Sample records for integrated ventilation controller

  1. Development of a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Iain

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Comparative Evaluation of Ventilation Systems. ” ASHRAEChimneys for Residential Ventilation. ” AIVC 25 Conference.1995. “Controlled Ventilation Options for Builders. ” Energy

  2. Development of a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staff Scientist; Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max; Dickerhoff, Darryl

    2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this study was to develop a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller (RIVEC) to reduce the energy impact of required mechanical ventilation by 20percent, maintain or improve indoor air quality and provide demand response benefits. This represents potential energy savings of about 140 GWh of electricity and 83 million therms of natural gas as well as proportional peak savings in California. The RIVEC controller is intended to meet the 2008 Title 24 requirements for residential ventilation as well as taking into account the issues of outdoor conditions, other ventilation devices (including economizers), peak demand concerns and occupant preferences. The controller is designed to manage all the residential ventilation systems that are currently available. A key innovation in this controller is the ability to implement the concept of efficacy and intermittent ventilation which allows time shifting of ventilation. Using this approach ventilation can be shifted away from times of high cost or high outdoor pollution towards times when it is cheaper and more effective. Simulations, based on the ones used to develop the new residential ventilation requirements for the California Buildings Energy code, were used to further define the specific criteria and strategies needed for the controller. These simulations provide estimates of the energy, peak power and contaminant improvement possible for different California climates for the various ventilation systems. Results from a field test of the prototype controller corroborate the predicted performance.

  3. Development of a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Iain

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    systems such as those sold by Honeywell, and Aprilaire. Forin the world. Honeywell (http://yourhome.honeywell.com/US/Products/Ventilation/ ) Honeywell makes a line of economy

  4. Development of a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Iain

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Ventilation Center. Emmerich, S.J, Dols, W.S. , “LoopDA:8 Int. IPBSA Conf. (2003) Emmerich S.J. Nabinger, S. J. “53484. Wallace, L. A. , Emmerich, S. J. , and Howard-Reed,

  5. Meeting Residential Ventilation Standards Through Dynamic Control of Ventilation Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Max H.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2007. Review of residential ventilation technologies. HVAC&Rof intermittent ventilation for providing acceptable indoorResidential Integrated Ventilation Controller. Energy

  6. Demand Controlled Ventilation and Classroom Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, William J.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    use of demand control ventilation systems in general officedemand controlled  ventilation systems, Dennis DiBartolomeo the demand controlled ventilation system increased the rate 

  7. Demand Controlled Ventilation and Classroom Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, William J.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2 -based demand controlled ventilation using ASHRAE Standardoptimizing energy use and ventilation. ASHRAE TransactionsWJ, Grimsrud DT, et al. 2011. Ventilation rates and health:

  8. DEMAND CONTROLLED VENTILATION AND CLASSROOM VENTILATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, William J.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for demand controlled ventilation in commercial buildings.The energy costs of classroom ventilation and some financialEstimating potential benefits of increased ventilation

  9. Impact of Independently Controlling Ventilation Rate per Person and Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Impact of Independently Controlling Ventilation Rate per Person and Ventilation Rate per Floor Impact of Independently Controlling Ventilation Rate per Person and Ventilation Rate per Floor Area

  10. Integrated Demand Controlled Ventilation for Single Duct VAV System with Conference Rooms 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Y.; Liu, M.; Cho, Y.; Xu, K.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    INTEGRATED DEMAND CONTROLLED VENTILATION FOR SINGLE DUCT VAV SYSTEM WITH CONFERENCE ROOMS Yuebin Yu Mingsheng Liu YoungHum Cho Ke Xu Graduate Student Professor of Architectural Engineering, PhD, PE Graduate.... The total OA intake of IDCV is obtained with the occupancy time ratio considered. The real time distribution of the occupancy and un-occupancy doesn’t much influence the overall calculation. With the amount of OA intake and the local BIN data...

  11. Meeting Residential Ventilation Standards Through Dynamic Control of Ventilation Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Existing ventilation standards, including American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 62.2, specify continuous operation of a defined mechanical ventilation system to provide minimum ventilation, with time-based intermittent operation as an option. This requirement ignores several factors and concerns including: other equipment such as household exhaust fans that might incidentally provide ventilation, negative impacts of ventilation when outdoor pollutant levels are high, the importance of minimizing energy use particularly during times of peak electricity demand, and how the energy used to condition air as part of ventilation system operation changes with outdoor conditions. Dynamic control of ventilation systems can provide ventilation equivalent to or better than what is required by standards while minimizing energy costs and can also add value by shifting load during peak times and reducing intake of outdoor air contaminants. This article describes the logic that enables dynamic control of whole-house ventilation systems to meet the intent of ventilation standards and demonstrates the dynamic ventilation system control concept through simulations and field tests of the Residential Integrated Ventilation-Energy Controller (RIVEC).

  12. DEMAND CONTROLLED VENTILATION AND CLASSROOM VENTILATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, William J.; Mendell, Mark J.; Davies, Molly; Eliseeva, Ekaterina; Faulkner, David; Hong, Tienzen; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2014-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes a research effort on demand controlled ventilation and classroom ventilation. The research on demand controlled ventilation included field studies and building energy modeling. Major findings included: ? The single-location carbon dioxide sensors widely used for demand controlled ventilation frequently have large errors and will fail to effectively control ventilation rates (VRs).? Multi-location carbon dioxide measurement systems with more expensive sensors connected to multi-location sampling systems may measure carbon dioxide more accurately.? Currently-available optical people counting systems work well much of the time but have large counting errors in some situations. ? In meeting rooms, measurements of carbon dioxide at return-air grilles appear to be a better choice than wall-mounted sensors.? In California, demand controlled ventilation in general office spaces is projected to save significant energy and be cost effective only if typical VRs without demand controlled ventilation are very high relative to VRs in codes. Based on the research, several recommendations were developed for demand controlled ventilation specifications in the California Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards.The research on classroom ventilation collected data over two years on California elementary school classrooms to investigate associations between VRs and student illness absence (IA). Major findings included: ? Median classroom VRs in all studied climate zones were below the California guideline, and 40percent lower in portable than permanent buildings.? Overall, one additional L/s per person of VR was associated with 1.6percent less IA. ? Increasing average VRs in California K-12 classrooms from the current average to the required level is estimated to decrease IA by 3.4percent, increasing State attendance-based funding to school districts by $33M, with $6.2 M in increased energy costs. Further VR increases would provide additional benefits.? Confirming these findings in intervention studies is recommended. ? Energy costs of heating/cooling unoccupied classrooms statewide are modest, but a large portion occurs in relatively few classrooms.

  13. Meeting Residential Ventilation Standards Through Dynamic Control of Ventilation Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Max H.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with a detailed heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (well as ventilation systems integrated into heating (naturalventilation standards, including American Society of Heating,

  14. Meeting Residential Ventilation Standards Through Dynamic Control of Ventilation Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Max H.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rudd. 2007. Review of residential ventilation technologies.2009. EISG Final Report: Residential Integrated VentilationDesign and Operation of Residential Cooling Systems. Proc.

  15. Meeting Residential Ventilation Standards Through Dynamic Control of Ventilation Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Max H.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dynamic Control of Ventilation Systems M.H. Sherman and I.S.a defined mechanical ventilation system to provide minimumair as part of ventilation system operation changes with

  16. Demand Controlled Ventilation and Classroom Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, William J.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to districts for ventilation, heating, and cooling.   Thus G is the gas use for heating ventilation  air, G i  is the air  gas use for heating ventilation air  the time elapsed 

  17. Integrated Demand Controlled Ventilation for Single Duct VAV System with Conference Rooms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Y.; Liu, M.; Cho, Y.; Xu, K.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Single duct variable air volume (VAV) systems are widely used in office buildings to achieve energy savings. It supplies proper amount of conditioned air to satisfy both the load and the ventilation requirements of each individual zone. To obtain...

  18. AUTOMATIC VARIABLE VENTILATION CONTROL SYSTEMS BASED ON AIR QUALITY DETECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turiel, Isaac

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    saon Automatic Variable Ventilation Control Systems Based onL Kusuda, "Control Ventilation to Conserve Energy While t·79-3 Automatic variable ventilation control systems based on

  19. CO2 MONITORING FOR DEMAND CONTROLLED VENTILATION IN COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, William J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    use of demand control ventilation systems in general officethe demand controlled ventilation system increased the ratedemand controlled ventilation systems will, because of poor

  20. AUTOMATIC VARIABLE VENTILATION CONTROL SYSTEMS BASED ON AIR QUALITY DETECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turiel, Isaac

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ~saon Automatic Variable Ventilation Control Systems Based79-3 Automatic variable ventilation control systems based onof automatic variable ventilation control systems, result in

  1. Demand Controlled Ventilation for Improved Humidity Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, J. K.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Demand Controlled Ventilation for Improved Humidity Control James K. Rogers, P.E. One Blacksmith Road Chelmsford, Massachusetts ABSTRACT Recently introduced technology makes it possible to continuously monitor for humidity in numerous... is brought in for ventilation. The high "latent load" inherent in this hot, humid outside air is often the reason for installing excess chiller capacity and the cause of peak power demands. Recent concerns over poor indoor air quality (IAQ) due...

  2. Cost effective combined axial fan and throttling valve control of ventilation rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sengun, Mehmet Haluk

    Cost effective combined axial fan and throttling valve control of ventilation rate C.J. Taylor 1 P with Proportional-Integral-Plus (PIP) control of ventilation rate in mechanically ventilated agricultural buildings ventilation. The new combined fan/valve configuration is compared with a commercially available PID

  3. Demand Controlled Ventilation and Classroom Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, William J.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of energy and environmental benefits of demand controlled indicate the energy and cost savings for  demand controlled 24) (California Energy  Commission 2008), demand controlled 

  4. DEMAND CONTROLLED VENTILATION AND CLASSROOM VENTILATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, William J.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of energy and environmental benefits of demand controlledindicate the energy and cost savings for demand controlled24) (California Energy Commission 2008), demand controlled

  5. Advanced Controls and Sustainable Systems for Residential Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Advanced Controls and Sustainable Systems for Residential Ventilation William J.N. Turner & Iain..................................................................................................................... 8 Residential Ventilation Standards..........................................................................................9 Passive and Hybrid Ventilation

  6. Optimization of Occupancy Based Demand Controlled Ventilation in Residences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mortensen, Dorthe K.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for residential ventilation systems, 2009. CEN, EN15251:The demand controlled ventilation system operated at a lowthe whole house ventilation system that implicitly assumes

  7. Advanced Controls and Sustainable Systems for Residential Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turner, William J.N.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    through dynamic control of ventilation systems. Energy andcontinuous mechanical ventilation systems a mean annualcompliant ASHRAE 62.2 ventilation system. Table 12: Average

  8. Advanced Controls for Residential Whole-House Ventilation Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, William; Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Whole-house ventilation systems are becoming commonplace in new construction, remodeling/renovation, and weatherization projects, driven by combinations of specific requirements for indoor air quality (IAQ), health and compliance with standards, such as ASHRAE 62.2. Ventilation systems incur an energy penalty on the home via fan power used to drive the airflow, and the additional space-conditioning load associated with heating or cooling the ventilation air. Finding a balance between IAQ and energy use is important if homes are to be adequately ventilated while not increasing the energy burden. This study used computer simulations to examine RIVEC the Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller - a prototype ventilation controller that aims to deliver whole-house ventilation rates that comply with ventilation standards, for the minimum use of energy. Four different whole-house ventilation systems were simulated, both with and without RIVEC, so that the energy and IAQ results could be compared. Simulations were conducted for 13 US climate zones, three house designs, and three envelope leakage values. The results showed that the RIVEC controller could typically return ventilation energy savings greater than 40percent without compromising long-term chronic or short-term acute exposures to relevant indoor contaminants. Critical and average peak power loads were also reduced as a consequence of using RIVEC.

  9. Hybrid Ventilation Optimization and Control Research and Development...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Hybrid Ventilation Optimization and Control Research and Development Hybrid Ventilation Optimization and Control Research and Development Lead Performer: Massachusetts Institute of...

  10. Optimization of Occupancy Based Demand Controlled Ventilation in Residences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mortensen, Dorthe K.; Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although it has been used for many years in commercial buildings, the application of demand controlled ventilation in residences is limited. In this study we used occupant exposure to pollutants integrated over time (referred to as 'dose') as the metric to evaluate the effectiveness and air quality implications of demand controlled ventilation in residences. We looked at air quality for two situations. The first is that typically used in ventilation standards: the exposure over a long term. The second is to look at peak exposures that are associated with time variations in ventilation rates and pollutant generation. The pollutant generation had two components: a background rate associated with the building materials and furnishings and a second component related to occupants. The demand controlled ventilation system operated at a low airflow rate when the residence was unoccupied and at a high airflow rate when occupied. We used analytical solutions to the continuity equation to determine the ventilation effectiveness and the long-term chronic dose and peak acute exposure for a representative range of occupancy periods, pollutant generation rates and airflow rates. The results of the study showed that we can optimize the demand controlled airflow rates to reduce the quantity of air used for ventilation without introducing problematic acute conditions.

  11. HVAC EFFICIENCY BUSINESS CASE DEMAND CONTROL KITCHEN VENTILATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    HVAC EFFICIENCY BUSINESS CASE DEMAND CONTROL KITCHEN VENTILATION Selecting, financing ventilation (DCKV) for kitchen exhaust hoods. Implementation can be relatively simple in either new of demand control kitchen ventilation (DCKV) in many small, medium, and large kitchen exhaust hood

  12. Sensor-based demand controlled ventilation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Almeida, A.T. [Universidade de Coimbra (Portugal). Dep. Eng. Electrotecnica; Fisk, W.J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In most buildings, occupancy and indoor pollutant emission rates vary with time. With sensor-based demand-controlled ventilation (SBDCV), the rate of ventilation (i.e., rate of outside air supply) also varies with time to compensate for the changes in pollutant generation. In other words, SBDCV involves the application of sensing, feedback and control to modulate ventilation. Compared to ventilation without feedback, SBDCV offers two potential advantages: (1) better control of indoor pollutant concentrations; and (2) lower energy use and peak energy demand. SBDCV has the potential to improve indoor air quality by increasing the rate of ventilation when indoor pollutant generation rates are high and occupants are present. SBDCV can also save energy by decreasing the rate of ventilation when indoor pollutant generation rates are low or occupants are absent. After providing background information on indoor air quality and ventilation, this report provides a relatively comprehensive discussion of SBDCV. Topics covered in the report include basic principles of SBDCV, sensor technologies, technologies for controlling air flow rates, case studies of SBDCV, application of SBDCV to laboratory buildings, and research needs. SBDCV appears to be an increasingly attractive technology option. Based on the review of literature and theoretical considerations, the application of SBDCV has the potential to be cost-effective in applications with the following characteristics: (a) a single or small number of dominant pollutants, so that ventilation sufficient to control the concentration of the dominant pollutants provides effective control of all other pollutants; (b) large buildings or rooms with unpredictable temporally variable occupancy or pollutant emission; and (c) climates with high heating or cooling loads or locations with expensive energy.

  13. Carbon-dioxide-controlled ventilation study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMordie, K.L.; Carroll, D.M.

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The In-House Energy Management (IHEM) Program has been established by the U.S. Department of Energy to provide funds to federal laboratories to conduct research on energy-efficient technology. The Energy Sciences Department of Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was tasked by IHEM to research the energy savings potential associated with reducing outdoor-air ventilation of buildings. By monitoring carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) levels in a building, outdoor air provided by the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system can be reduced to the percentage required to maintain satisfactory CO{sub 2} levels rather than ventilating with a higher outdoor-air percentage based on an arbitrary minimum outdoor-air setting. During summer months, warm outdoor air brought into a building for ventilation must be cooled to meet the appropriate cooling supply-air temperature, and during winter months, cold outdoor air must be heated. By minimizing the amount of hot or cold outdoor air brought into the HVAC system, the supply air requires less cooling or heating, saving energy and money. Additionally, the CO{sub 2} levels in a building can be monitored to ensure that adequate outdoor air is supplied to a building to maintain air quality levels. The two main considerations prior to implementing CO{sub 2}-based ventilation control are its impact on energy consumption and the adequacy of indoor air quality (IAQ) and occupant comfort. To address these considerations, six portable CO{sub 2} monitors were placed in several Hanford Site buildings to estimate the adequacy of office/workspace ventilation. The monitors assessed the potential for reducing the flow of outdoor-air to the buildings. A candidate building was also identified to monitor various ventilation control strategies for use in developing a plan for implementing and assessing energy savings.

  14. STATE OF CALIFORNIA DEMAND CONTROL VENTILATION SYSTEMS ACCEPTANCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    STATE OF CALIFORNIA DEMAND CONTROL VENTILATION SYSTEMS ACCEPTANCE CEC-MECH-6A (Revised 08/09) CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION CERTIFICATE OF ACCEPTANCE MECH-6A NA7.5.5 Demand Control Ventilation Systems DEMAND CONTROL VENTILATION SYSTEMS ACCEPTANCE CEC-MECH-6A (Revised 08/09) CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION

  15. MINING VENTILATION CONTROL: A NEW INDUSTRIAL CASE FOR WIRELESS AUTOMATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    % of the energy consumed by the mining process goes into the ventilation (including heating the air). It is clearMINING VENTILATION CONTROL: A NEW INDUSTRIAL CASE FOR WIRELESS AUTOMATION E. Witrant1, A. D This paper serves as an introduction to Special Session on Ventilation Control in Large-Scale Systems. We de

  16. Optimal decision making in ventilation control Andrew Kusiak*, Mingyang Li

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kusiak, Andrew

    by heating, ventilating and air- conditioning (HVAC) systems. According to published statistics, HVAC systemsOptimal decision making in ventilation control Andrew Kusiak*, Mingyang Li Department of Mechanical Accepted 24 July 2009 Available online 15 August 2009 Keywords: Ventilation Air quality Multi

  17. Mining ventilation control: a new industrial case for wireless automation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johansson, Karl Henrik

    system with high envi- ronmental impact: the mining ventilation. We do not pretend to solve the global ventilation is an interesting example of a large scale system with high environmental impact where advancedMining ventilation control: a new industrial case for wireless automation E. Witrant1, A. D

  18. Gaseous effluents from the combustion of nanocomposites in controlled-ventilation conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Gaseous effluents from the combustion of nanocomposites in controlled-ventilation conditions D on the combustion of nanocomposite samples under various ventilation conditions. Tests have been performed ammonium polyphosphate in equal proportions. During testing, the ventilation-controlled conditions were

  19. Investigation of a radiantly heated and cooled office with an integrated desiccant ventilation unit 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gong, Xiangyang

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    desiccant ventilation unit consumes 5.6% more primary energy than a single duct VAV system; it would consumes 11.4% less primary energy when the system is integrated with a presumed passive desiccant ventilation unit....

  20. CO2 - Based Demand-Controlled Ventilation Control Strategies for Multi-Zone HVAC Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nassif, N.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CO2-based demand-controlled ventilation DCV strategy offers a great opportunity to reduce energy consumption in HVAC systems while providing the required ventilation. However, implementing CO2-based DCV under ASHRAE 62.1.2004 through 2010...

  1. Wireless Ventilation Control for Large-Scale Systems: the Mining Industrial Case

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Wireless Ventilation Control for Large-Scale Systems: the Mining Industrial Case E. Witrant1,, A. D, for large scale systems with high environmental impact: the mining ventilation control systems. Ventilation). We propose a new model for underground ventilation. The main components of the system dynamics

  2. Optimization of Occupancy Based Demand Controlled Ventilation in Residences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mortensen, Dorthe K.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of intermittent ventilation for providing acceptable indoor253. CEN, EN15665: Ventilation for buildings - Determiningcriteria for residential ventilation systems, 2009. CEN,

  3. AUTOMATIC VARIABLE VENTILATION CONTROL SYSTEMS BASED ON AIR QUALITY DETECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turiel, Isaac

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SUt1t1ARY Mechanical ventilation systems usually provide aof any 02 based ventilation system is that a ventilationwith type of ventilation system~ weather conditions, and

  4. ADMINISTRATIVE AND ENGINEERING CONTROLS FOR THE OPERATION OF VENTILATION SYSTEMS FOR UNDERGROUND RADIOACTIVE WASTE STORAGE TANKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiersma, B.; Hansen, A.

    2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid radioactive wastes from the Savannah River Site are stored in large underground carbon steel tanks. The majority of the waste is confined in double shell tanks, which have a primary shell, where the waste is stored, and a secondary shell, which creates an annular region between the two shells, that provides secondary containment and leak detection capabilities should leakage from the primary shell occur. Each of the DST is equipped with a purge ventilation system for the interior of the primary shell and annulus ventilation system for the secondary containment. Administrative flammability controls require continuous ventilation to remove hydrogen gas and other vapors from the waste tanks while preventing the release of radionuclides to the atmosphere. Should a leak from the primary to the annulus occur, the annulus ventilation would also serve this purpose. The functionality of the annulus ventilation is necessary to preserve the structural integrity of the primary shell and the secondary. An administrative corrosion control program is in place to ensure integrity of the tank. Given the critical functions of the purge and annulus ventilation systems, engineering controls are also necessary to ensure that the systems remain robust. The system consists of components that are constructed of metal (e.g., steel, stainless steel, aluminum, copper, etc.) and/or polymeric (polypropylene, polyethylene, silicone, polyurethane, etc.) materials. The performance of these materials in anticipated service environments (e.g., normal waste storage, waste removal, etc.) was evaluated. The most aggressive vapor space environment occurs during chemical cleaning of the residual heels by utilizing oxalic acid. The presence of NO{sub x} and mercury in the vapors generated from the process could potentially accelerate the degradation of aluminum, carbon steel, and copper. Once identified, the most susceptible materials were either replaced and/or plans for discontinuing operations are executed.

  5. Application of CO{sub 2}-based demand-controlled ventilation using ASHRAE Standard 62: Optimizing energy use and ventilation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schell, M.B. [Engelhard Sensor Technologies, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Turner, S.; Shim, R.O. [Chelsea Group, Ltd., Delray Beach, FL (United States)

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    CO{sub 2}-based demand-controlled ventilation (DCV), when properly applied in spaces where occupancies vary below design occupancy, can reduce unnecessary overventilation while implementing target per-person ventilation rates. A recent interpretation of ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62-1989, Interpretation 1C 62-1989-27, has affirmed that carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2})-based demand-controlled ventilation (DCV) systems can use CO{sub 2} as an occupancy indicator to modulate ventilation below the maximum total outdoor air intake rate while still maintaining the required ventilation rate per person, provided that certain conditions are met. This paper, co-written by the author of the interpretation, provides guidelines on the application of CO{sub 2}-based DCV. In addition, a method is presented that allows reasonable estimates of the actual ventilation rate per person being effectively delivered to the space, based on comparing predicted CO{sub 2} ventilation levels with CO{sub 2} levels logged in an occupied space. Finally, a model is presented to evaluate various CO{sub 2}-based DCV strategies to predict their delivery of target per-person ventilation rates within the lag times required by the standard.

  6. MR-compatible ventilator for small animals: computer-controlled ventilation for proton and noble gas imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of normal breathing gas or experimental test gases. 2. Materials and methods 2.1. Overview of the ventilator/timers control electro-mechanical relays (S2072 relay board, National Instruments Interface Board), which in turn

  7. Controllability and invariance of monotone systems for robust ventilation automation in buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Controllability and invariance of monotone systems for robust ventilation automation in buildings [2] and control [3] of Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems leads to an improved comfort for the users and a reduction of energy consumption. Compared to traditional ceiling ventilation

  8. Cleantech to Market Projects Spring 2011 1. Residential Ventilation Controller; PI -Iain Walker

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    Cleantech to Market Projects ­ Spring 2011 1. Residential Ventilation Controller; PI - Iain Walker As homes become more airtight optimizing for energy efficiency. Researchers have designed a smart ventilation system

  9. Implementation of a Hybrid Controller for Ventilation Control Using Soft Computing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craig G. Rieger; D. Subbaram Naidu

    2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many industrial facilities utilize pressure control gradients to prevent migration of hazardous species from containment areas to occupied zones, often using Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) control systems. When operators rebalance the facility, variation from the desired gradients can occur and the operating conditions can change enough that the PID parameters are no longer adequate to maintain a stable system. As the goal of the ventilation control system is to optimize the pressure gradients and associated flows for the facility, Linear Quadratic Tracking (LQT) is a method that provides a time-based approach to guiding facility interactions. However, LQT methods are susceptible to modeling and measurement errors, and therefore the additional use of Soft Computing methods are proposed for implementation to account for these errors and nonlinearities.

  10. International Journal of Ventilation ISSN 1473-3315 Volume 10 No1 June 2011 Optimization of Occupancy Based Demand Controlled Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Journal of Ventilation ISSN 1473-3315 Volume 10 No1 June 2011 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 49 Optimization of Occupancy Based Demand Controlled Ventilation in Residences Dorthe K. Mortensen1, the application of demand controlled ventilation in residences is limited. In this study we used occupant exposure

  11. Air flow and particle control with different ventilation systems in a classroom

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    Air flow and particle control with different ventilation systems in a classroom Sture Holmberg, Ph@mit.edu Phone: +1-617-253-7714, Fax: +1-617-2536152 Abstract Most ventilation and air conditioning systems. For displacement ventilation systems, designers normally assume that all pollutants follow the buoyant air flow

  12. Thermal Control & System Integration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The thermal control and system integration activity focuses on issues such as the integration of motor and power control technologies and the development of advanced thermal control technologies....

  13. Development of a High Latent Effectiveness Energy Recovery Ventilator with Integration into Rooftop Package Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregory M. Dobbs; Norberto O. Lemcoff; Frederick J. Cogswell; Jeffrey T. Benolt

    2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Final Report covers the Cooperative Program carried out to design and optimize an enhanced flat-plate energy recovery ventilator and integrate it into a packaged unitary (rooftop) air conditioning unit. The project objective was to optimize the design of a flat plate energy recovery ventilator (ERV) core that compares favorably to flat plate air-to-air heat exchanger cores on the market and to cost wise to small enthalpy wheel devices. The benefits of an integrated unit incorporating an enhanced ERV core and a downsized heating/cooling unit were characterized and the design of an integrated unit considering performance and cost was optimized. Phase I was to develop and optimize the design of a membrane based heat exchanger core. Phase II was the creation and observation of a system integrated demonstrator unit consisting of the Enhanced Energy Recovery Ventilator (EERV) developed in Phase I coupled to a standard Carrier 50HJ rooftop packaged unitary air conditioning unit. Phase III was the optimization of the system prior to commercialization based on the knowledge gained in Phase II. To assure that the designs chosen have the possibility of meeting cost objectives, a preliminary manufacturability and production cost study was performed by the Center for Automation Technologies at RPI. Phase I also included a preliminary design for the integrated unit to be further developed in Phase II. This was to assure that the physical design of the heat exchanger designed in Phase I would be acceptable for use in Phase II. An extensive modeling program was performed by the Center for Building Performance & Diagnostics of CMU. Using EnergyPlus as the software, a typical office building with multiple system configurations in multiple climatic zones in the US was simulated. The performance of energy recovery technologies in packaged rooftop HVAC equipment was evaluated. The experimental program carried out in Phases II and III consisted of fabricating and testing a demonstrator unit using Carrier Comfort Network (CCN) based controls. Augmenting the control signals, CCN was also used to monitor and record additional performance data that supported modeling and conceptual understanding. The result of the testing showed that the EERV core developed in Phase I recovered energy in the demonstrator unit at the expected levels based on projections. In fact, at near-ARI conditions the core recovered about one ton of cooling enthalpy when operating with a three-ton rooftop packaged unit.

  14. Development of an Integrated Residential Heating, Ventilation, Cooling, and Dehumidification System for Residences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoeschele, M.A.; D.A. Springer

    2008-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The Need and the Opportunity Codes such as ASHRAE 90.2 and IECC, and programs such as Energy Star and Builders Challenge, are causing new homes to be built to higher performance standards. As a result sensible cooling loads in new homes are going down, but indoor air quality prerogatives are causing ventilation rates and moisture loads to increase in humid climates. Conventional air conditioners are unable to provide the low sensible heat ratios that are needed to efficiently cool and dehumidify homes since dehumidification potential is strongly correlated with cooling system operating hours. The project team saw an opportunity to develop a system that is at least as effective as a conventional air conditioner plus dehumidifier, removes moisture without increasing the sensible load, reduces equipment cost by integrating components, and simplifies installation. Project Overview Prime contractor Davis Energy Group led a team in developing an Integrated Heating, Ventilation, Cooling, and Dehumidification (I-HVCD) system under the DOE SBIR program. Phase I and II SBIR project activities ran from July 2003 through December 2007. Tasks included: (1) Mechanical Design and Prototyping; (2) Controls Development; (3) Laboratory and Field Testing; and (4) Commercialization Activities Technology Description. Key components of the prototype I-HVCD system include an evaporator coil assembly, return and outdoor air damper, and controls. These are used in conjunction with conventional components that include a variable speed air handler or furnace, and a two-stage condensing unit. I-HVCD controls enable the system to operate in three distinct cooling modes to respond to indoor temperature and relative humidity (RH) levels. When sensible cooling loads are high, the system operates similar to a conventional system but varies supply airflow in response to indoor RH. In the second mode airflow is further reduced, and the reheat coil adds heat to the supply air. In the third mode, the reheat coil adds additional heat to maintain the supply air temperature close to the return air temperature (100% latent cooling). Project Outcomes Key Phase II objectives were to develop a pre-production version of the system and to demonstrate its performance in an actual house. The system was first tested in the laboratory and subsequently underwent field-testing at a new house in Gainesville, Florida. Field testing began in 2006 with monitoring of a 'conventional best practices' system that included a two stage air conditioner and Energy Star dehumidifier. In September 2007, the I-HVCD components were installed for testing. Both systems maintained uniform indoor temperatures, but indoor RH control was considerably better with the I-HVCD system. The daily variation from average indoor humidity conditions was less than 2% for the I-HVCD vs. 5-7% for the base case system. Data showed that the energy use of the two systems was comparable. Preliminary installed cost estimates suggest that production costs for the current I-HVCD integrated design would likely be lower than for competing systems that include a high efficiency air conditioner, dehumidifier, and fresh air ventilation system. Project Benefits This project verified that the I-HVCD refrigeration compacts are compact (for easy installation and retrofit) and can be installed with air conditioning equipment from a variety of manufacturers. Project results confirmed that the system can provide precise indoor temperature and RH control under a variety of climate conditions. The I-HVCD integrated approach offers numerous benefits including integrated control, easier installation, and reduced equipment maintenance needs. Work completed under this project represents a significant step towards product commercialization. Improved indoor RH control and fresh air ventilation are system attributes that will become increasingly important in the years ahead as building envelopes improve and sensible cooling loads continue to fall. Technologies like I-HVCD will be instrumental in meeting goals set by Building America

  15. Development of a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Iain

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    house using the heating/cooling supply ducts. The outdoorfor continuous supply in CZ3 in cooling season R elative Ecooling climate zone 13. The economizer will be modeled as a large supply

  16. CO2 MONITORING FOR DEMAND CONTROLLED VENTILATION IN COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, William J.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Faulkner, David; Eliseeva, Ekaterina

    2010-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sensors are often deployed in commercial buildings to obtain CO{sub 2} data that are used, in a process called demand-controlled ventilation, to automatically modulate rates of outdoor air ventilation. The objective is to keep ventilation rates at or above design specifications and code requirements and also to save energy by avoiding excessive ventilation rates. Demand controlled ventilation is most often used in spaces with highly variable and sometime dense occupancy. Reasonably accurate CO{sub 2} measurements are needed for successful demand controlled ventilation; however, prior research has suggested substantial measurement errors. Accordingly, this study evaluated: (a) the accuracy of 208 CO{sub 2} single-location sensors located in 34 commercial buildings, (b) the accuracy of four multi-location CO{sub 2} measurement systems that utilize tubing, valves, and pumps to measure at multiple locations with single CO{sub 2} sensors, and (c) the spatial variability of CO{sub 2} concentrations within meeting rooms. The field studies of the accuracy of single-location CO{sub 2} sensors included multi-concentration calibration checks of 90 sensors in which sensor accuracy was checked at multiple CO{sub 2} concentrations using primary standard calibration gases. From these evaluations, average errors were small, -26 ppm and -9 ppm at 760 and 1010 ppm, respectively; however, the averages of the absolute values of error were 118 ppm (16%) and 138 ppm (14%), at concentrations of 760 and 1010 ppm, respectively. The calibration data are generally well fit by a straight line as indicated by high values of R{sup 2}. The Title 24 standard specifies that sensor error must be certified as no greater than 75 ppm for a period of five years after sensor installation. At 1010 ppm, 40% of sensors had errors greater than {+-}75 ppm and 31% of sensors has errors greater than {+-}100 ppm. At 760 ppm, 47% of sensors had errors greater than {+-}75 ppm and 37% of sensors had errors greater than {+-}100 ppm. A significant fraction of sensors had errors substantially larger than 100 ppm. For example, at 1010 ppm, 19% of sensors had an error greater than 200 ppm and 13% of sensors had errors greater than 300 ppm. The field studies also included single-concentration calibration checks of 118 sensors at the concentrations encountered in the buildings, which were normally less than 500 ppm during the testing. For analyses, these data were combined with data from the calibration challenges at 510 ppm obtained during the multi-concentration calibration checks. For the resulting data set, the average error was 60 ppm and the average of the absolute value of error was 154 ppm. Statistical analyses indicated that there were statistically significant differences between the average accuracies of sensors from different manufacturers. Sensors with a 'single lamp single wavelength' design tended to have a statistically significantly smaller average error than sensors with other designs except for 'single lamp dual wavelength' sensors, which did not have a statistically significantly lower accuracy. Sensor age was not consistently a statistically significant predictor of error.

