National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for integrated steel mills

  1. SURVEY OF ROLLING MILL USED BY BETHLEHEM STEEL CORPORATION LACKAWANNA...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    SURVEY OF ROLLING MILL USED BY BETHLEHEM STEEL CORPORATION LACKAWANNA, NEW YORK Work ... SURVEY OF ROLLING MILL USED BY BETHLEHEM STEEL CORPORATION LACKAWANNA, NEW YORK A ...

  2. EERE Success Story-Steel Mill Powered by Waste Heat Recovery System |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Steel Mill Powered by Waste Heat Recovery System EERE Success Story-Steel Mill Powered by Waste Heat Recovery System May 16, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis EERE worked with ArcelorMittal USA, Inc. to install an efficient recovery boiler to burn blast furnace gases generated during iron-making operations to produce electricity and steam onsite at the company's Indiana Harbor Steel Mill in East Chicago, Indiana. The steam is being used to drive existing turbogenerators onsite,

  3. Weirton Steel Corporation logistics and integrated scheduling. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guzzetta, M.B.

    1996-06-01

    In order to remain competitive in the changing steel market, US steel producers restructured by taking on foreign and domestic partners, closing facilities and/or trimming work forces, and modernizing their steel making facilities. However, very little was done to develop production management technology to complement these changes. The Logistics and Integrated Scheduling program (LIS) was undertaken to address this issue. LIS is an information management system that delivers better customer service, better quality materials, and a just-in-time delivery system. It involves three major components: (1) material marking and sensing: advanced R&D applied to determining cost effective, feasible solutions to passive inventory; (2) material inventory and tracking: advanced technology applied to managing inventory movement; (3) planning and scheduling: beginning with annual production plans, order management, and operational constraints, the ability to build integrated schedules capable of pull through and push through scheduling for various plant capability levels and location configurations with rapid turnaround capability. LIS provides accurate, automated tracking of material flows throughout the mill, the collection and analysis of production data, and automated schedule optimization.

  4. Development of nano-structured duplex and ferritic stainless steels by pulverisette planetary milling followed by pressureless sintering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R, Shashanka Chaira, D.

    2015-01-15

    Nano-structured duplex and ferritic stainless steel powders are prepared by planetary milling of elemental Fe, Cr and Ni powder for 40 h and then consolidated by conventional pressureless sintering. The progress of milling and the continuous refinement of stainless steel powders have been confirmed by means of X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Activation energy for the formation of duplex and ferritic stainless steels is calculated by Kissinger method using differential scanning calorimetry and is found to be 159.24 and 90.17 KJ/mol respectively. Both duplex and ferritic stainless steel powders are consolidated at 1000, 1200 and 1400 °C in argon atmosphere to study microstructure, density and hardness. Maximum sintered density of 90% and Vickers microhardness of 550 HV are achieved for duplex stainless steel sintered at 1400 °C for 1 h. Similarly, 92% sintered density and 263 HV microhardness are achieved for ferritic stainless steel sintered at 1400 °C. - Highlights: • Synthesized duplex and ferritic stainless steels by pulverisette planetary milling • Calculated activation energy for the formation of duplex and ferritic stainless steels • Studied the effect of sintering temperature on density, hardness and microstructure • Duplex stainless steel exhibits 90% sintered density and microhardness of 550 HV. • Ferritic stainless steel shows 92% sintered density and 263 HV microhardness.

  5. Structurally integrated steel solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Stanley W.

    1977-03-08

    Herein is disclosed a flat plate solar heat collector unit. The solar collector is integrated as a structural unit so that the collector also functions as the building roof. The functions of efficient heat collection, liquid coolant flow passages, roof structural support and building insulation are combined into one unit.

  6. Structurally integrated steel solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, S.W.

    1975-06-03

    Herein is disclosed a flate plate solar heat collector unit. The solar collector is integrated as a structural unit so that the collector also functions as the building roof. The functions of efficient heat collection, liquid coolant flow passages, roof structural support, and building insulation are combined into one unit.

  7. Structural and microstructural changes in monoclinic ZrO{sub 2} during the ball-milling with stainless steel assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stefanic, G. . E-mail: stefanic@irb.hr; Music, S.; Gajovic, A.

    2006-04-13

    High-energy ball-milling of monoclinic ZrO{sub 2} was performed in air using the planetary ball mill with a stainless steel milling assembly. Structural and microstructural changes during the ball-milling were monitored using X-ray powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Moessbauer spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. The results of line broadening analysis indicated a decrease in the crystallite size and an increase in the microstrains with the ball-milling time increased up to {approx}150 min. The results of quantitative phase analysis indicated the presence of a very small amount of tetragonal ZrO{sub 2} phase in this early stage of ball-milling. The onset of m-ZrO{sub 2} {sup {yields}} t-ZrO{sub 2} transition occurred between 10 and 15 h of ball-milling, which resulted in a complete transition after 20 h of ball-milling. Further ball-milling caused a decrease of the t-ZrO{sub 2} lattice parameters followed by a probable transition into c-ZrO{sub 2}. It was concluded that the stabilization of t- and c-ZrO{sub 2} polymorphs at RT can be attributed to the incorporation of aliovalent cations (Fe{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 3+} and Cr{sup 3+}) introduced into the sample due to the wear and oxidation of the milling media.

  8. Integrating Steel Production with Mineral Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klaus Lackner; Paul Doby; Tuncel Yegulalp; Samuel Krevor; Christopher Graves

    2008-05-01

    The objectives of the project were (i) to develop a combination iron oxide production and carbon sequestration plant that will use serpentine ores as the source of iron and the extraction tailings as the storage element for CO2 disposal, (ii) the identification of locations within the US where this process may be implemented and (iii) to create a standardized process to characterize the serpentine deposits in terms of carbon disposal capacity and iron and steel production capacity. The first objective was not accomplished. The research failed to identify a technique to accelerate direct aqueous mineral carbonation, the limiting step in the integration of steel production and carbon sequestration. Objective (ii) was accomplished. It was found that the sequestration potential of the ultramafic resource surfaces in the US and Puerto Rico is approximately 4,647 Gt of CO2 or over 500 years of current US production of CO2. Lastly, a computer model was developed to investigate the impact of various system parameters (recoveries and efficiencies and capacities of different system components) and serpentinite quality as well as incorporation of CO2 from sources outside the steel industry.

  9. AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program Vol. 3 of 6: MICROSTRUCTURAL ENGINEERING IN HOT-STRIP MILLS Part 2 of 2: Constitutive Behavior Modeling of Steels Under Hot-Rolling Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yi-Wen Cheng; Patrick Purtscher

    1999-07-30

    This report describes the development of models for predicting (1) constitutive behaviors and (2) mechanical properties of hot-rolled steels as functions of chemical composition, microstructural features, and processing variables. The study includes the following eight steels: A36, DQSK, HSLA-V, HSLA-Nb, HSLA-50/Ti-Nb, and two interstitial-free (IF) grades. These developed models have been integrated into the Hot-Strip Mill Model (HSMM), which simulates the hot strip rolling mills and predicts the mechanical properties of hot-rolled products. The HSMM model has been developed by the University of British Columbia-Canada as a part of project on the microstructural engineering in hot-strip mills.

  10. Profiles in garbage: Steel cans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, C.

    1998-02-01

    Steel mills are the largest market for steel cans. Integrated mills use the basic oxygen process to manufacture tinplate, appliances, car bodies, and steel framing. Electric arc furnaces use 100% scrap to produce steel shapes such as railroad ties and bridge spans. Electric arc furnaces are more geographically diverse and tend to have smaller capacities than basic oxygen furnaces. Detinners remove the tin from steel cans for resale to tin using industries. With less tin use in steel cans, the importance of the detinning market has declined substantially. Foundries use scrap as a raw material in making castings and molds for industrial users.

  11. Compressed Air System Upgrade Generates Significant Energy Savings at a Steel Mill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-06-25

    In 1996, U.S. Steel completed a project in which the main compressed air system at their Edgar Thomson plant in Braddock, Pennsylvania was overhauled.

  12. HRC steel mill project. Volume 2. Final report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-01

    The initial step in developing the design for a steel producing facility is the selection of the major processes to be used. This study investigated five steelmaking processes to determine the one(s) best suited for Grasim based on technical and cost performance. The processes were: Electric Arc Furnace; Induction Furnace/BOF; KS Furnace; Cupola; and Submerged Arc. This investigation determined that the electric arc furnace (EAF) was the most suitable melting process for the production of steel using DRI feed stock.

  13. Energy Assessments under the Top 10,000 Program - A Case Study for a Steel Mill in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Hongyou; Price, Lynn; Nimbalkar, Sachin U; Thekdi, Arvind; Degroot, Matthew; Shi, Jun

    2014-01-01

    introducing China s national energy intensity and carbon intensity reduction targets. Then, this paper explains the development of Top 10,000 program, including program requirements, the method for target allocation, key supporting policies, as well as challenges in implementing the program. By focusing on a process heating energy system assessment conducted in a Chinese steel mill, this paper presents an example of an energy system assessment conducted on steel reheating furnaces, including overall energy efficiency levels, areas of heat loss, and the potential for energy savings. In addition, the paper provides energy-savings recommendations that were identified during the assessment, as well as potential energy and energy costs savings. To conclude, this paper presents key findings that could further improve the Top 10,000 program by implementing a systems approach for energy assessments.

  14. Using Coke Oven Gas in a Blast Furnace Saves Over $6 Million Annually at a Steel Mill (U.S. Steel Edgar Thompson Plant)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2000-12-01

    Like most steel companies, U.S. Steel (USS) had been using coke oven gas (COG), a by-product of coke manufacturing, as a fuel in their coke ovens, boilers, and reheat furnaces.

  15. Evaluation of End Mill Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. J. Lazarus; R. L. Hester,

    2005-08-01

    Milling tests were run on families of High Speed Steel (HSS) end mills to determine their lives while machining 304 Stainless Steel. The end mills tested were made from M7, M42 and T15-CPM High Speed Steels. The end mills were also evaluated with no coatings as well as with Titanium Nitride (TiN) and Titanium Carbo-Nitride (TiCN) coatings to determine which combination of HSS and coating provided the highest increase in end mill life while increasing the cost of the tool the least. We found end mill made from M42 gave us the largest increase in tool life with the least increase in cost. The results of this study will be used by Cutting Tool Engineering in determining which end mill descriptions will be dropped from our tool catalog.

  16. Mill Integration-Pulping, Stream Reforming and Direct Causticization for Black Liquor Recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adriaan van Heiningen

    2007-06-30

    MTCI/StoneChem developed a steam reforming, fluidized bed gasification technology for biomass. DOE supported the demonstration of this technology for gasification of spent wood pulping liquor (or 'black liquor') at Georgia-Pacific's Big Island, Virginia mill. The present pre-commercial R&D project addressed the opportunities as well as identified negative aspects when the MTCI/StoneChem gasification technology is integrated in a pulp mill production facility. The opportunities arise because black liquor gasification produces sulfur (as H{sub 2}S) and sodium (as Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) in separate streams which may be used beneficially for improved pulp yield and properties. The negative aspect of kraft black liquor gasification is that the amount of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} which must be converted to NaOH (the so called causticizing requirement) is increased. This arises because sulfur is released as Na{sub 2}S during conventional kraft black liquor recovery, while during gasification the sodium associated Na{sub 2}S is partly or fully converted to Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. The causticizing requirement can be eliminated by including a TiO{sub 2} based cyclic process called direct causticization. In this process black liquor is gasified in the presence of (low sodium content) titanates which convert Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} to (high sodium content) titanates. NaOH is formed when contacting the latter titanates with water, thereby eliminating the causticizing requirement entirely. The leached and low sodium titanates are returned to the gasification process. The project team comprised the University of Maine (UM), North Carolina State University (NCSU) and MTCI/ThermoChem. NCSU and MTCI are subcontractors to UM. The principal organization for the contract is UM. NCSU investigated the techno-economics of using advanced pulping techniques which fully utilize the unique cooking liquors produced by steam reforming of black liquor (Task 1). UM studied the kinetics and agglomeration problems of

  17. Structural integrity assessment of type 201LN stainless steel cryogenic pressure vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rana, M.D.; Zawierucha, R.

    1995-12-01

    The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Committee approved the Code Case 2123 in 1992 which allows the use of Type 201LN stainless steel in the construction of ASME Section VIII, Division 1 and Division 2 pressure vessels for -320{degrees}F applications. Type 201LN stainless steel is a nitrogen strengthened modified version of ASTM A240, Type 201 stainless steel with a restricted chemistry. The Code allowable design stresses for Type 201LN for Division 1 vessels are approximately 27% higher than Type 304 stainless steel and equal to that of the 5 Ni and 9 Ni steels. This paper discusses the important features of the Code Case 2123 and the structural integrity assessment of Type 201LN stainless steel cryogenic vessels. Tensile, Charpy-V-notch and fracture properties have been obtained on several heats of this steel including weldments. A linear-elastic fracture mechanics analysis has been conducted to assess the expected fracture mode and the fracture-critical crack sizes. The results have been compared with Type 304 stainless steel, 5 Ni and 9 Ni steel vessels.

  18. Milling of key slots on long shafts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agadzhanyan, R.A.; Bogdanenko, Yu.G.

    1987-03-01

    The authors look for and test methods and tool materials for milling key slots into rod pump shafts made of steel-03KH14N7V and K Monel alloy which not only increase the precision of the milling process but also extend the life of the milling tool. Their test parameters include various methods for introduction of the cutting fluid into the milling process, the effect of carbonitridation of the tool material, and the productivity of the machine itself.

  19. Coke oven gas treatment and by-product plant of Magnitogorsk Integrated Iron and Steel Works

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egorov, V.N.; Anikin, G.J.; Gross, M.

    1995-12-01

    Magnitogorsk Integrated Iron and Steel Works, Russia, decided to erect a new coke oven gas treatment and by-product plant to replace the existing obsolete units and to improve the environmental conditions of the area. The paper deals with the technological concept and the design requirements. Commissioning is scheduled at the beginning of 1996. The paper describes H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3} removal, sulfur recovery and ammonia destruction, primary gas cooling and electrostatic tar precipitation, and the distributed control system that will be installed.

  20. Structural integrity assessment of carbon and low-alloy steel pressure vessels using a simplified fracture mechanics procedure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rana, M.D. . Research and Development Dept.)

    1994-08-01

    This paper describes a simplified fracture analysis procedure which was developed by Pellini to quantify fracture critical-crack sizes and crack-arrest temperatures of carbon and low-alloy steel pressure vessels. Fracture analysis diagrams have been developed using the simplified analysis procedure for various grades of carbon and low-alloy steels used in the construction of ASME, Section VIII, Division 1 pressure vessels. Structural integrity assessments have been conducted from the analysis diagrams.

  1. Cassie Mills

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cassie Mills is a communications associate in the Advanced Manufacturing Office in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  2. Development of Bottom-up Representation of Industrial Energy Efficiency Technologies in Integrated Assessment Models for the Iron and Steel Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, T.T.; Sathaye, J.; Galitsky, C.

    2010-09-30

    measures are available over time, which allows an estimation of technological change over a decade-long historical period. In particular, the report will describe new treatment of technological change in energy-climate modeling for this industry sector, i.e., assessing the changes in costs and energy-savings potentials via comparing 1994 and 2002 conservation supply curves. In this study, we compared the same set of mitigation measures for both 1994 and 2002 -- no additional mitigation measure for year 2002 was included due to unavailability of such data. Therefore, the estimated potentials in total energy savings and carbon reduction would most likely be more conservative for year 2002 in this study. Based upon the cost curves, the rate of change in the savings potential at a given cost can be evaluated and be used to estimate future rates of change that can be the input for energy-climate models. Through characterizing energy-efficiency technology costs and improvement potentials, we have developed and presented energy cost curves for energy efficiency measures applicable to the U.S. iron and steel industry for the years 1994 and 2002. The cost curves can change significantly under various scenarios: the baseline year, discount rate, energy intensity, production, industry structure (e.g., integrated versus secondary steel making and number of plants), efficiency (or mitigation) measures, share of iron and steel production to which the individual measures can be applied, and inclusion of other non-energy benefits. Inclusion of other non-energy benefits from implementing mitigation measures can reduce the costs of conserved energy significantly. In addition, costs of conserved energy (CCE) for individual mitigation measures increase with the increases in discount rates, resulting in a general increase in total cost of mitigation measures for implementation and operation with a higher discount rate. In 1994, integrated steel mills in the U.S. produced 55.

  3. Effect of stainless steel weld overlay cladding on the structural integrity of flawed steel plates in bending. Series 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corwin, W.R.; Robinson, G.C.; Nanstad, R.K.; Merkle, J.G.; Berggren, R.G.; Goodwin, G.M.; Swain, R.L.; Owings, T.D.

    1985-04-01

    The Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Stainless Steel Cladding Evaluations were undertaken to study the interaction of stainless steel cladding on the inside surface of a reactor pressure vessel with flaws initiating and propagating in base metal. With the more recent focus of safety studies on overcooling type transients, for which the behavior of small flaws is important, stainless steel cladding may have a key role in controlling the propagation and/or arrest of propagating flaws. A complicating factor in understanding the role of stainless steel cladding in this setting is the scarcity of data on its fracture toughness as a function of radiation dose and the fabrication process. The initial phase of the HSST evaluations addresses this question by testing the response of 51-mm-thick flawed plates clad with single-wire, submerged-arc weld overlays of different toughness levels. The tests completed indicate that cladding of moderate toughness had a limited ability to enhance the structural arrest toughness of a beam in bending. The specimen design and fabrication techniques employed for this first completed series of tests resulted in flaw and specimen configurations that prevented adequate control of the stress state at pop-in of the hydrogen-charged electron-beam welds. As a result, analyses of the tests by two approximate techniques and by the ORMGEN-ADINA-ORVIRT finite-element programs were not completely consistent.

  4. Feasibility study for reconstruction of the reheat furnaces for the 2000 Hot Strip Mill (Novolipetsk Steel Works, Lipetsk, Russia): Final report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-05-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a furnace design that would be instrumental in advancing the NLMK 2000 Hot Strip Mill to a level of world class strip mills capable of producing high quality strip with improved energy efficiency and minimal environmental impact. The contents include the following: (1) executive summary; (2) capital cost assessment; (3) project financial analysis; (4) study overview; (5) basic furnace design; (6) silicon design specification; (7) utilities; (8) NOx reduction technologies for reheat furnaces; (9) site investigation and construction schedule; (10) hot connect.

  5. Validation of the Hot Strip Mill Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Shulkosky; David Rosberg; Jerrud Chapman

    2005-03-30

    The Hot Strip Mill Model (HSMM) is an off-line, PC based software originally developed by the University of British Columbia (UBC) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) under the AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program. The HSMM was developed to predict the temperatures, deformations, microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of steel strip or plate rolled in a hot mill. INTEG process group inc. undertook the current task of enhancing and validating the technology. With the support of 5 North American steel producers, INTEG process group tested and validated the model using actual operating data from the steel plants and enhanced the model to improve prediction results.

