview of Concepts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Intensity Indicators website reports changes in energy intensity in the United States since 1970. The website discusses, and presents data for, energy intensity trends by major end-use...

  8. EIS-0247: Construction and Operation of the Spallation Neutron Source

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The United States needs a high-flux, short- pulsed neutron source to provide its scientific and industrial research communities with a much more intense source of pulsed neutrons for neutron...

  9. Energy Intensity Indicators: Highlights | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Highlights Energy Intensity Indicators: Highlights This page highlights the major changes in the overall energy intensity for the United States, as well as summarizing changes in ...

  10. Diffuse Shortwave Intensive Observation Period

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Diffuse Shortwave Intensive Observation Period The Diffuse Shortwave IOP ran from September 23 to October 12, 2001. During this IOP, Joe Michalsky (The State University of New York-Albany) and Tom Stoffel (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) deployed approximately 15 radiometers of various designs and manufacturers on the SGP Radiometer Calibration Facility. The purpose was to compare the accuracy of the radiometers for diffuse shortwave measurements. The Scripps Institution of Oceanography

  11. Intensive Observation Period Projects Scheduled

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Intensive Observation Period Projects Scheduled Several IOP projects have been scheduled for the SGP CART site this spring. These projects either have already begun or will begin shortly. Radiosondes The RS-90 Transition IOP is currently under way. The RS-90 model radiosonde is gradually replacing the older RS-80 model. Radiosondes are instrument packages attached to and launched by weather balloons. The instruments measure atmospheric pressure, temperature, and relative humidity as the

  12. All-dielectric three-dimensional broadband Eaton lens with large refractive index range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yin, Ming; Yong Tian, Xiao, E-mail: leoxyt@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Ling Wu, Ling; Chen Li, Di [State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China)

    2014-03-03

    We proposed a method to realize three-dimensional (3D) gradient index (GRIN) devices requiring large refractive index (RI) range with broadband performance. By combining non-resonant GRIN woodpile photonic crystals structure in the metamaterial regime with a compound liquid medium, a wide RI range (16.32) was fulfilled flexibly. As a proof-of-principle for the low-loss and non-dispersive method, a 3D Eaton lens was designed and fabricated based on 3D printing process. Full-wave simulation and experiment validated its omnidirectional wave bending effects in a broad bandwidth covering Ku band (12?GHz18?GHz)

  13. Comparative study of broadband electrodynamic properties of single-crystal and thin-film strontium titanate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Findikoglu, A. T.; Jia, Q. X.; Kwon, C.; Reagor, D. W.; Kaduchak, G.; Rasmussen, K. Oe.; Bishop, A. R.

    1999-12-27

    We have used a coplanar waveguide structure to study broadband electrodynamic properties of single-crystal and thin-film strontium titanate. We have incorporated both time- and frequency-domain measurements to determine small-signal effective refractive index and loss tangent as functions of frequency (up to 4 GHz), dc bias (up to 10{sup 6} V/m), and cryogenic temperature (17 and 60 K). The large-signal impulse response of the devices and the associated phenomenological nonlinear wave equation illustrate how dissipation and nonlinearity combine to produce the overall response in the large-signal regime. (c) 1999 American Institute of Physics.

  14. The RHIC polarized source upgrade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zelenski, A.; Atoian, G.; Davydenko, V.; Ivanov, A.; Kolmogorov, A.; Ritter, J.; Steski, D.; Zubets, V.

    2010-09-27

    The RHIC polarized H{sup -} ion source is being upgraded to higher intensity (5-10 mA) and polarization for use in the RHIC polarization physics program at enhanced luminosity RHIC operation. The higher beam peak intensity will allow reduction of the transverse beam emittance at injection to AGS to reduce polarization losses in AGS. There is also a planned RHIC luminosity upgrade by using the electron beam lens to compensate the beam-beam interaction at collision points. This upgrade is also essential for future BNL plans for a high-luminosity electron - proton (ion) Collider eRHIC.

  15. High Intensity Polarized Electron Gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redwine, Robert P.

    2012-07-31

    The goal of the project was to investigate the possibility of building a very high intensity polarized electron gun for the Electron-Ion Collider. This development is crucial for the eRHIC project. The gun implements a large area cathode, ring-shaped laser beam and active cathode cooling. A polarized electron gun chamber with a large area cathode and active cathode cooling has been built and tested. A preparation chamber for cathode activation has been built and initial tests have been performed. Major parts for a load-lock chamber, where cathodes are loaded into the vacuum system, have been manufactured.

  16. OPERATION OF THE RHIC AU ION SOURCE.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    STESKI,D.B.; ALESSI,J.; BENJAMIN,J.; CARLSON,C.; MANNI,M.; THIEBERGER,P.; WIPLICH,M.

    2001-09-02

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is beginning its second year of operation. A cesium sputter ion source injecting into a tandem Van de Graaff provides the gold ions for RHIC. The ion source is operated in the pulsed beam mode and produces a 500{micro}sec long pulse of Au{sup -} with a peak intensity of 290pA at the entrance of the tandem. After acceleration in the tandem and post stripping, this results in a beam of Au{sup +32} with an intensity of 80e{micro}A and an energy of 182MeV. Over the last several years, a series of improvements have been made to increase the intensity of the pulsed beam from the ion source. Details of the source performance and improvements will be presented. In addition, an effort is under way to provide other beam species for RHIC collisions.

  17. Graphene based tunable fractal Hilbert curve array broadband radar absorbing screen for radar cross section reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Xianjun; Hu, Zhirun; Liu, Peiguo

    2014-11-15

    This paper proposes a new type of graphene based tunable radar absorbing screen. The absorbing screen consists of Hilbert curve metal strip array and chemical vapour deposition (CVD) graphene sheet. The graphene based screen is not only tunable when the chemical potential of the graphene changes, but also has broadband effective absorption. The absorption bandwidth is from 8.9GHz to 18.1GHz, ie., relative bandwidth of more than 68%, at chemical potential of 0eV, which is significantly wider than that if the graphene sheet had not been employed. As the chemical potential varies from 0 to 0.4eV, the central frequency of the screen can be tuned from 13.5GHz to 19.0GHz. In the proposed structure, Hilbert curve metal strip array was designed to provide multiple narrow band resonances, whereas the graphene sheet directly underneath the metal strip array provides tunability and averagely required surface resistance so to significantly extend the screen operation bandwidth by providing broadband impedance matching and absorption. In addition, the thickness of the screen has been optimized to achieve nearly the minimum thickness limitation for a nonmagnetic absorber. The working principle of this absorbing screen is studied in details, and performance under various incident angles is presented. This work extends applications of graphene into tunable microwave radar cross section (RCS) reduction applications.

  18. BRIGHT BROADBAND AFTERGLOWS OF GRAVITATIONAL WAVE BURSTS FROM MERGERS OF BINARY NEUTRON STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao He; Ding Xuan; Wu Xuefeng; Zhang Bing; Dai Zigao E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu

    2013-07-10

    If double neutron star mergers leave behind a massive magnetar rather than a black hole, then a bright early afterglow can follow the gravitational wave burst (GWB) even if there is no short gamma-ray burst (SGRB)-GWB association or if there is an association but the SGRB does not beam toward Earth. Besides directly dissipating the proto-magnetar wind, as suggested by Zhang, here we suggest that the magnetar wind could push the ejecta launched during the merger process and, under certain conditions, would reach a relativistic speed. Such a magnetar-powered ejecta, when interacting with the ambient medium, would develop a bright broadband afterglow due to synchrotron radiation. We study this physical scenario in detail and present the predicted X-ray, optical, and radio light curves for a range of magnetar and ejecta parameters. We show that the X-ray and optical light curves usually peak around the magnetar spin-down timescale ({approx}10{sup 3}-10{sup 5} s), reaching brightnesses readily detectable by wide-field X-ray and optical telescopes, and remain detectable for an extended period. The radio afterglow peaks later, but is much brighter than the case without a magnetar energy injection. Therefore, such bright broadband afterglows, if detected and combined with GWBs in the future, would be a probe of massive millisecond magnetars and stiff equations of state for nuclear matter.

  19. Broadband Heating Rate Profile Project (BBHRP) - SGP 1bbhrpripbe1mcfarlane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riihimaki, Laura; Shippert, Timothy

    2014-11-05

    The objective of the ARM Broadband Heating Rate Profile (BBHRP) Project is to provide a structure for the comprehensive assessment of our ability to model atmospheric radiative transfer for all conditions. Required inputs to BBHRP include surface albedo and profiles of atmospheric state (temperature, humidity), gas concentrations, aerosol properties, and cloud properties. In the past year, the Radiatively Important Parameters Best Estimate (RIPBE) VAP was developed to combine all of the input properties needed for BBHRP into a single gridded input file. Additionally, an interface between the RIPBE input file and the RRTM was developed using the new ARM integrated software development environment (ISDE) and effort was put into developing quality control (qc) flags and provenance information on the BBHRP output files so that analysis of the output would be more straightforward. This new version of BBHRP, sgp1bbhrpripbeC1.c1, uses the RIPBE files as input to RRTM, and calculates broadband SW and LW fluxes and heating rates at 1-min resolution using the independent column approximation. The vertical resolution is 45 m in the lower and middle troposphere to match the input cloud properties, but is at coarser resolution in the upper atmosphere. Unlike previous versions, the vertical grid is the same for both clear-sky and cloudy-sky calculations.

  20. Forward modeling of gyrosynchrotron intensity perturbations by sausage modes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reznikova, V. E.; Van Doorsselaere, T.; Antolin, P.

    2014-04-20

    To determine the observable radio signatures of the fast sausage standing wave, we examine gyrosynchrotron (GS) emission modulation using a linear three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic model of a plasma cylinder. Effects of the line-of-sight angle and instrumental resolution on perturbations of the GS intensity are analyzed for two models: a base model with strong Razin suppression and a low-density model in which the Razin effect was unimportant. Our finding contradicts previous predictions made with simpler models: an in-phase variation of intensity between low (f < f {sub peak}) and high (f > f {sub peak}) frequencies is found for the low-density model and an anti-phase variation for the base model in the case of a viewing angle of 45. The spatially inhomogeneous character of the oscillating emission source and the spatial resolution of the model are found to have a significant effect on the resulting intensity.

  1. Iron and Steel Energy Intensities

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    MECS Survey Year 1985 1988 1991 1994 All Energy Sources 46.47 30.61 34.77 33.98 Electricity 3.66 2.44 3.17 3.05 Natural Gas 11.33 7.86 10.25 9.97 Coal 29.13 19.12 20.08 18.40...

  2. The Broad-band X-ray Spectrum of IC 4329A from a Joint NuSTAR/Suzaku

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Observation (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect The Broad-band X-ray Spectrum of IC 4329A from a Joint NuSTAR/Suzaku Observation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Broad-band X-ray Spectrum of IC 4329A from a Joint NuSTAR/Suzaku Observation Authors: Brenneman, L. W. ; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. ; Madejski, G. ; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC ; Fuerst, F. ; /Caltech ; Matt, G. ; /Rome III U. ; Elvis, M. ; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. ; Harrison, F. A. ; /Caltech ;

  3. Broadband surface plasmon jets: direct observation of plasmon propagation for application to sensors and optical communications in microscale and nanoscale circuitry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bouhelier, Alexandre (Westmont, IL); Wiederrecht, Gary P. (Elmhurst, IL)

    2008-02-19

    A system and method for generating and using broadband surface plasmons in a metal film for characterization of analyte on or near the metal film. The surface plasmons interact with the analyte and generate leakage radiation which has spectral features which can be used to inspect, identify and characterize the analyte. The broadband plasmon excitation enables high-bandwidth photonic applications.

  4. Fermilab | Science at Fermilab | Experiments & Projects | Intensity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Frontier | MINOS The MINOS Far Detector in the Soudan Mine. The MINOS Far Detector in the Soudan Mine. Intensity Frontier MINOS The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search experiment is a long-baseline neutrino experiment designed to observe the phenomena of neutrino oscillations. MINOS uses two detectors, one located at the source of the neutrinos at Fermilab and the other located 450 miles away in northern Minnesota at the Soudan Mine. Beginning in February, 2005, researchers began

  5. Beam intensity upgrade at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marchionni, A.; /Fermilab

    2006-07-01

    The performance of the Fermilab proton accelerator complex is reviewed. The coming into operation of the NuMI neutrino line and the implementation of slip-stacking to increase the anti-proton production rate has pushed the total beam intensity in the Main Injector up to {approx} 3 x 10{sup 13} protons/pulse. A maximum beam power of 270 kW has been delivered on the NuMI target during the first year of operation. A plan is in place to increase it to 350 kW, in parallel with the operation of the Collider program. As more machines of the Fermilab complex become available with the termination of the Collider operation, a set of upgrades are being planned to reach first 700 kW and then 1.2 MW by reducing the Main Injector cycle time and by implementing proton stacking.

  6. ARM - AIP1OGREN: AOS Intensive Properties

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govDataAIP1OGREN: AOS Intensive Properties AIP1OGREN: AOS Intensive Properties The aip1ogren value-added product produces aerosol intensive properties from Aerosol Observing Station data. Information Last Updated: October 2008 General Description The aip1ogren value-added product (VAP) computes several aerosol intensive properties. It requires as input calibrated, corrected, aerosol extensive properties (scattering and absorption coefficients, primarily) from the Aerosol Observing Station (AOS).

  7. EIS-0523: Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Non-Contiguous United States

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) in the U.S. Department of Commerce is preparing, with DOE as a cooperating agency, a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) that will analyze the potential environmental impacts of a proposal to design, deploy and operate the Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network. This PEIS covers the non-contiguous United States.

  8. EIS-0523: Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Non-Contiguous United States

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) in the U.S. Department of Commerce is preparing, with DOE as a cooperating agency, a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) that will analyze the potential environmental impacts of a proposal to design, deploy and operate the Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network. This PEIS covers the non-contiguous United States.

  9. Cascading metallic gratings for broadband absorption enhancement in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wen, Long; Sun, Fuhe; Chen, Qin

    2014-04-14

    The incorporation of plasmonic nanostructures in the thin-film solar cells (TFSCs) is a promising route to harvest light into the nanoscale active layer. However, the light trapping scheme based on the plasmonic effects intrinsically presents narrow-band resonant enhancement of light absorption. Here we demonstrate that by cascading metal nanogratings with different sizes atop the TFSCs, broadband absorption enhancement can be realized by simultaneously exciting multiple localized surface plasmon resonances and inducing strong coupling between the plasmonic modes and photonic modes. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate of 66.5% in the photocurrent in an ultrathin amorphous silicon TFSC with two-dimensional cascaded gratings over the reference cell without gratings.

  10. Broadband asymmetric acoustic transmission by a plate with quasi-periodic surface ridges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Chunhui; Ke, Manzhu Ye, Yangtao; Xu, Shengjun; Qiu, Chunyin; Liu, Zhengyou

    2014-07-14

    In this paper, an acoustic system with broadband asymmetric transmission is designed and fabricated, which consists of a water-immersed aluminum plate engraved with quasi-periodically-patterned ridges on single surface. It demonstrates that when the acoustic waves are launched into the system from the structured side, they can couple into the Lamb modes in the plate efficiently and attain a high transmission; on the contrary, when the waves are incident from the opposite flat side, the coupling is weak, and the transmission is low. Superior to systems with periodic patterning, this quasi-periodically-patterned system has a broad working frequency range due to the collective contributions from the multiple diffractions specific to the structure.

  11. High performance anti-reflection coatings for broadband multi-junction solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    AIKEN,DANIEL J.

    2000-02-23

    The success of bandgap engineering has made high efficiency broadband multi-junction solar cells possible with photo-response out to the band edge of Ge. Modeling has been conducted which suggests that current double layer anti-reflection coating technology is not adequate for these devices in certain cases. Approaches for the development of higher performance anti-reflection coatings are examined. A new AR coating structure based on the use of Herpin equivalent layers is presented. Optical modeling suggests a decrease in the solar weighted reflectance of over 2.5{percent} absolute as a result. This structure requires no additional optical material development and characterization because no new optical materials are necessary. Experimental results and a sensitivity analysis are presented.

  12. Simulation of a cascaded longitudinal space charge amplifier for broadband radiation production using a superconducting linac

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halavanau, A.; Piot, P.

    2015-10-02

    Longitudinal space charge (LSC) effects are generally considered as harmful in free-electron lasers as they can seed unfavorable energy modulations that can result in density modulations with associated emittance dilution. It was pointed out, however, that such \\micro-bunching instabilities" could be potentially useful to support the generation of broadband coherent radiation. Therefore there has been an increasing interest in devising accelerator beam lines capable of controlling LSC induced density modulations. In the present paper we augment these previous investigations by combining a grid-less space charge algorithm with the popular particle-tracking program elegant. This high-fidelity model of the space charge is used to benchmark conventional LSC models. We then employ the developed model to optimize the performance of a cascaded longitudinal space charge amplifier using beam parameters comparable to the ones achievable at Fermilab Accelerator Science & Technology (FAST) facility currently under commissioning at Fermilab

  13. Investigating Broadband Variability of the TeV Blazar 1ES 1959+650

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aliu, E.; Archambault, S.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Barnacka, A.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Berger, K.; Bird, R.; Bouvier, A.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Cerruti, M.; Chen, X.; Ciupik, L.; Collins-Hughes, E.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Dumm, J.; Eisch, J. D.; Falcone, A.; Federici, S.; Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P.; Fleischhack, H.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Hughes, G.; Hughes, Z.; Humensky, T. B.; Johnson, C. A.; Kaaret, P.; Kar, P.; Kertzman, M.; Khassen, Y.; Kieda, D.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Lang, M. J.; Madhavan, A. S.; Majumdar, P.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; Meagher, K.; Millis, J.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Nelson, T.; Nieto, D.; O'Faolain de Bhroithe, A.; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Park, N.; Perkins, J. S.; Pohl, M.; Popkow, A.; Prokoph, H.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Rajotte, J.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Richards, G. T.; Roache, E.; Sadun, A.; Santander, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Shahinyan, K.; Sheidaei, F.; Smith, A. W.; Staszak, D.; Telezhinsky, I.; Theiling, M.; Tyler, J.; Varlotta, A.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Vincent, S.; Wakeley, S. P.; Weekes, T. C.; Weinstein, A.; Welsing, R.; Wilhelm, A.; Williams, D. A.; Zitzer, B.; Boettcher, M.; Fumagalli, M.

    2014-12-03

    We summarize broadband observations of the TeV-emitting blazar 1ES 1959 650, including optical R-band observations by the robotic telescopes Super-LOTIS and iTelescope, UV observations by Swift Ultraviolet and Optical Telescope, X-ray observations by the Swift X-ray Telescope, high-energy gamma-ray observations with the Fermi Large Area Telescope, and very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray observations by VERITAS above 315 GeV, all taken between 2012 April 17 and 2012 June 1 (MJD 56034 and 56079). The contemporaneous variability of the broadband spectral energy distribution is explored in the context of a simple synchrotron self Compton (SSC) model. In the SSC emission scenario, we find that the parameters required to represent the high state are significantly different than those in the low state. Motivated by possible evidence of gas in the vicinity of the blazar, we also investigate a reflected emission model to describe the observed variability pattern. This model assumes that the non-thermal emission from the jet is reflected by a nearby cloud of gas, allowing the reflected emission to re-enter the blob and produce an elevated gamma-ray state with no simultaneous elevated synchrotron flux. The model applied here, although not required to explain the observed variability pattern, represents one possible scenario which can describe the observations. As applied to an elevated VHE state of 66% of the Crab Nebula flux, observed on a single night during the observation period, the reflected emission scenario does not support a purely leptonic non-thermal emission mechanism. The reflected model does, however, predict a reflected photon field with sufficient energy to enable elevated gamma-ray emission via pion production with protons of energies between 10 and 100 TeV.

  14. Investigating broadband variability of the TeV blazar 1ES 1959+650

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aliu, E.; Archambault, S.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Barnacka, A.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Berger, K.; Bird, R.; Bouvier, A.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Cerruti, M.; Chen, X.; Ciupik, L.; Collins-Hughes, E.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Dumm, J.; Eisch, J. D.; Falcone, A.; Federici, S.; Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P.; Fleischhack, H.; Fortin, P.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Galante, N.; Gillanders, G. H.; Griffin, S.; Griffiths, S. T.; Grube, J.; Gyuk, G.; Håkansson, N.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Hughes, G.; Hughes, Z.; Humensky, T. B.; Johnson, C. A.; Kaaret, P.; Kar, P.; Kertzman, M.; Khassen, Y.; Kieda, D.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Lang, M. J.; Madhavan, A. S.; Majumdar, P.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; Meagher, K.; Millis, J.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Nelson, T.; Nieto, D.; de Bhróithe, A. O'Faoláin; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Park, N.; Perkins, J. S.; Pohl, M.; Popkow, A.; Prokoph, H.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Rajotte, J.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Richards, G. T.; Roache, E.; Sadun, A.; Santander, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Shahinyan, K.; Sheidaei, F.; Smith, A. W.; Staszak, D.; Telezhinsky, I.; Theiling, M.; Tyler, J.; Varlotta, A.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Vincent, S.; Wakely, S. P.; Weekes, T. C.; Weinstein, A.; Welsing, R.; Wilhelm, A.; Williams, D. A.; Zitzer, and B.; Böttcher, M.; Fumagalli, M.

    2014-12-03

    We summarize broadband observations of the TeV-emitting blazar 1ES 1959 650, including optical R-band observations by the robotic telescopes Super-LOTIS and iTelescope, UV observations by Swift UVOT, X-ray observations by the Swift X-ray Telescope, high-energy gamma-ray observations with the Fermi Large Area Telescope, and very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray observations by VERITAS above 315 GeV, all taken between 2012 April 17 and 2012 June 1 (MJD 56034 and 56079). The contemporaneous variability of the broadband spectral energy distribution is explored in the context of a simple synchrotron self Compton (SSC) model. In the SSC emission scenario, we find that the parameters required to represent the high state are significantly different than those in the low state. Motivated by possible evidence of gas in the vicinity of the blazar, we also investigate a reflected emission model to describe the observed variability pattern. This model assumes that the non-thermal emission from the jet is reflected by a nearby cloud of gas, allowing the reflected emission to re-enter the blob and produce an elevated gamma-ray state with no simultaneous elevated synchrotron flux. The model applied here, although not required to explain the observed variability pattern, represents one possible scenario which can describe the observations. As applied to an elevated VHE state of 66% of the Crab Nebula flux, observed on a single night during the observation period, the reflected emission scenario does not support a purely leptonic non-thermal emission mechanism. The reflected model does, however, predict a reflected photon field with sufficient energy to enable elevated gamma-ray emission via pion production with protons of energies between 10 and 100 TeV.

  15. Investigating broadband variability of the TeV blazar 1ES 1959+650

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aliu, E.; Archambault, S.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Barnacka, A.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Berger, K.; Bird, R.; Bouvier, A.; et al

    2014-12-03

    We summarize broadband observations of the TeV-emitting blazar 1ES 1959 650, including optical R-band observations by the robotic telescopes Super-LOTIS and iTelescope, UV observations by Swift UVOT, X-ray observations by the Swift X-ray Telescope, high-energy gamma-ray observations with the Fermi Large Area Telescope, and very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray observations by VERITAS above 315 GeV, all taken between 2012 April 17 and 2012 June 1 (MJD 56034 and 56079). The contemporaneous variability of the broadband spectral energy distribution is explored in the context of a simple synchrotron self Compton (SSC) model. In the SSC emission scenario, we find that the parameters requiredmore » to represent the high state are significantly different than those in the low state. Motivated by possible evidence of gas in the vicinity of the blazar, we also investigate a reflected emission model to describe the observed variability pattern. This model assumes that the non-thermal emission from the jet is reflected by a nearby cloud of gas, allowing the reflected emission to re-enter the blob and produce an elevated gamma-ray state with no simultaneous elevated synchrotron flux. The model applied here, although not required to explain the observed variability pattern, represents one possible scenario which can describe the observations. As applied to an elevated VHE state of 66% of the Crab Nebula flux, observed on a single night during the observation period, the reflected emission scenario does not support a purely leptonic non-thermal emission mechanism. The reflected model does, however, predict a reflected photon field with sufficient energy to enable elevated gamma-ray emission via pion production with protons of energies between 10 and 100 TeV.« less

  16. Making Relativistic Positrons Using Ultra-Intense Short Pulse Lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, H; Wilks, S; Bonlie, J; Chen, C; Chen, S; Cone, K; Elberson, L; Gregori, G; Liang, E; Price, D; Van Maren, R; Meyerhofer, D D; Mithen, J; Murphy, C V; Myatt, J; Schneider, M; Shepherd, R; Stafford, D; Tommasini, R; Beiersdorfer, P

    2009-08-24

    This paper describes a new positron source produced using ultra-intense short pulse lasers. Although it has been studied in theory since as early as the 1970s, the use of lasers as a valuable new positron source was not demonstrated experimentally until recent years, when the petawatt-class short pulse lasers were developed. In 2008 and 2009, in a series of experiments performed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, a large number of positrons were observed after shooting a millimeter thick solid gold target. Up to 2 x 10{sup 10} positrons per steradian ejected out the back of {approx}mm thick gold targets were detected. The targets were illuminated with short ({approx}1 ps) ultra-intense ({approx}1 x 10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}) laser pulses. These positrons are produced predominantly by the Bethe-Heitler process, and have an effective temperature of 2-4 MeV, with the distribution peaking at 4-7 MeV. The angular distribution of the positrons is anisotropic. For a wide range of applications, this new laser based positron source with its unique characteristics may complements the existing sources using radioactive isotopes and accelerators.

  17. Radiation source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thode, Lester E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1981-01-01

    A device and method for relativistic electron beam heating of a high-density plasma in a small localized region. A relativistic electron beam generator or accelerator produces a high-voltage electron beam which propagates along a vacuum drift tube and is modulated to initiate electron bunching within the beam. The beam is then directed through a low-density gas chamber which provides isolation between the vacuum modulator and the relativistic electron beam target. The relativistic beam is then applied to a high-density target plasma which typically comprises DT, DD, or similar thermonuclear gas at a density of 10.sup.17 to 10.sup.20 electrons per cubic centimeter. The target gas is ionized prior to application of the relativistic electron beam by means of a laser or other preionization source to form a plasma. Utilizing a relativistic electron beam with an individual particle energy exceeding 3 MeV, classical scattering by relativistic electrons passing through isolation foils is negligible. As a result, relativistic streaming instabilities are initiated within the high-density target plasma causing the relativistic electron beam to efficiently deposit its energy into a small localized region of the high-density plasma target.

  18. FIRST SIMULTANEOUS DETECTION OF MOVING MAGNETIC FEATURES IN PHOTOSPHERIC INTENSITY AND MAGNETIC FIELD DATA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lim, Eun-Kyung; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl; Goode, Philip

    2012-07-01

    The formation and the temporal evolution of a bipolar moving magnetic feature (MMF) was studied with high-spatial and temporal resolution. The photometric properties were observed with the New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory using a broadband TiO filter (705.7 nm), while the magnetic field was analyzed using the spectropolarimetric data obtained by Hinode. For the first time, we observed a bipolar MMF simultaneously in intensity images and magnetic field data, and studied the details of its structure. The vector magnetic field and the Doppler velocity of the MMF were also studied. A bipolar MMF with its positive polarity closer to the negative penumbra formed, accompanied by a bright, filamentary structure in the TiO data connecting the MMF and a dark penumbral filament. A fast downflow ({<=}2 km s{sup -1}) was detected at the positive polarity. The vector magnetic field obtained from the full Stokes inversion revealed that a bipolar MMF has a U-shaped magnetic field configuration. Our observations provide a clear intensity counterpart of the observed MMF in the photosphere, and strong evidence of the connection between the MMF and the penumbral filament as a serpentine field.