  17. Project title: Natural ventilation, solar heating and integrated low-energy building design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    greenhouse gas emissions from office buildings CMI E-Newsletter Issue 7 BP announces funding for CMI project on integrated low-energy building design No air conditioning, no sweat! Sustainable Building Design: Application Of Natural Ventilation Short... , such as China, where new buildings are being constructed at a rate far in excess of the level of development in developed countries, and where energy is relatively expensive. More Information For further information, please visit the Natural Ventilation...

  18. Effect of repository underground ventilation on emplacement drift temperature control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, H.; Sun, Y.; McKenzie, D.G.; Bhattacharyya, K.K. [Morrison Knudson Corporation, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The repository advanced conceptual design (ACD) is being conducted by the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System, Management & Operating Contractor. Underground ventilation analyses during ACD have resulted in preliminary ventilation concepts and design methodologies. This paper discusses one of the recent evaluations -- effects of ventilation on emplacement drift temperature management.

  19. Advanced control strategies for heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, and refrigeration systems—An overview: Part I: Hard control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Subbaram Naidu; Craig G. Rieger

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chronological overview of the advanced control strategies for heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, and refrigeration (HVAC&R) is presented in this article. The overview focuses on hard-computing or control techniques, such as proportional-integral-derivative, optimal, nonlinear, adaptive, and robust; soft-computing or control techniques, such as neural networks, fuzzy logic, genetic algorithms; and on the fusion or hybrid of hard- and soft-control techniques. Thus, it is to be noted that the terminology “hard” and “soft” computing/control has nothing to do with the “hardware” and “software” that is being generally used. Part I of a two-part series focuses on hard-control strategies, and Part II focuses on softand fusion-control in addition to some future directions in HVAC&R research. This overview is not intended to be an exhaustive survey on this topic, and any omission of other works is purely unintentional.

  20. Automatic Verification of Wireless Control in a Mining Ventilation Maria D. Di Benedetto1, Alessandro D'Innocenzo1, Emmanuele Serra1, Emmanuel Witrant2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Automatic Verification of Wireless Control in a Mining Ventilation System Maria D. Di Benedetto1 control problem for a mine ventilation system. Ventilation control is essential for the control for the so called secondary ventilation system that ensures air flow in the chambers of the mine where

  1. Results of the Evaluation Study DeAL Decentralized Facade Integrated Ventilation Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahler, B.; Himmler, R.

    Evaluation Results from 12 Buildings in Operation ESL-IC-08-10-38a Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Berlin, Germany, October 20-22, 2008 2... ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? What are Facade Integrated Ventilation Systems? ESL-IC-08-10-38a Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Berlin, Germany, October 20-22, 2008 3...

  2. The integration of engineering and architecture: A perspective on natural ventilation for the new San Francisco Federal Building

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McConahey, Erin; Haves, Philip; Christ, Tim

    2002-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A description of the in-progress design of a new Federal Office Building for San Francisco is used to illustrate a number of issues arising in the design of large, naturally ventilated office buildings. These issues include the need for an integrated approach to design involving the architects, mechanical and structural engineers, lighting designers and specialist simulation modelers. In particular, the use of natural ventilation, and the avoidance of air-conditioning, depends on the high degree of exposed thermal mass made possible by the structural scheme and by the minimization of solar heat gains while maintaining the good daylighting that results from optimization of the fagade. Another issue was the need for a radical change in interior space planning in order to enhance the natural ventilation; all the individual enclosed offices are located along the central spine of each floorplate rather than at the perimeter. The role of integration in deterring the undermining of the design through value engineering is discussed. The comfort criteria for the building were established based on the recent extension to the ASHRAE comfort standard based on the adaptive model for naturally ventilated buildings. The building energy simulation program EnergyPlus was used to compare the performance of different natural ventilation strategies. The results indicate that, in the San Francisco climate, wind-driven ventilation provides sufficient nocturnal cooling to maintain comfortable conditions and that external chimneys do not provide significant additional ventilation at times when it when it would be beneficial.

  3. Control of the microclimate around the head with opposing jet local ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Chonghui; Higuchi, Hiroshi; Arens, Edward; Zhang, Hui Ph.D

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of opposing jet local ventilation. AIAA 2009 Region I-NEImpact of a task-ambient ventilation system on perceived airefficiency for personalized ventilation application. Healthy

  4. Performance testing of a floor-based, occupant-controlled office ventilation system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauman, Fred; Johnston, L.; Zhang, H.; Arens, Edward A

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a room ment ventilation systems." ASHRAE Transactions, Vol.95, Part 2. ence, Ventilation System Performance, 18-21Fountain. 1990. "A ventilation systems in office rooms."

  5. Meeting Residential Ventilation Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ventilation standards, including American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning EngineersLBNL 4591E Meeting Residential Ventilation Standards Through Dynamic Control of Ventilation Systems (ASHRAE) Standard 62.2, specify continuous operation of a defined mechanical ventilation system to provide

  6. Control of the microclimate around the head with opposing jet local ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Chonghui; Higuchi, Hiroshi; Arens, Edward; Zhang, Hui Ph.D

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of opposing jet local ventilation. AIAA 2009 Region I-NEHead with Opposing Jet Local Ventilation Chonghui Liu 1,* ,

  7. Design and Integrate Improved Systems for Nuclear Facility Ventilation and Exhaust Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, Murray E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Objective: The objective of this R&D project would complete the development of three new systems and integrate them into a single experimental effort. However, each of the three systems has stand-alone applicability across the DOE complex. At US DOE nuclear facilities, indoor air is filtered and ventilated for human occupancy, and exhaust air to the outdoor environment must be regulated and monitored. At least three technical standards address these functions, and the Los Alamos National Laboratory would complete an experimental facility to answer at least three questions: (1) Can the drag coefficient of a new Los Alamos air mixer be reduced for better operation in nuclear facility exhaust stacks? (2) Is it possible to verify the accuracy of a new dilution method for HEPA filter test facilities? (3) Is there a performance-based air flow metric (volumetric flow or mass flow) for operating HEPA filters? In summary, the three new systems are: a mixer, a diluter and a performance-based metric, respectively. The results of this project would be applicable to at least four technical standards: ANSI N13.1 Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stacks and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities; ASTM F1471 Standard Test Method for Air Cleaning Performance of a High-Efficiency Particulate Air Filter System, ASME N511: In-Service Testing of Nuclear Air Treatment, Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Systems, and ASME AG-1: Code On Nuclear Air And Gas Treatment. All of the three proposed new systems must be combined into a single experimental device (i.e. to develop a new function of the Los Alamos aerosol wind tunnel). Technical Approach: The Radiation Protection RP-SVS group at Los Alamos has an aerosol wind tunnel that was originally (2006) designed to evaluate small air samplers (cf. US EPA 40 CFR 53.42). In 2009, the tunnel was modified for exhaust stack verifications per the ANSI N13.1 standard. In 2010, modifications were started on the wind tunnel for testing HEPA filters (cf. ASTM F1471 and ASME N511). This project involves three systems that were developed for testing the 24*24*11 (inch) HEPA filters (i.e. the already mentioned mixer, diluter and metric). Prototypes of the mixer and the diluter have been built and individually tested on a preliminary basis. However, the third system (the HEPA metric method) has not been tested, since that requires complete operability of the aerosol wind tunnel device. (The experimental wind tunnel has test aerosol injection, control and measurement capabilities, and can be heated for temperature dependent measurements.) Benefits: US DOE facilities that use HEPA filters and/or require exhaust stacks from their nuclear facility buildings will benefit from access to the new hardware (mixer and diluter) and performance-based metric (for HEPA filter air flow).

  8. Control System Implementation and Follow-up within the Cooling and Ventilation Contracts for the LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Body, Y; Morodo, M C

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The control system implementation for the cooling and ventilation facilities connected to the LHC Project relies on the technical and human resources that are organised within large-size industrial contracts. Beside the technical aspects, the follow-up of the implementation activities in the framework of such contracts also involves a managerial effort in order to achieve a flexible and coherent control system. The purpose is to assure precise and reliable regulation together with accurate local and remote supervision in conformity with the operational requirements. These objectives can only be reached by a systematic approach that keeps the co-ordination between the in-house and external cross-disciplinary teams as well as the fulfilment of the validation procedures and the contractual formalities. The case that here illustrates this approach is the control system implementation for the heating, ventilation and air conditioning of the LHC surface buildings, which shall extend up to 2004.

  9. Energy saving strategies with personalized ventilation in tropics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen; Chandra Sekhar, Chandra Sekhar

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    integrated personalized ventilation for minimizing crossMelikov, Personalized ventilation, Indoor Air, vol. 14 (to personalized and mixing ventilation, Indoor Air 14 (

  10. Recommended Changes to Specifications for Demand Controlled Ventilation in California's Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, William J.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Faulkner, David

    2010-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    In demand-controlled ventilation (DCV), rates of outdoor air ventilation are automatically modulated as occupant density varies. The objective is to keep ventilation rates at or above design specifications and code requirements and also to save energy by avoiding excessive ventilation rates. DCV is most often used in spaces with highly variable and sometime dense occupancy. In almost all cases, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sensors installed in buildings provide the signal to the ventilation rate control system. People produce and exhale CO{sub 2} as a consequence of their normal metabolic processes; thus, the concentrations of CO{sub 2} inside occupied buildings are higher than the concentrations of CO{sub 2} in the outdoor air. The magnitude of the indoor-outdoor CO{sub 2} concentration difference decreases as the building's ventilation rate per person increases. The difference between the indoor and outdoor CO{sub 2} concentration is also a proxy for the indoor concentrations of other occupant-generated bioeffluents, such as body odors. Reviews of the research literature on DCV indicate a significant potential for energy savings, particularly in buildings or spaces with a high and variable occupancy. Based on modeling, cooling energy savings from applications of DCV are as high as 20%. With support from the California Energy Commission and the U.S. Department of Energy, the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has performed research on the performance of CO{sub 2} sensing technologies and optical people counters for DCV. In addition, modeling was performed to evaluate the potential energy savings and cost effectiveness of using DCV in general office spaces within the range of California climates. The above-described research has implications for the specifications pertaining to DCV in section 121 of the California Title 24 Standard. Consequently, this document suggests possible changes in these specifications based on the research findings. The suggested changes in specifications were developed in consultation with staff from the Iowa Energy Center who evaluated the accuracy of new CO{sub 2} sensors in laboratory-based research. In addition, staff of the California Energy Commission, and their consultants in the area of DCV, provided input for the suggested changes in specifications.

  11. EVALUATION OF BEST AVAILABLE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR TOXICS -TBACT- DOUBLE SHELL TANK FARMS PRIMARY VENTILATION SYSTEMS SUPPORTING WASTE TRANSFER OPERATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HAAS CC; KOVACH JL; KELLY SE; TURNER DA

    2010-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is an evaluation of Best Available Control Technology for Toxics (tBACT) for installation and operation of the Hanford double shell (DST) tank primary ventilation systems. The DST primary ventilation systems are being modified to support Hanford's waste retrieval, mixing, and delivery of single shell tank (SST) and DST waste through the DST storage system to the Waste Treatment and Immobilizaiton Plant (WTP).

  12. EVALUATION OF BEST AVAILABLE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR TOXICS (TBACT) DOUBLE SHELL TANK FARMS PRIMARY VENTILATION SYSTEM SUPPORTING WASTE TRANSFER OPERATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KELLY SE; HAASS CC; KOVACH JL; TURNER DA

    2010-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is an evaluation of Best Available Control Technology for Toxics (tBACT) for installation and operation of the Hanford double shell (DST) tank primary ventilation systems. The DST primary ventilation systems are being modified to support Hanford's waste retrieval, mixing, and delivery of single shell tank (SST) and DST waste throught the DST storage system to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP).

  13. Summary of Workshop: Barriers to Energy Efficient Residential Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Max

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved controls for ventilation systems, including betterEfficient Residential Ventilation Held on January 10, 2008Consumers Manufacturers / Ventilation Industry Public Sector

  14. Indoor Humidity Analysis of an Integrated Radiant Cooling and Desiccant Ventilation System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gong, X.; Claridge, D. E.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    latent heat, they normally are used in conjunction with an independent ventilation system, which is capable of decoupling the space sensible and latent loads. Condensation concerns limit the application of radiant cooling. This paper studies...

  15. Study of natural ventilation design by integrating the multi-zone model with CFD simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tan, Gang, 1974-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural ventilation is widely applied in sustainable building design because of its energy saving, indoor air qualify and indoor thermal environment improvement. It is important for architects and engineers to accurately ...

  16. Integrating preconcentrator heat controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bouchier, Francis A. (Albuquerque, NM); Arakaki, Lester H. (Edgewood, NM); Varley, Eric S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for controlling the electric resistance heating of a metallic chemical preconcentrator screen, for example, used in portable trace explosives detectors. The length of the heating time-period is automatically adjusted to compensate for any changes in the voltage driving the heating current across the screen, for example, due to gradual discharge or aging of a battery. The total deposited energy in the screen is proportional to the integral over time of the square of the voltage drop across the screen. Since the net temperature rise, .DELTA.T.sub.s, of the screen, from beginning to end of the heating pulse, is proportional to the total amount of heat energy deposited in the screen during the heating pulse, then this integral can be calculated in real-time and used to terminate the heating current when a pre-set target value has been reached; thereby providing a consistent and reliable screen temperature rise, .DELTA.T.sub.s, from pulse-to-pulse.

  17. Optical People Counting for Demand Controlled Ventilation: A Pilot Study of Counter Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, William J.; Sullivan, Douglas

    2009-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This pilot scale study evaluated the counting accuracy of two people counting systems that could be used in demand controlled ventilation systems to provide control signals for modulating outdoor air ventilation rates. The evaluations included controlled challenges of the people counting systems using pre-planned movements of occupants through doorways and evaluations of counting accuracies when naive occupants (i.e., occupants unaware of the counting systems) passed through the entrance doors of the building or room. The two people counting systems had high counting accuracy accuracies, with errors typically less than 10percent, for typical non-demanding counting events. However, counting errors were high in some highly challenging situations, such as multiple people passing simultaneously through a door. Counting errors, for at least one system, can be very high if people stand in the field of view of the sensor. Both counting system have limitations and would need to be used only at appropriate sites and where the demanding situations that led to counting errors were rare.

  18. BUILDING VENTILATION AND INDOOR AIR QUALITY PROGRAM. CHAPTER FROM ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1978

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cairns, Elton J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of automatic variable ventilation control systems based onof automatic variable ventilation control systems, The Johnbe developed. Automatic Variable Ventilation Control Systems

  19. Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning: Recent Advances in Diagnostics and Controls to Improve Air-Handling System Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wray, Craig P.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning: Recent Advancesthe energy efficiency of many heating, ventilating, and air-system, which delivers heating, cooling, and ventilation air

  20. Assessment of Energy Savings Potential from the Use of Demand Controlled Ventilation in General Office Spaces in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, Tianzhen; Fisk, William

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A prototypical office building meeting the prescriptive requirements of the 2008 California building energy efficiency standards (Title 24) was used in EnergyPlus simulations to calculate the energy savings potential of demand controlled ventilation (DCV) in five typical California climates per three design occupancy densities and two minimum ventilation rates. The assumed minimum ventilation rates in offices without DCV, based on two different measurement methods employed in a large survey, were 38 and 13 L/s per occupant. The results of the life cycle cost analysis show DCV is cost effective for office spaces if the typical minimum ventilation rate without DCV is 38 L/s per person, except at the low design occupancy of 10.8 people per 100 m2 in climate zones 3 (north coast) and 6 (south Coast). DCV was not found to be cost effective if the typical minimum ventilation rate without DCV is 13 L/s per occupant, except at high design occupancy of 21.5 people per 100 m2 in climate zones 14 (desert) and 16 (mountains). Until the large uncertainties about the base case ventilation rates in offices without DCV are reduced, the case for requiring DCV in general office spaces will be a weak case. Under the Title 24 Standards office occupant density of 10.8 people per 100 m2, DCV becomes cost effective when the base case minimum ventilation rate is greater than 42.5, 43.0, 24.0, 19.0, and 18.0 L/s per person for climate zone 3, 6, 12, 14, and 16 respectively.

  1. Demonstrations of Integrated Advanced Rooftop Unit Controls and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    An extensive field demonstration confirmed that advanced RTU controllers can achieve heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) energy and cost savings of more than 40%...

  2. Ventilation Air Preconditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khattar, M.; Brandemuehl, M. J.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    simply and cost-effectively with a dual path arrangement that treats and controls the ventilation air independently of the recirculation air. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)--the nonprofit R&D arm of the electric utility industry... particular type of application. EPRI is developing variations of the dual path concept to meet different reeofit and new construction markets. Figure 6. Ventilation Air Conditioner as a Separate Unit EPRVCALMAC System: Separate Unit for Ventilation Air...

  3. The Impact of CO2-Based Demand-Controlled Ventilation on Energy Consumptions for Air Source Heat Pumps in Schools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AlRaees, N.; Nassif, N.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There have been increasingly growing concerns for many years over the quality of the air inside buildings and the associated energy use. The CO2-based demand-controlled ventilation DCV offers a great opportunity to reduce energy consumption in HVAC...

  4. INTEGRATED GHz VOLTAGE CONTROLLED OSCILLATORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kinget, Peter

    INTEGRATED GHz VOLTAGE CONTROLLED OSCILLATORS Peter Kinget Bell Labs - Lucent Technologies Murray Hill, NJ (USA) Abstract The voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) is a critical sub. We focus on the de- sign of a critical sub-block: the voltage controlled oscillator (VCO). We review

  5. Impact of Residential Mechanical Ventilation on Energy Cost and Humidity Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, E.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The DOE Building America program has been conducting research leading to cost effective high performance homes since the early 1990's. Optimizing whole house mechanical ventilation as part of the program's systems engineered approach to constructing housing has been an important subject of the program's research. Ventilation in residential buildings is one component of an effective, comprehensive strategy for creation and maintenance of a comfortable and healthy indoor air environment. The study described in this white paper is based on building energy modeling with an important focus on the indoor humidity impacts of ventilation. The modeling tools used were EnergyPlus version 7.1 (E+) and EnergyGauge USA (EGUSA). Twelve U.S. cities and five climate zones were represented. A total of 864 simulations (2*2*3*3*12= 864) were run using two building archetypes, two building leakage rates, two building orientations, three ventilation systems, three ventilation rates, and twelve climates.

  6. Ventilative cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graça, Guilherme Carrilho da, 1972-

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis evaluates the performance of daytime and nighttime passive ventilation cooling strategies for Beijing, Shanghai and Tokyo. A new simulation method for cross-ventilated wind driven airflow is presented . This ...

  7. Recommended Ventilation Strategies for Energy-Efficient Production Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberson, J.; Brown, R.; Koomey, J.; Warner, J.; Greenberg, S.

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report evaluates residential ventilation systems for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} Homes program and recommends mechanical ventilation strategies for new, low-infiltration, energy-efficient, single-family, ENERGY STAR production (site-built tract) homes in four climates: cold, mixed (cold and hot), hot humid, and hot arid. Our group in the Energy Analysis Department at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab compared residential ventilation strategies in four climates according to three criteria: total annualized costs (the sum of annualized capital cost and annual operating cost), predominant indoor pressure induced by the ventilation system, and distribution of ventilation air within the home. The mechanical ventilation systems modeled deliver 0.35 air changes per hour continuously, regardless of actual infiltration or occupant window-opening behavior. Based on the assumptions and analysis described in this report, we recommend independently ducted multi-port supply ventilation in all climates except cold because this strategy provides the safety and health benefits of positive indoor pressure as well as the ability to dehumidify and filter ventilation air. In cold climates, we recommend that multi-port supply ventilation be balanced by a single-port exhaust ventilation fan, and that builders offer balanced heat-recovery ventilation to buyers as an optional upgrade. For builders who continue to install forced-air integrated supply ventilation, we recommend ensuring ducts are airtight or in conditioned space, installing a control that automatically operates the forced-air fan 15-20 minutes during each hour that the fan does not operate for heating or cooling, and offering ICM forced-air fans to home buyers as an upgrade.

  8. Alternatives generation and analysis for double-shell tank primary ventilation systems emissions control and monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SEDERBURG, J.P.

    1999-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This AGA addresses the question: ''What equipment upgrades, operational changes, and/or other actions are required relative to the DST tanks farms' ventilation systems to support retrieval, staging (including feed sampling), and delivery of tank waste to the Phase I private contractor?'' Issues and options for the various components within the ventilation subsystem affect each other. Recommended design requirements are presented and the preferred alternatives are detailed.

  9. Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning: Recent Advances in Diagnostics and Controls to Improve Air-Handling System Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wray, Craig P.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    step in designing a ventilation system is determining theto shut down the ventilation system for a period of timeperiod with the ventilation system off (e.g. , at least 6

  10. Commissioning Residential Ventilation Systems: A Combined Assessment of Energy and Air Quality Potential Values

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turner, William J.N.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    through dynamic control of ventilation systems. Energy andcontinuous mechanical ventilation systems a mean annualcompliant ASHRAE 62.2 ventilation system. Table 12: Average

  11. Integrated control system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Paul Sai Keat; Baldwin, Darryl; Kim, Myoungjin

    2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    An integrated control system for use with an engine connected to a generator providing electrical power to a switchgear is disclosed. The engine receives gas produced by a gasifier. The control system includes an electronic controller associated with the gasifier, engine, generator, and switchgear. A gas flow sensor monitors a gas flow from the gasifier to the engine through an engine gas control valve and provides a gas flow signal to the electronic controller. A gas oversupply sensor monitors a gas oversupply from the gasifier and provides an oversupply signal indicative of gas not provided to the engine. A power output sensor monitors a power output of the switchgear and provide a power output signal. The electronic controller changes gas production of the gasifier and the power output rating of the switchgear based on the gas flow signal, the oversupply signal, and the power output signal.

  12. Integrated Transmission and Distribution Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalsi, Karanjit; Fuller, Jason C.; Tuffner, Francis K.; Lian, Jianming; Zhang, Wei; Marinovici, Laurentiu D.; Fisher, Andrew R.; Chassin, Forrest S.; Hauer, Matthew L.

    2013-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Distributed, generation, demand response, distributed storage, smart appliances, electric vehicles and renewable energy resources are expected to play a key part in the transformation of the American power system. Control, coordination and compensation of these smart grid assets are inherently interlinked. Advanced control strategies to warrant large-scale penetration of distributed smart grid assets do not currently exist. While many of the smart grid technologies proposed involve assets being deployed at the distribution level, most of the significant benefits accrue at the transmission level. The development of advanced smart grid simulation tools, such as GridLAB-D, has led to a dramatic improvement in the models of smart grid assets available for design and evaluation of smart grid technology. However, one of the main challenges to quantifying the benefits of smart grid assets at the transmission level is the lack of tools and framework for integrating transmission and distribution technologies into a single simulation environment. Furthermore, given the size and complexity of the distribution system, it is crucial to be able to represent the behavior of distributed smart grid assets using reduced-order controllable models and to analyze their impacts on the bulk power system in terms of stability and reliability. The objectives of the project were to: • Develop a simulation environment for integrating transmission and distribution control, • Construct reduced-order controllable models for smart grid assets at the distribution level, • Design and validate closed-loop control strategies for distributed smart grid assets, and • Demonstrate impact of integrating thousands of smart grid assets under closed-loop control demand response strategies on the transmission system. More specifically, GridLAB-D, a distribution system tool, and PowerWorld, a transmission planning tool, are integrated into a single simulation environment. The integrated environment allows the load flow interactions between the bulk power system and end-use loads to be explicitly modeled. Power system interactions are modeled down to time intervals as short as 1-second. Another practical issue is that the size and complexity of typical distribution systems makes direct integration with transmission models computationally intractable. Hence, the focus of the next main task is to develop reduced-order controllable models for some of the smart grid assets. In particular, HVAC units, which are a type of Thermostatically Controlled Loads (TCLs), are considered. The reduced-order modeling approach can be extended to other smart grid assets, like water heaters, PVs and PHEVs. Closed-loop control strategies are designed for a population of HVAC units under realistic conditions. The proposed load controller is fully responsive and achieves the control objective without sacrificing the end-use performance. Finally, using the T&D simulation platform, the benefits to the bulk power system are demonstrated by controlling smart grid assets under different demand response closed-loop control strategies.

  13. Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, Max; Walker, Iain; Logue, Jennifer

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We ventilate buildings to provide acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). Ventilation standards (such as American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Enginners [ASHRAE] Standard 62) specify minimum ventilation rates without taking into account the impact of those rates on IAQ. Innovative ventilation management is often a desirable element of reducing energy consumption or improving IAQ or comfort. Variable ventilation is one innovative strategy. To use variable ventilation in a way that meets standards, it is necessary to have a method for determining equivalence in terms of either ventilation or indoor air quality. This study develops methods to calculate either equivalent ventilation or equivalent IAQ. We demonstrate that equivalent ventilation can be used as the basis for dynamic ventilation control, reducing peak load and infiltration of outdoor contaminants. We also show that equivalent IAQ could allow some contaminants to exceed current standards if other contaminants are more stringently controlled.

  14. International Journal of Ventilation Volume 2 No 3 Application of CFD to Predict and Control Chemical and Biological

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhai, John Z.

    attack, since the conventional ventilation systems are not designed for such an attack. How to design ventilation systems that can protect buildings from such an attack is an urgent issue for ventilation system are especially hazardous when they are dispersed inside of a building, where traditional ventilation systems may

  15. Assessment of Energy Savings Potential from the Use of Demand Control Ventilation Systems in General Office Spaces in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, Tianzhen; Fisk, William J.

    2009-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Demand controlled ventilation (DCV) was evaluated for general office spaces in California. A medium size office building meeting the prescriptive requirements of the 2008 California building energy efficiency standards (CEC 2008) was assumed in the building energy simulations performed with the EnergyPlus program to calculate the DCV energy savings potential in five typical California climates. Three design occupancy densities and two minimum ventilation rates were used as model inputs to cover a broader range of design variations. The assumed values of minimum ventilation rates in offices without DCV, based on two different measurement methods, were 81 and 28 cfm per occupant. These rates are based on the co-author's unpublished analyses of data from EPA's survey of 100 U.S. office buildings. These minimum ventilation rates exceed the 15 to 20 cfm per person required in most ventilation standards for offices. The cost effectiveness of applying DCV in general office spaces was estimated via a life cycle cost analyses that considered system costs and energy cost reductions. The results of the energy modeling indicate that the energy savings potential of DCV is largest in the desert area of California (climate zone 14), followed by Mountains (climate zone 16), Central Valley (climate zone 12), North Coast (climate zone 3), and South Coast (climate zone 6). The results of the life cycle cost analysis show DCV is cost effective for office spaces if the typical minimum ventilation rates without DCV is 81 cfm per person, except at the low design occupancy of 10 people per 1000 ft{sup 2} in climate zones 3 and 6. At the low design occupancy of 10 people per 1000 ft{sup 2}, the greatest DCV life cycle cost savings is a net present value (NPV) of $0.52/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 14, followed by $0.32/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 16 and $0.19/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 12. At the medium design occupancy of 15 people per 1000 ft{sup 2}, the DCV savings are higher with a NPV $0.93/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 14, followed by $0.55/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 16, $0.46/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 12, $0.30/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 3, $0.16/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 3. At the high design occupancy of 20 people per 1000 ft{sup 2}, the DCV savings are even higher with a NPV $1.37/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 14, followed by $0.86/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 16, $0.84/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 3, $0.82/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 12, and $0.65/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 6. DCV was not found to be cost effective if the typical minimum ventilation rate without DCV is 28 cfm per occupant, except at high design occupancy of 20 people per 1000 ft{sup 2} in climate zones 14 and 16. Until the large uncertainties about the base case ventilation rates in offices without DCV are reduced, the case for requiring DCV in general office spaces will be a weak case.

  16. Ventilation Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H. Yang

    1999-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this analysis and model report (AMR) for the Ventilation Model is to analyze the effects of pre-closure continuous ventilation in the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) emplacement drifts and provide heat removal data to support EBS design. It will also provide input data (initial conditions, and time varying boundary conditions) for the EBS post-closure performance assessment and the EBS Water Distribution and Removal Process Model. The objective of the analysis is to develop, describe, and apply calculation methods and models that can be used to predict thermal conditions within emplacement drifts under forced ventilation during the pre-closure period. The scope of this analysis includes: (1) Provide a general description of effects and heat transfer process of emplacement drift ventilation. (2) Develop a modeling approach to simulate the impacts of pre-closure ventilation on the thermal conditions in emplacement drifts. (3) Identify and document inputs to be used for modeling emplacement ventilation. (4) Perform calculations of temperatures and heat removal in the emplacement drift. (5) Address general considerations of the effect of water/moisture removal by ventilation on the repository thermal conditions. The numerical modeling in this document will be limited to heat-only modeling and calculations. Only a preliminary assessment of the heat/moisture ventilation effects and modeling method will be performed in this revision. Modeling of moisture effects on heat removal and emplacement drift temperature may be performed in the future.