  6. Large-Scale Evaluation of Nickel Aluminide Rools In A Heat-Treat Furnace at Bethlehem Steel's (now ISG) Burns Harbor Plate Mill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Mengel; Anthony Martocci; Larry Fabina; RObert Petrusha; Ronald Chango

    2003-09-01

    At Bethlehem Steel Burns Harbor Plate Division (now ISG Burns Harbor Plate Inc.)'s annealing furnace, new nickel aluminide intermetallic alloy rolls provide greater high-temperature strength and wear resistance compared to the conventional H series cast austenitic alloys currently used in the industry, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Bethlehem (ISG) partnered under a U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technology's Emerging Technology Deployment Program to demonstrate and evaluate the nickel aluminide intermetallic alloy rolls as part of an updated energy efficient large commercial annealing furnace system.

  7. Ionfab Mill

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oxford Ionfab System 300+ Ion Mill For questions concerning this machines capabilities, please contact Varshni Singh, at 578-0248. ionfab.jpg (60579 bytes) Removal of metallic patterns from a surface can be performed evenly with this inert gas ion beam system, which uses a projected Ar ion beam to sputter etch the surface of a six inch wafer at the users choice of angle and rotation speed. The Ionfab 300+ can allow researchers to investigate thin film structures with vertical or angled side

  8. Large-scale Evaluation of Nickel Aluminide Rolls in a Heat-Treat Furnace at Bethelehem Steel's (Now ISG) Burns Harbor Plate Mill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mengel, J.

    2003-12-16

    At Bethlehem Steel Burns Harbor Plate Division (now ISG Burns Harbor Plate Inc.)'s annealing furnace, new nickel aluminide intermetallic alloy rolls provide greater high-temperature strength and wear resistance compared to the conventional H series cast austenitic alloys currently used in the industry. Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Bethlehem (ISG) partnered under a U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technology's Emerging Technology Deployment Program to demonstrate and evaluate the nickel aluminide intermetallic alloy rolls as part of an updated energy efficient large commercial annealing furnace system. Many challenges were involved in this project, including developing welding procedures for joining nickel aluminide intermetallic alloys with H-series austenitic alloys, developing commercial cast roll manufacturing specifications, working with several commercial suppliers to produce a quantity of high quality, reproducible nickel aluminide rolls for a large steel industrial annealing furnace, installing and demonstrating the capability of the rolls in this furnace, performing processing trials to evaluate the benefits of new equipment and processes, and documenting the findings. Updated furnace equipment including twenty-five new automated furnace control dampers have been installed replacing older design, less effective units. These dampers, along with upgraded flame-safety control equipment and new AC motors and roll-speed control equipment, are providing improved furnace control and additional energy efficiency. Energy data shows up to a 34% energy reduction from baseline after the installation of upgraded furnace damper controls along with up to a 34% reduction in greenhouse gases, potential for an additional 3 to 6% energy reduction per campaign of light-up and shutdown, and a 46% energy reduction from baseline for limited trials of a combination of improved damper control and straight-through plate processing. The straight-through processing

  9. Integration of the Mini-Sulfide Sulfite Anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) Pulping Process and Black Liquor Gasification in a Pulp Mill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasan Jameel, North Carolina State University; Adrianna Kirkman, North Carolina State University; Ravi Chandran,Thermochem Recovery International Brian Turk Research Triangle Institute; Brian Green, Research Triangle Institute

    2010-01-27

    As many of the recovery boilers and other pieces of large capital equipment of U.S. pulp mills are nearing the end of their useful life, the pulp and paper industry will soon need to make long-term investments in new technologies. The ability to install integrated, complete systems that are highly efficient will impact the industry’s energy use for decades to come. Developing a process for these new systems is key to the adoption of state-of-the-art technologies in the Forest Products industry. This project defined an integrated process model that combines mini-sulfide sulfite anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) pulping and black liquor gasification with a proprietary desulfurization process developed by the Research Triangle Institute. Black liquor gasification is an emerging technology that enables the use of MSS-AQ pulping, which results in higher yield, lower bleaching cost, lower sulfur emissions, and the elimination of causticization requirements. The recently developed gas cleanup/absorber technology can clean the product gas to a state suitable for use in a gas turbine and also regenerate the pulping chemicals needed to for the MSS-AQ pulping process. The combination of three advanced technologies into an integrated design will enable the pulping industry to achieve a new level of efficiency, environmental performance, and cost savings. Because the three technologies are complimentary, their adoption as a streamlined package will ensure their ability to deliver maximum energy and cost savings benefits. The process models developed by this project will enable the successful integration of new technologies into the next generation of chemical pulping mills. When compared to the Kraft reference pulp, the MSS-AQ procedures produced pulps with a 10-15 % yield benefit and the ISO brightness was 1.5-2 times greater. The pulp refined little easier and had a slightly lower apparent sheet density (In both the cases). At similar levels of tear index the MSS-AQ pulps also

  10. Biomass torrefaction mill

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sprouse, Kenneth M.

    2016-05-17

    A biomass torrefaction system includes a mill which receives a raw biomass feedstock and operates at temperatures above 400 F (204 C) to generate a dusty flue gas which contains a milled biomass product.

  11. Application of cyclic J-integral to low cycle fatigue crack growth of Japanese carbon steel pipe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miura, N.; Fujioka, T.; Kashima, K.

    1997-04-01

    Piping for LWR power plants is required to satisfy the LBB concept for postulated (not actual) defects. With this in mind, research has so far been conducted on the fatigue crack growth under cyclic loading, and on the ductile crack growth under excessive loading. It is important, however, for the evaluation of the piping structural integrity under seismic loading condition, to understand the fracture behavior under dynamic and cyclic loading conditions, that accompanies large-scale yielding. CRIEPI together with Hitachi have started a collaborative research program on dynamic and/or cyclic fracture of Japanese carbon steel (STS410) pipes in 1991. Fundamental tensile property tests were conducted to examine the effect of strain rate on tensile properties. Cracked pipe fracture tests under some loading conditions were also performed to investigate the effect of dynamic and/or cyclic loading on fracture behavior. Based on the analytical considerations for the above tests, the method to evaluate the failure life for a cracked pipe under cyclic loading was developed and verified. Cyclic J-integral was introduced to predict cyclic crack growth up to failure. This report presents the results of tensile property tests, cracked pipe fracture tests, and failure life analysis. The proposed method was applied to the cracked pipe fracture tests. The effect of dynamic and/or cyclic loading on pipe fracture was also investigated.

  12. Blast furnace gas fired boiler for Eregli Iron and Steel Works (Erdemir), Turkey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, J.; Strickland, A.; Kimsesiz, E.; Temucin, I.

    1996-11-01

    Eregli Demir ve Celik Fabriklari T.A.S. (Eregli Iron and Steel Works Inc.), known as Erdemir, is a modern integrated iron and steel works on the Black Sea coast of Turkey, producing flat steel plate. Facilities include two blast furnaces, coke ovens, and hot and cold rolling mills, with a full supporting infrastructure. Four oil- and gas-fired steam boilers provide steam for electric power generation, and to drive steam turbine driven fans for Blast Furnace process air. Two of these boilers (Babcock and Wilcox Type FH) were first put into operation in 1965, and still reliably produce 100 tons/hour of steam at a pressure of 44 bar and a temperature of 410 C. In 1989 Erdemir initiated a Capacity Increase and Modernization Project to increase the steel production capability from two million to three million tons annually. This project also incorporates technology to improve the product quality. Its goals include a reduction in energy expenses to improve Erdemir`s competitiveness. The project`s scheduled completion is in late 1995. The by-product gases of the blast furnaces, coke ovens, and basic oxygen furnaces represent a considerable share of the consumed energy in an integrated iron and steel works. Efficient use of these fuels is an important factor in improving the overall efficiency of the operation.

  13. Superior Steel

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... recycled uranium from reprocessed spent nuclear fuel may also have been processed at the site. ... and contained the motors and control panels that powered the mill equipment in ...

  14. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Superior Steel Co - PA 03

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Superior Steel Co - PA 03 FUSRAP Considered Sites Superior Steel, PA Alternate Name(s): Copper Weld, Inc. Superbolt Location: Carnegie, Pennsylvania PA.03-1 Historical Operations: Milled uranium metal for AEC. PA.03-4 Eligibility Determination: Eligible Radiological Survey(s): Assessment Survey PA.03-4 Site Status: Cleanup in progress by U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. USACE Website Long-term Care Requirements: To be determined upon completion. Also see Documents Related to Superior Steel, PA

  15. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Guterl Specialty Steel - NY 12

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Guterl Specialty Steel - NY 12 FUSRAP Considered Sites Guterl Specialty Steel, NY Alternate Name(s): Simonds Saw and Steel Co. Guterl Steel Allegheny Ludlum Steel Corp. NY.12-1 NY.12-2 Location: Ohio Street and Route 95, Lockport, New York NY.12-12 Historical Operations: Performed rolling mill operations on natural uranium and thorium metal. NY.12-6 NY.12-7 Eligibility Determination: NY.12-11 Radiological Survey(s): Assessment Surveys NY.12-1 NY.12-4 NY.12-8 NY.12-9 NY.12-12 Site Status: Cleanup

  16. Analyzing the performance of diamond-coated micro end mills.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torres, C. D.; Heaney, P. J.; Sumant, A. V.; Hamilton, M. A.; Carpick, R. W.; Pfefferkorn, F. E.; Univ. of Wisconsin at Madison; Univ. of Pennsylvania

    2009-06-01

    A method is presented to improve the tool life and cutting performance of 300 {micro}m diameter tungsten carbide (WC) micro end mills by applying thin (<300 nm) fine-grained diamond (FGD) and nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) coatings using the hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HF-CVD) process. The performance of the diamond-coated tools has been evaluated by comparing their performance in dry slot milling of 6061-T6 aluminum against uncoated WC micro end mills. Tool wear, coating integrity, and chip morphology were characterized using SEM and white light interferometry. The initial test results show a dramatic improvement in the tool integrity (i.e., corners not breaking off), a lower wear rate, no observable adhesion of aluminum to the diamond-coated tool, and a significant reduction in the cutting forces (>50%). Reduction of the cutting forces is attributed to the low friction and adhesion of the diamond coating. However, approximately 80% of the tools coated with the larger FGD coatings failed during testing due to delamination. Additional machining benefits were attained for the NCD films, which was obtained by using a higher nucleation density seeding process for diamond growth. This process allowed for thinner, smaller grained diamond coatings to be deposited on the micro end mills, and enabled continued operation of the tool even after the integrity of the diamond coating had been compromised. As opposed to the FGD-coated end mills, only 40% of the NCD-tools experienced delamination issues.

  17. The industrial ecology of steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Considine, Timothy J.; Jablonowski, Christopher; Considine, Donita M.M.; Rao, Prasad G.

    2001-03-26

    This study performs an integrated assessment of new technology adoption in the steel industry. New coke, iron, and steel production technologies are discussed, and their economic and environmental characteristics are compared. Based upon detailed plant level data on cost and physical input-output relations by process, this study develops a simple mathematical optimization model of steel process choice. This model is then expanded to a life cycle context, accounting for environmental emissions generated during the production and transportation of energy and material inputs into steelmaking. This life-cycle optimization model provides a basis for evaluating the environmental impacts of existing and new iron and steel technologies. Five different plant configurations are examined, from conventional integrated steel production to completely scrap-based operations. Two cost criteria are used to evaluate technology choice: private and social cost, with the latter including the environmental damages associated with emissions. While scrap-based technologies clearly generate lower emissions in mass terms, their emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are significantly higher. Using conventional damage cost estimates reported in the literature suggests that the social costs associated with scrap-based steel production are slightly higher than with integrated steel production. This suggests that adopting a life-cycle viewpoint can substantially affect environmental assessment of new technologies. Finally, this study also examines the impacts of carbon taxes on steel production costs and technology choice.

  18. Hydrogen embrittlement of structural steels.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somerday, Brian P.

    2010-06-01

    Carbon-manganese steels are candidates for the structural materials in hydrogen gas pipelines, however it is well known that these steels are susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement. Decades of research and industrial experience have established that hydrogen embrittlement compromises the structural integrity of steel components. This experience has also helped identify the failure modes that can operate in hydrogen containment structures. As a result, there are tangible ideas for managing hydrogen embrittement in steels and quantifying safety margins for steel hydrogen containment structures. For example, fatigue crack growth aided by hydrogen embrittlement is a key failure mode for steel hydrogen containment structures subjected to pressure cycling. Applying appropriate structural integrity models coupled with measurement of relevant material properties allows quantification of safety margins against fatigue crack growth in hydrogen containment structures. Furthermore, application of these structural integrity models is aided by the development of micromechanics models, which provide important insights such as the hydrogen distribution near defects in steel structures. The principal objective of this project is to enable application of structural integrity models to steel hydrogen pipelines. The new American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) B31.12 design code for hydrogen pipelines includes a fracture mechanics-based design option, which requires material property inputs such as the threshold for rapid cracking and fatigue crack growth rate under cyclic loading. Thus, one focus of this project is to measure the rapid-cracking thresholds and fatigue crack growth rates of line pipe steels in high-pressure hydrogen gas. These properties must be measured for the base materials but more importantly for the welds, which are likely to be most vulnerable to hydrogen embrittlement. The measured properties can be evaluated by predicting the performance of the pipeline

  19. Saving Energy in China Steel Mills |GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    My Unique Technology Discovery during a Spontaneous Trip Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new ...

  20. Steel Mill Powered by Waste Heat Recovery System | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    efficient recovery boiler. Locations Indiana Partners ArcelorMittal USA, Inc. EERE Investment 31.6 million Clean Energy Sector Energy-saving homes, buildings, and manufacturing

  1. Gas fluidized-bed stirred media mill

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sadler, III, Leon Y.

    1997-01-01

    A gas fluidized-bed stirred media mill is provided for comminuting solid ticles. The mill includes a housing enclosing a porous fluidizing gas diffuser plate, a baffled rotor and stator, a hollow drive shaft with lateral vents, and baffled gas exhaust exit ports. In operation, fluidizing gas is forced through the mill, fluidizing the raw material and milling media. The rotating rotor, stator and milling media comminute the raw material to be ground. Small entrained particles may be carried from the mill by the gas through the exit ports when the particles reach a very fine size.

  2. Development of 3rd Generation Advanced High Strength Steels ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    an Integrated Experimental and Simulation Approach QUENCHING AND PARTITIONING PROCESS DEVELOPMENT TO REPLACE HOT STAMPING OF HIGH STRENGTH AUTOMOTIVE STEEL Vehicle Technologies ...

  3. Development of New Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert F. Buck

    2005-08-30

    A new family of innovative martensitic stainless steels, 521-A, 521-B, and 521-C has been developed by Advanced Steel Technology, LLC (Trafford, PA) as high strength fastener (bolt) materials for use at moderate temperatures in turbine engines, including steam turbines, gas turbines, and aircraft engines. The primary objective of the development program was to create a martensitic stainless steel with high strength at moderate temperatures, and which could replace the expensive nickel-based superalloy IN 718 in some fasteners applications. A secondary objective was to replace conventional 12Cr steels such as AISI 422 used as blades, buckets and shafts that operate at intermediate temperatures in turbine engines with stronger steel. The composition of the new alloys was specifically designed to produce excellent mechanical properties while integrating heat treatment steps into production to reduce energy consumption during manufacturing. As a result, production costs and energy consumption during production of rolled bar products is significantly lower than conventional materials. Successful commercialization of the new alloys would permit the installed cost of certain turbine engines to be reduced without sacrificing high availability or operational flexibility, thereby enhancing the global competitiveness of U.S. turbine engine manufacturers. Moreover, the domestic specialty steel industry would also benefit through increased productivity and reduced operating costs, while increasing their share of the international market for turbine engine fasteners, blades, buckets and shafts.

  4. Qualification of welded super 13%Cr martensitic stainless steels for sour service applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enerhaug, J.; Eliassen, S.L.; Kvaale, P.E.

    1997-08-01

    A test program has been carried out to qualify welded super 13%Cr stainless steels for sour service applications. The test program included weldability trials, weld simulations, mechanical testing and corrosion testing of 13%Cr steels from five different steel mills. Two of the tested steels have been qualified for use as flowline materials in some parts of new sour service fields. The result shows excellent weldability properties and acceptable corrosion properties. Post weld heat treatment (PWHT) of the welds improved the resistance towards sulfide stress corrosion cracking significantly.

  5. Online SAG Mill Pluse Measurement and Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raj Rajamani; Jose Delgadillo; Vishal Duriseti

    2007-06-30

    The grinding efficiency of semi autogenous milling or ball milling depends on the tumbling motion of the total charge within the mill. Utilization of this tumbling motion for efficient breakage of particles depends on the conditions inside the mill. However, any kind of monitoring device to measure the conditions inside the mill shell during operation is virtually impossible due to the severe environment presented by the tumbling charge. An instrumented grinding ball, which is capable of surviving a few hours and transmitting the impacts it experiences, is proposed here. The spectrum of impacts collected over 100 revolutions of the mills presents the signature of the grinding environment inside mill. This signature could be effectively used to optimize the milling performance by investigating this signature's relation to mill product size, mill throughput, make-up ball size, mill speed, liner profile and ball addition rates. At the same time, it can also be used to design balls and liner systems that can survive longer in the mill. The technological advances made in electronics and communication makes this leap in instrumentation certainly viable. Hence, the instrumented grinding ball offers the ability to qualitatively observe and optimize the milling environment. An instrumented load cell package that can measure the force of impacts inside the grinding chamber of a mill is developed here. The signal from the instrumented load cell package is interpreted in terms of a histogram termed as an impact spectrum which is a plot of the number of impacts at a specific energy level against the energy. It reflects on the average force regime of the mill. The instrumented load cell package was calibrated against the ultra fast load cell which has been unanimously accepted as a standard to measure single breakage events. The load cell package was successfully used to produce impact spectra in an 8.5 inch lab scale mill. The mill speed and the ball size were varied to study

  6. Process development of thin strip steel casting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sussman, R.C.; Williams, R.S.

    1990-12-01

    An important new frontier is being opened in steel processing with the emergence of thin strip casting. Casting steel directly to thin strip has enormous benefits in energy savings by potentially eliminating the need for hot reduction in a hot strip mill. This has been the driving force for numerous current research efforts into the direct strip casting of steel. The US Department of Energy initiated a program to evaluate the development of thin strip casting in the steel industry. In earlier phases of this program, planar flow casting on an experimental caster was studied by a team of engineers from Westinghouse Electric corporation and Armco Inc. A subsequent research program was designed as a fundamental and developmental study of both planar and melt overflow casting processes. This study was arranged as several separate and distinct tasks which were often completed by different teams of researchers. An early task was to design and build a water model to study fluid flow through different designs of planar flow casting nozzles. Another important task was mathematically modeling of melt overflow casting process. A mathematical solidification model for the formation of the strip in the melt overflow process was written. A study of the material and conditioning of casting substrates was made on the small wheel caster using the melt overflow casting process. This report discusses work on the development of thin steel casting.

  7. Kumar, Jitendra; Hoffman, Forrest; Hargrove, William; Mills,...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    based Sampling Network Design for the State of Alaska Kumar, Jitendra; Hoffman, Forrest; Hargrove, William; Mills, Richard 54 Environmental Sciences Ecoregions; Representativeness;...

  8. Colony Mills Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: Lahore, Pakistan Sector: Solar Product: Yarn manufacturer, plans to set up solar thermal plant. References: Colony Mills Limited1 This article is a stub. You can help...

  9. Mille Lacs Energy Cooperative | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cooperative Place: Minnesota Phone Number: 1-800-450-2191 Website: www.mlecmn.net Facebook: https:www.facebook.compagesMille-Lacs-Energy-Cooperative299198793447582 Outage...