  19. High-Intensity Proton Accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2011-12-27

    Analysis is presented for an eight-cavity proton cyclotron accelerator that could have advantages as compared with other accelerators because of its potentially high acceleration gradient. The high gradient is possible since protons orbit in a sequence of TE111 rotating mode cavities of equally diminishing frequencies with path lengths during acceleration that greatly exceed the cavity lengths. As the cavities operate at sequential harmonics of a basic repetition frequency, phase synchronism can be maintained over a relatively wide injection phase window without undue beam emittance growth. It is shown that use of radial vanes can allow cavity designs with significantly smaller radii, as compared with simple cylindrical cavities. Preliminary beam transport studies show that acceptable extraction and focusing of a proton beam after cyclic motion in this accelerator should be possible. Progress is also reported on design and tests of a four-cavity electron counterpart accelerator for experiments to study effects on beam quality arising from variations injection phase window width. This device is powered by four 500-MW pulsed amplifiers at 1500, 1800, 2100, and 2400 MHz that provide phase synchronous outputs, since they are driven from a with harmonics derived from a phase-locked 300 MHz source.

  20. Energy Intensity Indicators Data | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Intensity Indicators Data Energy Intensity Indicators Data The files listed below contain energy intensity data and documentation that supports the information presented on this website. The files are in Microsoft® Excel® format (2007 and later versions). Package icon Entire Set File Economywide File Transportation Sector File Industrial Sector File Residential Buildings Sector File Commercial Buildings Sector File Electricity Sector More Documents & Publications Home Performance

  1. Energy Intensity Indicators | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Data & Tools » Energy Intensity Indicators Energy Intensity Indicators Energy efficiency is a vital part of the nation's energy strategy and has been since the first oil crisis in 1973. As part of a national priority for improving energy efficiency, the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) has established a national system of indicators to track changes in the energy intensity of our economy and economic sectors over time. This system of

  2. Efficiency and Intensity in the AEO 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Session 9 Energy Efficiency: Measuring Gains and Quantifying Opportunities April 7, 2010 2010 Energy Conference Washington, DC Steve Wade, Economist Efficiency and Intensity in the ...

  3. Integrating a Traveling Wave Tube into an AECR-U ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Covo, Michel Kireeff; Benitez, Janilee Y.; Ratti, Alessandro; Vujic, Jasmina L.

    2011-07-01

    An RF system of 500W - 10.75 to 12.75 GHz was designed and integrated into the Advanced Electron Cyclotron Resonance - Upgrade (AECR-U) ion source of the 88-Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The AECR-U produces ion beams for the Cyclotron giving large flexibility of ion species and charge states. The broadband frequency of a Traveling Wave Tube (TWT) allows modifying the volume that couples and heats the plasma. The TWT system design and integration with the AECR-U ion source and results from commissioning are presented.

  4. Spallation Neutron Source | Neutron Science at ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Spallation Neutron Source Spallation Neutron Source SNS is a one-of-a-kind research facility that provides the most intense pulsed neutron beams in the world for scientific research and industrial development. SNS produces neutrons with an accelerator-based system that delivers short (microsecond) proton pulses to a target/moderator system, where neutrons are produced by a process called spallation. State-of-the-art experiment stations provide a variety of capabilities for researchers across a

  5. Contaminant Sources are Known

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sources are Known Historical contaminant sources from liquid discharges and solid waste management units are known. August 1, 2013 Contaminant source map LANL contaminant...

  6. New Visible to Broadband Shortwave Conversions for Deriving Albedos from GOES-8 Over the ARM-SGP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Visible to Broadband Shortwave Conversions for Deriving Albedos from GOES-8 Over the ARM-SGP V. Chakrapani, D. R. Doelling, and M. M. Khaiyer Analytical Services and Materials, Inc. Hampton, Virginia P. Minnis National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center Hampton, Virginia Introduction The radiation budget at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) is a quantity of fundamental importance to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. Thus, it is necessary to measure

  7. Slower, colder, longer : prospects for a very cold neutron source.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Micklich, B. J.; Carpenter, J. M.; Intense Pulsed Neutron Source

    2007-01-01

    The motivation for our study is to establish the prospects for a neutron source providing intense pulsed beams with spectra as cold as is realistic. The scientific motivation is to serve applications in nanoscience, biology and technology.

  8. Operation of the intensity monitors in beam transport lines at Fermilab during Run II¹

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Crisp, J.; Fellenz, B.; Fitzgerald, J.; Heikkinen, D.; Ibrahim, M. A.

    2011-10-06

    The intensity of charged particle beams at Fermilab must be kept within pre-determined safety and operational envelopes in part by assuring all beam within a few percent has been transported from any source to destination. Beam instensity monitors with toroidial pickups provide such beam intensity measurements in the transport lines between accelerators at FNAL. With Run II, much effort was made to continually improve the resolution and accuracy of the system.

  9. Energy Intensity Changes by Sector, 1985-2011 - Alternative Measures by

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Type of Energy | Department of Energy Changes by Sector, 1985-2011 - Alternative Measures by Type of Energy Energy Intensity Changes by Sector, 1985-2011 - Alternative Measures by Type of Energy Further insight with regard to the comparison of intensity changes by sector can be gained by looking at how they differ with respect to different definitions of energy use. Source energy attributes all the energy used for electricity generation and transmission to the specific end-use sector,

  10. Extracting source parameters from beam monitors on a chopper spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abernathy, Douglas L [ORNL; Niedziela, Jennifer L [ORNL; Stone, Matthew B [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The intensity distributions of beam monitors in direct-geometry time-of-flight neutron spectrometers provide important information about the instrument resolution. For short-pulse spallation neutron sources in particular, the asymmetry of the source pulse may be extracted and compared to Monte Carlo source simulations. An explicit formula using a Gaussian-convolved Ikeda-Carpenter distribution is given and compared to data from the ARCS instrument at the Spallation Neutron Source.

  11. Max Tech and Beyond: High-Intensity Discharge Lamps (Technical Report) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect High-Intensity Discharge Lamps Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Max Tech and Beyond: High-Intensity Discharge Lamps High-intensity discharge (HID) lamps are most often found in industrial and commercial applications, and are the light source of choice in street and area lighting, and sports stadium illumination. HID lamps are produced in three types - mercury vapor (MV), high pressure sodium (HPS) and metal halide (MH). Of these, MV and MH are considered white-light

  12. Techniques for optically compressing light intensity ranges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rushford, M.C.

    1989-03-28

    A pin hole camera assembly for use in viewing an object having a relatively large light intensity range, for example a crucible containing molten uranium in an atomic vapor laser isotope separator (AVLIS) system is disclosed herein. The assembly includes means for optically compressing the light intensity range appearing at its input sufficient to make it receivable and decipherable by a standard video camera. A number of different means for compressing the intensity range are disclosed. These include the use of photogray glass, the use of a pair of interference filters, and the utilization of a new liquid crystal notch filter in combination with an interference filter. 18 figs.

  13. Techniques for optically compressing light intensity ranges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rushford, Michael C. (Livermore, CA)

    1989-01-01

    A pin hole camera assembly for use in viewing an object having a relatively large light intensity range, for example a crucible containing molten uranium in an atomic vapor laser isotope separator (AVLIS) system is disclosed herein. The assembly includes means for optically compressing the light intensity range appearing at its input sufficient to make it receivable and decipherable by a standard video camera. A number of different means for compressing the intensity range are disclosed. These include the use of photogray glass, the use of a pair of interference filters, and the utilization of a new liquid crystal notch filter in combination with an interference filter.

  14. X-ray lithography source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piestrup, M.A.; Boyers, D.G.; Pincus, C.

    1991-12-31

    A high-intensity, inexpensive X-ray source for X-ray lithography for the production of integrated circuits is disclosed. Foil stacks are bombarded with a high-energy electron beam of 25 to 250 MeV to produce a flux of soft X-rays of 500 eV to 3 keV. Methods of increasing the total X-ray power and making the cross section of the X-ray beam uniform are described. Methods of obtaining the desired X-ray-beam field size, optimum frequency spectrum and eliminating the neutron flux are all described. A method of obtaining a plurality of station operation is also described which makes the process more efficient and economical. The satisfying of these issues makes transition radiation an excellent moderate-priced X-ray source for lithography. 26 figures.

  15. X-ray lithography source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piestrup, Melvin A. (Woodside, CA); Boyers, David G. (Mountain View, CA); Pincus, Cary (Sunnyvale, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A high-intensity, inexpensive X-ray source for X-ray lithography for the production of integrated circuits. Foil stacks are bombarded with a high-energy electron beam of 25 to 250 MeV to produce a flux of soft X-rays of 500 eV to 3 keV. Methods of increasing the total X-ray power and making the cross section of the X-ray beam uniform are described. Methods of obtaining the desired X-ray-beam field size, optimum frequency spectrum and elminating the neutron flux are all described. A method of obtaining a plurality of station operation is also described which makes the process more efficient and economical. The satisfying of these issues makes transition radiation an exellent moderate-priced X-ray source for lithography.

  16. High-intensity positron microprobe at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golge, Serkan; Vlahovic, Branislav; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan B.

    2014-06-19

    We present a conceptual design for a novel continuous wave electron-linac based high-intensity slow-positron production source with a projected intensity on the order of 1010 e+/s. Reaching this intensity in our design relies on the transport of positrons (T+ below 600 keV) from the electron-positron pair production converter target to a low-radiation and low-temperature area for moderation in a high-efficiency cryogenic rare gas moderator, solid Ne. The performance of the integrated beamline has been verified through computational studies. The computational results include Monte Carlo calculations of the optimized electron/positron beam energies, converter target thickness, synchronized raster system, transport of the beam from the converter target to the moderator, extraction of the beam from the channel, and moderation efficiency calculations. For the extraction of positrons from the magnetic channel a magnetic field terminator plug prototype has been built and experimental data on the effectiveness of this prototype are presented. The dissipation of the heat away from the converter target and radiation protection measures are also discussed.

  17. High-intensity positron microprobe at Jefferson Lab

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Golge, Serkan; Vlahovic, Branislav; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan B.

    2014-06-19

    We present a conceptual design for a novel continuous wave electron-linac based high-intensity slow-positron production source with a projected intensity on the order of 1010 e+/s. Reaching this intensity in our design relies on the transport of positrons (T+ below 600 keV) from the electron-positron pair production converter target to a low-radiation and low-temperature area for moderation in a high-efficiency cryogenic rare gas moderator, solid Ne. The performance of the integrated beamline has been verified through computational studies. The computational results include Monte Carlo calculations of the optimized electron/positron beam energies, converter target thickness, synchronized raster system, transport of themore » beam from the converter target to the moderator, extraction of the beam from the channel, and moderation efficiency calculations. For the extraction of positrons from the magnetic channel a magnetic field terminator plug prototype has been built and experimental data on the effectiveness of this prototype are presented. The dissipation of the heat away from the converter target and radiation protection measures are also discussed.« less

  18. System for obtaining smooth laser beams where intensity variations are reduced by spectral dispersion of the laser light (SSD)

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skupsky, S.; Kessler, T.J.; Short, R.W.; Craxton, S.; Letzring, S.A.; Soures, J.

    1991-09-10

    In an SSD (smoothing by spectral dispersion) system which reduces the time-averaged spatial variations in intensity of the laser light to provide uniform illumination of a laser fusion target, an electro-optic phase modulator through which a laser beam passes produces a broadband output beam by imposing a frequency modulated bandwidth on the laser beam. A grating provides spatial and angular spectral dispersion of the beam. Due to the phase modulation, the frequencies (''colors'') cycle across the beam. The dispersed beam may be amplified and frequency converted (e.g., tripled) in a plurality of beam lines. A distributed phase plate (DPP) in each line is irradiated by the spectrally dispersed beam and the beam is focused on the target where a smooth (uniform intensity) pattern is produced. The color cycling enhances smoothing and the use of a frequency modulated laser pulse prevents the formation of high intensity spikes which could damage the laser medium in the power amplifiers. 8 figures.

  19. Description of Energy Intensity Tables (12)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3. Description of Energy Intensity Data Tables There are 12 data tables used as references for this report. Specifically, these tables are categorized as tables 1 and 2 present...

  20. Applications in Data-Intensive Computing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, Anuj R.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Baxter, Douglas J.; Cannon, William R.; Chavarra-Miranda, Daniel; Choudhury, Sutanay; Gorton, Ian; Gracio, Deborah K.; Halter, Todd D.; Jaitly, Navdeep; Johnson, John R.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Macduff, Matt C.; Marquez, Andres; Monroe, Matthew E.; Oehmen, Christopher S.; Pike, William A.; Scherrer, Chad; Villa, Oreste; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Whitney, Paul D.; Zuljevic, Nino

    2010-04-01

    This book chapter, to be published in Advances in Computers, Volume 78, in 2010 describes applications of data intensive computing (DIC). This is an invited chapter resulting from a previous publication on DIC. This work summarizes efforts coming out of the PNNL's Data Intensive Computing Initiative. Advances in technology have empowered individuals with the ability to generate digital content with mouse clicks and voice commands. Digital pictures, emails, text messages, home videos, audio, and webpages are common examples of digital content that are generated on a regular basis. Data intensive computing facilitates human understanding of complex problems. Data-intensive applications provide timely and meaningful analytical results in response to exponentially growing data complexity and associated analysis requirements through the development of new classes of software, algorithms, and hardware.

  1. Energy Intensity Baselining and Tracking Guidance

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Learn more at betterbuildings.energy.gov Energy Intensity Baselining and Tracking Guidance i Preface The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Better Buildings, Better Plants Program (Better Plants) is a voluntary energy efficiency leadership initiative for U.S. manufacturers. The program encourages companies to commit to reduce the energy intensity of their U.S. manufacturing operations, usually by 25% over a 10-year period. Companies joining Better Plants are recognized by DOE for their

  2. Energy Intensity Indicators: Transportation Energy Consumption | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Transportation Energy Consumption Energy Intensity Indicators: Transportation Energy Consumption This section contains an overview of the aggregate transportation sector, combining both passenger and freight segments of this sector. The specific energy intensity indicators for passenger and freight can be obtained from the links, passenger transportation, or freight transportation. For further detail within the transportation sector, download the appropriate Trend Data worksheet

  3. Quantifying Aerosol Direct Effects from Broadband Irradiance and Spectral Aerosol Optical Depth Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Creekmore, Torreon N.; Joseph, Everette; Long, Charles N.; Li, Siwei

    2014-05-16

    We outline a methodology using broadband and spectral irradiances to quantify aerosol direct effects on the surface diffuse shortwave (SW) irradiance. Best Estimate Flux data span a 13 year timeframe at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program’s Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. Screened clear-sky irradiances and aerosol optical depth (AOD), for solar zenith angles ≤ 65°, are used to estimate clear-sky diffuse irradiances. We validate against detected clear-sky observations from SGP’s Basic Radiation System (BRS). BRS diffuse irradiances were in accordance with estimates, producing a root-mean-square error and mean bias errors of 4.0 W/m2 and -1.4 W/m2, respectively. Absolute differences show 99% of estimates within ±10 W/m2 (10%) of the mean BRS observations. Clear-sky diffuse estimates are used to derive quantitative estimates of aerosol radiative effects, represented as the aerosol diffuse irradiance (ADI). ADI is the contribution of diffuse SW to global SW, attributable to scattering of atmospheric transmission by natural plus anthropogenic aerosols. Estimated slope for the ADI as a function of AOD indicates an increase of ~22 W/m2 in diffuse SW for every 0.1 increase in AOD. Such significant increases in the diffuse fraction could possibly increase photosynthesis. Annual mean ADI is 28.2 W/m2, and heavy aerosol loading at SGP provides up to a maximum increase of 120 W/m2 in diffuse SW over background conditions. With regard to seasonal variation, the mean diffuse forcings are 17.2, 33.3, 39.0, and 23.6 W/m2 for winter, spring, summer, and fall, respectively.

  4. Contaminant Sources are Known

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Contaminant Sources are Known Contaminant Sources are Known Historical contaminant sources from liquid discharges and solid waste management units are known. August 1, 2013 Contaminant source map LANL contaminant source map RELATED IMAGES http://farm4.staticflickr.com/3789/9631743884_4caeb970f9_t.jpg Enlarge

  5. What is Data-Intensive Science?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Critchlow, Terence J.; Kleese van Dam, Kerstin

    2013-06-03

    What is Data Intensive Science? Today we are living in a digital world, where scientists often no longer interact directly with the physical object of their research, but do so via digitally captured, reduced, calibrated, analyzed, synthesized and, at times, visualized data. Advances in experimental and computational technologies have lead to an exponential growth in the volumes, variety and complexity of this data and while the deluge is not happening everywhere in an absolute sense, it is in a relative one. Science today is data intensive. Data intensive science has the potential to transform not only how we do science, but how quickly we can translate scientific progress into complete solutions, policies, decisions and ultimately economic success. Critically, data intensive science touches some of the most important challenges we are facing. Consider a few of the grand challenges outlined by the U.S. National Academy of Engineering: make solar energy economical, provide energy from fusion, develop carbon sequestration methods, advance health informatics, engineer better medicines, secure cyberspace, and engineer the tools of scientific discovery. Arguably, meeting any of these challenges requires the collaborative effort of trans-disciplinary teams, but also significant contributions from enabling data intensive technologies. Indeed for many of them, advances in data intensive research will be the single most important factor in developing successful and timely solutions. Simple extrapolations of how we currently interact with and utilize data and knowledge are not sufficient to meet this need. Given the importance of these challenges, a new, bold vision for the role of data in science, and indeed how research will be conducted in a data intensive environment is evolving.

  6. Electrolytes for power sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doddapaneni, Narayan; Ingersoll, David

    1995-01-01

    Electrolytes for power sources, particularly alkaline and acidic power sources, comprising benzene polysulfonic acids and benzene polyphosphonic acids or salts of such acids.

  7. Electrolytes for power sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doddapaneni, N.; Ingersoll, D.

    1995-01-03

    Electrolytes are disclosed for power sources, particularly alkaline and acidic power sources, comprising benzene polysulfonic acids and benzene polyphosphonic acids or salts of such acids. 7 figures.

  8. Off-site Intensive Operational Period

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 ARM Participating in Off-site Intensive Operational Period The ARM Program is playing a role in the Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers-Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (CRYSTAL-FACE) intensive operational period (IOP), under way through July in South Florida. The objective of CRYSTAL-FACE is to investigate the physical properties and formation processes of tropical cirrus clouds. The ARM Program has deployed a suite of ground-based instruments in Florida for CRYSTAL-FACE

  9. Short rise time intense electron beam generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, Craig L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1987-01-01

    A generator for producing an intense relativistic electron beam having a subnanosecond current rise time includes a conventional generator of intense relativistic electrons feeding into a short electrically conductive drift tube including a cavity containing a working gas at a low enough pressure to prevent the input beam from significantly ionizing the working gas. Ionizing means such as a laser simultaneously ionize the entire volume of working gas in the cavity to generate an output beam having a rise time less than one nanosecond.

  10. Short rise time intense electron beam generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, C.L.

    1984-03-16

    A generator for producing an intense relativisitc electron beam having a subnanosecond current rise time includes a conventional generator of intense relativistic electrons feeding into a short electrically conductive drift tube including a cavity containing a working gas at a low enough pressure to prevent the input beam from significantly ionizing the working gas. Ionizing means such as a laser simultaneously ionize the entire volume of working gas in the cavity to generate an output beam having a rise time less than one nanosecond.

  11. Energy Intensity Indicators: Indicators for Major Sectors

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This system of energy intensity indicators for total energy covers the economy as a whole and each of the major end-use sectors—transportation, industry, commercial, and residential, as well as the electric power sector. These sectors are shown in Figure 1.

  12. A New Proposal to the High Intensity Gamma-Ray Source (HIS) PAC...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    VA 22801, USA C. Travaglio INAF - Astronomical Observatory Turin, Italy and B2FH - Association - Turin, Italy October 19 th , 2012 2 1. Experiment Summary The proposed research ...

  13. Method of using deuterium-cluster foils for an intense pulsed neutron source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miley, George H.; Yang, Xiaoling

    2013-09-03

    A method is provided for producing neutrons, comprising: providing a converter foil comprising deuterium clusters; focusing a laser on the foil with power and energy sufficient to cause deuteron ions to separate from the foil; and striking a surface of a target with the deuteron ions from the converter foil with energy sufficient to cause neutron production by a reaction selected from the group consisting of D-D fusion, D-T fusion, D-metal nuclear spallation, and p-metal. A further method is provided for assembling a plurality of target assemblies for a target injector to be used in the previously mentioned manner. A further method is provided for producing neutrons, comprising: splitting a laser beam into a first beam and a second beam; striking a first surface of a target with the first beam, and an opposite second surface of the target with the second beam with energy sufficient to cause neutron production.

  14. High power 325 MHz vector modulators for the Fermilab High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madrak, Robyn Leigh; Wildman, David; /Fermilab

    2008-10-01

    One of the goals of the low energy 60 MeV section of the HINS H{sup -} linac [1] is to demonstrate that a total of {approx}40 RF cavities can be powered by a single 2.5 MW, 325 MHz klystron. This requires individual vector modulators at the input of each RF cavity to independently adjust the amplitude and phase of the RF input signal during the 3.5 ms RF pulse. Two versions of vector modulators have been developed; a 500 kW device for the radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) and a 75 kW modulator for the RF cavities. High power tests showing the vector modulator phase and amplitude responses will be presented.

  15. Intense Super-radiant X-rays from a Compact Source using a Nanocathode...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    to produce brilliance and flux similar to major synchrotron facilities. Authors: Graves, W.S. ; MIT, LNS ; Kaertner, F.X. ; MIT, LNS CFEL, Hamburg ; Moncton, D.E. ; MIT,...

  16. Intensity limitations in compact H{sup minus} cyclotrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baartman, R.A.

    1995-12-31

    At TRIUMF, we have demonstrated 2.5 mA in a compact H{sup -} cyclotron. It is worthwhile to explore possibility of going to even higher intensity. In small cyclotrons, vertical focusing vanishes at the center. The space charge tune shift further reduces vertical focusing, thus determining an upper limit on instantaneous current. Limit on average current is of course also dependent upon phase acceptance, but this can be made quite large in an H{sup -} cyclotron. Longitudinal space charge on the first turn can reduce the phase acceptance as well. For finite ion source brightness, another limit comes from bunching efficiency in presence of space charge forces. We present methods of calculating and optimizing these limits. In particular, we show that it is possible to achieve 10mA in a 50 MeV compact H{sup -} cyclotron.

  17. 2014 call for NERSC's Data Intensive Computing Pilot Program...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NERSC's Data Intensive Computing Pilot Program 2014 call for NERSC's Data Intensive Computing Pilot Program Due December 10 November 18, 2013 by Francesca Verdier (0 Comments)...

  18. EIA Energy Efficiency-Residential Sector Energy Intensities,...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential Sector Energy Intensities RESIDENTIAL SECTOR ENERGY INTENSITIES: 1978-2005 Released Date: August 2004 Page Last Modified:June 2009 These tables provide estimates of...

  19. Diamondoid Monolayers as Monochromatic Electron Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Diamondoid Monolayers as Monochromatic Electron Source Print Diamondoids are nanometer-sized molecules that feature diamond-crystal cage structures. Adamantane, the smallest member in the family, consists of one cage structure, diamantane two, triamantane three, tetramantane four, and so on. On all of these, the dangling bonds on the outer surfaces are terminated by hydrogen atoms. Because of their potential to possess novel properties of both diamond and nanomaterial, intensive efforts have

  20. Diamondoid Monolayers as Monochromatic Electron Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Diamondoid Monolayers as Monochromatic Electron Source Print Diamondoids are nanometer-sized molecules that feature diamond-crystal cage structures. Adamantane, the smallest member in the family, consists of one cage structure, diamantane two, triamantane three, tetramantane four, and so on. On all of these, the dangling bonds on the outer surfaces are terminated by hydrogen atoms. Because of their potential to possess novel properties of both diamond and nanomaterial, intensive efforts have

  1. Diamondoid Monolayers as Monochromatic Electron Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Diamondoid Monolayers as Monochromatic Electron Source Print Diamondoids are nanometer-sized molecules that feature diamond-crystal cage structures. Adamantane, the smallest member in the family, consists of one cage structure, diamantane two, triamantane three, tetramantane four, and so on. On all of these, the dangling bonds on the outer surfaces are terminated by hydrogen atoms. Because of their potential to possess novel properties of both diamond and nanomaterial, intensive efforts have

  2. Diamondoid Monolayers as Monochromatic Electron Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Diamondoid Monolayers as Monochromatic Electron Source Print Diamondoids are nanometer-sized molecules that feature diamond-crystal cage structures. Adamantane, the smallest member in the family, consists of one cage structure, diamantane two, triamantane three, tetramantane four, and so on. On all of these, the dangling bonds on the outer surfaces are terminated by hydrogen atoms. Because of their potential to possess novel properties of both diamond and nanomaterial, intensive efforts have

  3. Diamondoid Monolayers as Monochromatic Electron Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Diamondoid Monolayers as Monochromatic Electron Source Print Diamondoids are nanometer-sized molecules that feature diamond-crystal cage structures. Adamantane, the smallest member in the family, consists of one cage structure, diamantane two, triamantane three, tetramantane four, and so on. On all of these, the dangling bonds on the outer surfaces are terminated by hydrogen atoms. Because of their potential to possess novel properties of both diamond and nanomaterial, intensive efforts have

  4. Diamondoid Monolayers as Monochromatic Electron Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Diamondoid Monolayers as Monochromatic Electron Source Print Diamondoids are nanometer-sized molecules that feature diamond-crystal cage structures. Adamantane, the smallest member in the family, consists of one cage structure, diamantane two, triamantane three, tetramantane four, and so on. On all of these, the dangling bonds on the outer surfaces are terminated by hydrogen atoms. Because of their potential to possess novel properties of both diamond and nanomaterial, intensive efforts have

  5. Novel high-energy physics studies using intense lasers and plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leemans, Wim P.; Bulanov, Stepan; Esarey, Eric; Schroeder, Carl

    2015-06-29

    In the framework of the project Novel high-energy physics studies using intense lasers and plasmas we conducted the study of ion acceleration and flying mirrors with high intensity lasers in order to develop sources of ion beams and high frequency radiation for different applications. Since some schemes of laser ion acceleration are also considered a good source of flying mirrors, we proposed to investigate the mechanisms of mirror formation. As a result we were able to study the laser ion acceleration from thin foils and near critical density targets. We identified several fundamental factors limiting the acceleration in the RPA regime and proposed the target design to compensate these limitations. In the case of near critical density targets, we developed a concept for the laser driven ion source for the hadron therapy. Also we studied the mechanism of flying mirror generation during the intense laser interaction with thin solid density targets. As for the laser-based positron creation and capture we initially proposed to study different regimes of positron beam generation and positron beam cooling. Since the for some of these schemes a good quality electron beam is required, we studied the generation of ultra-low emittance electron beams. In order to understand the fundamental physics of high energy electron beam interaction with high intensity laser pulses, which may affect the efficient generation of positron beams, we studied the radiation reaction effects.

  6. The SIAM Photon Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pairsuwan, Weerapong

    2007-01-19

    A short history of the SIAM Photon Source in Thailand is described. The facility is based on the 1 GeV storage ring obtained from the SORTEC consortium in Japan. After a redesign to include insertion straight sections it produced the first light in December 2001 and the first beam line became operational in early 2002. Special difficulties appear when a synchrotron light facility is obtained by donation, which have mostly to do with the absence of human resource development that elsewhere is commonly accomplished during design and construction. Additional problems arise by the distance of a developing country like Thailand from the origin of technical parts of the donation. A donation does not provide time to generate local capabilities or include in the technical design locally obtainable parts. This makes future developments, repairs and maintenance more time consuming, difficult and expensive than it should be. In other cases, parts of components are proprietary or obsolete or both which requires redesign and engineering at a time when the replacement part should be available to prevent stoppage of operation.The build-up of a user community is very difficult, especially when the radiation spectrum is confined to the VUV regime. Most of scientific interest these days is focused on the x-ray regime. Due to its low beam energy, the SIAM storage ring did not produce useful x-ray intensities and we are therefore in the midst of an upgrade to produce harder radiation. The first step has been achieved with a 20% increase of energy to 1.2 GeV. This step shifts the critical photon energy of bending magnet radiation from 800 eV to 1.4 keV providing useful radiation up to 7 keV. A XAS-beam line has been completed in 2005 and experimentation is very active by now. The next step is to install a 6.4 T wavelength shifter by the end of 2006 resulting in a critical photon energy of 6.15 keV. Further upgrades are planed for the comming years.