  17. Indoor Airflow And Pollutant Removal In A Room With Floor-Based Task Ventilation: Results of Additional Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faulkner, D.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    C , "Displacement Ventilation Systems in Office Rooms,"Controlled Office Ventilation System," ASHRAE Transactions,of a floor-based task ventilation system designed for use in

  18. Ventilation Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V. Chipman

    2002-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the Ventilation Model is to simulate the heat transfer processes in and around waste emplacement drifts during periods of forced ventilation. The model evaluates the effects of emplacement drift ventilation on the thermal conditions in the emplacement drifts and surrounding rock mass, and calculates the heat removal by ventilation as a measure of the viability of ventilation to delay the onset of peak repository temperature and reduce its magnitude. The heat removal by ventilation is temporally and spatially dependent, and is expressed as the fraction of heat carried away by the ventilation air compared to the fraction of heat produced by radionuclide decay. One minus the heat removal is called the wall heat fraction, or the remaining amount of heat that is transferred via conduction to the surrounding rock mass. Downstream models, such as the ''Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model'' (BSC 2001), use the wall heat fractions as outputted from the Ventilation Model to initialize their post-closure analyses. The Ventilation Model report was initially developed to analyze the effects of preclosure continuous ventilation in the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) emplacement drifts, and to provide heat removal data to support EBS design. Revision 00 of the Ventilation Model included documentation of the modeling results from the ANSYS-based heat transfer model. The purposes of Revision 01 of the Ventilation Model are: (1) To validate the conceptual model for preclosure ventilation of emplacement drifts and verify its numerical application in accordance with new procedural requirements as outlined in AP-SIII-10Q, Models (Section 7.0). (2) To satisfy technical issues posed in KTI agreement RDTME 3.14 (Reamer and Williams 2001a). Specifically to demonstrate, with respect to the ANSYS ventilation model, the adequacy of the discretization (Section 6.2.3.1), and the downstream applicability of the model results (i.e. wall heat fractions) to initialize post-closure thermal models (Section 6.6). (3) To satisfy the remainder of KTI agreement TEF 2.07 (Reamer and Williams 2001b). Specifically to provide the results of post-test ANSYS modeling of the Atlas Facility forced convection tests (Section 7.1.2). This portion of the model report also serves as a validation exercise per AP-SIII.10Q, Models, for the ANSYS ventilation model. (4) To further satisfy KTI agreements RDTME 3.01 and 3.14 (Reamer and Williams 2001a) by providing the source documentation referred to in the KTI Letter Report, ''Effect of Forced Ventilation on Thermal-Hydrologic Conditions in the Engineered Barrier System and Near Field Environment'' (Williams 2002). Specifically to provide the results of the MULTIFLUX model which simulates the coupled processes of heat and mass transfer in and around waste emplacement drifts during periods of forced ventilation. This portion of the model report is presented as an Alternative Conceptual Model with a numerical application, and also provides corroborative results used for model validation purposes (Section 6.3 and 6.4).

  19. x Integration Level x CAN Controller Architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kozak, Victor R.

    x Integration Level x CAN Controller Architecture x Message Handling x Acceptance Filtering x-offs between stand-alone and integrated CAN peripherals. The integrated CAN peripheral is cheaper not only developed for an integrated CAN peripheral may not function on another CPU with on-chip CAN. © CiA x Am

  20. Advanced, Integrated Control for Building Operations to Achieve 40% Energy Saving

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Zhen Song, Prof. Vivian Loftness, Dr. Kun Ji, Dr. Sam Zheng, Mr. Bertrand Lasternas, Ms. Flore Marion, Mr. Yuebin Yu

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    we developed and demonstrated a software based integrated advanced building control platform called Smart Energy Box (SEB), which can coordinate building subsystem controls, integrate variety of energy optimization algorithms and provide proactive and collaborative energy management and control for building operations using weather and occupancy information. The integrated control system is a low cost solution and also features: Scalable component based architecture allows to build a solution for different building control system configurations with needed components; Open Architecture with a central data repository for data exchange among runtime components; Extendible to accommodate variety of communication protocols. Optimal building control for central loads, distributed loads and onsite energy resource Uses web server as a loosely coupled way to engage both building operators and building occupants in collaboration for energy conservation. Based on the open platform of SEB, we have investigated and evaluated a variety of operation and energy saving control strategies on Carnegie Mellon University Intelligent Work place which is equipped with alternative cooling/heating/ventilation/lighting methods, including radiant mullions, radiant cooling/heating ceiling panels, cool waves, dedicated ventilation unit, motorized window and blinds, and external louvers. Based on the validation results of these control strategies, they were integrated in SEB in a collaborative and dynamic way. This advanced control system was programmed and computer tested with a model of the Intelligent Workplaceâ??s northern section (IWn). The advanced control program was then installed in the IWn control system; the performance were measured and compared with that of the state of the art control system to verify the overall energy savings great than 40%. In addition advanced human machine interfaces (HMI's) were developed to communicate both with building occupants and the building operator. Lifecycle cost analyses of the advanced building control were performed, and a Building Control System Guide was prepared and published to inform owners, architects, and engineers dealing with new construction or renovation of buildings.

  1. Proposal for the award of a contract for the conversion of the former LEP ventilation process control system for the LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document concerns the award of a contract for the conversion of the former LEP ventilation process control system for the LHC. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with ASSYSTEM (FR), the lowest bidder, for the conversion of the former LEP ventilation process control system for the LHC and the maintenance of the process control and supervision system hardware and software for five years, for a total amount of 1 670 524 euros (2 628 403 Swiss francs), not subject to revision, with options for an equipment inventory and a code generator, for an additional amount of 67 115 euros (105 599 Swiss francs), bringing the total amount to 1 737 639 euros (2 734 002 Swiss francs) not subject to revision. The rate of exchange used is that stipulated in the tender.

  2. Transition dynamics between the multiple steady states in natural ventilation systems : from theories to applications in optimal controls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuan, Jinchao

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, we investigated the multiple steady state behavior, an important observation in numerical and experimental studies in natural ventilation systems. The-oretical models are developed and their applications in ...

  3. Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) system for the computer room of the CERN Control Centre

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) system for the computer room of the CERN Control Centre

  4. Circulation . Author manuscript Ultrafast and whole-body cooling with total liquid ventilation induces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ventilation induces favorable neurological and cardiac outcomes after cardiac arrest in rabbits Mourad decrease after resuscitation. Since total liquid ventilation (TLV) with temperature controlled ; physiology ; Liquid Ventilation ; Liver ; physiology ; Lung ; physiology ; Nervous System Physiological

  5. Simulation-based assessment of the energy savings benefits of integrated control in office buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, T.; Shen, E.

    2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study is to use existing simulation tools to quantify the energy savings benefits of integrated control in office buildings. An EnergyPlus medium office benchmark simulation model (V1.0_3.0) developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) was used as a baseline model for this study. The baseline model was modified to examine the energy savings benefits of three possible control strategies compared to a benchmark case across 16 DOE climate zones. Two controllable subsystems were examined: (1) dimming of electric lighting, and (2) controllable window transmission. Simulation cases were run in EnergyPlus V3.0.0 for building window-to-wall ratios (WWR) of 33percent and 66percent. All three strategies employed electric lighting dimming resulting in lighting energy savings in building perimeter zones ranging from 64percent to 84percent. Integrated control of electric lighting and window transmission resulted in heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) energy savings ranging from ?1percent to 40percent. Control of electric lighting and window transmission with HVAC integration (seasonal schedule of window transmission control) resulted in HVAC energy savings ranging from 3percent to 43percent. HVAC energy savings decreased moving from warm climates to cold climates and increased when moving from humid, to dry, to marine climates.

  6. Review of Literature on Terminal Box Control, Occupancy Sensing Technology and Multi-zone Demand Control Ventilation (DCV)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Guopeng; Dasu, Aravind R.; Zhang, Jian

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents an overall review of the standard requirement, the terminal box control, occupancy sensing technology and DCV. There is system-specific guidance for single-zone systems, but DCV application guidance for multi-zone variable air volume (VAV) systems is not available. No real-world implementation case studies have been found using the CO2-based DCV. The review results also show that the constant minimum air flow set point causes excessive fan power consumption and potential simultaneous heating and cooling. Occupancy-based control (OBC) is needed for the terminal box in order to achieve deep energy savings. Key to OBC is a technology for sensing the actual occupancy of the zone served in real time. Several technologies show promise, but none currently fully meets the need with adequate accuracy and sufficiently low cost.

  7. AIR FLOW MODELING IN DEEP WELLS: APPLICATION TO MINING VENTILATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johansson, Karl Henrik

    AIR FLOW MODELING IN DEEP WELLS: APPLICATION TO MINING VENTILATION E. WITRANT1, K.H. JOHANSSON2. Introduction Traditionally, the control of large-scale systems, such as mining ventilation, has been performed to the preliminary design of the global system and automation devices. Mining ventilation provides for an interesting

  8. AIR FLOW MODELING IN DEEP WELLS: APPLICATION TO MINING VENTILATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    AIR FLOW MODELING IN DEEP WELLS: APPLICATION TO MINING VENTILATION E. WITRANT1, K.H. JOHANSSON2, the control of large-scale systems, such as mining ventilation, has been performed locally with decentralized of the global system and automation devices. Mining ventilation provides for an interesting exam- ple

  9. Demand Controlled Ventilation and Classroom Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, William J.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2008. 2008 Building energy efficiency standards forCalifornia Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards.  in California’s Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency

  10. DEMAND CONTROLLED VENTILATION AND CLASSROOM VENTILATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, William J.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc. ---.Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. ASTM.Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc. , 213-

  11. Demand Controlled Ventilation and Classroom Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, William J.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc. ---.Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. ASTM.Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc. , 213-

  12. Demand Controlled Ventilation and Classroom Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, William J.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    types.   A  one?time sensor evaluation after a new sensor Laboratory?based evaluations of nine sensors with large a specified existing sensor for evaluation.   In the  prior 

  13. CAN J ANESTH 55: 9 www.cja-jca.org September, 2008 Purpose: Variable ventilation is superior to control mode venti-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scafetta, Nicola

    no differences between groups, at any time peri- od, for PaO2 , PaCO2 , and static or dynamic respiratory system, and mechanically ventilated. Oleic acid was infused to introduce lung injury. The animals were ventilated, chosen to drive the variable ventilator, had no effect on indices of gas exchange or respiratory

  14. Controls and Communications Integration | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T, Inc.'sEnergyTexas1.SpaceFluorControls and Communications Integration

  15. A Ventilation Index for Tropical Cyclones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Brian

    An important environmental control of both tropical cyclone intensity and genesis is vertical wind shear. One hypothesized pathway by which vertical shear affects tropical cyclones is midlevel ventilation—or the flux of ...

  16. INTEGRATED CONTROL OF NEXT GENERATION POWER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Control methodologies provide the necessary data acquisition, analysis and corrective actions needed to maintain the state of an electric power system within acceptable operating limits. These methods are primarily software-based algorithms that are nonfunctional unless properly integrated with system data and the appropriate control devices. Components of the control of power systems today include protective relays, supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA), distribution automation (DA), feeder automation, software agents, sensors, control devices and communications. Necessary corrective actions are still accomplished using large electromechanical devices such as vacuum, oil and gas-insulated breakers, capacitor banks, regulators, transformer tap changers, reclosers, generators, and more recently FACTS (flexible AC transmission system) devices. The recent evolution of multi-agent system (MAS) technologies has been reviewed and effort made to integrate MAS into next generation power systems. A MAS can be defined as ��a loosely-coupled network of problem solvers that work together to solve problems that are beyond their individual capabilities��. These problem solvers, often called agents, are autonomous and may be heterogeneous in nature. This project has shown that a MAS has significant advantages over a single, monolithic, centralized problem solver for next generation power systems. Various communication media are being used in the electric power system today, including copper, optical fiber and power line carrier (PLC) as well as wireless technologies. These technologies have enabled the deployment of substation automation (SA) at many facilities. Recently, carrier and wireless technologies have been developed and demonstrated on a pilot basis. Hence, efforts have been made by this project to penetrate these communication technologies as an infrastructure for next generation power systems. This project has thus pursued efforts to use specific MAS methods as well as pertinent communications protocols to imbed and assess such technologies in a real electric power distribution system, specifically the Circuit of the Future (CoF) developed by Southern California Edison (SCE). By modeling the behavior and communication for the components of a MAS, the operation and control of the power distribution circuit have been enhanced. The use of MAS to model and integrate a power distribution circuit offers a significantly different approach to the design of next generation power systems. For example, ways to control a power distribution circuit that includes a micro-grid while considering the impacts of thermal constraints, and integrating voltage control and renewable energy sources on the main power system have been pursued. Both computer simulations and laboratory testbeds have been used to demonstrate such technologies in electric power distribution systems. An economic assessment of MAS in electric power systems was also performed during this project. A report on the economic feasibility of MAS for electric power systems was prepared, and particularly discusses the feasibility of incorporating MAS in transmission and distribution (T&D) systems. Also, the commercial viability of deploying MAS in T&D systems has been assessed by developing an initial case study using utility input to estimate the benefits of deploying MAS. In summary, the MAS approach, which had previously been investigated with good success by APERC for naval shipboard applications, has now been applied with promising results for enhancing an electric power distribution circuit, such as the Circuit of the Future developed by Southern California Edison. The results for next generation power systems include better ability to reconfigure circuits, improve protection and enhance reliability.

  17. AN INTEGRATED BIOLOGICAL CONTROL SYSTEM AT HANFORD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JOHNSON AR; CAUDILL JG; GIDDINGS RF; RODRIGUEZ JM; ROOS RC; WILDE JW

    2010-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1999 an integrated biological control system was instituted at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Successes and changes to the program needed to be communicated to a large and diverse mix of organizations and individuals. Efforts at communication are directed toward the following: Hanford Contractors (Liquid or Tank Waste, Solid Waste, Environmental Restoration, Science and Technology, Site Infrastructure), General Hanford Employees, and Hanford Advisory Board (Native American Tribes, Environmental Groups, Local Citizens, Washington State and Oregon State regulatory agencies). Communication was done through direct interface meetings, individual communication, where appropriate, and broadly sharing program reports. The objectives of the communication efforts was to have the program well coordinated with Hanford contractors, and to have the program understood well enough that all stakeholders would have confidence in the work performed by the program to reduce or elimated spread of radioactive contamination by biotic vectors. Communication of successes and changes to an integrated biological control system instituted in 1999 at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site have required regular interfaces with not only a diverse group of Hanford contractors (i.e., those responsible for liquid or tank waste, solid wastes, environmental restoration, science and technology, and site infrastructure), and general Hanford employees, but also with a consortium of designated stake holders organized as the Hanford Advisory Board (i.e., Native American tribes, various environmental groups, local citizens, Washington state and Oregon regulatory agencies, etc.). Direct interface meetings, individual communication where appropriate, and transparency of the biological control program were the methods and outcome of this effort.

  18. Does Mixing Make Residential Ventilation More Effective?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Max

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mechanical Ventilation Systems. ” Int. J. Ventilation, 6(4),Residential Mechanical Ventilation Systems. ” ASHRAE HVAC&Rfor Extension of Ventilation System Tracer Gas Testing. ”

  19. Performance of ventilators for noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in children

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Performance of ventilators for noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in children Brigitte title: ventilators for noninvasive ventilation Supports and grants: The research of Brigitte Fauroux;2 Abstract The aim of the study was to evaluate the performance characteristics of all the ventilators

  20. Ventilation Model Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V. Chipman; J. Case

    2002-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the Ventilation Model is to simulate the heat transfer processes in and around waste emplacement drifts during periods of forced ventilation. The model evaluates the effects of emplacement drift ventilation on the thermal conditions in the emplacement drifts and surrounding rock mass, and calculates the heat removal by ventilation as a measure of the viability of ventilation to delay the onset of peak repository temperature and reduce its magnitude. The heat removal by ventilation is temporally and spatially dependent, and is expressed as the fraction of heat carried away by the ventilation air compared to the fraction of heat produced by radionuclide decay. One minus the heat removal is called the wall heat fraction, or the remaining amount of heat that is transferred via conduction to the surrounding rock mass. Downstream models, such as the ''Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model'' (BSC 2001), use the wall heat fractions as outputted from the Ventilation Model to initialize their post-closure analyses. The Ventilation Model report was initially developed to analyze the effects of preclosure continuous ventilation in the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) emplacement drifts, and to provide heat removal data to support EBS design. Revision 00 of the Ventilation Model included documentation of the modeling results from the ANSYS-based heat transfer model. Revision 01 ICN 01 included the results of the unqualified software code MULTIFLUX to assess the influence of moisture on the ventilation efficiency. The purposes of Revision 02 of the Ventilation Model are: (1) To validate the conceptual model for preclosure ventilation of emplacement drifts and verify its numerical application in accordance with new procedural requirements as outlined in AP-SIII-10Q, Models (Section 7.0). (2) To satisfy technical issues posed in KTI agreement RDTME 3.14 (Reamer and Williams 2001a). Specifically to demonstrate, with respect to the ANSYS ventilation model, the adequacy of the discretization (Section 6.2.3.1), and the downstream applicability of the model results (i.e. wall heat fractions) to initialize post-closure thermal models (Section 6.6). (3) To satisfy the remainder of KTI agreement TEF 2.07 (Reamer and Williams 2001b). Specifically to provide the results of post-test ANSYS modeling of the Atlas Facility forced convection tests (Section 7.1.2). This portion of the model report also serves as a validation exercise per AP-SIII.10Q, Models, for the ANSYS ventilation model. (4) To asses the impacts of moisture on the ventilation efficiency.

  1. Building Science- Ventilation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was given at the Summer 2012 DOE Building America meeting on July 25, 2012, and addressed the question Ť"What are the best ventilation techniques"

  2. Effect of Ventilation Strategies on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Effect of Ventilation Strategies on Residential Ozone Levels Iain S. Walker ventilation used to reduce concentrations of indoor-generated pollutants. When assessing the effect of deliberate ventilation on occupant health one should consider not only

  3. Optimal Integrated Control and Scheduling of Networked Control Systems with Communication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Optimal Integrated Control and Scheduling of Networked Control Systems with Communication Abstract-- This paper addresses the problem of the optimal control and scheduling of Networked Control Systems over limited bandwidth deterministic networks. Multivariable linear systems subject

  4. Multifamily Ventilation Retrofit Strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueno, K.; Lstiburek, J.; Bergey, D.

    2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In multifamily buildings, central ventilation systems often have poor performance, overventilating some portions of the building (causing excess energy use), while simultaneously underventilating other portions (causing diminished indoor air quality). BSC and Innova Services Corporation performed a series of field tests at a mid-rise test building undergoing a major energy audit and retrofit, which included ventilation system upgrades.

  5. High Speed Flywheels for Integrated Energy Storage and Attitude Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Christopher D.

    High Speed Flywheels for Integrated Energy Storage and Attitude Control Christopher D. Hall. Decomposition of the space of internal torques separates the attitude control functionfrom the energy storage simultaneously performing energy storage and extraction operations. 1 Introduction The power engineering

  6. Geometric numerical integration of nonholonomic systems and optimal control problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. de Leon; D. Martin de Diego; A. Santamaria Merino

    2002-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A geometric derivation of numerical integrators for nonholonomic systems and optimal control problems is obtained. It is based in the classical technique of generating functions adapted to the special features of nonholonomic systems and optimal control problems.

  7. T. Larsson, S. Skogestad Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column Control of a industrial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    T. Larsson, S. Skogestad Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column Truls Larsson Sigurd Skogestad ÝDepartment of Chemical. Larsson, S. Skogestad Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column The process QH column

  8. T. Larsson, S. Skogestad Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column Control of a industrial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    T. Larsson, S. Skogestad Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column Truls Larsson Sigurd Skogestad y Department of Chemical. Larsson, S. Skogestad Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column The process Q H column

  9. Ventilation Behavior and Household Characteristics in New California Houses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Phillip N.; Sherman, Max H.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    pollutant sources get more ventilation. • Except householdshealth issues motivate ventilation behavior. • Security andQuality, IAQ, mechanical ventilation systems, ventilation

  10. Analysis of the ventilation systems in the Dartford tunnels using a multiscale modelling approach 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colella, Francesco; Rein, Guillermo; Carvel, Ricky O; Reszka, Pedro; Torero, Jose L

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The capabilities of the ventilation systems in the two road tunnels at Dartford (London, UK) are analysed using a multi-scale modelling approach. Both tunnels have complex semi-transverse ventilation systems with jet fans to control longitudinal...

  11. Natural Ventilation | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated CodesTransparency VisitSilver Toyota1Resourceloading newNatural Ventilation

  12. ADVANCED COMPRESSOR ENGINE CONTROLS TO ENHANCE OPERATION, RELIABILITY AND INTEGRITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary D. Bourn; Jess W. Gingrich; Jack A. Smith

    2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is the final report for the ''Advanced Compressor Engine Controls to Enhance Operation, Reliability, and Integrity'' project. SwRI conducted this project for DOE in conjunction with Cooper Compression, under DOE contract number DE-FC26-03NT41859. This report addresses an investigation of engine controls for integral compressor engines and the development of control strategies that implement closed-loop NOX emissions feedback.

  13. MODELING VENTILATION SYSTEM RESPONSE TO FIRE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coutts, D

    2007-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Fires in facilities containing nuclear material have the potential to transport radioactive contamination throughout buildings and may lead to widespread downwind dispersal threatening both worker and public safety. Development and implementation of control strategies capable of providing adequate protection from fire requires realistic characterization of ventilation system response which, in turn, depends on an understanding of fire development timing and suppression system response. This paper discusses work in which published HEPA filter data was combined with CFAST fire modeling predictions to evaluate protective control strategies for a hypothetical DOE non-reactor nuclear facility. The purpose of this effort was to evaluate when safety significant active ventilation coupled with safety class passive ventilation might be a viable control strategy.

  14. Why We Ventilate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Logue, Jennifer M.; Sherman, Max H.; Price, Phil N.; Singer, Brett C.

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is widely accepted that ventilation is critical for providing good indoor air quality (IAQ) in homes. However, the definition of"good" IAQ, and the most effective, energy efficient methods for delivering it are still matters of research and debate. This paper presents the results of work done at the Lawrence Berkeley National Lab to identify the air pollutants that drive the need for ventilation as part of a larger effort to develop a health-based ventilation standard. First, we present results of a hazard analysis that identified the pollutants that most commonly reach concentrations in homes that exceed health-based standards or guidelines for chronic or acute exposures. Second, we present results of an impact assessment that identified the air pollutants that cause the most harm to the U.S. population from chronic inhalation in residences. Lastly, we describe the implications of our findings for developing effective ventilation standards.

  15. Field-Evaluation of Alternative HVAC Strategies to Meet Ventilation, Comfort and Humidity Control Criteria at Three Full-Serve Restaurants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yborra, S. C.; Spears, J. W.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lighting and ventilation represent the majority of the air conditioning loads in office buildings in hot humid climates. Use of motion sensors is one way to minimize the energy used for these loads. This paper describes the methods used...

  16. A Model for Evaluation of Life-Cycle Energy Savings of Occupancy Sensors for Control of Lighting and Ventilation in Office Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Degelman, L. O.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lighting and ventilation represent the majority of the air conditioning loads in office buildings in hot humid climates. Use of motion sensors is one way to minimize the energy used for these loads. This paper describes the methods used...

  17. Field-Evaluation of Alternative HVAC Strategies to Meet Ventilation, Comfort and Humidity Control Criteria at Three Full-Serve Restaurants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yborra, S. C.; Spears, J. W.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lighting and ventilation represent the majority of the air conditioning loads in office buildings in hot humid climates. Use of motion sensors is one way to minimize the energy used for these loads. This paper describes the methods used...

  18. A Model for Evaluation of Life-Cycle Energy Savings of Occupancy Sensors for Control of Lighting and Ventilation in Office Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Degelman, L. O.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lighting and ventilation represent the majority of the air conditioning loads in office buildings in hot humid climates. Use of motion sensors is one way to minimize the energy used for these loads. This paper describes the methods used...

  19. NREL: Transmission Grid Integration - Active Power Controls

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for Renewable Energy: Grid IntegrationReport Available forVoucherPossibleNew

  20. Evaluation of selfoptimising control structures for an integrated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    to any open loop model based optimisation methods. The application of self­optimising control the performance of the controlled system in face of various process disturbances and model uncertainties. 2 ENERGY1 Evaluation of self­optimising control structures for an integrated Petlyuk distillation column

  1. Evaluation of self-optimising control structures for an integrated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    open loop model based optimisation methods. The application of self-optimising control to the Petlyuk the performance of the controlled system in face of various process disturbances and model uncertainties. 2 ENERGY1 Evaluation of self-optimising control structures for an integrated Petlyuk distillation column

  2. Optimal Real-time Dispatch for Integrated Energy Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Ryan Michael

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables heating, ventilation, and air conditioning integrated energy system

  3. Mixed-Mode Ventilation and Building Retrofits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brager, Gail; Ackerly, Katie

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Page 15 Mixed-Mode Ventilation and Building RetrofitsEngineers. 2000. Mixed-mode ventilation. CIBSE ApplicationsMichael. 2000. Hybrid Ventilation Systems: An Arup Approach

  4. Cooling airflow design tool for displacement ventilation.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tool for Displacement Ventilation: User Notes 2|Page 5.air  temperature.   Ventilation effectiveness is equivalent for Displacement  Ventilation (Chen and Glicksman 2003).  

  5. Infiltration in ASHRAE's Residential Ventilation Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Max

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of  the effective natural ventilation rate with weather to  Residential  Ventilation  Requirements”.  LBNL  57236.  and  M.H.   Sherman  "Ventilation  Behavior  and  Household 

  6. Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Max

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    event, the intermittent ventilation equations of Sherman,of the energy impact of ventilation and associated financialReview of Residential Ventilation Technologies. Berkeley,

  7. Design methods for displacement ventilation: Critical review.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiavon, Stefano

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Displacement ventilation in non-industrial premises, REHVADisplacement ventilation in non-industrial premises, REHVAof displacement ventilation in non-industrial premises. The

  8. Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Max

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the use of mechanical ventilation systems in the same way asand operating ventilation systems with variable amounts ofto determine the ventilation system’s operation. We presume

  9. Infiltration in ASHRAE's Residential Ventilation Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Max

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    often need mechanical ventilation systems to meet current about mechanical ventilation systems but has a default unbalanced mechanical ventilation systems change  the 

  10. Neuromechanics: an integrative approach for understanding motor control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel, Tom

    Neuromechanics: an integrative approach for understanding motor control Kiisa Nishikawa,1,Ă Andrew of Biology, University of North Carolina, Wilmington, NC 28409, USA Synopsis Neuromechanics seeks of neuromechanics include ameliorating human health problems (including prosthesis design and restoration

  11. Building Automation and Controls Systems: Integrated Room Control for Personalized Comfort and Increased ROI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gill, D.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    14-17, 2014 Smart Room Control Solution Architecture Example HVAC Master Controller 1 Light Module Blind Module Power Multisensors Room Sensors Power Mobile App ESL-IC-14-09-05 Proceedings of the 14th International Conference for Enhanced Building... Operations, Beijing, China, September 14-17, 2014 An End-to-End Solution ? Simplified design, installation and integration of integrated room control solutions ? Increased reliability of integrated systems ? Simplified architecture = simpler design...

  12. Particle deposition in ventilation ducts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sippola, Mark R.

    2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Exposure to airborne particles is detrimental to human health and indoor exposures dominate total exposures for most people. The accidental or intentional release of aerosolized chemical and biological agents within or near a building can lead to exposures of building occupants to hazardous agents and costly building remediation. Particle deposition in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems may significantly influence exposures to particles indoors, diminish HVAC performance and lead to secondary pollutant release within buildings. This dissertation advances the understanding of particle behavior in HVAC systems and the fates of indoor particles by means of experiments and modeling. Laboratory experiments were conducted to quantify particle deposition rates in horizontal ventilation ducts using real HVAC materials. Particle deposition experiments were conducted in steel and internally insulated ducts at air speeds typically found in ventilation ducts, 2-9 m/s. Behaviors of monodisperse particles with diameters in the size range 1-16 {micro}m were investigated. Deposition rates were measured in straight ducts with a fully developed turbulent flow profile, straight ducts with a developing turbulent flow profile, in duct bends and at S-connector pieces located at duct junctions. In straight ducts with fully developed turbulence, experiments showed deposition rates to be highest at duct floors, intermediate at duct walls, and lowest at duct ceilings. Deposition rates to a given surface increased with an increase in particle size or air speed. Deposition was much higher in internally insulated ducts than in uninsulated steel ducts. In most cases, deposition in straight ducts with developing turbulence, in duct bends and at S-connectors at duct junctions was higher than in straight ducts with fully developed turbulence. Measured deposition rates were generally higher than predicted by published models. A model incorporating empirical equations based on the experimental measurements was applied to evaluate particle losses in supply and return duct runs. Model results suggest that duct losses are negligible for particle sizes less than 1 {micro}m and complete for particle sizes greater than 50 {micro}m. Deposition to insulated ducts, horizontal duct floors and bends are predicted to control losses in duct systems. When combined with models for HVAC filtration and deposition to indoor surfaces to predict the ultimate fates of particles within buildings, these results suggest that ventilation ducts play only a small role in determining indoor particle concentrations, especially when HVAC filtration is present. However, the measured and modeled particle deposition rates are expected to be important for ventilation system contamination.

  13. Integrated Language Approach to Simulation and Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winning, D.J.; Davie, H.; Siebert, J.P.

    Winning,D.J. Davie,H. Siebert,J.P. Grant,N.F. Aitken,K.H. IEE Fourth International Conference on Trends in On-Line Computer Control, 1982, University of Warwick, England.

  14. Position paper -- Tank ventilation system design air flow rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goolsby, G.K.

    1995-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this paper is to document a project position on required ventilation system design air flow rates for the waste storage tanks currently being designed by project W-236A, the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF). The Title 1 design primary tank heat removal system consists of two systems: a primary tank vapor space ventilation system; and an annulus ventilation system. At the conclusion of Title 1 design, air flow rates for the primary and annulus ventilation systems were 960 scfm and 4,400 scfm, respectively, per tank. These design flow rates were capable of removing 1,250,000 Btu/hr from each tank. However, recently completed and ongoing studies have resulted in a design change to reduce the extreme case heat load to 700,000 Btu/hr. This revision of the extreme case heat load, coupled with results of scale model evaporative testing performed by WHC Thermal Hydraulics, allow for a reduction of the design air flow rates for both primary and annulus ventilation systems. Based on the preceding discussion, ICF Kaiser Hanford Co. concludes that the design should incorporate the following design air flow rates: Primary ventilation system--500 scfm maximum and Annulus ventilation system--1,100 scfm maximum. In addition, the minimum air flow rates in the primary and annulus ventilation systems will be investigated during Title 2 design. The results of the Title 2 investigation will determine the range of available temperature control using variable air flows to both ventilation systems.

  15. Mechanical Ventilation for Imaging the Small Animal Lung Laurence W. Hedlund and G. Allan Johnson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mechanical Ventilation for Imaging the Small Animal Lung Laurence W. Hedlund and G. Allan Johnson lung. Because me- chanical ventilation plays a key role in high-quality, high- resolution imaging of the small animal lung, the article focuses particularly on the problems of ventilation support, control

  16. Ventilation and Air Quality in Indoor Ice Skating Arenas Chunxin Yang, Ph.D.1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    Ventilation and Air Quality in Indoor Ice Skating Arenas Chunxin Yang, Ph.D.1 Philip Demokritou, and the operation strategy of the ventilation system are significant contributing factors to the indoor air quality exchange rate, air distribution method, and ventilation control strategies on the IAQ in an arena. With CFD

  17. Experimental Study on Displacement and Mixing Ventilation Systems for a Patient Ward

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    Experimental Study on Displacement and Mixing Ventilation Systems for a Patient Ward Yonggao Yin., 2004). Thus, ventilation systems in hospital wards should be improved to control airborne infectious. (2008) conducted a review on designing ventilation systems for hospital wards and other multibed rooms

  18. Ventilation technologies scoping study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This document presents the findings of a scoping study commissioned by the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) program of the California Energy Commission to determine what research is necessary to develop new residential ventilation requirements for California. This study is one of three companion efforts needed to complete the job of determining the needs of California, determining residential ventilation requirements, and determining appropriate ventilation technologies to meet these needs and requirements in an energy efficient manner. Rather than providing research results, this scoping study identifies important research questions along with the level of effort necessary to address these questions and the costs, risks, and benefits of pursuing alternative research questions. In approaching these questions and level of effort, feasibility and timing were important considerations. The Commission has specified Summer 2005 as the latest date for completing this research in time to update the 2008 version of California's Energy Code (Title 24).

  19. Measure Guideline: Selecting Ventilation Systems for Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aldrich, R.

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document addresses adding -or improving - mechanical ventilation systems to existing homes. The purpose of ventilation is to remove contaminants from homes, and this report discusses where, when, and how much ventilation is appropriate in a home, including some discussion of relevant codes and standards. Advantages, disadvantages, and approximate costs of various system types are presented along with general guidelines for implementing the systems in homes. CARB intends for this document to be useful to decision makers and contractors implementing ventilation systems in homes. Choosing the "best" system is not always straightforward; selecting a system involves balancing performance, efficiency, cost, required maintenance, and several other factors. It is the intent of this document to assist contractors in making more informed decisions when selecting systems. Ventilation is an integral part of a high-performance home. With more air-sealed envelopes, a mechanical means of removing contaminants is critical for indoor environmental quality and building durability.