  10. The recycling of waste oxides at Great Lakes Division, National Steel Corporation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landow, M.P.; Martinez, M.; Barnett, T.

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the design, construction, and startup operations of a briquetting plant to recycle the revert dust, sludges and other materials generated from the iron and steelmaking processes. The specific plant constructed for National Steel Corporation`s Great Lakes Division was designed to recycle 273,000 metric tons (300,000 net tons) of integrated steel plant revert materials, such as BOP dust, blast furnace flue dust and sludge, and mill scale. The majority of the briquette plant production, about 80 percent, will recycle through the blast furnace and the remaining 20 percent through the steelmaking furnaces. This paper discusses the criteria used for plant design, construction, and startup. The plant design and construction period was 12 months with construction during the last 33 week period. The startup of the plant proceeded extremely well with the ramping up of production rates faster than the proposed startup plan. In addition, the blast furnace production was initiated using a newly developed blast furnace binder.

  11. Uranium mill ore dust characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knuth, R.H.; George, A.C.

    1980-11-01

    Cascade impactor and general air ore dust measurements were taken in a uranium processing mill in order to characterize the airborne activity, the degree of equilibrium, the particle size distribution and the respirable fraction for the /sup 238/U chain nuclides. The sampling locations were selected to limit the possibility of cross contamination by airborne dusts originating in different process areas of the mill. The reliability of the modified impactor and measurement techniques was ascertained by duplicate sampling. The results reveal no significant deviation from secular equilibrium in both airborne and bulk ore samples for the /sup 234/U and /sup 230/Th nuclides. In total airborne dust measurements, the /sup 226/Ra and /sup 210/Pb nuclides were found to be depleted by 20 and 25%, respectively. Bulk ore samples showed depletions of 10% for the /sup 226/Ra and /sup 210/Pb nuclides. Impactor samples show disequilibrium of /sup 226/Ra as high as +-50% for different size fractions. In these samples the /sup 226/Ra ratio was generally found to increase as particle size decreased. Activity median aerodynamic diameters of the airborne dusts ranged from 5 to 30 ..mu..m with a median diameter of 11 ..mu..m. The maximum respirable fraction for the ore dusts, based on the proposed International Commission on Radiological Protection's (ICRP) definition of pulmonary deposition, was < 15% of the total airborne concentration. Ore dust parameters calculated for impactor duplicate samples were found to be in excellent agreement.

  12. Moab Project Disposes 2 Million Tons of Uranium Mill Tailings...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    The Moab Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project reached its primary American ... of schedule on Wednesday with the disposal of 2 million tons of uranium mill tailings. ...

  13. Beijing Jingye Bearing Manufacture for Rolling Mills Co Ltd ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Beijing Jingye Bearing Manufacture for Rolling Mills Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Beijing Jingye Bearing Manufacture for Rolling Mills Co Ltd Place: Beijing...

  14. West Coast Paper Mills Ltd WCPML | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Paper Mills Ltd WCPML Jump to: navigation, search Name: West Coast Paper Mills Ltd. (WCPML) Place: Dandeli, Karnataka, India Zip: 581 325 Sector: Biomass Product: Dandeli based...

  15. Deconfinement in Yang-Mills Theory through Toroidal Compactification...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Deconfinement in Yang-Mills Theory through Toroidal Compactification Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Deconfinement in Yang-Mills Theory through Toroidal Compactification ...

  16. Mill Run Wind Power Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Run Wind Power Project Jump to: navigation, search Name Mill Run Wind Power Project Facility Mill Run Wind Power Project Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind...

  17. Tamil Nadu Spinning Mills Association TASMA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tamil Nadu, India Zip: 624003 Sector: Wind energy Product: Association of spinning mill owners; promoting wind power projects. References: Tamil Nadu Spinning Mills...

  18. Boise Inc. St. Helens Paper Mill Achieves Significant Fuel Savings...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Boise Inc. St. Helens Paper Mill Achieves Significant Fuel Savings Boise Inc. St. Helens Paper Mill Achieves Significant Fuel Savings This case study describes how the Boise Inc. ...

  19. ITP Steel: Theoretical Minimum Energies to Produce Steel for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Theoretical Minimum Energies to Produce Steel for Selected Conditions, March 2000 ITP Steel: Theoretical Minimum Energies to Produce Steel for Selected Conditions, March 2000 ...

  20. Ultrahigh carbon steels, Damascus steels, and superplasticity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherby, O.D.; Wadsworth, J.

    1997-04-01

    The processing properties of ultrahigh carbon steels (UHCSs) have been studied at Stanford University over the past twenty years. These studies have shown that such steels (1 to 2.1% C) can be made superplastic at elevated temperature and can have remarkable mechanical properties at room temperature. It was the investigation of these UHCSs that eventually brought us to study the myths, magic, and metallurgy of ancient Damascus steels, which in fact, were also ultrahigh carbon steels. These steels were made in India as castings, known as wootz, possibly as far back as the time of Alexander the Great. The best swords are believed to have been forged in Persia from Indian wootz. This paper centers on recent work on superplastic UHCSs and on their relation to Damascus steels. 32 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Cast Stainless Steel Aging Research Plan | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cast Stainless Steel Aging Research Plan Cast Stainless Steel Aging Research Plan This work plan proposes to build a systematic knowledge base for the thermal aging behavior of cast stainless steels (CASSs) within a limited time of five years. The final output of execution of the plan is expected to provide conclusive predictions for the integrity of the CASS components of LWR power plants during the extended service life up to and beyond 60 years. Mechanical and microstructural data obtained

  2. The Bowersock Mills and Power Company 1874

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Incremental Hydroelectric Energy The Bowersock Mills and Power Co., Lawrence, KS ... It comes from putting in better turbines in existing dams, it comes from run-of-the-river ...

  3. Lake Mills Light & Water | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Light & Water Jump to: navigation, search Name: Lake Mills Light & Water Place: Wisconsin Phone Number: (920) 648-4026 Website: www.lakemillslw.com Outage Hotline: (920) 648-4026...

  4. Gary Mills | Savannah River Ecology Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mills Curriculum Vitae Faculty & Scientists SREL Home Gary Mills Savannah River Ecology Laboratory P O Drawer E, Aiken, SC 29802 (803) 725-5368 office (803) 725-3309 fax gmills(at)srel.uga.edu My research interest is in the biogeochemistry of aquatic ecosystems and my projects have included studies on stream, wetland, and estuarine systems as well as geothermal hot springs. My current research is focused on techniques for determining the bioavailable fraction of dissolved metals in wetland

  5. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Lowman Mill Site - ID 01

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Lowman Mill Site - ID 01 Site ID (CSD Index Number): ID.01 Site Name: Lowman Mill Site Site Summary: Site Link: External Site Link: Lowman, Idaho, Disposal Site Alternate Name(s): Lowman Mill Site Uranium Mill in Lowman Alternate Name Documents: Location: Lowman, Idaho Location Documents: Historical Operations (describe contaminants): Historical Operations Documents: Eligibility Determination: Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) Title I site Eligibility Determination Documents:

  6. Supporting steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Badra, C.

    1995-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) have just completed a pilot program on the technical and economic viability of direct ironmaking by a process based on bath smelting. In this process, oxygen, prereduced iron ore pellets, coal, and flux are charged into a molten slag bath containing a high percentage of carbon. The carbon removes oxygen from the iron ore and generates carbon monoxide and liquid iron. Oxygen is then injected to burn some of the carbon monoxide gas before it leaves the smelting vessel. The partially combusted gas is sued to preheat and prereduced the ore before it is injected into the bath. There are several competing cokeless ironmaking processes in various stages of development around the world. A brief comparison of these processes provides a useful perspective with which to gauge the progress and objectives of the AISI-DOE research initiative. The principal competing foreign technologies include the Corex process, DIOS, HIsmelt, and Jupiter. The advantages of the direct ironmaking process examined by AISI-DOE were not sufficiently demonstrated to justify commercialization without further research. However, enough knowledge was gained from laboratory and pilot testing to teach researchers how to optimize the direct ironmaking process and to provide the foundation for future research. Researchers now better understand issues such as the dissolution of materials, reduction mechanisms and rates, slag foaming and control, the behavior of sulfur, dust generation, and the entire question of energy efficiency--including post combustion and the role of coal/volatile matter.

  7. Steel Industry Profile

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The steel industry is critical to the U.S. economy. Steel is the material of choice for many elements of manufacturing, construction, transportation, and various consumer products. Traditionally...

  8. Lightweight Steel Solutions for Automotive Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Hong Woo; Kim, Gyosung; Park, Sung Ho

    2010-06-15

    Recently, improvement in fuel efficiency and safety has become the biggest issue in worldwide automotive industry. Although the regulation of environment and safety has been tightened up more and more, the majority of vehicle bodies are still manufactured from stamped steel components. This means that the optimized steel solutions enable to demonstrate its ability to reduce body weight with high crashworthiness performance instead of expensive light weight materials such as Al, Mg and composites. To provide the innovative steel solutions for automotive industry, POSCO has developed AHSS and its application technologies, which is directly connected to EVI activities. EVI is a technical cooperation program with customer covering all stages of new car project from design to mass production. Integrated light weight solutions through new forming technologies such as TWB, hydroforming and HPF are continuously developed and provided for EVI activities. This paper will discuss the detailed status of these technologies especially light weight steel solutions based on innovative technologies.

  9. Comminuting irradiated ferritic steel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bauer, Roger E.; Straalsund, Jerry L.; Chin, Bryan A.

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of comminuting irradiated ferritic steel by placing the steel in a solution of a compound selected from the group consisting of sulfamic acid, bisulfate, and mixtures thereof. The ferritic steel is used as cladding on nuclear fuel rods or other irradiated components.

  10. Methods of forming steel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Branagan, Daniel J.; Burch, Joseph V.

    2001-01-01

    In one aspect, the invention encompasses a method of forming a steel. A metallic glass is formed and at least a portion of the glass is converted to a crystalline steel material having a nanocrystalline scale grain size. In another aspect, the invention encompasses another method of forming a steel. A molten alloy is formed and cooled the alloy at a rate which forms a metallic glass. The metallic glass is devitrified to convert the glass to a crystalline steel material having a nanocrystalline scale grain size. In yet another aspect, the invention encompasses another method of forming a steel. A first metallic glass steel substrate is provided, and a molten alloy is formed over the first metallic glass steel substrate to heat and devitrify at least some of the underlying metallic glass of the substrate.

  11. An overview of bar and seamless tubular microalloyed steels for structural application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aloi, N.E. Jr.; Luksa, J.E.

    1995-12-31

    Medium-carbon (0.15 to 0.40 wt.% C) vanadium microalloyed steels produced as large-diameter bar and seamless tubular long products have been successfully applied to structural applications. Microalloyed steels such as WMA-65 and WMA-80 are designed to replace either quenched-and-tempered or hot-rolled carbon steels. Incentives for converting to microalloyed steels include reduced material and processing costs or allowance for smaller, lighter components through increased strength realized through microalloying. Structural steels that require good weldability are restricted to lower carbon and alloy levels and thus are excellent candidates for microalloyed steels. Processing of high-strength vanadium-carbonitride precipitation-strengthened ferrite/pearlite microalloyed steel long products includes controlling bar rolling of sizes from 50 mm (2 in.) to 305 mm (12 in.) OD, or tube piercing of sizes from 38 mm (1.5 in.) to 320 mm (12.5 in.) OD, and air cooling at the steel mill. Bar products may be subsequently forged where controlled processing must also be performed to meet the desired properties. Both bar and tubing products are described. Chemical composition, mechanical properties, and weldability of the processed microalloyed steels are also discussed.

  12. Transportation of the MOAB Uranium Mill Tailings to White Mesa Mill by Slurry Pipeline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hochstein, R. F.; Warner, R.; Wetz, T. V.

    2003-02-26

    The Moab uranium mill tailings pile, located at the former Atlas Minerals Corporation site approximately three miles north of Moab, Utah, is now under the control of the US Department of Energy (''DOE''). The location of the tailings pile adjacent to the Colorado River, and the ongoing contamination of groundwater and seepage of pollutants into the river, have lead to the investigation, as part of the final site remediation program, of alternatives to relocate the tailings to a qualified permanent disposal site. This paper will describe the approach being taken by the team formed between International Uranium (USA) Corporation (''IUC'') and Washington Group International (''WGINT'') to develop an innovative technical proposal to relocate the Moab tailings to IUC's White Mesa Mill south of Blanding, Utah. The proposed approach for relocating the tailings involves using a slurry pipeline to transport the tailings to the White Mesa Mill. The White Mesa Mill is a fully licensed, active uranium mill site that is uniquely suited for permanent disposal of the Moab tailings. The tailings slurry would be dewatered at the White Mesa Mill, the slurry water would be recycled to the Moab site for reuse in slurry makeup, and the ''dry'' tailings would be permanently disposed of in an approved below grade cell at the mill site.

  13. Development of Steel Foam Materials and Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenneth Kremer; Anthony Liszkiewicz; James Adkins

    2004-10-20

    In the past few years there has been a growing interest in lightweight metal foams. Demands for weight reduction, improved fuel efficiency, and increased passenger safety in automobiles now has manufacturers seriously considering the use of metal foams, in contrast to a few years ago, when the same materials would have been ruled out for technical or economical reasons. The objective of this program was to advance the development and use of steel foam materials, by demonstrating the advantages of these novel lightweight materials in selected generic applications. Progress was made in defining materials and process parameters; characterization of physical and mechanical properties; and fabrication and testing of generic steel foam-filled shapes with compositions from 2.5 wt.% to 0.7 wt.% carbon. A means of producing steel foam shapes with uniform long range porosity levels of 50 to 60 percent was demonstrated and verified with NDE methods. Steel foam integrated beams, cylinders and plates were mechanically tested and demonstrated advantages in bend stiffness, bend resistance, and crush energy absorption. Methods of joining by welding, adhesive bonding, and mechanical fastening were investigated. It is important to keep in mind that steel foam is a conventional material in an unconventional form. A substantial amount of physical and mechanical properties are presented throughout the report and in a properties database at the end of the report to support designer's in applying steel foam in unconventional ways.

  14. DOE Awards Contract for Moab Mill Tailings Cleanup | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Moab Mill Tailings Cleanup DOE Awards Contract for Moab Mill Tailings Cleanup November 4, ... has awarded a competitive small business contract worth 121.2 million over the next five ...

  15. DOE Moab Project Reaches Halfway Mark in Mill Tailings Removal...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has reached 8 million tons of uranium mill tailings removed from the Moab site in Utah under the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project. ...

  16. Task Order Awarded for Moab Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Task Order Awarded for Moab Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Follow-On Effort Task Order Awarded for Moab Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Follow-On ...

  17. Owings Mills, Maryland: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Owings Mills is a census-designated place in Baltimore County, Maryland.1 Registered Energy Companies in Owings Mills, Maryland...

  18. Baotou Iron and Steel Group Baotou Steel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Baotou Iron and Steel Group (Baotou Steel) Place: Baotou, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China Product: Baotou-based iron and steel maker as well as a rare...

  19. Mill Designed Bio bleaching Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Institute of Paper Science Technology

    2004-01-30

    generation of laccase has a broad spectrum of operating parameters. Nonetheless, the development of future genetically engineered laccases with enhanced temperature, pH and redox potentials will dramatically improve the overall process. A second challenge for LMS bleaching technologies is the need to develop effective, catalytic mediators. From the literature we already know this is feasible since ABTS and some inorganic mediators are catalytic. Unfortunately, the mediators that exhibit catalytic properties do not exhibit significant delignification properties and this is a challenge for future research studies. Potential short-term mill application of laccase has been recently reported by Felby132 and Chandra133 as they have demonstrated that the physical properties of linerboard can be improved when exposed to laccase without a chemical mediator. In addition, xxx has shown that the addition of laccase to the whitewater of the paper machine has several benefits for the removal of colloidal materials. Finally, this research program has presented important features on the delignification chemistry of LMS{sub NHA} and LMS{sub VA} that, in the opinion of the author, are momentous contributions to the overall LMS chemistry/biochemistry knowledge base which will continue to have future benefits.

  20. Comments of Mille Lacs Energy Cooperative | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mille Lacs Energy Cooperative Comments of Mille Lacs Energy Cooperative Comments of Mille Lacs Energy Cooperative on Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Studying the Communications Requirements of Electric Utilities to Inform Federal Smart Grid Policy Comments of Mille Lacs Energy Cooperative (77.68 KB) More Documents & Publications Comments of Utilities Telecom Council Communications Requirements of Smart Grid Technologies NBP RFI: Communications Requirements - Reply Comments of

  1. Uranium Mining and Milling near Rifle, Colorado | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Uranium Mining and Milling near Rifle, Colorado Uranium Mining and Milling near Rifle, Colorado April 19, 2016 - 4:42pm Addthis What does this project do? Goal 1. Protect Human Health and the Environment The small town of Rifle, Colorado, has an interesting history related to uranium and vanadium production. A mineral found near Rifle, called roscolite, contains both vanadium and uranium but was originally mined and milled for its vanadium content. Union Carbide Corporation began milling the ore

  2. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Edgemont Mill Site - SD 01

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Edgemont Mill Site - SD 01 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Edgemont Mill Site (SD.01) Licensed to DOE for long-term custody and managed by the Office of Legacy Management Designated Name: Edgemont, South Dakota, Disposal Site Alternate Name: Edgemont Mill Site Ore Buying Station at Edgemont Location: Edgemont, South Dakota Evaluation Year: Site Operations: Site Disposition: Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) Title II site Radioactive Materials Handled: Primary Radioactive

  3. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Monticello Mill Site - UT 03

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Mill Site - UT 03 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Monticello Mill Site (UT.03) Designated Name: Alternate Name: Location: Evaluation Year: Site Operations: Site Disposition: Radioactive Materials Handled: Primary Radioactive Materials Handled: Radiological Survey(s): Site Status: Also see Monticello, Utah, Disposal and Processing Sites Documents Related to Monticello Mill Site Monticello Mill Tailings Site Operable Unit III Interim Remedial Action Progress Report July 1999-July 2000.

  4. Application of Odor Sensors to Ore Sorting and Mill Feed Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael G. Nelson

    2005-08-01

    Control of the feed provided to mineral processing facilities is a continuing challenge. Much effort is currently being devoted to overcoming these problems. These projects are usually described under the general headings of Mine-to-Mill Integration or Mine-Mill Optimization. It should be possible to combine the knowledge of ore type, mineralogy, and other characteristics (located in the mine modeling system), with the advanced capabilities of state-of-the-art mill control systems, to achieve an improved level of control in mineral processing that will allow optimization of the mill processes on an almost real-time basis. This is not happening because mill feed it is often treated as a uniform material, when in reality it varies in composition and characteristics. An investigation was conducted to assess the suitability of odor sensors for maintaining traceability in ore production and processing. Commercially available sensors are now used in food processing, environmental monitoring, and other applications and can detect the presence of very small amounts (0.1-500 ppm) of some molecules. An assortment of such molecules could be used to ''tag'' blocks of ore as they are mined, according to their respective characteristics. Then, as the ore came into the mill, an array of ''electronic noses'' could be used to assess its characteristics in real time. It was found that the Cyranose 320{trademark}, a commercially available odor sensor, can easily distinguish among samples of rock marked with almond, cinnamon, citronella, lemon, and orange oils. Further, the sensor could detect mixtures of rocks marked with various combinations of these oils. Treatment of mixtures of galena and silica with odorant compounds showed no detrimental effects on flotation response in laboratory tests. Additional work is recommended to determine how this concept can be extended to the marking of large volumes of materials.