  7. combines high intensity and short pulse duration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    combines high intensity and short pulse duration - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste

  8. Intensive Variables & Nanostructuring in Magnetostructural Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, Laura

    2014-08-13

    Over the course of this project, fundamental inquiry was carried out to investigate, understand and predict the effects of intensive variables, including the structural scale, on magnetostructural phase transitions in the model system of equiatomic FeRh. These transitions comprise simultaneous magnetic and structural phase changes that have their origins in very strong orbital-lattice coupling and thus may be driven by a plurality of effects.

  9. Correlated-Intensity velocimeter for Arbitrary Reflector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhehui (Los Alamos, NM); Luo, Shengnian (Los Alamos, NM); Barnes, Cris W. (Arlington, VA); Paul, Stephen F. (West Orange, NJ)

    2008-11-11

    A velocimetry apparatus and method comprising splitting incoming reflected laser light and directing the laser light into first and second arms, filtering the laser light with passband filters in the first and second arms, one having a positive passband slope and the other having a negative passband slope, and detecting the filtered laser light via light intensity detectors following the passband filters in the first and second arms

  10. Position, rotation, and intensity invariant recognizing method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ochoa, E.; Schils, G.F.; Sweeney, D.W.

    1987-09-15

    A method for recognizing the presence of a particular target in a field of view which is target position, rotation, and intensity invariant includes the preparing of a target-specific invariant filter from a combination of all eigen-modes of a pattern of the particular target. Coherent radiation from the field of view is then imaged into an optical correlator in which the invariant filter is located. The invariant filter is rotated in the frequency plane of the optical correlator in order to produce a constant-amplitude rotational response in a correlation output plane when the particular target is present in the field of view. Any constant response is thus detected in the output plane to determine whether a particular target is present in the field of view. Preferably, a temporal pattern is imaged in the output plane with a optical detector having a plurality of pixels and a correlation coefficient for each pixel is determined by accumulating the intensity and intensity-square of each pixel. The orbiting of the constant response caused by the filter rotation is also preferably eliminated either by the use of two orthogonal mirrors pivoted correspondingly to the rotation of the filter or the attaching of a refracting wedge to the filter to remove the offset angle. Detection is preferably performed of the temporal pattern in the output plane at a plurality of different angles with angular separation sufficient to decorrelate successive frames. 1 fig.

  11. The WARP Code: Modeling High Intensity Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grote, David P.; Friedman, Alex; Vay, Jean-Luc; Haber, Irving

    2005-03-15

    The Warp code, developed for heavy-ion driven inertial fusion energy studies, is used to model high intensity ion (and electron) beams. Significant capability has been incorporated in Warp, allowing nearly all sections of an accelerator to be modeled, beginning with the source. Warp has as its core an explicit, three-dimensional, particle-in-cell model. Alongside this is a rich set of tools for describing the applied fields of the accelerator lattice, and embedded conducting surfaces (which are captured at sub-grid resolution). Also incorporated are models with reduced dimensionality: an axisymmetric model and a transverse 'slice' model. The code takes advantage of modern programming techniques, including object orientation, parallelism, and scripting (via Python). It is at the forefront in the use of the computational technique of adaptive mesh refinement, which has been particularly successful in the area of diode and injector modeling, both steady-state and time-dependent. In the presentation, some of the major aspects of Warp will be overviewed, especially those that could be useful in modeling ECR sources. Warp has been benchmarked against both theory and experiment. Recent results will be presented showing good agreement of Warp with experimental results from the STS500 injector test stand. Additional information can be found on the web page http://hif.lbl.gov/theory/WARP{sub s}ummary.html.

  12. The WARP Code: Modeling High Intensity Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grote, D P; Friedman, A; Vay, J L; Haber, I

    2004-12-09

    The Warp code, developed for heavy-ion driven inertial fusion energy studies, is used to model high intensity ion (and electron) beams. Significant capability has been incorporated in Warp, allowing nearly all sections of an accelerator to be modeled, beginning with the source. Warp has as its core an explicit, three-dimensional, particle-in-cell model. Alongside this is a rich set of tools for describing the applied fields of the accelerator lattice, and embedded conducting surfaces (which are captured at sub-grid resolution). Also incorporated are models with reduced dimensionality: an axisymmetric model and a transverse ''slice'' model. The code takes advantage of modern programming techniques, including object orientation, parallelism, and scripting (via Python). It is at the forefront in the use of the computational technique of adaptive mesh refinement, which has been particularly successful in the area of diode and injector modeling, both steady-state and time-dependent. In the presentation, some of the major aspects of Warp will be overviewed, especially those that could be useful in modeling ECR sources. Warp has been benchmarked against both theory and experiment. Recent results will be presented showing good agreement of Warp with experimental results from the STS500 injector test stand. Additional information can be found on the web page http://hif.lbl.gov/theory/WARP{_}summary.html.

  13. High-performance broadband optical coatings on InGaN/GaN solar cells for multijunction device integration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, N. G. Farrell, R. M.; Iza, M.; Speck, J. S.; Perl, E. E.; Keller, S.; Bowers, J. E.; Nakamura, S.; DenBaars, S. P.

    2014-04-21

    We demonstrate InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on a bulk (0001) substrate with high-performance broadband optical coatings to improve light absorption. A front-side anti-reflective coating and a back-side dichroic mirror were designed to minimize front surface reflections across a broad spectral range and maximize rear surface reflections only in the spectral range absorbed by the InGaN, making the cells suitable for multijunction solar cell integration. Application of optical coatings increased the peak external quantum efficiency by 56% (relative) and conversion efficiency by 37.5% (relative) under 1 sun AM0 equivalent illumination.

  14. DC source assemblies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, Jeremy B; Newson, Steve

    2013-02-26

    Embodiments of DC source assemblies of power inverter systems of the type suitable for deployment in a vehicle having an electrically grounded chassis are provided. An embodiment of a DC source assembly comprises a housing, a DC source disposed within the housing, a first terminal, and a second terminal. The DC source also comprises a first capacitor having a first electrode electrically coupled to the housing, and a second electrode electrically coupled to the first terminal. The DC source assembly further comprises a second capacitor having a first electrode electrically coupled to the housing, and a second electrode electrically coupled to the second terminal.

  15. High-Intensity Discharge Lighting Basics | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    High-Intensity Discharge Lighting Basics High-Intensity Discharge Lighting Basics August 15, 2013 - 5:59pm Addthis High-intensity discharge (HID) lighting provides the second highest efficacy and longest service life of any lighting type. Both HIDs and LEDs can save 75%-90% of lighting energy when they replace incandescent lighting. In a high-intensity discharge lamp, electricity arcs between two electrodes, creating an intensely bright light. Mercury, sodium, or metal halide gas acts as the

  16. Energy Intensity Baselining and Tracking Guidance | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Technical Assistance » Better Plants » Energy Intensity Baselining and Tracking Guidance Energy Intensity Baselining and Tracking Guidance The Energy Intensity Baselining and Tracking Guidance for the Better Buildings, Better Plants Program helps companies meet the program's reporting requirements by describing the steps necessary to develop an energy consumption and energy intensity baseline and calculating consumption and intensity changes over time. Most of the calculation steps described

  17. COLLIMATION OPTIMIZATION IN HIGH INTENSITY RINGS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CATALAN-LASHERAS,N.

    2001-06-18

    In high intensity proton rings, collimation is needed in order to maintain reasonable levels of residual activation and allow hands-on maintenance. Small acceptance to emittance ratio and restrained longitudinal space become important restrictions when dealing with low energy rings. The constraints and specifications when designing a collimation system for this type of machine will be reviewed. The SNS accumulator ring will serve as an examples long which we will illustrate the optimization path. Experimental studies of collimation with 1.3 GeV proton beams are currently under way in the U-70 machine in Protvino. The first results will be presented.

  18. Table 22. Energy Intensity, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Intensity, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected" " (quadrillion Btu / $Billion 2005 Chained GDP)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013 "AEO 1994",10.89145253,10.73335719,10.63428655,10.48440125,10.33479508,10.20669515,10.06546105,9.94541493,9.822393757,9.707148466,9.595465524,9.499032573,9.390723436,9.29474735,9.185496812,9.096176848,9.007677565,8.928276581 "AEO

  19. Measuring galaxy clustering and the evolution of [C II] mean intensity with far-IR line intensity mapping during 0.5 < z < 1.5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uzgil, B. D.; Aguirre, J. E.; Lidz, A.; Bradford, C. M.

    2014-10-01

    Infrared fine-structure emission lines from trace metals are powerful diagnostics of the interstellar medium in galaxies. We explore the possibility of studying the redshifted far-IR fine-structure line emission using the three-dimensional (3D) power spectra obtained with an imaging spectrometer. The intensity mapping approach measures the spatio-spectral fluctuations due to line emission from all galaxies, including those below the individual detection threshold. The technique provides 3D measurements of galaxy clustering and moments of the galaxy luminosity function. Furthermore, the linear portion of the power spectrum can be used to measure the total line emission intensity including all sources through cosmic time with redshift information naturally encoded. Total line emission, when compared to the total star formation activity and/or other line intensities, reveals evolution of the interstellar conditions of galaxies in aggregate. As a case study, we consider measurement of [C II] autocorrelation in the 0.5 < z < 1.5 epoch, where interloper lines are minimized, using far-IR/submillimeter balloon-borne and future space-borne instruments with moderate and high sensitivity, respectively. In this context, we compare the intensity mapping approach to blind galaxy surveys based on individual detections. We find that intensity mapping is nearly always the best way to obtain the total line emission because blind, wide-field galaxy surveys lack sufficient depth and deep pencil beams do not observe enough galaxies in the requisite luminosity and redshift bins. Also, intensity mapping is often the most efficient way to measure the power spectrum shape, depending on the details of the luminosity function and the telescope aperture.

  20. High intensity discharge device containing oxytrihalides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lapatovich, W.P.; Keeffe, W.M.; Liebermann, R.W.; Maya, J.

    1987-06-09

    A fill composition for a high intensity discharge device including mercury, niobium oxytrihalide, and a molecular stabilization agent is provided. The molar ratio of niobium oxytrihalide to the molecular stabilization agent in the fill is in the range of from about 5:1 to about 7.5:1. Niobium oxytrihalide is present in the fill in sufficient amount to produce, by dissociation in the discharge, atomic niobium, niobium oxide, NbO, and niobium dioxide, NbO[sub 2], with the molar ratio of niobium-containing vapor species to mercury in the fill being in the range of from about 0.01:1 to about 0.50:1; and mercury pressure of about 1 to about 50 atmospheres at lamp operating temperature. There is also provided a high intensity discharge device comprising a sealed light-transmissive arc tube; the arc tube including the above-described fill; and an energizing means for producing an electric discharge within the arc tube. 7 figs.

  1. High intensity discharge device containing oxytrihalides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lapatovich, Walter P. (Hudson, MA); Keeffe, William M. (Rockport, MA); Liebermann, Richard W. (Danvers, MA); Maya, Jakob (Brookline, MA)

    1987-01-01

    A fill composition for a high intensity discharge device including mercury, niobium oxytrihalide, and a molecular stabilization agent is provided. The molar ratio of niobium oxytrihalide to the molecular stabilization agent in the fill is in the range of from about 5:1 to about 7.5:1. Niobium oxytrihalide is present in the fill in sufficient amount to produce, by dissociation in the discharge, atomic niobium, niobium oxide, NbO, and niobium dioxide, NbO.sub.2, with the molar ratio of niobium-containing vapor species to mercury in the fill being in the range of from about 0.01:1 to about 0.50:1; and mercury pressure of about 1 to about 50 atmospheres at lamp operating temperature. There is also provided a high intensity discharge device comprising a sealed light-transmissive arc tube; the arc tube including the above-described fill; and an energizing means for producing an electric discharge within the arc tube.

  2. Compton backscattered collimated x-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruth, R.D.; Huang, Z.

    1998-10-20

    A high-intensity, inexpensive and collimated x-ray source is disclosed for applications such as x-ray lithography is disclosed. An intense pulse from a high power laser, stored in a high-finesse resonator, repetitively collides nearly head-on with and Compton backscatters off a bunched electron beam, having relatively low energy and circulating in a compact storage ring. Both the laser and the electron beams are tightly focused and matched at the interaction region inside the optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction not only gives rise to x-rays at the desired wavelength, but also cools and stabilizes the electrons against intrabeam scattering and Coulomb repulsion with each other in the storage ring. This cooling provides a compact, intense bunch of electrons suitable for many applications. In particular, a sufficient amount of x-rays can be generated by this device to make it an excellent and flexible Compton backscattered x-ray (CBX) source for high throughput x-ray lithography and many other applications. 4 figs.

  3. Compton backscattered collimated x-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruth, Ronald D. (Woodside, CA); Huang, Zhirong (Stanford, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A high-intensity, inexpensive and collimated x-ray source for applications such as x-ray lithography is disclosed. An intense pulse from a high power laser, stored in a high-finesse resonator, repetitively collides nearly head-on with and Compton backscatters off a bunched electron beam, having relatively low energy and circulating in a compact storage ring. Both the laser and the electron beams are tightly focused and matched at the interaction region inside the optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction not only gives rise to x-rays at the desired wavelength, but also cools and stabilizes the electrons against intrabeam scattering and Coulomb repulsion with each other in the storage ring. This cooling provides a compact, intense bunch of electrons suitable for many applications. In particular, a sufficient amount of x-rays can be generated by this device to make it an excellent and flexible Compton backscattered x-ray (CBX) source for high throughput x-ray lithography and many other applications.

  4. Compton backscattered collmated X-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruth, Ronald D. (Woodside, CA); Huang, Zhirong (Stanford, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A high-intensity, inexpensive and collimated x-ray source for applications such as x-ray lithography is disclosed. An intense pulse from a high power laser, stored in a high-finesse resonator, repetitively collides nearly head-on with and Compton backscatters off a bunched electron beam, having relatively low energy and circulating in a compact storage ring. Both the laser and the electron beams are tightly focused and matched at the interaction region inside the optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction not only gives rise to x-rays at the desired wavelength, but also cools and stabilizes the electrons against intrabeam scattering and Coulomb repulsion with each other in the storage ring. This cooling provides a compact, intense bunch of electrons suitable for many applications. In particular, a sufficient amount of x-rays can be generated by this device to make it an excellent and flexible Compton backscattered x-ray (CBX) source for high throughput x-ray lithography and many other applications.

  5. System and method that suppresses intensity fluctuations for free space high-speed optical communication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berman, Gennady P. (Los Alamos, NM); Bishop, Alan R. (Los Alamos, NM); Nguyen, Dinh C. (Los Alamos, NM); Chernobrod, Boris M. (Santa Fe, NM); Gorshkov, Vacheslav N. (Kiev, UA)

    2009-10-13

    A high-speed (Gbps), free space optical communication system is based on spectral encoding of radiation from a wide band light source, such as a laser. By using partially coherent laser beams in combination with a relatively slow photosensor, scintillations can be suppressed by orders of magnitude for distances of more than 10 km. To suppress the intensity fluctuations due to atmospheric turbulence, a source with partial transverse coherence in combination with slow response time photodetector is used. Information is encoded in the spectral domain of a wideband optical source by modulation of spectral amplitudes. A non-coherent light source with wide spectrum (an LED, for example) may be used for high-speed communication over short (less than about a mile) distances.

  6. Open Source Software

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Open Source Software Open Source Software All open source software available through the Laboratory is listed below. Contact thumbnail of Kathleen McDonald Head of Intellectual Property, Business Development Executive Kathleen McDonald Richard P. Feynman Center for Innovation (505) 667-5844 Email For more information regarding how to access software from Los Alamos, contact the Software Team. brulilo, Version 0.x brulilo is a Python package for building and evolving thermonuclear reaction

  7. Dynamic radioactive particle source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Murray E.; Gauss, Adam Benjamin; Justus, Alan Lawrence

    2012-06-26

    A method and apparatus for providing a timed, synchronized dynamic alpha or beta particle source for testing the response of continuous air monitors (CAMs) for airborne alpha or beta emitters is provided. The method includes providing a radioactive source; placing the radioactive source inside the detection volume of a CAM; and introducing an alpha or beta-emitting isotope while the CAM is in a normal functioning mode.

  8. Renewable energy generation sources...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    energy generation sources have begun to generate significant amounts of power for the national electricity grid. With the Molten Salt Test Loop (MSTL), Sandia and its industry ...

  9. SOURCE SELECTION INFORMATION -

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    SOURCE SELECTION INFORMATION - SEE FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (FAR) 2.101 AND 3.104 Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 (enter date here, centered revised template...

  10. Overview | Advanced Photon Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    APS Overview: Introduction APS Systems Map LINAC Booster Synchrotron Storage Ring Insertion Devices Experiment Hall LOMs & Beamlines Overview of the APS The Advanced Photon Source...

  11. Heat Source Lire,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A uniquely capable source of power is the radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) - ... The new RTG, called a Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG), is ...

  12. Improved ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1982-05-04

    A magnetic filter for an ion source reduces the production of undesired ion species and improves the ion beam quality. High-energy ionizing electrons are confined by the magnetic filter to an ion source region, where the high-energy electrons ionize gas molecules. One embodiment of the magnetic filter uses permanent magnets oriented to establish a magnetic field transverse to the direction of travel of ions from the ion source region to the ion extraction region. In another embodiment, low energy 16 eV electrons are injected into the ion source to dissociate gas molecules and undesired ion species into desired ion species,

  13. Beamlines | Advanced Photon Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Beamlines Beamlines Home Beamlines Directory Research Techniques Sectors Directory Status and Schedule Safety and Training Beamlines The Advanced Photon Source consists of 34...

  14. Numerical simulations of stripping effects in high-intensity hydrogen ion linacs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carneiro, J.-P.; Mustapha, B.; Ostroumov, P.N.; /Argonne

    2008-12-01

    Numerical simulations of H{sup -} stripping losses from blackbody radiation, electromagnetic fields, and residual gas have been implemented into the beam dynamics code TRACK. Estimates of the stripping losses along two high-intensity H{sup -} linacs are presented: the Spallation Neutron Source linac currently being operated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and an 8 GeV superconducting linac currently being designed at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory.

  15. Electric characteristics of germanium Vertical Multijunction (VMJ) photovoltaic cells under high intensity illumination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unishkov, V.A.

    1997-03-01

    This paper presents the results of the performance evaluation of Vertical Multijunction (VMJ) germanium (Ge) photovoltaic (PV) cells. Vertical Multijunction Germanium Photovoltaic cells offer several advantages for Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) applications such as high intensity light conversion, low series resistance, more efficient coupling to lower temperature sources, high output voltage, simplified heat rejection system as well as potentially simple fabrication technology and low cost photovoltaic converter device. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. Reconstruction of Intensity From Covered Samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barabash, Rozaliya; Watkins, Thomas R; Meisner, Roberta Ann; Burchell, Timothy D; Rosseel, Thomas M

    2015-01-01

    The safe handling of activated samples requires containment and covering the sample to eliminate any potential for contamination. Subsequent characterization of the surface with x-rays ideally necessitates a thin film. While many films appear visually transparent, they are not necessarily x-ray transparent. Each film material has a unique beam attenuation and sometimes have amorphous peaks that can superimpose with those of the sample. To reconstruct the intensity of the underlying activated sample, the x-ray attenuation and signal due to the film needs to be removed from that of the sample. This requires the calculation of unique deconvolution parameters for the film. The development of a reconstruction procedure for a contained/covered sample is described.

  17. THE CENTER FOR DATA INTENSIVE COMPUTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GLIMM,J.

    2002-11-01

    CDIC will provide state-of-the-art computational and computer science for the Laboratory and for the broader DOE and scientific community. We achieve this goal by performing advanced scientific computing research in the Laboratory's mission areas of High Energy and Nuclear Physics, Biological and Environmental Research, and Basic Energy Sciences. We also assist other groups at the Laboratory to reach new levels of achievement in computing. We are ''data intensive'' because the production and manipulation of large quantities of data are hallmarks of scientific research in the 21st century and are intrinsic features of major programs at Brookhaven. An integral part of our activity to accomplish this mission will be a close collaboration with the University at Stony Brook.

  18. THE CENTER FOR DATA INTENSIVE COMPUTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GLIMM,J.

    2001-11-01

    CDIC will provide state-of-the-art computational and computer science for the Laboratory and for the broader DOE and scientific community. We achieve this goal by performing advanced scientific computing research in the Laboratory's mission areas of High Energy and Nuclear Physics, Biological and Environmental Research, and Basic Energy Sciences. We also assist other groups at the Laboratory to reach new levels of achievement in computing. We are ''data intensive'' because the production and manipulation of large quantities of data are hallmarks of scientific research in the 21st century and are intrinsic features of major programs at Brookhaven. An integral part of our activity to accomplish this mission will be a close collaboration with the University at Stony Brook.

  19. THE CENTER FOR DATA INTENSIVE COMPUTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GLIMM,J.

    2003-11-01

    CDIC will provide state-of-the-art computational and computer science for the Laboratory and for the broader DOE and scientific community. We achieve this goal by performing advanced scientific computing research in the Laboratory's mission areas of High Energy and Nuclear Physics, Biological and Environmental Research, and Basic Energy Sciences. We also assist other groups at the Laboratory to reach new levels of achievement in computing. We are ''data intensive'' because the production and manipulation of large quantities of data are hallmarks of scientific research in the 21st century and are intrinsic features of major programs at Brookhaven. An integral part of our activity to accomplish this mission will be a close collaboration with the University at Stony Brook.

  20. Position, rotation, and intensity invariant recognizing method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ochoa, Ellen (Pleasanton, CA); Schils, George F. (San Ramon, CA); Sweeney, Donald W. (Alamo, CA)

    1989-01-01

    A method for recognizing the presence of a particular target in a field of view which is target position, rotation, and intensity invariant includes the preparing of a target-specific invariant filter from a combination of all eigen-modes of a pattern of the particular target. Coherent radiation from the field of view is then imaged into an optical correlator in which the invariant filter is located. The invariant filter is rotated in the frequency plane of the optical correlator in order to produce a constant-amplitude rotational response in a correlation output plane when the particular target is present in the field of view. Any constant response is thus detected in the output The U.S. Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC04-76DP00789 between the U.S. Department of Energy and AT&T Technologies, Inc.

  1. Radiation Source Replacement Workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Moran, Traci L.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2010-12-01

    This report summarizes a Radiation Source Replacement Workshop in Houston Texas on October 27-28, 2010, which provided a forum for industry and researchers to exchange information and to discuss the issues relating to replacement of AmBe, and potentially other isotope sources used in well logging.

  2. Radioisotopic heat source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, G.J.; Selle, J.E.; Teaney, P.E.

    1975-09-30

    Disclosed is a radioisotopic heat source and method for a long life electrical generator. The source includes plutonium dioxide shards and yttrium or hafnium in a container of tantalum-tungsten-hafnium alloy, all being in a nickel alloy outer container, and subjected to heat treatment of from about 1570$sup 0$F to about 1720$sup 0$F for about one h. (auth)

  3. Energy End-Use Intensities in Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    lighting intensities per lighted square foot-hour (Figure 23). * Food service and health care buildings had the highest water-heating intensities per square foot--more than...

  4. Piezotube borehole seismic source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daley, Tom M; Solbau, Ray D; Majer, Ernest L

    2014-05-06

    A piezoelectric borehole source capable of permanent or semipermanent insertion into a well for uninterrupted well operations is described. The source itself comprises a series of piezoelectric rings mounted to an insulative mandrel internally sized to fit over a section of well tubing, the rings encased in a protective housing and electrically connected to a power source. Providing an AC voltage to the rings will cause expansion and contraction sufficient to create a sonic pulse. The piezoelectric borehole source fits into a standard well, and allows for uninterrupted pass-through of production tubing, and other tubing and electrical cables. Testing using the source may be done at any time, even concurrent with well operations, during standard production.

  5. Photonic crystal light source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fleming, James G. (Albuquerque, NM); Lin, Shawn-Yu (Albuquerque, NM); Bur, James A. (Corrales, NM)

    2004-07-27

    A light source is provided by a photonic crystal having an enhanced photonic density-of-states over a band of frequencies and wherein at least one of the dielectric materials of the photonic crystal has a complex dielectric constant, thereby producing enhanced light emission at the band of frequencies when the photonic crystal is heated. The dielectric material can be a metal, such as tungsten. The spectral properties of the light source can be easily tuned by modification of the photonic crystal structure and materials. The photonic crystal light source can be heated electrically or other heating means. The light source can further include additional photonic crystals that exhibit enhanced light emission at a different band of frequencies to provide for color mixing. The photonic crystal light source may have applications in optical telecommunications, information displays, energy conversion, sensors, and other optical applications.

  6. Best Management Practice #13: Other Water-Intensive Processes | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy 13: Other Water-Intensive Processes Best Management Practice #13: Other Water-Intensive Processes Many water-intensive processes beyond the Federal Energy Management Program's best management practices (BMPs) for water efficiency are in place at federal facilities, including laundry equipment, vehicle wash systems, evaporative coolers, and water softening systems. When assessing facility water use, it is important to identify and analyze all water-intensive processes for potential

  7. Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing Key Energy Challenges

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Across U.S. Industry | Department of Energy Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing Key Energy Challenges Across U.S. Industry Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing Key Energy Challenges Across U.S. Industry PDF icon eip_report_pg9.pdf More Documents & Publications ITP Energy Intensive Processes: Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing Key Energy Challenges Across U.S. Industry Energy Technology Solutions Energy Technology Solutions: Public-Private

  8. SYNCHROTRONS AND ACCUMULATORS FOR HIGH INTENSITY PROTONS: ISSUES AND EXPERIENCES.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WEI,J.

    2000-06-30

    This paper summarizes physical and engineering issues of high-intensity synchrotrons and accumulators, and discusses future applications and outlook.

  9. Volumetric plasma source development and characterization.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crain, Marlon D. (National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV); Maron, Yitzhak (Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel); Oliver, Bryan Velten; Starbird, Robert L. (National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV); Johnston, Mark D.; Hahn, Kelly Denise; Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Droemer, Darryl W. (National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV); National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV

    2008-09-01

    The development of plasma sources with densities and temperatures in the 10{sup 15}-10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} and 1-10eV ranges which are slowly varying over several hundreds of nanoseconds within several cubic centimeter volumes is of interest for applications such as intense electron beam focusing as part of the x-ray radiography program. In particular, theoretical work [1,2] suggests that replacing neutral gas in electron beam focusing cells with highly conductive, pre-ionized plasma increases the time-averaged e-beam intensity on target, resulting in brighter x-ray sources. This LDRD project was an attempt to generate such a plasma source from fine metal wires. A high voltage (20-60kV), high current (12-45kA) capacitive discharge was sent through a 100 {micro}m diameter aluminum wire forming a plasma. The plasma's expansion was measured in time and space using spectroscopic techniques. Lineshapes and intensities from various plasma species were used to determine electron and ion densities and temperatures. Electron densities from the mid-10{sup 15} to mid-10{sup 16} cm{sup -3} were generated with corresponding electron temperatures of between 1 and 10eV. These parameters were measured at distances of up to 1.85 cm from the wire surface at times in excess of 1 {micro}s from the initial wire breakdown event. In addition, a hydrocarbon plasma from surface contaminants on the wire was also measured. Control of these contaminants by judicious choice of wire material, size, and/or surface coating allows for the ability to generate plasmas with similar density and temperature to those given above, but with lower atomic masses.

  10. Source Selection | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Source Selection Source Selection Source Selection/Source Selection Boards Source Evaluation Board (SEB) Monthly Status Reporting Requirement (pdf) Source Evaluation Board (SEB) Secretariat and Knowledge Manager - Acquisition Guide Chapter 1.4 (pdf) Acquisition Planning - Acquisition Guide Chapter 7.1 (pdf) Source Selection Practices - Acquisition Guide Chapter 15.1 (pdf) Headquarters Business Clearance Process - Acquisition Guide Chapter 71.1 Templates Source Selection Board Lessons Learned

  11. Tunable terahertz radiation source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boulaevskii, Lev; Feldmann, David M; Jia, Quanxi; Koshelev, Alexei; Moody, Nathan A

    2014-01-21

    Terahertz radiation source and method of producing terahertz radiation, said source comprising a junction stack, said junction stack comprising a crystalline material comprising a plurality of self-synchronized intrinsic Josephson junctions; an electrically conductive material in contact with two opposing sides of said crystalline material; and a substrate layer disposed upon at least a portion of both the crystalline material and the electrically-conductive material, wherein the crystalline material has a c-axis which is parallel to the substrate layer, and wherein the source emits at least 1 mW of power.