  20. Innovative Energy Efficient Industrial Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Litomisky, A.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    factories, we found striking dichotomy between the classical “static” design of ventilation systems and constantly changing workflow and business demands. Using data from real factories, we are able to prove that classical industrial ventilation design...

  1. Integrated intelligent systems in advanced reactor control rooms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beckmeyer, R.R.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An intelligent, reactor control room, information system is designed to be an integral part of an advanced control room and will assist the reactor operator's decision making process by continuously monitoring the current plant state and providing recommended operator actions to improve that state. This intelligent system is an integral part of, as well as an extension to, the plant protection and control systems. This paper describes the interaction of several functional components (intelligent information data display, technical specifications monitoring, and dynamic procedures) of the overall system and the artificial intelligence laboratory environment assembled for testing the prototype. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  2. C Gormezano 14/07/2003 Control Issues Control Issues for Integrated Steady-State Operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    specific modelling (development of model-based control algorithm: Moreau) q Tools: ECCD, NBCD, LHCD Ř1 C Gormezano 14/07/2003 Control Issues Control Issues for Integrated Steady-State Operation Ř First principle: · Steady state operation is not conceivable without active control Ř Plan of the talk q

  3. RESIDENTIAL VENTILATION AND ENERGY CHARACTERISTICS*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RESIDENTIAL VENTILATION AND ENERGY CHARACTERISTICS* Max Sherman Nance Matson Energy Performance Berkeley, California The role of ventilation in the housing stock is to provide fresh air and to dilute to provide this ventilation service, either directly for moving the air or indirectly for conditioning

  4. 3, 805826, 2006 Ventilation under

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    OSD 3, 805­826, 2006 Ventilation under global warming A. Gnanadesikan et al. Title Page Abstract ocean ventilation change under global warming? A. Gnanadesikan 1 , J. L. Russell 2 , and F. Zeng 3 1­826, 2006 Ventilation under global warming A. Gnanadesikan et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction

  5. The International Journal of Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    air quality and reducing energy required for heating, cooling, and ventilation. One application. Introduction Heating, cooling and ventilation can account for 50 percent of total building energy useThe International Journal of Ventilation Volume 12 Number 4 ISSN 1473 - 3315 March 2014 Contents

  6. Measure Guideline: Ventilation Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Springer, D.; Dakin, B.; German, A.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this measure guideline on ventilation cooling is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for reducing cooling system energy and demand in homes located in hot-dry and cold-dry climates. This guideline provides a prescriptive approach that outlines qualification criteria, selection considerations, and design and installation procedures.

  7. Integrated, proportionally controlled, and naturally compliant universal joint actuator with controllable stiffness

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Johann; Granosik, Grzegorz

    2005-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for traversing obstacles having an elongated, round, flexible body that includes a plurality of segments interconnected by an integrated joint actuator assembly. The integrated joint actuator assembly includes a plurality of bellows-type actuators individually coupling adjacent segments to permit pivotal actuation of the apparatus therebetween. A controller is employed to maintain proper positional control and stiffness control while minimize air flow.

  8. Buried waste integrated demonstration human engineered control station. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes the Human Engineered Control Station (HECS) project activities including the conceptual designs. The purpose of the HECS is to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of remote retrieval by providing an integrated remote control station. The HECS integrates human capabilities, limitations, and expectations into the design to reduce the potential for human error, provides an easy system to learn and operate, provides an increased productivity, and reduces the ultimate investment in training. The overall HECS consists of the technology interface stations, supporting engineering aids, platform (trailer), communications network (broadband system), and collision avoidance system.

  9. Ventilation efficiencies of a desk-edge-mounted task ventilation system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faulkner, David; Fisk, William J.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Lee, Seung Min

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DESK-EDGE-MOUNTED TASK VENTILATION SYSTEM D Faulkner * , WJthe effectiveness of a task ventilation system with an airthe desk. The task ventilation system provided outside air,

  10. ASHRAE and residential ventilation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, Max H.

    2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the last quarter of a century, the western world has become increasingly aware of environmental threats to health and safety. During this period, people psychologically retreated away from outdoors hazards such as pesticides, smog, lead, oil spills, and dioxin to the seeming security of their homes. However, the indoor environment may not be healthier than the outdoor environment, as has become more apparent over the past few years with issues such as mold, formaldehyde, and sick-building syndrome. While the built human environment has changed substantially over the past 10,000 years, human biology has not; poor indoor air quality creates health risks and can be uncomfortable. The human race has found, over time, that it is essential to manage the indoor environments of their homes. ASHRAE has long been in the business of ventilation, but most of the focus of that effort has been in the area of commercial and institutional buildings. Residential ventilation was traditionally not a major concern because it was felt that, between operable windows and envelope leakage, people were getting enough outside air in their homes. In the quarter of a century since the first oil shock, houses have gotten much more energy efficient. At the same time, the kinds of materials and functions in houses changed in character in response to people's needs. People became more environmentally conscious and aware not only about the resources they were consuming but about the environment in which they lived. All of these factors contributed to an increasing level of public concern about residential indoor air quality and ventilation. Where once there was an easy feeling about the residential indoor environment, there is now a desire to define levels of acceptability and performance. Many institutions--both public and private--have interests in Indoor Air Quality (IAQ), but ASHRAE, as the professional society that has had ventilation as part of its mission for over 100 years, is the logical place to provide leadership. This leadership has been demonstrated most recently by the publication of the first nationally recognized standard on ventilation in homes, ASHRAE Standard 62.2-2003, which builds on work that has been part of ASHRAE for many years and will presumably continue. Homeowners and occupants, which includes virtually all of us, will benefit from the application of Standard 62.2 and use of the top ten list. This activity is exactly the kind of benefit to society that the founders of ASHRAE envisioned and is consistent with ASHRAE's mission and vision. ASHRAE members should be proud of their Society for taking leadership in residential ventilation.

  11. Does Mixing Make Residential Ventilation More Effective?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, Max; Walker, Iain

    2010-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Ventilation dilutes or removes indoor contaminants to reduce occupant exposure. In a multi-zone environment such as a house, there will be different dilution rates and different source strengths in every zone. The total ventilation rate is the most important factor in determining the exposure of occupants to given sources, but the zone- specific distribution of exhaust and supply air, and the mixing of ventilation air can have significant roles. Different types of ventilation systems will provide different amounts of mixing depending on several factors such as air leakage through the building envelope, air distribution systems and the location of sources and occupants. This paper reports recent results of investigations to determine the impact that air mixing has on exposures of residential occupants to prototypical contaminants of concern. Evaluations of existing field measurements and simulations reported in the literature are combined with new analyses to provide an integrated overview of the topic. The results show that for extreme cases additional mixing can be a significant factor but for typical homes looking at average exposures mixing is not helpful and can even make exposures worse.

  12. An Integrated Architecture for Demand Response Communications and Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gross, George

    An Integrated Architecture for Demand Response Communications and Control Michael LeMay, Rajesh for the MGA and ZigBee wireless communications. Index Terms Demand Response, Advanced Meter Infrastructure. In principle this can be done with demand response techniques in which electricity users take measures

  13. Integrating Concurrency Control and Energy Management in Device Drivers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levis, Philip

    Integrating Concurrency Control and Energy Management in Device Drivers Kevin Klues , Vlado@cs.berkeley.edu dgay@intel-research.net Abstract Energy management is a critical concern in wireless sensornets. De- spite its importance, sensor network operating systems today pro- vide minimal energy management support

  14. Ventilation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative JC3 RSS SeptemberRenewable Energy,Geothermal3: RedAbout(Brochure),Ventilation

  15. Ventilation Behavior and Household Characteristics in New California Houses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Phillip N.; Sherman, Max H.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    IAQ, mechanical ventilation systems, ventilation standards,to have mechanical ventilation systems resulted in anotherhave and use mechanical ventilation systems; and what is the

  16. Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University 2009 Humidity as a control parameter for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ventilation system.....................................................................................11 for ventilation Phase 2: Development and testing of ventilation strategies in the laboratory Alireza Afshari Niels C. Bergsře #12;Title Humidity as a control parameter for ventilation Subtitle Phase 2: Development

  17. Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.; Bergey, D.

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ventilation system effectiveness testing was conducted at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow. Cumulative particle counts for six particle sizes, and formaldehyde and other Top 20 VOC concentrations were measured in multiple zones. The testing showed that single-point exhaust ventilation was inferior as a whole-house ventilation strategy. It was inferior because the source of outside air was not direct from outside, the ventilation air was not distributed, and no provision existed for air filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the Exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs. System improvement percentages were estimated based on four System Factor Categories: Balance, Distribution, Outside Air Source, and Recirculation Filtration. Recommended System Factors could be applied to reduce ventilation fan airflow rates relative to ASHRAE Standard 62.2 to save energy and reduce moisture control risk in humid climates. HVAC energy savings were predicted to be 8-10%, or $50-$75/year.

  18. Lightweight ventilated facade prototype: acoustic performance evaluation when the ventilation surface of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Lightweight ventilated facade prototype: acoustic performance evaluation when the ventilation Conference 23-27 April 2012, Nantes, France 3801 #12;1. INTRODUCTION Lightweight ventilated facades cavity is almost totally open, fully ventilated and not very wide. Therefore, its contribution

  19. Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation in the Emergency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation in the Emergency Department Mei-Ean Yeow, MDa , Jairo I, 1411 East 31st Street, Oakland, CA 94602-1018, USA Noninvasive ventilation is defined as the provision ventilators consist of both negative and positive pressure ventilators. Because negative pressure ventilation

  20. Laboratory Ventilation SafetyLaboratory Ventilation Safety J. Scott WardJ. Scott Ward

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farritor, Shane

    Laboratory Ventilation SafetyLaboratory Ventilation Safety J. Scott WardJ. Scott Ward #12;In 1925. Labconco CorporationLabconco Corporation #12;Laboratory VentilationLaboratory Ventilation #12;Laboratory Ventilation ProductsLaboratory Ventilation Products #12;History of Fume HoodsHistory of Fume Hoods Thomas

  1. International Conference on Machine Control & Guidance 2008 1 Integrated Controls for Agricultural Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1st International Conference on Machine Control & Guidance 2008 1 Integrated Controls and change the environment for plant and animal production. Hence, appropriate information on current for decision making and planning future operations in order to maximize yield while minimising the ecological

  2. ENERGY IMPACTS OF VARIOUS RESIDENTIAL MECHANICAL VENTILATION STRATEGIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vieira, R.; Parker, D.; Lixing, G.; Wichers, M.

    ENERGY IMPACTS OF VARIOUS RESIDENTIAL MECHANICAL VENTILATION STRATEGIES Robin K. Vieira, Buildings. Research Division Director Danny S. Parker Principal Research Scientist Lixing Gu Principal Research Engineer Michael Wichers... into the homes. Many of these strategies utilize the central air handler fan from the HVAC system to ventilate when the system runs. Controllers can be purchased to force the air to enter for minimum periods of time or to shut off outside air dampers after...

  3. Ventilation | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you sure you wantJoin us for|Idahothe NewUtility-Scale Solar throughVentilation

  4. Smart Ventilation - RIVEC

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideo »UsageSecretary ofSmall BusinessSecondary Ventilation Activity Inputs

  5. Natural vs. mechanical ventilation and cooling.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brager, Gail; Alspach, Peter; Nall, Daniel H.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the drawbacks of each type of ventilation system helps theThe benefits of natural ventilation for occupants in com-In the strictest sense, “ventilation” refers to the exchange

  6. Air Distribution Effectiveness for Different Mechanical Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-62700 Air Distribution Effectiveness for Different Mechanical Ventilation Systems Max H Effectiveness for Different Mechanical Ventilation Systems Max H. Sherman and Iain S. Walker Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA ABSTRACT The purpose of ventilation is to dilute indoor contaminants

  7. Integrated modeling of the electric grid, communications, and control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nutaro, James J [ORNL; Miller, Laurie E [ORNL; Shankar, Mallikarjun [ORNL; Kuruganti, Phani Teja [ORNL

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a central concern in modeling and simulating electric grids and the information infrastructure that monitors and controls them: hybrid modeling and simulation. We argue that imminent modernizations and new technologies will require a joint (hybrid) modeling of the continuous world of power systems and the discrete world of events sparked by external contingencies, and by communication, computation, and control operations. The power systems community requires methods to model and simulate hybrid scenarios for systems as large and complex as the electric grid. We discuss an approach based on DEVS and present a scenario in which the integrated information and electric grid infrastructures address a frequency maintenance problem.

  8. New Air Cleaning Strategies for Reduced Commercial Building Ventilation Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sidheswaran, Meera; Destaillats, Hugo; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

    2010-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Approximately ten percent of the energy consumed in U.S. commercial buildings is used by HVAC systems to condition outdoor ventilation air. Reducing ventilation rates would be a simple and broadly-applicable energy retrofit option, if practical counter measures were available that maintained acceptable concentrations of indoor-generated air pollutants. The two general categories of countermeasures are: 1) indoor pollutant source control, and 2) air cleaning. Although pollutant source control should be used to the degree possible, source control is complicated by the large number and changing nature of indoor pollutant sources. Particle air cleaning is already routinely applied in commercial buildings. Previous calculations indicate that particle filtration consumes only 10percent to 25percent of the energy that would otherwise be required to achieve an equivalent amount of particle removal with ventilation. If cost-effective air cleaning technologies for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were also available, outdoor air ventilation rates could be reduced substantially and broadly in the commercial building stock to save energy. The research carried out in this project focuses on developing novel VOC air cleaning technologies needed to enable energy-saving reductions in ventilation rates. The minimum required VOC removal efficiency to counteract a 50percent reduction in ventilation rate for air cleaning systems installed in the HVAC supply airstream is modest (generally 20percent or less).

  9. Reverse ventilation--perfusion mismatch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmaz, J.C.; Barnett, C.A.; Reich, S.B.; Krumpe, P.E.; Farrer, P.A.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Patients having lobar airway obstruction or consolidation usually have decreases of both ventilation and perfusion on lung scans. We report three patients in whom hypoxic vasoconstriction was apparently incomplete, resulting in a ''reversed'' ventilation-perfusion mismatch. Perfusion of the hypoxic lobe on the radionuclide scan was associated with metabolic alkalosis, pulmonary venous and pulmonary arterial hypertension in these patients.

  10. Building America Webinar: Ventilation in Multifamily Buildings...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Ventilation in Multifamily Buildings Building America Webinar: Ventilation in Multifamily Buildings This webinar was presented by research team Consortium for Advanced Residential...

  11. FAQS Qualification Card - Confinement Ventilation and Process...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Confinement Ventilation and Process Gas Treatment FAQS Qualification Card - Confinement Ventilation and Process Gas Treatment A key element for the Department's Technical...

  12. Retrofit Ventilation Strategies in Multifamily Buildings Webinar...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Retrofit Ventilation Strategies in Multifamily Buildings Webinar Retrofit Ventilation Strategies in Multifamily Buildings Webinar Slides from the Building America webinar on...

  13. Solar Ventilation Preheating Resources and Technologies | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ventilation Preheating Resources and Technologies Solar Ventilation Preheating Resources and Technologies Photo of a dark brown perforated metal wall is pictured on the side of an...

  14. RESIDENTIAL THERMOSTATS: COMFORT CONTROLS IN CALIFORNIA HOMES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meier, Alan K.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heating, cooling and ventilating controls are more sophisticated than commonly available in North America 29 . Remote

  15. Export Controls and International Safeguards: Strengthening Nonproliferation through Interdisciplinary Integration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, Danielle J.; Goorevich, Richard; Hooper, Rich; Scheinman, Lawrence; Tape, James W.

    2008-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    International safeguards and export controls are central to ensuring international confidence in the peaceful uses of nuclear materials and technologies and to achieving adequate oversight on the transfer and use of nuclear materials, technology, and equipment required for the development of proliferation-sensitive parts of the nuclear fuel cycle. Although the independent strengths of international safeguards and export controls rely largely on universal adherence, there may be opportunities to exploit the shared strengths of these systems. This article provides background information on the separate evolution of export controls and international safeguards, considers how these two elements of the nonproliferation regime interact, and identifies some possible avenues that could, over time, lead to wholly integrated activities.

  16. Model Predictive Control of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. Wayne Bequette; Priyadarshi Mahapatra

    2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary project objectives were to understand how the process design of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant affects the dynamic operability and controllability of the process. Steady-state and dynamic simulation models were developed to predict the process behavior during typical transients that occur in plant operation. Advanced control strategies were developed to improve the ability of the process to follow changes in the power load demand, and to improve performance during transitions between power levels. Another objective of the proposed work was to educate graduate and undergraduate students in the application of process systems and control to coal technology. Educational materials were developed for use in engineering courses to further broaden this exposure to many students. ASPENTECH software was used to perform steady-state and dynamic simulations of an IGCC power plant. Linear systems analysis techniques were used to assess the steady-state and dynamic operability of the power plant under various plant operating conditions. Model predictive control (MPC) strategies were developed to improve the dynamic operation of the power plants. MATLAB and SIMULINK software were used for systems analysis and control system design, and the SIMULINK functionality in ASPEN DYNAMICS was used to test the control strategies on the simulated process. Project funds were used to support a Ph.D. student to receive education and training in coal technology and the application of modeling and simulation techniques.

  17. Oxy-fuel combustion with integrated pollution control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patrick, Brian R. (Chicago, IL); Ochs, Thomas Lilburn (Albany, OR); Summers, Cathy Ann (Albany, OR); Oryshchyn, Danylo B. (Philomath, OR); Turner, Paul Chandler (Independence, OR)

    2012-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    An oxygen fueled integrated pollutant removal and combustion system includes a combustion system and an integrated pollutant removal system. The combustion system includes a furnace having at least one burner that is configured to substantially prevent the introduction of air. An oxygen supply supplies oxygen at a predetermine purity greater than 21 percent and a carbon based fuel supply supplies a carbon based fuel. Oxygen and fuel are fed into the furnace in controlled proportion to each other and combustion is controlled to produce a flame temperature in excess of 3000 degrees F. and a flue gas stream containing CO2 and other gases. The flue gas stream is substantially void of non-fuel borne nitrogen containing combustion produced gaseous compounds. The integrated pollutant removal system includes at least one direct contact heat exchanger for bringing the flue gas into intimated contact with a cooling liquid to produce a pollutant-laden liquid stream and a stripped flue gas stream and at least one compressor for receiving and compressing the stripped flue gas stream.

  18. Cardiac gated ventilation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanson, C.W. III [Hospital of the Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. Anesthesia; Hoffman, E.A. [Univ. of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA (United States). Div. of Physiologic Imaging

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    There are several theoretic advantages to synchronizing positive pressure breaths with the cardiac cycle, including the potential for improving distribution of pulmonary and myocardial blood flow and enhancing cardiac output. The authors evaluated the effects of synchronizing respiration to the cardiac cycle using a programmable ventilator and electron beam CT (EBCT) scanning. The hearts of anesthetized dogs were imaged during cardiac gated respiration with a 50 msec scan aperture. Multi slice, short axis, dynamic image data sets spanning the apex to base of the left ventricle were evaluated to determine the volume of the left ventricular chamber at end-diastole and end-systole during apnea, systolic and diastolic cardiac gating. The authors observed an increase in cardiac output of up to 30% with inspiration gated to the systolic phase of the cardiac cycle in a non-failing model of the heart.

  19. Integrated safeguards & security for material protection, accounting, and control.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duran, Felicia Angelica; Cipiti, Benjamin B.

    2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Traditional safeguards and security design for fuel cycle facilities is done separately and after the facility design is near completion. This can result in higher costs due to retrofits and redundant use of data. Future facilities will incorporate safeguards and security early in the design process and integrate the systems to make better use of plant data and strengthen both systems. The purpose of this project was to evaluate the integration of materials control and accounting (MC&A) measurements with physical security design for a nuclear reprocessing plant. Locations throughout the plant where data overlap occurs or where MC&A data could be a benefit were identified. This mapping is presented along with the methodology for including the additional data in existing probabilistic assessments to evaluate safeguards and security systems designs.

  20. Strategies for Integrated Emission Control | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideoStrategic Safety Goals Strategic Safety Goals JulyIntegrated Emission Control

  1. Literature Review of Displacement Ventilation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, S.; Im, P.; Haberl, J. S.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Energy Systems Laboratory, Texas A&M University System Page 9 IV. REFERENCES Chen, Q., Glicksman, L.R., Yuan, X., Hu, S. Yang, X. 1999. Performance evaluation and development of design guidelines for displacement ventilation, Final report... testing, and a tracer gas (CO 2 ) step-up procedure. Alamdari, F., Butler, D.J.G., Grigg, P.F., Shaw, M. R. 1998. Chilled ceilings and displacement ventilation. Renewable Energy, Vol. 15, Issues 1-4, pp. 300-305. Abstract: Displacement ventilation...

  2. Ventilation Based on ASHRAE 62.2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Indoor Ventilation Based on ASHRAE 62.2 Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor California Energy Commission Ventilation (ASHRAE 62.2) Minimum Best Practices Guide - Exhaust-Only Ventilation Introduction: The California/ASHRAE Standard 62.2-2007, Ventilation and Acceptable Indoor Air Quality in Low-Rise Residential Buildings (ASHRAE

  3. Laboratory Ventilation Management Ralph Stuart, CHO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    Laboratory Ventilation Management Program Ralph Stuart, CHO Ellen Sweet, Laboratory Ventilation Specialist Cornell Department of Environmental Health and Safety 3/29/2013 #12;Laboratory Ventilation.1.2 Design and Construction Standards 10 7.1.3 Carbon Dioxide Ventilation Effectiveness Protocol 10 7.2 Job

  4. STATE OF CALIFORNIA MECHANICAL VENTILATION AND REHEAT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    STATE OF CALIFORNIA MECHANICAL VENTILATION AND REHEAT CEC-MECH-3C (Revised 08/09) CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION MECHANICAL VENTILATION AND REHEAT MECH-3C PROJECT NAME DATE MECHANICAL VENTILATION §121(b)2 REHEAT'D V.A. Max of D or G Design Ventilation Air cfm 50% of Design Zone Supply cfm B x 0.4 cfm/ft˛ Max

  5. Formaldehyde Transfer in Residential Energy Recovery Ventilators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ;1. INTRODUCTION Mechanical ventilation systems were once considered unnecessary for single-family, US homes

  6. Literature Review of Displacement Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, S.; Im, P.; Haberl, J. S.

    Performance Evaluation and Design Guidelines for Displacement Ventilation” by Chen and Clicksman (2003), were used to begin the literature search. Their references include papers, articles, and web sites presenting major contributions to the understanding...

  7. Integrated Heat Pump (IHP) System Development - Air-Source IHP Control Strategy and Specifications and Ground-Source IHP Conceptual Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, Richard W [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The integrated heat pump (IHP), as one appliance, can provide space cooling, heating, ventilation, and dehumidification while maintaining comfort and meeting domestic water heating needs in near-zero-energy home (NZEH) applications. In FY 2006 Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) completed development of a control strategy and system specification for an air-source IHP. The conceptual design of a ground-source IHP was also completed. Testing and analysis confirm the potential of both IHP concepts to meet NZEH energy services needs while consuming 50% less energy than a suite of equipment that meets current minimum efficiency requirements. This report is in fulfillment of an FY06 DOE Building Technologies (BT) Joule Milestone.

  8. Ventilation efficiencies and thermal comfort results of a desk-edge-mounted task ventilation system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faulkner, D.; Fisk, W.J.; Sullivan, D.P.; Lee, S.M.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EDGE-MOUNTED TASK VENTILATION SYSTEM D Faulkner, WJ Fisk, DPDESK-EDGE-MOUNTED TASK VENTILATION SYSTEM D Faulkner * , WJcomfort of a task ventilation system with an air supply

  9. Development of a Residential Integrated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ................................................................................................................................................................... 11 Mechanical Ventilation Systems

  10. Quantitative relationship of sick building syndrome symptoms with ventilation rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, William J.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    P. Miettinen (1995). "Ventilation rate in office buildings2005). Outdoor air ventilation and work- related symptoms inand Q. H. Lei (2006). "Ventilation and performance in office

  11. Measured Air Distribution Effectiveness for Residential Mechanical Ventilation Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Max H.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    6 th AIVC Conference “Ventilation Strategies and MeasurementAir Infiltration and Ventilation Centre, U.K. 1985REFERENCES ASHRAE. 2007. “Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor

  12. New Air Cleaning Strategies for Reduced Commercial Building Ventilation Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sidheswaran, Meera

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    VOCs substitute for ventilation in commercial buildings? ."Gorfain J (2008). Analysis of ventilation data from the U.S.Commercial Building Ventilation Energy Meera Sidheswaran,

  13. On The Valuation of Infiltration towards Meeting Residential Ventilation Needs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Max H.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Related to Residential Ventilation Requirements”. LBNLP.N. and M.H. Sherman "Ventilation Behavior and HouseholdReview of Residential Ventilation Technologies”, LBNL 57730.

  14. Energy-saving strategies with personalized ventilation in cold climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Journal of heating, Ventilation and Refrigeration Research,on Cold Climate, Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning,Ventilation Effectiveness, Federation of European Heating

  15. Energy saving strategies with personalized ventilation in tropics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen; Chandra Sekhar, Chandra Sekhar

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of a personalized ventilation system in the tropics, in:edged-mounted task ventilation system, Indoor Air, Vol. 14 (a chair-based personalized ventilation system, Building and

  16. Energy-saving strategies with personalized ventilation in cold climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    potential of personalized ventilation system in the tropics,edged-mounted task ventilation system, Indoor Air, Vol. 14 (a chair-based personalized ventilation system, Building and

  17. On The Valuation of Infiltration towards Meeting Residential Ventilation Needs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Max H.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    from steady mechanical ventilation system. For the case ofbecause unbalanced mechanical ventilation systems change theoften need mechanical ventilation systems to meet current

  18. Classroom HVAC: Improving ventilation and saving energy -- field study plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apte, Michael G.; Faulkner, David; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in this study. Classroom HVAC: Improving Ventilation andV8doc.sas.com/sashtml. Classroom HVAC: Improving VentilationBerkeley, CA 94720. Classroom HVAC: Improving Ventilation

  19. A novel proportional--integral-derivative control configuration with application to the control of batch distillation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvarez-Ramirez, J.; Monroy-Loperena, R.; Cervantes, I.; Morales, A.

    2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this paper is to propose a novel proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control configuration based on an observer structure. Batch distillation is used as the base case study where the regulated output is the distillate composition. The proposed PID control law is derived in the framework of robust nonlinear control with modeling error compensation techniques. A reduced-order observer is proposed to estimate both the derivative of the regulated output and the underlying modeling error. These observations are subsequently used in a control loop to feedback variations of distillate composition (derivative feedback) and to counteract the effects of modeling errors. It is shown that, under certain conditions, the resulting control law is equivalent to a classical PID controller with an antireset windup scheme. Moreover, the tuning of the controller is performed very easily in terms of a prescribed closed-loop time constant and an estimation time constant. Numerical results are provided for binary and multicomponent separations. Sampled/delayed measurements and several sources of uncertainties are considered in order to provide a realistic test scenario for the proposed control design procedure.

  20. Residential ventilation standards scoping study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKone, Thomas E.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goals of this scoping study are to identify research needed to develop improved ventilation standards for California's Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards. The 2008 Title 24 Standards are the primary target for the outcome of this research, but this scoping study is not limited to that timeframe. We prepared this scoping study to provide the California Energy Commission with broad and flexible options for developing a research plan to advance the standards. This document presents the findings of a scoping study commissioned by the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) program of the California Energy Commission to determine what research is necessary to develop new residential ventilation requirements for California. This study is one of three companion efforts needed to complete the job of determining the ventilation needs of California residences, determining the bases for setting residential ventilation requirements, and determining appropriate ventilation technologies to meet these needs and requirements in an energy efficient manner. Rather than providing research results, this scoping study identifies important research questions along with the level of effort necessary to address these questions and the costs, risks, and benefits of pursuing alternative research questions. In approaching these questions and corresponding levels of effort, feasibility and timing were important considerations. The Commission has specified Summer 2005 as the latest date for completing this research in time to update the 2008 version of California's Energy Code (Title 24).

  1. A Linear Programming Approach to Time Optimal Control of Integrator Switched Systems with State Constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antsaklis, Panos

    A Linear Programming Approach to Time Optimal Control of Integrator Switched Systems with State, USA Abstract-- In this paper, time optimal control problems of a class of integrator switched systems Recently, optimal control problems of switched and hybrid systems have attracted many researchers from

  2. A New PI and PID Control Design Method for Integrating Systems with Time Delays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gundes, A. N.

    A New PI and PID Control Design Method for Integrating Systems with Time Delays DENIZ ¨USTEBAY for tuning the parameters of PI and PID controllers for integrating processes with time delays. As an application of this method, we design PI and PID controllers for Active Queue Management of TCP flows

  3. Indoor Air Quality and Ventilation in Residential Deep Energy Retrofits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Less, Brennan; Walker, Iain

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Because airtightening is a significant part of Deep Energy Retrofits (DERs), concerns about ventilation and Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) have emerged. To investigate this, ventilation and IAQ were assessed in 17 non-smoking California Deep Energy Retrofit homes. Inspections and surveys were used to assess household activities and ventilation systems. Pollutant sampling performed in 12 homes included six-day passive samples of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), formaldehyde and air exchange rate (AER); time-resolved data loggers were used to measure particle counts. Half of the homes provided continuous mechanical ventilation. Despite these homes being twice as airtight (3.0 and 7.6 ACH50, respectively), their median AER was indistinguishable from naturally vented homes (0.36 versus 0.37 hr--1). Numerous problems were found with ventilation systems; however, pollutant levels did not reach levels of concern in most homes. Ambient NO2 standards were exceeded in some gas cooking homes that used legacy ranges with standing pilots, and in Passive House-style homes without range hoods exhausted to outside. Cooking exhaust systems were installed and used inconsistently. The majority of homes reported using low-emitting materials, and formaldehyde levels were approximately half those in conventional new CA homes (19.7 versus 36 ?g/m3), with emissions rates nearly 40percent less (12.3 versus 20.6 ?g/m2/hr.). Presence of air filtration systems led to lower indoor particle number concentrations (PN>0.5: 8.80E+06 PN/m3 versus 2.99E+06; PN>2.5: 5.46E+0.5 PN/m3 versus 2.59E+05). The results indicate that DERs can provide adequate ventilation and IAQ, and that DERs should prioritize source control, particle filtration and well-designed local exhaust systems, while still providing adequate continuous ventilation.

  4. MS ID#: CIRCULATIONAHA/2011/039388-Accepted version Ultra-fast and whole body cooling with total liquid ventilation induces favourable3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    with total liquid ventilation induces favourable3 neurological and cardiac outcomes following cardiac arrest in rabbits4 5 Short title: Liquid ventilation, hypothermia and cardiac arrest6 7 Chenoune M1,2,3 , DVM, MSc liquid ventilation (TLV) with temperature controlled perfluorocarbons induces a very rapid35

  5. Summary of Workshop: Barriers to Energy Efficient Residential Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Max

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for whole-house ventilation, local exhaust ventilation,by mechanical ventilation. Standard 62.2 also requires localVentilation • Mechanical system meeting Section 4 or 'other methods" when approved by LDP • Local

  6. Building America Case Study: Selecting Ventilation Systems for Existing Homes (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document addresses adding -or improving - mechanical ventilation systems to existing homes. The purpose of ventilation is to remove contaminants from homes, and this report discusses where, when, and how much ventilation is appropriate in a home, including some discussion of relevant codes and standards. Advantages, disadvantages, and approximate costs of various system types are presented along with general guidelines for implementing the systems in homes. CARB intends for this document to be useful to decision makers and contractors implementing ventilation systems in homes. Choosing the "best" system is not always straightforward; selecting a system involves balancing performance, efficiency, cost, required maintenance, and several other factors. It is the intent of this document to assist contractors in making more informed decisions when selecting systems. Ventilation is an integral part of a high-performance home. With more air-sealed envelopes, a mechanical means of removing contaminants is critical for indoor environmental quality and building durability.