  5. Success Story: Harrison Steel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This case study highlights how Harrison Steel leveraged both EPA's ENERGY STAR program and DOE resources to enhance energy efficiency efforts and multiply captured energy savings.

  6. ITP Steel: Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Study September...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Marginal Opportunity Study September 2005 ITP Steel: Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Study September 2005 steelmarginalopportunity.pdf (346.86 KB) More Documents & Publications ...

  7. Auto/Steel Partnership: Advanced High-Strength Steel Research...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications AutoSteel Partnership: AHSS Stamping, Strain Rate Characterization, Sheet Steel Fatigue, AHSS Joining FY 2008 Progress Report for Lightweighting ...

  8. Helium damage in austenitic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caskey, G.R. Jr.; Mezzanotte, D.A. Jr.; Rawl, D.E. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Helium produced by tritium decay was first shown to embrittle austenitic stainless steel at ambient temperature in tensile specimens of Nitronic-40 steel (Armco, Inc.). A long-term study was initiated to study this form of helium damage in five austenitic alloys. Results from this study have been analyzed by the J-integral technique and show a decrease in ductile fracture toughness with increasing He-3 concentration. Sustained-load cracking tests indicate that the stress intensity required to initiate and propagate a crack also decreases with increasing He-3 concentration. 9 figures, 3 tables.

  9. Integrated steel producers race the recycling clock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McManus, G.J.

    1996-01-01

    When classed as waste, the leftover oxides of blast furnaces and oxygen furnaces must go into landfill. That is an expensive option. Assuming there is space and permission for land disposal, this may be only a temporary solution. Finally, there is an economic incentive to replace some amount of scrap with the iron units in waste. The various factors have brought a concerted recycling push. With increased use of galvanized scrap, a growing portion of the waste is zinc coated. Unlike electric furnace dust, the waste from blast furnaces and oxygen furnaces doesn`t have enough zinc to be classed as hazardous. In theory, repeated cycling will concentrate the zinc but there is uncertainty about what actually happens. There are ways to remove zinc from waste, however, favorable economics have tended to require high concentrations of zinc. New processes and conditions could change the economic equation. The ultimate answer to recycling could be a facility specifically designed for converting waste into usable metal.

  10. The Milling Assistant, Case-Based Reasoning, and machining strategy: A report on the development of automated numerical control programming systems at New Mexico State University

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burd, W.; Culler, D.; Eskridge, T.; Cox, L.; Slater, T.

    1993-08-01

    The Milling Assistant (MA) programming system demonstrates the automated development of tool paths for Numerical Control (NC) machine tools. By integrating a Case-Based Reasoning decision processor with a commercial CAD/CAM software, intelligent tool path files for milled and point-to-point features can be created. The operational system is capable of reducing the time required to program a variety of parts and improving product quality by collecting and utilizing ``best of practice`` machining strategies.

  11. Topologically massive Yang-Mills: A Hamilton-Jacobi constraint analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertin, M. C.; Pimentel, B. M.; Valcrcel, C. E.; Zambrano, G. E. R.

    2014-04-15

    We analyse the constraint structure of the topologically massive Yang-Mills theory in instant-form and null-plane dynamics via the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism. The complete set of hamiltonians that generates the dynamics of the system is obtained from the Frobenius integrability conditions, as well as its characteristic equations. As generators of canonical transformations, the hamiltonians are naturally linked to the generator of Lagrangian gauge transformations.

  12. Friction stir processing on high carbon steel U12

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarasov, S. Yu. Rubtsov, V. E.; Melnikov, A. G.

    2015-10-27

    Friction stir processing (FSP) of high carbon steel (U12) samples has been carried out using a milling machine and tools made of cemented tungsten carbide. The FSP tool has been made in the shape of 5×5×1.5 mm. The microstructural characterization of obtained stir zone and heat affected zone has been carried out. Microhardness at the level of 700 MPa has been obtained in the stir zone with microstructure consisting of large grains and cementitte network. This high-level of microhardness is explained by bainitic reaction developing from decarburization of austenitic grains during cementite network formation.

  13. Removal of copper from carbon-saturated steel with an aluminum sulfide/iron sulfide slag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, A.; Blander, M.

    1995-12-01

    Scrap iron and steel has long been considered a resource in the steel-making industry, and its value is largely determined by its impurity content. As the mini-mills, the major consumers of scrap iron and steel, expand into producing flat-rolled sheet, the demand for high-quality scrap will increase. Of the impurities present in scrap, copper is particularly troublesome because of its role in causing hot shortness. Therefore, the copper content of scrap should be kept below {approx} 0.1 wt%. A method for removing copper from steel could be used to improve the quality of scrap and make it more available for use by mini-mills. To determine the effectiveness of a binary slag consisting of aluminum sulfide and iron sulfide on the removal of copper from steel and iron, the distribution coefficient of copper between the slag and a carbon-saturated iron melt was investigated at 1,365 C. The composition of the slag was varied from nearly pure aluminum sulfide to pure iron sulfide. A maximum distribution coefficient of 30 was found, and the copper level in the iron melt was reduced to as low as 0.07 wt.% with a 4:1 ratio of iron to slag.

  14. Physical asymmetry of the crystallographic texture of an interstitial-free sheet steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hook, R.E. . Armco Research and Technology)

    1993-09-01

    The texture of a mill-produced, Nb-bearing, interstitial-free, hot-rolled sheet steel was evaluated at a number of sheet thickness positions. The texture was also studied following laboratory cold rolling and following recrystallization. A nonsymmetric case crystallite orientation distribution function analysis applicable to the analysis on nonsymmetric pole figures was used. While sheet steels are generally assumed to have orthotropic physical symmetry, it was found that an appreciable degree of physical asymmetry existed. The asymmetry was with respect to the rolling direction (RD) and normal direction (ND) mirror planes, while transverse direction (TD) mirror-plane symmetry existed.

  15. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- U S Steel Co National Tube Div Christy

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Park Works - PA 35 Steel Co National Tube Div Christy Park Works - PA 35 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: U. S. STEEL CO., NATIONAL TUBE DIV., CHRISTY PARK WORKS (PA.35) Eliminated from further consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: National Tube Division PA.35-1 Location: McKeesport , Pennsylvania PA.35-1 Evaluation Year: 1994 PA.35-2 Site Operations: Metal fabrication operations. Pierced normal uranium billets by the three roll Assel Mill process. PA.35-1

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF ELECTROMAGNETIC TECHNIQUES FOR HYDROGEN CONTENT ASSESSMENT IN COATED LINEPIPE STEEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lasseigne-Jackson, A. N.; Anton, J.; Jackson, J. E.; Olson, D. L.; Mishra, B.

    2008-02-28

    With the introduction of new higher strength steels operating at higher pressure, the need for characterization of hydrogen content in high strength steel pipelines is timely for the pipeline industry. The higher-strength steel pipelines have higher susceptibility to hydrogen damage. Through the use of low-frequency induced current impedance measurements, a new non-contact sensor has been developed for real-time determination of diffusible hydrogen content in coated pipeline steel. A measurement scheme to separate variables associated with pipelines is discussed. This electromagnetic technique allows for a rapid, non-destructive assessment of hydrogen accumulation in coated steel line pipe and thus an evaluation of the pipeline integrity.

  17. Beneficial uses of paper mill residuals for New York State`s recycled-paper mills. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    This report evaluates the New York paper mill industry in terms of the productive management and treatment of solid wastes. It identifies current efforts by recycling mills to beneficially use paper mill residuals (often called sludge) and suggests additional options that should be considered by the industry in general and individual mills in particular. It also examines the regulations and economics affecting the mills and suggests actions that could improve the industry`s ability to convert wastes to value-added products. The report recommends that the mills should continue measures to reduce fiber and filler clay losses, promote the transfer of usable fiber and clay to mills able to use them, upgrade sludge dewatering capabilities, and take a more regional approach to solid waste disposal problems. State agencies are urged to support these efforts, encourage the development and commercialization of new beneficial use technologies, and reduce regulatory barriers whenever possible.

  18. The effect of iron dilution on strength of nickel/steel and Monel/steel welds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fout, S.L.; Wamsley, S.D.

    1983-03-28

    The weld strength, as a function of iron content, for nickel/steel and Monel/steel welds was determined. Samples were prepared using a Gas Metal Arc (GMAW) automatic process to weld steel plate together with nickel or Monel to produce a range of iron contents typical of weld compositions. Tensile specimens of each iron content were tested to obtain strength and ductility measurements for that weld composition. Data indicate that at iron contents of less than 20% iron in a nickel/steel weld, the weld fails at the weld interface, due to a lack of fusion. Between 20% and 35% iron, the highest iron dilution that could be achieved in a nickel weld, the welds were stronger than the steel base metal. This indicates that a minimum amount of iron dilution (20%) is necessary for good fusion and optimum strength. On the other hand for Monel/steel welds, test results showed that the welds had good strength and integrity between 10% and 27% iron in the weld. Above 35% iron, the welds have less strength and are more brittle. The 35% iron content also corresponds to the iron dilution in Monel welds that has been shown to produce an increase in corrosion rate. This indicates that the iron dilution in Monel welds should be kept below 35% iron to maximize both the strength and corrosion resistance. 2 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Slick Rock Mill Site - CO 08

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Slick Rock Mill Site - CO 08 Site ID (CSD Index Number): CO.08 Site Name: Slick Rock Mill Site Site Summary: Site Link: Slick Rock, Colorado, Processing Site External Site Link: Alternate Name(s): Slick Rock Mill Site Slick Rock (North Continent) Mill 1 Slick Rock (Union Carbide) Mill 2 Uranium Mill No. 1 in Slick Rock (East) Uranium Mill No. 2 in Slick Rock (West) Alternate Name Documents: Location: San Miguel County, Colorado Location Documents: Historical Operations (describe contaminants):

  20. Multifractal properties of ball milling dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Budroni, M. A. Pilosu, V.; Rustici, M.; Delogu, F.

    2014-06-15

    This work focuses on the dynamics of a ball inside the reactor of a ball mill. We show that the distribution of collisions at the reactor walls exhibits multifractal properties in a wide region of the parameter space defining the geometrical characteristics of the reactor and the collision elasticity. This feature points to the presence of restricted self-organized zones of the reactor walls where the ball preferentially collides and the mechanical energy is mainly dissipated.

  1. Geothermal Mill Redevelopment Project in Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vale, A.Q.

    2009-03-17

    Anwelt Heritage Apartments, LLC redeveloped a 120-year old mill complex into a mixed-use development in a lower-income neighborhood in Fitchburg, Massachusetts. Construction included 84 residential apartments rented as affordable housing to persons aged 62 and older. The Department of Energy (“DOE”) award was used as an essential component of financing the project to include the design and installation of a 200 ton geothermal system for space heating and cooling.

  2. Glass Stronger than Steel

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Yarris, Lynn

    2011-03-28

    A new type of damage-tolerant metallic glass, demonstrating a strength and toughness beyond that of steel or any other known material, has been developed and tested by a collaboration of researchers from Berkeley Lab and Caltech.

  3. Dezincing of steel scrap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rij, P.W. van; Campenon, B.; Mooij, J.N.

    1997-04-01

    Scrap is an important raw material in the steel industry. Depending on the type of steelmaking process, the composition of the scrap may vary. Market research in Europe shows that there will be a shortage of zinc-free scrap in the future. An alkaline dezincing process for galvanized steel has been developed. A description of a pilot plant based on alkaline dezincing technology is presented.

  4. Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act Sites Fact Sheet

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This fact sheet provides information about the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act Title I and II disposal and processing sites. The sites are managed by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management. Introduction The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978 (Public Law 95-604) is a federal law that provides for the safe and environmentally sound disposal, long-term stabilization, and control of uranium mill tailings in a manner that minimizes or

  5. Moab Mill Tailings Removal Project Celebrates 5 Years of Success |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Removal Project Celebrates 5 Years of Success Moab Mill Tailings Removal Project Celebrates 5 Years of Success October 3, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Pictured here is the Moab uranium mill tailings pile. Tailings excavation and conditioning activities are seen in the foreground. The water spray is used to eliminate extracted contaminated groundwater. Pictured here is the Moab uranium mill tailings pile. Tailings excavation and conditioning activities are seen in the

  6. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Marion Mill Site - CO 09

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Mill Site - CO 09 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: MARION MILL SITE (CO.09 ) Eliminated from further consideration under FUSRAP - deferred to the State of Colorado for appropriate action. Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: Sugar Leaf Road , Boulder , Colorado CO.09-1 Evaluation Year: Circa 1983 CO.09-1 Site Operations: Milled and processed thorite and other rare earth ores in 1957 and 1958. Some of the thorium concentrate produced was shipped to Davison Chemical Company

  7. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Uravan Mill Site - CO 02

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Uravan Mill Site - CO 02 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Uravan Mill Site (CO.02 ) Designated Name: Alternate Name: Location: Evaluation Year: Site Operations: Site Disposition: Radioactive Materials Handled: Primary Radioactive Materials Handled: Radiological Survey(s): Site Status: Also see Naturita, Colorado, Processing Site Documents Related to Uravan Mill Site Data Validation Package for the July and October 2008 Water Sampling at the Naturita Processing and Disposal Sites Data Validation

  8. Pulp and Paper Mills: Profiting from Efficient Motor System Use |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Pulp and Paper Mills: Profiting from Efficient Motor System Use Pulp and Paper Mills: Profiting from Efficient Motor System Use This 2-page fact sheet describes The Paper and Allied Products Industry spending to operate electric motor systems and opportunities to reduce these costs. Pulp and Paper Mills: Profiting from Efficient Motor System Use (January 1999) (70.34 KB) More Documents & Publications Bandwidth Study U.S. Pulp and Paper Manufacturing United States

  9. DOE Announces Preferred Alternatives For Moab, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Preferred Alternatives For Moab, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings DOE Announces Preferred Alternatives For Moab, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings April 6, 2005 - 11:33am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy today announced the department's preferred alternatives for remediation of the Moab, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project Site: active groundwater remediation, and offsite disposal of the tailings pile and other contaminated materials to the

  10. Bay Mills Indian Community Energy Reduction Feasibility Study

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tribal Council of Michigan, Inc. Environmental Services Division Chris Kushman Bay Mills Indian Community Energy Reduction Feasibility Study *DOE Tribal Energy Program *Tribal ...

  11. East Millinocket Mill Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mill Sector Biomass Location Penobscot County, Maine Coordinates 45.3230777, -68.5806727 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type"...

  12. Energy Department Recognizes General Mills for Leadership and...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    the nation's buildings and manufacturing plants, today the U.S. Department of Energy ... Through the Energy Department's Better Plants Challenge, General Mills has committed to 20 ...

  13. Cedar Mill, Oregon: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mill, Oregon: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 45.5048397, -122.7984325 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice"...

  14. Nahar Spinning Mills Ltd NSML | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (NSML) Place: Ludhiana, Punjab, India Zip: 141 003 Product: Ludhiana-based spinning mill with cogeneration activities. Coordinates: 30.89314, 75.86938 Show Map Loading...

  15. Moab Mill Tailings Removal Project Plans to Resume Train Shipments...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tons of Mill Tailings Removed From DOE Moab Project Site Laborers place a disposable liner in a tailings container. Moab Project Continues Progress on Tailings Removal with...

  16. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    The Grand Junction site has been reevaluated in order to revise the October 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Grand Junction, Colorado. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.9 million tons of tailings at the Grand Junction site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The eight alternative actions presented herein range from millsite and off-site decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through VIII). Cost estimates for the eight options range from about $10,200,000 for stabilization in-place to about $39,500,000 for disposal in the DeBeque area, at a distance of about 35 mi, using transportation by rail. If transportation to DeBeque were by truck, the cost estimated to be about $41,900,000. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Grand Junction tailings were examined: (a) heap leaching; (b) treatment at an existing mill; and (c) reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $200/lb by heap leach and $150/lb by conventional plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery appears not to be economically attractive.

  17. ITP Steel: Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Study September 2005

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The objective of this study is to generate a marginal opportunity curve for the ITP steel subprogram showing the location of the current portfolio compared against all opportunities for steel manufacturing.

  18. ITP Steel: Steel Industry Energy Bandwidth Study October 2004

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Steel can be hot or cold rolled; with hot rolling, the steel either is reheated or directly charged after casting. Reheating is the major energy consumer in the rolling process. ...

  19. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Climax Uranium Co Grand Junction Mill

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    - CO 0-03 Climax Uranium Co Grand Junction Mill - CO 0-03 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Climax Uranium Co. (Grand Junction Mill) (CO.0-03) Licensed to DOE for long-term custody and managed by the Office of Legacy Management. Designated Name: Grand Junction, Colorado, Processing Site Alternate Name: Climax Uranium Company (Grand Junction Mill) Grand Junction Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Site Climax Mill Site Grand Junction Mill 1 Location: Grand Junction, Colorado Evaluation Year:

  20. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Rifle Mill Site - CO 0-11

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Rifle Mill Site - CO 0-11 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Rifle Mill Site (CO.0-11 ) Licensed to DOE for long-term custody and managed by the Office of Legacy Management. Designated Name: Old Rifle, Colorado, Processing Site; New Rifle, Colorado, Processing Site Alternate Name: Rifle Mill Site; New Uranium Mill in Rifle, Old Uranium Mill in Rifle Location: Rifle, Colorado Evaluation Year: Site Operations: Site Disposition: Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) Title I site.

  1. Corrosion resistance of transmission structures fabricated from weathering steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodwin, E.J. ); Pohlman, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    Introduced to utilities in the late 1960's, weathering steel' appeared to offer a way to reduce structure weight and maintenance of lattice towers through the application of bare, high strength steel that had natural corrosion resistance. Weathering steel found wide application in lattice and tubular transmission structures. Through its service life, however, the weathering steel showed evidence of continuing corrosion rather than the expected protection from corrosion. A consortium of utilities was formed to investigate the impact on structure reliability of the continuing corrosion of the steel beyond initial expectations. Through the completion of field surveys and laboratory tests, projected lifetime corrosion rates, structural integrity and potential sealer/penetrant systems were evaluated. The investigation has shown that existing lattice and tubular structures fabricated from weathering steel will provide continued reliable service with minimal maintenance programs. Weathering Steel remains practical for new lattice and tubular structures provided steps are taken during the design process to minimize the retention and collection of moisture between and around metal contact surfaces and during the operation of the line to minimize vegetation encroachment around structures.

  2. Continuous steel production and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peaslee, Kent D.; Peter, Jorg J.; Robertson, David G. C.; Thomas, Brian G.; Zhang, Lifeng

    2009-11-17

    A process for continuous refining of steel via multiple distinct reaction vessels for melting, oxidation, reduction, and refining for delivery of steel continuously to, for example, a tundish of a continuous caster system, and associated apparatus.

  3. Qualification of welded super 13%Cr martensitic stainless steels for the Sgard field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enerhaug, J.; Kvaale, P.E.; Bjordal, M.; Drugli, J.M.; Rogne, T.