  12. Microfabricated diffusion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oborny, Michael C. (Albuquerque, NM); Frye-Mason, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM); Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-07-15

    A microfabricated diffusion source to provide for a controlled diffusion rate of a vapor comprises a porous reservoir formed in a substrate that can be filled with a liquid, a headspace cavity for evaporation of the vapor therein, a diffusion channel to provide a controlled diffusion of the vapor, and an outlet to release the vapor into a gas stream. The microfabricated diffusion source can provide a calibration standard for a microanalytical system. The microanalytical system with an integral diffusion source can be fabricated with microelectromechanical systems technologies.

  13. COLLOQUIUM: In Silico Plasmas Under Extreme Intensities | Princeton Plasma

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Physics Lab May 12, 2015, 4:15pm to 6:30pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium COLLOQUIUM: In Silico Plasmas Under Extreme Intensities Professor Luis Silva, Department of Physics Instituto Superior Técnico Intense laser and particle beams can be focused down to intensities in excess of 10^23 W/cm^2. Similar intensities are also present in extreme astrophysical scenarios. Under these conditions, the interaction of these intense beams and fields with plasmas is very rich, permeated by collective

  14. Data Intensive Architecture for Scalable Cyber Analytics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, Bryan K.; Johnson, John R.; Critchlow, Terence J.

    2011-12-19

    Cyber analysts are tasked with the identification and mitigation of network exploits and threats. These compromises are difficult to identify due to the characteristics of cyber communication, the volume of traffic, and the duration of possible attack. In this paper, we describe a prototype implementation designed to provide cyber analysts an environment where they can interactively explore a months worth of cyber security data. This prototype utilized On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) techniques to present a data cube to the analysts. The cube provides a summary of the data, allowing trends to be easily identified as well as the ability to easily pull up the original records comprising an event of interest. The cube was built using SQL Server Analysis Services (SSAS), with the interface to the cube provided by Tableau. This software infrastructure was supported by a novel hardware architecture comprising a Netezza TwinFin for the underlying data warehouse and a cube server with a FusionIO drive hosting the data cube. We evaluated this environment on a months worth of artificial, but realistic, data using multiple queries provided by our cyber analysts. As our results indicate, OLAP technology has progressed to the point where it is in a unique position to provide novel insights to cyber analysts, as long as it is supported by an appropriate data intensive architecture.

  15. SOURCE SELECTION INFORMATION -

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    an action described in Section 311 of P.L. 112-74 in excess of 1,000,000. This information is source selection information related to the conduct of a Federal agency...

  16. Source Parameters for Moderate Earthquakes in the Zagros Mountains with Implications for the Depth Extent of Seismicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, A; Brazier, R; Nyblade, A; Rodgers, A; Al-Amri, A

    2009-02-23

    Six earthquakes within the Zagros Mountains with magnitudes between 4.9 and 5.7 have been studied to determine their source parameters. These events were selected for study because they were reported in open catalogs to have lower crustal or upper mantle source depths and because they occurred within an area of the Zagros Mountains where crustal velocity structure has been constrained by previous studies. Moment tensor inversion of regional broadband waveforms have been combined with forward modeling of depth phases on short period teleseismic waveforms to constrain source depths and moment tensors. Our results show that all six events nucleated within the upper crust (<11 km depth) and have thrust mechanisms. This finding supports other studies that call into question the existence of lower crustal or mantle events beneath the Zagros Mountains.

  17. A novel theoretical model for broadband blue InGaN/GaN superluminescent light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moslehi Milani, N.; Mohadesi, V.; Asgari, A.

    2015-02-07

    A broadband superluminescent light emitting diode with In{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}N/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) active region is investigated. The investigation is based on a theoretical model which includes the calculation of electronic states of the structure, rate equations, and the spectral radiation power. Two rate equations corresponding to MQW active region and separate confinement heterostructures layer are solved self-consistently with no-k selection wavelength dependent gain and quasi-Fermi level functions. Our results show that the superluminescence started in a current of ?120?mA (?7.5?kA/Cm{sup 2}) at 300?K. The range of peak emission wavelengths for different currents is 423426?nm and the emission bandwidth is ?5?nm in the superluminescence regime. A maximum light output power of 7.59 mW is obtained at 600?mA and the peak modal gain as a function of current indicates logarithmic behavior. Also, the comparison of our calculated results with published experimental data is shown to be in good agreement.

  18. Field emission electron source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zettl, Alexander Karlwalter (Kensington, CA); Cohen, Marvin Lou (Berkeley, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A novel field emitter material, field emission electron source, and commercially feasible fabrication method is described. The inventive field emission electron source produces reliable electron currents of up to 400 mA/cm.sup.2 at 200 volts. The emitter is robust and the current it produces is not sensitive to variability of vacuum or the distance between the emitter tip and the cathode. The novel emitter has a sharp turn-on near 100 volts.

  19. Magnetron sputtering source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, WA); McKernan, Mark A. (Livermore, CA); Grabner, R. Fred (Brentwood, CA); Ramsey, Philip B. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A magnetron sputtering source for sputtering coating substrates includes a high thermal conductivity electrically insulating ceramic and magnetically attached sputter target which can eliminate vacuum sealing and direct fluid cooling of the cathode assembly. The magnetron sputtering source design results in greater compactness, improved operating characteristics, greater versatility, and low fabrication cost. The design easily retrofits most sputtering apparatuses and provides for safe, easy, and cost effective target replacement, installation, and removal.

  20. Magnetron sputtering source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makowiecki, D.M.; McKernan, M.A.; Grabner, R.F.; Ramsey, P.B.

    1994-08-02

    A magnetron sputtering source for sputtering coating substrates includes a high thermal conductivity electrically insulating ceramic and magnetically attached sputter target which can eliminate vacuum sealing and direct fluid cooling of the cathode assembly. The magnetron sputtering source design results in greater compactness, improved operating characteristics, greater versatility, and low fabrication cost. The design easily retrofits most sputtering apparatuses and provides for safe, easy, and cost effective target replacement, installation, and removal. 12 figs.

  1. Photon Source Parameters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photon Source Parameters Photon Source Parameters Print Summary Graph of Brightness Curves for All Insertion Devices Insertion Device and Bend Magnet Parameters Bend Magnet Superbend Magnet U30 Undulator U50 Undulator U80 Undulator U100 Undulator W114 Wiggler The ALS has six elliptically polarizing undulators, two in straight 4, two in straight 11, and one each in straights 6 and 7. All are arranged with chicanes so that two such devices can be installed to feed two independent beamlines. They

  2. Advanced Light Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Next >> Visitors Access to the ALS Gate Access guest-house Guest House lab-shuttles Lab Shuttles maps-and-directions Maps and Directions Parking Safety Experiment Safety safety-for-staff Safety for Staff In Case of Emergency Resources Acronyms Multimedia Employment staff-intranet Staff Intranet Site Map Contact Digg: ALSBerkeleyLab Facebook Page: 208064938929 Flickr: advancedlightsource Twitter: AdvLightSource YouTube: AdvancedLightSource Recent Science Highlights Manganese

  3. Inhomogeneities of plasma density and electric field as sources of electrostatic turbulence in the auroral region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilyasov, Askar A.; Chernyshov, Alexander A. Mogilevsky, Mikhail M.; Golovchanskaya, Irina V. Kozelov, Boris V.

    2015-03-15

    Inhomogeneities of plasma density and non-uniform electric fields are compared as possible sources of a sort of electrostatic ion cyclotron waves that can be identified with broadband extremely low frequency electrostatic turbulence in the topside auroral ionosphere. Such waves are excited by inhomogeneous energy-density-driven instability. To gain a deeper insight in generation of these waves, computational modeling is performed with various plasma parameters. It is demonstrated that inhomogeneities of plasma density can give rise to this instability even in the absence of electric fields. By using both satellite-observed and model spatial distributions of plasma density and electric field in our modeling, we show that specific details of the spatial distributions are of minor importance for the wave generation. The solutions of the nonlocal inhomogeneous energy-density-driven dispersion relation are investigated for various ion-to-electron temperature ratios and directions of wave propagation. The relevance of the solutions to the observed spectra of broadband extremely low frequency emissions is shown.

  4. A Comprehensive System of Energy Intensity Indicators for the U.S.: Methods, Data and Key Trends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belzer, David B.

    2014-08-31

    This report describes a comprehensive system of energy intensity indicators for the United States that has been developed for the Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) over the past decade. This system of indicators is hierarchical in nature, beginning with detailed indexes of energy intensity for various sectors of the economy, which are ultimately aggregated to an overall energy intensity index for the economy as a whole. The aggregation of energy intensity indexes to higher levels in the hierarchy is performed with a version of the Log Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) method. Based upon the data and methods in the system of indicators, the economy-wide energy intensity index shows a decline of about 14% in 2010 relative to a 1985 base year. Discussion of energy intensity indicators for each of the broad end-use sectors of the economy—residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation—is presented in the report. An analysis of recent changes in the efficiency of electricity generation in the U.S. is also included. A detailed appendix describes the data sources and methodology behind the energy intensity indicators for each sector.

  5. Intense Ion Beam for Warm Dense Matter Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coleman, Joshua Eugene

    2008-05-23

    The Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is exploring the physical limits of compression and focusing of ion beams for heating material to warm dense matter (WDM) and fusion ignition conditions. The NDCX is a beam transport experiment with several components at a scale comparable to an inertial fusion energy driver. The NDCX is an accelerator which consists of a low-emittance ion source, high-current injector, solenoid matching section, induction bunching module, beam neutralization section, and final focusing system. The principal objectives of the experiment are to control the beam envelope, demonstrate effective neutralization of the beam space-charge, control the velocity tilt on the beam, and understand defocusing effects, field imperfections, and limitations on peak intensity such as emittance and aberrations. Target heating experiments with space-charge dominated ion beams require simultaneous longitudinal bunching and transverse focusing. A four-solenoid lattice is used to tune the beam envelope to the necessary focusing conditions before entering the induction bunching module. The induction bunching module provides a head-to-tail velocity ramp necessary to achieve peak axial compression at the desired focal plane. Downstream of the induction gap a plasma column neutralizes the beam space charge so only emittance limits the focused beam intensity. We present results of beam transport through a solenoid matching section and simultaneous focusing of a singly charged K{sup +} ion bunch at an ion energy of 0.3 MeV. The results include a qualitative comparison of experimental and calculated results after the solenoid matching section, which include time resolved current density, transverse distributions, and phase-space of the beam at different diagnostic planes. Electron cloud and gas measurements in the solenoid lattice and in the vicinity of intercepting diagnostics are also presented. Finally, comparisons of improved experimental and calculated axial focus (> 100 x axial compression, < 2 ns pulses) and higher peak energy deposition on target are also presented. These achievements demonstrate the capabilities for near term target heating experiments to T{sub e} {approx} 0.1 eV and for future ion accelerators to heat targets to T{sub e} > 1 eV.

  6. Pulsed ion beam source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenly, J.B.

    1997-08-12

    An improved pulsed ion beam source is disclosed having a new biasing circuit for the fast magnetic field. This circuit provides for an initial negative bias for the field created by the fast coils in the ion beam source which pre-ionize the gas in the source, ionize the gas and deliver the gas to the proper position in the accelerating gap between the anode and cathode assemblies in the ion beam source. The initial negative bias improves the interaction between the location of the nulls in the composite magnetic field in the ion beam source and the position of the gas for pre-ionization and ionization into the plasma as well as final positioning of the plasma in the accelerating gap. Improvements to the construction of the flux excluders in the anode assembly are also accomplished by fabricating them as layered structures with a high melting point, low conductivity material on the outsides with a high conductivity material in the center. 12 figs.

  7. Dual source heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L.; Pietsch, Joseph A.

    1982-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; at least two refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid and a second for effecting heat exchange between refrigerant and a heat exchange fluid and the ambient air; a compressor for efficiently compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve for throttling liquid refrigerant; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and direction of flow of the refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. The heat exchange fluid provides energy for defrosting the second heat exchanger when operating in the air source mode and also provides a alternate source of heat.

  8. INTENSITY ENHANCEMENT OF OVI ULTRAVIOLET EMISSION LINES IN SOLAR SPECTRA DUE TO OPACITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keenan, F. P.; Mathioudakis, M.; Doyle, J. G.; Madjarska, M. S.; Rose, S. J.; Bowler, L. A.; Britton, J.; McCrink, L.

    2014-04-01

    Opacity is a property of many plasmas. It is normally expected that if an emission line in a plasma becomes optically thick, then its intensity ratio to that of another transition that remains optically thin should decrease. However, radiative transfer calculations undertaken both by ourselves and others predict that under certain conditions the intensity ratio of an optically thick to an optically thin line can show an increase over the optically thin value, indicating an enhancement in the former. These conditions include the geometry of the emitting plasma and its orientation to the observer. A similar effect can take place between lines of differing optical depths. While previous observational studies have focused on stellar point sources, here we investigate the spatially resolved solar atmosphere using measurements of the I(1032 )/I(1038 ) intensity ratio of OVI in several regions obtained with the Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation instrument on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory satellite. We find several I(1032 )/I(1038 ) ratios observed on the disk to be significantly larger than the optically thin value of 2.0, providing the first detection (to our knowledge) of intensity enhancement in the ratio arising from opacity effects in the solar atmosphere. The agreement between observation and theory is excellent and confirms that the OVI emission originates from a slab-like geometry in the solar atmosphere, rather than from cylindrical structures.

  9. Plasma Sources Sci. Technol.

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sources Sci. Technol. 6 (1997) 492-498. Printed in the UK PII: S0963-0252(97)87196-4 Impurities, temperature and density in a miniature electrostatic plasma and current source D J Den Hartog†, D J Craig†, G Fiksel‡ and J S Sarff‡ † Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53706, USA ‡ Sterling Scientific, Inc., 1415 Rutledge Street, Madison, WI 53703, USA Received 23 October 1996, in final form 25 July 1997 Abstract. We have

  10. OLED area illumination source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foust, Donald Franklin (Scotia, NY); Duggal, Anil Raj (Niskayuna, NY); Shiang, Joseph John (Niskayuna, NY); Nealon, William Francis (Gloversville, NY); Bortscheller, Jacob Charles (Clifton Park, NY)

    2008-03-25

    The present invention relates to an area illumination light source comprising a plurality of individual OLED panels. The individual OLED panels are configured in a physically modular fashion. Each OLED panel comprising a plurality of OLED devices. Each OLED panel comprises a first electrode and a second electrode such that the power being supplied to each individual OLED panel may be varied independently. A power supply unit capable of delivering varying levels of voltage simultaneously to the first and second electrodes of each of the individual OLED panels is also provided. The area illumination light source also comprises a mount within which the OLED panels are arrayed.

  11. Southeastern Center for Industrial Energy Intensity Reduction | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Southeastern Center for Industrial Energy Intensity Reduction Southeastern Center for Industrial Energy Intensity Reduction Map of Southeastern U.S. with Mississippi highlighted The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO; formerly the Industrial Technologies Program) has developed multiple resources and a best practices suite of tools to help industrial manufacturers reduce their energy intensity. AMO adopted the Energy Policy Act of 2005 objective

  12. Fermilab | Science at Fermilab | Experiments & Projects | Intensity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Frontier NuMI Horn 1 at MI8. NuMI Horn 1 at MI8. Intensity Frontier Particle physics experiments at the Intensity Frontier explore fundamental particles and forces of nature using intense particle beams and highly sensitive detectors. One of the ways that researchers search for signals of new physics is to observe rarely interacting particles, such as neutrinos, and their corresponding antimatter particles. Some of these experiments search for evidence of the process theorists hypothesize

  13. Eight Projects Selected for NERSC's Data Intensive Computing Pilot Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Eight Projects Selected for NERSC's Data Intensive Computing Pilot Program Eight Projects Selected for NERSC's Data Intensive Computing Pilot Program April 30, 2012 by Francesca Verdier Eight projects have been selected to participate in NERSC's Data Intensive Computing Pilot Program. They will help us investigate new data methods and understand their usefulness to scientists using NERSC resources. The selected projects are: High Throughput Computational Screening of Energy Materials, with PI

  14. Energy Department Funding Helping Energy-Intensive Dairy Industry |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Department of Energy Funding Helping Energy-Intensive Dairy Industry Energy Department Funding Helping Energy-Intensive Dairy Industry July 17, 2015 - 12:55pm Addthis Energy Department Funding Helping Energy-Intensive Dairy Industry Emiley Mallory Emiley Mallory Communications Specialist, Weatherization Assistance Program John Coggin John Coggin Communications Specialist, Weatherization and Intergovernmental Programs What are the key facts? The Colorado Energy Office implemented a Dairy and

  15. Changes in Energy Intensity in the Manufacturing Sector 1985...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (34) Machinery (35) El. Equip.(36) Instruments (38) Misc. (39) Appendices Survey Design Quality of Data Sector Description Nonobservation Errors Glossary Intensity Sites...

  16. Energy End-Use Intensities in Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Intensities The purpose of this section is to provide information on how energy was used for space conditioning--heating, cooling, and ventilation--in commercial...

  17. Table C10. Electricity Consumption and Expenditure Intensities...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Electricity Consumption and Expenditure Intensities, 1999" ,"Electricity Consumption",,,,,,"Electricity Expenditures" ,"per Building (thousand kWh)","per Square Foot (kWh)","per...

  18. The Fermilab Main Injector: high intensity operation and beam...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: The Fermilab Main Injector: high intensity operation and beam loss control Authors: Brown, Bruce C. ; Adamson, Philip ; Capista, David ; Chou, Weiren ; Kourbanis, Ioanis ; ...

  19. Transverse Focussing of Intense Charged Particle Beams with Chromatic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transverse Focussing of Intense Charged Particle Beams with Chromatic Effects for Heavy Ion Fusion Inventors..--.. James M. Mitrani, Igor D, Kaganovich, Ronald C, Davidson. A two...

  20. Dynamic Potential Intensity: An improved representation of the...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Dynamic Potential Intensity: An improved representation of the ocean's impact on tropical cyclones To incorporate the effects of tropical cyclone (TC)-induced upper ocean ...

  1. ITP Energy Intensive Processes: Improved Heat Recovery in Biomass...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Improved Heat Recovery in Biomass-Fired Boilers ITP Energy Intensive Processes: Improved Heat Recovery in Biomass-Fired Boilers PDF icon biomass-firedboilers.pdf More Documents &...

  2. Laboratory Astrophysics Using High Intensity Particle and Photon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High Intensity Particle and Photon Beams History has shown that the symbiosis between direct observations and laboratory studies is instrumental in the progress of...

  3. Energy End-Use Intensities in Commercial Buildings 1989

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1989 Energy End-Use Intensities Overview Full Report Tables National estimates and analysis of energy consumption by fuel (electricity, natural gas, fuel oil, and district...

  4. China-Energy Intensity Reduction Strategy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Intensity Reduction Strategy Jump to: navigation, search Name China-ESMAP Low Carbon Growth Country Studies Program AgencyCompany Organization Energy Sector Management Assistance...

  5. ARM AOS Processing Status and Aerosol Intensive Properties VAP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AOS Processing Status and Aerosol Intensive Properties VAP A. S. Koontz and C. J. Flynn Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington J. A. Ogren, E. Andrews, and P....

  6. Energy end-use intensities in commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This report examines energy intensities in commercial buildings for nine end uses: space heating, cooling, ventilation, lighting, water heating, cooking, refrigeration, office equipment, and other. The objective of this analysis was to increase understanding of how energy is used in commercial buildings and to identify targets for greater energy efficiency which could moderate future growth in demand. The source of data for the analysis is the 1989 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption survey (CBECS), which collected detailed data on energy-related characteristics and energy consumption for a nationally representative sample of approximately 6,000 commercial buildings. The analysis used 1989 CBECS data because the 1992 CBECS data were not yet available at the time the study was initiated. The CBECS data were fed into the Facility Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) system, a building energy simulation program developed by the US Department of Energy`s Pacific Northwest Laboratory, to derive engineering estimates of end-use consumption for each building in the sample. The FEDS estimates were then statistically adjusted to match the total energy consumption for each building. This is the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) first report on energy end-use consumption in commercial buildings. This report is part of an effort to address customer requests for more information on how energy is used in buildings, which was an overall theme of the 1992 user needs study. The end-use data presented in this report were not available for publication in Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1989 (DOE/EIA-0318(89), Washington, DC, April 1992). However, subsequent reports on end-use energy consumption will be part of the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption and Expenditures series, beginning with a 1992 data report to be published in early 1995.

  7. Intense x-ray machine for penetrating radiography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucht, R.A.; Eckhouse, S.

    1989-01-01

    Penetrating radiography has been used for many years in the nuclear weapons research programs. In frequently penetrating radiography has been used in conventional weapons research programs. For example the Los Alamos PHERMEX machine was used to view uranium rods penetrating steel for the GAU-8 program, and the Ector machine was used to see low-density regions in forming metal jets. The armor/anti-armor program at Los Alamos has created a need for an intense flash x-ray machine that can be dedicated to conventional weapons research. The Balanced Technology Initiative, through DARPA, has funded the design and construction of such a machine at Los Alamos. It will be an 8- to 10-MeV diode machine capable of delivering a dose of 500 R at 1 m with a spot size of less than 5 mm. The machine used an 87.5-stage low-inductance Marx generator that charges up a 7.4-/Omega/, 32-ns water line. The water line is discharged through a self-breakdown oil switch into a 12.4-/Omega/ water line that rings up the voltage into the high-impendance x-ray diode. A long (233-cm) vacuum drift tube is used to separate the large-diameter oil-insulated diode region from the x-ray source area that may be exposed to high overpressures by the explosive experiments. The electron beam is self-focused at the target area using a low-pressure background gas. 15 refs., 11 figs.

  8. Particle production of a graphite target system for the intensity frontier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, X.; Kirk, H.; McDonald, K. T.

    2015-05-03

    A solid graphite target system is considered for an intense muon and/or neutrino source in support of physics at the intensity frontier. We previously optimized the geometric parameters of the beam and target to maximize particle production at low energies by incoming protons with kinetic energy of 6.75 GeV and an rms geometric emittance of 5 mm-mrad using the MARS15(2014) code. In this study, we ran MARS15 with ROOT-based geometry and also considered a mercury-jet target as an upgrade option. The optimization was extended to focused proton beams with transverse emittances from 5 to 50 mm-mrad, showing that the particle production decreases slowly with increasing emittance. We also studied beam-dump configurations to suppress the rate of undesirable high-energy secondary particles in the beam.

  9. Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1991-12-24

    To establish Department of Energy (DOE) interim policy and to provide guidance for sealed radioactive source accountability. The directive does not cancel any directives. Extended by DOE N 5400.10 to 12-24-93 & Extended by DOE N 5400.12 to 12-24-94.

  10. Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1994-12-22

    This Notice extends DOE N 5400.9, Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability, of 12-24-91, until 12-24-95, unless sooner superseded or rescinded. The contents of DOE N 5400.9 will be updated and incorporated in the revised DOE O 5480.11, Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers.

  11. Selective ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, K.N.

    1996-05-14

    A ion source is described wherein selected ions maybe extracted to the exclusion of unwanted ion species of higher ionization potential. Also described is a method of producing selected ions from a compound, such as P{sup +} from PH{sub 3}. The invention comprises a plasma chamber, an electron source, a means for introducing a gas to be ionized by electrons from the electron source, means for limiting electron energy from the electron source to a value between the ionization energy of the selected ion species and the greater ionization energy of an unwanted ion specie, and means for extracting the target ion specie from the plasma chamber. In one embodiment, the electrons are generated in a plasma cathode chamber immediately adjacent to the plasma chamber. A small extractor draws the electrons from the plasma cathode chamber into the relatively positive plasma chamber. The energy of the electrons extracted in this manner is easily controlled. The invention is particularly useful for doping silicon with P{sup +}, As{sup +}, and B{sup +} without the problematic presence of hydrogen, helium, water, or carbon oxide ions. Doped silicon is important for manufacture of semiconductors and semiconductor devices. 6 figs.

  12. Selective ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A ion source is described wherein selected ions maybe extracted to the exclusion of unwanted ion species of higher ionization potential. Also described is a method of producing selected ions from a compound, such as P.sup.+ from PH.sub.3. The invention comprises a plasma chamber, an electron source, a means for introducing a gas to be ionized by electrons from the electron source, means for limiting electron energy from the electron source to a value between the ionization energy of the selected ion species and the greater ionization energy of an unwanted ion specie, and means for extracting the target ion specie from the plasma chamber. In one embodiment, the electrons are generated in a plasma cathode chamber immediately adjacent to the plasma chamber. A small extractor draws the electrons from the plasma cathode chamber into the relatively positive plasma chamber. The energy of the electrons extracted in this manner is easily controlled. The invention is particularly useful for doping silicon with P.sup.+, AS.sup.+, and B.sup.+ without the problematic presence of hydrogen, helium, water, or carbon oxide ions. Doped silicon is important for manufacture of semiconductors and semiconductor devices.

  13. Changes in Energy Intensity in the Manufacturing Sector 1985...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Introduction Rankeda EI Numbers of Total Inputs of Energy SIC Codeb Intensity for 1985c Intensity for 1994c 29 18.11 25.85 26 17.82 17.71 33 19.57 16.27 32 14.75 14.69 28 11.09...

  14. Filtered cathodic arc source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Falabella, Steven (Livermore, CA); Sanders, David M. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A continuous, cathodic arc ion source coupled to a macro-particle filter capable of separation or elimination of macro-particles from the ion flux produced by cathodic arc discharge. The ion source employs an axial magnetic field on a cathode (target) having tapered sides to confine the arc, thereby providing high target material utilization. A bent magnetic field is used to guide the metal ions from the target to the part to be coated. The macro-particle filter consists of two straight solenoids, end to end, but placed at 45.degree. to one another, which prevents line-of-sight from the arc spot on the target to the parts to be coated, yet provides a path for ions and electrons to flow, and includes a series of baffles for trapping the macro-particles.

  15. Filtered cathodic arc source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Falabella, S.; Sanders, D.M.

    1994-01-18

    A continuous, cathodic arc ion source coupled to a macro-particle filter capable of separation or elimination of macro-particles from the ion flux produced by cathodic arc discharge is described. The ion source employs an axial magnetic field on a cathode (target) having tapered sides to confine the arc, thereby providing high target material utilization. A bent magnetic field is used to guide the metal ions from the target to the part to be coated. The macro-particle filter consists of two straight solenoids, end to end, but placed at 45[degree] to one another, which prevents line-of-sight from the arc spot on the target to the parts to be coated, yet provides a path for ions and electrons to flow, and includes a series of baffles for trapping the macro-particles. 3 figures.

  16. Voltage controlled current source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Casne, Gregory M. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1992-01-01

    A seven decade, voltage controlled current source is described for use in testing intermediate range nuclear instruments that covers the entire test current range of from 10 picoamperes to 100 microamperes. High accuracy is obtained throughout the entire seven decades of output current with circuitry that includes a coordinated switching scheme responsive to the input signal from a hybrid computer to control the input voltage to an antilog amplifier, and to selectively connect a resistance to the antilog amplifier output to provide a continuous output current source as a function of a preset range of input voltage. An operator controlled switch provides current adjustment for operation in either a real-time simulation test mode or a time response test mode.

  17. Evaluated teletherapy source library

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cox, Lawrence J.; Schach Von Wittenau, Alexis E.

    2000-01-01

    The Evaluated Teletherapy Source Library (ETSL) is a system of hardware and software that provides for maintenance of a library of useful phase space descriptions (PSDs) of teletherapy sources used in radiation therapy for cancer treatment. The PSDs are designed to be used by PEREGRINE, the all-particle Monte Carlo dose calculation system. ETSL also stores other relevant information such as monitor unit factors (MUFs) for use with the PSDs, results of PEREGRINE calculations using the PSDs, clinical calibration measurements, and geometry descriptions sufficient for calculational purposes. Not all of this information is directly needed by PEREGRINE. It also is capable of acting as a repository for the Monte Carlo simulation history files from which the generic PSDs are derived.

  18. Calibrated vapor generator source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davies, J.P.; Larson, R.A.; Goodrich, L.D.; Hall, H.J.; Stoddard, B.D.; Davis, S.G.; Kaser, T.G.; Conrad, F.J.