  7. area-wide integrated control: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    did not get adequate attention regarding control and protection of power systems in the past is the data integration and information exchange. The traditional approaches assume...

  8. Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Max

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    dryers, and other local ventilation. ? Occupant activitiesventilation such as that provided by economizers or intermittent locallocal kitchen and bath exhausts, but a large part of the standard focuses on the continuous mechanical whole-house ventilation.

  9. SIMPLIFIED METHODS FOR COMBINING MECHANICAL VENTILATION AND NATURAL INFILTRATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modera, M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Heating and Ventilating, Royal Institute of Technology,Heating and Ventilating The Royal Institute of Technology

  10. Ventilation-Synchronous Magnetic Resonance Microscopy of Pulmonary Structure and Ventilation in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ventilation-Synchronous Magnetic Resonance Microscopy of Pulmonary Structure and Ventilation helium (3 He) gas to acquire images that dem- onstrate pulmonary vasculature and ventilated airways of these structures relative to the less vascular surrounding tissues. A constant- flow ventilator was developed

  11. We compared the efficacy of positive pressure ventilation (PPV) vs negative pressure ventilation (NPV) in providing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shadmehr, Reza

    the rationale for the use ofintermittent assisted ventilation is based on the premise that it alleviates muscleWe compared the efficacy of positive pressure ventilation (PPV) vs negative pressure ventilationEMG), minute ventilation (VE),tidal volume (VT), and end-tidal CO (etCOĂ during 15 minutes of PPV and NPV

  12. Building America Webinar: Retrofit Ventilation Strategies in...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Strategies in Multifamily Buildings Webinar Building America Webinar: Retrofit Ventilation Strategies in Multifamily Buildings Webinar This webinar, presented by...

  13. Data Integration and Information Exchange for Enhanced Control and Protection of Power Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that the needs are served by independent instrumentation and controller infrastructures. Protective relays 1): · Digital protective relays (DPRs) · Digital fault recorders (DFRData Integration and Information Exchange for Enhanced Control and Protection of Power Systems

  14. Application of STPA to the integration of multiple control systems : a case study and new approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Placke, Matthew Seth

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new approach for analyzing multiple control systems within the STPA framework has been developed and demonstrated. The new approach meets the growing need of system engineers to analyze integrated control systems, that ...

  15. Procedures and Standards for Residential Ventilation System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Procedures and Standards for Residential Ventilation System Commissioning: An Annotated and by the California Energy Commission under Pier Contract 500-08-061. Key terms: residential, ventilation.C. and C.P. Wray. 2013. Procedures and Standards for Residential Ventilation System Commissioning

  16. Reduceret energiforbrug til ventilation af bygninger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reduceret energiforbrug til ventilation af bygninger hvori der systematisk er valgt lav. 23. November 2007 #12;#12;Reduced energy use for ventilation of buildings through selection of low ventilation rate on perceived quality of air polluted by different materials, small ­ scale and full ­ scale

  17. Humidity Implications for Meeting Residential Ventilation Requirements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 LBNL-62182 Humidity Implications for Meeting Residential Ventilation Requirements Iain S. Walker for Meeting Residential Ventilation Requirements ABSTRACT In 2003 ASHRAE approved the nation's first residential ventilation standard, ASHRAE Standard 62.2. Because meeting this standard can significantly change

  18. Hysteresis effects in hybrid building ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flynn, Morris R.

    = Heating, ventilation & air conditioning Buildings and energy consumption #12;· Notwithstanding this energy-breeze, displacement ventilation dissipate internal heat gains e.g. from kitchen stove · Wintertime: Spaces filledHysteresis effects in hybrid building ventilation Morris R. Flynn Dept. of Mechanical & Aerospace

  19. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael J. Bockelie

    2000-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the research that has been performed by Reaction Engineering International (REI) during the last three months on demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The focus of our efforts during the last six months have been on: (1) Field Tests for RRI at the Conectiv BL England Station Unit No.1, a 130 MW cyclone fired boiler; (2) Extending our Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) based NOx model to accommodate the chemistry for Rich Reagent Injection (RRI) in cyclone fired boilers; (3) Applying the NOx model to evaluate RRI systems integrated into a boiler with Over Fired Air (OFA) and Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR); (4) Field Tests of the REI Corrosion Probe at the Conectiv BL England Station Unit No.1; (5) Commence engineering study of ammonia adsorption mechanisms for Fly Ash; (6) Presentation of current program accomplishments and plans for future work to DoE staff members at NETL-FE (Pittsburgh); and (7) Presentation of preliminary field test results for RRI to EPRI CNCIG.

  20. Underground and Ventilation System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin TransitionProgramUndergraduate Monthly Download

  1. PID Control with Derivative Filtering Integral Anti-Windup for a DC Servo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PID Control with Derivative Filtering and Integral Anti-Windup for a DC Servo Nicanor Quijano in the prelab for PID controllers. For that, we use the DC motor for the SRV-02ET to do position control. You . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2.4 PID Controller with Derivative Filtering

  2. Infiltration Effects on Residential Pollutant Concentrations for Continuous and Intermittent Mechanical Ventilation Approaches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Max

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    emissions, we assume that local ventilation is not used inventilation is user operated and is presumed to run to exhaust the intermittent and localventilation systems with some restrictions. Standard 62.2 requires source control, including local

  3. Underground and Ventilation System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin TransitionProgramUndergraduate Monthly Download Series

  4. Underground and Ventilation System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin TransitionProgramUndergraduate Monthly Download SeriesAugust 21,

  5. Underground and Ventilation System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin TransitionProgramUndergraduate Monthly Download SeriesAugust 21,23,

  6. Underground and Ventilation System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin TransitionProgramUndergraduate Monthly Download SeriesAugust

  7. Underground and Ventilation System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin TransitionProgramUndergraduate Monthly Download SeriesAugustOctober

  8. Underground and Ventilation System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin TransitionProgramUndergraduate Monthly DownloadDecember 4, 2014

  9. Underground and Ventilation System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin TransitionProgramUndergraduate Monthly DownloadDecember 4,

  10. Underground and Ventilation System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin TransitionProgramUndergraduate Monthly DownloadDecember 4,7, 2014

  11. Underground and Ventilation System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin TransitionProgramUndergraduate Monthly DownloadDecember 4,7, 20141,

  12. Underground and Ventilation System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin TransitionProgramUndergraduate Monthly DownloadDecember 4,7,

  13. Underground and Ventilation System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin TransitionProgramUndergraduate Monthly DownloadDecember

  14. Integration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koschorke, Albrecht; Musanovic, Emina

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Integration By Albrecht Koschorkeby Emina Musanovic [Integration (from Lat. integrare, “toa social unity. Social integration is distinct from systemic

  15. UNICOS CPC New Domains of Application: Vacuum and Cooling & Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Willeman, D; Bradu, B; Ortola, J

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The UNICOS (UNified Industrial COntrol System) framework, and concretely the CPC (Continuous Process Control) package, has been extensively used in the domain of continuous processes (e.g. cryogenics, gas flows) and also in others specific to the LHC machine as the collimators environmental measurements interlock system. The application of the UNICOS-CPC to other kind of processes: vacuum and the cooling and ventilation cases are depicted here. One of the major challenges was to figure out whether the model and devices created so far were also adapted for other type of processes (e.g. Vacuum). To illustrate this challenge two domain use cases will be shown: ISOLDE vacuum control system and the RFQ4 and STP18 (cooling & ventilation) control systems. Both scenarios will be illustrated emphasizing the adaptability of the UNICOS CPC package to create those applications and highlighting the discovered needed features to include in a future version of the UNICOS CPC package. This paper will a...

  16. Air change effectiveness in laboratory tests of combined chilled ceiling and displacement ventilation.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred; Tully, Brad; Rimmer, Julian

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for Displacement Ventilation. Atlanta: ASHRAE. ISO. 1993.ceiling and displacement ventilation systems. Energy andceiling and displacement ventilation systems. Submitted to

  17. Integrated structural control design of large space structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, J.J.; Lauffer, J.P.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Active control of structures has been under intensive development for the last ten years. Reference 2 reviews much of the identification and control technology for structural control developed during this time. The technology was initially focused on space structure and weapon applications; however, recently the technology is also being directed toward applications in manufacturing and transportation. Much of this technology focused on multiple-input/multiple-output (MIMO) identification and control methodology because many of the applications require a coordinated control involving multiple disturbances and control objectives where multiple actuators and sensors are necessary for high performance. There have been many optimal robust control methods developed for the design of MIMO robust control laws; however, there appears to be a significant gap between the theoretical development and experimental evaluation of control and identification methods to address structural control applications. Many methods have been developed for MIMO identification and control of structures, such as the Eigensystem Realization Algorithm (ERA), Q-Markov Covariance Equivalent Realization (Q-Markov COVER) for identification; and, Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG), Frequency Weighted LQG and H-/ii-synthesis methods for control. Upon implementation, many of the identification and control methods have shown limitations such as the excitation of unmodelled dynamics and sensitivity to system parameter variations. As a result, research on methods which address these problems have been conducted.

  18. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. Author manuscript A model of ventilation used to interpret newborn lamb respiratory signals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Mechanics ; physiology ; Sheep Introduction Respiratory problems are particularly frequent in the neonatal of the neonatal respiratory system is yet available.. Mathematical modeling, which integrates interacting respiratory dynamics. Functionally, the mammalian respiratory system is made of three components: ventilation

  19. Robust control strategy for PV system integration in distribution systems M.J. Hossain a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    Robust control strategy for PV system integration in distribution systems M.J. Hossain a, , T t s " Robust control provides flexible photovoltaic (PV) accommodations. " A robust PV control can significantly enhance the penetration level. " The change in volatile PV generations is considered

  20. Integrated vehicle dynamics control via coordination of active front steering and rear braking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Integrated vehicle dynamics control via coordination of active front steering and rear brakingComputer and Automation Research Institue, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Kende u. 13-17, H-1111, Budapest, Hungary, Email front steering and rear braking in a driver- assist system for vehicle yaw control. The proposed control

  1. Integrating Neuromuscular and Cyber Systems for Neural Control of Artificial Legs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Yan Lindsay

    Integrating Neuromuscular and Cyber Systems for Neural Control of Artificial Legs He Huang, Yan (CPS) for neurally controlled artificial legs. The key to the new CPS system is the neural resulted in a highly accurate and reliable software system for neural control of artificial legs

  2. Distributed Integral Action: Stability Analysis and Frequency Control of Power Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johansson, Karl Henrik

    propose a fully decentralized frequency control algorithm for electrical power systems. We model the powerDistributed Integral Action: Stability Analysis and Frequency Control of Power Systems Martin frequency control of electrical power systems. We show that the proposed algorithm can attenuate step

  3. Multifamily Individual Heating and Ventilation Systems, Lawrence, Massachusetts (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The conversion of an older Massachusetts building into condominiums illustrates a safe, durable, and cost-effective solution for heating and ventilation systems that can potentially benefit millions of multifamily buildings. Merrimack Valley Habitat for Humanity (MVHfH) partnered with U.S. Department of Energy Building America team Building Science Corporation (BSC) to provide high performance affordable housing for 10 families in the retrofit of an existing mass masonry building (a former convent). The original ventilation design for the project was provided by a local engineer and consisted of a single large heat recovery ventilator (HRV) located in a mechanical room in the basement with a centralized duct system providing supply air to the main living space and exhausting stale air from the single bathroom in each apartment. This design was deemed to be far too costly to install and operate for several reasons: the large central HRV was oversized and the specified flows to each apartment were much higher than the ASHRAE 62.2 rate; an extensive system of ductwork, smoke and fire dampers, and duct chases were specified; ductwork required a significant area of dropped ceilings; and the system lacked individual ventilation control in the apartments

  4. Evaluation of energy savings related to building envelope retrofit techniques and ventilation strategies for low energy cooling in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    strategies for low energy cooling in offices and commercial sector Laurent Grignon-Massé, Dominique Marchio and automatic controls and the use of adequate ventilation strategies show great potential in energy savingsEvaluation of energy savings related to building envelope retrofit techniques and ventilation

  5. Integrating automated shading and smart glazings with daylight controls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, Stephen; Lee, Eleanor

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Effect of Venetian Blinds on Daylight Photoelectric Controland Smart Glazings with Daylight Controls Stephen Selkowitzwith the outdoors and daylight to enhance the quality of the

  6. Integrating automated shading and smart glazings with daylight controls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, Stephen; Lee, Eleanor

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Automated Shading and Smart Glazings with Daylight Controlsdaylighting, controls, smart glazing, shading, fielddeveloping switchable “smart glazings” for over a decade and

  7. Integrated Pest Management: Conducting Urban Rodent Surveys i Suggested citation: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Integrated pest management: conducting urban

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;Integrated Pest Management: Conducting Urban Rodent Surveys i Suggested citation: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Integrated pest management: conducting urban rodent surveys. Atlanta: US...........................................................................................................................2 Characteristics of Urban Rodent Surveys

  8. Solar Ventilation Preheating Resources and Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This page provides a brief overview of solar ventilation preheating (SVP) technologies supplemented by specific information to apply SVP within the Federal sector.

  9. Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Max

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality M. H.have a method for determining equivalence in terms of eitherwe need to establish an equivalence principle that allows

  10. An Integrated System Simulation Approach for Wireless Networked Control Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koutsoukos, Xenofon D.

    Vanderbilt University Nashville, TN, USA Abstract--Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS), such as networked control wireless networks. Accurate modeling of these communication networks is essential in the design and verification of CPS. Controller design needs to take into ac- count the wireless channel characteristics (e

  11. Integrated Temperature and Humidity Control: A Unique Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shah, D. J.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During hot and humid periods, a comfortable indoor environment can be attained only by controlling both the dry-bulb temperature and the humidity in the space. Conventional thermostats control the ON/OFF status of a cooling plant to maintain only...

  12. Integration of Scheduling and Control Antonio Flores T.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    : Planning: Defines desired changes to current business affecting access to raw material, production.e. start time, unit to be used,processing time, production level), medium term objectives Control 1 "Planning, scheduling and control systems: why cannot they work together", Donald E. Shobrys

  13. Error Control of Iterative Linear Solvers for Integrated Groundwater Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bai, Zhaojun

    gradient method or Generalized Minimum RESidual (GMRES) method, is how to choose the residual tolerance for integrated groundwater models, which are implicitly coupled to another model, such as surface water models the correspondence between the residual error in the preconditioned linear system and the solution error. Using

  14. Integrating Neuromuscular and Cyber Systems for Neural Control of Artificial Legs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Qing "Ken"

    and computer system is essential. This integration leads to a cyber- physical system (CPS), in which a complex (CPS) for neurally controlled artificial legs. The key to the new CPS system is the neural

  15. An Implementation Plan for Integrated Control and Asset Management of Petroleum Production Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, James H.

    An Implementation Plan for Integrated Control and Asset Management of Petroleum Production management for the petroleum industry, which is very crucial for profitable oil and gas facilities operations, enhance safety, and improve product quality. Many research studies proposed different combinations

  16. Molecular controls of the plant cell cycle must integrate environmental signals within developmental contexts. Recent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murray, J.A.H.

    440 Molecular controls of the plant cell cycle must integrate environmental signals within of Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QT, UK *e-mail: rph1000@hermes

  17. Towards an Integrated BPM Schema: Control Flow Heterogeneity of PNML and BPEL4WS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zdun, Uwe

    Towards an Integrated BPM Schema: Control Flow Heterogeneity of PNML and BPEL4WS Jan Mendling1 to identify extensions to the schema integration process in order to capture such specifics of BPM schemas. 1 Introduction Heterogeneity of Business Process Modelling (BPM) schemas is a notorious prob- lem for business

  18. Domain Controlled Architecture A New Approach for Large Scale Software Integrated Automotive Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kühnhauser, Winfried

    Domain Controlled Architecture A New Approach for Large Scale Software Integrated Automotive Scale Software Integration, LSSI, Automotive Real Time, Multi-core, Many-core, Embedded Automo- tive mobility domain. The automotive in- dustry is confronted with a rising system complexity and several

  19. Hybrid integrated active antennas, voltage-controlled oscillators and switchable & tunable CPW-slotline filters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Navarro, Julio A

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HYBRID INTEGRATED ACTIVE ANTENNAS, VOLTAGE-CONTROLLED OSCILLATORS AND SWITCHABLE & TUNABLE CPW-SLOTLINE FILTERS A Thesis by JULIO ANGEL NAVARRO Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1990 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering HYBRID INTEGRATED ACTIVE ANTENNAS, VOLTAGE-CONTROLLED OSCILLATORS AND SWITCHABLE 2 TUNABLE CPW-SLOTLINE FILTERS A Thesis by JULIO ANGEL NAVARRO...

  20. Model predictive control system and method for integrated gasification combined cycle power generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kumar, Aditya; Shi, Ruijie; Kumar, Rajeeva; Dokucu, Mustafa

    2013-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Control system and method for controlling an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant are provided. The system may include a controller coupled to a dynamic model of the plant to process a prediction of plant performance and determine a control strategy for the IGCC plant over a time horizon subject to plant constraints. The control strategy may include control functionality to meet a tracking objective and control functionality to meet an optimization objective. The control strategy may be configured to prioritize the tracking objective over the optimization objective based on a coordinate transformation, such as an orthogonal or quasi-orthogonal projection. A plurality of plant control knobs may be set in accordance with the control strategy to generate a sequence of coordinated multivariable control inputs to meet the tracking objective and the optimization objective subject to the prioritization resulting from the coordinate transformation.

  1. Flexure-based nanopositioning systems : integrated design and control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shilpiekandula, Vijay, 1979-

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis deals with the design and control of flexure-based mechanisms for applications requiring multi-degree-of-freedom positioning and alignment. Example applications include positioning a probe or sample in atomic ...

  2. A Systems Integration Approach To Lighting Control Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lynch, S.; Renner, R. A.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Today, the lighting industry is experiencing renewed development and implementation of advanced technologies. One of the most striking advances is the implementation of system solutions in lighting control. This approach promises to contribute...

  3. PERFORMANCE MODELING OF DAYLIGHT INTEGRATED PHOTOSENSOR- CONTROLLED LIGHTING SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Jain; R. R. Creasey; J. Himmelspach; K. P. White; M. Fu; Richard G. Mistrick

    Some building energy codes now require the incorporation of daylight into buildings and automatic photosensor-controlled switching or dimming of the electric lighting system in areas that receive daylight. This paper describes enhancements to the open-source Daysim daylight analysis software that permit users to model a photosensor control system as it will perform in a real space, considering the directional sensitivity of the photosensor, its mounting position, the space and daylight aperture geometry, window shading configuration; the electric lighting equipment and control zones; exterior obstructions; and site weather conditions. System output includes assessment of the daylight distribution in a space throughout the year, the photosensor’s ability to properly track the daylight and modify electric lighting system output, and the energy savings provided by the modeled control system. The application of daylight coefficients permits annual simulations to be conducted efficiently using hourly or finer weather data time increments. 1

  4. Afferents integration and neural adaptive control of breathing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tin, Chung, 1980-

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The respiratory regulatory system is one of the most extensively studied homeostatic systems in the body. Despite its deceptively mundane physiological function, the mechanism underlying the robust control of the motor act ...

  5. Ventilation Behavior and Household Characteristics in New California Houses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Phillip N.; Sherman, Max H.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Mechanical Ventilation: Use of Local Exhaust Fans:pollutants. Large ventilation fans can cause local thermallocal contaminants such as those from kitchen and bathroom activities, then minimum building ventilation

  6. Commissioning Residential Ventilation Systems: A Combined Assessment of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Commissioning Residential Ventilation Systems: A Combined Assessment of Energy and Air Quality ventilation systems are being installed in new California homes. Few measurements are available of commissioning residential whole- house ventilation systems that are intended to comply

  7. External Authorities and Peers Laboratory Ventilation Management Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    External Authorities and Peers Laboratory Ventilation Management Program Guidance Document External Authorities and Peers This group encompasses external groups who do not manage laboratory ventilation systems to laboratory ventilation management. Roles Responsibilities Tracking Indicator Laboratory science peers

  8. RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Noninvasive ventilation reduces energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Noninvasive ventilation reduces energy expenditure in amyotrophic with a shift of the burden of ventilation to extradiaphragmatic inspiratory muscles, including neck muscles prognostic value. We hypothesized that noninvasive ventilation (NIV) would relieve inspiratory neck muscles

  9. ENERGY IMPACTS OF VARIOUS RESIDENTIAL MECHANICAL VENTILATION STRATEGIES 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vieira, R.; Parker, D.; Lixing, G.; Wichers, M.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Enthalpy recovery ventilation units tend to use more energy overall - despite the heat recovery - than supply or exhaust only ventilation systems, due to using twice as much fan energy. This paper presents simulation results for eight ventilation strategies...

  10. NREL: Energy Systems Integration Facility - Supervisory Control and Data

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated CodesTransparency Visit |Infrastructure The foundation of theAcquisition

  11. Infiltration in ASHRAE's Residential Ventilation Standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, Max

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of ventilation is to dilute or remove indoor contaminants that an occupant could be exposed to. It can be provided by mechanical or natural means. ASHRAE Standards including standards 62, 119, and 136 have all considered the contribution of infiltration in various ways, using methods and data from 20 years ago. The vast majority of homes in the United States and indeed the world are ventilated through natural means such as infiltration caused by air leakage. Newer homes in the western world are tight and require mechanical ventilation. As we seek to provide acceptable indoor air quality at minimum energy cost, it is important to neither over-ventilate norunder-ventilate. Thus, it becomes critically important to correctly evaluate the contribution infiltration makes to both energy consumption and equivalent ventilation. ASHRAE Standard 62.2 specifies how much mechanical ventilation is considered necessary to provide acceptable indoor air quality, but that standard is weak on how infiltration can contribute towards meeting the total requirement. In the past ASHRAE Standard 136 was used to do this, but new theoretical approaches and expanded weather data have made that standard out of date. This article will describe how to properly treat infiltration as an equivalent ventilation approach and then use new data and these new approaches to demonstrate how these calculations might be done both in general and to update Standard 136.

  12. Ventilation System to Improve Savannah River Site's Liquid Waste...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ventilation System to Improve Savannah River Site's Liquid Waste Operations Ventilation System to Improve Savannah River Site's Liquid Waste Operations August 28, 2014 - 12:00pm...

  13. Case Study - The Challenge: Improving Ventilation System Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ventilation System Energy Efficiency in a Textile Plant Case Study - The Challenge: Improving Ventilation System Energy Efficiency in a Textile Plant This case study examines how...

  14. Workers Remove Glove Boxes from Ventilation at Hanford's Plutonium...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Remove Glove Boxes from Ventilation at Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant Workers Remove Glove Boxes from Ventilation at Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant January 28, 2015 -...

  15. Critical Question #2: What are the Best Practices for Ventilation...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    2: What are the Best Practices for Ventilation Specific to Multifamily Buildings? Critical Question 2: What are the Best Practices for Ventilation Specific to Multifamily...

  16. air ventilation rate: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Requirements University of California eScholarship Repository Summary: typical existing house. Designed passive ventilation systemsPassive Ventilation by Constant Area Vents to...

  17. Adventitious ventilation: a new definition for an old mode?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiavon, Stefano

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAEof ventilation and air- conditioning system types in officeto natural ventilation, air conditioning, with or without

  18. Summer Infiltration/Ventilation Test Results from the FRTF Laboratory...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Summer InfiltrationVentilation Test Results from the FRTF Laboratory Summer InfiltrationVentilation Test Results from the FRTF Laboratory This presentation was delivered at the...

  19. BUILDING VENTILATION AND INDOOR AIR QUALITY PROGRAM. CHAPTER FROM ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1978

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cairns, Elton J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and in new "energy-efficient design" hospitals. Developmentenergy-efficient ventilation standards and ventilation designs

  20. Evaluating Control Strategies for Wireless-Networked Robots Using an Integrated Robot and Network Simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heidemann, John

    Evaluating Control Strategies for Wireless-Networked Robots Using an Integrated Robot and Network communication is an enabling factor in mul- tiple mobile robot systems. There is signi#12;cant interac- tion between robot controllers and communications sub- systems. We present a method for evaluating combined

  1. Integrated Control-Path Design and Error Recovery in the Synthesis of Digital

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakrabarty, Krishnendu

    11 Integrated Control-Path Design and Error Recovery in the Synthesis of Digital Microfluidic Lab-on-Chip YANG ZHAO, TAO XU, and KRISHNENDU CHAKRABARTY Duke University Recent advances in digital microfluidics that incorporates control paths and an error- recovery mechanism in the design of a digital microfluidic lab

  2. Integrated Design, Operation and Control of Batch Extractive Distillation with a Middle Vessel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Integrated Design, Operation and Control of Batch Extractive Distillation with a Middle Vessel E. K distillation for separating homogeneous minimum-boiling azeotropic mixtures, where the extractive agent and a control structure for the batch extractive middle vessel distillation is proposed. In extractive

  3. Integrated Design, Operation and Control of Batch Extractive Distillation with a Middle Vessel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Integrated Design, Operation and Control of Batch Extractive Distillation with a Middle Vessel E. K distillation for separating homogeneous minimum­boiling azeotropic mixtures, where the extractive agent and a control structure for the batch extractive middle vessel distillation is proposed. In extractive

  4. Shaping Power System Inter-area Oscillations through Control Loops of Grid Integrated Wind Farms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gayme, Dennice

    Shaping Power System Inter-area Oscillations through Control Loops of Grid Integrated Wind Farms. However, in many situations, it may not be possible to site a wind farm at the location with the most desirable frequency response. Here, we show that one can design a wind farm controller to shape

  5. An Intelligent Multi Agent System for Integrated Control & Asset Management of Petroleum Production Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, James H.

    An Intelligent Multi Agent System for Integrated Control & Asset Management of Petroleum Production control and asset management for the petroleum industry is crucial for profitable oil and gas facilities equipment, enhance safety, and improve product quality. Many research studies proposed different

  6. Lyapunov-based Integrator Resetting with Application to Marine Thruster Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johansen, Tor Arne

    1 Lyapunov-based Integrator Resetting with Application to Marine Thruster Control Jostein Bakkeheim negative jumps in the Lyapunov function value. The Lyapunov function constitutes a part of the controller of the overall system follows directly. The framework assumes that a Lyapunov function is given, and that full

  7. Control of mutual phase locking of monolithically integrated semiconductor lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kapon, E.; Katz, J.; Lindsey, C.; Margalit, S.; Yariv, A.

    1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The mutual coherence of two coupled semiconductor lasers is investigated experimentally. It is demonstrated that by varying the gain in the overlap region, the degree of phase coherence can be continuously controlled. The quantitative characterization of the degree of phase coherence by fringe visibility is demonstrated.

  8. Proportional and Proportional-Integral Controllers for a Nonlinear Hydraulic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Persis, Claudio

    in a nonlinear hydraulic network of a reduced-size yet meaningful district heating system with two end correspondingly the controllers. In this paper we focus on one of these case studies, a district heating system to the system. Presently district heating systems are designed to meet the needs of a given number of end users

  9. Structure preserving integrators for solving linear quadratic optimal control problems with applications to describe the flight of a quadrotor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blanes, Sergio

    Structure preserving integrators for solving linear quadratic optimal control problems control, linear quadratic methods, matrix Riccati differential equation, second order exponential. [8, 11, 14] during the last years. While the extensively studied linear quadratic optimal control (LQ

  10. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Hong-Shig Shim; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

    2003-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the tenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NO{sub x} control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing cofunding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, progress was made on the computational simulation of a full-scale boiler with the purpose of understanding the potential impacts of burner operating conditions on soot and NO{sub x} generation. Sulfation tests on both the titania support and vanadia/titania catalysts were completed using BYU's in situ spectroscopy reactor this quarter. These experiments focus on the extent to which vanadia and titania sulfate in an SO{sub 2}-laden, moist environment. Construction of the CCS reactor system is essentially complete and the control hardware and software are largely in place. A large batch of vanadia/titania catalyst in powder form has been prepared for use in poisoning tests. During this quarter, minor modifications were made to the multi-catalyst slipstream reactor and to the control system. The slipstream reactor was installed at AEP's Rockport plant at the end of November 2002. In this report, we describe the reactor system, particularly the control system, which was created by REI specifically for the reactor, as well as the installation at Rockport.

  11. Classroom HVAC: Improving ventilation and saving energy -- field study plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apte, Michael G.; Faulkner, David; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2004-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary goals of this research effort are to develop, evaluate, and demonstrate a very practical HVAC system for classrooms that consistently provides classrooms (CRs) with the quantity of ventilation in current minimum standards, while saving energy, and reducing HVAC-related noise levels. This research is motivated by the public benefits of energy efficiency, evidence that many CRs are under-ventilated, and public concerns about indoor environmental quality in CRs. This document provides a summary of the detailed plans developed for the field study that will take place in 2005 to evaluate the energy and IAQ performance of a new classroom HVAC technology. The field study will include measurements of HVAC energy use, ventilation rates, and IEQ conditions in 10 classrooms with the new HVAC technology and in six control classrooms with a standard HVAC system. Energy use and many IEQ parameters will be monitored continuously, while other IEQ measurements will be will be performed seasonally. Continuously monitored data will be remotely accessed via a LonWorks network. Instrument calibration plans that vary with the type of instrumentation used are established. Statistical tests will be employed to compare energy use and IEQ conditions with the new and standard HVAC systems. Strengths of this study plan include the collection of real time data for a full school year, the use of high quality instrumentation, the incorporation of many quality control measures, and the extensive collaborations with industry that limit costs to the sponsors.

  12. Evaluation of Ventilation Strategies in New Construction Multifamily Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxwell, S.; Berger, D.; Zuluaga, M.

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In multifamily buildings, particularly in the Northeast, exhaust ventilation strategies are the norm as a means of meeting both local exhaust and whole-unit mechanical ventilation rates. The issue of where the 'fresh' air is coming from is gaining significance as air-tightness standards for enclosures become more stringent, and the 'normal leakage paths through the building envelope' disappear. CARB researchers have found that the majority of high performance, new construction, multifamily housing in the Northeast use one of four general strategies for ventilation: continuous exhaust only with no designated supply or make-up air source, continuous exhaust with ducted make-up air to apartments, continuous exhaust with supply through a make-up air device integral to the unit HVAC, and continuous exhaust with supply through a passive inlet device, such as a trickle vent. Insufficient information is available to designers on how these various systems are best applied. Product performance data are based on laboratory tests, and the assumption is that products will perform similarly in the field. Proper application involves matching expected performance at expected building pressures, but there is no guarantee that those conditions will exist consistently in the finished building. This research effort, which included several weeks of building pressure monitoring, sought to provide field validation of system performance. The performance of four substantially different strategies for providing make-up air to apartments was evaluated.

  13. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Darren Shino; Dave Swenson; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2004-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the eighteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. Safety equipment for ammonia for the SCR slipstream reactor at Plant Gadsden was installed. The slipstream reactor was started and operated for about 1400 hours during the last performance period. Laboratory analysis of exposed catalyst and investigations of the sulfation of fresh catalyst continued at BYU. Thicker end-caps for the ECN probes were designed and fabricated to prevent the warpage and failure that occurred at Gavin with the previous design. A refurbished ECN probe was successfully tested at the University of Utah combustion laboratory. Improvements were implemented to the software that controls the flow of cooling air to the ECN probes.