    1999-11-01

    A test program was conducted to qualify welded super 13%Cr (S13%Cr) stainless steel for the Asgard Field, a mildly sour service. The test program involved girth welding, optimization of post weld heat treatment (PWHT) cycles, assessment of mechanical properties, examination of low cycle fatigue testing, and different corrosion testing and evaluation of S13%Cr steels from three different steel mills. The alloy with 0.015%C max, 11.9%Cr min, 2.4%Mo min and 6.O%Ni min, has been qualified for use as flowline material in the actual field. The results show acceptable weldability and corrosion properties. Post weld heat treatment (PWHT) of the welds improved the resistance against sulfide stress corrosion cracking.

  4. ITP Steel: Energy Use in the U.S. Steel Industry: An Historical Perspective

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Future Opportunities, September 2000 | Department of Energy Use in the U.S. Steel Industry: An Historical Perspective and Future Opportunities, September 2000 ITP Steel: Energy Use in the U.S. Steel Industry: An Historical Perspective and Future Opportunities, September 2000 steel_energy_use.pdf (431.85 KB) More Documents & Publications ITP Steel: Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Study September 2005 ITP Steel: Steel Industry Energy Bandwidth Study October 2004 ITP Steel: Energy

  5. EERE Success Story-Steel Mill Powered by Waste Heat Recovery...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    R. Byron Pipes, John Leighton Bray Distinguished Professor of Engineering; Victor Smith, Indiana Secretary of Commerce; Leah Jamieson, John A. Edwardson Dean of Engineering; ...

  6. Capture and Sequestration of CO2 at the Boise White Paper Mill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.P. McGrail; C.J. Freeman; G.H. Beeman; E.C. Sullivan; S.K. Wurstner; C.F. Brown; R.D. Garber; D. Tobin E.J. Steffensen; S. Reddy; J.P. Gilmartin

    2010-06-16

    This report documents the efforts taken to develop a preliminary design for the first commercial-scale CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS) project associated with biomass power integrated into a pulp and paper operation. The Boise Wallula paper mill is located near the township of Wallula in Southeastern Washington State. Infrastructure at the paper mill will be upgraded such that current steam needs and a significant portion of the current mill electric power are supplied from a 100% biomass power source. A new biomass power system will be constructed with an integrated amine-based CO2 capture plant to capture approximately 550,000 tons of CO2 per year for geologic sequestration. A customized version of Fluor Corporation’s Econamine Plus™ carbon capture technology will be designed to accommodate the specific chemical composition of exhaust gases from the biomass boiler. Due to the use of biomass for fuel, employing CCS technology represents a unique opportunity to generate a net negative carbon emissions footprint, which on an equivalent emissions reduction basis is 1.8X greater than from equivalent fossil fuel sources (SPATH and MANN, 2004). Furthermore, the proposed project will offset a significant amount of current natural gas use at the mill, equating to an additional 200,000 tons of avoided CO2 emissions. Hence, the total net emissions avoided through this project equates to 1,100,000 tons of CO2 per year. Successful execution of this project will provide a clear path forward for similar kinds of emissions reduction that can be replicated at other energy-intensive industrial facilities where the geology is suitable for sequestration. This project also represents a first opportunity for commercial development of geologic storage of CO2 in deep flood basalt formations. The Boise paper mill site is host to a Phase II pilot study being carried out under DOE’s Regional Carbon Partnership Program. Lessons learned from this pilot study and other separately

  7. Development of a thin steel strip casting process. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, R.S.

    1994-04-01

    This is a comprehensive effort to develop direct strip casting to the point where a pilot scale program for casting carbon steel strip could be initiated. All important aspects of the technology were being investigated, however the program was terminated early due to a change in the business strategy of the primary contractor, Armco Inc. (focus to be directed at specialty steels, not low carbon steel). At termination, the project was on target on all milestones and under budget. Major part was casting of strip at the experiment casting facility. A new caster, capable of producing direct cast strip of up to 12 in. wide in heats of 1000 and 3000 lb, was used. A total of 81 1000-1200 lb heats were cast as well as one test heat of 3000 lb. Most produced strip of from 0.016 to 0.085 in. thick. Process reliability was excellent for short casting times; quality was generally poor from modern hot strip mill standards, but the practices necessary for good surface quality were identified.

  8. Gluon scattering in N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory fromweak to strong coupling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, Lance J.; /SLAC

    2008-03-25

    I describe some recent developments in the understanding of gluon scattering amplitudes in N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory in the large-N{sub c} limit. These amplitudes can be computed to high orders in the weak coupling expansion, and also now at strong coupling using the AdS/CFT correspondence. They hold the promise of being solvable to all orders in the gauge coupling, with the help of techniques based on integrability. They are intimately related to expectation values for polygonal Wilson loops composed of light-like segments.

  9. Steel Market Development Institute Awards "Community Hero" Award...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Steel Market Development Institute Men and Women of Steel Awardees Steel Market Development Institute Men and Women of Steel Awardees At the 2016 North American International Auto ...

  10. Geochemical Evaluation of Uranium Fate and Transport Guterl Specialty Steel Site, New York - 12077

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frederick, Bill; Tandon, Vikas

    2012-07-01

    Between 1948 and 1952, up to 15,875 metric tons (35 million pounds) of natural uranium metal (U) were processed at the former Guterl Specialty Steel Corporation site in Lockport, New York. The resulting dust, thermal scale, mill shavings and associated land disposal contaminated both the facility and on-site soils. Uranium subsequently impacted groundwater and a fully developed plume exists below the site. Site soils are composed of anthropogenic fill and re-worked, glacially-derived native soil. This overburden is underlain by the weathered and fractured Lockport Dolostone bedrock. Shallow groundwater levels fluctuate seasonally and allow groundwater to contact U contaminated soil, which promotes transport. This condition is exemplified through coincident increases in specific conductivity and groundwater levels, which flush soluble constituents in the fill/soil to groundwater during recharge events. In addition, water-level fluctuations affect reduction-oxidation (redox) conditions at the site. The U in soils is subject to wetting and drying cycles that promote oxidation more than stable redox conditions (e.g., dry soil or fully saturated conditions). This oxidizing mechanism increases uranium solubility and mobility. Site groundwater also receives uranium via leaching from near-surface contaminated fill. The strong correlation between nitrate and uranium in groundwater indicates that uranium is mobile where oxidizing conditions occur. Analytical models of contaminant leaching determined that multiple pathways and transport mechanisms govern site risk. Uranium transport to groundwater involves three mechanisms: 1) direct contact of contaminated soil with groundwater, 2) the oxidation-state or chemical valence of uranium, and 3) the leaching of near-surface contamination to groundwater. These mechanisms require an integrated remedial solution that is sustainable and cost effective. (authors)

  11. Ferritic steel melt and FLiBe/steel experiment : melting ferritic steel.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troncosa, Kenneth P.; Smith, Brandon M.; Tanaka, Tina Joan

    2004-11-01

    In preparation for developing a Z-pinch IFE power plant, the interaction of ferritic steel with the coolant, FLiBe, must be explored. Sandia National Laboratories Fusion Technology Department was asked to drop molten ferritic steel and FLiBe in a vacuum system and determine the gas byproducts and ability to recycle the steel. We tried various methods of resistive heating of ferritic steel using available power supplies and easily obtained heaters. Although we could melt the steel, we could not cause a drop to fall. This report describes the various experiments that were performed and includes some suggestions and materials needed to be successful. Although the steel was easily melted, it was not possible to drip the molten steel into a FLiBe pool Levitation melting of the drop is likely to be more successful.

  12. Hydrogen Embrittlement of Pipeline Steels: Causes and Remediation |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Barriers: Hydrogen embrittlement of pipelines and remediation (mixing with water vapor?) hpwgw_embrittlementsteels_sofronis.pdf (675.35 KB) More Documents & Publications Webinar: I2CNER: An International Collaboration to Enable a Carbon-Neutral Energy Economy Hydrogen Embrittlement of Pipeline Steels: Causes and Remediation Hydrogen permeability and Integrity of hydrogen transfer pipelines

  13. History of ultrahigh carbon steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wadsworth, J.; Sherby, O.D.

    1997-06-20

    The history and development of ultrahigh carbon steels (i.e., steels containing between 1 and 2.l percent C and now known as UHCS) are described. The early use of steel compositions containing carbon contents above the eutectoid level is found in ancient weapons from around the world. For example, both Damascus and Japanese sword steels are hypereutectoid steels. Their manufacture and processing is of interest in understanding the role of carbon content in the development of modern steels. Although sporadic examples of UHCS compositions are found in steels examined in the early part of this century, it was not until the mid-1970s that the modern study began. This study had its origin in the development of superplastic behavior in steels and the recognition that increasing the carbon content was of importance in developing that property. The compositions that were optimal for superplasticity involved the development of steels that contained higher carbon contents than conventional modern steels. It was discovered, however, that the room temperature properties of these compositions were of interest in their own right. Following this discovery, a period of intense work began on understanding their manufacture, processing, and properties for both superplastic forming and room temperature applications. The development of superplastic cast irons and iron carbides, as well as those of laminated composites containing UHCS, was an important part of this history.

  14. Anderson Mill, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Anderson Mill is a census-designated place in Travis County and Williamson County, Texas.1...

  15. Mill City, Oregon: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Mill City is a city in Linn County and Marion County, Oregon. It falls under Oregon's 4th congressional district and Oregon's 5th...

  16. Spring Mills, Pennsylvania: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Spring Mills is a census-designated place in Centre County, Pennsylvania.1 References ...

  17. Monticello Mill Tailings Site Operable Unit III Annual Groundwater...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... of a buried water pipeline to an existing solar evaporation pond for water treatment. ... the Abajo Mountains, U.S. Department of Energy Monticello Mill Tailings Site OU III ...

  18. Mill Valley, California: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Mill Valley is a city in Marin County, California. It falls under California's 6th...

  19. Accelerated aging tests of liners for uranium mill tailings disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, S.M.; Buelt, J.L.; Hale, V.Q.

    1981-11-01

    This document describes the results of accelerated aging tests to determine the long-term effectiveness of selected impoundment liner materials in a uranium mill tailings environment. The study was sponsored by the US Department of Energy under the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project. The study was designed to evaluate the need for, and the performance of, several candidate liners for isolating mill tailings leachate in conformance with proposed Environmental Protection Agency and Nuclear Regulatory Commission requirements. The liners were subjected to conditions known to accelerate the degradation mechanisms of the various liners. Also, a test environment was maintained that modeled the expected conditions at a mill tailings impoundment, including ground subsidence and the weight loading of tailings on the liners. A comparison of installation costs was also performed for the candidate liners. The laboratory testing and cost information prompted the selection of a catalytic airblown asphalt membrane and a sodium bentonite-amended soil for fiscal year 1981 field testing.

  20. Kemp Mill, Maryland: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Kemp Mill is a census-designated place in Montgomery County, Maryland.1 References US Census Bureau 2005 Place to 2006 CBSA...

  1. Moab Mill Tailings Pile 25 Percent Disposed: DOE Moab Project...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Donald Metzler Moab Federal Project Director (970) 257-2115 Wendee Ryan S&K Aerospace Public Affairs Manager (970) 257-2145 Grand Junction, CO - One quarter of the uranium mill ...

  2. High-performance steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barsom, J.M.

    1996-03-01

    Steel is the material of choice in structures such as storage tanks, gas and oil distribution pipelines, high-rise buildings, and bridges because of its strength, ductility, and fracture toughness, as well as its repairability and recyclability. Furthermore, these properties are continually being improved via advances in steelmaking, casting, rolling, and chemistry. Developments in steelmaking have led to alloys having low sulfur, sulfide shape control, and low hydrogen. They provide reduced chemical segregation, higher fracture toughness, better through-thickness and weld heat-affected zone properties, and lower susceptibility to hydrogen cracking. Processing has moved beyond traditional practices to designed combinations of controlled rolling and cooling known as thermomechanical control processes (TMCP). In fact, chemical composition control and TMCP now enable such precise adjustment of final properties that these alloys are now known as high-performance steels (HPS), engineered materials having properties tailored for specific applications.

  3. Integration of Safety Culture Attributes into the EFCOG WP&C Program Guideline Document

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Slide Presentation by Steele Coddington, NSTec, Las Vegas and John McDonald, WRPS, Hanford. Integration of Safety Culture Attributes into EFCOG Work Planning and Control Guidance Document.

  4. High-Alloy Ferritic Steels: Semi-Austenitic Stainless Steels...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    however, have low fracture toughness in high strength conditions and at low (subzero) temperature. ... Stainless Steels 1700 - 3 4.2 Heat treatment These alloys typically employ ...

  5. Summer 2011 Intern Project- Carolyn Mills | Center for Energy Efficient

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Carolyn Mills ELECTRICITY FROM HEAT: SYNTHESIS AND INVNESTIGATION OF INTERMETALLIC HETEROSTRUCTURES Carolyn Mills Chemical Engineering UC Santa Barbara Mentor: Christina Birkel Faculty Advisor: Galen Stucky Department: Chemistry and Biochemistry Thermoelectric materials have the ability to convert between thermal and electrical energies. However, to maximize ZT, the thermoelectric figure of merit, a material must have a high Seebeck coefficient and a high electrical conductivity

  6. Moab Uranium Mill Tailings Cleanup Project Steps into Spotlight at

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    International Meeting in Vienna | Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Cleanup Project Steps into Spotlight at International Meeting in Vienna Moab Uranium Mill Tailings Cleanup Project Steps into Spotlight at International Meeting in Vienna October 22, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Moab Federal Project Director Donald Metzler presents at the Uranium Mining Remediation Exchange Group meeting in Germany in September 2011. Moab Federal Project Director Donald Metzler presents at the Uranium

  7. Biomass Burner Cogenerates Jobs and Electricity from Lumber Mill Waste |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Burner Cogenerates Jobs and Electricity from Lumber Mill Waste Biomass Burner Cogenerates Jobs and Electricity from Lumber Mill Waste December 6, 2011 - 3:57pm Addthis Dale and Sharon Borgford, small business owners in Stevens County, WA, break ground with Peter Goldmark, Washington State Commissioner of Public Lands. The pair brought more than 75 jobs to the area with help from DOE's State Energy Program and the U.S. Forest Service. | Photo courtesy of Washington DNR.

  8. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Loma Mill - CO 03

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Loma Mill - CO 03 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Loma Mill (CO.03 ) Designated Name: Alternate Name: Location: Evaluation Year: Site Operations: Site Disposition: Radioactive Materials Handled: Primary Radioactive Materials Handled: Radiological Survey(s): Site Status: This site is one of a group of 77 FUSRAP considered sites for which few, if any records are available in their respective site files to provide an historical account of past operations and their relationship, if any, with MED/AEC

  9. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Ambrosia Lake Mill Site - NM 0-01

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Ambrosia Lake Mill Site - NM 0-01 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Ambrosia Lake Mill Site (NM.0-01) Licensed to DOE for long-term custody and managed by the Office of Legacy Management Designated Name: Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, Disposal Site Alternate Name: Ambrosia Lake Mill Site Uranium Mill in Ambrosia Lake Location: McKinley County, New Mexico Evaluation Year: Site Operations: Site Disposition: Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) Title I site Radioactive Materials Handled:

  10. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Falls City Mill Site - TX 04

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Mill Site - TX 04 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Falls City Mill Site (TX.04 ) Licensed to DOE for long-term custody and managed by the Office of Legacy Management. Designated Name: Falls City, Texas, Disposal Site Alternate Name: Falls City Mill Site Uranium Mill in Falls City Location: Karnes County, Texas Evaluation Year: Site Operations: Site Disposition: Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) Title I site Radioactive Materials Handled: Primary Radioactive Materials Handled:

  11. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Gunnison Mill Site - CO 0-06

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Gunnison Mill Site - CO 0-06 Site ID (CSD Index Number): CO.0-06 Site Name: Gunnison Mill Site Site Summary: Site Link: Gunnison, Colorado, Processing Site External Site Link: Alternate Name(s): Gunnison Mill Site Uranium Mill in Gunnison Alternate Name Documents: Location: Gunnison, Colorado Location Documents: Historical Operations (describe contaminants): Historical Operations Documents: Eligibility Determination: Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) Title I site Eligibility

  12. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Maybell Mill Site - CO 0-07

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Maybell Mill Site - CO 0-07 Site ID (CSD Index Number): CO.0-07 Site Name: Maybell Mill Site Site Summary: Site Link: Maybell, Colorado, Disposal Site External Site Link: Alternate Name(s): Maybell Mill Site Uranium Mill in Maybell Alternate Name Documents: Location: Moffat County, Colorado Location Documents: Historical Operations (describe contaminants): Historical Operations Documents: Eligibility Determination: Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) Title I site. Eligibility

  13. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Mexican Hat Mill Site - UT 0-02A

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Mill Site - UT 0-02A Site ID (CSD Index Number): UT.0-02A Site Name: Mexican Hat Mill Site Site Summary: Site Link: Mexican Hat, Utah, Disposal Site External Site Link: Alternate Name(s): Mexican Hat Mill Site Uranium Mill in Mexican Hat Alternate Name Documents: Location: Mexican Hat, Utah, Navajo Nation Location Documents: Historical Operations (describe contaminants): Historical Operations Documents: Eligibility Determination: Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) Title I site

  14. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Monument Valley Mill Site - AZ 0-01

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Monument Valley Mill Site - AZ 0-01 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Monument Valley Mill Site (AZ.0-01) Licensed to DOE for long-term custody and managed by the Office of Legacy Management Designated Name: Monument Valley, Arizona, Processing Site Alternate Name: Monument Valley Mill Site Uranium Mill in Monument Valley Location: Navajo Nation, northeastern Arizona Evaluation Year: Site Operations: Site Disposition: Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) Title I site Radioactive

  15. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Riverton Mill Site - WY 0-04

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Mill Site - WY 0-04 Site ID (CSD Index Number): WY.0-04 Site Name: Riverton Mill Site Site Summary: Site Link: Riverton, Wyoming, Processing Site External Site Link: Alternate Name(s): Riverton Mill Site Uranium Mill in Riverton Alternate Name Documents: Location: Riverton, Wyoming, Wind River Indian Reservation Location Documents: Historical Operations (describe contaminants): Historical Operations Documents: Eligibility Determination: Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) Title

  16. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Shiprock Mill Site - NM 0-04

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Shiprock Mill Site - NM 0-04 Site ID (CSD Index Number): NM.0-04 Site Name: Shiprock Mill Site Site Summary: Site Link: Shiprock Disposal, New Mexico, Site External Site Link: Alternate Name(s): Shiprock Mill Site Uranium Mill at Shiprock Alternate Name Documents: Location: Shiprock, New Mexico, Navajo Nation Location Documents: Historical Operations (describe contaminants): Historical Operations Documents: Eligibility Determination: Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) Title I

  17. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Tuba City Mill Site - AZ 0-02

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Mill Site - AZ 0-02 Site ID (CSD Index Number): AZ.0-02 Site Name: Tuba City Mill Site Site Summary: Site Link: Tuba City, Arizona, Disposal Site External Site Link: Alternate Name(s): Tuba City Mill Site Uranium Mill in Tuba City Alternate Name Documents: Location: Tuba City, Arizona, Navajo Nation Location Documents: Historical Operations (describe contaminants): Rare Metals Corporation and its successor, El Paso Natural Gas Company, operated a uranium mill at the site between 1956 and 1966.

  18. Stainless Steel Permeability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchenauer, Dean A.; Karnesky, Richard A.