    1995-09-26

    A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet. 10 figs.

  19. Calibrated vapor generator source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davies, John P. (Idaho Falls, ID); Larson, Ronald A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Goodrich, Lorenzo D. (Shelley, ID); Hall, Harold J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Stoddard, Billy D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Davis, Sean G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kaser, Timothy G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Conrad, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01

    A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet.

  20. Apparatus and method for measuring fluorescence intensities at a plurality of wavelengths and lifetimes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buican, T.N.

    1993-05-04

    Apparatus and method is described for measuring intensities at a plurality of wavelengths and lifetimes. A source of multiple-wavelength electromagnetic radiation is passed through a first interferometer modulated at a first frequency, the output thereof being directed into a sample to be investigated. The light emitted from the sample as a result of the interaction thereof with the excitation radiation is directed into a second interferometer modulated at a second frequency, and the output detected and analyzed. In this manner excitation, emission, and lifetime information may be obtained for a multiplicity of fluorochromes in the sample.

  1. Apparatus and method for measuring fluorescence intensities at a plurality of wavelengths and lifetimes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buican, Tudor N. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1993-01-01

    Apparatus and method for measuring intensities at a plurality of wavelengths and lifetimes. A source of multiple-wavelength electromagnetic radiation is passed through a first interferometer modulated at a first frequency, the output thereof being directed into a sample to be investigated. The light emitted from the sample as a result of the interaction thereof with the excitation radiation is directed into a second interferometer modulated at a second frequency, and the output detected and analyzed. In this manner excitation, emission, and lifetime information may be obtained for a multiplicity of fluorochomes in the sample.

  2. A Comprehensive System of U.S. Energy Intensity Indicators

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report describes a comprehensive system of energy intensity indicators for the United States that has been developed for the Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) over the past decade. This system of indicators is hierarchical in nature, beginning with detailed indexes of energy intensity for various sectors of the economy, which are ultimately aggregated to an overall energy intensity index for the economy as a whole. The aggregation of energy intensity indexes to higher levels in the hierarchy is performed with a version of the Log Mean Divisia index (LMDI) method. Based upon the data and methods in the system of indicators, the economy-wide energy intensity index shows a decline of about 14% in 2011 relative to a 1985 base year.

  3. Advanced Light Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Light Source - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  4. High current ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Ian G. (1088 Woodside Rd., Berkeley, CA 94708); MacGill, Robert A. (645 Kern St., Richmond, CA 94805); Galvin, James E. (2 Commodore Dr. #276, Emeryville, CA 94608)

    1990-01-01

    An ion source utilizing a cathode and anode for producing an electric arc therebetween. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma leaves the generation region and expands through another regon. The density profile of the plasma may be flattened using a magnetic field formed within a vacuum chamber. Ions are extracted from the plasma to produce a high current broad on beam.

  5. Greenhouse Gas Source Attribution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Greenhouse Gas Source Attribution - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs

  6. SOURCE SELECTION INFORMATION -

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SOURCE SELECTION INFORMATION - SEE FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (FAR) 2.101 AND 3.104 Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 (enter date here, centered revised template January 24, 2013) The Honorable Harold Rogers The Honorable Barbara A. Mikulski Chairman, Committee on Appropriations Chairwoman, Committee on Appropriations U.S. House of Representatives U.S. Senate Washington, DC 20515 Washington, DC 20510 The Honorable Rodney P. Frelinghuysen The Honorable Dianne Feinstein Chairman,

  7. The European Spallation Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peggs, S; Eshraqi, M; Hahn, H; Jansson, A; Lindroos, M; Ponton, A; Rathsman, K; Trahern, G; Bousso, S; Calaga, R; Devanz, G; Duperrier, R D; Eguia, J; Gammino, S; Moller, S P; Oyon, C; Ruber, R.J.M.Y.

    2011-03-01

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) is a 5 MW, 2.5 GeV long pulse proton linac, to be built and commissioned in Lund, Sweden. The Accelerator Design Update (ADU) project phase is under way, to be completed at the end of 2012 by the delivery of a Technical Design Report. Improvements to the 2003 ESS design will be summarised, and the latest design activities will be presented.

  8. SOURCE SELECTION INFORMATION -

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    SOURCE SELECTION INFORMATION - SEE FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (FAR) 2.101 AND 3.104 Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 (enter date here, centered revised template April 26, 2013) The Honorable Harold Rogers The Honorable Barbara A. Mikulski Chairman, Committee on Appropriations Chairwoman, Committee on Appropriations U.S. House of Representatives U.S. Senate Washington, DC 20515 Washington, DC 20510 The Honorable Rodney P. Frelinghuysen The Honorable Dianne Feinstein Chairman,

  9. Improved negative ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Delmore, J.E.

    1984-05-01

    A method and apparatus for providing a negative ion source accelerates electrons away from a hot filament electron emitter into a region of crossed electric and magnetic fields arranged in a magnetron configuration. During a portion of the resulting cycloidal path, the electron velocity is reduced below its initial value. The electron accelerates as it leaves the surface at a rate of only slightly less than if there were no magnetic field, thereby preventing a charge buildup at the surface of the emitter. As the electron traverses the cycloid, it is decelerated during the second, third, and fourth quadrants, then reaccelerated as it approaches the end of the fourth quadrant to regain its original velocity. The minimum velocity occurs during the fourth quadrant, and corresponds to an electron temperature of 200 to 500/sup 0/C for the electric and magnetic fields commonly encountered in the ion sources of magnetic sector mass spectrometers. An ion source using the above-described thermalized electrons is also disclosed.

  10. Negative ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Delmore, James E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1987-01-01

    A method and apparatus for providing a negative ion source accelerates electrons away from a hot filament electron emitter into a region of crossed electric and magnetic fields arranged in a magnetron configuration. During a portion of the resulting cycloidal path, the electron velocity is reduced below its initial value. The electron accelerates as it leaves the surface at a rate of only slightly less than if there were no magnetic field, thereby preventing a charge buildup at the surface of the emitter. As the electron traverses the cycloid, it is decelerated during the second, third, and fourth quadrants, then reeccelerated as it approaches the end of the fourth quadrant to regain its original velocity. The minimum velocity occurs during the fourth quadrant, and corresponds to an electron temperature of 200.degree. to 500.degree. for the electric and magnetic fields commonly encountered in the ion sources of magnetic sector mass spectrometers. An ion source using the above-described thermalized electrons is also disclosed.

  11. Capillary discharge source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bender, III, Howard Albert

    2003-11-25

    Debris generation from an EUV electric discharge plasma source device can be significantly reduced or essentially eliminated by encasing the electrodes with dielectric or electrically insulating material so that the electrodes are shielded from the plasma, and additionally by providing a path for the radiation to exit wherein the electrodes are not exposed to the area where the radiation is collected. The device includes: (a) a body, which is made of an electrically insulating material, that defines a capillary bore that has a proximal end and a distal end and that defines at least one radiation exit; (b) a first electrode that defines a first channel that has a first inlet end that is connected to a source of gas and a first outlet end that is in communication with the capillary bore, wherein the first electrode is positioned at the distal end of the capillary bore; (c) a second electrode that defines a second channel that has a second inlet end that is in communication with the capillary bore and an outlet end, wherein the second electrode is positioned at the proximal end of the capillary bore; and (d) a source of electric potential that is connected across the first and second electrodes, wherein radiation generated within the capillary bore is emitted through the at least one radiation exit and wherein the first electrode and second electrode are shielded from the emitted radiation.

  12. Production, Distribution, and Applications of Californium-252 Neutron Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balo, P.A.; Knauer, J.B.; Martin, R.C.

    1999-10-03

    The radioisotope {sup 252}Cf is routinely encapsulated into compact, portable, intense neutron sources with a 2.6-year half-life. A source the size of a person's little finger can emit up to 10{sup 11} neutrons/s. Californium-252 is used commercially as a reliable, cost-effective neutron source for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) of coal, cement, and minerals, as well as for detection and identification of explosives, laud mines, and unexploded military ordnance. Other uses are neutron radiography, nuclear waste assays, reactor start-up sources, calibration standards, and cancer therapy. The inherent safety of source encapsulations is demonstrated by 30 years of experience and by U.S. Bureau of Mines tests of source survivability during explosions. The production and distribution center for the U. S Department of Energy (DOE) Californium Program is the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). DOE sells The radioisotope {sup 252}Cf is routinely encapsulated into compact, portable, intense neutron sources with a 2.6- year half-life. A source the size of a person's little finger can emit up to 10 neutrons/s. Californium-252 is used commercially as a reliable, cost-effective neutron source for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) of coal, cement, and minerals, as well as for detection and identification of explosives, laud mines, and unexploded military ordnance. Other uses are neutron radiography, nuclear waste assays, reactor start-up sources, calibration standards, and cancer therapy. The inherent safety of source encapsulations is demonstrated by 30 years of experience and by U.S. Bureau of Mines tests of source survivability during explosions. The production and distribution center for the U. S Department of Energy (DOE) Californium Program is the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory(ORNL). DOE sells {sup 252}Cf to commercial reencapsulators domestically and internationally. Sealed {sup 252}Cf sources are also available for loan to agencies and subcontractors of the U.S. government and to universities for educational, research, and medical applications. The REDC has established the Californium User Facility (CUF) for Neutron Science to make its large inventory of {sup 252}Cf sources available to researchers for irradiations inside uncontaminated hot cells. Experiments at the CUF include a land mine detection system, neutron damage testing of solid-state detectors, irradiation of human cancer cells for boron neutron capture therapy experiments, and irradiation of rice to induce genetic mutations.

  13. BERNAS ION SOURCE DISCHARGE SIMULATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RUDSKOY,I.; KULEVOY, T.V.; PETRENKO, S.V.; KUIBEDA, R.P.; SELEZNEV, D.N.; PERSHIN, V.I.; HERSHCOVITCH, A.; JOHNSON, B.M.; GUSHENETS, V.I.; OKS, E.M.; POOLE, H.J.

    2007-08-26

    The joint research and development program is continued to develop steady-state ion source of decaborane beam for ion implantation industry. Bemas ion source is the wide used ion source for ion implantation industry. The new simulation code was developed for the Bemas ion source discharge simulation. We present first results of the simulation for several materials interested in semiconductors. As well the comparison of results obtained with experimental data obtained at the ITEP ion source test-bench is presented.

  14. Strategic Sourcing | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Strategic Sourcing Strategic Sourcing Energy Wide Strategic Sourcing (EWSS) DOE leadership has recognized that benefits could be achieved at the federal level through an organized, systematic and collaborative approach to acquiring commonly used goods and services. The DOE strategic sourcing program builds upon historical accomplishments as well as establishes a more cohesive and disciplined program, consistent with OMB's direction, for the conduct of DOE future strategic sourcing efforts. The

  15. Energy Sources | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sources Energy Sources Renewable Energy Renewable Energy Learn more about energy from solar, wind, water, geothermal and biomass. Read more Nuclear Nuclear Learn more about how we use nuclear energy. Read more Electricity Electricity Learn more about how we use electricity as an energy source. Read more Fossil Fossil Learn more about our fossil energy sources: coal, oil and natural gas. Read more Primary energy sources take many forms, including nuclear energy, fossil energy -- like oil, coal

  16. Photon Source Parameters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photon Source Parameters Print Summary Graph of Brightness Curves for All Insertion Devices Insertion Device and Bend Magnet Parameters Bend Magnet Superbend Magnet U30 Undulator U50 Undulator U80 Undulator U100 Undulator W114 Wiggler The ALS has six elliptically polarizing undulators, two in straight 4, two in straight 11, and one each in straights 6 and 7. All are arranged with chicanes so that two such devices can be installed to feed two independent beamlines. They can be used in a variety

  17. Photon Source Parameters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photon Source Parameters Print Summary Graph of Brightness Curves for All Insertion Devices Insertion Device and Bend Magnet Parameters Bend Magnet Superbend Magnet U30 Undulator U50 Undulator U80 Undulator U100 Undulator W114 Wiggler The ALS has six elliptically polarizing undulators, two in straight 4, two in straight 11, and one each in straights 6 and 7. All are arranged with chicanes so that two such devices can be installed to feed two independent beamlines. They can be used in a variety

  18. Photon Source Parameters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photon Source Parameters Print Summary Graph of Brightness Curves for All Insertion Devices Insertion Device and Bend Magnet Parameters Bend Magnet Superbend Magnet U30 Undulator U50 Undulator U80 Undulator U100 Undulator W114 Wiggler The ALS has six elliptically polarizing undulators, two in straight 4, two in straight 11, and one each in straights 6 and 7. All are arranged with chicanes so that two such devices can be installed to feed two independent beamlines. They can be used in a variety

  19. Photon Source Parameters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photon Source Parameters Print Summary Graph of Brightness Curves for All Insertion Devices Insertion Device and Bend Magnet Parameters Bend Magnet Superbend Magnet U30 Undulator U50 Undulator U80 Undulator U100 Undulator W114 Wiggler The ALS has six elliptically polarizing undulators, two in straight 4, two in straight 11, and one each in straights 6 and 7. All are arranged with chicanes so that two such devices can be installed to feed two independent beamlines. They can be used in a variety

  20. Photon Source Parameters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photon Source Parameters Print Summary Graph of Brightness Curves for All Insertion Devices Insertion Device and Bend Magnet Parameters Bend Magnet Superbend Magnet U30 Undulator U50 Undulator U80 Undulator U100 Undulator W114 Wiggler The ALS has six elliptically polarizing undulators, two in straight 4, two in straight 11, and one each in straights 6 and 7. All are arranged with chicanes so that two such devices can be installed to feed two independent beamlines. They can be used in a variety

  1. Photon Source Parameters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photon Source Parameters Print Summary Graph of Brightness Curves for All Insertion Devices Insertion Device and Bend Magnet Parameters Bend Magnet Superbend Magnet U30 Undulator U50 Undulator U80 Undulator U100 Undulator W114 Wiggler The ALS has six elliptically polarizing undulators, two in straight 4, two in straight 11, and one each in straights 6 and 7. All are arranged with chicanes so that two such devices can be installed to feed two independent beamlines. They can be used in a variety

  2. Compact ion accelerator source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schenkel, Thomas; Persaud, Arun; Kapadia, Rehan; Javey, Ali

    2014-04-29

    An ion source includes a conductive substrate, the substrate including a plurality of conductive nanostructures with free-standing tips formed on the substrate. A conductive catalytic coating is formed on the nanostructures and substrate for dissociation of a molecular species into an atomic species, the molecular species being brought in contact with the catalytic coating. A target electrode placed apart from the substrate, the target electrode being biased relative to the substrate with a first bias voltage to ionize the atomic species in proximity to the free-standing tips and attract the ionized atomic species from the substrate in the direction of the target electrode.

  3. Polarized 3He? ion source with hyperfine state selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudnikov, V.; Morozov, Vasiliy; Dudnikov, A.

    2015-04-01

    High beam polarization is essential to the scientific productivity of a collider. Polarized 3He ions are an essential part of the nuclear physics programs at existing and future ion-ion and electron-ion colliders such as BNL's RHIC and eRHIC and JLab's ELIC. Ion sources with performance exceeding that achieved today are a key requirement for the development of these next generation high-luminosity high-polarization colliders. The development of high-intensity high-brightness arc-discharge ion sources at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP) has opened up an opportunity for realization of a new type of a polarized 3He? ion source. This report discusses a polarized 3He? ion source based on the large difference of extra-electron auto-detachment lifetimes of the different 3He? ion hyperfine states. The highest momentum state of 5/2 has the largest lifetime of ? ? 350 s while the lower momentum states have lifetimes of ? ~ 10 s. By producing 3He? ion beam composed of only the |5/2, 5/2> hyperfine states and then quenching one of the states by an RF resonant field, 3He? beam polarization of 90% can be achieved. Such a method of polarized 3He? production has been considered before; however, due to low intensities of the He+ ion sources existing at that time, it was not possible to produce any interesting intensity of polarized 3He? ions. The high-brightness arc-discharge ion source developed at BINP can produce a high-brightness 3He+ beam with an intensity of up to 2 A allowing for selection of up to ?1-4 mA of 3He? ions with ?90% polarization. The high gas efficiency of an arc-discharge source is important due to the high cost of 3He gas. Some features of such a PIS as well as prototype designs are considered. An integrated 3He? ion source design providing high beam polarization could be prepared using existing BNL equipment with incorporation of new designs of the 1) arc discharge plasma generator, 2) extraction system, 3) charge exchange jet, and 4) magnetic separation system.

  4. Laser-Produced Coherent X-Ray Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald Umstadter

    2007-01-31

    We study the generation of x-rays from the interaction of relativistic electrons with ultra-intense laser pulse either directly or via laser generated ion channels. The laser pulse acts as the accelerator and wiggler leading to an all-optical synchrotron-like x-ray source. The mm sized accelerator and micron-sized wiggler leads to a compact source of high brightness, ultrafast x-rays with applications in relativistic nonlinear optics, ultrafast chemistry, biology, inner-shell electronic processes and phase transitions.

  5. Practical transverse matching of a high intensity SNS linac (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Practical transverse matching of a high intensity SNS linac Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Practical transverse matching of a high intensity SNS linac It is important to accomplish adequate matching for a high intensity linear accelerator such as the SNS linac to minimize the mismatch and potential beam loss. In the early stage of the SNS linac design, there was a discussion over whether to match the core or to match the tail. A study shows that the

  6. Fourth order resonance of a high intensity linear accelerator* (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Fourth order resonance of a high intensity linear accelerator* Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fourth order resonance of a high intensity linear accelerator* For a high intensity beam, the 4\nu=1 resonance of a linear accelerator is manifested through the octupolar term of space charge potential when the depressed phase advance \sigma is close to and below 90 but no resonance effect is observed when \sigma just above 90 . To verify that this is a

  7. Fermilab | Science at Fermilab | Experiments & Projects | Intensity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Frontier | MINERvA In this Section: Energy Frontier Intensity Frontier Experiments at the Intensity Frontier ArgoNeuT MicroBooNE MINERvA MINOS NOvA LBNF/DUNE Cosmic Frontier Proposed Projects and Experiments MINERvA MINERvA Intensity Frontier MINERvA MINERvA is a neutrino-scattering experiment that uses the NuMI beamline at Fermilab to search for low-energy neutrino interactions. It is designed to study neutrino-nucleus interactions with unprecedented detail. The number of neutrinos that

  8. Channeling of intense laser beams in underdense plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feit, M.D.; Garrison, J.C.; Rubenchik, A.M.

    1997-09-01

    A hydrodynamic simulation is used to show that intense laser pulses propagating in underdense plasmas create stable, long-lived, and completely evacuated channels. At low intensities, I=10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2}, self focusing seriously distorts the temporal envelope of the pulse, but channeling still occurs. At high intensities, I=10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}, channeling can proceed over many diffraction lengths with significant distortion restricted to the leading edge of the pulse. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  9. Most Viewed Documents for Renewable Energy Sources: December 2014 | OSTI,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    US Dept of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information Most Viewed Documents for Renewable Energy Sources: December 2014 Chapter 11. Heat Exchangers Rafferty, Kevin D.; Culver, Gene (1998) 339 Generalized displacement correlation method for estimating stress intensity factors Fu, P; Johnson, S M; Settgast, R R; Carrigan, C R (2011) 107 Seventh Edition Fuel Cell Handbook NETL (2004) 96 Advanced Electric Submersible Pump Design Tool for Geothermal Applications Xuele Qi; Norman

  10. Most Viewed Documents for Renewable Energy Sources: September 2014 | OSTI,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    US Dept of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information for Renewable Energy Sources: September 2014 Chapter 11. Heat Exchangers Rafferty, Kevin D.; Culver, Gene (1998) 224 Advanced Electric Submersible Pump Design Tool for Geothermal Applications Xuele Qi; Norman Turnquist; Farshad Ghasripoor (2012) 179 Generalized displacement correlation method for estimating stress intensity factors Fu, P; Johnson, S M; Settgast, R R; Carrigan, C R (2011) 138 Hybrid Cooling for Geothermal Power

  11. The effect of broad-band Alfven-cyclotron waves spectra on the preferential heating and differential acceleration of He{sup ++} ions in the solar wind

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maneva, Y. G.; Ofman, L.; Vinas, A. F.

    2013-06-13

    In anticipation of results from inner heliospheric missions such as the Solar Orbiter and the Solar Probe we present the results from 1.5D hybrid simulations to study the role of magnetic fluctuations for the heating and differential acceleration of He{sup ++} ions in the solar wind. We consider the effects of nonlinear Alfven-cyclotron waves at different frequency regimes. Monochromatic nonlinear Alfven-alpha-cyclotron waves are known to preferentially heat and accelerate He{sup ++} ions in collisionless low beta plasma. In this study we demonstrate that these effects are preserved when higherfrequency monochromatic and broad-band spectra of Alfven-proton-cyclotron waves are considered. Comparison between several nonlinear monochromatic waves shows that the ion temperatures, anisotropies and relative drift are quantitatively affected by the shift in frequency. Including a broad-band wave-spectrum results in a significant reduction of both the parallel and the perpendicular temperature components for the He{sup ++} ions, whereas the proton heating is barely influenced, with the parallel proton temperature only slightly enhanced. The differential streaming is strongly affected by the available wave power in the resonant daughter ion-acoustic waves. Therefore for the same initial wave energy, the relative drift is significantly reduced in the case of initial wave-spectra in comparison to the simulations with monochromatic waves.

  12. Fermi-LAT γ-ray anisotropy and intensity explained by unresolved radio-loud active galactic nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mauro, Mattia Di; Cuoco, Alessandro; Donato, Fiorenza; Siegal-Gaskins, Jennifer M. E-mail: alessandro.cuoco@to.infn.it E-mail: jsg@tapir.caltech.edu

    2014-11-01

    Radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN) are expected to contribute substantially to both the intensity and anisotropy of the isotropic γ-ray background (IGRB). In turn, the measured properties of the IGRB can be used to constrain the characteristics of proposed contributing source classes. We consider individual subclasses of radio-loud AGN, including low-, intermediate-, and high-synchrotron-peaked BL Lacertae objects, flat-spectrum radio quasars, and misaligned AGN. Using updated models of the γ-ray luminosity functions of these populations, we evaluate the energy-dependent contribution of each source class to the intensity and anisotropy of the IGRB. We find that collectively radio-loud AGN can account for the entirety of the IGRB intensity and anisotropy as measured by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). Misaligned AGN provide the bulk of the measured intensity but a negligible contribution to the anisotropy, while high-synchrotron-peaked BL Lacertae objects provide the dominant contribution to the anisotropy. In anticipation of upcoming measurements with the Fermi-LAT and the forthcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array, we predict the anisotropy in the broader energy range that will be accessible to future observations.

  13. Manhattan Project: Sources and Notes

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SOURCES AND NOTES Resources > Sources Below are the collected specific notes for the text and images used on the pages of this web site. For a discussion of the most important works on the Manhattan Project, see the "Suggested Readings." For a general discussion of the use of sources in this web site, see "A Note on Sources." To scan the sources and notes for various categories, choose from the list below. To view the sources and notes for a specific web page, see the

  14. High-intensity, high-brightness polarized and unpolarized beam production in charge-exchange collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zelenski, A.; Ritter, J.; Zubets, V.; Steski, D.; Atoian, G.; Davydenko, V.; Ivanov, A.; Kolmogorov, A.

    2011-03-28

    Basic limitations on the high-intensity H{sup -} ion beam production were experimentally studied in charge-exchange collisions of the neutral atomic hydrogen beam in the Na-vapour jet ionizer cell. These studies are the part of the polarized source upgrade (to 10 mA peak current and 85% polarization) project for RHIC. In the source the atomic hydrogen beam of a 5-10 keV energy and total (equivalent) current up to 5 A is produced by neutralization of proton beam in pulsed hydrogen gas target. Formation of the proton beam (from the surface of the plasma emitter with a low transverse ion temperature {approx}0.2 eV) is produced by four-electrode spherical multi-aperture ion-optical system with geometrical focusing. The hydrogen atomic beam intensity up to 1.0 A/cm{sup 2} (equivalent) was obtained in the Na-jet ionizer aperture of a 2.0 cm diameter. At the first stage of the experiment H-beam with 36 mA current, 5 keV energy and {approx}1.0 cm {center_dot} mrad normalized emittance was obtained using the flat grids and magnetic focusing.

  15. Estimates of U.S. Commercial Building Electricity Intensity Trends: Issues Related to End-Use and Supply Surveys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belzer, David B.

    2004-09-04

    This report examines measurement issues related to the amount of electricity used by the commercial sector in the U.S. and the implications for historical trends of commercial building electricity intensity (kWh/sq. ft. of floor space). The report compares two (Energy Information Administration) sources of data related to commercial buildings: the Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) and the reporting by utilities of sales to commercial customers (survey Form-861). Over past two decades these sources suggest significantly different trend rates of growth of electricity intensity, with the supply (utility)-based estimate growing much faster than that based only upon the CBECS. The report undertakes various data adjustments in an attempt to rationalize the differences between these two sources. These adjustments deal with: 1) periodic reclassifications of industrial vs. commercial electricity usage at the state level and 2) the amount of electricity used by non-enclosed equipment (non-building use) that is classified as commercial electricity sales. In part, after applying these adjustments, there is a good correspondence between the two sources over the the past four CBECS (beginning with 1992). However, as yet, there is no satisfactory explanation of the differences between the two sources for longer periods that include the 1980s.

  16. Energy End-Use Intensities in Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    as buildings of the 1980's. In this section, intensities are based upon the entire building stock, not just those buildings using a particular fuel for a given end use. This...

  17. Examination of Beryllium Under Intense High Energy Proton Beam...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Examination of Beryllium Under Intense High Energy Proton Beam at CERN's HiRadMat Facility ... 6th International Particle Accelerator Conference. Richmond, Virginia, USA, 3-8 May 2015.

  18. Energy Intensity Changes by Sector, 1985-2011 - Alternative Measures...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Changes by Sector, 1985-2011 - Alternative Measures by Type of Energy Energy Intensity Changes by Sector, 1985-2011 - Alternative Measures by Type of Energy Further insight with ...

  19. Engineering Strength, Porosity, and Emission Intensity of Nanostructur...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Engineering Strength, Porosity, and Emission Intensity of Nanostructured CdSe Networks by Altering the Building-Block Shape Home Author: H. Yu, R. Bellair, R. M. Kannan, S. L....

  20. Acceleration of highly charged GeV Fe ions from a low-Z substrate by intense femtosecond laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishiuchi, M. Sakaki, H.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Sagisaka, A.; Ogura, K.; Kiriyama, H.; Fukuda, Y.; Kando, M.; Bulanov, S. V.; Kondo, K.; Nishio, K.; Orlandi, R.; Koura, H.; Imai, K.; Pikuz, T. A.; Faenov, A. Ya.; Skobelev, I. Yu.; Sako, H.; Matsukawa, K.; and others

    2015-03-15

    Almost fully stripped Fe ions accelerated up to 0.9?GeV are demonstrated with a 200 TW femtosecond high-intensity laser irradiating a micron-thick Al foil with Fe impurity on the surface. An energetic low-emittance high-density beam of heavy ions with a large charge-to-mass ratio can be obtained, which is useful for many applications, such as a compact radio isotope source in combination with conventional technology.