  14. Industrial Applications of Networked Control Karl H. Johansson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johansson, Karl Henrik

    of turbine + heater Automatic control of ventilation fans · Mining consists of drilling, blasting, ore control of turbine + heater Controller Turbine- Ventilation Fan Tubes- Primary system Secondary system network rooms Pressure WSN Mobile WSN Automatic control of ventilation fans · Mobility and reconfiguration

  15. INTELLIGENT CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR NATURAL VENLTILATION USED IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ventilation will be controlled by driving the windows open. First, the ventilation model using in greenhouse is constructed specially using actuators for driving windows one by one, and control model is analyzed making the control model for natural ventilation is not given as well as how to realize the control

  16. Material protection, control and accounting cooperation at the Urals Electrochemical Integrated Plant (UEIP), Novouralsk, Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McAllister, S., LLNL

    1998-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Urals Electrochemical Integrated Plant is one of the Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy`s nuclear material production sites participating in the US Department of Energy`s Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program. The Urals Electrochemical Integrated Plant is Russia`s largest uranium enrichment facility and blends tons of high-enriched uranium into low enriched uranium each year as part of the US high-enriched uranium purchase. The Electrochemical Integrated Plant and six participating national laboratories are cooperating to implement a series of enhancements to the nuclear material protection, control, and accountability systems at the site This paper outlines the overall objectives of the MPC&A program at Urals Electrochemical Integrated Plant and the work completed as of the date of the presentation.

  17. Modular development and integration of a corrosion control system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elder, M.S.; D'Alves, B.M. (Saudi Aramco (SA))

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the consolidation and expansion of Saudi Aramco's computer systems used for capture and analysis of petroleum-facilities-related corrosion. Specifically, modular development techniques coupled with a prototyping methodology are highlighted as key contributors to the success of the project. A mainframe resident Corrosion Control System (CCS) was developed through joint efforts between the Northern Area Producing Operations Engineering (NAPOE) and Petroleum Engineering Applications Services (PEAS) departments. CCS takes full advantage of Saudi Aramco's extensive computing network to manage data on corrosion coupons, water quality, bacteria, chemical use, and cathodic protection. Selection of a centralized computer system over a distributed computing environment has yielded many benefits. The data management, user interface, and results presentation components are consistent. Remote users can take advantage of the installed computing infrastructure, workstations, and peripherals. The installed base of high-speed printers, color plotters, and slide equipment can be used easily for hard copy.

  18. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding; Robert Hurt

    2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the fourteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. Using the initial CFD baseline modeling of the Gavin Station and the plant corrosion maps, six boiler locations for the corrosion probes were identified and access ports have been installed. Preliminary corrosion data obtained appear consistent and believable. In situ, spectroscopic experiments at BYU reported in part last quarter were completed. New reactor tubes have been made for BYU's CCR that allow for testing smaller amounts of catalyst and thus increasing space velocity; monolith catalysts have been cut and a small reactor that can accommodate these pieces for testing is in its final stages of construction. A poisoning study on Ca-poisoned catalysts was begun this quarter. A possible site for a biomass co-firing test of the slipstream reactor was visited this quarter. The slipstream reactor at Rockport required repair and refurbishment, and will be re-started in the next quarter. This report describes the final results of an experimental project at Brown University on the fundamentals of ammonia / fly ash interactions with relevance to the operation of advanced NOx control technologies such as selective catalytic reduction. The Brown task focused on the measurement of ammonia adsorption isotherms on commercial fly ash samples subjected to a variety of treatments and on the chemistry of dry and semi-dry ammonia removal processes.

  19. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Martin Denison; Adel Sarofim; Connie Senior; Hong-Shig Shim; Dave Swenson; Bob Hurt; Eric Suuberg; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker

    2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the Final Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project was to develop cost-effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low-NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) provided co-funding for this program. This project included research on: (1) In furnace NOx control; (2) Impacts of combustion modifications on boiler operation; (3) Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst testing and (4) Ammonia adsorption/removal on fly ash. Important accomplishments were achieved in all aspects of the project. Rich Reagent Injection (RRI), an in-furnace NOx reduction strategy based on injecting urea or anhydrous ammonia into fuel rich regions in the lower furnace, was evaluated for cyclone-barrel and PC fired utility boilers. Field tests successfully demonstrated the ability of the RRI process to significantly reduce NOx emissions from a staged cyclone-fired furnace operating with overfire air. The field tests also verified the accuracy of the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) modeling used to develop the RRI design and highlighted the importance of using CFD modeling to properly locate and configure the reagent injectors within the furnace. Low NOx firing conditions can adversely impact boiler operation due to increased waterwall wastage (corrosion) and increased soot production. A corrosion monitoring system that uses electrochemical noise (ECN) corrosion probes to monitor, on a real-time basis, high temperature corrosion events within the boiler was evaluated. Field tests were successfully conducted at two plants. The Ohio Coal Development Office provided financial assistance to perform the field tests. To investigate soot behavior, an advanced model to predict soot production and destruction was implemented into an existing reacting CFD modeling tool. Comparisons between experimental data collected in a pilot scale furnace and soot behavior predicted by the CFD model showed good agreement. Field and laboratory tests were performed for SCR catalysts used for coal and biomass co-firing applications. Fundamental laboratory studies were performed to better understand mechanisms involved with catalyst deactivation. Field tests with a slip stream reactor were used to create catalyst exposed to boiler flue gas for firing coal and for co-firing coal and biomass. The field data suggests the mechanisms leading to catalyst deactivation are, in order of importance, channel plugging, surface fouling, pore plugging and poisoning. Investigations were performed to better understand the mechanisms involved with catalyst regeneration through mechanical or chemical methods. A computer model was developed to predict NOx reduction across the catalyst in a SCR. Experiments were performed to investigate the fundamentals of ammonia/fly ash interactions with relevance to the operation of advanced NOx control technologies such as selective catalytic reduction. Measurements were performed for ammonia adsorption isotherms on commercial fly ash samples subjected to a variety of treatments and on the chemistry of dry and semi-dry ammonia removal processes. This work resulted in the first fundamental ammonia isotherms on carbon-containing fly ash samples. This work confirms industrial reports that aqueous solution chemistry takes place upon the introduction of even very small amounts of water, while the ash remains in a semi-dry state.

  20. Measuring Residential Ventilation System Airflows: Part 1 Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Measuring Residential Ventilation System Airflows: Part 1 ­ Laboratory Evaluation of Airflow: residential, mechanical ventilation, measurement, ASHRAE 62.2, flow hood ABSTRACT Building codes increasingly require tighter homes and mechanical ventilation per ASHRAE Standard 62.2. These ventilation flows must

  1. THE MECHANICS OF LUNG TISSUE UNDER HIGH-FREQUENCY VENTILATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Mark

    THE MECHANICS OF LUNG TISSUE UNDER HIGH-FREQUENCY VENTILATION MARKUS R. OWEN AND MARK A. LEWIS SIAM­1761 Abstract. High-frequency ventilation is a radical departure from conventional lung ventilation question concerns ventilator-induced damage to the lung tissue, and a clear protocol for the most effective

  2. THE MECHANICS OF LUNG TISSUE UNDER HIGH-FREQUENCY VENTILATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    THE MECHANICS OF LUNG TISSUE UNDER HIGH-FREQUENCY VENTILATION MARKUS R. OWEN AND MARK A. LEWIS Abstract. High frequency ventilation is a radical departure from conventional lung ventilation question concerns ventilator induced damage to the lung tissue, and a clear protocol for the most effective

  3. Building America Webinar: Multifamily Ventilation Strategies and Compartmentalization Requirements

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The webinar will focus on key challenges in multifamily ventilation and strategies to address these challenges.

  4. RECOMMENDED VENTILATION STRATEGIES FOR ENERGY-EFFICIENT PRODUCTION HOMES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -port exhaust ventilation fan, and that builders offer balanced heat- recovery ventilation to buyersLBNL-40378 UC-000 RECOMMENDED VENTILATION STRATEGIES FOR ENERGY-EFFICIENT PRODUCTION HOMES Judy A of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC03-76SF00098. #12;i Abstract This report evaluates residential ventilation

  5. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior Darren Shino; Dave Swenson; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the seventeenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. The SCR slipstream reactor was assembled and installed at Plant Gadsden this quarter. Safety equipment for ammonia had not been installed at the end of the quarter, but will be installed at the beginning of next quarter. The reactor will be started up next quarter. Four ECN corrosion probes were reinstalled at Gavin and collected corrosion data for approximately one month. Two additional probes were installed and removed after about 30 hours for future profilometry analysis. Preliminary analysis of the ECN probes, the KEMA coupons and the CFD modeling results all agree with the ultrasonic tube test measurements gathered by AEP personnel.

  6. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

    2001-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the fifth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing cofunding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. Field tests for NOx reduction in a cyclone fired utility boiler due to using Rich Reagent Injection (RRI) have been started. CFD modeling studies have been started to evaluate the use of RRI for NOx reduction in a corner fired utility boiler using pulverized coal. Field tests of a corrosion monitor to measure waterwall wastage in a utility boiler have been completed. Computational studies to evaluate a soot model within a boiler simulation program are continuing. Research to evaluate SCR catalyst performance has started. A literature survey was completed. Experiments have been outlined and two flow reactor systems have been designed and are under construction. Commercial catalyst vendors have been contacted about supplying catalyst samples. Several sets of new experiments have been performed to investigate ammonia removal processes and mechanisms for fly ash. Work has focused on a promising class of processes in which ammonia is destroyed by strong oxidizing agents at ambient temperature during semi-dry processing (the use of moisture amounts less than 5 wt-%). Both ozone and an ozone/peroxide combination have been used to treat both basic and acidic ammonia-laden ashes.

  7. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Bob Hurt; Eric Suuberg; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

    2002-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the sixth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. Preliminary results from laboratory and field tests of a corrosion probe to predict waterwall wastage indicate good agreement between the electrochemical noise corrosion rates predicted by the probe and corrosion rates measured by a surface profilometer. Four commercial manufacturers agreed to provide catalyst samples to the program. BYU has prepared two V/Ti oxide catalysts (custom, powder form) containing commercially relevant concentrations of V oxide and one containing a W oxide promoter. Two pieces of experimental apparatus being built at BYU to carry out laboratory-scale investigations of SCR catalyst deactivation are nearly completed. A decision was made to carry out the testing at full-scale power plants using a slipstream of gas instead of at the University of Utah pilot-scale coal combustor as originally planned. Design of the multi-catalyst slipstream reactor was completed during this quarter. One utility has expressed interest in hosting a long-term test at one of their plants that co-fire wood with coal. Tests to study ammonia adsorption onto fly ash have clearly established that the only routes that can play a role in binding significant amounts of ammonia to the ash surface, under practical ammonia slip conditions, are those that must involve co-adsorbates.

  8. Midlevel ventilation's constraint on tropical cyclone intensity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Brian Hong-An

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Midlevel ventilation, or the flux of low-entropy air into the inner core of a tropical cyclone (TC), is a hypothesized mechanism by which environmental vertical wind shear can constrain a TC's intensity. An idealized ...

  9. Tunnel ventilation effectiveness in fire scenarios 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colella, Francesco; Rein, Guillermo; Carvel, Ricky O; Torero, Jose L

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Throughout most of a tunnel network the ventilation behaviour may be approximated with a simple 1D flow model. However, there are some important - but relatively small - regions of the tunnel that require CFD analysis. The multi-scale model...

  10. Midlevel Ventilation's Constraint on Tropical Cyclone Intensity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Brian Hong-An

    Midlevel ventilation, or the flux of low-entropy air into the inner core of a tropical cyclone (TC), is a hypothesized mechanism by which environmental vertical wind shear can constrain a tropical cyclone’s intensity. An ...

  11. Performance Assessment of Photovoltaic Attic Ventilator Fans 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, D. S.; Sherwin, J. R.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    has long been identified as a method to abate such heat gains. We present test results from using the photovoltaic (PV) attic ventilator fans in a test home to assess impact on attic and cooling energy performance....

  12. Floor-supply displacement ventilation system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kobayashi, Nobukazu, 1967-

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research on indoor environments has received more attention recently because reports of symptoms and other health complaints related to indoor environments have been increasing. Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning ...

  13. May 1999 LBNL -42975 ASHRAE'S RESIDENTIAL VENTILATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    May 1999 LBNL - 42975 ASHRAE'S RESIDENTIAL VENTILATION STANDARD: EXEGESIS OF PROPOSED STANDARD 62 standard. 1 Max Sherman is a Senior Scientist at LBNL and the group leader of its Energy Performance

  14. Scale model studies of displacement ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Okutan, Galip Mehmet

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Displacement ventilation is an air conditioning method that provides conditioned air to indoor environments with the goal to improve air quality while reducing energy consumption. This study investigates the performance ...

  15. Performance Assessment of Photovoltaic Attic Ventilator Fans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, D. S.; Sherwin, J. R.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    has long been identified as a method to abate such heat gains. We present test results from using the photovoltaic (PV) attic ventilator fans in a test home to assess impact on attic and cooling energy performance....

  16. Integrated Safety Management System as the Basis for Work Planning and Control for Research and Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Slide Presentation by Rich Davies, Kami Lowry, Mike Schlender, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Ted Pietrok, Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO). Integrated Safety Management System as the Basis for Work Planning and Control for Research and Development. Work Planning and Control (WP&C) is essential to assuring the safety of workers and the public regardless of the scope of work Research and Development (R&D) activities are no exception.

  17. Industrial Ventilation Statistics Confirm Energy Savings Opportunity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Litomisky, A.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is based on installed on-demand ventilation systems, where sensors and PLC are installed with each system, so data is easily collected. Another critical factor for effective dust collecting is proper air velocities in duct system. Having measured air... velocities at drops and at the main ducts of existing classical industrial ventilation designs in 90 factories, 130 systems, and 1000 drops, we have found that only a minimum of air velocities are in the recommended range. There is a striking dichotomy...

  18. A Novel Fractional Order Fuzzy PID Controller and Its Optimal Time Domain Tuning Based on Integral Performance Indices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Saptarshi; Das, Shantanu; Gupta, Amitava; 10.1016/j.engappai.2011.10.004

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel fractional order (FO) fuzzy Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller has been proposed in this paper which works on the closed loop error and its fractional derivative as the input and has a fractional integrator in its output. The fractional order differ-integrations in the proposed fuzzy logic controller (FLC) are kept as design variables along with the input-output scaling factors (SF) and are optimized with Genetic Algorithm (GA) while minimizing several integral error indices along with the control signal as the objective function. Simulations studies are carried out to control a delayed nonlinear process and an open loop unstable process with time delay. The closed loop performances and controller efforts in each case are compared with conventional PID, fuzzy PID and PI{\\lambda}D{\\mu} controller subjected to different integral performance indices. Simulation results show that the proposed fractional order fuzzy PID controller outperforms the others in most cases.

  19. Disposable colorimetric carbon dioxide detector use as an indicator of a patent airway during noninvasive mask ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leone, T A; Lange, A; Rich, W; Finer, N N

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During Noninvasive Mask Ventilation Tina A. Leone, Allisonduring bag and mask ventilation and en- courage others toposi- tive pressure ventilation in preterm babies ventilated

  20. A Framework for Integrating real-time MRI with Robot Control: Application to Simulated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azevedo, Ricardo

    1 A Framework for Integrating real-time MRI with Robot Control: Application to Simulated applications in urology [2], cardiac ablation with fluoroscopy guided Sensei robotic catheter system (Hansen interventional paradigms including image-guided robot assistance. Most often the use of an intraoperative imaging

  1. Path Integral Control by Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Space Embedding Konrad Rawlik

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vijayakumar, Sethu

    of stochastic optimal control problems, of the so called path integral form, into reproducing kernel Hilbert efficiency, are provided. 1 Introduction While solving general non-linear stochastic optimal con- trol (SOC new sam- ples [Theodorou et al., 2010; 2009]. Additionally, the ap- proach remains model

  2. Functional requirements with survey results for integrated intrusion detection and access control annunciator systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arakaki, L.H.; Monaco, F.M.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains the guidance Functional Requirements for an Integrated Intrusion Detection and Access Control Annunciator System, and survey results of selected commercial systems. The survey questions were based upon the functional requirements; therefore, the results reflect which and sometimes how the guidance recommendations were met.

  3. A 3-DoF Experimental Test-Bed for Integrated Attitude Dynamics and Control Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsiotras, Panagiotis

    of the spacecraft are developed for the entire platform both for vari- able and fixed wheel configurations to the center of rotation of the platform for the fixed wheel configuration. The simulation and experimentalA 3-DoF Experimental Test-Bed for Integrated Attitude Dynamics and Control Research Dongwon Jung

  4. Operation and Control of Distribution Systems with high level integration of Renewable Generation units

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    models Probabilistic methodologies are being applied to power system analysis since 70' [9] becauseOperation and Control of Distribution Systems with high level integration of Renewable Generation. Diagonal 649 Pavelló A, 08028 Barcelona, Spain Summary Traditional power systems have a hierarchical

  5. Integrated Dynamic Optimization and Control in Reservoir Engineering using Locally Identified Linear Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van den Hof, Paul

    on dynamic real-time optimization (D- RTO) of waterflooding strategies in petroleum reservoirs haveIntegrated Dynamic Optimization and Control in Reservoir Engineering using Locally Identified, the used large-scale, nonlinear, physics-based reservoir models suffer from vast parametric uncertainty

  6. THE INTEGRATION AND CONTROL OF MULTIFUNCTIONAL STATIONARY PV-BATTERY SYSTEMS IN SMART DISTRIBUTION GRID

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berning, Torsten

    ) in presence of photovoltaic (PV) panel on the view of techno economic optimal sizing taking the considerationTHE INTEGRATION AND CONTROL OF MULTIFUNCTIONAL STATIONARY PV-BATTERY SYSTEMS IN SMART DISTRIBUTION stationary battery energy storage systems (BESS) in the public low-voltage distribution grid in order

  7. Seamless Integration of Heterogeneous Devices and Access Control in Smart Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seamless Integration of Heterogeneous Devices and Access Control in Smart Homes Ji Eun Kim1 to smart homes. These systems consist of sensors, devices and smart appliances that can be monitored for smart homes creates a barrier against the interoperability of devices from different vendors. We address

  8. 1268 Plant Disease /Vol. 97 No. 10 Integrated Control of Potato Pathogens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scharer, John E.

    1268 Plant Disease /Vol. 97 No. 10 Integrated Control of Potato Pathogens Through Seed Potato Certification and Provision of Clean Seed Potatoes Kenneth E. Frost Department of Plant Pathology, University, the healthy planting stocks for the major vegetatively propagated crops, such as potato, sweet potato, cassava

  9. Room air stratification in combined chilled ceiling and displacement ventilation systems.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred; Tully, Brad; Rimmer, Julian

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    nodal model for displacement ventilation and chilled ceiling2002. Displacement ventilation in non- industrial premises.ceiling/displacement ventilation hybrid air conditioning

  10. Assessment of Indoor Air Quality Benefits and Energy Costs of Mechanical Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Logue, J.M.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Costs of Mechanical Ventilation KEMA-XENERGY.2004.Offermann, F. J.2009. Ventilation and indoor air quality intowards meeting residential ventilation needs. Berkeley, CA,

  11. Infiltration Effects on Residential Pollutant Concentrations for Continuous and Intermittent Mechanical Ventilation Approaches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Max

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    P. (2002). Technical Note AIVC 57: Residential Ventilation.Air Infiltration and Ventilation Center (AIVC) Edwards, R.Related to Residential Ventilation Requirements. Berkeley,

  12. BUILDING VENTILATION AND INDOOR AIR QUALITY PROGRAM. CHAPTER FROM ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1978

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cairns, Elton J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The first section on the Ventilation Program, funded by thea large study on hospital ventilation require- ments.iii Ventilation Program C. D. Hollowell, A. Anaclerio, D. W.

  13. Created: July, 2014 Laboratory Safety Design Guide Section 3 Laboratory Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Queitsch, Christine

    Created: July, 2014 Laboratory Safety Design Guide Section 3 ­ Laboratory Ventilation 3-1 Section 3 LABORATORY VENTILATION Contents A. Scope .................................................................................................................3-2 B. General Laboratory Ventilation

  14. Risk Factors in Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Systems for Occupant Symptoms in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mendell, M.J.; Lei-Gomez, Q.; Mirer, A.; Seppanen, O.; Brunner, G.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LBNL-61870 Risk Factors in Heating, Ventilating, and Air-for Occupant Symptoms in Heating, Ventilating, and Air-uncertain. Characteristics of heating, ventilating, and air-

  15. BUILDING VENTILATION AND INDOOR AIR QUALITY PROGRAM. CHAPTER FROM ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1978

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cairns, Elton J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    occupants. The heating, ventilation and air conditioning (third of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (see Fig. 1) Heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC)

  16. Modelica Library for Building Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wetter, Michael

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for Building Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioningfor Building Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioningfor building heating, ventilation and air con- ditioning

  17. INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND ENERGY EFFICIENT VENTILATION RATES AT A NEW YORK CITY ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young, Rodger A.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To determine the yearly ventilation-heating load for thecalculations of ventilation heating load 25 in variousexi~ting school heating and ventilation conditions. It must

  18. Risk Factors in Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Systems for Occupant Symptoms in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mendell, M.J.; Lei-Gomez, Q.; Mirer, A.; Seppanen, O.; Brunner, G.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for building ventilation systems." Retrieved December 15,of moisture and ventilation system contamination in U.S.installed in office ventilation systems on workers' health

  19. Relationship of SBS-symptoms and ventilation system type in office buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seppanen, O.; Fisk, W.J.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SBS-SYMPTOMS AND VENTILATION SYSTEM TYPE IN OFFICE BUILDINGSSBS-SYMPTOMS AND VENTILATION SYSTEM TYPE IN OFFICE BUILDINGSabout the associations of ventilation system types in office

  20. Air change effectiveness in laboratory tests of combined chilled ceiling and displacement ventilation.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred; Tully, Brad; Rimmer, Julian

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and displacement ventilation systems. Energy and Buildings,and displacement ventilation systems. Submitted to HVAC&R (and displacement ventilation system. According to Novoselac

  1. Procedures and Standards for Residential Ventilation System Commissioning: An Annotated Bibliography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stratton, J. Chris

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Residential Mechanical Ventilation Systems”. CAN/CSA-F326-of Domestic Ventilation Systems”. International EnergyPassive Stack Ventilation Systems: Design and Installation”.

  2. Energy and air quality implications of passive stack ventilation in residential buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mortensen, Dorthe Kragsig

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tighter, designed ventilation systems are more frequentlyof passive stack ventilation systems. They have been usedto having a good ventilation system and therefore also to

  3. OCCUPANT-GENERATED CO2 AS AN INDICATOR OF VENTILATION RATE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turiel, Isaac

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ln mechanical ventilation systems are often inconvenientlywas conducted, the ventilation system mixes outside air withon a day when the ventilation system was in the all-outside-

  4. Infiltration Effects on Residential Pollutant Concentrations for Continuous and Intermittent Mechanical Ventilation Approaches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Max

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of whole-house ventilation systems in meeting exposurefor residential ventilation system design is the Americanand operating ventilation systems with variable amounts of

  5. Room air stratification in combined chilled ceiling and displacement ventilation systems.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred; Tully, Brad; Rimmer, Julian

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and displacement ventilation systems. HVAC&R Research, 12 (and displacement ventilation system. ASHRAE RP-1438 Finalof Displacement Ventilation System—Experimental and

  6. Association of ventilation system type with SBS symptoms in office workers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seppanen, Olli; Fisk, William J.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Evaluation of Swedish ventilation systems” Building andP. (1995) “Type of ventilation system in office buildingsEvaluation of ventilation system materials as sources of

  7. Energy and Cost Associated with Ventilating Office Buildings in a Tropical Climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rim, Donghyun; Schiavon, Stefano; Nazaroff, William W

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heating and cooling energy demand in Switzer- land. Energyorder: 1) ventilation energy demand; 2) ventilation energythe study. Ventilation energy demand Fig 2A summarizes the

  8. 346 IEEE/ASME TRANSACTIONS ON MECHATRONICS, VOL. 6, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2001 Fig. 31. Control voltage of the sliding-mode controller without an integrator.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ge, Shuzhi Sam

    the external disturbance forces, we used an integral sliding-mode controller. We derived the mathematical model and Y. C. Wu, "Integral variable structure control approach for robot manipulators," in Proc. Inst, Santa Barbara, CA, Dec. 1­3, 1999, pp. 443­457. Model-Free Regulation of Multilink Smart Materials

  9. Integrated dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} emissions control system: integrated system test report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, R.A.; Muzio, L.J. [Fossil Energy Research Corp., Laguna Hills, CA (United States); Hunt, T. [Public Service Co. of Colorado, Denver, CO (United States)

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The DOE sponsored Integrated Dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} Emissions Control System Program, is a Clean Coal Technology III demonstration, being conducted by Public Service Company of Colorado. The test site is Arapahoe Generating Station Unit 4, a 100 MWe, down-fired utility boiler burning a low-sulfur Western coal. The project goal is to demonstrate up to 70 percent reductions in NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} emissions through the integration of: (1) down-fired low NO{sub x} burners with overfire air; (2) Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) for additional NO{sub x} removal; and (3) Dry Sorbent Injection (DSI) and duct humidification for SO{sub 2} removal. This report documents the final phase of the test program, in which the overall performance of the integrated system was evaluated. Previous testing has shown that the goal of 70 percent NO{sub x} removal was easily achieved with the combination of low-NO{sub x} burners, overfire air, and urea-based SNCR. Similarly, the ability of the sodium-based DSI system to achieve 70 percent SO{sub 2} removal was also demonstrated previously. The integrated tests demonstrated the synergistic benefit of operating the SNCR and sodium-based DSI systems concurrently. With the automatic control system set to limit the NH{sub 3} emissions to less than 8 ppm, the NO{sub 2} emissions from the sodium-based DSI system were reduced by nominally 50 percent compared to operation with the DSI system alone. Comparably, the combined operation reduced NH{sub 3} emissions, as reflected by a higher urea injection rate for a fixed NH{sub 3} emission limit. With combined DSI and SNCR operation, an ammonia odor problem was encountered around the Unit 4 ash silo (this did not occur with the SNCR system operated alone at comparable NH{sub 3} slip levels). This odor problem is attributed to the sodium changing the rate at which NH{sub 3} is released from the ash when it is wetted for truck transport to the disposal site.

  10. Integrated Computing, Communication, and Distributed Control of Deregulated Electric Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bajura, Richard; Feliachi, Ali

    2008-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Restructuring of the electricity market has affected all aspects of the power industry from generation to transmission, distribution, and consumption. Transmission circuits, in particular, are stressed often exceeding their stability limits because of the difficulty in building new transmission lines due to environmental concerns and financial risk. Deregulation has resulted in the need for tighter control strategies to maintain reliability even in the event of considerable structural changes, such as loss of a large generating unit or a transmission line, and changes in loading conditions due to the continuously varying power consumption. Our research efforts under the DOE EPSCoR Grant focused on Integrated Computing, Communication and Distributed Control of Deregulated Electric Power Systems. This research is applicable to operating and controlling modern electric energy systems. The controls developed by APERC provide for a more efficient, economical, reliable, and secure operation of these systems. Under this program, we developed distributed control algorithms suitable for large-scale geographically dispersed power systems and also economic tools to evaluate their effectiveness and impact on power markets. Progress was made in the development of distributed intelligent control agents for reliable and automated operation of integrated electric power systems. The methodologies employed combine information technology, control and communication, agent technology, and power systems engineering in the development of intelligent control agents for reliable and automated operation of integrated electric power systems. In the event of scheduled load changes or unforeseen disturbances, the power system is expected to minimize the effects and costs of disturbances and to maintain critical infrastructure operational.

  11. International Conference on Machine Control & Guidance 2008 1 Integration of Controllers for Filter Algorithms for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for Filter Algorithms for Construction Machine Guidance Alexander BEETZ*, Volker SCHWIEGER** Universität measurement techniques as well as control and filter algorithms. In Schwieger/Beetz 2007 could be shown

  12. Advanced Communication and Control for Distributed Energy Resource Integration: Phase 2 Scientific Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BPL Global

    2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research project is to demonstrate sensing, communication, information and control technologies to achieve a seamless integration of multivendor distributed energy resource (DER) units at aggregation levels that meet individual user requirements for facility operations (residential, commercial, industrial, manufacturing, etc.) and further serve as resource options for electric and natural gas utilities. The fully demonstrated DER aggregation system with embodiment of communication and control technologies will lead to real-time, interactive, customer-managed service networks to achieve greater customer value. Work on this Advanced Communication and Control Project (ACCP) consists of a two-phase approach for an integrated demonstration of communication and control technologies to achieve a seamless integration of DER units to reach progressive levels of aggregated power output. Phase I involved design and proof-of-design, and Phase II involves real-world demonstration of the Phase I design architecture. The scope of work for Phase II of this ACCP involves demonstrating the Phase I design architecture in large scale real-world settings while integrating with the operations of one or more electricity supplier feeder lines. The communication and control architectures for integrated demonstration shall encompass combinations of software and hardware components, including: sensors, data acquisition and communication systems, remote monitoring systems, metering (interval revenue, real-time), local and wide area networks, Web-based systems, smart controls, energy management/information systems with control and automation of building energy loads, and demand-response management with integration of real-time market pricing. For Phase II, BPL Global shall demonstrate the Phase I design for integrating and controlling the operation of more than 10 DER units, dispersed at various locations in one or more Independent System Operator (ISO) Control Areas, at an aggregated scale of more than 1 MW, to provide grid support. Actual performance data with respect to each specified function above is to be collected during the Phase II field demonstration. At a minimum, the Phase II demonstration shall span one year of field operations. The demonstration performance will need to be validated by the target customer(s) for acceptance and subsequent implementation. An ISO must be involved in demonstration planning and execution. As part of the Phase II work, BPL Global shall develop a roadmap to commercialization that identifies and quantifies the potential markets for the integrated, aggregated DER systems and for the communication and control technologies demonstrated in Phase I. In addition, the roadmap must identify strategies and actions, as well as the regional and national markets where the aggregated DER systems with communication and control solutions will be introduced, along with a timeline projected for introduction into each identified market. In Phase I of this project, we developed a proof-of-concept ACCP system and architecture and began to test its functionality at real-world sites. These sites had just over 10 MW of DERs and allowed us to identify what needed to be done to commercialize this concept. As a result, we started Phase II by looking at our existing platform and identified its strengths and weaknesses as well as how it would need to evolve for commercialization. During this process, we worked with different stakeholders in the market including: Independent System Operators, DER owners and operators, and electric utility companies to fully understand the issues from all of the different perspectives. Once we had an understanding of the commercialized ACCP system, we began to document and prepare detailed designs of the different system components. The components of the system with the most significant design improvements were: the on-site remote terminal unit, the communication technology between the remote site and the data center, and the scalability and reliability of the data center application.

  13. Worker performance and ventilation in a call center: Analyses of work performance data for registered nurses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Federspiel, C.C.; Fisk, W.J.; Price, P.N.; Liu, G.; Faulkner, D.; Dibartolomeo, D.L.; Sullivan, D.P.; Lahiff, M.

    2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigated the relationship between ventilation rates and individual work performance in a call center, and controlled for other factors of the indoor environment. We randomized the position of the outdoor air control dampers, and measured ventilation rate, differential (indoor minus outdoor) carbon dioxide ({Delta}CO{sub 2}) concentration, supply air velocity, temperature, humidity, occupant density, degree of under-staffing, shift length, time of day, and time required to complete two different work performance tasks (talking with clients and post-talk wrap-up to process information). {Delta}CO{sub 2} concentrations ranged from 13 to 611 ppm. We used multi-variable regression to model the association between the predictors and the responses. We found that agents performed talk tasks fastest when the ventilation rate was highest, but that the relationship between talk performance and ventilation was not strong or monotonic. We did not find a statistically significant association between wrap-up performance and ventilation rate. Agents were slower at the wrap-up task when the temperature was high (>25.4 C). Agents were slower at wrap-up during long shifts and when the call center was under-staffed.