    2015-09-01

    An understanding of the behavior of hydrogen isotopes in materials is critical to predicting tritium transport in structural metals (at high pressure), estimating tritium losses during production (fission environment), and predicting in-vessel inventory for future fusion devices (plasma driven permeation). Current models often assume equilibrium diffusivity and solubility for a class of materials (e.g. stainless steels or aluminum alloys), neglecting trapping effects or, at best, considering a single population of trapping sites. Permeation and trapping studies of the particular castings and forgings enable greater confidence and reduced margins in the models. For FY15, we have continued our investigation of the role of ferrite in permeation for steels of interest to GTS, through measurements of the duplex steel 2507. We also initiated an investigation of the permeability in work hardened materials, to follow up on earlier observations of unusual permeability in a particular region of 304L forgings. Samples were prepared and characterized for ferrite content and coated with palladium to prevent oxidation. Issues with the poor reproducibility of measurements at low permeability were overcome, although the techniques in use are tedious. Funding through TPBAR and GTS were secured for a research grade quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and replacement turbo pumps, which should improve the fidelity and throughput of measurements in FY16.

  19. Compressed Air System Optimization Saves Energy and Improves Production at a Textile Manufacturing Mill (Peerless Division, Thomastown Mills, Inc.)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2001-06-01

    This case study is one in a series on industrial firms who are implementing energy efficient technologies and system improvements into their manufacturing processes. This case study documents the activities, savings, and lessons learned on the textile manufacturing mill project.

  20. MECS 2006- Iron and Steel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Iron and Steel Sector (NAICS 3311, 3312) with Total Energy Input, October 2012 (MECS 2006)

  1. Process for dezincing galvanized steel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, William A.; Dudek, Frederick J.; Daniels, Edward J.

    1998-01-01

    A process for removing zinc from galvanized steel. The galvanized steel is immersed in an electrolyte containing at least about 15% by weight of sodium or potassium hydroxide and having a temperature of at least about 75.degree. C. and the zinc is galvanically corroded from the surface of the galvanized steel. The material serving as the cathode is principally a material having a standard electrode potential which is intermediate of the standard electrode potentials of zinc and cadmium in the electrochemical series. The corrosion rate may be accelerated by (i) increasing the number density of corrosion sites in the galvanized steel by mechanically abrading or deforming the galvanized steel, (ii) heating the galvanized steel to form an alloy of zinc on the surface of the galvanized steel, (iii) mixing the galvanized steel with a material having a standard electrode potential which is intermediate of the standard electrode potentials of zinc and cadmium in the electrochemical series, or (iv) moving the galvanized steel relative to itself and to the electrolyte while immersed in the electrolyte.

  2. High strength, tough alloy steel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thomas, Gareth; Rao, Bangaru V. N.

    1979-01-01

    A high strength, tough alloy steel is formed by heating the steel to a temperature in the austenite range (1000.degree.-1100.degree. C.) to form a homogeneous austenite phase and then cooling the steel to form a microstructure of uniformly dispersed dislocated martensite separated by continuous thin boundary films of stabilized retained austenite. The steel includes 0.2-0.35 weight % carbon, at least 1% and preferably 3-4.5% chromium, and at least one other substitutional alloying element, preferably manganese or nickel. The austenite film is stable to subsequent heat treatment as by tempering (below 300.degree. C.) and reforms to a stable film after austenite grain refinement.

  3. Process for dezincing galvanized steel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, W.A.; Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J.

    1998-07-14

    A process is described for removing zinc from galvanized steel. The galvanized steel is immersed in an electrolyte containing at least about 15% by weight of sodium or potassium hydroxide and having a temperature of at least about 75 C and the zinc is galvanically corroded from the surface of the galvanized steel. The material serving as the cathode is principally a material having a standard electrode potential which is intermediate of the standard electrode potentials of zinc and cadmium in the electrochemical series. The corrosion rate may be accelerated by (1) increasing the number density of corrosion sites in the galvanized steel by mechanically abrading or deforming the galvanized steel, (2) heating the galvanized steel to form an alloy of zinc on the surface of the galvanized steel, (3) mixing the galvanized steel with a material having a standard electrode potential which is intermediate of the standard electrode potentials of zinc and cadmium in the electrochemical series, or (4) moving the galvanized steel relative to itself and to the electrolyte while immersed in the electrolyte. 1 fig.

  4. JFE Steel Corp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Corp Jump to: navigation, search Name: JFE Steel Corp Place: Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan Zip: 100-0011 Product: Japanese steel manufacturer; manufactures metallurgical silicon and plans to...

  5. Kobe Steel Ltd Kobelco | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Name: Kobe Steel Ltd (Kobelco) Place: Kobe-shi, Hyogo, Japan Zip: 651-8585 Sector: Solar Product: Japanese steel manufacturer; manufactures PV...

  6. Improved Martensitic Steel for High Temperature Applications...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Improved Martensitic Steel for High Temperature Applications A stainless steel composition and heat treatment process for a high-temperature, titanium alloyed 9 Cr-1 molybdenum ...

  7. Mr. Frank Iannizzara Engineering Department Copperweld Steel...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Frank Iannizzara Engineering Department Copperweld Steel Company 4000 Mahoning Street ... (ORNL) performed a of the Copperweld Steel Company facility in Warren, Ohio. copy of ...

  8. Environmental control technology for mining, milling, and refining thorium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weakley, S.A.; Blahnik, D.E.; Young, J.K.; Bloomster, C.H.

    1980-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate, in terms of cost and effectiveness, the various environmental control technologies that would be used to control the radioactive wastes generated in the mining, milling, and refining of thorium from domestic resources. The technologies, in order to be considered for study, had to reduce the radioactivity in the waste streams to meet Atomic Energy Commission (10 CFR 20) standards for natural thorium's maximum permissible concentration (MPC) in air and water. Further regulatory standards or licensing requirements, either federal, state, or local, were not examined. The availability and cost of producing thorium from domestic resources is addressed in a companion volume. The objectives of this study were: (1) to identify the major waste streams generated during the mining, milling, and refining of reactor-grade thorium oxide from domestic resources; and (2) to determine the cost and levels of control of existing and advanced environmental control technologies for these waste streams. Six potential domestic deposits of thorium oxide, in addition to stockpiled thorium sludges, are discussed in this report. A summary of the location and characteristics of the potential domestic thorium resources and the mining, milling, and refining processes that will be needed to produce reactor-grade thorium oxide is presented in Section 2. The wastes from existing and potential domestic thorium oxide mines, mills, and refineries are identified in Section 3. Section 3 also presents the state-of-the-art technology and the costs associated with controlling the wastes from the mines, mills, and refineries. In Section 4, the available environmental control technologies for mines, mills, and refineries are assessed. Section 5 presents the cost and effectiveness estimates for the various environmental control technologies applicable to the mine, mill, and refinery for each domestic resource.

  9. Wellbore Integrity Network

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carey, James W.; Bachu, Stefan

    2012-06-21

    In this presentation, we review the current state of knowledge on wellbore integrity as developed in the IEA Greenhouse Gas Programme's Wellbore Integrity Network. Wells are one of the primary risks to the successful implementation of CO{sub 2} storage programs. Experimental studies show that wellbore materials react with CO{sub 2} (carbonation of cement and corrosion of steel) but the impact on zonal isolation is unclear. Field studies of wells in CO{sub 2}-bearing fields show that CO{sub 2} does migrate external to casing. However, rates and amounts of CO{sub 2} have not been quantified. At the decade time scale, wellbore integrity is driven by construction quality and geomechanical processes. Over longer time-scales (> 100 years), chemical processes (cement degradation and corrosion) become more important, but competing geomechanical processes may preserve wellbore integrity.

  10. Prediction of stainless steel activation in experimental breeder reactor 2 (EBR-II) reflector and blanket subassemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bunde, K.A.

    1996-12-31

    Stainless steel structural components in nuclear reactors become radioactive wastes when no longer useful. Prior to disposal, certain physical attributes must be analyzed. These attributes include structural integrity, chemical stability, and the radioactive material content among others. The focus of this work is the estimation of the radioactive material content of stainless steel wastes from a research reactor operated by Argonne National Laboratory.

  11. The design of steel for high strength line pipe requiring excellent notch toughness and corrosion properties for arctic applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeCaux, G.; Golini, F.; Rayner, T.J.

    1998-12-31

    Due to the cold climate and environmental requirements of Alaska`s North Slope and Western Canada`s oil production areas, line pipe steels intended for use in these areas must display not only high strength as required, but superior toughness. Additionally,if the line pipe is to be used in aggressive sour gas (i.e., H{sub 2}S containing) environments it must also have excellent resistance to hydrogen induced cracking (HIC). Such a steel has been designed, through selective chemistry, clean steel-making practices, nonmetallic inclusion control, and hot mill process control, that is capable of meeting stringent line pipe specifications covering X65 grade line pipe in Arctic service temperatures. This paper also examined the effect that hot rolling finishing temperature had on notch toughness. Steel-making knowledge developed for lower strength, HIC resistant X52 grade steel has been employed for the development of a X65 grade steel. Results of trial heats will be presented.

  12. Advanced steel reheat furnaces: Research and development. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Q.; Koppang, R.; Maly, P.; Moyeda, D.; Li, X.

    1999-01-14

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of two phases of a three-phase project to develop and evaluate an Advanced Steel Reheat Furnace (SSRF) concept which incorporates two proven and commercialized technologies, oxy-fuel enriched air (OEA) combustion and gas reburning (GR). The combined technologies aim to improve furnace productivity with higher flame radiant heat transfer in the heating zones of a steel reheat furnace while controlling potentially higher NOx emissions from these zones. The project was conducted under a contract sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). Specifically, this report summarizes the results of a modeling study and an experimental study to define and evaluate the issues which affect the integration and performance of the combined technologies. Section 2.0 of the report describes the technical approach uses in the development and evaluation of the advanced steel reheat furnace. Section 3.0 presents results of the modeling study applied to a model steel furnace. Experimental validation of the modeling results obtained from EER`s Fuel Evaluation Facility (FEF) pilot-scale furnace discussed in Section 4.0. Section 5.0 provides an economic evaluation on the cost effectiveness of the advanced reheat furnace concept. Section 6.0 concludes the report with recommendations on the applicability of the combined technologies of steel reheat furnaces.

  13. Particle size and shape distributions of hammer milled pine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westover, Tyler Lott; Matthews, Austin Colter; Williams, Christopher Luke; Ryan, John Chadron Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    Particle size and shape distributions impact particle heating rates and diffusion of volatized gases out of particles during fast pyrolysis conversion, and consequently must be modeled accurately in order for computational pyrolysis models to produce reliable results for bulk solid materials. For this milestone, lodge pole pine chips were ground using a Thomas-Wiley #4 mill using two screen sizes in order to produce two representative materials that are suitable for fast pyrolysis. For the first material, a 6 mm screen was employed in the mill and for the second material, a 3 mm screen was employed in the mill. Both materials were subjected to RoTap sieve analysis, and the distributions of the particle sizes and shapes were determined using digital image analysis. The results of the physical analysis will be fed into computational pyrolysis simulations to create models of materials with realistic particle size and shape distributions. This milestone was met on schedule.

  14. Milling of Sand Blocks to Make Casting Moulds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez de Lacalle, L. N.; Rodriguez, A.; Lamikiz, A.; Penafiel, F. J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of the Basque Country, ETSII, c/Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2011-01-17

    In this paper a full procedure to make moulds in sand for direct casting of metallic parts is presented. The technology aims at unique pieces or art pieces, where only one prototype or components is required, but lead times are much reduced. The key of the procedure is to achieve enough tool life when milling with carbide tools, avoiding the risk of sand destruction or damage.The use of inverse techniques is a common input due to the industrial sectors where the direct milling is interesting. Two examples of moulds are presented, evaluating times and costs. A special study of tool wear is also presented.

  15. Fermentation and chemical treatment of pulp and paper mill sludge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Yoon Y; Wang, Wei; Kang, Li

    2014-12-02

    A method of chemically treating partially de-ashed pulp and/or paper mill sludge to obtain products of value comprising taking a sample of primary sludge from a Kraft paper mill process, partially de-ashing the primary sludge by physical means, and further treating the primary sludge to obtain the products of value, including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge as a substrate to produce cellulase in an efficient manner using the resulting sludge as the only carbon source and mixtures of inorganic salts as the primary nitrogen source, and including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge to produce ethanol.

  16. DOE Awards Technical Assistance Contract for Moab Mill Tailings Cleanup |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Technical Assistance Contract for Moab Mill Tailings Cleanup DOE Awards Technical Assistance Contract for Moab Mill Tailings Cleanup May 31, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contact Bill Taylor bill.taylor@srs.gov 803-952-8564 Cincinnati-The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced the award of an $18 million small disadvantaged business contract with S&K Aerospace, LLC, of St. Ignatius, Montana to continue to provide technical assistance services for the Moab

  17. Value Added Products from Hemicellulose Utilization in Dry Mill Ethanol Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodney Williamson, ICPB; John Magnuson, PNNL; David Reed, INL; Marco Baez, Dyadic; Marion Bradford, ICPB

    2007-03-30

    The Iowa Corn Promotion Board is the principal contracting entity for this grant funded by the US Department of Agriculture and managed by the US Department of Energy. The Iowa Corn Promotion Board subcontracted with New Jersey Institute of Technology, KiwiChem, Pacific Northwest National Lab and Idaho National Lab to conduct research for this project. KiwiChem conducted the economic engineering assessment of a dry-mill ethanol plant. New Jersey Institute of Technology conducted work on incorporating the organic acids into polymers. Pacific Northwest National Lab conducted work in hydrolysis of hemicellulose, fermentation and chemical catalysis of sugars to value-added chemicals. Idaho National Lab engineered an organism to ferment a specific organic acid. Dyadic, an enzme company, was a collaborator which provided in-kind support for the project. The Iowa Corn Promotion Board collaborated with the Ohio Corn Marketing Board and the Minnesota Corn Merchandising Council in providing cost share for the project. The purpose of this diverse collaboration was to integrate the hydrolysis, the conversion and the polymer applications into one project and increase the likelihood of success. This project had two primary goals: (1) to hydrolyze the hemicellulose fraction of the distillers grain (DG) coproduct coming from the dry-mill ethanol plants and (2) convert the sugars derived from the hemicellulose into value-added co-products via fermentation and chemical catalysis.

  18. Longest-Serving Active Paper Mill in the Western United States...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Longest-Serving Active Paper Mill in the Western United States Uncovers New Ways to Save Energy Longest-Serving Active Paper Mill in the Western United States Uncovers New Ways to ...

  19. EERE Success Story-From Flour to Grits, a Water-Powered Mill...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    From Flour to Grits, a Water-Powered Mill Keeps on Grinding EERE Success Story-From Flour to Grits, a Water-Powered Mill Keeps on Grinding July 7, 2015 - 12:15pm Addthis EERE ...

  20. DOE Moab Project Safely Removes 7 Million Tons of Mill Tailings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    (Grand Junction, CO) ― The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has safely moved another million tons of uranium mill tailings from the Moab site in Utah under the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project.

  1. Metastable vacuum decay in center-stabilized Yang-Mills theory...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Metastable vacuum decay in center-stabilized Yang-Mills theory at large N Prev Next Title: Metastable vacuum decay in center-stabilized Yang-Mills theory at large N Authors: ...

  2. Advanced steel reheat furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyeda, D.; Sheldon, M.; Koppang, R.; Lanyi, M.; Li, X.; Eleazer, B.

    1997-10-01

    Energy and Environmental Research Corp. (EER) under a contract from the Department of Energy is pursuing the development and demonstration of an Advanced Steel Reheating Furnace. This paper reports the results of Phase 1, Research, which has evaluated an advanced furnace concept incorporating two proven and commercialized technologies previously applied to other high temperature combustion applications: EER`s gas reburn technology (GR) for post combustion NOx control; and Air Product`s oxy-fuel enrichment air (OEA) for improved flame heat transfer in the heating zones of the furnace. The combined technologies feature greater production throughput with associated furnace efficiency improvements; lowered NOx emissions; and better control over the furnace atmosphere, whether oxidizing or reducing, leading to better control over surface finish.

  3. High-Alloy Ferritic Steels: Martensitic Stainless Steels, Precipitatio...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Metall Trans 12A (1981) 2138-2141. 7. LW Tsay, WC Lee, RK Shiue and JK Wu. Notch tensile properties of laser-surface-annealed 17-4 PH stainless steel in hydrogen-related ...

  4. 2169 steel waveform experiments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furnish, Michael David; Alexander, C. Scott; Reinhart, William Dodd; Brown, Justin L.

    2012-11-01

    In support of LLNL efforts to develop multiscale models of a variety of materials, we have performed a set of eight gas gun impact experiments on 2169 steel (21% Cr, 6% Ni, 9% Mn, balance predominantly Fe). These experiments provided carefully controlled shock, reshock and release velocimetry data, with initial shock stresses ranging from 10 to 50 GPa (particle velocities from 0.25 to 1.05 km/s). Both windowed and free-surface measurements were included in this experiment set to increase the utility of the data set, as were samples ranging in thickness from 1 to 5 mm. Target physical phenomena included the elastic/plastic transition (Hugoniot elastic limit), the Hugoniot, any phase transition phenomena, and the release path (windowed and free-surface). The Hugoniot was found to be nearly linear, with no indications of the Fe - phase transition. Releases were non-hysteretic, and relatively consistent between 3- and 5-mm-thick samples (the 3 mm samples giving slightly lower wavespeeds on release). Reshock tests with explosively welded impactors produced clean results; those with glue bonds showed transient releases prior to the arrival of the reshock, reducing their usefulness for deriving strength information. The free-surface samples, which were steps on a single piece of steel, showed lower wavespeeds for thin (1 mm) samples than for thicker (2 or 4 mm) samples. A configuration used for the last three shots allows release information to be determined from these free surface samples. The sample strength appears to increase with stress from ~1 GPa to ~ 3 GPa over this range, consistent with other recent work but about 40% above the Steinberg model.

  5. New Y-12 Mill Supports Non-Proliferation | National Nuclear Security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Administration | (NNSA) Mill Supports Non-Proliferation November 09, 2010 Microsoft Office document icon NR-11-09

  6. Moab Project Disposes 2 Million Tons of Uranium Mill Tailings with Recovery

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Act Funds | Department of Energy Moab Project Disposes 2 Million Tons of Uranium Mill Tailings with Recovery Act Funds Moab Project Disposes 2 Million Tons of Uranium Mill Tailings with Recovery Act Funds The Moab Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project reached its primary American Recovery and Reinvestment Act milestone ahead of schedule on Wednesday with the disposal of 2 million tons of uranium mill tailings. The project had originally planned to ship 2 million tons of tailings with

  7. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Durango Mill Site - CO 0-05

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Durango Mill Site - CO 0-05 Site ID (CSD Index Number): CO.0-05 Site Name: Durango Mill Site Site Summary: Site Link: Durango, Colorado, Processing Site External Site Link: Alternate Name(s): Durango Mill Site Uranium Mill in Durango Alternate Name Documents: Location: Durango, Colorado Location Documents: Historical Operations (describe contaminants): Historical Operations Documents: Eligibility Determination: Eligibility Determination Documents: Radiological Surveys Conducted (List of

  8. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Green River Mill Site - UT 0-01

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Green River Mill Site - UT 0-01 Site ID (CSD Index Number): UT.0-01 Site Name: Green River Mill Site Site Summary: Site Link: Green River, Utah, Disposal Site External Site Link: Alternate Name(s): Green River Mill Site Alternate Name Documents: Location: Green River, Utah Location Documents: Historical Operations (describe contaminants): Historical Operations Documents: Eligibility Determination: Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) Title I site Eligibility Determination

  9. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Lakeview Mill - OR 0-01

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Lakeview Mill - OR 0-01 Site ID (CSD Index Number): OR.0-01 Site Name: Lakeview Mill Site Summary: Site Link: Lakeview, Oregon, Processing Site External Site Link: Alternate Name(s): Lakeview Mill Alternate Name Documents: Location: Lakeview, Oregon Location Documents: Historical Operations (describe contaminants): Historical Operations Documents: Eligibility Determination: Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) Title I site Eligibility Determination Documents: Radiological Surveys

  10. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Naturita Mill Site - CO 0-08

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Naturita Mill Site - CO 0-08 Site ID (CSD Index Number): CO.0-08 Site Name: Naturita Mill Site Site Summary: Site Link: Naturita, Colorado, Processing Site External Site Link: Alternate Name(s): Naturita Mill Site Alternate Name Documents: Location: Naturita, Colorado Location Documents: Historical Operations (describe contaminants): Historical Operations Documents: Eligibility Determination: Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) Title I site. Eligibility Determination Documents:

  11. ITP Steel: Energy Use in the U.S. Steel Industry: An Historical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Use in the U.S. Steel Industry: An Historical Perspective and Future Opportunities, September 2000 ITP Steel: Energy Use in the U.S. Steel Industry: An Historical ...