  1. Energy Intensity Indicators: Caveats and Cautions | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Caveats and Cautions Energy Intensity Indicators: Caveats and Cautions This website contains a diverse collection of indicators that track changes in energy intensity at the national and end-use sector levels (after taking into account other explanatory factors). Indicators are based on readily available and publicly accessible data, although some of this data has been interpolated between published years, or extrapolated beyond the last published year. To help facilitate the appropriate

  2. Energy Intensity Indicators: Indicators Data | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Data Energy Intensity Indicators: Indicators Data The files listed below contain energy intensity data and documentation that supports the information presented on this website. The files are in Microsoft® Excel® format (2007 and later versions) and are available to view and/or download. The entire set of files is also available for download as a zipped* (compressed) file. Economywide Transportation Sector Industrial Sector Residential Buildings Sector Commercial Buildings Sector Electricity

  3. ARM Intensive Operational Period Scheduled to Validate New NASA Satellite

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 ARM Intensive Operational Period Scheduled to Validate New NASA Satellite Beginning in July, all three ARM sites (Southern Great Plains [SGP], North Slope of Alaska, and Tropical Western Pacific; Figure 1) will participate in the AIRS Validation IOP. This three-month intensive operational period (IOP) will validate data collected by the satellite-based Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) recently launched into space. On May 4, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) launched

  4. Dynamic Potential Intensity: An improved representation of the ocean's

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    impact on tropical cyclones (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Dynamic Potential Intensity: An improved representation of the ocean's impact on tropical cyclones Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Dynamic Potential Intensity: An improved representation of the ocean's impact on tropical cyclones To incorporate the effects of tropical cyclone (TC)-induced upper ocean mixing and sea surface temperature (SST) cooling on TC intensification, a vertical average of temperature down to a

  5. Experimental evidence of space charge driven resonances in high intensity

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    linear accelerators (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Experimental evidence of space charge driven resonances in high intensity linear accelerators Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Experimental evidence of space charge driven resonances in high intensity linear accelerators Authors: Jeon, Dong-O Publication Date: 2016-01-12 OSTI Identifier: 1235762 Grant/Contract Number: AC05-00OR22725 Type: Published Article Journal Name: Physical Review Accelerators and Beams Additional Journal

  6. Electron dynamics in intense laser fields with Bohmian trajectories |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Electron dynamics in intense laser fields with Bohmian trajectories Wednesday, March 2, 2016 - 3:00pm SLAC, Redtail Hawk Conference Room 108A Speaker: Hossein Z. Jooya, University of Kansas Program Description The electron quantum dynamics of atomic hydrogen under intense laser fields is investigated by means of the De Broglie-Bohm framework of Bohmian mechanics. This method is used to explore the sub-cycle multiphoton ionization dynamics of the

  7. Engineering Strength, Porosity, and Emission Intensity of Nanostructured

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CdSe Networks by Altering the Building-Block Shape | Energy Frontier Research Centers Engineering Strength, Porosity, and Emission Intensity of Nanostructured CdSe Networks by Altering the Building-Block Shape Home Author: H. Yu, R. Bellair, R. M. Kannan, S. L. Brock Year: 2008 Abstract: The effect of primary particle shape on the porosity, mechanical strength, and luminescence intensity of metal chalcogenide aerogels was probed by comparison of CdSe aerogels prepared from spherical and

  8. Intensity Frontier| U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Intensity Frontier High Energy Physics (HEP) HEP Home About Research Science Drivers of Particle Physics Energy Frontier Intensity Frontier Experiments Cosmic Frontier Theoretical and Computational Physics Advanced Technology R&D Accelerator R&D Stewardship Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of HEP Funding Opportunities Advisory Committees Community Resources Contact Information High Energy Physics U.S. Department of Energy SC-25/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW

  9. Multiple source heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L. (Duncanville, TX)

    1983-01-01

    A heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating a fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid, at least three refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid, a second for effecting heat exchange with a heat exchange fluid, and a third for effecting heat exchange with ambient air; a compressor for compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve connected at the inlet side of a heat exchanger in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circuit and pump for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and directional flow of refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. Also disclosed are a variety of embodiments, modes of operation, and schematics therefor.

  10. Thulium-170 heat source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walter, Carl E. (Pleasanton, CA); Van Konynenburg, Richard (Livermore, CA); VanSant, James H. (Tracy, CA)

    1992-01-01

    An isotopic heat source is formed using stacks of thin individual layers of a refractory isotopic fuel, preferably thulium oxide, alternating with layers of a low atomic weight diluent, preferably graphite. The graphite serves several functions: to act as a moderator during neutron irradiation, to minimize bremsstrahlung radiation, and to facilitate heat transfer. The fuel stacks are inserted into a heat block, which is encased in a sealed, insulated and shielded structural container. Heat pipes are inserted in the heat block and contain a working fluid. The heat pipe working fluid transfers heat from the heat block to a heat exchanger for power conversion. Single phase gas pressure controls the flow of the working fluid for maximum heat exchange and to provide passive cooling.

  11. Infrared source test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ott, L.

    1994-11-15

    The purpose of the Infrared Source Test (IRST) is to demonstrate the ability to track a ground target with an infrared sensor from an airplane. The system is being developed within the Advance Technology Program`s Theater Missile Defense/Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) section. The IRST payload consists of an Amber Radiance 1 infrared camera system, a computer, a gimbaled mirror, and a hard disk. The processor is a custom R3000 CPU board made by Risq Modular Systems, Inc. for LLNL. The board has ethernet, SCSI, parallel I/O, and serial ports, a DMA channel, a video (frame buffer) interface, and eight MBytes of main memory. The real-time operating system VxWorks has been ported to the processor. The application code is written in C on a host SUN 4 UNIX workstation. The IRST is the result of a combined effort by physicists, electrical and mechanical engineers, and computer scientists.

  12. Fortran 90 Source Module

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1998-01-13

    A major advance contained in the new Fortran 90 language standard is the ability to define new data types and the operators associated with them. Writing computer code to implement computations with real and complex three domensional vectors and dyadics is greatly simplified if the equations can be implemented directly, without the need to code the vector arithmetic explicitly. The Fortran 90 module VECTORS contains source code which defines new data types for real andmore » complex 3-dimensional vectors and dyadics, along with the common operations needed to work with these objects. Routines to allow convenient initalization and output of the new types are also included. in keeping with the philosophy of data abstraction, the details of the implementation of the data types are maintained private, and the functions and operators are made generic to simplify the combining of real, complex, single and double precision vectors and dyadics.« less

  13. Advanced Photon Source Upgrade Project

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Mitchell, John; Gibson, Murray; Young, Linda; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2013-04-19

    Upgrade to Advanced Photon Source announced by Department Of Energy. Read more: http://go.usa.gov/ivZ

  14. Positron Source from Betatron X-rays Emitted in a Plasma Wiggler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, D.K.; Clayton, C.E.; Huang, C.; Joshi, C.; Lu, W.; Marsh, K.A.; Mori, W.B.; Zhou, M.; Barnes, C.D.; Decker, F.J.; Hogan, M.J.; Iverson, R.H.; Krejcik, P.; O'Connell, C.L.; Siemann, R.; Walz, D.R.; Deng, S.; Katsouleas, T.C.; Muggli, P.; Oz, E.; /Southern California U.

    2006-04-21

    In the E-167 plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) experiments in the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), an ultra-short, 28.5 GeV electron beam field ionizes a neutral column of Lithium vapor. In the underdense regime, all plasma electrons are expelled creating an ion column. The beam electrons undergo multiple betatron oscillations leading to a large flux of broadband synchrotron radiation. With a plasma density of 3 x 10{sup 17}cm{sup -3}, the effective focusing gradient is near 9 MT/m with critical photon energies exceeding 50 MeV for on-axis radiation. A positron source is the initial application being explored for these X-rays, as photo-production of positrons eliminates many of the thermal stress and shock wave issues associated with traditional Bremsstrahlung sources. Photo-production of positrons has been well-studied; however, the brightness of plasma X-ray sources provides certain advantages. In this paper, we present results of the simulated radiation spectra for the E-167 experiments, and compute the expected positron yield.

  15. Data Release Report for Source Physics Experiment 1 (SPE-1), Nevada National Security Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Townsend, Margaret [NSTec; Mercadente, Jennifer [NSTec

    2014-04-28

    The first Source Physics Experiment shot (SPE-1) was conducted in May 2011. The explosive source was a ~100-kilogram TNT-equivalent chemical set at a depth of 60 meters. It was recorded by an extensive set of instrumentation that includes sensors both at near-field (less than 100 meters) and far-field (more than 100 meters) distances. The near-field instruments consisted of three-component accelerometers deployed in boreholes around the shot and a set of singlecomponent vertical accelerometers on the surface. The far-field network comprised a variety of seismic and acoustic sensors, including short-period geophones, broadband seismometers, three-component accelerometers, and rotational seismometers at distances of 100 meters to 25 kilometers. This report coincides with the release of these data for analysts and organizations that are not participants in this program. This report describes the first Source Physics Experiment and the various types of near-field and far-field data that are available.

  16. Data Release Report for Source Physics Experiments 2 and 3 (SPE-2 and SPE-3) Nevada National Security Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Townsend, Margaret; Obi, Curtis

    2015-01-26

    The second Source Physics Experiment shot (SPE-2) was conducted in Nevada on October 25, 2011, at 1900:00.011623 Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). The explosive source was 997 kilograms (kg) trinitrotoluene (TNT) equivalent of sensitized heavy ammonium fuel oil (SHANFO) detonated at a depth of 45.7 meters (m). The third Source Physics Experiment shot (SPE-3) was conducted in Nevada on July 24, 2012, at 1800:00.44835 GMT. The explosive source was 905 kg TNT equivalent of SHANFO detonated at a depth of 45.8 m. Both shots were recorded by an extensive set of instrumentation that includes sensors both at near-field (less than 100 m) and far-field (100 m or greater) distances. The near-field instruments consisted of three-component accelerometers deployed in boreholes at 15, 46, and 55 m depths around the shot and a set of single-component vertical accelerometers on the surface. The far-field network was composed of a variety of seismic and acoustic sensors, including short-period geophones, broadband seismometers, three-component accelerometers, and rotational seismometers at distances of 100 m to 25 kilometers. This report coincides with the release of these data for analysts and organizations that are not participants in this program. This report describes the second and third Source Physics Experiment shots and the various types of near-field and far-field data that are available.

  17. The linac coherent light source single particle imaging road map

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aquila, A.; Barty, A.; Bostedt, C.; Boutet, S.; Carini, G.; dePonte, D.; Drell, P.; Doniach, S.; Downing, K. H.; Earnest, T.; et al

    2015-07-01

    Intense femtosecond x-ray pulses from free-electron laser sources allow the imaging of individual particles in a single shot. Early experiments at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) have led to rapid progress in the field and, so far, coherent diffractive images have been recorded from biological specimens, aerosols, and quantum systems with a few-tens-of-nanometers resolution. In March 2014, LCLS held a workshop to discuss the scientific and technical challenges for reaching the ultimate goal of atomic resolution with single-shot coherent diffractive imaging. This paper summarizes the workshop findings and presents the roadmap toward reaching atomic resolution, 3D imaging at free-electronmore » laser sources.« less

  18. Collaborative, Data-Intensive Science Key to Science & Commerce Challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kleese van Dam, Kerstin

    2013-05-28

    This article coincides with the release of "Data-Intensive Science," co-edited by Dr. Kerstin Kleese van Dam. In the piece, Dr. Kleese van Dam explains how data-intensive science has the potential to transform not only how we do science but how quickly we can translate scientific progress into complete solutions, policies, decisions and, ultimately, economic success. In the article, she states it is clear that nations that can most effectively transform tons of scientific data into actionable knowledge are going to be the leaders in the future of science and commerce and how creating the required new insights for complex challenges cannot be done without effective collaboration. Because many science domains already are unable to explore all of the data they collect (or which is relevant to their research), progress in collaborative, data-intensive science is crucial toward unlocking the potential of big data.

  19. Intense Muon Beams for Experiments at Project X

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.M. Ankenbrandt, R.P. Johnson, C. Y. Yoshikawa, V.S. Kashikhin, D.V. Neuffer, J. Miller, R.A. Rimmer

    2011-03-01

    A coherent approach for providing muon beams to several experiments for the intensity-frontier program at Project X is described. Concepts developed for the front end of a muon collider/neutrino factory facility, such as phase rotation and ionization cooling, are applied, but with significant differences. High-intensity experiments typically require high-duty-factor beams pulsed at a time interval commensurate with the muon lifetime. It is challenging to provide large RF voltages at high duty factor, especially in the presence of intense radiation and strong magnetic fields, which may preclude the use of superconducting RF cavities. As an alternative, cavities made of materials such as ultra-pure Al and Be, which become very good but not super conductors at cryogenic temperatures, can be used.

  20. Energy Intensity Trends in AEO2010 (released in AEO2010)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    Energy intensity (energy consumption per dollar of real GDP) indicates how much energy a country uses to produce its goods and services. From the early 1950s to the early 1970s, U.S. total primary energy consumption and real GDP increased at nearly the same annual rate. During that period, real oil prices remained virtually flat. In contrast, from the mid-1970s to 2008, the relationship between energy consumption and real GDP growth changed, with primary energy consumption growing at less than one-third the previous average rate and real GDP growth continuing to grow at its historical rate. The decoupling of real GDP growth from energy consumption growth led to a decline in energy intensity that averaged 2.8% per year from 1973 to 2008. In the Annual Energy Outlook 2010 Reference case, energy intensity continues to decline, at an average annual rate of 1.9% from 2008 to 2035.

  1. Investigation of the validity of quasilinear theory for electron Landau damping in a tokamak using a broad-band wave effect

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lee, Jungpyo; Bonoli, Paul; Wright, John

    2011-01-01

    The quasilinear diffusion coefficient assuming a constant magnetic field along the electron orbit is widely used to describe electron Landau damping of waves in a tokamak where the magnitude of the magnetic field varies on a flux surface. To understand the impact of violating the constant magnetic field assumption, we introduce the effect of a broad-bandwidth wave spectrum which has been used in the past to validate quasilinear theory for the fast decorrelation process between resonances. By the reevaluation of the diffusion coefficient through the level of the phase integral for the tokamak geometry with the broad-band wave effect included,more » we identify the three acceptable errors for the use of the quasilinear diffusion coefficient.« less

  2. Energy End-Use Intensities in Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Estimates The end-use estimates had two main sources: the 1989 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) and the Facility Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) system....

  3. Max Tech and Beyond: High-Intensity Discharge Lamps (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the light source of choice in street and area lighting, and sports stadium illumination. ... HID lamps offer important advantages compared to other lighting technologies, making them ...

  4. ARM - Field Campaign - Shortwave Radiation and Aerosol Intensive

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Observation Periods govCampaignsShortwave Radiation and Aerosol Intensive Observation Periods ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Shortwave Radiation and Aerosol Intensive Observation Periods 1998.08.03 - 1998.08.28 Lead Scientist : Warren Wiscombe For data sets, see below. Summary Wednesday, August 5, 1998: IOP Opening Activities: The IOP updates for the Shortwave/Aerosol/BDRF will be

  5. Pump-Intensity- and Shell-Thickness-Dependent Evolution of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Photoluminescence Blinking in Individual Core/Shell CdSe/CdS Nanocrystals (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Pump-Intensity- and Shell-Thickness-Dependent Evolution of Photoluminescence Blinking in Individual Core/Shell CdSe/CdS Nanocrystals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Pump-Intensity- and Shell-Thickness-Dependent Evolution of Photoluminescence Blinking in Individual Core/Shell CdSe/CdS Nanocrystals Authors: Malko, Anton V. ; Park, Young-Shin ; Sampat,

  6. Measurements of radiation doses induced by high intensity laser between

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    10^16 and 10^21 w/cm^2 onto solid targets at LCLS MEC instrument (Conference) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Conference: Measurements of radiation doses induced by high intensity laser between 10^16 and 10^21 w/cm^2 onto solid targets at LCLS MEC instrument Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Measurements of radiation doses induced by high intensity laser between 10^16 and 10^21 w/cm^2 onto solid targets at LCLS MEC instrument Authors: Liang, T. ; /SLAC /Georgia Tech

  7. Measurements of radiation doses induced by high intensity laser between

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    10^16 and 10^21 w/cm^2 onto solid targets at LCLS MEC instrument (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Measurements of radiation doses induced by high intensity laser between 10^16 and 10^21 w/cm^2 onto solid targets at LCLS MEC instrument Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Measurements of radiation doses induced by high intensity laser between 10^16 and 10^21 w/cm^2 onto solid targets at LCLS MEC instrument × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE)

  8. Joint Facilities User Forum on Data-Intensive Computing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Computing Joint Facilities User Forum on Data-Intensive Computing All logos June 16-18, 2014 Oakland City Center Conference Center 500 12th Street, Suite 105 Oakland, CA Directions and Site Brochure Held in conjunction with DOE HPC Operational Review (HPCOR) June 17-19, 2014 The Joint Facilities User Forum on Data-Intensive Computing will bring together users and HPC center staff to discuss successes, failures, lessons learned, and the future of data-driven scientific discovery. There will also

  9. High intensity proton operation at the Brookhaven AGS accelerator complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahrens, L.A.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Bleser, E.; Brennan, J.M.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J.W.; Onillon, E.; Reece, R.K.; Roser, T.; Soukas, A.

    1994-08-01

    With the completion of the AGS rf upgrade, and the implementation of a transition {open_quotes}jump{close_quotes}, all of accelerator systems were in place in 1994 to allow acceleration of the proton intensity available from the AGS Booster injector to AGS extraction energy and delivery to the high energy users. Beam commissioning results with these new systems are presented. Progress in identifying and overcoming other obstacles to higher intensity are given. These include a careful exploration of the stopband strengths present on the AGS injection magnetic porch, and implementation of the AGS single bunch transverse dampers throughout the acceleration cycle.

  10. Constricted glow discharge plasma source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anders, Andre (Albany, CA); Anders, Simone (Albany, CA); Dickinson, Michael (San Leandro, CA); Rubin, Michael (Berkeley, CA); Newman, Nathan (Winnetka, IL)

    2000-01-01

    A constricted glow discharge chamber and method are disclosed. The polarity and geometry of the constricted glow discharge plasma source is set so that the contamination and energy of the ions discharged from the source are minimized. The several sources can be mounted in parallel and in series to provide a sustained ultra low source of ions in a plasma with contamination below practical detection limits. The source is suitable for applying films of nitrides such as gallium nitride and oxides such as tungsten oxide and for enriching other substances in material surfaces such as oxygen and water vapor, which are difficult process as plasma in any known devices and methods. The source can also be used to assist the deposition of films such as metal films by providing low-energy ions such as argon ions.

  11. Modeling and Validation of Performance Limitations for the Optimal Design of Interferometric and Intensity-Modulated Fiber Optic Displacement Sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moro, Erik A.

    2012-06-07

    Optical fiber sensors offer advantages over traditional electromechanical sensors, making them particularly well-suited for certain measurement applications. Generally speaking, optical fiber sensors respond to a desired measurand through modulation of an optical signal's intensity, phase, or wavelength. Practically, non-contacting fiber optic displacement sensors are limited to intensity-modulated and interferometric (or phase-modulated) methodologies. Intensity-modulated fiber optic displacement sensors relate target displacement to a power measurement. The simplest intensity-modulated sensor architectures are not robust to environmental and hardware fluctuations, since such variability may cause changes in the measured power level that falsely indicate target displacement. Differential intensity-modulated sensors have been implemented, offering robustness to such intensity fluctuations, and the speed of these sensors is limited only by the combined speed of the photodetection hardware and the data acquisition system (kHz-MHz). The primary disadvantages of intensity-modulated sensing are the relatively low accuracy (?m-mm for low-power sensors) and the lack of robustness, which consequently must be designed, often with great difficulty, into the sensor's architecture. White light interferometric displacement sensors, on the other hand, offer increased accuracy and robustness. Unlike their monochromatic-interferometer counterparts, white light interferometric sensors offer absolute, unambiguous displacement measurements over large displacement ranges (cm for low-power, 5 mW, sources), necessitating no initial calibration, and requiring no environmental or feedback control. The primary disadvantage of white light interferometric displacement sensors is that their utility in dynamic testing scenarios is limited, both by hardware bandwidth and by their inherent high-sensitivity to Doppler-effects. The decision of whether to use either an intensity-modulated interferometric sensor depends on an appropriate performance function (e.g., desired displacement range, accuracy, robustness, etc.). In this dissertation, the performance limitations of a bundled differential intensity-modulated displacement sensor are analyzed, where the bundling configuration has been designed to optimize performance. The performance limitations of a white light Fabry-Perot displacement sensor are also analyzed. Both these sensors are non-contacting, but they have access to different regions of the performance-space. Further, both these sensors have different degrees of sensitivity to experimental uncertainty. Made in conjunction with careful analysis, the decision of which sensor to deploy need not be an uninformed one.

  12. Sourcing Capabilities | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Home > GE Global Research Sourcing External Document & Process Repository > Sourcing Capabilities Sourcing Capabilities The General Electric Company is strongly committed to meet the principles of Public Laws, Federal Acquisition Regulations (FARs), and specific cognizant Government Agency FAR supplemental regulations, and directs that business practices and procedures conform to these Federal laws and regulations. It is the policy of GE Global Research to encourage participation in

  13. Video Library | Advanced Photon Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Archives APS Brochure Annual Reports Posters Podcasts Image Gallery external site Video Library Syndicated Feeds (RSS) Now Playing: The Advanced Photon Source More videos:...

  14. Linac Coherent Light Source Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Take an animated tour of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Follow the laser pulse from the injector gun all the way through to the Far Experimental Hall.

  15. Linac Coherent Light Source Overview

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-29

    Take an animated tour of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Follow the laser pulse from the injector gun all the way through to the Far Experimental Hall.

  16. Media Center | Advanced Photon Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    distributed to all APS users and others interested in the APS. Research Highlights Books Articles on Advanced Photon Source research and engineering highlights that are written...

  17. APS Science | Advanced Photon Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science APS Science features articles on Advanced Photon Source research and engineering highlights that are written for the interested public as well as the synchrotron x-ray,...

  18. Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, J.H.; Selby, D.L.; Harrington, R.M.; Peretz, F.J.

    1991-02-01

    This report discusses the research and development, design and safety of the Advanced Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. (LSP)

  19. Video Library | Advanced Photon Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Video Library Related Links: APS Colloquium APS Podcasts APS Today More videos: Introduction to the APS Physics of the Blues Now Playing: Building the Advanced Photon Source This...

  20. Explosive photodissociation of methane induced by ultrafast intense laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kong Fanao; Luo Qi; Xu Huailiang; Sharifi, Mehdi; Song Di; Chin, See Leang

    2006-10-07

    A new type of molecular fragmentation induced by femtosecond intense laser at the intensity of 2x10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2} is reported. For the parent molecule of methane, ethylene, n-butane, and 1-butene, fluorescence from H (n=3{yields}2), CH (A {sup 2}{delta}, B {sup 2}{sigma}{sup -}, and C {sup 2}{sigma}{sup +}{yields}X {sup 2}{pi}), or C{sub 2} (d {sup 3}{pi}{sub g}{yields}a {sup 3}{pi}{sub u}) is observed in the spectrum. It shows that the fragmentation is a universal property of neutral molecule in the intense laser field. Unlike breaking only one or two chemical bonds in conventional UV photodissociation, the fragmentation caused by the intense laser undergoes vigorous changes, breaking most of the bonds in the molecule, like an explosion. The fragments are neutral species and cannot be produced through Coulomb explosion of multiply charged ion. The laser power dependence of CH (A{yields}X) emission of methane on a log-log scale has a slope of 10{+-}1. The fragmentation is thus explained as multiple channel dissociation of the superexcited state of parent molecule, which is created by multiphoton excitation.

  1. Continuous Snow Depth, Intensive Site 1, Barrow, Alaska

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Bob Busey; Larry Hinzman; Vladimir Romanovsky; William Cable

    Continuous Snow depth data are being collected at several points within four intensive study areas in Barrow, Alaska. These data are being collected to better understand the energy dynamics above the active layer and permafrost. They complement in-situ snow and soil measurements at this location. The data could also be used as supporting measurements for other research and modeling activities.

  2. PNNL Data-Intensive Computing for a Smarter Energy Grid

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Carol Imhoff; Zhenyu (Henry) Huang; Daniel Chavarria

    2012-12-31

    The Middleware for Data-Intensive Computing (MeDICi) Integration Framework, an integrated platform to solve data analysis and processing needs, supports PNNL research on the U.S. electric power grid. MeDICi is enabling development of visualizations of grid operations and vulnerabilities, with goal of near real-time analysis to aid operators in preventing and mitigating grid failures.

  3. Drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liska, D.J.; Schamaun, R.G.; Clark, D.C.; Potter, R.C.; Frank, J.A.

    1980-03-11

    The disclosure relates to a drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators. The system comprises a series of box-sections girders independently adjustably mounted on a linear accelerator. A plurality of drift tube holding stems are individually adjustably mounted on each girder.

  4. Drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liska, Donald J. (Los Alamos, NM); Schamaun, Roger G. (Los Alamos, NM); Clark, Donald C. (Los Alamos, NM); Potter, R. Christopher (Los Alamos, NM); Frank, Joseph A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1982-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators. The system comprises a series of box-sections girders independently adjustably mounted on a linear accelerator. A plurality of drift tube holding stems are individually adjustably mounted on each girder.

  5. Continuous Snow Depth, Intensive Site 1, Barrow, Alaska

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Bob Busey; Larry Hinzman; Vladimir Romanovsky; William Cable

    2014-11-06

    Continuous Snow depth data are being collected at several points within four intensive study areas in Barrow, Alaska. These data are being collected to better understand the energy dynamics above the active layer and permafrost. They complement in-situ snow and soil measurements at this location. The data could also be used as supporting measurements for other research and modeling activities.

  6. PNNLs Data Intensive Computing research battles Homeland Security threats

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    David Thurman; Joe Kielman; Katherine Wolf; David Atkinson

    2012-12-31

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratorys (PNNL's) approach to data intensive computing (DIC) is focused on three key research areas: hybrid hardware architecture, software architectures, and analytic algorithms. Advancements in these areas will help to address, and solve, DIC issues associated with capturing, managing, analyzing and understanding, in near real time, data at volumes and rates that push the frontiers of current technologies.

  7. Energy Intensity of Federal Buildings Slashed 25% in Past Decade

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. General Services Administration (GSA), which builds and manages federal buildings, recently announced that it cut federal energy spending by $65.5 million in fiscal year (FY) 2012 by reducing the energy use intensity levels in its buildings by nearly 25% since FY 2003.

  8. Simulation Needs and Priorities of the Fermilab Intensity Frontier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elvira, V. D.; Genser, K. L.; Hatcher, R.; Perdue, G.; Wenzel, H. J.; Yarba, J.

    2015-06-11

    Over a two-year period, the Physics and Detector Simulations (PDS) group of the Fermilab Scientific Computing Division (SCD), collected information from Fermilab Intensity Frontier experiments on their simulation needs and concerns. The process and results of these activities are documented here.

  9. PNNL pushing scientific discovery through data intensive computing breakthroughs

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Deborah Gracio; David Koppenaal; Ruby Leung

    2012-12-31

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratorys approach to data intensive computing (DIC) is focused on three key research areas: hybrid hardware architectures, software architectures, and analytic algorithms. Advancements in these areas will help to address, and solve, DIC issues associated with capturing, managing, analyzing and understanding, in near real time, data at volumes and rates that push the frontiers of current technologies.

  10. NUSTAR AND XMM-NEWTON OBSERVATIONS OF THE EXTREME ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCE NGC5907 ULX1: A VANISHING ACT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walton, D. J.; Stern, D.; Harrison, F. A.; Fuerst, F.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Madsen, K. K.; Rana, V.; Bachetti, M.; Barret, D.; Webb, N.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W.; Christensen, F. E.; Hailey, C. J.; Middleton, M. J.; Roberts, T. P.; Sutton, A. D.; Zhang, W.

    2015-02-01

    We present results obtained from two broadband X-ray observations of the extreme ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) NGC5907 ULX1, known to have a peak X-ray luminosity of ?5 10{sup 40} erg s{sup 1}. These XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observations, separated by only ?4 days, revealed an extreme level of short-term flux variability. In the first epoch, NGC5907 ULX1 was undetected by NuSTAR, and only weakly detected (if at all) with XMM-Newton, while in the second NGC5907 ULX1 was clearly detected at high luminosity by both missions. This implies an increase in flux of ?2 orders of magnitude or more during this ?4day window. We argue that this is likely due to a rapid rise in the mass accretion rate, rather than to a transition from an extremely obscured to an unobscured state. During the second epoch we observed the broadband 0.3-20.0keV X-ray luminosity to be (1.55 0.06) 10{sup 40} erg s{sup 1}, similar to the majority of the archival X-ray observations. The broadband X-ray spectrum obtained from the second epoch is inconsistent with the low/hard accretion state observed in Galactic black hole binaries, but is well modeled with a simple accretion disk model incorporating the effects of photon advection. This strongly suggests that when bright, NGC5907 ULX1 is a high-Eddington accretor.