  14. Cleanup and Dismantling of Highly Contaminated Ventilation Systems Using Robotic Tools - 13162

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chambon, Frederic [AREVA FEDERAL SERVICES, Columbia MD (United States)] [AREVA FEDERAL SERVICES, Columbia MD (United States); CIZEL, Jean-Pierre [AREVA BE/NV, Marcoule (France)] [AREVA BE/NV, Marcoule (France); Blanchard, Samuel [CEA DEN/DPAD, Marcoule (France)] [CEA DEN/DPAD, Marcoule (France)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The UP1 plant reprocessed nearly 20,000 tons of used natural uranium gas cooled reactor fuel coming from the first generation of civil nuclear reactors in France. Following operating incidents in the eighties, the ventilation system of the continuous dissolution line facility was shut down and replaced. Two types of remote controlled tool carriers were developed to perform the decontamination and dismantling operations of the highly contaminated ventilation duct network. The first one, a dedicated small robot, was designed from scratch to retrieve a thick powder deposit within a duct. The robot, managed and confined by two dedicated glove boxes, was equipped for intervention inside the ventilation duct and used for carrying various cleanup and inspection tools. The second type, consisting of robotic tools developed on the base of an industrial platform, was used for the clean-up and dismantling of the ventilation duct system. Depending on the type of work to be performed, on the shape constraints of the rooms and any equipment to be dismantled, different kinds of robotic tools were developed and installed on a Brokk 40 carrier. After more than ten years of ventilation duct D and D operations at the UP1 plant, a lot of experience was acquired about remote operations. The three main important lessons learned in terms of remote controlled operation are: characterizing the initial conditions as much as reasonably possible, performing non-radioactive full scale testing and making it as simple and modular as possible. (authors)

  15. Energy-Efficient and Comfortable Buildings through Multivariate Integrated Control (ECoMIC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birru, Dagnachew [Philips Research North America; Wen, Yao-Jung [Philips Research North America; Rubinstein, Francis M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Clear, Robert D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    2013-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This project aims to develop an integrated control solution for enhanced energy efficiency and user comfort in commercial buildings. The developed technology is a zone-based control framework that minimizes energy usage while maintaining occupants’ visual and thermal comfort through control of electric lights, motorized venetian blinds and thermostats. The control framework is designed following a modular, scalable and flexible architecture to facilitate easy integration with exiting building management systems. The control framework contains two key algorithms: 1) the lighting load balancing algorithm and 2) the thermostat control algorithm. The lighting load balancing algorithm adopts a model-based closed-loop control approach to determine the optimal electric light and venetian blind settings. It is formulated into an optimization problem with minimizing lighting-related energy consumptions as the objective and delivering adequate task light and preventing daylight glare as the constraints. The thermostat control algorithm is based on a well-established thermal comfort model and formulated as a root-finding problem to dynamically determine the optimal thermostat setpoint for both energy savings and improved thermal comfort. To address building-wide scalability, a system architecture was developed for the zone-based control technology. Three levels of services are defined in the architecture: external services, facility level services and zone level services. The zone-level service includes the control algorithms described above as well as the corresponding interfaces, profiles, sensors and actuators to realize the zone controller. The facility level services connect to the zones through a backbone network, handle supervisory level information and controls, and thus facilitate building-wide scalability. The external services provide communication capability to entities outside of the building for grid interaction and remote access. Various aspects of the developed control technology were evaluated and verified through both simulations and testbed implementations. Simulations coupling a DOE medium office reference building in EnergyPlus building simulation software and a prototype controller in Matlab were performed. During summer time in a mixed-humid climate zone, the simulations revealed reductions of 27% and 42% in electric lighting load and cooling load, respectively, when compared to an advanced base case with daylight dimming and blinds automatically tilted to block direct sun. Two single-room testbeds were established. The testbed at Philips Lighting business building (Rosemont, IL) was designed for quantifying energy performance of integrated controls. This particular implementation achieved 40% and 79% savings on lighting and HVAC energy, respectively, compared to a relatively simple base case operated on predefined schedules. While the resulting energy savings was very encouraging, it should be noted that there may be several caveats associated with it. 1) The test was run during late spring and early summer, and the savings numbers might not be directly used to extrapolate the annual energy savings. 2) Due to the needs for separate control and metering of the small-scale demonstrator within a large building, the HVAC system, hence the corresponding savings, did not represent a typical energy code-compliant design. 3) The light level in the control case was regulated at a particular setpoint, which was lower than then the full-on light level in the base case, and the savings resulted from tuning down the light level to the setpoint was not attributable to the contribution of the developed technology. The testbed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley, CA) specifically focused on glare control integration, and has demonstrated the feasibility and capability of the glare detection and prevention technique. While the short one-month test in this testbed provided a functional indication of the developed technology, and it would require at least a full solstice-to-solstice cycle to ruinously quan

  16. Computer Simulation of Cooling Effect of Wind Tower on Passively Ventilated Building 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seryak, J.; Kissock, J. K.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Traditional buildings are cooled and ventilated by mechanically induced drafts. Natural ventilation aspires to cool and ventilate a building by natural means, such as cross ventilation or wind towers, without mechanical equipment. A simple computer...

  17. Estimated costs of ventilation systems complying with the HUD ventilation standard for manufactured homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, J.D.; Conner, C.C.

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At the request of the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory estimated the material, labor, and operating costs for ventilation equipment needed for compliance with HUD`s proposed revision to the ventilation standard for manufactured housing. This was intended to bound the financial impacts of the ventilation standard revision. Researchers evaluated five possible prototype ventilation systems that met the proposed ventilation requirements. Of those five, two systems were determined to be the most likely used by housing manufacturers: System 1 combines a fresh air duct with the existing central forced-air system to supply and circulate fresh air to conditioned spaces. System 2 uses a separate exhaust fan to remove air from the manufactured home. The estimated material and labor costs for these two systems range from $200 to $300 per home. Annual operating costs for the two ventilation systems were estimated for 20 US cities. The estimated operating costs for System 1 ranged from $55/year in Las Vegas, Nevada, to $83/year in Bismarck, North Dakota. Operating costs for System 2 ranged from a low of $35/year in Las Vegas to $63/year in Bismarck. Thus, HUD`s proposed increase in ventilation requirements will add less than $100/year to the energy cost of a manufactured home.

  18. DEMONSTRATION OF AN ADVANCED INTEGRATED CONTROL SYSTEM FOR SIMULTANEOUS EMISSIONS REDUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suzanne Shea; Randhir Sehgal; Ilga Celmins; Andrew Maxson

    2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of the project titled ''Demonstration of an Advanced Integrated Control System for Simultaneous Emissions Reduction'' was to demonstrate at proof-of-concept scale the use of an online software package, the ''Plant Environmental and Cost Optimization System'' (PECOS), to optimize the operation of coal-fired power plants by economically controlling all emissions simultaneously. It combines physical models, neural networks, and fuzzy logic control to provide both optimal least-cost boiler setpoints to the boiler operators in the control room, as well as optimal coal blending recommendations designed to reduce fuel costs and fuel-related derates. The goal of the project was to demonstrate that use of PECOS would enable coal-fired power plants to make more economic use of U.S. coals while reducing emissions.

  19. Path Integrals over Measurement Amplitudes: Practical Quantum Foundations for Signal Processing and Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. A. Sidles

    2002-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown that classical control diagrams can be mapped one-to-one onto quantum path integrals over measurement amplitudes. To show the practical utility of this method, exact closed-form expressions are derived for the control dynamics and quantum noise levels of a test mass observed by a Fabry-Perot interferometer. This formalism provides an efficient yet rigorous method for analyzing complex systems such as interferometric gravity wave detectors and magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM) experiments. Quantum limits are conjectured for the sensitivity of interferometric observation of test mass trajectories.

  20. Design of a Natural Ventilation System in the Dunhuang Museum 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Y.; Guan, W.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that also meets architectural standards. Natural ventilation design methods are presented in this paper. A natural ventilation system is designed in the DunHuang museum. Thermal dynamic simulation and CFD simulation were analyzed in the exhibition hall...

  1. Modeling buoyancy-driven airflow in ventilation shafts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ray, Stephen D. (Stephen Douglas)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Naturally ventilated buildings can significantly reduce the required energy for cooling and ventilating buildings by drawing in outdoor air using non-mechanical forces. Buoyancy-driven systems are common in naturally ...

  2. Design of a Natural Ventilation System in the Dunhuang Museum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Y.; Guan, W.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fresh air and good air quality can be obtained by a natural ventilation system, to fulfill the requirement of near natural conditions for the psychological health of mankind. A natural ventilation system is an ecological, energy saving system...

  3. Study on Influencing Factors of Night Ventilation in Office Rooms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Z.; Sun, X.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A mathematical and physical model on night ventilation is set up. The fields of indoor air temperature, air velocity and thermal comfort are simulated using Airpak software. Some main influencing factors of night ventilation in office rooms...

  4. Analyzing Ventilation Effects of Different Apartment Styles by CFD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, X.; Wang, L.; Ye, Z.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in different directions have distinct ventilation environments. By compare the velocity fields of each apartment in four directions, results show that the apartment in the east has favorable ventilation effects. There are some disadvantages of other apartments...

  5. Application Study on Combined Ventilation System of Improving IAQ

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, S.; Li, G.; Zhang, C.; Ye, B.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A type of combined ventilating system is put forward in this paper. Through CFD simulation and testing of contaminant concentrations in a prototype residential room, the results demonstrate that the new ventilating system is advantageous...

  6. GASTRIC REFLUX IN MECHANICALLY VENTILATED GASTRIC FED ICU PATIENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schallom, Marilyn

    2013-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    in ventilated patients is a major cause of ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP). Guidelines that recommend head of bed (HOB) elevation greater than 30? to prevent reflux, aspiration and VAP conflict with guidelines to prevent pressure ulcers which recommend HOB...

  7. A scale model study of displacement ventilation with chilled ceilings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holden, Katherine J. A. (Katherine Joan Adrienne)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Displacement ventilation is a form of air-conditioning which provides good air quality and some energy savings. The air quality is better than for a conventional mixed ventilation system. The maximum amount of cooling that ...

  8. Natural ventilation : design for suburban houses in Thailand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tantasavasdi, Chalermwat, 1971-

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural Ventilation is the most effective passive cooling design strategy for architecture in hot and humid climates. In Thailand, natural ventilation has been the most essential element in the vernacular architecture such ...

  9. Study of natural ventilation in buildings with large eddy simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Yi, 1972-

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With the discovery of many economic, environmental, and health problems in sealed and mechanically ventilated buildings, the concept of natural ventilation has been revived. "Buildings that breathe" have become more and ...

  10. HOSPITAL VENTILATION STANDARDS AND ENERGY CONSERVATION: CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION OF HOSPITAL AIR. FINAL REPORT.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rainer, David

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    open bench top local exhaust ventilation, The OSHA standardsuch as local ex- haust ventilation when properly applied,

  11. HOSPITAL VENTILATION STANDARDS AND ENERGY CONSERVATION: A SUMMARY OF THE LITERATURE WITH CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS, FY 78 FINAL REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeRoos, R.L.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on the premise that current hospital ventilation standardsand ,ventilation rates based on the premise of reducing

  12. 1362 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AUTOMATIC CONTROL, VOL. 54, NO. 6, JUNE 2009 [8] H. Logemann, E. P. Ryan, and S. Townley, "Integral control of linear

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krstic, Miroslav

    of un- certain infinite-dimensional systems," IEEE Trans. Automat. Control, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 221362 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AUTOMATIC CONTROL, VOL. 54, NO. 6, JUNE 2009 [8] H. Logemann, E. P. Ryan, and S. Townley, "Integral control of linear systems with actuator nonlinearities: Lower bounds

  13. V&A Medieval & Renaissance Galleries: A Passive Approach to Humidity Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lerpiniere, A.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    controlling ventilation on moisture content so that it only operates when helping the internal conditions. The control system constantly compares internal and external air moisture content, introducing outside air through the ventilation system only when...

  14. Summary Report: Control Strategies for Mixed-Mode Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brager, Gail; Borgeson, Sam; Lee, Yoonsu

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    control over their local thermal and ventilation conditions,local system through central Johnson Controls system. Even if they had not gone to natural ventilation,local constraint PAGE 20 UCLA’s Kinsey Hall AKA Humanities Building) SF Federal Building (site specific wind driven ventilation )

  15. Integrated Sensing and Controls for Coal Gasification - Development of Model-Based Controls for GE's Gasifier and Syngas Cooler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aditya Kumar

    2010-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the achievements and final results of this program. The objective of this program is to develop a comprehensive systems approach to integrated design of sensing and control systems for an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant, using advanced model-based techniques. In particular, this program is focused on the model-based sensing and control system design for the core gasification section of an IGCC plant. The overall approach consists of (i) developing a first-principles physics-based dynamic model of the gasification section, (ii) performing model-reduction where needed to derive low-order models suitable for controls analysis and design, (iii) developing a sensing system solution combining online sensors with model-based estimation for important process variables not measured directly, and (iv) optimizing the steady-state and transient operation of the plant for normal operation as well as for startup using model predictive controls (MPC). Initially, available process unit models were implemented in a common platform using Matlab/Simulink{reg_sign}, and appropriate model reduction and model updates were performed to obtain the overall gasification section dynamic model. Also, a set of sensor packages were developed through extensive lab testing and implemented in the Tampa Electric Company IGCC plant at Polk power station in 2009, to measure temperature and strain in the radiant syngas cooler (RSC). Plant operation data was also used to validate the overall gasification section model. The overall dynamic model was then used to develop a sensing solution including a set of online sensors coupled with model-based estimation using nonlinear extended Kalman filter (EKF). Its performance in terms of estimating key unmeasured variables like gasifier temperature, carbon conversion, etc., was studied through extensive simulations in the presence sensing errors (noise and bias) and modeling errors (e.g. unknown gasifier kinetics, RSC fouling). In parallel, an MPC solution was initially developed using ideal sensing to optimize the plant operation during startup pre-heating as well as steady state and transient operation under normal high-pressure conditions, e.g. part-load, base-load, load transition and fuel changes. The MPC simulation studies showed significant improvements both for startup pre-heating and for normal operation. Finally, the EKF and MPC solutions were coupled to achieve the integrated sensing and control solution and its performance was studied through extensive steady state and transient simulations in the presence of sensor and modeling errors. The results of each task in the program and overall conclusions are summarized in this final report.

  16. Contribution of Gular Pumping to Lung Ventilation in Monitor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brainerd, Elizabeth

    Contribution of Gular Pumping to Lung Ventilation in Monitor Lizards Tomasz Owerkowicz,1 * Colleen that lizards are subject to a speed- dependent axial constraint that prevents effective lung ventilation during locomotion, varanids use a positive pressure gular pump to assist lung ventilation. Disabling the gular pump

  17. Care of a cardiac pt on mechanical ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kay, Mark A.

    Care of a cardiac pt on mechanical ventilation CVICU New Hires Orientation Day 2 Winnie Yung, RN, MN #12;Outline · Physiology of breathing · Terminology · Intubation · Mode of mechanical ventilation· Mode of mechanical ventilation · Nursing care of a vented pt · Nursing care of a vented single

  18. STATE OF CALIFORNIA INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND MECHANICAL VENTILATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    STATE OF CALIFORNIA INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND MECHANICAL VENTILATION CEC- CF-6R-MECH-05 (Revised 08 Ventilation (Page 1 of 7) Site Address: Enforcement Agency: Permit Number: 2008 Residential Compliance Forms August 2009 Ventilation for Indoor Air Quality (IAQ): All dwelling units shall meet the requirements

  19. Improved Wireless Performance from Mode Scattering in Ventilation Ducts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stancil, Daniel D.

    Improved Wireless Performance from Mode Scattering in Ventilation Ducts Benjamin E. Henty, PA 15230. henty@eirp.org and stancil@cmu.edu Abstract Ventilation ducts are a convenient present in a ventilation duct T-junction and note with some surprise that improvement in the performance

  20. Experimental Study of Ventilation Performance in Laboratories with Chemical Spills

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    1 Experimental Study of Ventilation Performance in Laboratories with Chemical Spills Mingang Chemical spills occur frequently in laboratories. The current ventilation code for laboratories recommends a ventilation rate of 12 ACH for maintaining a safe laboratory environment. On the other hand, the energy saving

  1. Estimating ventilation time scales using overturning stream functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Döös, Kristofer

    Estimating ventilation time scales using overturning stream functions Bijoy Thompson & Jonas for estimating ventilation time scales from overturning stream functions is proposed. The stream function may describing an ide- alized semi-enclosed ocean basin ventilated through a narrow strait over a sill

  2. Utilizing Passive Ventilation to Complement HVAC Systems in Enclosed Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mountziaris, T. J.

    Utilizing Passive Ventilation to Complement HVAC Systems in Enclosed Buildings Tom Rogg REU Student are important considerations in building design. Incorporation of a combination of passive ventilation systems of the National Science Foundation. Research Objectives · To provide proof of concept that a passive ventilation

  3. Natural Ventilation Design for Houses in Thailand Chalermwat Tantasavasdia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    1 Natural Ventilation Design for Houses in Thailand Chalermwat Tantasavasdia , Jelena Srebricb This paper explores the potential of using natural ventilation as a passive cooling system for new house conditions in Bangkok, the study found that it is possible to use natural ventilation to create a thermally

  4. Article original Influence du mode de ventilation des litires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Article original Influence du mode de ventilation des litičres sur les émissions gazeuses d expérimentalement l'effet de la ventilation des litičres sur le devenir de l'azote, dans un élevage intensif porcin systčmes de ventilation de litičre (ascendante et descendante) sont testés par rapport ŕ un systčme témoin

  5. Validation of CFD Simulations for Natural Ventilation , Camille Allocca1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    1 Validation of CFD Simulations for Natural Ventilation Yi Jiang1 , Camille Allocca1 , and Qingyan ventilation, which may provide occupants with good indoor air quality and a high level of thermal comfort-driven and buoyancy-drive natural ventilation. The validation of the CFD models used the experimental data of wind

  6. SURFACE CIRCULATION AND VENTILATION Lynne D. Talley(1)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Talley, Lynne D.

    SURFACE CIRCULATION AND VENTILATION Lynne D. Talley(1) , Rana Fine(2) , Rick Lumpkin (3) , Nikolai by high frequency radars. Ventilation and upwelling processes connect the surface layer and underlying quantitative information on formation rates and residence times, and compelling evidence of decadal ventilation

  7. Should Title 24 Ventilation Requirements Be Amended to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Should Title 24 Ventilation Requirements Be Amended to include an Indoor Air Quality Procedure Ventilation Requirements Be Amended to include an Indoor Air Quality Procedure? William J. Fisk, Spencer M Berkeley, CA 94720 May 10, 2013 ABSTRACT Minimum outdoor air ventilation rates (VRs) for buildings

  8. Estimating ventilation time scales using overturning stream functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Döös, Kristofer

    Estimating ventilation time scales using overturning stream functions Bijoy Thompson & Jonas 2014 # Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014 Abstract A simple method for estimating ventilation time-enclosed ocean basin ventilated through a narrow strait over a sill, and the result is compared to age estimates

  9. Harms of Unintentional Leaks during Volume Targeted Pressure Support Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Harms of Unintentional Leaks during Volume Targeted Pressure Support Ventilation Sonia Khirani1 Background: Volume targeted pressure support ventilation (VT-PSV) is a hybrid mode increasingly used. The objective of the study was to determine the ability of home ventilators to maintain the preset minimal VT

  10. "Passive Ventilation in a Simple Structure" Thomas Rogg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mountziaris, T. J.

    "Passive Ventilation in a Simple Structure" Thomas Rogg Faculty Mentor: Dr. Scott Civjan, Civil & Environmental Engineering The research concept is to investigate the addition of a passive ventilation system in a greener and more efficient ventilation system. The project is in the very early stages and I have been

  11. Variable ventilation induces endogenous surfactant release in normal guinea pigs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutchen, Kenneth

    Variable ventilation induces endogenous surfactant release in normal guinea pigs Stephen P. Arold,1. Alencar, Kenneth R. Lutchen, and Edward P. Ingenito. Variable ventilation induces endogenous surfactant.00036.2003.--Variable or noisy ventilation, which includes random breath-to-breath variations in tidal

  12. TOP DOWN VENTILATION AND COOLING Stephen A. Gage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linden, Paul F.

    TOP DOWN VENTILATION AND COOLING Stephen A. Gage G.R. Hunt P.F. Linden This paper examines the problems inherent in passively ventilating and cooling low and medium rise urban buildings. We focus openings in passive displacement ventilation systems. A solution is suggested. The concept that is examined

  13. Measuring Residential Ventilation System Airflows: Part 2 -Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Measuring Residential Ventilation System Airflows: Part 2 - Field Evaluation of Airflow Meter Residential Ventilation System Airflows: Part 2 - Field Evaluation of Airflow Meter Devices and System Flow, mechanical ventilation, measurement, ASHRAE 62.2, flow hood ABSTRACT The 2008 California State Energy Code

  14. Ventilation planning at Energy West's Deer Creek mine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tonc, L.; Prosser, B.; Gamble, G. [Pacific Corp., Huntington, UT (United States)

    2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2004 ventilation planning was initiated to exploit a remote area of Deer Creek mine's reserve (near Huntington, Utah), the Mill Fork Area, located under a mountain. A push-pull ventilation system was selected. This article details the design process of the ventilation system upgrade, the procurement process for the new fans, and the new fan startup testing. 5 figs., 1 photo.

  15. CONFIDENTIAL: DO NOT QUOTE 1 Equivalence in Ventilation and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CONFIDENTIAL: DO NOT QUOTE 1 Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality M. H. Sherman, I ventilate buildings to provide acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). Ventilation standards (such as American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Enginners [ASHRAE] Standard 62) specify minimum

  16. Development of the integrated environmental control model. Quarterly progress report, April 1995--June 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalagnanam, J.R.; Rubin, E.S.

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this contract is to develop and refine the Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM). In its current configuration, the IECM provides a capability to model various conventional and advanced processes for controlling air pollutant emissions from coal-fired power plants before, during, or after combustion. The principal purpose of the model is to calculate the performance, emissions, and cost of power plant configurations employing alternative environmental control methods. The model consists of various control technology modules, which may be integrated into a complete utility plant in any desired combination. In contrast to conventional deterministic models, the IECM offers the unique capability to assign probabilistic values to all model input parameters, and to obtain probabilistic outputs in the form of cumulative distribution functions indicating the likelihood of different costs and performance results. The work in this contract is divided into two phases. Phase I deals with further developing the existing version of the IECM and training PETC personnel on the effective use of the model. Phase H deals with creating new technology modules, linking the IECM with PETC databases, and training PETC personnel on the effective use of the updated model. The present report summarizes recent progress on the Phase I effort during the period April 1, 1995 through June 30, 1995. This report presents additional revisions to the new cost models of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technology initially reported in our fourth quarterly report. For convenience, the complete description of the revised FGD models are presented here.

  17. Integrated Direct/Indirect Adaptive Robust Precision Control of Linear Motor Drive Systems with Accurate Parameter Estimates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Bin

    Integrated Direct/Indirect Adaptive Robust Precision Control of Linear Motor Drive Systems The focus of the paper is on the synthesis of nonlinear adaptive robust controllers for precision linear control of linear motor drive systems but with an improved estimation model, in which accurate parameter

  18. Control Model Integrated Management and Assessment System. These materials are from April 2000 and pertain to Savanna

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boone, Randall B.

    Control Model #12;134 Integrated Management and Assessment System. These materials are from AprilView for contacts. Total biomass, by plant groups As you have already likely noticed, the control model includes and dead biomass, for a typical April to July NCA-Savanna Control Model #12;135 Root biomass for herbaceous

  19. The first stage of BFS integrated system for nuclear materials control and accounting. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The BFS computerized accounting system is a network-based one. It runs in a client/server mode. The equipment used in the system includes a computer network consisting of: One server computer system, including peripheral hardware and three client computer systems. The server is located near the control room of the BFS-2 facility outside of the `stone sack` to ensure access during operation of the critical assemblies. Two of the client computer systems are located near the assembly tables of the BFS-1 and BFS-2 facilities while the third one being the Fissile Material Storage. This final report details the following topics: Computerized nuclear material accounting methods; The portal monitoring system; Test and evaluation of item control technology; Test and evaluation of radiation based nuclear material measurement equipment; and The integrated demonstration of nuclear material control and accounting methods.

  20. Integration of Photovoltaics into Building Energy Usage through Advanced Control of Rooftop Unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starke, Michael R [ORNL] [ORNL; Nutaro, James J [ORNL] [ORNL; Irminger, Philip [ORNL] [ORNL; Ollis, Benjamin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)] [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Kuruganti, Phani Teja [ORNL] [ORNL; Fugate, David L [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a computational approach to forecast photovoltaic (PV) power in kW based on a neural network linkage of publicly available cloud cover data and on-site solar irradiance sensor data. We also describe a control approach to utilize rooftop air conditioning units (RTUs) to support renewable integration. The PV forecasting method is validated using data from a rooftop PV panel installed on the Distributed Energy, Communications, and Controls (DECC) laboratory at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The validation occurs in multiple phases to ensure that each component of the approach is the best representation of the actual expected output. The control of the RTU is based on model predictive methods.

  1. Material protection control and accounting program activities at the Urals electrochemical integrated plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McAllister, S.

    1997-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The Urals Electrochemical Integrated Plant (UEIP) is the Russian Federation`s largest uranium enrichment plant and one of three sites in Russia blending high enriched uranium (HEU) into commercial grade low enriched uranium. UEIP is located approximately 70 km north of Yekaterinburg in the closed city of Novouralsk (formerly Sverdlovsk- 44). DOE`s MPC&A program first met with UEIP in June of 1996, however because of some contractual issues the work did not start until September of 1997. The six national laboratories participating in DOE`s Material Protection Control and Accounting program are cooperating with UEIP to enhance the capabilities of the physical protection, access control, and nuclear material control and accounting systems. The MPC&A work at UEIP is expected to be completed during fiscal year 2001.

  2. Hood Commissioning Laboratory Ventilation Management Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    Hood Commissioning Laboratory Ventilation Management Program Form In the interest of efficiency and effective use of our limited resources, EHS will not initiate or schedule the commissioning process for any____Other (describe) Hood is:______New _______Relocated_______Reconfigured (Describe ) Requested Commissioning Date (s

  3. Mixed-Mode Ventilation and Building Retrofits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brager, Gail; Ackerly, Katie

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of low-energy ventilation strategies in four generalized UKUK offices: How adaptive comfort theories might influence future low energy office refurbishment strategies’,UK Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions’ Energy Efficiency Best Practice Programme Numerous guidelines for developing the most appropriate design strategy

  4. Modeling particle loss in ventilation ducts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sippola, Mark R.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Empirical equations were developed and applied to predict losses of 0.01-100 {micro}m airborne particles making a single pass through 120 different ventilation duct runs typical of those found in mid-sized office buildings. For all duct runs, losses were negligible for submicron particles and nearly complete for particles larger than 50 {micro}m. The 50th percentile cut-point diameters were 15 {micro}m in supply runs and 25 {micro}m in return runs. Losses in supply duct runs were higher than in return duct runs, mostly because internal insulation was present in portions of supply duct runs, but absent from return duct runs. Single-pass equations for particle loss in duct runs were combined with models for predicting ventilation system filtration efficiency and particle deposition to indoor surfaces to evaluate the fates of particles of indoor and outdoor origin in an archetypal mechanically ventilated building. Results suggest that duct losses are a minor influence for determining indoor concentrations for most particle sizes. Losses in ducts were of a comparable magnitude to indoor surface losses for most particle sizes. For outdoor air drawn into an unfiltered ventilation system, most particles smaller than 1 {micro}m are exhausted from the building. Large particles deposit within the building, mostly in supply ducts or on indoor surfaces. When filters are present, most particles are either filtered or exhausted. The fates of particles generated indoors follow similar trends as outdoor particles drawn into the building.

  5. Ventilation of the Baltic Sea deep water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohrholz, Volker

    , Powstaców Warszawy 55, PL­81­712 Sopot, Poland 4 Department of Oceanography, G¨oteborg University, Box 460 by thermohaline intrusions, ventilate the deep water of the eastern Gotland Basin. A recent study of the energy that about 30% of the energy needed below the halocline for deep water mixing is explained by the breaking

  6. A Bench Study of Intensive Care Unit Ventilators: New versus Old and Turbine-Based versus Compressed Gas-Based Ventilators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . Material: Four turbine- based ventilators and nine conventional servo-valve compressed-gas ventilators were1 A Bench Study of Intensive Care Unit Ventilators: New versus Old and Turbine-Based versus patient's effort. On average, turbine-based ventilators performed better than conventional ventilators

  7. International Journal of Ventilation ISSN 1473-3315 Volume 4 No 4 Interacting Turbulent Plumes in a Naturally Ventilated Enclosure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linden, Paul F.

    International Journal of Ventilation ISSN 1473-3315 Volume 4 No 4 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 301 Interacting Turbulent Plumes in a Naturally Ventilated Enclosure P. F. Linden1 and N. B. Kaye2 1 of turbulent plumes is examined in the context of building ventilation flows. Recent models for natural

  8. Theory of Optical Leaky-Wave Antenna Integrated in a Ring Resonator for Radiation Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guclu, Caner; Capolino, Filippo

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The integration of a leaky-wave antenna with a ring resonator is presented using analytical guided wave models. The device consists of a ring resonator fed by a directional coupler, where the ring resonator path includes a leaky-wave antenna segment. The resonator integration provides two main advantages: the high-quality factor ensures effective control of radiation intensity by controlling the resonance conditions and the efficient radiation from a leaky-wave antenna even when its length is much smaller than the propagation length of the leaky wave. We devise an analytical model of the guided wave propagation along a directional coupler and the ring resonator path including the antenna and non-radiating segments. The trade-offs regarding the quality factor of resonance and the antenna efficiency of such a design is reported in terms of the coupler parameters, leaky-wave constant and radiation length. Finally a CMOS-compatible OLWA design suitable for the ring resonator integration is designed where Silicon ...

  9. On The Valuation of Infiltration towards Meeting Residential Ventilation Needs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, Max H.

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of ventilation is dilute or remove indoor contaminants that an occupant is exposed to. It can be provided by mechanical or natural means. In most homes, especially existing homes, infiltration provides the dominant fraction of the ventilation. As we seek to provide acceptable indoor air quality at minimum energy cost, it is important to neither over-ventilate nor under-ventilate. Thus, it becomes critically important to correctly evaluate the contribution infiltration makes to both energy consumption and equivalent ventilation. ASHRAE Standards including standards 62, 119, and 136 have all considered the contribution of infiltration in various ways, using methods and data from 20 years ago.

  10. The WIPP Underground Ventilation System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in the Earth'sConnect, National.**NA-ASC-500-07WCI,

  11. New modeling and control solutions for integrated microgrid system with respect to thermodynamics properties of generation and demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Fang-Yu, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis investigates microgrid control stability with respect to thermodynamics behaviors of generation and demand. First, a new integrated microgrid model is introduced. This model consists of a combined cycle power ...

  12. Abstract--The issue of controlled and reliable integration of distributed energy resources into microgrids and large power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cańizares, Claudio A.

    resources (DER), many of them based on renewable energies, have experimented an unprecedented growth of the renewable energy sources, and its integration into power systems. One of the main technical issues1 Abstract-- The issue of controlled and reliable integration of distributed energy resources

  13. D. Moreau IEA W60 Burning Plasma Physics and Simulation, Tarragona, July 2005 INTEGRATED REAL-TIME CONTROL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Moreau IEA W60 Burning Plasma Physics and Simulation, Tarragona, July 2005 INTEGRATED REAL. Sartori, and many other JET-EFDA Contributors D. Moreau #12;D. Moreau IEA W60 Burning Plasma Physics AT burning plasma integrated control #12;D. Moreau IEA W60 Burning Plasma Physics and Simulation, Tarragona

  14. Temperature stratification and air change effectiveness in a high cooling load office with two heat source heights in a combined chilled ceiling and displacement ventilation system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred; Tully, Brad; Rimmer, Julian

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ceiling and displacement ventilation system. Submitted toceiling and displacement ventilation system. Submitted toceiling and displacement ventilation systems, Energy Build.