  12. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Shiprock uranium mill tailings site, Shiprock, New Mexico: Volume 1, Text

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1984-05-01

    This document assesses and compares the environmental impacts of various alternatives for remedial action at the shiprock uranium mill tailings site located on the Navajo Indian Reservation, one mile south of Shiprock, New Mexico. The site contains 72 acres of tailings and four of the original mill buildings. The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), Public Law 95-604, authorizes the US Department of Energy to clean up the site to reduce the potential health impacts associated with the residual radioactive materials remaining at the site and at associated properties off the site. The US Environmental Protection Agency promulgated standards for the remedial actions (40 CFR 192). Remedial actions must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The proposed action is to stabilize the tailings at their present location by consolidating the tailings and associated contaminated soils into a recontoured pile. A seven-foot-thick radon barrier would be constructed over the pile and various erosion control measures would be taken to assure the long-term integrity of the pile. Three other alternatives which involve moving the tailings to new locations are assessed in this document. These alternatives which involve moving the tailings to new locations are assessed in this document. These alternatives generally involve greater short-term impacts and are more costly but would result in the tailings being stabilized in a more remote location. The no action alternative is also assessed. 99 refs., 40 figs., 58 tabs.

  13. STAINLESS STEEL INTERACTIONS WITH SALT CONTAINING PLUTONIUM OXIDES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Z.; Chandler, G.; Dunn, K.; Stefek, T.; Summer, M.

    2010-02-01

    Salt containing plutonium oxide materials are treated, packaged and stored within nested, stainless steel containers based on requirements established in the DOE 3013 Standard. The moisture limit for the stored materials is less than 0.5 weight %. Surveillance activities which are conducted to assess the condition of the containers and assure continuing 3013 container integrity include the destructive examination of a select number of containers to determine whether corrosion attack has occurred as a result of stainless steel interactions with salt containing plutonium oxides. To date, some corrosion has been observed on the innermost containers, however, no corrosion has been noted on the outer containers and the integrity of the 3013 container systems is not expected to be compromised over a 50 year storage lifetime.

  14. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Belfield Mill Site - ND 0-01

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Belfield Mill Site - ND 0-01 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Belfield Mill Site (ND.0-01 ) Designated Name: Alternate Name: Location: Evaluation Year: Site Operations: Site Disposition: Radioactive Materials Handled: Primary Radioactive Materials Handled: Radiological Survey(s): Site Status: Also see http://www.em.doe.gov/SiteInfo/BelfieldAshingFacility.aspx Documents Related to Belfield Mill Site

  15. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Bowman Mill Site - ND 0-02

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Bowman Mill Site - ND 0-02 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Bowman Mill Site (ND.0-02 ) Designated Name: Alternate Name: Location: Evaluation Year: Site Operations: Site Disposition: Radioactive Materials Handled: Primary Radioactive Materials Handled: Radiological Survey(s): Site Status: Also see http://www.em.doe.gov/SiteInfo/BowmanAshingFacility.aspx Documents Related to Bowman Mill Site

  16. Nano-composite stainless steel (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Nano-composite stainless steel Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nano-composite stainless steel A composite stainless steel composition is composed essentially of, ...

  17. Auto/Steel Partnership: AHSS Stamping, Strain Rate Characterization...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AHSS Stamping, Strain Rate Characterization, Sheet Steel Fatigue, AHSS Joining AutoSteel ... More Documents & Publications AutoSteel Partnership: Fatigue of AHSS Strain Rate ...

  18. ITP Steel: Hydrogen and Nitrogen Control in Ladle and Casting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ITP Steel: Hydrogen and Nitrogen Control in Ladle and Casting Operations castingops.pdf (875.11 KB) More Documents & Publications Steel Industry Technology Roadmap ITP Steel: ...

  19. Auto/Steel Partnership: Hydroforming Materials and Lubricant...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    FY 2008 Progress Report for Lightweighting Materials - 5. Automotive Metals-Steel FY 2009 Progress Report for Lightweighting Materials - 5. Automotive Metals - Steel AutoSteel ...

  20. Great Lakes Steel -- PCI facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eichinger, F.T.; Dake, S.H.; Wagner, E.D.; Brown, G.S.

    1997-12-31

    This paper discusses the planning, design, and start-up of the 90 tph PCI facility for National Steel`s Great Lakes Steel Division in River Rouge, MI. This project is owned and operated by Edison Energy Services, and was implemented on a fast-track basis by Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, Babcock Material Handling, and Babcock and Wilcox. This paper presents important process issues, basic design criteria, an the challenges of engineering and building a state-of-the-art PCI facility in two existing plants. Pulverized coal is prepared at the River Rouge Power Plant of Detroit Edison, is pneumatically conveyed 6,000 feet to a storage silo at Great Lakes Steel, and is injected into three blast furnaces.

  1. Hydrogen Embrittlement in Pipeline Steels

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Division Material Measurement Laboratory Cheaper vs Safe?: Does it have to be choice * Steel is sold by the ton * X80 costs about the same as a X42ton * Use less X80, therefore ...

  2. Electrochemical Dezincing of Steel Scrap

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Half of the steel produced in the United States is derived from scrap. With zinc-coated prompt scrap increasing fivefold since 1980, steelmakers are feeling the effect of increased contaminant...

  3. Boise Inc. St. Helens Paper Mill Achieves Significant Fuel Savings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This case study describes how the Boise Inc. paper mill in St. Helens, Oregon, achieved annual savings of approximately 154,000 MMBtu and more than $1 million. This was accomplished after receiving a DOE energy assessment and implementing recommendations to improve the efficiency of its steam system.

  4. Perturbation Theory of Massive Yang-Mills Fields

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Veltman, M.

    1968-08-01

    Perturbation theory of massive Yang-Mills fields is investigated with the help of the Bell-Treiman transformation. Diagrams containing one closed loop are shown to be convergent if there are more than four external vector boson lines. The investigation presented does not exclude the possibility that the theory is renormalizable.

  5. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. [UMTRA project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    The mission of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is explicitly stated and directed in the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978, hereinafter referred to as the Act.'' Title I of the Act authorizes the Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake remedial action at designated inactive uranium processing sites (Attachment 1 and 2) and associated vicinity properties containing uranium mill tailings and other residual radioactive materials derived from the processing site. The purpose of the remedial actions is to stabilize and control such uranium mill tailings and other residual radioactive materials in a safe and environmentally sound manner to minimize radiation health hazards to the public. The principal health hazards and environmental concerns are: the inhalation of air particulates contaminated as a result of the emanation of radon from the tailings piles and the subsequent decay of radon daughters; and the contamination of surface and groundwaters with radionuclides or other chemically toxic materials. This UMTRA Project Plan identifies the mission and objectives of the project, outlines the technical and managerial approach for achieving them, and summarizes the performance, cost, and schedule baselines which have been established to guide operational activity. Estimated cost increases by 15 percent, or if the schedule slips by six months. 4 refs.

  6. Improved energy efficiency in a specialty paper mill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, C.D. Jr.

    1986-06-01

    Energy costs at the James River KVP mill have increased sixfold since the 1973 oil embargo. The cost of energy now surpasses the cost of labor and is second only to that of pulp. Economic pressures thus provide a powerful incentive for efficient use of energy. The KVP mill is a nonintegrated mill that is capable of producing up to 450 tons/day of specialty papers. The mill is equipped with six paper machines, six parchment machines, three off-machine coaters, and related converting equipment. Energy is supplied by a central powerhouse that is equipped with: Two gas/oil-fired Combustion Engineering VU50 power boilers, each capable of producing 210,000 lb/h of 850-psig steam at 825/sup 0/F; One gas/oil-fired Riley water tube boiler capable of producing 150,000 lb/h of 220-psig steam at 525/sup 0/F; Two General Electric turbine generators. No. 5 condensing machine: throttle steam, 850 psig; high-pressure extraction, 220 psig; low-pressure extraction, 220 psig; low-pressure extraction, 38 psig; maximum generation, 9500 kW. No. 6 condensing machine: throttle steam, 850 psig; low-pressure extraction, 38 psig; maximum generation, 9500 kW.

  7. Woolen mill captures exhaust to cut fuel costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-02-01

    To keep ahead of growing competition, a northeast woolen mill sought a method of reducing fuel costs while increasing production. A counterflow-design plate heat exchanger was employed to recirculate dryer exhaust. It has cut propane consumption from 4900 to 2400 gallons a week while design modifications have doubled dryer speed. The heat recovery system is described.

  8. Revegetation/rock cover for stabilization of inactive uranium mill tailings disposal sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beedlow, P.A.; McShane, M.C.; Cadwell, L.L.

    1982-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is developing design and performance guidelines for surface stabilization of inactive uranium mill tailings. In this work, vegetation and rock covers are being evaluated for maintaining long-term integrity of impoundment systems. Methods are being developed to estimate erosion rates associated with rock and/or vegetation covers, and to determine the effects of surface treatments on soil moisture. Interactions between surface treatments and barriers (radon and biological) are being studied as well. The product will be a set of guidelines to aid in designing surface covers. This report presents the status of this program and a discussion of considerations pertinent to the application of surface covers to tailings. Test plots located in Grand Junction, Colorado and Waterflow, New Mexico are being used to study: (1) the interactions between vegetation and radon and biological barriers, (2) the effects of surface covers on soil moisture, and (3) the effects of rock covers on vegetation.

  9. Diode laser welding of aluminum to steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santo, Loredana; Quadrini, Fabrizio; Trovalusci, Federica [University of Rome Tor Vergata, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Rome (Italy)

    2011-05-04

    Laser welding of dissimilar materials was carried out by using a high power diode laser to join aluminum to steel in a butt-joint configuration. During testing, the laser scan rate was changed as well as the laser power: at low values of fluence (i.e. the ratio between laser power and scan rate), poor joining was observed; instead at high values of fluence, an excess in the material melting affected the joint integrity. Between these limiting values, a good aesthetics was obtained; further investigations were carried out by means of tensile tests and SEM analyses. Unfortunately, a brittle behavior was observed for all the joints and a maximum rupture stress about 40 MPa was measured. Apart from the formation of intermeltallic phases, poor mechanical performances also depended on the chosen joining configuration, particularly because of the thickness reduction of the seam in comparison with the base material.

  10. Total Ore Processing Integration and Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leslie Gertsch

    2006-01-30

    This report outlines the technical progress achieved for project DE-FC26-03NT41785 (Total Ore Processing Integration and Management) during the period 01 October through 31 December of 2005. Graphical analysis of blast patterns according to drill monitor data is continuing. Multiple linear regression analysis of 16 mine and mill variables (powder factor, two modeled size fractions, liberation index, predicted grind, total crude Fe, Satmagan Fe, sat ratio, DSC, geologic blend, ambient temperature, cobbing hours, feeder plugs, and percent feeder run time-of-mill time) indicates that December variations in plant performance are generally predictable (Figure 1). The outlier on December 28th coincides with low cobbing availability and equipment downtime. Mill productivity appeared to be most influenced, as usual, by ore quality as indicated by the liberation index--the higher the liberation index, the lower the throughput. The upcoming quarter will be concerned with wrapping up the work in progress, such as the detailed statistical analyses, and writing a final report. Hibtac Mine engineers are evaluating neural network software to determine its utility for modeling, and eventually predicting, mill throughput.

  11. J-controlled crack growth as an indicator of hydrogen-stainless steel compatibility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dietrich, M.R.; Caskey, G.R. Jr.; Donovan, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    The J-integral was evaluated as a parameter to characterize fracture of stainless steels and as a measure of hydrogen damage. C-shaped specimens of type 304L, 316, and 21-6-9 stainless steels were tested in high pressure helium and hydrogen. The critical force for crack initiation (Jm), and tearing resistance (dJ/da) were decreased by hydrogen in all three alloys. The J-integral appears useful as a measure of hydrogen compatibility because it is sensitive to both test environment and microstructure.

  12. H-Series Cast Austenitic Stainless Steels

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cast H-Series austenitic steels are used extensively in several industries for a broad range of high-temperature applications. The H-Series stainless steels have evolved over many years of complex...

  13. Wind Resource Assessment Report: Mille Lacs Indian Reservation, Minnesota

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jimenez, A. C.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) launched the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to encourage development of renewable energy on potentially contaminated land and mine sites. EPA collaborated with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Mille Lacs Band of Chippewa Indians to evaluate the wind resource and examine the feasibility of a wind project at a contaminated site located on the Mille Lacs Indian Reservation in Minnesota. The wind monitoring effort involved the installation of a 60-m met tower and the collection of 18 months of wind data at multiple heights above the ground. This report focuses on the wind resource assessment, the estimated energy production of wind turbines, and an assessment of the economic feasibility of a potential wind project sited this site.

  14. From: Mills, Pamela To: Congestion Study Comments Cc: Strack, Jan

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mills, Pamela To: Congestion Study Comments Cc: Strack, Jan Subject: National Electric Transmission Congestion Study - Draft for Public Comment Date: Friday, October 17, 2014 6:18:37 PM Attachments: SDGE Comments on the National Electric Transmission Congestion Study - Draft for Public Comment.docx Please find attached SDG&E's comments on the National Electric Transmission Congestion Study - Draft for Public Comment. Any questions or comments regarding the attached document should be

  15. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program. Annual status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-12-01

    The FY 1983 project accomplishments are: completed the Remedial Action Plan and Phase I engineering design for the Canonsburg processing site; completed remedial action on an additional 52 vicinity properties and the inclusion of an additional 303 properties in the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project; executed cooperative agreements with four states and the Navajo Nation; published the draft environmental impact statement for Salt Lake City site; and issued the approved Project Plan.

  16. Multiscale MonteCarlo equilibration: Pure Yang-Mills theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Endres, Michael G.; Brower, Richard C.; Orginos, Kostas; Detmold, William; Pochinsky, Andrew V.

    2015-12-29

    In this study, we present a multiscale thermalization algorithm for lattice gauge theory, which enables efficient parallel generation of uncorrelated gauge field configurations. The algorithm combines standard Monte Carlo techniques with ideas drawn from real space renormalization group and multigrid methods. We demonstrate the viability of the algorithm for pure Yang-Mills gauge theory for both heat bath and hybrid Monte Carlo evolution, and show that it ameliorates the problem of topological freezing up to controllable lattice spacing artifacts.

  17. Deconfinement in Yang-Mills Theory through Toroidal Compactification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simic, Dusan; Unsal, Mithat; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

    2011-08-12

    We introduce field theory techniques through which the deconfinement transition of four-dimensional Yang-Mills theory can be moved to a semi-classical domain where it becomes calculable using two-dimensional field theory. We achieve this through a double-trace deformation of toroidally compactified Yang-Mills theory on R{sup 2} x S{sub L}{sup 1} x S{sub {beta}}{sup 1}. At large N, fixed-L, and arbitrary {beta}, the thermodynamics of the deformed theory is equivalent to that of ordinary Yang-Mills theory at leading order in the large N expansion. At fixed-N, small L and a range of {beta}, the deformed theory maps to a two-dimensional theory with electric and magnetic (order and disorder) perturbations, analogs of which appear in planar spin-systems and statistical physics. We show that in this regime the deconfinement transition is driven by the competition between electric and magnetic perturbations in this two-dimensional theory. This appears to support the scenario proposed by Liao and Shuryak regarding the magnetic component of the quark-gluon plasma at RHIC.

  18. ITP Steel: Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Study September 2005

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Study Energetics, Inc. for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Industrial Technologies Program September 2005 1 Table of Contents Introduction.....................................................................................................................- 1 - Ore-Based Steelmaking: Bandwidth and Opportunities................................................- 3 - EAF Steelmaking: Bandwidth and

  19. Creep of A508/533 Pressure Vessel Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Wright

    2014-08-01

    ABSTRACT Evaluation of potential Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) steels has been carried out as part of the pre-conceptual Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design studies. These design studies have generally focused on American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Code status of the steels, temperature limits, and allowable stresses. Initially, three candidate materials were identified by this process: conventional light water reactor (LWR) RPV steels A508 and A533, 2¼Cr-1Mo in the annealed condition, and Grade 91 steel. The low strength of 2¼Cr-1Mo at elevated temperature has eliminated this steel from serious consideration as the VHTR RPV candidate material. Discussions with the very few vendors that can potentially produce large forgings for nuclear pressure vessels indicate a strong preference for conventional LWR steels. This preference is based in part on extensive experience with forging these steels for nuclear components. It is also based on the inability to cast large ingots of the Grade 91 steel due to segregation during ingot solidification, thus restricting the possible mass of forging components and increasing the amount of welding required for completion of the RPV. Grade 91 steel is also prone to weld cracking and must be post-weld heat treated to ensure adequate high-temperature strength. There are also questions about the ability to produce, and very importantly, verify the through thickness properties of thick sections of Grade 91 material. The availability of large components, ease of fabrication, and nuclear service experience with the A508 and A533 steels strongly favor their use in the RPV for the VHTR. Lowering the gas outlet temperature for the VHTR to 750°C from 950 to 1000°C, proposed in early concept studies, further strengthens the justification for this material selection. This steel is allowed in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code for nuclear service up to 371°C (700°F); certain excursions above that temperature are

  20. Hydrogen Permeability and Integrity of Hydrogen Delivery Pipelines |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Permeability and Integrity of Hydrogen Delivery Pipelines Hydrogen Permeability and Integrity of Hydrogen Delivery Pipelines Project Objectives: To gain basic understanding of hydrogen permeation behavior and its impact on hydrogen embrittlement of pipeline steels under high gaseous pressures relevant to hydrogen gas transmission pipeline hpwgw_permeability_integrity_feng.pdf (1.41 MB) More Documents & Publications Hydrogen permeability and Integrity of hydrogen

  1. Today`s steel technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-01-01

    AISI members have made significant advances in steelmaking technology over the past several years. This report details the alloy developments and processes that have made steel an engineered material suitable for an expanding range of applications. Improved processes involve casting, rolling, welding, forging, chemical composition and computerized control. Applications cover a broad range including automobile, buildings and bridges.