  11. Intense terahertz emission from molecular beam epitaxy-grown GaAs/GaSb(001)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sadia, Cyril P.; Laganapan, Aleena Maria; Agatha Tumanguil, Mae; Estacio, Elmer; Somintac, Armando; Salvador, Arnel; Que, Christopher T.; Yamamoto, Kohji; Tani, Masahiko

    2012-12-15

    Intense terahertz (THz) electromagnetic wave emission was observed in undoped GaAs thin films deposited on (100) n-GaSb substrates via molecular beam epitaxy. GaAs/n-GaSb heterostructures were found to be viable THz sources having signal amplitude 75% that of bulk p-InAs. The GaAs films were grown by interruption method during the growth initiation and using various metamorphic buffer layers. Reciprocal space maps revealed that the GaAs epilayers are tensile relaxed. Defects at the i-GaAs/n-GaSb interface were confirmed by scanning electron microscope images. Band calculations were performed to infer the depletion region and electric field at the i-GaAs/n-GaSb and the air-GaAs interfaces. However, the resulting band calculations were found to be insufficient to explain the THz emission. The enhanced THz emission is currently attributed to a piezoelectric field induced by incoherent strain and defects.

  12. 2014-05-05 Issuance: Test Procedures for High-Intensity Discharge...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Test Procedures for High-Intensity Discharge Lamps; Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking 2014-05-05 Issuance: Test Procedures for High-Intensity Discharge Lamps; Supplemental ...

  13. Hollow electrode plasma excitation source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ballou, N.E.

    1992-04-14

    A plasma source incorporates a furnace as a hollow anode, while a coaxial cathode is disposed therewithin. The source is located in a housing provided with an ionizable gas such that a glow discharge is produced between anode and cathode. Radiation or ionic emission from the glow discharge characterizes a sample placed within the furnace and heated to elevated temperatures. 5 figs.

  14. The Linac Coherent Light Source

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    White, William E.; Robert, Aymeric; Dunne, Mike

    2015-05-01

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory was the first hard X-ray free-electron laser (FEL) to operate as a user facility. After five years of operation, LCLS is now a mature FEL user facility. Our personal views about opportunities and challenges inherent to these unique light sources are discussed.

  15. Haze in the Grand Canyon: An evaluation of the Winter Haze Intensive Tracer Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    The Grand Canyon is one of the most spectacular natural sights on earth. Approximately 4 million visitors travel to Grand Canyon National Park (GCNP) each year to enjoy its majestic geological formations and intensely colored views. However, visibility in GCNP can be impaired by small increases in concentrations of fine suspended particles that scatter and absorb light; the resulting visibility degradation is perceived as haze. Sulfate particles are a major factor in visibility impairment at Grand Canyon in summer and winter. Many wintertime hazes at GCNP are believed to result from the accumulation of emissions from local sources during conditions of air stagnation, which occur more frequently in winter than in summer. In January and February 1987, the National Park Service (NPS) carried out a large-scale experiment known as the Winter Haze Intensive Tracer Experiment (WHITEX) to investigate the causes of wintertime haze in the region of GCNP and Canyonlands National Park. The overall objective of WHITEX was to assess the feasibility of attributing visibility impairment in specific geographic regions to emissions from a single point source. The experiment called for the injection of a tracer, deuterated methane (CD{sub 4}), into one of the stacks of the Navajo Generating Station (NGS), a major coal-fired power plant located 25 km from the GCNP boundary and 110 km northeast of Grand Canyon Village. A network of field stations was established in the vicinity -- mostly to the northeast of GCNP and NGS -- to measure CD{sub 4} concentrations, atmospheric aerosol and optical properties, and other chemical and physical attributes. 19 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Near infrared spectral imaging of explosives using a tunable laser source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klunder, G L; Margalith, E; Nguyen, L K

    2010-03-26

    Diffuse reflectance near infrared hyperspectral imaging is an important analytical tool for a wide variety of industries, including agriculture consumer products, chemical and pharmaceutical development and production. Using this technique as a method for the standoff detection of explosive particles is presented and discussed. The detection of the particles is based on the diffuse reflectance of light from the particle in the near infrared wavelength range where CH, NH, OH vibrational overtones and combination bands are prominent. The imaging system is a NIR focal plane array camera with a tunable OPO/laser system as the illumination source. The OPO is programmed to scan over a wide spectral range in the NIR and the camera is synchronized to record the light reflected from the target for each wavelength. The spectral resolution of this system is significantly higher than that of hyperspectral systems that incorporate filters or dispersive elements. The data acquisition is very fast and the entire hyperspectral cube can be collected in seconds. A comparison of data collected with the OPO system to data obtained with a broadband light source with LCTF filters is presented.

  17. WAVES AS THE SOURCE OF APPARENT TWISTING MOTIONS IN SUNSPOT PENUMBRAE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bharti, L.; Cameron, R. H.; Hirzberger, J.; Solanki, S. K.; Rempel, M.

    2012-06-20

    The motion of dark striations across bright filaments in a sunspot penumbra has become an important new diagnostic of convective gas flows in penumbral filaments. The nature of these striations has, however, remained unclear. Here, we present an analysis of small-scale motions in penumbral filaments in both simulations and observations. The simulations, when viewed from above, show fine structure with dark lanes running outward from the dark core of the penumbral filaments. The dark lanes either occur preferentially on one side or alternate between both sides of the filament. We identify this fine structure with transverse (kink) oscillations of the filament, corresponding to a sideways swaying of the filament. These oscillations have periods in the range of 5-7 minutes and propagate outward and downward along the filament. Similar features are found in observed G-band intensity time series of penumbral filaments in a sunspot located near disk center obtained by the Broadband Filter Imager on board the Hinode. We also find that some filaments show dark striations moving to both sides of the filaments. Based on the agreement between simulations and observations we conclude that the motions of these striations are caused by transverse oscillations of the underlying bright filaments.

  18. Microjet formation and hard x-ray production from a liquid metal target irradiated by intense femtosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lar'kin, A. Uryupina, D.; Ivanov, K.; Savel'ev, A.; Bonnet, T.; Gobet, F.; Hannachi, F.; Tarisien, M.; Versteegen, M.; Spohr, K.; Breil, J.; Chimier, B.; Dorchies, F.; Fourment, C.; Leguay, P.-M.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.

    2014-09-15

    By using a liquid metal as a target one may significantly enhance the yield of hard x-rays with a sequence of two intense femtosecond laser pulses. The influence of the time delay between the two pulses is studied experimentally and interpreted with numerical simulations. It was suggested that the first arbitrary weak pulse produces microjets from the target surface, while the second intense pulse provides an efficient electron heating and acceleration along the jet surface. These energetic electrons are the source of x-ray emission while striking the target surface. The microjet formation is explained based on the results given by both optical diagnostics and hydrodynamic modeling by a collision of shocks originated from two distinct zones of laser energy deposition.

  19. Diversity employment and recruitment sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    Effective human resources management has been identified as one of four critical success factors in the Department of Energy Strategic Plan. The Plan states relative to this factor: ``The Department seeks greater alignment of resources with agency priorities and increased diversification of the workforce, including gender, ethnicity, age, and skills. This diversification will bring new thinking and perspectives that heretofore have not had a voice in departmental decision-making.`` This Guide has been developed as a key tool to assist Department of Energy management and administrative staff in achieving Goal 2 of this critical success factor, which is to ``Ensure a diverse and talented workforce.`` There are numerous sources from which to recruit minorities, women and persons with disabilities. Applying creativity and proactive effort, using traditional and non-traditional approaches, and reaching out to various professional, academic and social communities will increase the reservoir of qualified candidates from which to make selections. In addition, outreach initiatives will undoubtedly yield further benefits such as a richer cultural understanding and diversity awareness. The resource listings presented in this Guide are offered to encourage active participation in the diversity recruitment process. This Guide contains resource listings by state for organizations in the following categories: (1) African American Recruitment Sources; (2) Asian American/Pacific Islander Recruitment Sources; (3) Hispanic Recruitment Sources; (4) Native American/Alaskan Native Recruitment Sources; (5) Persons with Disabilities Recruitment Sources; and (6) Women Recruitment Sources.

  20. International Data on Radiological Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martha Finck; Margaret Goldberg

    2010-07-01

    ABSTRACT The mission of radiological dispersal device (RDD) nuclear forensics is to identify the provenance of nuclear and radiological materials used in RDDs and to aid law enforcement in tracking nuclear materials and routes. The application of databases to radiological forensics is to match RDD source material to a source model in the database, provide guidance regarding a possible second device, and aid the FBI by providing a short list of manufacturers and distributors, and ultimately to the last legal owner of the source. The Argonne/Idaho National Laboratory RDD attribution database is a powerful technical tool in radiological forensics. The database (1267 unique vendors) includes all sealed sources and a device registered in the U.S., is complemented by data from the IAEA Catalogue, and is supported by rigorous in-lab characterization of selected sealed sources regarding physical form, radiochemical composition, and age-dating profiles. Close working relationships with global partners in the commercial sealed sources industry provide invaluable technical information and expertise in the development of signature profiles. These profiles are critical to the down-selection of potential candidates in either pre- or post- event RDD attribution. The down-selection process includes a match between an interdicted (or detonated) source and a model in the database linked to one or more manufacturers and distributors.

  1. Energy End-Use Intensities in Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Active Solar: As an energy source, energy from the sun collected and stored using mechanical pumps or fans to circulate heat-laden fluids or air between solar collectors and the...

  2. Dynamic characteristic of intense short microwave propagation in an atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yee, J.H.; Alvarez, R.A.; Mayhall, D.J.; Madsen, N.K.; Cabayan, H.S.

    1983-07-01

    The dynamic behavior of an intense microwave pulse which propagates through the atmosphere will be presented. Our theoretical results are obtained by solving Maxwell's equations, together with the electron fluid equations. Our calculations show that although large portions of the initial energy are absorbed by the electrons that are created through the avalanche process, a significant amount of energy is still able to reach the earth's surface. The amount of energy that reaches the earth's surface as a function of initial energy and wave shape after having propagated through 100 km in the atmosphere are investigated. Results for the air breakdown threshold intensity as a function of the pressure for different pulse widths and different frequencies will also be presented. In addition, we will present a comparison between the theoretical and the experimental results for the pulse shape of a short microwave pulse after it has traveled through a rectangular wave guide which contains a section of air. 23 references, 9 figures.

  3. Environmental Technology Verification of Mobile Sources Control...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Environmental Technology Verification of Mobile Sources Control Technologies Environmental Technology Verification of Mobile Sources Control Technologies 2005 Diesel Engine...

  4. Tunable infrared source employing Raman mixing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Byer, Robert L. (Stanford, CA); Herbst, Richard L. (Menlo Park, CA)

    1980-01-01

    A tunable source of infrared radiation is obtained by irradiating an assemblage of Raman active gaseous atoms or molecules with a high intensity pumping beam of coherent radiation at a pump frequency .omega..sub.p to stimulate the generation of Stokes wave energy at a Stokes frequency .omega..sub.s and to stimulate the Raman resonant mode at the Raman mode frequency .omega..sub.R within the irradiated assemblage where the pump frequency .omega..sub.p minus the Stokes frequency .omega..sub.s is equal to the Raman mode frequency .omega..sub.R. The stimulated assemblage is irradiated with a tunable source of coherent radiation at a frequency .omega..sub.i to generate the output infrared radiation of the frequency .omega..sub.0 which is related to the Raman mode frequency .omega..sub.R and the input wave .omega..sub.i by the relation .omega..sub.0 =.omega..sub.i .+-..omega..sub.R. In one embodiment the interaction between the pump wave energy .omega..sub.p and the tunable input wave energy .omega..sub.i is collinear and the ratio of the phase velocity mismatch factor .DELTA.k to the electric field exponential gain coefficient T is within the range of 0.1 to 5. In another embodiment the pump wave energy .omega..sub.p and the tunable input wave energy .omega..sub.i have velocity vectors k.sub.p and k.sub.i which cross at an angle to each other to compensate for phase velocity mismatches in the medium. In another embodiment, the Stokes wave energy .omega..sub.s is generated by pump energy .omega..sub.p in a first Raman cell and .omega..sub.s, .omega..sub.i and .omega..sub.p are combined in a second Raman mixing cell to produce the output at .omega..sub.i.

  5. Device for imaging scenes with very large ranges of intensity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deason, Vance Albert (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-11-15

    A device for imaging scenes with a very large range of intensity having a pair of polarizers, a primary lens, an attenuating mask, and an imaging device optically connected along an optical axis. Preferably, a secondary lens, positioned between the attenuating mask and the imaging device is used to focus light on the imaging device. The angle between the first polarization direction and the second polarization direction is adjustable.

  6. Energy Intensity Indicators: Methodology Downloads | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Indicators: Methodology Downloads Energy Intensity Indicators: Methodology Downloads The files listed below contain methodology documentation and related studies that support the information presented on this website. The files are available to view and/or download as Adobe Acrobat PDF files. PDF icon Energy Indicators System: Index Construction Methodology PDF icon Changing the Base Year for the Index PDF icon "A Note on the Fisher Ideal Index Decomposition for Structural Change in Energy

  7. Protection #1: Remove the Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Remove the Source Protection #1: Remove the Source The 3 Protections = Defense in Depth August 1, 2013 Waste being removed from MDA-B inside a metal building Excavation of waste from MDA-B thumbnail of Removing the source means excavating contaminants, sorting these by waste type, and transporting to a disposal area in which contaminants are contained. RELATED IMAGES http://farm8.staticflickr.com/7388/9571274521_679fe1e34a_t.jpg Enlarge http://farm4.staticflickr.com/3726/9571272211_6873a571

  8. Three chamber negative ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.; Hiskes, J.R.

    1983-11-10

    It is an object of this invention provide a negative ion source which efficiently provides a large flux of negatively ionized particles. This invention provides a volume source of negative ions which has a current density sufficient for magnetic fusion applications and has electrons suppressed from the output. It is still another object of this invention to provide a volume source of negative ions which can be electrostatically accelerated to high energies and subsequently neutralized to form a high energy neutral beam for use with a magnetically confined plasma.

  9. APS Podcasts | Advanced Photon Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Art Preservation and Connoisseurship August 14, 2007; mp3 - 1.88MB Franceska Casadio, Art Institute of Chicago: November 3, 2004 The Advanced Photon Source (videomp4) August...

  10. Next Generation Light Source Workshops

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Next Generation Light Source Workshops A series of workshops will be held in late August with the goal of refining the scientific drivers for the facility and translating the...

  11. Radiation source with shaped emission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kubiak, Glenn D.; Sweatt, William C.

    2003-05-13

    Employing a source of radiation, such as an electric discharge source, that is equipped with a capillary region configured into some predetermined shape, such as an arc or slit, can significantly improve the amount of flux delivered to the lithographic wafers while maintaining high efficiency. The source is particularly suited for photolithography systems that employs a ringfield camera. The invention permits the condenser which delivers critical illumination to the reticle to be simplified from five or more reflective elements to a total of three or four reflective elements thereby increasing condenser efficiency. It maximizes the flux delivered and maintains a high coupling efficiency. This architecture couples EUV radiation from the discharge source into a ring field lithography camera.

  12. Sponsored E-Source Membership

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Programs Service (EDRP) With EDRP, you'll discover ways to make your EE and demand-response programs more effective. With E Source EDRP you can: Identify attributes...

  13. Magnetic Materials | Advanced Photon Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Internal Magnetic Materials The Magnetic Material Group (MMG) is part of the X-ray Science Division (XSD) at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Our research focuses on the...

  14. Electrolyte salts for power sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doddapaneni, Narayan (10516 Royal Birkdale, NE., Albuquerque, NM 87111); Ingersoll, David (5824 Mimosa Pl., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87111)

    1995-01-01

    Electrolyte salts for power sources comprising salts of phenyl polysulfonic acids and phenyl polyphosphonic acids. The preferred salts are alkali and alkaline earth metal salts, most preferably lithium salts.

  15. E Source | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    use and provision of energy. Who Is E Source? Whether you're an electric or natural gas utility or a large business customer served by a utility, your problems are probably...

  16. Storage Ring Synchrotron Radiation Sources

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    srlogot.gif (19784 bytes) As of March 1, 2005 this WEB page is no longer updated. For future information about light sources go to Hyperlinks in the "RING (INST. )" column will...

  17. High-intensity double-pulse X-ray free-electron laser

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Marinelli, A.; Ratner, D.; Lutman, A. A.; Turner, J.; Welch, J.; Decker, F. J.; Loos, H.; Behrens, C.; Gilevich, S.; Miahnahri, A. A.; et al

    2015-03-06

    The X-ray free-electron laser has opened a new era for photon science, improving the X-ray brightness by ten orders of magnitude over previously available sources. Similar to an optical laser, the spectral and temporal structure of the radiation pulses can be tailored to the specific needs of many experiments by accurately manipulating the lasing medium, that is, the electron beam. Here we report the generation of mJ-level two-colour hard X-ray pulses of few femtoseconds duration with an XFEL driven by twin electron bunches at the Linac Coherent Light Source. This performance represents an improvement of over an order of magnitudemore » in peak power over state-of-the-art two-colour XFELs. The unprecedented intensity and temporal coherence of this new two-colour X-ray free-electron laser enable an entirely new set of scientific applications, ranging from X-ray pump/X-ray probe experiments to the imaging of complex biological samples with multiple wavelength anomalous dispersion.« less

  18. High-intensity double-pulse X-ray free-electron laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marinelli, A.; Ratner, D.; Lutman, A. A.; Turner, J.; Welch, J.; Decker, F. J.; Loos, H.; Behrens, C.; Gilevich, S.; Miahnahri, A. A.; Vetter, S.; Maxwell, T. J.; Ding, Y.; Coffee, R.; Wakatsuki, S.; Huang, Z.

    2015-03-06

    The X-ray free-electron laser has opened a new era for photon science, improving the X-ray brightness by ten orders of magnitude over previously available sources. Similar to an optical laser, the spectral and temporal structure of the radiation pulses can be tailored to the specific needs of many experiments by accurately manipulating the lasing medium, that is, the electron beam. Here we report the generation of mJ-level two-colour hard X-ray pulses of few femtoseconds duration with an XFEL driven by twin electron bunches at the Linac Coherent Light Source. This performance represents an improvement of over an order of magnitude in peak power over state-of-the-art two-colour XFELs. The unprecedented intensity and temporal coherence of this new two-colour X-ray free-electron laser enable an entirely new set of scientific applications, ranging from X-ray pump/X-ray probe experiments to the imaging of complex biological samples with multiple wavelength anomalous dispersion.

  19. ARM - Sources of Atmospheric Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sources of Atmospheric Carbon Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Sources of Atmospheric Carbon Atmospheric carbon represented a steady state system, where influx equaled outflow, before the Industrial Revolution. Currently, it is no longer a steady state system because the

  20. Energy Sources | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Sources Energy Sources December 17, 2015 Top 5 Interactives and Maps of 2015 From rapidly rising renewables to carbon emission comparisons, these powerful visual aids illustrate the biggest energy stories of 2015. August 21, 2015 This gigantic animated globe will soon take environmental awareness to a whole new level! The National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA's) Science On a Sphere, like this one at their headquarters in Maryland, will soon feature new energy datasets to

  1. Crystallographic data processing for free-electron laser sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, Thomas A. Barty, Anton; Stellato, Francesco; Holton, James M.; Kirian, Richard A.; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Chapman, Henry N.

    2013-07-01

    A processing pipeline for diffraction data acquired using the serial crystallography methodology with a free-electron laser source is described with reference to the crystallographic analysis suite CrystFEL and the pre-processing program Cheetah. A processing pipeline for diffraction data acquired using the serial crystallography methodology with a free-electron laser source is described with reference to the crystallographic analysis suite CrystFEL and the pre-processing program Cheetah. A detailed analysis of the nature and impact of indexing ambiguities is presented. Simulations of the Monte Carlo integration scheme, which accounts for the partially recorded nature of the diffraction intensities, are presented and show that the integration of partial reflections could be made to converge more quickly if the bandwidth of the X-rays were to be increased by a small amount or if a slight convergence angle were introduced into the incident beam.

  2. 2014 call for NERSC's Data Intensive Computing Pilot Program Due December

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    10 NERSC's Data Intensive Computing Pilot Program 2014 call for NERSC's Data Intensive Computing Pilot Program Due December 10 November 18, 2013 by Francesca Verdier NERSC's Data Intensive Computing Pilot Program is now open for its second round of allocations to projects in data intensive science. This pilot aims to support and enable scientists to tackle their most demanding data intensive challenges. Selected projects will be piloting new methods and technologies targeting data

  3. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Fang Zheng (Oak Ridge, TN); Lai, Jih-Sheng (Knoxville, TN)

    1997-01-01

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations.

  4. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Fang Zheng; Lai, Jih-Sheng

    2001-04-03

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations.

  5. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Fang Zheng (Knoxville, TN); Lai, Jih-Sheng (Blacksburg, VA)

    2002-01-01

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations.

  6. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with separate DC sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, F.Z.; Lai, J.S.

    1997-06-24

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations. 15 figs.

  7. Ultra-broadband 2D electronic spectroscopy of carotenoid-bacteriochlorophyll interactions in the LH1 complex of a purple bacterium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maiuri, Margherita; Rhault, Julien; Polli, Dario; Cerullo, Giulio; Carey, Anne-Marie; Hacking, Kirsty; Cogdell, Richard J.; Garavelli, Marco; Ler, Larry

    2015-06-07

    We investigate the excitation energy transfer (EET) pathways in the photosynthetic light harvesting 1 (LH1) complex of purple bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum with ultra-broadband two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2DES). We employ a 2DES apparatus in the partially collinear geometry, using a passive birefringent interferometer to generate the phase-locked pump pulse pair. This scheme easily lends itself to two-color operation, by coupling a sub-10 fs visible pulse with a sub-15-fs near-infrared pulse. This unique pulse combination allows us to simultaneously track with extremely high temporal resolution both the dynamics of the photoexcited carotenoid spirilloxanthin (Spx) in the visible range and the EET between the Spx and the B890 bacterio-chlorophyll (BChl), whose Q{sub x} and Q{sub y} transitions peak at 585 and 881 nm, respectively, in the near-infrared. Global analysis of the one-color and two-color 2DES maps unravels different relaxation mechanisms in the LH1 complex: (i) the initial events of the internal conversion process within the Spx, (ii) the parallel EET from the first bright state S{sub 2} of the Spx towards the Q{sub x} state of the B890, and (iii) the internal conversion from Q{sub x} to Q{sub y} within the B890.

  8. Fire Intensity Data for Validation of the Radiative Transfer Equation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanchat, Thomas K.; Jernigan, Dann A.

    2016-01-01

    A set of experiments and test data are outlined in this report that provides radiation intensity data for the validation of models for the radiative transfer equation. The experiments were performed with lightly-sooting liquid hydrocarbon fuels that yielded fully turbulent fires 2 m diameter). In addition, supplemental measurements of air flow and temperature, fuel temperature and burn rate, and flame surface emissive power, wall heat, and flame height and width provide a complete set of boundary condition data needed for validation of models used in fire simulations.

  9. Intense transient magnetic-field generation by laser plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benjamin, R.F.

    1981-08-18

    In a laser system, the return current of a laser generated plasma is conducted near a target to subject that target to the magnetic field thereof. In alternate embodiments the target may be either a small non-fusion object for testing under the magnetic field or a laser-fusion pellet. In the laser-fusion embodiment, the laser-fusion pellet is irradiated during the return current flow and the intense transient magnetic field is used to control the hot electrons thereof to hinder them from striking and heating the core of the irradiated laser-fusion pellet.

  10. Fermilab | Science at Fermilab | Experiments & Projects | Intensity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Frontier | ArgoNeuT ArgoNeuT ArgoNeut detector at Proton Assembly Building Intensity Frontier ArgoNeuT The Argon Neutrino Teststand or ArgoNeuT detector, nicknamed for Jason and the Argonauts of Greek mythology, is a liquid argon neutrino detector at Fermilab. Argon is a noble, non-toxic element that in its gaseous form constitutes about 1 percent of air. It exists as a colorless liquid only in the narrow temperature range of minus 186 to minus 189 degrees Celsius. Neutrinos passing through

  11. Joint Facilities User Forum on Data Intensive Computing Lessons Learned

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    User Forum on Data Intensive Computing Lessons Learned - NERSC/JGI Partnership Kjiersten Fagnan, NERSC User Services/JGI --- 1 --- June 1 7, 2 013 Outline * Overview o f N ERSC/JGI P artnership - DOE J GI b ackground - Team o verview - Compute r esources * CompuBng S trategic P lan - JGI G oals - NERSC G oals * Lessons Learned --- 2 --- DOE Joint Genome Institute 3 DOE JGI, Serving as a genomic user facility in support of the DOE missions: * Walnut Creek, CA facility opened in 1999 * 250

  12. Assessing Internet energy intensity: A review of methods and results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coroama, Vlad C.; Hilty, Lorenz M.; Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Lerchenfeldstr. 5, 9014 St. Gallen; Centre for Sustainable Communications, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Lindstedtsvgen 5, 100 44 Stockholm

    2014-02-15

    Assessing the average energy intensity of Internet transmissions is a complex task that has been a controversial subject of discussion. Estimates published over the last decade diverge by up to four orders of magnitude from 0.0064 kilowatt-hours per gigabyte (kWh/GB) to 136 kWh/GB. This article presents a review of the methodological approaches used so far in such assessments: i) topdown analyses based on estimates of the overall Internet energy consumption and the overall Internet traffic, whereby average energy intensity is calculated by dividing energy by traffic for a given period of time, ii) model-based approaches that model all components needed to sustain an amount of Internet traffic, and iii) bottomup approaches based on case studies and generalization of the results. Our analysis of the existing studies shows that the large spread of results is mainly caused by two factors: a) the year of reference of the analysis, which has significant influence due to efficiency gains in electronic equipment, and b) whether end devices such as personal computers or servers are included within the system boundary or not. For an overall assessment of the energy needed to perform a specific task involving the Internet, it is necessary to account for the types of end devices needed for the task, while the energy needed for data transmission can be added based on a generic estimate of Internet energy intensity for a given year. Separating the Internet as a data transmission system from the end devices leads to more accurate models and to results that are more informative for decision makers, because end devices and the networking equipment of the Internet usually belong to different spheres of control. -- Highlights: Assessments of the energy intensity of the Internet differ by a factor of 20,000. We review topdown, model-based, and bottomup estimates from literature. Main divergence factors are the year studied and the inclusion of end devices. We argue against extending the Internet system boundary beyond data transmission. Decision-makers need data that differentiates between end devices and transmission.

  13. Miniature x-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA); Bell, Perry M. (Tracy, CA); Robinson, Ronald B. (Modesto, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A miniature x-ray source utilizing a hot filament cathode. The source has a millimeter scale size and is capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature source consists of a compact vacuum tube assembly containing the hot filament cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the cathode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connector for initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is fabricated from highly x-ray transparent materials, such as sapphire, diamond, or boron nitride.

  14. Miniature x-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA); Stone, Gary F. (Livermore, CA); Bell, Perry M. (Tracy, CA); Robinson, Ronald B. (Modesto, CA); Chornenky, Victor I. (Minnetonka, MN)

    2002-01-01

    A miniature x-ray source capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature x-ray source comprises a compact vacuum tube assembly containing a cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the anode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connection for an initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is highly x-ray transparent and made, for example, from boron nitride. The compact size and potential for remote operation allows the x-ray source, for example, to be placed adjacent to a material sample undergoing analysis or in proximity to the region to be treated for medical applications.

  15. Compact portable electric power sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fry, D.N.; Holcomb, D.E.; Munro, J.K.; Oakes, L.C.; Matson, M.J.

    1997-02-01

    This report provides an overview of recent advances in portable electric power source (PEPS) technology and an assessment of emerging PEPS technologies that may meet US Special Operations Command`s (SOCOM) needs in the next 1--2- and 3--5-year time frames. The assessment was performed through a literature search and interviews with experts in various laboratories and companies. Nineteen PEPS technologies were reviewed and characterized as (1) PEPSs that meet SOCOM requirements; (2) PEPSs that could fulfill requirements for special field conditions and locations; (3) potentially high-payoff sources that require additional R and D; and (4) sources unlikely to meet present SOCOM requirements. 6 figs., 10 tabs.