  15. Optimization of a Solar Chimney Design to Enhance Natural Ventilation in a Multi-Storey Office Building 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gontikaki, M.; Trcka, M.; Hensen, J.; Hoes, P. J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural ventilation of buildings can be achieved with solar-driven , buoyancy-induced airflow through a solar chimney channel. Research on solar chimneys has covered a wide range of topics, yet study of the integration in multi-storey buildings has...

  16. Optimization of a Solar Chimney Design to Enhance Natural Ventilation in a Multi-Storey Office Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gontikaki, M.; Trcka, M.; Hensen, J.; Hoes, P. J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural ventilation of buildings can be achieved with solar-driven , buoyancy-induced airflow through a solar chimney channel. Research on solar chimneys has covered a wide range of topics, yet study of the integration in multi-storey buildings has...

  17. The integration of low NOx control technologies at the Southern Energy, Inc. Birchwood Power Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lauber, J.A. [Southern Energy, Inc. (United States); Cohen, M.B.; Donais, R.E. [ABB Combustion Engineering, Inc. (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Southern Energy, Inc. (SEI) Birchwood Power Facility, a cogeneration unit, represents the first application worldwide of the TFS 2000{trademark} firing system and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). The installation of these state-of-the-art NOx control technologies was necessary to meet strict Commonwealth of Virginia environmental regulations requiring a 0.10 lbs/10{sup 6} Btu (0.043 g/MJ) NOx emission rate based upon a 30-day rolling average. The plant successfully completed all performance and emission testing on September 24, 1996. Commercial operation began November 14, 1996. Stack NOx emission rates are consistently maintained below 0.10 lbs/10{sup 6} Btu. The paper describes the integration of both in-furnace and post-combustion NOx control technologies into the overall boiler design. Operational data depicting boiler outlet NOx, stack NOx and loss on ignition (LOI) are presented across the design load range from 32% to 100% boiler output. The description, arrangement, design parameters and operation of the NOx control equipment are discussed. Novel design features include a split economizer, an air heater suitable for ammonia applications, Dynamic{trademark} classifiers, and a multi-zone secondary air flow control system utilized for the TFS 2000{trademark} firing system.

  18. Status Of The National Ignition Campaign And National Ignition Facility Integrated Computer Control System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lagin, L; Brunton, G; Carey, R; Demaret, R; Fisher, J; Fishler, B; Ludwigsen, P; Marshall, C; Reed, R; Shelton, R; Townsend, S

    2011-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is a stadium-sized facility that will contains a 192-beam, 1.8-Megajoule, 500-Terawatt, ultraviolet laser system together with a 10-meter diameter target chamber with room for multiple experimental diagnostics. NIF is the world's largest and most energetic laser experimental system, providing a scientific center to study inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and matter at extreme energy densities and pressures. NIF's laser beams are designed to compress fusion targets to conditions required for thermonuclear burn. NIF is operated by the Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS) in an object-oriented, CORBA-based system distributed among over 1800 frontend processors, embedded controllers and supervisory servers. In the fall of 2010, a set of experiments began with deuterium and tritium filled targets as part of the National Ignition Campaign (NIC). At present, all 192 laser beams routinely fire to target chamber center to conduct fusion and high energy density experiments. During the past year, the control system was expanded to include automation of cryogenic target system and over 20 diagnostic systems to support fusion experiments were deployed and utilized in experiments in the past year. This talk discusses the current status of the NIC and the plan for controls and information systems to support these experiments on the path to ignition.

  19. Ion-beam apparatus and method for analyzing and controlling integrated circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, Ann N. (Albuquerque, NM); Soden, Jerry M. (Placitas, NM)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ion-beam apparatus and method for analyzing and controlling integrated circuits. The ion-beam apparatus comprises a stage for holding one or more integrated circuits (ICs); a source means for producing a focused ion beam; and a beam-directing means for directing the focused ion beam to irradiate a predetermined portion of the IC for sufficient time to provide an ion-beam-generated electrical input signal to a predetermined element of the IC. The apparatus and method have applications to failure analysis and developmental analysis of ICs and permit an alteration, control, or programming of logic states or device parameters within the IC either separate from or in combination with applied electrical stimulus to the IC for analysis thereof. Preferred embodiments of the present invention including a secondary particle detector and an electron floodgun further permit imaging of the IC by secondary ions or electrons, and allow at least a partial removal or erasure of the ion-beam-generated electrical input signal.

  20. Integrated Controlling System and Unified Database for High Throughput Protein Crystallography Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaponov, Yu.A.; Igarashi, N.; Hiraki, M.; Sasajima, K.; Matsugaki, N.; Suzuki, M.; Kosuge, T.; Wakatsuki, S. [Structural Biology Research Center, Photon Factory, Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2004-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    An integrated controlling system and a unified database for high throughput protein crystallography experiments have been developed. Main features of protein crystallography experiments (purification, crystallization, crystal harvesting, data collection, data processing) were integrated into the software under development. All information necessary to perform protein crystallography experiments is stored (except raw X-ray data that are stored in a central data server) in a MySQL relational database. The database contains four mutually linked hierarchical trees describing protein crystals, data collection of protein crystal and experimental data processing. A database editor was designed and developed. The editor supports basic database functions to view, create, modify and delete user records in the database. Two search engines were realized: direct search of necessary information in the database and object oriented search. The system is based on TCP/IP secure UNIX sockets with four predefined sending and receiving behaviors, which support communications between all connected servers and clients with remote control functions (creating and modifying data for experimental conditions, data acquisition, viewing experimental data, and performing data processing). Two secure login schemes were designed and developed: a direct method (using the developed Linux clients with secure connection) and an indirect method (using the secure SSL connection using secure X11 support from any operating system with X-terminal and SSH support). A part of the system has been implemented on a new MAD beam line, NW12, at the Photon Factory Advanced Ring for general user experiments.

  1. Performance Assessment of Photovoltaic Attic Ventilator Fans

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A case study of photovoltaic attic ventilator fans was conducted on an occupied single family home in Central Florida. Two fans were installed at mid-summer in an instrumented home where attic air temperature, meteorological conditions and space cooling electric power were measured. The home already had an attic radiant barrier, but still experienced attic air temperatures in excess of 130oF.

  2. Recovering Energy From Ventilation and Process Airstreams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheney, W. A.

    RECOVERING ENERGY FROM VENTILATION AND PROCESS AIRSTREAMS Heat Exchangers and contaminant Recovery William A. Cheney united Air Specialists, Inc. Cincinnati, Ohio The high cost of energy has prompted industry to look for new ways to reduce... 17-19, 1986 CONTAMINANT RECOVERY The ability to capture waste energy from an airstream, while simultaneously condensing hydrocarbon vapors, is a rela tively new technique in the heat-recovery market. In this process, high concentra tions...

  3. Final Report Balancing energy conservation and occupant needs in ventilation rate standards for Big Box stores in California: predicted indoor air quality and energy consumption using a matrix of ventilation scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apte, Michael G.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    evaluation of displacement ventilation and dedicated outdoorB, Carlson N (2009). Ventilation requirements in a retailof Intermittent Ventilation for Providing Acceptable Indoor

  4. Final Report Balancing energy conservation and occupant needs in ventilation rate standards for Big Box stores in California: predicted indoor air quality and energy consumption using a matrix of ventilation scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apte, Michael G.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air cleaning and local ventilation near strong sources bothair cleaning, and local ventilation may be needed at reducedremoval, air cleaning, and local ventilation may be the best

  5. Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence 18 (2005) 279296 A genetic rule weighting and selection process for fuzzy control of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Granada, Universidad de

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and selection process for fuzzy control of heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems$ Rafael Alcala are generally applied only to the control of active systems, i.e., heating, ventilating, and air conditioning management system; HVAC, heating, ventilating, and air conditioning; FLC, fuzzy logic controller; KB

  6. The Ocean's Memory of the Atmosphere: Residence-Time and Ventilation-Rate Distributions of Water Masses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Primeau, Francois W; Holzer, Mark

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in steady state. Local ventilation rates for non- steadyrespec- tively. The local ventilation fluxes regardless ofmaps of ventilation The residence-time-partitioned, local

  7. THE EFFECTS OF ENERGY-EFFICIENT VENTILATION RATES ON INDOOR AIR QUALITY AT AN OHIO ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berk, J.V.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To determine the ventilation~heating load for the 2778calculations of ventilation~heating load 19 in variousthrough heating, cooling, and ventilation (see Figure l).

  8. HOSPITAL VENTILATION STANDARDS AND ENERGY CONSERVATION: A SUMMARY OF THE LITERATURE WITH CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS, FY 78 FINAL REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeRoos, R.L.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to prelude higher ventilation heating or cooling. InRequirements: --The ventilation, heating, air conditioning,and comfort. --The ventilation, heating, air conditioning,

  9. An Index for Evaluation of Air Quality Improvement in Rooms with Personalized Ventilation Based on Occupied Density and Normalized Concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen; Cermak, Radim; De Carli, Michele; Li, Xianting

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    potential of personalized ventilation system in the tropics.edge mounted task ventilation system. Proceedings of Indoorwith a total-volume ventilation system. The index is applied

  10. HOSPITAL VENTILATION STANDARDS AND ENERGY CONSERVATION: A SUMMARY OF THE LITERATURE WITH CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS, FY 78 FINAL REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeRoos, R.L.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    laminar") flow ventilation system for patient isolation.MICHAELSEN, G. S. Ventilation system maintenance practices:1974. A new ventilation system for cleaner operating

  11. Reducing Mortality from Terrorist Releases of Chemical and Biological Agents: I. Filtration for Ventilation Systems in Commercial Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thatcher, Tracy L.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Filtration for Ventilation Systems in Commercial BuildingsFiltration for Ventilation Systems in Commercial Buildingsbuilding's mechanical ventilation system and by infiltration

  12. Energy analysis of a personalized ventilation system in a cold climate: influence of the supplied air temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    potential of personalized ventilation system in the tropics.a chair-based personalized ventilation system. Building andedged-mounted task ventilation system. Indoor Air, Vol. 14 (

  13. A Survey and Critical Review of the Literature on Indoor Air Quality, Ventilation and Health Symptoms in Schools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daisey, Joan M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    between seasons and ventilation systems, Proceedings ofto Old school: ventilation system, one constructed prior toall had mechanical ventilation systems of some type. C 0

  14. A Survey and Critical Review of the Literature on Indoor Air Quality, Ventilation and Health Symptoms in Schools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daisey, Joan M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is experiencing IAQ and ventilation problems, and relatedis experiencing IAQ and ventilation problems, and relatedof air quality and ventilation problems in California

  15. HOSPITAL VENTILATION STANDARDS AND ENERGY CONSERVATION: A SUMMARY OF THE LITERATURE WITH CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS, FY 78 FINAL REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeRoos, R.L.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the largest problem facing the ventilation engineer; sourcesthe heating and ventilation was already a problem. 6 In thethe hospital odor problem with regards to ventilation rates.

  16. Computer Simulation of Cooling Effect of Wind Tower on Passively Ventilated Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seryak, J.; Kissock, J. K.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Computer Simulation of Cooling Effect of Wind Tower on Passively Ventilated Building John Seryak Kelly Kissock Project Engineer Associate Professor Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering... University of Dayton Dayton, Ohio ABSTRACT Traditional buildings are cooled and ventilated by mechanically induced drafts. Natural ventilation aspires to cool and ventilate a building by natural means, such as cross ventilation or wind towers...

  17. Microsoft Word - Determination of Class to Update Ventilation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solutions LLC Original Signatures on File Determination of Class Modification Update Ventilation Language for Consistency Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Carlsbad, New Mexico Permit...

  18. Summer Infiltration/Ventilation Test Results from the FRTF Laboratory

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Summer InfiltrationVentilation Test Results from the FRTF Laboratory Building America Technical Review Meeting April 29-30, 2013 A Research Institute of the University of Central...

  19. Energy-saving strategies with personalized ventilation in cold climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy-saving strategies with personalized ventilation inalone if energy-saving strategies are not applied. TheHowever, this energy- saving strategy can be recommended

  20. Natural Ventilation for Energy Savings in California Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heating, ventilating and air conditioning survey of small2004) Workplace air-conditioning and health servicesventilating, and air-conditioning applications. Bauman, F. ,

  1. Building America Webinar: Multifamily Ventilation Strategies and Compartmentalization Requirements

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Building America webinar, held on Sept. 24, 2014, focused on key challenges in multifamily ventilation and strategies to address these challenges.

  2. Measured Air Distribution Effectiveness for Residential Mechanical Ventilation Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Max H.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In Review J. Indoor Air) 2007 LBNL-63193 Tarantola, Albert,Gas Measurement to Determine Air Movements in a House,Measurement Techniques”, Air Infiltration and Ventilation

  3. Summary of Workshop: Barriers to Energy Efficient Residential Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Max

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    quality problems. Traditionally residential ventilation wasquality problems such as moisture. Residential ventilationventilation air is only one way of tackling the R H problem

  4. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubin, E.S.

    1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the third quarterly report of DOE Contract No. DE-AC22- 87PC79864, entitled Modeling of Integrated Environmental Control Systems for Coal-Fired Power Plants.'' This report summarizes accomplishments during the period April 1, 1988 to June 30, 1988. Our efforts during the last quarter focused on, (1) completion of a sulfuric acid plant model (used in conjunction with by-product recovery processes for SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal) and, (2) an update the NOXSO process model. Other accomplishments involved revision and expansion of the enthalpy data algorithms used for process energy balances. The sections below present the details of these developments. References are included at the end of each section.

  5. COST-EFFECTIVE CONTROL OF NOx WITH INTEGRATED ULTRA LOW-NOx BURNERS AND SNCR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamid Farzan

    2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal-fired electric utilities are facing a serious challenge with regards to curbing their NO{sub x} emissions. At issue are the NO{sub x} contributions to the acid rain, ground level ozone, and particulate matter formation. Substantial NO{sub x} control requirements could be imposed under the proposed Ozone Transport Rule, National Ambient Air Quality Standards, and New Source Performance Standards. McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI), Babcock and Wilcox (B and W), and Fuel Tech are teaming to provide an integrated solution for NO{sub x} control. The system will be comprised of an ultra low-NO{sub x} pulverized coal (PC) burner technology plus a urea-based, selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) system. This system will be capable of meeting a target emission limit of 0.15 lb NO{sub x}/10{sup 6} Btu and target ammonia (NH3) slip level targeted below 5 ppmV for commercial units. Our approach combines the best available combustion and post-combustion NO{sub x} control technologies. More specifically, B and W's DRB-4Z TM ultra low-NO{sub x} PC burner technology will be combined with Fuel Tech's NO{sub x}OUT (SNCR) and NO{sub x}OUT Cascade (SNCR/SCR hybrid) systems and jointly evaluated and optimized in a state-of-the-art test facility at MTI. Although the NO{sub x}OUT Cascade (SNCR/SCR hybrid) system will not be tested directly in this program, its potential application for situations that require greater NO{sub x} reductions will be inferred from other measurements (i.e., SNCR NO{sub x} removal efficiency plus projected NO{sub x} reduction by the catalyst based on controlled ammonia slip). Our analysis shows that the integrated ultra low-NO{sub x} burner and SNCR system has the lowest cost when the burner emissions are 0.25 lb NO{sub x}/10{sup 6} Btu or less. At burner NO{sub x} emission level of 0.20 lb NO{sub x}/10{sup 6} Btu, the levelized cost per ton of NO{sub x} removed is 52% lower than the SCR cost.

  6. Development of the integrated environmental control model: Performance models of selective catalytic reduction NO{sub x} control systems. Quarterly progress report, [April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frey, H.C.

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report concerns the Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) created and enhanced by Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) for the US Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The IECM provides a capability to model various conventional and advanced processes for controlling air pollutant emissions from coal-fired power plants before, during, or after combustion. The principal purpose of the model is to calculate the performance, emissions, and cost of power plant configurations employing alternative environmental control methods. The model consists of various control technology modules, which may be integrated into a complete utility plant in any desired combination. In contrast to conventional deterministic models, the IECM offers the unique capability to assign probabilistic values to all model input parameters, and to obtain probabilistic outputs in the form of cumulative distribution functions indicating the likelihood of different costs and performance results.

  7. Guide to Closing and Conditioning Ventilated Crawlspaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dickson, B.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This how-to guide explains the issues and concerns with conventional ventilated crawlspaces and provides prescriptive measures for improvements that will create healthier and more durable spaces. The methods described in this guide are not the only acceptable ways to treat a crawlspace but represent a proven strategy that works in many areas of the United States. The designs discussed in this guide may or may not meet the local building codes and as such will need to be researched before beginning the project.

  8. Ventilation System Basics | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you sureReportsofDepartmentSeries |Attacks | DepartmentVentilation System Basics

  9. Microsoft Word - Ventilation System Sampling Results 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighandSWPA / SPRA / USACE625 FINALOptimizationFor Immediate48Ventilation

  10. OCCUPANT-GENERATED CO2 AS AN INDICATOR OF VENTILATION RATE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turiel, Isaac

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1977. 7. Hunt, C.M. , "Ventilation Measurements in theJ. , and Hollowell, C.D. , Ventilation on Indoor Quality inThe Effect of Reduced Ventilation on Indoor Air Quality And

  11. Modeling indoor exposures to VOCs and SVOCs as ventilation rates vary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parthasarathy, Srinandini

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    J. 2008. Analysis of ventilation data from the United StatesASHRAE Standard 62.1-2010, Ventilation for Acceptable Indoorto VOCs and   SVOCs as ventilation rates vary   Srinandini 

  12. Oceanic ventilation and biogeochemical cycling: Understanding the physical mechanisms that produce realistic distributions of tracers and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matsumoto, Katsumi

    Oceanic ventilation and biogeochemical cycling: Understanding the physical mechanisms that produce circulation support different rates of ventilation, which in turn produce different distributions. Matsumoto, J. L. Sarmiento, R. D. Slater, and P. S. Swathi (2004), Oceanic ventilation and biogeochemical

  13. Modeling Ventilation in Multifamily Buildings John Markley, University of California, Davis -Western Cooling Efficiency Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    Modeling Ventilation in Multifamily Buildings John Markley, University of California, Davis Efficiency Center Garth Torvestad, Benningfield Group, inc. ABSTRACT Proper ventilation is an essential that require special consideration in order to avoid excessive ventilation and energy waste. Two issues

  14. `Perfect ventilation, good sewerage and effective water closets': Urban factors in the development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    `Perfect ventilation, good sewerage and effective water closets': Urban factors in the development sanitation ``Perfect ventilation, good sewerage and effective water closets': Urban factors ventilation, good sewerage and effective water closets': Urban factors in the development of modern nursing

  15. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report CIRS Auditorium Ventilation System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ventilation System: Adequacy Assessment, Energy Consumption and Comfort of the Living Space Provided Prepared of a project/report". #12;CEEN 596 FINAL PROJECT REPORT CIRS Auditorium Ventilation System: Adequacy Assessment...........................................................................................13 a) The Ventilation System

  16. Commissioning of a Coupled Earth Tube and Natural Ventilation System at the Acceptance Phase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, S.; Zheng, M.; Yoshida, H.

    In this paper, the environment and energy performance of an actual coupled earth tube and natural ventilation system in a gymnasium was measured during the acceptance phase in two operation states: no ventilation and natural ventilation. From...

  17. Sensitivity of Tropical Cyclone Intensity to Ventilation in an Axisymmetric Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Brian

    The sensitivity of tropical cyclone intensity to ventilation of cooler, drier air into the inner core is examined using an axisymmetric tropical cyclone model with parameterized ventilation. Sufficiently strong ventilation ...

  18. Advanced Rooftop Control (ARC) Retrofit: Field-Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Ngo, Hung; Underhill, Ronald M.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Lutes, Robert G.

    2013-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The multi-year research study was initiated to find solutions to improve packaged equipment operating efficiency in the field. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Office (BTO) and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) conducted this research, development and demonstration (RD&D) study. Packaged equipment with constant speed supply fans is designed to provide ventilation at the design rate at all times when the fan is operating as required by building code. Although there are a number of hours during the day when a building may not be fully occupied or the need for ventilation is lower than designed, the ventilation rate cannot be adjusted easily with a constant speed fan. Therefore, modulating the supply fan in conjunction with demand controlled ventilation (DCV) will not only reduce the coil energy but also reduce the fan energy. The objective of this multi-year research, development and demonstration project was to determine the magnitude of energy savings achievable by retrofitting existing packaged rooftop air conditioners with advanced control strategies not ordinarily used for packaged units. First, through detailed simulation analysis, it was shown that significant energy (between 24% and 35%) and cost savings (38%) from fan, cooling and heating energy consumption could be realized when packaged air conditioning units with gas furnaces are retrofitted with advanced control packages (combining multi-speed fan control, integrated economizer controls and DCV). The simulation analysis also showed significant savings for heat pumps (between 20% and 60%). The simulation analysis was followed by an extensive field test of a retrofittable advanced rooftop unit (RTU) controller.

  19. Numerical Simulation of a Displacement Ventilation System with Multi-heat Sources and Analysis of Influential Factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, X.; Gao, J.; Wu, W.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Displacement ventilation (DV) is a promising ventilation concept due to its high ventilation efficiency. In this paper, the application of the CFD method, the velocity and temperature fields of three-dimensional displacement ventilation systems...

  20. Humidity Control in Residences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trowbridge, J.; Peterson, J.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . By introducing a separate vapor compression unit to pre-condition outside air, indoor relative humidity can be controlled. This new air conditioning system combines a ventilation unit with a conventional recirculation air conditioning unit. Although successful...

  1. Maintenance Guide for Greenhouse Ventilation, Evaporative Cooling Heating Systems1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Craig A.

    when the need is discovered, but a good preventive maintenance program will reduce the number. This fact sheet will emphasize corrective and preventive maintenance procedures for ventilation, evaporativeAE26 Maintenance Guide for Greenhouse Ventilation, Evaporative Cooling Heating Systems1 D. E

  2. ASHRAE Standard 62.2. Ventilation and Acceptable Indoor Air Quality...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ASHRAE Standard 62.2. Ventilation and Acceptable Indoor Air Quality in Low- Rise Residential Buildings - Building America Top Innovation ASHRAE Standard 62.2. Ventilation and...

  3. Buoyancy-Driven Ventilation of Hydrogen from Buildings: Laboratory Test and Model Validation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barley, C. D.; Gawlik, K.

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Passive, buoyancy-driven ventilation is one approach to limiting hydrogen concentration. We explored the relationship between leak rate, ventilation design, and hydrogen concentrations.

  4. A Survey and Critical Review of the Literature on Indoor Air Quality, Ventilation and Health Symptoms in Schools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daisey, Joan M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    rate over- estimates the local ventilation rate of occupied1992); no local exhaust ventilation for photocopiers that

  5. An Index for Evaluation of Air Quality Improvement in Rooms with Personalized Ventilation Based on Occupied Density and Normalized Concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen; Cermak, Radim; De Carli, Michele; Li, Xianting

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Journal of heating, Ventilation and Refrigeration Research,on Cold Climate, Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning,

  6. An Overview of Proportional plus Integral plus Derivative Control and Suggestions for Its Successful Application and Implementation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sellers, D.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An Overview of Proportional plus Integral plus Derivative Control and Suggestions for Its Successful Application and Implementation By: David Sellers, Senior Engineer, Portland Energy Conservation Inc, Portland, Oregon ABSTRACT PID control loops... for the conference were sent to the printer. Interested parties can obtain an electronic or hard copy of the paper by contacting the author at: Dsellers@peci.org www.peci.org Phone: - 503-248-4636 extension 224 Mailing address through August 3, 2001 Portland Energy...

  7. Systems and Control Systems and Control is an area of study within mechanical engineering that integrates the basic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    Systems and Control Systems and Control is an area of study within mechanical engineering, into a methodology that can be used to design complex interdisciplinary systems. Examples include: position control of antenna, modeling of a train breaking system, modeling of a brushless DC motor, control of a remote

  8. Ventilation Systems Operating Experience Review for Fusion Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cadwallader, Lee Charles

    1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is a collection and review of system operation and failure experiences for air ventilation systems in nuclear facilities. These experiences are applicable for magnetic and inertial fusion facilities since air ventilation systems are support systems that can be considered generic to nuclear facilities. The report contains descriptions of ventilation system components, operating experiences with these systems, component failure rates, and component repair times. Since ventilation systems have a role in mitigating accident releases in nuclear facilities, these data are useful in safety analysis and risk assessment of public safety. An effort has also been given to identifying any safety issues with personnel operating or maintaining ventilation systems. Finally, the recommended failure data were compared to an independent data set to determine the accuracy of individual values. This comparison is useful for the International Energy Agency task on fusion component failure rate data collection.

  9. Prototype Design of A Multi-agent System for Integrated Control and Asset Management of Petroleum Production Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, James H.

    Prototype Design of A Multi-agent System for Integrated Control and Asset Management of Petroleum Production Facilities James H. Taylor and Atalla F. Sayda Abstract-- This paper addresses a practical intelligent multi- agent system for asset management for the petroleum industry, which is crucial

  10. Toward A Practical Multi-agent System for Integrated Control and Asset Management of Petroleum Production Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, James H.

    Toward A Practical Multi-agent System for Integrated Control and Asset Management of Petroleum Production Facilities Atalla F. Sayda and James H. Taylor Abstract-- This paper addresses a practical intelligent multi- agent system for asset management for the petroleum industry, which is crucial

  11. A Multi-agent System for Integrated Control and Asset Management of Petroleum Production Facilities -Part 1: Prototype

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, James H.

    A Multi-agent System for Integrated Control and Asset Management of Petroleum Production Facilities for the petroleum industry, which is crucial for profitable oil and gas facilities operations and maintenance the workload on process operators [18]. A new asset management research project, PAWS (Petroleum Applications

  12. Integrated decision and control of human-engineered complex D. K. TOLANI, A. RAY* and J. F. HORN{

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ray, Asok

    Integrated decision and control of human-engineered complex systems D. K. TOLANI, A. RAY* and J. F. HORN{ Intelligent Automation Inc., 15400 Calhoun Drive Suite 400, Rockville, MD 20855, USA Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, 329-Reber Building, University Park, PA 16802, USA

  13. Development and evaluation of operational strategies for providing an integrated diamond interchange ramp-metering control system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tian, Zongzhong

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    -to-capacity ratios at the metered ramps. The results of the evaluation indicate that the integrated operations through an adaptive signal control system were most effective under the medium traffic demand scenario by preventing or delaying the onset of ramp...

  14. Modest additive effects of integrated vector control measures on malaria prevalence and transmission in western Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    H-G, Yao F: Functional additive models. J Am Stat Assocas: Zhou et al. : Modest additive effects of integratedRESEARCH Open Access Modest additive effects of integrated

  15. Decision-Support Software for Grid Operators: Transmission Topology Control for Infrastructure Resilience to the Integration of Renewable Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    GENI Project: The CRA team is developing control technology to help grid operators more actively manage power flows and integrate renewables by optimally turning on and off entire power lines in coordination with traditional control of generation and load resources. The control technology being developed would provide grid operators with tools to help manage transmission congestion by identifying the facilities whose on/off status must change to lower generation costs, increase utilization of renewable resources and improve system reliability. The technology is based on fast optimization algorithms for the near to real-time change in the on/off status of transmission facilities and their software implementation.

  16. ARRA-Multi-Level Energy Storage and Controls for Large-Scale Wind Energy Integration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Wenzhong Gao

    2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Project Objective is to design innovative energy storage architecture and associated controls for high wind penetration to increase reliability and market acceptance of wind power. The project goals are to facilitate wind energy integration at different levels by design and control of suitable energy storage systems. The three levels of wind power system are: Balancing Control Center level, Wind Power Plant level, and Wind Power Generator level. Our scopes are to smooth the wind power fluctuation and also ensure adequate battery life. In the new hybrid energy storage system (HESS) design for wind power generation application, the boundary levels of the state of charge of the battery and that of the supercapacitor are used in the control strategy. In the controller, some logic gates are also used to control the operating time durations of the battery. The sizing method is based on the average fluctuation of wind profiles of a specific wind station. The calculated battery size is dependent on the size of the supercapacitor, state of charge of the supercapacitor and battery wear. To accommodate the wind power fluctuation, a hybrid energy storage system (HESS) consisting of battery energy system (BESS) and super-capacitor is adopted in this project. A probability-based power capacity specification approach for the BESS and super-capacitors is proposed. Through this method the capacities of BESS and super-capacitor are properly designed to combine the characteristics of high energy density of BESS and the characteristics of high power density of super-capacitor. It turns out that the super-capacitor within HESS deals with the high power fluctuations, which contributes to the extension of BESS lifetime, and the super-capacitor can handle the peaks in wind power fluctuations without the severe penalty of round trip losses associated with a BESS. The proposed approach has been verified based on the real wind data from an existing wind power plant in Iowa. An intelligent controller that increases battery life within hybrid energy storage systems for wind application was developed. Comprehensive studies have been conducted and simulation results are analyzed. A permanent magnet synchronous generator, coupled with a variable speed wind turbine, is connected to a power grid (14-bus system). A rectifier, a DC-DC converter and an inverter are used to provide a complete model of the wind system. An Energy Storage System (ESS) is connected to a DC-link through a DC-DC converter. An intelligent controller is applied to the DC-DC converter to help the Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) to regulate output power and also to control the operation of the battery and supercapacitor. This ensures a longer life time for the batteries. The detailed model is simulated in PSCAD/EMTP. Additionally, economic analysis has been done for different methods that can reduce the wind power output fluctuation. These methods are, wind power curtailment, dumping loads, battery energy storage system and hybrid energy storage system. From the results, application of single advanced HESS can save more money for wind turbines owners. Generally the income would be the same for most of methods because the wind does not change and maximum power point tracking can be applied to most systems. On the other hand, the cost is the key point. For short term and small wind turbine, the BESS is the cheapest and applicable method while for large scale wind turbines and wind farms the application of advanced HESS would be the best method to reduce the power fluctuation. The key outcomes of this project include a new intelligent controller that can reduce energy exchanged between the battery and DC-link, reduce charging/discharging cycles, reduce depth of discharge and increase time interval between charge/discharge, and lower battery temperature. This improves the overall lifetime of battery energy storages. Additionally, a new design method based on probability help optimize the power capacity specification for BESS and super-capacitors. Recommendations include experimental imp

  17. Integrated Planning and Image-Guided Control for Planar Needle Steering Kyle B. Reed, Vinutha Kallem, Ron Alterovitz, Ken Goldberg, Allison M. Okamura, Noah J. Cowan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alterovitz, Ron

    Integrated Planning and Image-Guided Control for Planar Needle Steering Kyle B. Reed, Vinutha kinematic nonholonomic model of bevel- tip needle steering. We use slighly different needles here that have steering work. By integrating planning, control, and torsion compensation, we demonstrate both accurate

  18. Simulation-based assessment of the energy savings benefits of integrated control in office buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, T.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Control System. Energy and Buildings 33(2001): 477-487.control system. Energy and Buildings Lee ES, Yazdanian M ,Daylight Controls. Energy and Buildings 33(2001): 793-803.

  19. Author's personal copy Infaunal burrow ventilation and pore-water transport in muddy sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shull, David H.

    burrow ventilation activities of organisms. Burrow ventilation is modeled as a simple non-local exchangeAuthor's personal copy Infaunal burrow ventilation and pore-water transport in muddy sediments D: bioturbation bioirrigation biogeochemistry benthic ecology radon Boston Harbor a b s t r a c t The ventilation

  20. ENERGY ANALYSISF FOR WORKSHOPS WITH FLOOR-SUPPLY DISPLACEMENT VENTILATION UNDER THE U.S. CLIMATES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    1 ENERGY ANALYSISF FOR WORKSHOPS WITH FLOOR-SUPPLY DISPLACEMENT VENTILATION UNDER THE U.S. CLIMATES ventilation systems are better than mixing ventilation systems. The benefits include indoor air quality. This research compared the energy use of a floor-supply displacement ventilation system in a large industrial