  2. DOE to Transport Moab Mill Tailings by Rail | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to Transport Moab Mill Tailings by Rail DOE to Transport Moab Mill Tailings by Rail August 5, 2008 - 2:40pm Addthis Department Approves Project Baseline and Obtains Nuclear Regulatory Commission Nod WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today reaffirmed its prior decision to relocate mill tailings predominantly by rail from the former uranium-ore processing site near Moab, Utah, 30 miles north to Crescent Junction, Utah. As determined previously, oversized material that is not

  3. Low energy milling method, low crystallinity alloy, and negative electrode composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Le, Dihn B; Obrovac, Mark N; Kube, Robert Y; Landucci, James R

    2012-10-16

    A method of making nanostructured alloy particles includes milling a millbase in a pebble mill containing milling media. The millbase comprises: (i) silicon, and (ii) at least one of carbon or a transition metal, and wherein the nanostructured alloy particles are substantially free of crystalline domains greater than 50 nanometers in size. A method of making a negative electrode composition for a lithium ion battery including the nanostructured alloy particles is also disclosed.

  4. Inter-Tribal Council of Michigan, Inc. - Bay Mills Indian Community Energy Reduction Feasibility Study

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    --Tribal Council of Michigan, Inc. Environmental Services Division Bay Mills Indian Community Energy Reduc<on Feasibility Study Chris K ushman Thank You *DOE Tribal Energy Program *Tribal Energy Program Review presenters *Bay Mills Indian Community Bay Mills Indian Community * Upper Peninsula of Michigan - Cold temperatures - Prolonged exposure to strong north winds off Lake Superior - Short winter daylight * Fishing and fish consuming community * Electricity largely supplied by coal fired

  5. CLEANING UP MILL TAILINGS AND GROUND WATER AT THE MOAB UMTRA PROJECT SITE |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy CLEANING UP MILL TAILINGS AND GROUND WATER AT THE MOAB UMTRA PROJECT SITE CLEANING UP MILL TAILINGS AND GROUND WATER AT THE MOAB UMTRA PROJECT SITE August 2, 2010 - 12:00pm Addthis A sheep’s foot roller compacts the tailings in the disposal cell. A sheep's foot roller compacts the tailings in the disposal cell. Moab, UT MILL TAILINGS REMOVAL Sixteen million tons of uranium mill tailings 80 feet high stood on the banks of the Colorado River near Moab in southeast

  6. Inert Gas Buffered Milling and Particle Size Separation of μm...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Size Separation of m-Scale Superconducting Precursor Powders Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Inert Gas Buffered Milling and Particle Size Separation of ...

  7. The U.S. Dry-Mill Ethanol Industry: Biobased Products and Bioenergy Initiative Success Stories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-10-28

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the history of ethanol production in the United States and describes innovations in dry-mill ethanol production.

  8. Longest-Serving Active Paper Mill in the Western United States...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... The mill began adding insulation to various parts of the steam distribution network and taking steps to improve effciency, including performing regular steam trap surveys and ...

  9. From Flour to Grits, a Water-Powered Mill Keeps on Grinding | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy From Flour to Grits, a Water-Powered Mill Keeps on Grinding From Flour to Grits, a Water-Powered Mill Keeps on Grinding June 30, 2015 - 2:02pm Addthis From Flour to Grits, a Water-Powered Mill Keeps on Grinding Sarah Wagoner Sarah Wagoner Communications Specialist, Wind and Water Power Technologies Office A mill owned and operated for six generations by the Weisenberger family has been grinding grains in the heart of Kentucky since the Civil War. In 1862, August Weisenberger emigrated

  10. DOE/EIS-0355 Remediation of the Moab Uranium Mill Tailings, Grand...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    water compliance strategy for the Moab site using the framework of the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Ground Water ...

  11. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Sutton Steele and Steele Co - TX 09

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Sutton Steele and Steele Co - TX 09 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: SUTTON, STEELE & STEELE CO. (TX.09) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: Sutton, Steele & Steele, Inc. TX.09-1 Location: Dallas , Texas TX.09-1 Evaluation Year: 1993 TX.09-2 Site Operations: Conducted operations to separate Uranium shot by means of air float tables and conducted research to air classify C-Liner and C-Special materials. TX.09-1 TX.09-3 TX.09-4 TX.09-5

  12. Steel project fact sheet: Steel reheating for further processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-04-01

    Steel reheating is an energy-intensive process requiring uniform temperature distribution within reheating furnaces. Historically, recuperators have ben used to preheat combustion air, thereby conserving energy. More recent innovations include oxygen enrichment and the use of regenerative burners, which provide higher preheat air temperatures than recuperators. These processes have limitations such as equipment deterioration, decreasing energy efficiency over time, high maintenance costs, and increased NO{sub x} emissions with increased air preheat temperature, unless special equipment is used. Praxair, Inc., supplier of oxygen and other industrial gases to the steel industry, proposes to introduce an innovative oxy-fuel burner technology (using 100% oxygen) to the steel reheating industry. Oxy-fuel combustion reduces or eliminates nitrogen in combustion air and substantially reduces waste heat carried out with flue gas. Based on technology currently used in the glass, hazardous waste, and aluminum industries, Praxair has developed and patented low temperature, oxy-fuel burners that can be used in high temperature industrial furnaces where temperature uniformity is critical and extremely low NO{sub x} emissions are desired. The technical goal of the project is to demonstrate the use of oxy-fuel burners in a slab reheat furnace while reducing energy consumption by 45% and NO{sub x} emissions by 90% within the converted furnace zones. Successful implementation of this technology also will eliminate the need to periodically replace recuperators and install NO{sub x} removal equipment.

  13. Monticello Mill Tailings Site Operable Unit Ill Interim Remedial Action

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Site Operable Unit Ill Interim Remedial Action Mark Perfxmed Under DOE Contrici No. DE-AC13-96CJ873.35 for th3 U.S. De[:ar!menf of Energy app~oveJioi'ptiL#ic re1ease;dCinWlionis Unlimilra' This page intentionally left blank Monticello Mill Tailings Site Operable Unit I11 Interim Remedial Action Annual Status Report August 1999 Prepared for U.S. Department of Energy Albuquerque Operations Office Grand Junction Office Project Number MSG-035-0011-00-000 Document Number Q0017700 Work Performed Under

  14. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project. 1995 Environmental Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-06-01

    In accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 23 1. 1, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting, the DOE prepares an annual report to document the activities of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project environmental monitoring program. This monitoring must comply with appropriate laws, regulations, and standards, and it must identify apparent and meaningful trends in monitoring results. The results of all monitoring activities must be communicated to the public. The UMTRA Project has prepared annual environmental reports to the public since 1989.

  15. Width of the Confining String in Yang-Mills Theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gliozzi, F.; Pepe, M.; Wiese, U.-J.

    2010-06-11

    We investigate the transverse fluctuations of the confining string connecting two static quarks in (2+1)D SU(2) Yang-Mills theory using Monte Carlo calculations. The exponentially suppressed signal is extracted from the large noise by a very efficient multilevel algorithm. The resulting width of the string increases logarithmically with the distance between the static quark charges. Corrections at intermediate distances due to universal higher-order terms in the effective string action are calculated analytically. They accurately fit the numerical data.

  16. Statement by Energy Secretary Steven Chu on Groundbreaking for Major Energy Efficiency Project at Indiana Steel Mill

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Recovery Act project creates jobs, increases company's economic competitiveness, and delivers significant energy and environmental benefits for the region

  17. Automotive frames of stainless steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emmons, J.B.; Douthett, J.

    1996-08-01

    A lightweight, stainless steel vehicle modular frame that meets the requirements of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) is being jointly developed by Armco and Autokinetics. Reaching the long-term goal of the program known as the Supercar will require technology that is capable of significantly reducing mass, while holding the cost of the finished vehicle to current levels. The structure should reduce mass by at least 50%, and must be high in performance, practical to manufacture, and conceptually simple compared to current practice. Another key PNGV goal is the development of a manufacturing infrastructure to attain cost and production levels consistent with auto industry norms. A third goal is to spin off as much of the resulting advanced technology as possible to conventional vehicles, enabling them to benefit from advances in mass reduction, aerodynamics, and materials technologies. All of these benefits can be realized with the stainless steel modular frame.

  18. Steel Industry Energy Bandwidth Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2004-10-01

    ITP conducted a study on energy use and potential savings, or "bandwidth" study, in major steelmaking processes. Intended to provide a realistic estimate of the potential amount of energy that can be saved in an industrial process, the "bandwidth" refers to the difference between the amount of energy that would be consumed in a process using commercially available technology versus the minimum amount of energy needed to achieve those same results based on the 2nd law of thermodynamics. The Steel Industry Energy Bandwidth Study (PDF133 KB) also estimates steel industry energy use in the year 2010, and uses that value as a basis for comparison against the minimum requirements. This energy savings opportunity for 2010 will aid focus on longer term R&D.

  19. Nano-composite stainless steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dehoff, Ryan R.; Blue, Craig A.; Peter, William H.; Chen, Wei; Aprigliano, Louis F.

    2015-07-14

    A composite stainless steel composition is composed essentially of, in terms of wt. % ranges: 25 to 28 Cr; 11 to 13 Ni; 7 to 8 W; 3.5 to 4 Mo; 3 to 3.5 B; 2 to 2.5 Mn; 1 to 1.5 Si; 0.3 to 1.7 C; up to 2 O; balance Fe. The composition has an austenitic matrix phase and a particulate, crystalline dispersed phase.

  20. Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2005-09-01

    The Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Analysis (PDF347 KB) identifies opportunities for developing advanced technologies and estimates both the necessary funding and the potential payoff. This analysis determines what portion of the energy bandwidth can be captured through the adoption of state-of-the-art technology and practices. R&D opportunities for addressing the remainder of the bandwidth are characterized and plotted on a marginal opportunity curve.

  1. Liner evaluation for uranium mill tailings. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buelt, J.L. (comp.)

    1983-09-01

    The Liner Evaluation for Uranium Mill Tailings Program was conducted to evaluate the need for and performance of prospective lining materials for the long-term management of inactive uranium mill tailings piles. On the basis of program results, two materials have been identified: natural foundation soil amended with 10% sodium bentonite; catalytic airblown asphalt membrane. The study showed that, for most situations, calcareous soils typical of Western US sites adequately buffer tailings leachates and prevent groundwater contamination without additional liner materials or amendments. Although mathematical modeling of disposal sites is recommended on a site-specific basis, there appears to be no reason to expect significant infiltration through the cover for most Western sites. The major water source through the tailings would be groundwater movement at sites with shallow groundwater tables. Even so column leaching studies showed that contaminant source terms were reduced to near maximum contaminant levels (MCL's) for drinking water within one or two pore volumes; thus, a limited source term for groundwater contamination exists. At sites where significant groundwater movement or infiltration is expected and the tailings leachates are alkaline, however, the sodium bentonite or asphalt membrane may be necessary.

  2. Performance of paper mill sludges as landfill capping material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moo-Young, H.K. Jr.; Zimmie, T.F.

    1997-12-31

    The high cost of waste containment has sparked interest in low cost and effective strategies of containing wastes. Paper mill sludges have been effectively used as the impermeable barrier in landfill covers. Since paper mill sludges are viewed as a waste material, the sludge is given to the landfill owner at little or no cost. Thus, when a clay soil is not locally available to use as the impermeable barrier in a cover system, paper sludge barriers can save $20,000 to $50,000 per acre in construction costs. This study looks at the utilization and performance of blended and primary paper sludge as landfill capping material. To determine the effectiveness of paper sludge as an impermeable barrier layer, test pads were constructed to simulate a typical landfill cover with paper sludge and clay as the impermeable barrier and were monitored for infiltration rates for five years. Long-term hydraulic conductivity values estimated from the leachate generation rates of the test pads indicate that paper sludge provides an acceptable hydraulic barrier.

  3. Thermal Aging Phenomena in Cast Duplex Stainless Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byun, T. S.; Yang, Y.; Overman, N. R.; Busby, J. T.

    2015-11-12

    We used cast stainless steels (CASSs)for the large components of light water reactor (LWR) power plants such as primary coolant piping and pump casing. The thermal embrittlement of CASS components is one of the most serious concerns related to the extended-term operation of nuclear power plants. Many past researches have concluded that the formation of Cr-rich alpha-phase by Spinodal decomposition of delta-ferrite phase is the primary mechanism for the thermal embrittlement. Cracking mechanism in the thermally-embrittled duplex stainless steels consists of the formation of cleavage at ferrite and its propagation via separation of ferrite-austenite interphase. This article intends to provide an introductory overview on the thermal aging phenomena in LWR-relevant conditions. Firstly, the thermal aging effect on toughness is discussed in terms of the cause of embrittlement and influential parameters. Moreover, an approximate analysis of thermal reaction using Arrhenius equation was carried out to scope the aging temperatures for the accelerated aging experiments to simulate the 60 and 80 years of services. Further, an equilibrium precipitation calculation was performed for model CASS alloys using the CALPHAD program, and the results are used to describe the precipitation behaviors in duplex stainless steels. Our results are also to be used to guide an on-going research aiming to provide knowledge-based conclusive prediction for the integrity of the CASS components of LWR power plants during the service life extended up to and beyond 60 years.

  4. TENSILE TESTING OF CARBON STEEL IN HIGH PRESSURE HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duncan, A; Thad Adams, T; Ps Lam, P

    2007-05-02

    An infrastructure of new and existing pipelines and systems will be required to carry and to deliver hydrogen as an alternative energy source under the hydrogen economy. Carbon and low alloy steels of moderate strength are currently used in hydrogen delivery systems as well as in the existing natural gas systems. It is critical to understand the material response of these standard pipeline materials when they are subjected to pressurized hydrogen environments. The methods and results from a testing program to quantify hydrogen effects on mechanical properties of carbon steel pipeline and pipeline weld materials are provided. Tensile properties of one type of steel (A106 Grade B) in base metal, welded and heat affected zone conditions were tested at room temperature in air and high pressure (10.34 MPa or 1500 psig) hydrogen. A general reduction in the materials ability to plastically deform was noted in this material when specimens were tested in hydrogen. Furthermore, the primary mode of fracture was changed from ductile rupture in air to cleavage with secondary tearing in hydrogen. The mechanical test results will be applied in future analyses to evaluate service life of the pipelines. The results are also envisioned to be part of the bases for construction codes and structural integrity demonstrations for hydrogen service pipeline and vessels.

  5. MECHANICAL TESTING OF CARBON STEEL IN HIGH PRESSURE HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duncan, A

    2006-05-11

    The methods and interim results from a testing program to quantify hydrogen effects on mechanical properties of carbon steel pipeline and pipeline weld materials are provided. The scope is carbon steels commonly used for natural gas pipelines in the United States that are candidates for hydrogen service in the hydrogen economy. The mechanical test results will be applied in future analyses to evaluate service life of the pipelines. The results are also envisioned to be part of the bases for construction codes and structural integrity demonstrations for hydrogen service pipeline and vessels. Tensile properties of one type of steel (A106 Grade B) in base metal, welded and heat affected zone conditions were tested at room temperature in air and high pressure (1500 psig) hydrogen. A general reduction in the materials ability to plastically deform was noted in this material when specimens were tested in 1500 psig hydrogen. Furthermore, the primary mode of fracture was changed from ductile rupture in air to cleavage with secondary tearing in hydrogen. The mechanical test program will continue with tests to quantify the fracture behavior in terms of J-R curves for these materials at air and hydrogen pressure conditions.

  6. Small angle neutron scattering analyses and high temperature mechanical properties of nano-structured oxide dispersion strengthened steels produced via cryomilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Jeoung Han; Byun, Thak Sang; Shin, Eunjoo; Seol, Jae-Bok; Young, Sung; Reddy, N. S.

    2015-08-17

    Three oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) steels are produced in order to investigate the effect of the mechanical alloying (MA) temperature on the microstructural evolution and high temperature mechanical properties. The microstructural evolution with different MA conditions is examined using small angle neutron scattering. As the MA temperature decreases, the density of the nanoclusters below 10 nm increases and their mean diameter decreases. A low temperature during MA leads to a high strength in the compression tests performed at 500 *C; however, this effect disappears in testing at 900 *C. The milling process at *70 *C exhibits excellent high fracture toughness, which is better than the benchmark material 14YWT-SM10. However, the *150 *C milling process results in significantly worse fracture toughness properties. The reasons for this strong temperature dependency are discussed.

  7. Steel: Material for the 21. century

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-01-01

    In spite of inroads by a range of competing materials, steel is still the primary structural material because of its outstanding strength, ductility, fracture toughness, repairability, and recyclability. Over the past ten years, advances in steelmaking and processing technologies have enabled the development of a wide range of new steel products with improved properties. For example, combinations of closely controlled chemical composition, rolling practices, and cooling rates now permit the production of steels with enhanced fracture toughness and lower susceptibility to hydrogen cracking.

  8. Experimental study of residence time distributions of ball-mill circuits grinding coal-water mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shoji, K.; Takahashi, Y.; Ohtake, A.; Austin, L.G.

    2008-08-15

    Residence time distributions (RTDs) were estimated by water tracing in a number of wet overflow ball mills (diameters 0.38 to 4.65 m) producing dense, coal-water slurries. In open-circuit mills of 0.38 m diameter and various length-diameter (LID) ratios, the mean residence times of solid were also determined from measured mill holdups. Holdup increased with increased mill feed rate, but the mean residence times of coal and water were still equal to each other. The experimental residence time distributions were fitted to the Mori-Jimbo-Yamazaki semi-infinite, axial mixing model, and the dimensionless mixing coefficient was determined for each of 25 tests in single- and two-compartment mills. This coefficient was found to be independent to the feed rate but linearly proportional to the D/L ratio. The mixing coefficient was smaller for two-compartment mills than for single-compartment mills, showing that there was reduced mixing introduced by the diaphragm separating the compartments. Equations are given to scale residence time distributions for changes in mill diameter and length.

  9. Calorimetric study on mechanically milled aluminum and multiwall carbon nanotube composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nayan, Niraj Murty, S.V.S.N.; Sharma, S.C.; Kumar, K. Sree; Sinha, P.P.

    2011-11-15

    Pure aluminum reinforced with carbon nanotube (CNT) composites have been prepared by high energy attritor milling up to 48 hrs. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) has been carried out to investigate apparent activation energy and order of the reaction between carbon nanotubes and aluminum by Kissinger equation and Crane equation under non-isothermal conditions. The DSC results clearly reveal that an exothermic reaction occurs before the melting of aluminum. The effect of milling time on the initiation of this exothermic reaction has been studied. The peak temperature of the reaction of carbon nanotubes and aluminum is found to depend on the heating rate during the continuous heating. Apparent activation energy was found to get doubled after milling for 36 hrs compared to 24 hrs milled samples. The mechanism of the reaction kinetics which depends on reaction order is instantaneous nucleation and one dimensional growth for both samples. Formation of Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) of as-milled powders and after performing DSC of the milled powders. Highlights: {yields} Attritor milling used for processing Al-CNT composites. {yields} Powder morphology as a function of time studied. {yields} Apparent activation energy and order of the reaction calculated for Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} formation. {yields} Apparent activation energy increases two fold with increase in milling time from 24 to 36 hours.

  10. Resurgence, operator product expansion, and remarks on renormalons in supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shifman, M.

    2015-03-15

    We discuss similarities and differences between the resurgence program in quantum mechanics and the operator product expansion in strongly coupled Yang-Mills theories. In N = 1 super-Yang-Mills theories, renormalons are peculiar and are not quite similar to renormalons in QCD.