  16. Pulsed, atmospheric pressure plasma source for emission spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duan, Yixiang; Jin, Zhe; Su, Yongxuan

    2004-05-11

    A low-power, plasma source-based, portable molecular light emission generator/detector employing an atmospheric pressure pulsed-plasma for molecular fragmentation and excitation is described. The average power required for the operation of the plasma is between 0.02 W and 5 W. The features of the optical emission spectra obtained with the pulsed plasma source are significantly different from those obtained with direct current (dc) discharge higher power; for example, strong CH emission at 431.2 nm which is only weakly observed with dc plasma sources was observed, and the intense CN emission observed at 383-388 nm using dc plasma sources was weak in most cases. Strong CN emission was only observed using the present apparatus when compounds containing nitrogen, such as aniline were employed as samples. The present apparatus detects dimethylsulfoxide at 200 ppb using helium as the plasma gas by observing the emission band of the CH radical. When coupled with a gas chromatograph for separating components present in a sample to be analyzed, the present invention provides an apparatus for detecting the arrival of a particular component in the sample at the end of the chromatographic column and the identity thereof.

  17. Handling radiation generated during an ion source commissioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ren, H. T.; Zhao, J. Peng, S. X.; Lu, P. N.; Zhou, Q. F.; Xu, Y.; Chen, J.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, A. L.; Guo, Z. Y.; Chen, J. E.

    2014-02-15

    Radiation is an important issue, which should be carefully treated during the design and commissioning of an ion source. Measurements show that X-rays are generated around the ceramics column of an extraction system when the source is powered up to 30 kV. The X-ray dose increases greatly when a beam is extracted. Inserting the ceramic column into a metal vacuum box is a good way to block X-ray emission for those cases. Moreover, this makes the online test of an intense H{sup +} ion beam with energy up to 100 keV possible. However, for deuteron ion source commissioning, neutron and gamma-ray radiation become a serious topic. In this paper, we will describe the design of the extraction system and the radiation doses of neutrons and gamma-rays measured at different D{sup +} beam energy during our 2.45 GHz deuteron electron cyclotron resonance ion source commissioning for PKUNIFTY (PeKing University Neutron Imaging FaciliTY) project at Peking University.

  18. A high-performance electron beam ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alessi,J.; Beebe, E.; Bellavia, S.; Gould, O.; Kponou, A.; Lambiase, R.; Lockey, R.; McCafferty, D.; Okamura, M.; Pikin, A. I.; Raparia, D.; Ritter, J.; Syndstrup, L.

    2009-06-08

    At Brookhaven National Laboratory, a high current Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) has been developed as part of a new preinjector that is under construction to replace the Tandem Van de Graaffs as the heavy ion preinjector for the RHIC and NASA experimental programs. This preinjector will produce milliampere-level currents of essentially any ion species, with q/A {ge} 1/6, in short pulses, for injection into the Booster synchrotron. In order to produce the required intensities, this EBIS uses a 10A electron gun, and an electron collector designed to handle 300 kW of pulsed electron beam power. The EBIS trap region is 1.5 m long, inside a 5T, 2m long, 8-inch bore superconducting solenoid. The source is designed to switch ion species on a pulse-to-pulse basis, at a 5 Hz repetition rate. Singly-charged ions of the appropriate species, produced external to the EBIS, are injected into the trap and confined until the desired charge state is reached via stepwise ionization by the electron beam. Ions are then extracted and matched into an RFQ, followed by a short IH Linac, for acceleration to 2 MeV/A, prior to injection into the Booster synchrotron. An overview of the preinjector is presented, along with experimental results from the prototype EBIS, where all essential requirements have already been demonstrated. Design features and status of construction of the final high intensity EBIS is also be presented.

  19. A Hybrid Ion Source Concept for a Proton Driver Front End

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, R.; Luft, P.; Regis, M.; Wallig, J.; Monroy, M.; Ratti, A.; Syversrud, D.; Welton, R.; Anderson, D.

    2005-06-08

    A novel concept for creating intense beams of negative hydrogen ion beams has been devised, and first steps towards its realization have been taken. In this approach, an ECR plasma generator operating at 2.45 GHz frequency is utilized as a plasma cathode, and electrons are extracted instead of ions and injected at moderate energy into an SNS-type multi-cusp H- ion source. This secondary source is then driven by chopped d. c. power, rather than rf power, but does not need filaments which are the cause for the rather short lifetime of conventional H- sources. The development of this ion source is primarily aimed at the future beam-power goal of 3 MW for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) that will be pursued after the start of SNS operations. The first two phases of this development effort have been successfully passed: assembly of a test stand and verification of the performance of an rf-driven SNS ion-source prototype and extraction of electrons with more than 200 mA current from a 2.45-GHz ECR ion source obtained on loan from Argonne National Laboratory. An electron-extraction chamber that joins these ECR and H- sources has been fabricated, and the next goal is the demonstration of actual H- ion production by this novel, hybrid ion source. This paper describes the source principle and design in detail, reports on the current status of the development work, and gives an outlook on future lines of development.

  20. SOURCE PHENOMENOLOGY EXPERIMENTS IN ARIZONA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jessie L. Bonner; Brian Stump; Mark Leidig; Heather Hooper; Xiaoning Yang; Rongmao Zhou; Tae Sung Kim; William R. Walter; Aaron Velasco; Chris Hayward; Diane Baker; C. L. Edwards; Steven Harder; Travis Glenn; Cleat Zeiler; James Britton; James F. Lewkowicz

    2005-09-30

    The Arizona Source Phenomenology Experiments (SPE) have resulted in an important dataset for the nuclear monitoring community. The 19 dedicated single-fired explosions and multiple delay-fired mining explosions were recorded by one of the most densely instrumented accelerometer and seismometer arrays ever fielded, and the data have already proven useful in quantifying confinement and excitation effects for the sources. It is very interesting to note that we have observed differences in the phenomenology of these two series of explosions resulting from the differences between the relatively slow (limestone) and fast (granodiorite) media. We observed differences at the two SPE sites in the way the rock failed during the explosions, how the S-waves were generated, and the amplitude behavior as a function of confinement. Our consortium's goal is to use the synergy of the multiple datasets collected during this experiment to unravel the phenomenological differences between the two emplacement media. The data suggest that the main difference between single-fired chemical and delay-fired mining explosion seismograms at regional distances is the increased surface wave energy for the latter source type. The effect of the delay-firing is to decrease the high-frequency P-wave amplitudes while increasing the surface wave energy because of the longer source duration and spall components. The results suggest that the single-fired explosions are surrogates for nuclear explosions in higher frequency bands (e.g., 6-8 Hz Pg/Lg discriminants). We have shown that the SPE shots, together with the mining explosions, are efficient sources of S-wave energy, and our next research stage is to postulate the possible sources contributing to the shear-wave energy.

  1. Optical Fiber High Temperature Sensor Instrumentation for Energy Intensive Industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, Kristie L.; Wang, Anbo; Pickrell, Gary R.

    2006-11-14

    This report summarizes technical progress during the program Optical Fiber High Temperature Sensor Instrumentation for Energy Intensive Industries, performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The objective of this program was to use technology recently invented at Virginia Tech to develop and demonstrate the application of self-calibrating optical fiber temperature and pressure sensors to several key energy-intensive industries where conventional, commercially available sensors exhibit greatly abbreviated lifetimes due primarily to environmental degradation. A number of significant technologies were developed under this program, including a laser bonded silica high temperature fiber sensor with a high temperature capability up to 700C and a frequency response up to 150 kHz, the worlds smallest fiber Fabry-Perot high temperature pressure sensor (125 x 20 ?m) with 700C capability, UV-induced intrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric sensors for distributed measurement, a single crystal sapphire fiber-based sensor with a temperature capability up to 1600C. These technologies have been well demonstrated and laboratory tested. Our work plan included conducting major field tests of these technologies at EPRI, Corning, Pratt & Whitney, and Global Energy; field validation of the technology is critical to ensuring its usefulness to U.S. industries. Unfortunately, due to budget cuts, DOE was unable to follow through with its funding commitment to support Energy Efficiency Science Initiative projects and this final phase was eliminated.

  2. The interaction of intense subpicosecond laser pulses with underdense plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coverdale, C.A.

    1995-05-11

    Laser-plasma interactions have been of interest for many years not only from a basic physics standpoint, but also for their relevance to numerous applications. Advances in laser technology in recent years have resulted in compact laser systems capable of generating (psec), 10{sup 16} W/cm{sup 2} laser pulses. These lasers have provided a new regime in which to study laser-plasma interactions, a regime characterized by L{sub plasma} {ge} 2L{sub Rayleigh} > c{tau}. The goal of this dissertation is to experimentally characterize the interaction of a short pulse, high intensity laser with an underdense plasma (n{sub o} {le} 0.05n{sub cr}). Specifically, the parametric instability known as stimulated Raman scatter (SRS) is investigated to determine its behavior when driven by a short, intense laser pulse. Both the forward Raman scatter instability and backscattered Raman instability are studied. The coupled partial differential equations which describe the growth of SRS are reviewed and solved for typical experimental laser and plasma parameters. This solution shows the growth of the waves (electron plasma and scattered light) generated via stimulated Raman scatter. The dispersion relation is also derived and solved for experimentally accessible parameters. The solution of the dispersion relation is used to predict where (in k-space) and at what frequency (in {omega}-space) the instability will grow. Both the nonrelativistic and relativistic regimes of the instability are considered.

  3. Correlating sampling and intensity statistics in nanoparticle diffraction experiments

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Öztürk, Hande; Yan, Hanfei; Hill, John P.; Noyan, I. Cevdet

    2015-07-28

    It is shown in a previous article [Öztürk, Yan, Hill & Noyan (2014).J. Appl. Cryst.47, 1016–1025] that the sampling statistics of diffracting particle populations within a polycrystalline ensemble depended on the size of the constituent crystallites: broad X-ray peak breadths enabled some nano-sized particles to contribute more than one diffraction spot to Debye–Scherrer rings. Here it is shown that the equations proposed by Alexander, Klug & Kummer [J. Appl. Phys.(1948),19, 742–753] (AKK) to link diffracting particle and diffracted intensity statistics are not applicable if the constituent crystallites of the powder are below 10 nm. In this size range, (i) themore » one-to-one correspondence between diffracting particles and Laue spots assumed in the AKK analysis is not satisfied, and (ii) the crystallographic correlation between Laue spots originating from the same grain invalidates the assumption that all diffracting plane normals are randomly oriented and uncorrelated. Such correlation produces unexpected results in the selection of diffracting grains. For example, three or more Laue spots from a given grain for a particular reflection can only be observed at certain wavelengths. In addition, correcting the diffracted intensity values by the traditional Lorentz term, 1/cos θ, to compensate for the variation of particles sampled within a reflection band does not maintain fidelity to the number of poles contributing to the diffracted signal. A new term, cos θB/cos θ, corrects this problem.« less

  4. Sensor/source electrometer circuit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, W.J.

    1991-12-31

    A multiple decade electrometer circuit is claimed which can measure low input currents or act as a current source and is comprised of a microprocessor controlled digital to analog converters to derive individual decades. A plurality of decades are created by multiple D-A voltage sources which generate electrometer currents through scaled resistors. After a first series of decades of current are successively produced, the converters are 10 cycled to generate current through new resistors scaled to produce another series decades of current. In this manner, the electrometer circuit generates or senses a plurality of decades of current without significant scale change.

  5. Consistency in the Sum Frequency Generation Intensity and Phase Vibrational Spectra of the Air/Neat Water Interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Ranran; Guo, Yuan; Lu, Rong; Velarde Ruiz Esparza, Luis A.; Wang, Hongfei

    2011-06-16

    Tremendous progresses have been made in quantitative understanding and interpretation of the hydrogen bonding and ordering structure at the air/water interface since the first sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS) measurement on the neat air/water interface by Q. Du et al. in 1993 (PRL, 70, 2312-2316, 1993.). However, there are still disagreements and controversies on the consistency between the different experiment measurements and the theoretical computational results. One critical problem lies in the inconsistency between the SFG-VS intensity measurements and the recently developed SFG-VS phase spectra measurements of the neat air/water interface, which has inspired various theoretical efforts trying to understand them. In this report, the reliability of the SFG-VS intensity spectra of the neat air/water interface is to be quantitatively examined, and the sources of possible inaccuracies in the SFG-VS phase spectral measurement is to be discussed based on the non-resonant SHG phase measurement results. The conclusion is that the SFG-VS intensity spectra data from different laboratories are now quantitatively converging and in agreement with each other, and the possible inaccuracies and inconsistencies in the SFG-VS phase spectra measurements need to be carefully examined against the properly corrected phase standard.

  6. Effects of q-profile structure on turbulence spreading: A fluctuation intensity transport analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yi, S.; Kwon, J. M.; Diamond, P. H.; Hahm, T. S.

    2014-09-15

    This paper studies effects of q-profile structure on turbulence spreading. It reports results of numerical experiments using global gyrokinetic simulations. We examine propagation of turbulence, triggered by an identical linear instability in a source region, into an adjacent, linearly stable region with variable q-profile. The numerical experiments are designed so as to separate the physics of turbulence spreading from that of linear stability. The strength of turbulence spreading is measured by the penetration depth of turbulence. Dynamics of spreading are elucidated by fluctuation intensity balance analysis, using a model intensity evolution equation which retains nonlinear diffusion and damping, and linear growth. It is found that turbulence spreading is strongly affected by magnetic shear s, but is hardly altered by the safety factor q itself. There is an optimal range of modest magnetic shear which maximizes turbulence spreading. For high to modest shear values, the spreading is enhanced by the increase of the mode correlation length with decreasing magnetic shear. However, the efficiency of spreading drops for sufficiently low magnetic shear even though the mode correlation length is comparable to that for the case of optimal magnetic shear. The reduction of spreading is attributed to the increase in time required for the requisite nonlinear mode-mode interactions. The effect of increased interaction time dominates that of increased mode correlation length. Our findings of the reduction of spreading and the increase in interaction time at weak magnetic shear are consistent with the well-known benefit of weak or reversed magnetic shear for core confinement enhancement. Weak shear is shown to promote locality, as well as stability.

  7. Total Absorption Gamma-ray Spectrometer (TAGS) Intensity Distributions from INL's Gamma-Ray Spectrometry Center

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Greenwood, R. E.

    A 252Cf fission-product source and the INL on-line isotope separator were used to supply isotope-separated fission-product nuclides to a total absorption -ray spectrometer. This spectrometer consisted of a large (25.4-cm diameter x 30.5-cm long) NaI(Tl) detector with a 20.3-cm deep axial well in which is placed a 300-mm2 x 1.0-mm Si detector. The spectra from the NaI(Tl) detector are collected both in the singles mode and in coincidence with the B-events detected in the Si detector. Ideally, this detector would sum all the energy of the B- rays in each cascade following the population of daughter level by B- decay, so that the event could be directly associated with a particular daughter level. However, there are losses of energy from attenuation of the rays before they reach the detector, transmission of rays through the detector, escape of secondary photons from Compton scattering, escape of rays through the detector well, internal conversion, etc., and the measured spectra are thus more complicated than the ideal case and the analysis is more complex. Analysis methods have been developed to simulate all of these processes and thus provide a direct measure of the B- intensity distribution as a function of the excitation energy in the daughter nucleus. These data yield more accurate information on the B- distribution than conventional decay-scheme studies for complex decay schemes with large decay energies, because in the latter there are generally many unobserved and observed but unplaced rays. The TAGS data have been analyzed and published [R. E. Greenwood et al., Nucl Instr. and metho. A390(1997)] for 40 fission product-nuclides to determine the B- intensity distributions. [Copied from the TAGS page at http://www.inl.gov/gammaray/spectrometry/tags.shtml]. Those values are listed on this page for quick reference.

  8. Nonlinear increase of X-ray intensities from thin foils irradiated with a 200 TW femtosecond laser

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Faenov, A. Ya.; Colgan, J.; Hansen, S. B.; Zhidkov, A.; Pikuz, T. A.; Nishiuchi, M.; Pikuz, S. A.; Skobelev, I. Yu.; Abdallah, J.; Sakaki, H.; et al

    2015-09-02

    We report, for the first time, that the energy of femtosecond optical laser pulses, E, with relativistic intensities I > 1021 W/cm2 is efficiently converted to X-ray radiation, which is emitted by “hot” electron component in collision-less processes and heats the solid density plasma periphery. As shown by direct high-resolution spectroscopic measurements X-ray radiation from plasma periphery exhibits unusual non-linear growth ~E4–5 of its power. The non-linear power growth occurs far earlier than the known regime when the radiation reaction dominates particle motion (RDR). Nevertheless, the radiation is shown to dominate the kinetics of the plasma periphery, changing in thismore » regime (now labeled RDKR) the physical picture of the laser plasma interaction. Although in the experiments reported here we demonstrated by observation of KK hollow ions that X-ray intensities in the keV range exceeds ~1017 W/cm2, there is no theoretical limit of the radiation power. Therefore, such powerful X-ray sources can produce and probe exotic material states with high densities and multiple inner-shell electron excitations even for higher Z elements. As a result, femtosecond laser-produced plasmas may thus provide unique ultra-bright X-ray sources, for future studies of matter in extreme conditions, material science studies, and radiography of biological systems.« less

  9. Nonlinear increase of X-ray intensities from thin foils irradiated with a 200 TW femtosecond laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faenov, A. Ya.; Colgan, J.; Hansen, S. B.; Zhidkov, A.; Pikuz, T. A.; Nishiuchi, M.; Pikuz, S. A.; Skobelev, I. Yu.; Abdallah, J.; Sakaki, H.; Sagisaka, A.; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Ogura, K.; Fukuda, Y.; Kanasaki, M.; Hasegawa, N.; Nishikino, M.; Kando, M.; Watanabe, Y.; Kawachi, T.; Masuda, S.; Hosokai, T.; Kodama, R.; Kondo, K.

    2015-09-02

    We report, for the first time, that the energy of femtosecond optical laser pulses, E, with relativistic intensities I > 1021 W/cm2 is efficiently converted to X-ray radiation, which is emitted by hot electron component in collision-less processes and heats the solid density plasma periphery. As shown by direct high-resolution spectroscopic measurements X-ray radiation from plasma periphery exhibits unusual non-linear growth ~E45 of its power. The non-linear power growth occurs far earlier than the known regime when the radiation reaction dominates particle motion (RDR). Nevertheless, the radiation is shown to dominate the kinetics of the plasma periphery, changing in this regime (now labeled RDKR) the physical picture of the laser plasma interaction. Although in the experiments reported here we demonstrated by observation of KK hollow ions that X-ray intensities in the keV range exceeds ~1017 W/cm2, there is no theoretical limit of the radiation power. Therefore, such powerful X-ray sources can produce and probe exotic material states with high densities and multiple inner-shell electron excitations even for higher Z elements. As a result, femtosecond laser-produced plasmas may thus provide unique ultra-bright X-ray sources, for future studies of matter in extreme conditions, material science studies, and radiography of biological systems.

  10. National Synchrotron Light Source II

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Steve Dierker

    2010-01-08

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory is a proposed new state-of-the-art medium energy storage ring designed to deliver world-leading brightness and flux with top-off operation

  11. Reporting of Radioactive Sealed Sources

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2008-02-27

    To establish U.S. Department of Energy requirements for inventory reporting, transaction reporting, verification of reporting, and assign responsibilities for reporting of radioactive sealed sources. DOE N 251.86 extends this notice until 5-6-11. No cancellations. Canceled by DOE O 231.1B

  12. Property:HeatSource | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    HeatSource Jump to: navigation, search Property Name HeatSource Property Type String Description A description of the resource heat source in the geothermal area. Describes what...

  13. Introduction to APS | Advanced Photon Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Introduction to APS What is the APS? What is the APS? The Advanced Photon Source is a synchrotron light source that produces high-energy, high-brightness x-ray beams. The source is...

  14. EPA Source Reduction Assistance Grant Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is accepting applications for the Source Reduction Assistance Grant Program to support pollution prevention/source reduction and/or resource conservation projects that reduce or eliminate pollution at the source.

  15. Fundamental physics at the intensity frontier. Report of the workshop held December 2011 in Rockville, MD.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hewett, J.L.; Weerts, H.; Brock, R.; Butler, J.N.; Casey, B.C.K.; Lu, Z.T.; Wagner, C.E.M.; Dietrich, M.R.; Djurcic, Z.; Goodman, M.; Green, J.P.; Holt, R.J.; Mueller, P.; Paley, J.; Reimer, P.; Singh, J.; Upadhye, A.

    2012-06-05

    Particle physics aims to understand the universe around us. The Standard Model of particle physics describes the basic structure of matter and forces, to the extent we have been able to probe thus far. However, it leaves some big questions unanswered. Some are within the Standard Model itself, such as why there are so many fundamental particles and why they have different masses. In other cases, the Standard Model simply fails to explain some phenomena, such as the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry in the universe, the existence of dark matter and dark energy, and the mechanism that reconciles gravity with quantum mechanics. These gaps lead us to conclude that the universe must contain new and unexplored elements of Nature. Most of particle and nuclear physics is directed towards discovering and understanding these new laws of physics. These questions are best pursued with a variety of approaches, rather than with a single experiment or technique. Particle physics uses three basic approaches, often characterized as exploration along the cosmic, energy, and intensity frontiers. Each employs different tools and techniques, but they ultimately address the same fundamental questions. This allows a multi-pronged approach where attacking basic questions from different angles furthers knowledge and provides deeper answers, so that the whole is more than a sum of the parts. A coherent picture or underlying theoretical model can more easily emerge, to be proven correct or not. The intensity frontier explores fundamental physics with intense sources and ultra-sensitive, sometimes massive detectors. It encompasses searches for extremely rare processes and for tiny deviations from Standard Model expectations. Intensity frontier experiments use precision measurements to probe quantum effects. They typically investigate very large energy scales, even higher than the kinematic reach of high energy particle accelerators. The science addresses basic questions, such as: Are there new sources of CP violation? Is there CP violation in the leptonic sector? Are neutrinos their own antiparticles? Do the forces unify? Is there a weakly coupled hidden sector that is related to dark matter? Do new symmetries exist at very high energy scales? To identify the most compelling science opportunities in this area, the workshop Fundamental Physics at the Intensity Frontier was held in December 2011, sponsored by the Office of High Energy Physics in the US Department of Energy Office of Science. Participants investigated the most promising experiments to exploit these opportunities and described the knowledge that can be gained from such a program. The workshop generated much interest in the community, as witnessed by the large and energetic participation by a broad spectrum of scientists. This document chronicles the activities of the workshop, with contributions by more than 450 authors. The workshop organized the intensity frontier science program along six topics that formed the basis for working groups: experiments that probe (i) heavy quarks, (ii) charged leptons, (iii) neutrinos, (iv) proton decay, (v) light, weakly interacting particles, and (vi) nucleons, nuclei, and atoms. The conveners for each working group included an experimenter and a theorist working in the field and an observer from the community at large. The working groups began their efforts well in advance of the workshop, holding regular meetings and soliciting written contributions. Specific avenues of exploration were identified by each working group. Experiments that study rare strange, charm, and bottom meson decays provide a broad program of measurements that are sensitive to new interactions. Charged leptons, particularly muons and taus, provide a precise probe for new physics because the Standard Model predictions for their properties are very accurate. Research at the intensity frontier can reveal CP violation in the lepton sector, and elucidate whether neutrinos are their own antiparticles. A very weakly coupled hidden-sector that may comprise the dark matter in the universe could be discovered. The search for proton decay can probe the unification of the forces with unprecedented reach and test sacrosanct symmetries to very high scales. Detecting an electric dipole moment for the neutron, or neutral atoms, could establish a clear signal for new physics, while limits on such a measurement would place severe constraints on many new theories. This workshop marked the first instance where discussion of these diverse programs was held under one roof. As a result, it was realized that this broad effort has many connections; a large degree of synergy exists between the different areas and they address similar questions. Results from one area were found to be pertinent to experiments in another domain.

  16. Miniaturized cathodic arc plasma source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anders, Andre (Albany, CA); MacGill, Robert A. (Richmond, CA)

    2003-04-15

    A cathodic arc plasma source has an anode formed of a plurality of spaced baffles which extend beyond the active cathode surface of the cathode. With the open baffle structure of the anode, most macroparticles pass through the gaps between the baffles and reflect off the baffles out of the plasma stream that enters a filter. Thus the anode not only has an electrical function but serves as a prefilter. The cathode has a small diameter, e.g. a rod of about 1/4 inch (6.25 mm) diameter. Thus the plasma source output is well localized, even with cathode spot movement which is limited in area, so that it effectively couples into a miniaturized filter. With a small area cathode, the material eroded from the cathode needs to be replaced to maintain plasma production. Therefore, the source includes a cathode advancement or feed mechanism coupled to cathode rod. The cathode also requires a cooling mechanism. The movable cathode rod is housed in a cooled metal shield or tube which serves as both a current conductor, thus reducing ohmic heat produced in the cathode, and as the heat sink for heat generated at or near the cathode. Cooling of the cathode housing tube is done by contact with coolant at a place remote from the active cathode surface. The source is operated in pulsed mode at relatively high currents, about 1 kA. The high arc current can also be used to operate the magnetic filter. A cathodic arc plasma deposition system using this source can be used for the deposition of ultrathin amorphous hard carbon (a-C) films for the magnetic storage industry.

  17. Optical reaction cell and light source for 18F! fluoride radiotracer synthesis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ferrieri, Richard A. (Patchogue, NY); Schlyer, David (Bellport, NY); Becker, Richard J. (Islip, NY)

    1998-09-15

    Apparatus for performing organic synthetic reactions, particularly no-carrier-added nucleophilic radiofluorination reactions for PET radiotracer production. The apparatus includes an optical reaction cell and a source of broadband infrared radiant energy, which permits direct coupling of the emitted radiant energy with the reaction medium to heat the reaction medium. Preferably, the apparatus includes means for focusing the emitted radiant energy into the reaction cell, and the reaction cell itself is preferably configured to reflect transmitted radiant energy back into the reaction medium to further improve the efficiency of the apparatus. The apparatus is well suited to the production of high-yield syntheses of 2-.sup.18 F!fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose. Also provided is a method for performing organic synthetic reactions, including the manufacture of .sup.18 F!-labeled compounds useful as PET radiotracers, and particularly for the preparation of 2-.sup.18 F!fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose in higher yields than previously possible.

  18. Optical reaction cell and light source for [18F] fluoride radiotracer synthesis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ferrieri, R.A.; Schlyer, D.; Becker, R.J.

    1998-09-15

    An apparatus is disclosed for performing organic synthetic reactions, particularly no-carrier-added nucleophilic radiofluorination reactions for PET radiotracer production. The apparatus includes an optical reaction cell and a source of broadband infrared radiant energy, which permits direct coupling of the emitted radiant energy with the reaction medium to heat the reaction medium. Preferably, the apparatus includes means for focusing the emitted radiant energy into the reaction cell, and the reaction cell itself is preferably configured to reflect transmitted radiant energy back into the reaction medium to further improve the efficiency of the apparatus. The apparatus is well suited to the production of high-yield syntheses of 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-2-deoxy-Dglucose. Also provided is a method for performing organic synthetic reactions, including the manufacture of [{sup 18}F]-labeled compounds useful as PET radiotracers, and particularly for the preparation of 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose in higher yields than previously possible. 4 figs.

  19. Optical reaction cell and light source for ›18F! fluoride radiotracer synthesis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ferrieri, Richard A.; Schlyer, David; Becker, Richard J.

    1998-09-15

    Apparatus for performing organic synthetic reactions, particularly no-carrier-added nucleophilic radiofluorination reactions for PET radiotracer production. The apparatus includes an optical reaction cell and a source of broadband infrared radiant energy, which permits direct coupling of the emitted radiant energy with the reaction medium to heat the reaction medium. Preferably, the apparatus includes means for focusing the emitted radiant energy into the reaction cell, and the reaction cell itself is preferably configured to reflect transmitted radiant energy back into the reaction medium to further improve the efficiency of the apparatus. The apparatus is well suited to the production of high-yield syntheses of 2-›.sup.18 F!fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose. Also provided is a method for performing organic synthetic reactions, including the manufacture of ›.sup.18 F!-labeled compounds useful as PET radiotracers, and particularly for the preparation of 2-›.sup.18 F!fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose in higher yields than previously possible.

  20. Power Sources Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sources Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Power Sources Inc. Place: Charlotte, North Carolina Sector: Biomass Product: US-based operator and developer of biomass-to-energy...